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Sample records for hand anthropometric measurements

  1. Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Diagnostic Accuracy of Hand and Body Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, Mauro; Farioli, Andrea; Mattioli, Stefano; Aretini, Alessandro; Ginanneschi, Federica; Greco, Giuseppe; Curti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic properties of hand/wrist and body measures according to validated clinical and electrophysiological carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) severity scales. Methods We performed a prospective case-control study. For each case, two controls were enrolled. Two five-stage clinical and electrophysiological scales were used to evaluate CTS severity. Anthropometric measurements were collected and obesity indicators and hand/wrist ratios were calculated. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated separately by gender. Results We consecutively enrolled 370 cases and 747 controls. The wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio showed the highest proportion of cases with abnormal values in the severe stages of CTS for clinical and electrophysiological severity scales in both genders. Accuracy tended to increase with CTS severity for females and males. In severe stage, most of the indexes presented moderate accuracy in both genders. Among subjects with severe CTS, the wrist-palm ratio presented the highest AUC for hand measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.83 and 0.76, respectively) and males (AUC 0.91 and 0.82, respectively). Among subjects with severe CTS, the waist-stature ratio showed the highest AUC for body measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.78 and 0.77, respectively) and males (AUC 0.84 and 0.76, respectively). The results of waist-hip-height ratio AUC were similar. Conclusions Wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio could contribute to support the diagnostic hypothesis of severe CTS that however has to be confirmed by nerve conduction study. PMID:27768728

  2. The independent effects of second hand smoke exposure and maternal body mass index on the anthropometric measurements of the newborn

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, whether as active smoking or by exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age infants due to the effect of tobacco on the anthropometric measurements of the newborn. This effect might be masked by maternal obesity as it increases fetal weight. The objectives of this study were to estimate the independent effects of maternal exposure to SHS and maternal body mass index (BMI) on the anthropometric measurements and on the prevalence of macrosomia and LBW among term infants. Methods Data were collected from women in the postnatal ward following delivery. Participants were stratified into six groups based on the BMI (underweight <18 kg/m2, non-obese 18–29.9 kg/m2, and obese ≥30 kg/m2) and the SHS exposure status (exposed and non- exposed), to examine the independent effects of BMI and SHS on infants’ anthropometry. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore the independent associations between the six groups and the risk of delivering a macrosomic or LBW infant. Results Infants of women exposed to SHS had significantly reduced anthropometric measurements compared to infants of unexposed women. The odds of delivering a macrosomic baby increased to 9-fold for women with BMI of ≥30 kg/m2 compared to non-obese women; odds ratio (OR) 9.18, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.01, 9.37); p = 0.04, this risk was attenuated to 1.5-fold in women exposed to SHS, OR 1.53, 95% CI (1.19, 12.1); p < 0.0001. The odds of delivering an LBW infant were more than doubled in underweight women compared to non-obese women, OR 2.15, 95% CI (1.001, 4.57); p = 0.034, and were further increased to almost 3-fold for women who were exposed to SHS, OR 2.71, 95% CI (1.82,4.045); p = 0.02. Conclusion Exposure to SHS was associated with reduced anthropometric measurements of the newborn and increased rate of LBW infants

  3. The relationship between hand anthropometrics, total grip strength and individual finger force for various handle shapes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong-Ku; Kim, Dae-Min

    2015-01-01

    The design and shape of hand tool handles are critical factors for preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) caused by the use of hand tools. We explored how these factors are related to total force and individual finger force in males and females with various hand anthropometrics. Using the MFFM system, we assessed four indices of anthropometry, and measured total force and individual finger force on various handle designs and shapes. Both total force and individual finger force were significant according to gender and handle shape. Total grip strength to the handle shape indicated the greatest strength with D shape and the least with A shape. From the regression analysis of hand anthropometric indices, the value of R was respectably high at 0.608-0.696. The current study examined the gender and handle shape factors affecting grip strength based on the force measurements from various handle types, in terms of influence on different hand anthropometric indices.

  4. The relationship between hand anthropometrics, total grip strength and individual finger force for various handle shapes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong-Ku; Kim, Dae-Min

    2015-01-01

    The design and shape of hand tool handles are critical factors for preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) caused by the use of hand tools. We explored how these factors are related to total force and individual finger force in males and females with various hand anthropometrics. Using the MFFM system, we assessed four indices of anthropometry, and measured total force and individual finger force on various handle designs and shapes. Both total force and individual finger force were significant according to gender and handle shape. Total grip strength to the handle shape indicated the greatest strength with D shape and the least with A shape. From the regression analysis of hand anthropometric indices, the value of R was respectably high at 0.608-0.696. The current study examined the gender and handle shape factors affecting grip strength based on the force measurements from various handle types, in terms of influence on different hand anthropometric indices. PMID:26323777

  5. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-10-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the "Hand Photo Anthropometry Set," we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers' hands. PMID:24696802

  6. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-10-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the "Hand Photo Anthropometry Set," we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers' hands.

  7. Precise Evaluation of Anthropometric 2D Software Processing of Hand in Comparison with Direct Method

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Soury, Shiva; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Various studies carried out on different photo anthropometry, but each one had some deficiencies which during the years they have been resolved. The objective of this paper is to test the efficiency of two-dimensional image processing software in photo anthropometry of hand. In this applied research, 204 office workers and industrial workers were selected. Their hands were measured by manual with photo anthropometric methods. In this study, designing the “Hand Photo Anthropometry Set,” we tried to fix the angle and distance of the camera in all of the photos. Thus, some of the common mistakes in photo anthropometric method got controlled. The taken photos were analyzed by Digimizer software, version 4.1.1.0 and Digital Caliper (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) was used via manual method. t-test statistical test on data revealed that there is no significant difference between the manual and photo anthropometric results (P > 0.05) and the correlation coefficients for hand dimensions are similar in both methods illustrated in the range of 0.71-0.95. The statistical analyses showed that photo anthropometry can be replaced with manual methods. Furthermore, it can provide a great help to develop an anthropometric database for work gloves manufacturers. Since the hand anthropometry is a necessary input for tool design, this survey can be used to determine the percentiles of workers’ hands. PMID:24696802

  8. Equipment Development for Automatic Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, J. P.; Oakey, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    An automated procedure for measuring and recording the anthropometric active angles is presented. The small portable system consists of a microprocessor controlled video data acquisition system which measures single plane active angles using television video techniques and provides the measured data on sponsored-specified preformatted data sheets. This system, using only a single video camera, observes the end limits of the movement of a pair of separated lamps and calculates the vector angle between the extreme positions.

  9. Anthropometric Measurements Usage in Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Utkualp, Nevin; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Morphometry is introduced as quantitative approach to seek information concerning variations and changes in the forms of organisms that described the relationship between the human body and disease. Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations. Morphometrics can also be defined as the quantitative analysis of biological forms. The field has developed rapidly over the last two decades to the extent that we now distinguish between traditional morphometrics and the more recent geometric morphometrics. Advances in imaging technology have resulted in the protection of a greater amount of morphological information and have permitted the analysis of this information. The oldest and most commonly used of these methods is radiography. With developments in this area, CT and MRI have also been started to be used in screening of the internal organs. Morphometric measurements that are used in medicine, are widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up and the treatment of the disease, today. In addition, in cosmetology use of these new measurements is increasing every day. PMID:26413519

  10. Anthropometric measurements in the second trimester fetus.

    PubMed

    Chambers, H M; Knowles, S; Staples, A; Tamblyn, M; Haan, E A

    1993-04-01

    Normal anthropometric measurements, of accepted value for clinicians and pathologists in the assessment of the dysmorphic neonate, have not in the past been available for the second trimester fetus, in which dysmorphic features are often more subtle and objective measurements most needed. In order to establish these values 19 anthropometric measurements, comparable to those published for the larger fetus and neonate, were recorded at autopsy on each of 260 overtly normal non-macerate singleton fetuses between 13 and 26 weeks gestation. Regression lines for each parameter, and growth ratios of potential value for description and assessment of dysmorphic features, were derived. The sex ratio was 1.27 and as there was no statistically significant sex difference for any of the 19 measurements chosen, the data was subsequently pooled. There were linear correlations between gestational age and each growth parameter, all but three exceeding 0.90. The linear correlations between pairs of growth parameter were higher than the correlations between gestational age and individual growth parameters. This suggests that growth parameter pairs, expressed as a ratio, are less affected by errors in gestational age estimation. Ratios enabling the dysmorphologist to more objectively assess common observations such as abnormalities of head shape, relationship between limb and trunk length and gross proportional relationships between major body segments were derived. Collected measurements were compared with established ultrasound reference ranges. While reference ranges for biparietal diameter and head circumference showed close concordance with those derived from ultrasound measurements, the abdominal circumference was consistently lower than that measured by ultrasound possibly because of differing trunk positions in utero compared with after death. The graphs and ratios derived in this study can be rapidly applied to confirm visual impressions at clinical examination and at autopsy

  11. Estimation of stature from diversified hand anthropometric dimensions from Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jee, Soo-Chan; Yun, Myung Hwan

    2015-10-01

    The anthropometric method has served as a useful tool in reducing the amount of time and effort in confirmation of identity. This study is based on a sample of 321 people (167 males and 154 females) from South Korea. Twenty-nine variables including lengths, breadths, thickness, and circumference of their hands and wrists were measured. The body dimension data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. To find the relationship between the various parts of the hand and height, Pearson correlation coefficients for the parts were compared. Further, the single regression and determination coefficient of a regression estimation equation (R(2)) and standard error of estimate (S.E.E) were calculated to compare prediction reliability. Hand length was found to be the variable with the highest correlation to stature in both males (r = 0.628) and females (r = 0.534). For male subjects, hand length (R(2) = 0.398) and palm length (R(2) = 0.358) proved to be the greatest determining factors for the regression equation. For both males and females, an R-square value of 0.643 was obtained with an estimation error of ±5.719 cm by using the derived multiple regressions. In this study single and multiple regression equations were derived for accurate estimation of stature and hand length was found to be the most relevant predictor of stature.

  12. The Effect of Hand Dimensions, Hand Shape and Some Anthropometric Characteristics on Handgrip Strength in Male Grip Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Jadidian, Ali Akbar

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that athletes with longer fingers and larger hand surfaces enjoy stronger grip power. Therefore, some researchers have examined a number of factors and anthropometric variables that explain this issue. To our knowledge, the data is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes. 80 subjects aged between 19 and 29 participated in this study in two groups including: national and collegian grip athletes (n=40), and non-athletes (n=40). Body height and mass were measured to calculate body mass index. The shape of the dominant hand was drawn on a piece of paper with a thin marker so that finger spans, finger lengths, and perimeters of the hand could be measured. The hand shape was estimated as the ratio of the hand width to hand length. Handgrip strength was measured in the dominant and non-dominant hand using a standard dynamometer. Descriptive statistics were used for each variable and independent t test was used to analyze the differences between the two groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between studied variables. Also, to predict important variables in handgrip strength, the linear trend was assessed using a linear regression analysis. There was a significant difference between the two groups in absolute handgrip strength (p<0.001) and handgrip/height ratio (p<0.001). The indices of body height, body mass, lean body mass and body fat content (p<0.001) were significantly greater in grip athletes. All hand variables except FS1-4 (p>0.05) were significantly different between the groups (p<0.001). After controlling body mass all hand anthropometric characteristics except thumb length (r=0.240, p= 0.135), hand shape (r=−0.029, p=0.858), middle finger length (r=0.305, p=0.056) and forearm circumference (r=0.162, p=0.319) significantly correlated with

  13. Anthropometric measurements for assessing insulin sensitivity on patients with metabolic syndrome, sedentaries and marathoners.

    PubMed

    Severeyn, Erika; Wong, Sara; Herrera, Hector; Altuve, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    The diagnosis of low insulin sensitivity is commonly done through the HOMA-IR index, in which fasting insulin and glucose blood levels are evaluated. Insulin and blood glucose levels are used for insulin sensitivity assessment by surrogate methods (HOMA-IR, Matsuda, etc), but anthropometric measurements like body weight, height and waist circumference are not considered, even if these variables also are related to low insulin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome. In this study we evaluate the impact of anthropometric measurements on the HOMA-IR, Matsuda and Caumo indexes to estimate insulin sensitivity. Specifically, we compare insulin sensitivity indexes with and without the anthropometric measurements in their equations on three different groups: patients with metabolic syndrome, sedentaries and marathoners. Results show relationships between anthropometric variables and insulin sensitivity indexes. On the other hand, subjects are mapped differently for insulin sensitivity assessment when anthropometric variables are taken into account. In addition, subjects diagnosed with normal insulin sensitivity could be considered as having low insulin sensitivity when anthropometric variables are considered.

  14. Anthropometrical analysis of the hand as a Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) predictive method in pianists.

    PubMed

    Farias, J; Ordóñez, F J; Rosety-Rodriguez, M; Carrasco, C; Ribelles, A; Rosety, M; Rosety, J M; Gomez del Valle, M

    2002-01-01

    In the present work we have studied the anthropometrical characteristics of the pianists hands to predict their potential vulnerability to suffer from Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI). To get this goal we studied the size and morphotype of the hands of pianists affected by RSI. Firstly we observed that 222 individuals from 341 studied pianists (65.1% of the total) presented RSI. Secondly we appreciated that affected hands were mostly small sized (60% of the affected hands) and classifiable in a distinct morphotype named B (68% of the affected hands). This fact suggest they both were the most vulnerable to RSI. Finally we may conclude anthropometrical analysis of pianists hands may be used to reduce the high incidence of this illness given that it may predict performers potential vulnerability to RSI. It also has to be remarked that further studies in this knowledge field are required to reduce the incidence of playing-related medical problems in general, and RSI in particular, in pianist population.

  15. Anthropometric Measurements of Children in the Head Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, William M.; Ferris, M. Scott

    This is a brief preliminary report of an anthropometric measurement study of a group of Head Start children. The areas of primary concern were patterns of tooth eruption and basic head and body dimensions. Permanent Head Start personnel were trained to make the observations and measurements. The sample consisted of 148 children (76 boys, 72 girls)…

  16. Anthropometric measurements may be informative for nursing home-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Bulent; Aksoy, Sevki Murat; Ozkaya, Ismail; Demir, Tarik; Tezcan, Gulsen; Kaptanoglu, Aysegul Yildirim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia (NHAP) risk. Methods: Consecutive patients of 65 years or elderly who were living in the Balikli Rum Hospital Nursing Homes were included in this prospective study. At the beginning of this study, the patients’ anthropometrics values were measured. The patients were followed for one year, and any incidences of pneumonia attacks were recorded. The relationship between the anthropometric measurements and pneumonia occurrences was analyzed. Results: There were 133 inmates at the initial assessments. Of 108 patients who were eligible for the study, 77 (72.2%) were female and 37 (27.8%) were male. The mean age of the group was 79.8±10.5. Patients were assigned to a group according to the presence of pneumonia during the one -year follow-up. There were 74 (55.6%) patients who had suffered from at least one attack of pneumonia during the follow-up period. The mean triceps skinfold was significantly thinner in the pneumonia group, and the mean handgrip measurements in both the dominant and non-dominant hands were significantly weaker in the pneumonia group. Furthermore, the frequency of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) was significantly higher in this group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The risk of pneumonia was high in the elderly population who live in nursing homes. Simple anthropometric values may be predictive of the potential for Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia. PMID:27375716

  17. Neck Circumference as an Anthropometric Measure of Obesity in Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Aswathappa, Jagadamba; Garg, Sumit; Kutty, Karthiyanee; Shankar, Vinutha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and NC were measured. Independent t-test and Pearson's correlation were the tests of significance done to analyze quantitative data. Results: There was positive correlation of NC, BMI, and index of central obesity. The NC in diabetics was significantly higher than in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). NC >36 cm in diabetics and >37 cm in non-diabetics was the best cutoff value to determine subjects with central obesity. Conclusion: The findings indicated that NC may be used both in clinical practice and in epidemiologic studies as a straightforward and reliable index. It is an economical easy to use test with less consumption of time and correlates well with other standard anthropometric parameters. PMID:23378952

  18. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Duque-López, María Ximena; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortés-Núñez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the

  19. Variations In Gait Patterns Of Runners: Relationship To Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberg, S.; Tauber, C.; Au, J.; Pugh, J.

    1983-07-01

    High-speed computerized motion analysis was used to assess the running parameters of a group of runners. Anthropometric measurements were taken on the group of runners in an effort to provide possible correlations between running style, speed, and anthropometry. The most consistent correlation was between speed and stride length. Femur length and stride length was only highly correlated for the runners at the fastest speeds. The faster runners also had a gait pattern characterized by significantly lower ground contact time than that of the slower runners. Of prime importance in running is behavior of the body during float phase, and mediated by anthropometry and the biomechanical characteristics of the stance phase.

  20. A functional video-based anthropometric measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A high-speed anthropometric three dimensional measurement system using the Selcom Selspot motion tracking instrument for visual data acquisition is discussed. A three-dimensional scanning system was created which collects video, audio, and performance data on a single standard video cassette recorder. Recording rates of 1 megabit per second for periods of up to two hours are possible with the system design. A high-speed off-the-shelf motion analysis system for collecting optical information as used. The video recording adapter (VRA) is interfaced to the Selspot data acquisition system.

  1. Anthropometric measurements of Saudi boys aged 6-14 years.

    PubMed

    al-Hazzaa, H M

    1990-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements of 1169 Saudi school boys between the ages of 6 and 14 years are reported. The boys were randomly selected from primary schools in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Measurements of height, weight, grip strength, chest, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses as well as biacromial, chest, bi-iliac, knee, and elbow breadths were taken. Saudi boys have slightly lower values for body weight and height than American boys (NCHS standards). Values of skinfold measurements increased with age up to age 11 where they plateaued and took then a sharp increase by age 14. Means of triceps and subscapular skinfolds of the Saudi boys are also lower than some standards from U.S.A. throughout age 13. At age 14, however, the Saudi boys have higher means than the U.S.A. boys.

  2. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  3. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  4. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value.

  5. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  6. Anthropometric measurements and dental caries in children: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive.

  7. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  8. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Swan, Shanna H.; Main, Katharina M.; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Lind, Dorte Vesterholm; Husby, Steffen; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer products such as hand soap and toothpaste, and human exposure is widespread. TCS is suspected of having endocrine-disrupting properties, but few human studies have examined the developmental effects of prenatal TCS exposure. Objectives: We prospectively examined associations between prenatal TCS exposure and anthropometric measures at birth and anogenital distance (AGD) at 3 months of age. Methods: Pregnant women from the Odense Child Cohort (n = 514) provided urine samples at approximately gestational week 28 (median 28.7 weeks, range 26.4–34.0), and urinary TCS concentration was measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine associations between prenatal TCS exposure and measures of size at birth (birth weight, length, head and abdominal circumference) and AGD at 3 months of age (median 3.3 months, range 2.3–6.7 months), controlling for potential confounders. Results: Newborn boys in the highest quartile of prenatal TCS exposure had a 0.7-cm [95% confidence interval (CI): –1.2, –0.1, p = 0.01] smaller head circumference than boys in the lowest quartile. Additionally in boys, inverse associations of borderline statistical significance were observed between prenatal TCS exposure and abdominal circumference at birth and AGD at 3 months of age (p-values < 0.10). Prenatal TCS exposure was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes in girls. However, AGD was measured in fewer girls, and we observed no significant interactions between a child’s sex and prenatal TCS exposure in anthropometric measures at birth. Conclusion: Prenatal TCS exposure was associated with reduced head and abdominal circumference at birth and with reduced AGD at 3 months of age in boys, although the last two findings were statistically nonsignificant. These findings require replication but are

  9. Are New Generations Getting Bigger in Size? Anthropometric Measurements in Erzurum

    PubMed Central

    Malkoc, İsmail; Kaya, M. Dursun; Erdogan, Osman; Kara, Asli; Yesilyurt, Hakki; Ozkan, Behzat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: When the dimensional measurements of the students who spend most of their time at school are taken into consideration, inappropriate dimensions of school equipment may affect their body and psychological improvements negatively. Anthropometric measurements are necessary for designing the educational equipment of the children at school. It is emphasized that anthropometric measurements of the people living in different climate and altitude conditions will be different. It is mentioned that anthropometric data available for a certain region will be able to change as a result of changing socio-economical conditions and therefore, anthropometric data update is necessary at certain periods. Materials and Methods: In 2000 anthropometric data obtained from the children between the age of seven and fifteen, who were in sitting and standing positions, were measured with a repeated measurement in the same schools in 2007. Results: Mean values of the heights of elbow at standing position of the female students, 8 years old, increased from 72.38 cm in 2000 to 74.67 cm in 2007 (p<0.001). Most of the other measurements in 2007 were larger than those in 2000, giving the impression that new generation children are getting larger in size. Conclusion: As reported in the literature, anthropometric data should be updated at certain period of times. PMID:25610324

  10. Estimation of living stature from selected anthropometric (soft tissue) measurements: applications for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bradley J; Herrmann, Nicholas P

    2009-07-01

    Estimation of living stature has obvious utility in the identification process. Typically, anthropologists estimate stature from the measurement of long bone length. This type of analysis is traditionally conducted on skeletonized or badly decomposed remains, so collection of the necessary bone measurements is relatively simple. As the role of anthropologists expands into medical examiner offices and mass fatality incidents, the analysis of fleshed bodies and body parts is a more common scenario. For stature estimation in these types of cases (e.g., analysis of body portions recovered from an aircraft crash site or from intentional dismemberment), the presence of soft tissue on the human remains would usually necessitate dissection to expose skeletal elements to derive metric data for stature estimation. In order to circumvent this step, this paper provides various formulae that allow for standard anthropometric (i.e., soft tissue) measurements to be used in place of skeletal measurements. Data were compiled from several anthropometric studies (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] and U.S. Army Anthropometric Survey [ANSUR]) and numerous regression models are presented. Results are compared between skeletal measurements and the anthropometric measurements from each study. It was found that the ANSUR models are similar to the skeletal models, while the NHANES models exhibit weaker correlation coefficients and higher standard errors. Overall, this study finds that stature estimates derived from anthropometric data provide good results and remove the necessity for dissection when working with fleshed body portions.

  11. Which Anthropometric Measure Best Correlates with Neonatal Fat Mass at Birth?

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Gal, Moran; Landau-Helman, Yeela; Biderman, Lihi; Nir, Romy; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    Objective Body composition provides additional information than weight alone. There is currently no accepted anthropometric measure of adiposity in infants, yet weight and length data allow calculations of a wide array of indices. The study objective was to identify the anthropometric index which best correlates with neonatal adiposity, by examining the associations between neonatal fat mass and several anthropometric indices of newborn infants. Study Design The sum of skinfolds (SSF), birth weight, and birth length were measured in 94 healthy infants (58% males) born at term to healthy mothers. Several anthropometric indices were calculated, and their relationship with SSF was assessed using linear regression adjusting for gestational age and sex. Results SSF at birth was significantly higher in females compared with males (20.7 ± 3.3 vs. 18.8 ± 4.1 mm, p = 0.019). Birth weight, birth weight-for-gestational-age percentile, birth weight percentile, and weight/length ratio had the highest associations with SSF, yet R (2) values were very low, ranging from 16 to 18%. Body mass index (BMI), BMI percentile, ponderal index, and the symmetry index had even lower associations. Conclusion No anthropometric measure can confidently assess fat mass in infants at birth, in accordance with previous research. When body composition data are needed, they should be directly measured.

  12. Sonographic Measurement of the Umbilical Cord and Its Vessels and Their Relation with Fetal Anthropometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Rostamzadeh, Sheida; Kalantari, Mojgan; Shahriari, Mona; Shakiba, Madjid

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been established that presence of lean umbilical cord with reduced Wharton’s jelly in sonographic scans is a fetal marker for risk of small for gestational age at birth. With improvement of ultrasound techniques, more studies have been investigating the alterations of the umbilical cord on pregnancy outcomes. Objectives: To determine the reference ranges of the umbilical cord area during pregnancy and to find out the association between umbilical cord morphometry and fetal anthropometric measurements. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on a study population of 278 low-risk pregnant women between 15 and 41 weeks of gestational age. Fetal anthropometric measurements including biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length were calculated. The measurements of the cross-sectional area (CSA) and circumference of the umbilical cord, vein and arteries were done on an adjacent plane to the insertion of umbilical cord into the fetus’s abdomen. The mean and standard deviation of the CSA of the umbilical cord and the 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, 95th percentiles of it were calculated for each gestational age. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between the measures of the cord and fetal anthropometric measurements. Polynomial regression analysis was performed for curves. Results: The values of the CSA of the umbilical cord, umbilical vein and Wharton’s jelly (WJ) increase consistently until 30 weeks of gestation, after which they reach a plateau. There was a significant correlation between anthropometric measurements and umbilical cord measurements especially with the CSA of the umbilical cord, umbilical vein and WJ. The regression equation for the umbilical cord CSA according to gestational age up to 30 weeks was y = -0.2159 x2 + 23.828x-325.59 (R2 = 0.6334) and for the WJ area according to gestational age up to 30 weeks, it was y = -0.2124 x 2 +17.613x-221.66 (R2 = 0

  13. Harmonization Process and Reliability Assessment of Anthropometric Measurements in the Elderly EXERNET Multi-Centre Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Albers, Ulrike; Mata, Esmeralda; Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jose A.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Gusi, Narcis; Villa, Gerardo; Aznar, Susana; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Casajús, Jose A.; Ara, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Background The elderly EXERNET multi-centre study aims to collect normative anthropometric data for old functionally independent adults living in Spain. Purpose To describe the standardization process and reliability of the anthropometric measurements carried out in the pilot study and during the final workshop, examining both intra- and inter-rater errors for measurements. Materials and Methods A total of 98 elderly from five different regions participated in the intra-rater error assessment, and 10 different seniors living in the city of Toledo (Spain) participated in the inter-rater assessment. We examined both intra- and inter-rater errors for heights and circumferences. Results For height, intra-rater technical errors of measurement (TEMs) were smaller than 0.25 cm. For circumferences and knee height, TEMs were smaller than 1 cm, except for waist circumference in the city of Cáceres. Reliability for heights and circumferences was greater than 98% in all cases. Inter-rater TEMs were 0.61 cm for height, 0.75 cm for knee-height and ranged between 2.70 and 3.09 cm for the circumferences measured. Inter-rater reliabilities for anthropometric measurements were always higher than 90%. Conclusion The harmonization process, including the workshop and pilot study, guarantee the quality of the anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. High reliability and low TEM may be expected when assessing anthropometry in elderly population. PMID:22860013

  14. Lactational Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Its Relation to Early Childhood Anthropometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Mendez, Michelle; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Sjödin, Andreas; Daniels, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that may influence growth and development. Objective: We investigated the association between exposure to PBDEs via breast milk and anthropometric measurements in early childhood. Methods: The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition (PIN) Babies studies followed a cohort of North Carolina pregnant women and their children through 36 months of age. Breast milk samples obtained at 3 months postpartum were analyzed for PBDEs. We collected height and weight records from well-baby doctor visits and also measured children during study visits (n = 246 children with > 1,400 anthropometric measurements). We assessed the relationship between breast milk concentrations of five PBDE congeners—BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153—and child’s weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height z-scores (WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ, respectively), adjusting for age; maternal age, race, prepregnancy BMI; parity; smoking during pregnancy; and breastfeeding, and stratifying by sex. Results: Overall, PBDE exposures via breast milk were not associated with early-life anthropometric measures in the PIN Babies cohort. When stratified by sex, PBDEs in milk were inversely associated with WHZ for boys; however, associations did not follow a consistent pattern across the concentration gradient and were imprecisely estimated. Among girls, PBDEs tended to be associated with increased WHZ except for BDE-153, which was inversely associated with WHZ, though all estimates were imprecisely estimated. Conclusions: We observed little evidence of associations between early-life PBDE exposures via breast milk and anthropometric measurements overall; however, our results prompt the need for sex-specific investigations in larger cohorts. Citation: Hoffman K, Mendez M, Siega-Riz AM, Herring AH, Sjödin A, Daniels JL. 2016. Lactational exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and its relation to early childhood anthropometric

  15. Thyroid Volume and Its Relation to Anthropometric Measures in a Healthy Cuban Population

    PubMed Central

    Turcios, Silvia; Lence-Anta, Juan J.; Santana, Jose-Luis; Pereda, Celia M.; Velasco, Milagros; Chappe, Mae; Infante, Idalmis; Bustillo, Marlene; García, Anabel; Clero, Enora; Maillard, Stephane; Rodriguez, Regla; Xhaard, Constance; Ren, Yan; Rubino, Carole; Ortiz, Rosa M.; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the thyroid volume in healthy adults by ultrasound and to correlate this volume with some anthropometric measures and other differentiated thyroid cancer risk factors. Study Design Thyroid volume and anthropometric measures were recorded in a sample of 100 healthy adults, including 21 men and 79 women aged 18-50 years, living in a non-iodine-deficient area of Havana city. Results The average thyroid volume was 6.6 ± 0.26 ml; it was higher in men (7.3 ml) than in women (6.4 ml; p = 0.15). In the univariate analysis, thyroid volume was correlated with all anthropometric measures, but in the multivariate analysis, body surface area was found to be the only significant anthropometric parameter. Thyroid volume was also higher in current or former smokers and in persons with blood group AB or B. Conclusion Specific reference values of thyroid volume as a function of body surface area could be used for evaluating thyroid volume in clinical practice. The relation between body surface area and thyroid volume is coherent with what is known about the relation of thyroid volume to thyroid cancer risk, but the same is not true about the relation between thyroid volume and smoking habit. PMID:25960963

  16. Over time, do anthropometric measures still predict diabetes incidence in chinese han nationality population from chengdu community?

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; He, Sen; Hong, Biying; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Feng, Jiayue; Wang, Si; Chen, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine whether anthropometric measures could predict diabetes incidence in a Chinese population during a 15-year follow-up. Design and Methods. The data were collected in 1992 and then again in 2007 from the same group of 687 individuals. Waist circumference, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and waist to height ratio were collected based on a standard protocol. To assess the effects of baseline anthropometric measures on the new onset of diabetes, Cox's proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios of them, and the discriminatory power of anthropometric measures for diabetes was assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve (AROC). Results. Seventy-four individuals were diagnosed with diabetes during a 15-year follow-up period (incidence: 10.8%). These anthropometric measures also predicted future diabetes during a long follow-up (P < 0.001). At 7-8 years, the AROC of central obesity measures (WC, WHpR, WHtR) were higher than that of general obesity measures (BMI) (P < 0.05). But, there were no significant differences among the four anthropometric measurements at 15 years. Conclusions. These anthropometric measures could still predict diabetes with a long time follow-up. However, the validity of anthropometric measures to predict incident diabetes may change with time.

  17. Upper-body anthropometric and strength measures and their relationship to start time in elite luge athletes.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Brett W; Hartman, Jason E; Kilgore, J Lon; Hartman, Michael J; Kaus, John M

    2011-10-01

    Start time has been shown to be a significant predictor of overall performance in the sport of luge. The starting motion in luge has been described as an explosive upper-body movement that requires significant technique and skill to perfect. This study aims to investigate upper-body factors that may relate to start time in luge. Twenty-two subjects participated in the study as part of their normal off-season training. Each subject had a minimum of 3 years' experience in the sport of luge, and at the time was a member of a U.S. Luge National Team. Subjects completed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press (BP), prone row (PR), and weighted pull-up (WP). Anthropometric distances were taken measuring finger-tip span (FS), biacromial breadth (BB), acromio-radial length, acromio-olecranon length (AO), hand length, and sitting cervical height. Subjects were divided into 2 groups based on which U.S. Luge National team they were currently a member of, Senior National (SN, n = 13) and Junior National (JN, n = 9). A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient showed several significant (p ≤ 0.05) relationships between upper-body variables and start time among the groups. The BP and PR 1RM were shown to have a significant relationship in both groups. Among the anthropometric variables, AO was also significant in both groups. The WP, FS, BB, and height were all shown to have a significant relationship with start time in the SN group, but not in the JN group. These results suggest that as luge athletes become more efficient in the starting technique, outside factors such as upper-body strength and anthropometric measures play a larger role in performance.

  18. [Anthropometric measurements in Malay children from upper class families in Kuala Lumpur].

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Suhardi, A; Khalid, B A

    1993-03-01

    This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia.

  19. [Anthropometric measurements in Malay children from upper class families in Kuala Lumpur].

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Suhardi, A; Khalid, B A

    1993-03-01

    This study was done to determine the anthropometric measurement patterns of Malay children from wealthy families in Malaysia and to make a comparison with NCHS reference population. A population of 900 children aged between 3-12 years old from Taman Tun Dr Ismail, Kuala Lumpur (TDI), were examined but only 871 of them were eligible for the study. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured. The increment pattern of anthropometric measurements of TDI children was quite similar to NCHS except for having a lower median weight for age and height for age. There was prepubescent increase in skin folds thickness in both sexes, followed by a midpubescent decrease and a late pubescent increase. The study indicated that Malay children from a wealthy background have growth rates comparable to children in the West, hence NCHS percentile charts are suitable as a reference for comparing the nutritional status of Malay children in Malaysia. PMID:8341176

  20. Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires…

  1. Anthropometric body measurements based on multi-view stereo image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  2. Anthropometric Body Measurements Based on Multi-View Stereo Image Reconstruction*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting automatic anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of proposed system. PMID:24109700

  3. Visualization of anthropometric measures of workers in computer 3D modeling of work place.

    PubMed

    Mijović, B; Ujević, D; Baksa, S

    2001-12-01

    In this work, 3D visualization of a work place by means of a computer-made 3D-machine model and computer animation of a worker have been performed. By visualization of 3D characters in inverse kinematic and dynamic relation with the operating part of a machine, the biomechanic characteristics of worker's body have been determined. The dimensions of a machine have been determined by an inspection of technical documentation as well as by direct measurements and recordings of the machine by camera. On the basis of measured body height of workers all relevant anthropometric measures have been determined by a computer program developed by the authors. By knowing the anthropometric measures, the vision fields and the scope zones while forming work places, exact postures of workers while performing technological procedures were determined. The minimal and maximal rotation angles and the translation of upper and lower arm which are basis for the analysis of worker burdening were analyzed. The dimensions of the seized space of a body are obtained by computer anthropometric analysis of movement, e.g. range of arms, position of legs, head, back. The influence of forming of a work place on correct postures of workers during work has been reconsidered and thus the consumption of energy and fatigue can be reduced to a minimum. PMID:11811295

  4. Anthropometric Measurements: Options for Identifying Low Birth Weight Newborns in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%–14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r = 0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r = 0.68) and calf circumference (r = 0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ≤29.8 cm, ≤9.4 cm and ≤9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505

  5. Effect of a Trampoline Exercise on the Anthropometric Measures and Motor Performance of Adolescent Students

    PubMed Central

    Aalizadeh, Bahman; Mohammadzadeh, Hassan; Khazani, Ali; Dadras, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical exercises can influence some anthropometric and fitness components differently. The aim of present study was to evaluate how a relatively long-term training program in 11-14-year-old male Iranian students affects their anthropometric and motor performance measures. Methods: Measurements were conducted on the anthropometric and fitness components of participants (n = 28) prior to and following the program. They trained 20 weeks, 1.5 h/session with 10 min rest, in 4 times trampoline training programs per week. Motor performance of all participants was assessed using standing long jump and vertical jump based on Eurofit Test Battery. Results: The analysis of variance (ANOVA) repeated measurement test showed a statistically significant main effect of time in calf girth P = 0.001, fat% P = 0.01, vertical jump P = 0.001, and long jump P = 0.001. The ANOVA repeated measurement test revealed a statistically significant main effect of group in fat% P = 0.001. Post hoc paired t-tests indicated statistical significant differences in trampoline group between the two measurements about calf girth (t = −4.35, P = 0.001), fat% (t = 5.87, P = 0.001), vertical jump (t = −5.53, P = 0.001), and long jump (t = −10.00, P = 0.001). Conclusions: We can conclude that 20-week trampoline training with four physical activity sessions/week in 11–14-year-old students seems to have a significant effect on body fat% reduction and effective results in terms of anaerobic physical fitness. Therefore, it is suggested that different training model approach such as trampoline exercises can help students to promote the level of health and motor performance. PMID:27512557

  6. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Mesana, M I; Cardon, G; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Góźdź, M; Socha, P; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Koletzko, B V; Duvinage, K; Androutsos, O; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A

    2014-08-01

    The ToyBox-study aims to develop and test an innovative and evidence-based obesity prevention programme for preschoolers in six European countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain. In multicentre studies, anthropometric measurements using standardized procedures that minimize errors in the data collection are essential to maximize reliability of measurements. The aim of this paper is to describe the standardization process and reliability (intra- and inter-observer) of height, weight and waist circumference (WC) measurements in preschoolers. All technical procedures and devices were standardized and centralized training was given to the fieldworkers. At least seven children per country participated in the intra- and inter-observer reliability testing. Intra-observer technical error ranged from 0.00 to 0.03 kg for weight and from 0.07 to 0.20 cm for height, with the overall reliability being above 99%. A second training was organized for WC due to low reliability observed in the first training. Intra-observer technical error for WC ranged from 0.12 to 0.71 cm during the first training and from 0.05 to 1.11 cm during the second training, and reliability above 92% was achieved. Epidemiological surveys need standardized procedures and training of researchers to reduce measurement error. In the ToyBox-study, very good intra- and-inter-observer agreement was achieved for all anthropometric measurements performed.

  7. Impact of anthropometric measures and serum leptin on severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, N A; Montasser, I F; Bioumy, E E; Saad, W E

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of obesity, determined by different anthropometric measures, on clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD and the relation between serum leptin and clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD in Egyptian patients. The study was carried out at Ain Shams University Hospitals and Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt. A total of 60 patients with clinically and endoscopically evident gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were enrolled in this study as well as 20 healthy subjects matched for age and gender serving as the control group. Patients were divided according to their body mass index (BMI) into two groups: group 1 (n = 30): overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25 and/or waist-to-height ratio [WHtR] ≥ 0.5) and group 2 (n = 30): normal weight (BMI ≥ 18 to < 25 and/or WHtR ≥ 0.4 to < 0.5). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, anthropometric measures, and symptom severity score questionnaire were done for all patients. Serum leptin hormone was assessed for patients and control groups.The evidence revealed statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of different anthropometric measures (P < 0.00) except the height (P < 0.9), abdominal fat depot equations (P < 0.00), endoscopic findings according to Los Angeles classification (P < 0.001), symptom severity score (P < 0.00), and serum leptin hormone (43.96 ± 23.50 in group 1 vs. 7.5133 ± 8.18294 in group 2 and 6.98 ± 5.90 in the control group) (P = 0.00). Obesity in general and central (abdominal) obesity specifically has significant impact on clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD. Increased leptin hormone level is associated with clinical and endoscopic severity of GERD. Future trial on larger number of patients is emphasized.

  8. Anthropometric measures in relation to Basal Cell Carcinoma: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Catherine M; Hughes, Maria Celia; Pandeya, Nirmala; Green, Adèle C

    2006-01-01

    Background The relationship between anthropometric indices and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between anthropometric measures and development of BCC and to demonstrate whether adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio was associated with risk of BCC, independent of sun exposure. Methods Study participants were participants in a community-based skin cancer prevention trial in Nambour, a town in southeast Queensland (latitude 26°S). In 1992, height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured for all 1621 participants and weight was remeasured at the end of the trial in 1996. Prevalence proportion ratios were calculated using a log-binomial model to estimate the risk of BCC prior to or prevalent in 1992, while Poisson regression with robust error variances was used to estimate the relative risk of BCC during the follow-up period. Results At baseline, 94 participants had a current BCC, and 202 had a history of BCC. During the 5-year follow-up period, 179 participants developed one or more new BCCs. We found no significant association between any of the anthropometric measures or indices and risk of BCC after controlling for potential confounding factors including sun exposure. There was a suggestion that short-term weight gain may increase the risk of developing BCC for women only. Conclusion Adherence to World Health Organisation guidelines for body mass index, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio is not significantly associated with occurrence of basal cell carcinomas of the skin. PMID:16566838

  9. Heat tolerance testing: association between heat intolerance and anthropometric and fitness measurements.

    PubMed

    Lisman, Peter; Kazman, Josh B; O'Connor, Francis G; Heled, Yuval; Deuster, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated associations between heat intolerance, as determined by performance on a heat tolerance test (HTT), and anthropometric measurements (body surface-to-mass ratio, percent body fat, body mass index, and waist circumference) and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]). Relationships between predictive variables and specific physiological measurements recorded during the HTT were examined. A total of 34 male and 12 female participants, recruited from the military community, underwent anthropometric measurements, a maximal aerobic exercise test, and a standardized HTT, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at 5 km/h at 2% grade for 120 minutes at 40°C and 40% relative humidity. VO2max negatively correlated with maximum core temperature (r = -0.30, p < 0.05) and heart rate (HR) (r = -0.48, p < 0.01) although percent body fat showed a positive correlation with maximum HR (r = 0.36, p < 0.05). VO2max was the only independent attribute that significantly influenced both the maximum HR and core temperature attained during HTT. Logistic regression analyses indicated that VO2max was the only independent parameter (OR = 0.89, p = 0.026) that significantly contributed to overall HTT performance. Low cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with heat intolerance, as defined by HTT performance, and can be addressed as a preventative measure for exertional heat illness. This study provides further evidence that the HTT can be an effective tool for assessment of thermoregulatory patterns.

  10. Effects of an antenatal dietary intervention on maternal anthropometric measures in pregnant women with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kannieappan, Lavern M.; Grivell, Rosalie M.; Deussen, Andrea R.; Moran, Lisa J.; Yelland, Lisa N.; Owens, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of providing antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice on secondary measures of maternal anthropometry was evaluated and their correlation with both gestational weight gain and infant birth weight was assessed. Methods In a multicenter, randomized controlled trial, pregnant women with BMI of ≥25 kg/m2 received either Lifestyle Advice or Standard Care. Maternal anthropometric outcomes included arm circumference, biceps, triceps, and subscapular skinfold thickness measurements (SFTM), percentage body fat (BF), gestational weight gain, and infant birth weight. The intention to treat principles were utilized by the analyses. Results The measurements were obtained from 807 (74.7%) women in the Lifestyle Advice Group and 775 (72.3%) women in the Standard Care Group. There were no statistically significant differences identified between the treatment groups with regards to arm circumference, biceps, triceps, and subscapular SFTM, or percentage BF at 36‐week gestation. Maternal anthropometric measurements were not significantly correlated with either gestational weight gain or infant birth weight. Conclusions Among pregnant women with a BMI of ≥25 kg/m2, maternal SFTM were not modified by an antenatal dietary and lifestyle intervention. Furthermore, maternal SFTM correlate poorly with both gestational weight gain and infant birth weight. PMID:26175260

  11. Correlation of epicardial fat and anthropometric measurements in Asian-Indians: A community based study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Ranjan; Vivek, G.; Naha, Kushal; Nayak, Krishnananda; Goyal, Amit; Dias, Lorraine S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is increasingly evident that visceral adipose tissue plays a leading role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Unfortunately, accurate quantification of intra-abdominal visceral fat is cumbersome and expensive. Epicardial fat represents the component of visceral fat distributed around the heart, and is readily and non-invasively assessed by echocardiography. AIMS: To determine the correlation of epicardial fat with anthropometric parameters in a healthy population of Asian-Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a community outreach program from December to March 2011. Individuals over 18 years of age were included in the study. Anthropometric data was collected for all patients. Epicardial fat was assessed in parasternal long and short axes. RESULTS: 350 healthy individuals were included in the study. Of them, 66.7% were males. Mean age was 42.7 ± 15.3 years (range 18-84). Mean body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were 23.3 ± 4.5 kg/m2 (range 15.2-34.3) and 80.2 ± 13.3 cm (range 43-115) respectively. Mean epicardial fat in both axes was 2.6 ± 1.3 mm (range 0.3-7.0). Epicardial fat measured in both axes correlated well with weight (r = 0.399, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = 0.522, P < 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.471, P < 0.001). Epicardial fat also correlated with age (r = 0.559, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There is an excellent correlation between epicardial fat measured by echocardiography and anthropometric parameters of metabolic syndrome. PMID:23826555

  12. Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí-Parana, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey, carried out in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 279 girls) from 6th to 9th grade, aged 10 to 14 years, from public and private schools of Paranavaí - PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity through a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis, the U Mann-Whitney and Student's t tests were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise for body composition control and weight reduction. PMID:25623726

  13. Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Anthropometric Measurements and Appetite Sensations in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Alan; Tseng, Jason; Chang, Chia-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. A patient-assessor-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled crossover trial was performed to investigate the effectiveness of laser acupuncture on anthropometric measurements and appetite sensation in obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-two obese subjects were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group or the sham laser acupuncture group. Subjects within each group received the relevant treatment three times a week for 8 weeks. After a two-week washout period, the subjects then received the treatment of the opposite group for another 8 weeks. BMI, body fat percentage, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference, hip circumference, and appetite sensations were measured before and after 8 weeks of treatment. Results. BMI, body fat percentage, WHR, waist circumference, and hip circumference decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the laser acupuncture group compared to baseline but there was no decrease in those variables in the sham laser acupuncture group. Laser acupuncture significantly improved scores on the fullness, hunger, satiety, desire to eat, and overall well-being relative to the baseline (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Laser acupuncture is well tolerated and improves anthropometric measurements and appetite sensations in obese subjects. PMID:27051454

  14. Prediction of quadruple hamstring graft diameter for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by anthropometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Naiyer; Ranjan, Rahul; Ahmed, Sohail; Sabir, Aamir B; Jilani, Latif Z; Qureshi, Owais A

    2016-01-01

    Background: The literature is scanty regarding the anthropometric predictors on the diameter of quadruple hamstring graft obtained in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in Indian population. Minimum diameter of the graft for ACL reconstruction should be >7 mm to preclude failure. The objective of this study was to assess the prediction of the hamstring graft diameter by several anthropometric parameters including age, thigh circumference, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods: 46 consecutive patients who had undergone ACL reconstruction by the same surgeon using quadruple hamstring grafts were evaluated. The age, thigh circumference of the normal side, height, weight and BMI were recorded preoperatively and Pearson correlation was done using these parameters with graft diameter measured intraoperatively. Regression analysis in a stepwise manner was undertaken to assess the influence of individual anthropometric parameters on the graft diameter. Results: There were 44 males and 2 females. Mean age was 29.4 years, mean height was 172.6 cm, mean weight was 70.9 kg, mean BMI was 23.8 kg/m2, mean thigh circumference was 47.1 cm and mean graft diameter was 7.9 mm. There was a positive correlation individually between the thigh circumference and graft diameter obtained (r = 0.8, P < 0.01, n = 46), and between the height and graft diameter (r = 0.8, P < 0.01, n = 46). On the regression analysis thigh circumference and height were found to be significant predictors of graft diameter giving the following equation: Graft diameter (mm) = 0. 079 height (cm) +0.068 thigh circumference (cm) −9.031. Conclusion: Preoperatively using the above equation if graft diameter came out to be <7 mm then alternate options of graft material must be kept in mind in order to prevent failure. PMID:26955176

  15. Anthropometric sourcebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, R. L.; Jackson, J. T.; Louviere, A. J.; Thornton, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    Three-volume "Anthropometric Source Book' contains large body of anthropometric data, design information, and references. Subjects covered include variability in body size, mass distribution properties of human body, arm and leg reach, joint motion and numerous other materials.

  16. Automation of arthritis measures in hand radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitt, Tod S.; Hedgcock, Marcus W.; Dye, John; Johnston, Scott E.

    1990-07-01

    Hand radiographs provide a valuable index of disease in arthritis and other generalized diseases such as secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis. Measures such as cortical volume intercortical width average and periarticular demineralization provide diagnostic indicators for these diseases. However visual analysis of hand radiographs is not quantitative and is compromised by both interobserver and intraobserver variation. Automation of these measures would provide repeatable comparable quantities to assist in diagnosis and disease and therapy monitoring. The computer calculations to perform these measures are straightforward. The key problem is automatic segmentation of the hand anatomy that is recognizing the pixels that correspond to specific imaged bones and joints. Our approach incorporates computer-represented hand models in addition to more traditional image processing algorithms. We describe our techniques for using a combination of predictive models and image processing evidence to automatically fmd bone and tissue boundaries and identify specific bone and joints. 2. COMPUTING ARTHRITIS MEASURES Digital scanners and radiograph digitizers make the radiograph available as a data source for computer algorithms that analyze medical imagery. This is significant because radiographs comprise more than 80 of all medical imagery at this time and they are considerably quicker and less costly than other digital modalities such as CT and Mill. Quantitative measures from digital radiographs can aid physicians in diagnosis tracking disease progress and in therapy planning and evaluation. We have begun studying diagnostic measures in arthritis

  17. Temporal changes in anthropometric measurements of idealized females and young women in general.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Murray, Jessica; Schlussel, Yvette R

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the temporal anthropometric changes in idealized female body images in the media (i.e., Playboy magazine Playmates of the Year, Miss America Pageant winners, and fashion models) and young women in general across eight decades. Overall, all anthropometric measures differed significantly over time. BMI for all women in the idealized groups tended to decline significantly over time, while the BMI for YoungWomen increased significantly. Models tended to have the smallest bust and hips, Playmates the largest bust, and young women in general the largest waist and hips. The general trend for all groups was to move from a less curvaceous body shape in the early part of the twentieth century to a more curvaceous shape at mid-century and returning to a less curvaceous shape at the end of the century. Idealized women have a body size unlike that of Young Women and the chasm between the media- defined ideal and reality is continuing to diverge. PMID:16219585

  18. Agreement between cranial and facial classification through clinical observation and anthropometric measurement among envigado school children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the agreement between cranial and facial classification obtained by clinical observation and anthropometric measurements among school children from the municipality of Envigado, Colombia. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out among 8-15-year-old children. Initially, an indirect clinical observation was made to determine the skull pattern (dolichocephalic, mesocephalic or brachycephalic), based on visual equivalence of right eurion- left eurion and glabella-opisthocranion anthropometric points, as well as the facial type (leptoprosopic, mesoprosopic and euryprosopic), according to the left and right zygomatic, nasion and gnation points. Following, a direct measurement was conducted with an anthropometer using the same landmarks for cranial width and length, as well as for facial width and height. Subsequently, both the facial index [euryprosopic (≤80.9%), mesoprosopic (between 81% - 93%) and leptoprosopic (≥93.1%)] and the cranial index [dolichocephalic (index ≤ 75.9%), mesocephalic (between 76% - 81%), and brachycephalic (≥81.1%)] were determined. Concordance between the indices obtained was calculated by direct and indirect measurement using the Kappa statistic. Results A total of 313 students were enrolled; 172 (55%) were female and 141 (45%) male. The agreement between the direct and indirect facial index measurements was 0.189 (95% CI 0.117-0261), and the cranial index was 0.388 (95% CI 0.304-0.473), indicating poor concordance. Conclusions No agreement was observed between direct measurements conducted with an anthropometer and indirect measurements via visual evaluation. Therefore, the indirect visual classification method is not appropriate to calculate the cranial and facial indices. PMID:24886038

  19. Association between various anthropometric measures of obesity and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kommuri, Naga V A; Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Veeranna, Vikas; Kollepara, Sri Lakshmi S; Ramesh, Krithi; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Afonso, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Central obesity is a known cardiovascular risk factor and measures of visceral obesity are known to predict atherosclerosis. This study sought to explore the association between various anthropometric measures and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis (MoSCA) among low risk healthy individuals. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a population-based study of Caucasian (38%), Afro-American (28%), Chinese (22%) and Hispanic (12%) subjects, aged 45-84 years, free from clinical cardiovascular disease. We performed a post hoc analysis of the limited access dataset of MESA subjects to evaluate the association between carotid intima media thickness and coronary artery calcium score (CACS), as MoSCA and various measures of obesity. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, ethnicity and C-reactive protein were performed. Each unit increase in waist-hip ratio was strongly associated with increase in both common and internal carotid intima media thickness (beta: 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06 to 0.18, p < 0.001 and beta: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.43, p = 0.021, respectively). Measures of central obesity were superior to body mass index as demonstrated by their consistent association with each category of CACS when compared to the reference category (CACS = 0). Compared to body mass index, measures of visceral obesity were significantly associated with MoSCA in this multiethnic healthy population. Waist-hip ratio seems to be more consistent in its association with various MoSCA compared to other anthropometric measures.

  20. Anthropometric measurements and periodontal diseases in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Sun, Ling; Wen, Yi Feng; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal status in children and adolescents. We searched PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, and 7 additional databases, following the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, up to December 2014. Observational studies reporting data on the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal diseases in 2-18-y-old participants were included. An initial search identified 4191 papers; 278 potentially effective studies (k = 0.82) and 16 effective studies (k = 0.83) were included after screening. The mean quality of evidence among the studies was 20.3, according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklist (k = 0.79). Meta-analyses showed that obesity (measured by body mass index) was significantly associated with visible plaque index (OR: 4.75; 95% CI: 2.42, 9.34), bleeding on probing (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.75, 10.63), subgingival calculus (OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.10, 8.62), probing depth (OR: 14.15; 95% CI: 5.10, 39.25) and flow rate of salivary secretion (standardized mean difference: -0.89; 95% CI: -1.18, -0.61). However, various results were reported in the effective studies that were not included in meta-analyses. In conclusion, obesity is associated with some signs of periodontal disease in children and adolescents. Further studies with a comprehensive prospective cohort design and more potential variables are recommended. PMID:26567204

  1. The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Luna, Natália Mariana S; Mochizuki, Luis; Barbieri, Fábio; Santos, Sileno; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years). METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements): fat percentage (% fat), tissue (g), fat (g), lean mass (g), bone mineral content (g), and bone mineral density (g/cm2). In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg), height (cm), length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm), length of the lower limbs (cm) and length of the upper limbs (cm). The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m2), waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm2). Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male) height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females. PMID:23295598

  2. Comparison of anthropometric measures as predictors of cancer incidence: A pooled collaborative analysis of 11 Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jessica L; Shaw, Jonathan E; Anstey, Kaarin J; Adams, Robert; Balkau, Beverley; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Briffa, Tom; Davis, Timothy M E; Davis, Wendy A; Dobson, Annette; Flicker, Leon; Giles, Graham; Grant, Janet; Huxley, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew; Luszcz, Mary; MacInnis, Robert J; Mitchell, Paul; Pasco, Julie A; Reid, Christopher; Simmons, David; Simons, Leon; Tonkin, Andrew; Woodward, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. However, it is not known if general adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI) or central adiposity [e.g., waist circumference (WC)] have stronger associations with cancer, or which anthropometric measure best predicts cancer risk. We included 79,458 men and women from the Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration with complete data on anthropometry [BMI, WC, Hip Circumference (HC), WHR, waist to height ratio (WtHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI)], linked to the Australian Cancer Database. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between each anthropometric marker, per standard deviation and the risk of overall, colorectal, post-menopausal (PM) breast, prostate and obesity-related cancers. We assessed the discriminative ability of models using Harrell's c-statistic. All anthropometric markers were associated with overall, colorectal and obesity-related cancers. BMI, WC and HC were associated with PM breast cancer and no significant associations were seen for prostate cancer. Strongest associations were observed for WC across all outcomes, excluding PM breast cancer for which HC was strongest. WC had greater discrimination compared to BMI for overall and colorectal cancer in men and women with c-statistics ranging from 0.70 to 0.71. We show all anthropometric measures are associated with the overall, colorectal, PM breast and obesity-related cancer in men and women, but not prostate cancer. WC discriminated marginally better than BMI. However, all anthropometric measures were similarly moderately predictive of cancer risk. We do not recommend one anthropometric marker over another for assessing an individuals' risk of cancer.

  3. An intensive Alpine climbing expedition and its influence on some anthropometric measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of an intensive 4 week Alpine climbing expedition on percentage body fat, absolute body fat and lean body mass was investigated in 14 adult male students. Anthropometric measures were taken on two occasions during the training period prior to the expedition, twice during the expedition and finally eight weeks after the expedition had returned home. There was a 3% reduction in percentage body fat between the first testing occasion and the fourth taken towards the end of the expedition. Over the same interval there was a mean reduction of 2.6 kg in absolute body fat and a reduction in lean body mass of 2.47 kg. All three criterion mean values on the final testing session returned to or exceeded those taken on session one. Images p126-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7407450

  4. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

  5. Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures at birth in Chilean indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous children over a 5-year period. Methods We examined weight and length at birth using information available through a national data base of all birth records for the years 2000 through 2004 (n = 1,166.513). Newborns were classified ethnically according to the origins of the parents' last names. Result The average birthweight was stable over the 5 year period with variations of less than 20 g in each group, and with mean values trivially higher in indigenous newborns. The proportion weighing less than 2500 g at birth increased modestly from 5.2% to 5.6% in non-indigenous newborns whereas the indigenous births remained constant at 5.2%. In multiple regression analyses, adjusting flexibly for gestational age and maternal characteristics, the occurrence of an indigenous surname added only 14 g to an average infant's birthweight while holding other factors constant. Results for length at birth were similar, and adjusted time trend variation in both outcomes was trivially small after adjustment. Anthropometric indexes at birth in Chile are quite favorable by international standards. Conclusion There is only a trivial degree of ethnic disparity in these values, in contrast to conditions for ethnic minorities in other countries. Moreover, these values remained roughly constant over the 5 years of observation in this study. PMID:20598150

  6. Combination with Anthropometric Measurements and MQSGA to Assess Nutritional Status in Chinese Hemodialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Peng, Hongquan; Yuan, Zhimin; Zhang, Kun; Xiao, Long; Huang, Jialian; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the nutritional status, combination with anthropometric measurements and modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) was used in multi-center hemodialysis population in South China. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was performed in 4 teaching hospitals in South China, dated from January 2010 to December 2011. Nutritional status was assessed with MQSGA and related anthropometric indexes. Serum albumin and transthyretin were also determined for nutritional assessment. Results: Eighty-two randomly selected hemodialysis patients participated in the nutritional assessment, of which 75 hemodialysis patients completed all assessments. The average age was 62.70 ± 14.21 years. The mean duration of hemodialysis was 3.29 ± 1.08 years. Of the included patients, 32% patients were well nourished, 60% were mild to moderately malnourished, and 8% were severely malnourished. Along with the malnutrition severity, the serum transthyretin significantly decreased. However, no obvious changes were found in serum albumin. The mean value (Mean ± SD; 25.78 ± 4.09 cm) of mid arm circumference (MAC) was negatively correlated with MQSGA (r = -0.365; P = 0.002). Body mass index (BMI) (Mean ± SD; 21.6 ± 3.1 kg/m2) was also significantly negatively correlated with MQSGA (r = -0.392; P = 0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.664 and 0.726, respectively. Conclusions: Malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population. Both BMI and MAC were effective markers for assessing nutritional status. PMID:23801883

  7. Quality Assurance for Accuracy of Anthropometric Measurements in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies: [Errare humanum est = to err is human].

    PubMed

    Mony, Prem K; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Gajendran, Jayachitra K; Vaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry involves the external measurement of morphologic traits of human beings. High quality anthropometric measurements are fundamental to clinical and epidemiological research. The measurements for each method have inherent variations, either due to biologic variation or due to error in measurement. Errors in measurement cannot be avoided completely but they can be minimized to a large extent. We define methods to estimate measurement error in anthropometry, offer guidelines for acceptable error, and suggest ways to minimize measurement error; thereby improving anthropometry quality in health assessments. We propose that special attention be paid to the following six key parameters for quality assurance of anthropometric measurements: (i) Identification of certified lead anthropometrist and trainer, (ii) manual of standard operating procedures, (iii) choice of robust equipment, (iv) equipment calibration, (v) standardization training and certification, and (vi) measurements resampling.

  8. Quality Assurance for Accuracy of Anthropometric Measurements in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies: [Errare humanum est = to err is human

    PubMed Central

    Mony, Prem K.; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Gajendran, Jayachitra K.; Vaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry involves the external measurement of morphologic traits of human beings. High quality anthropometric measurements are fundamental to clinical and epidemiological research. The measurements for each method have inherent variations, either due to biologic variation or due to error in measurement. Errors in measurement cannot be avoided completely but they can be minimized to a large extent. We define methods to estimate measurement error in anthropometry, offer guidelines for acceptable error, and suggest ways to minimize measurement error; thereby improving anthropometry quality in health assessments. We propose that special attention be paid to the following six key parameters for quality assurance of anthropometric measurements: (i) Identification of certified lead anthropometrist and trainer, (ii) manual of standard operating procedures, (iii) choice of robust equipment, (iv) equipment calibration, (v) standardization training and certification, and (vi) measurements resampling. PMID:27051083

  9. Quality Assurance for Accuracy of Anthropometric Measurements in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies: [Errare humanum est = to err is human].

    PubMed

    Mony, Prem K; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Gajendran, Jayachitra K; Vaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry involves the external measurement of morphologic traits of human beings. High quality anthropometric measurements are fundamental to clinical and epidemiological research. The measurements for each method have inherent variations, either due to biologic variation or due to error in measurement. Errors in measurement cannot be avoided completely but they can be minimized to a large extent. We define methods to estimate measurement error in anthropometry, offer guidelines for acceptable error, and suggest ways to minimize measurement error; thereby improving anthropometry quality in health assessments. We propose that special attention be paid to the following six key parameters for quality assurance of anthropometric measurements: (i) Identification of certified lead anthropometrist and trainer, (ii) manual of standard operating procedures, (iii) choice of robust equipment, (iv) equipment calibration, (v) standardization training and certification, and (vi) measurements resampling. PMID:27051083

  10. Body Image, Anthropometric Measures, and Eating-Disorder Prevalence in Auxiliary Unit Members

    PubMed Central

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Green, James M; Leeper, James D; Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Richardson, Mark; Bishop, Phillip A

    2009-01-01

    Context: Medical professionals have recognized eating disorders and related problems in competitive athletes. Auxiliary members (color guard, dance, majorettes) experience the same appearance-related pressures observed in sports commonly associated with eating disorders. Objective: To estimate eating-disorder prevalence based on associated eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors in female auxiliary members and to compare perceived and ideal body images and anthropometric measurements between at-risk and not–at-risk participants for eating-disorder characteristics and behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Three universities in the southeastern United States. Patients or Other Participants: Participants (n  =  101, mean age  =  19.2 ± 1.2 years) represented 3 auxiliary units, including color guard (n  =  35), dance line (n  =  47), and majorettes (n  =  19). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants self-reported menstrual history, height, and weight. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, body fat percentage, and waist and hip circumferences. We screened for eating-disorder risk behavior with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26 and for body dissatisfaction with the Figural Stimuli Survey. Results: Based on the EAT-26, we estimated eating-disorder prevalence among members to measure 29.7% (95% confidence interval  =  20.8%, 38.6%). The EAT-26 results revealed that 21% of participants used purgatives and 14% vomited to control weight or shape. The at-risk group had higher scores on the EAT-26 total (P ≤ .01) and on the dieting (P ≤ .01), oral control (P  =  .02), and bulimia (P  =  .01) subscales. Hip circumference (P  =  .01), self-reported weight (P  =  .03), measured weight (P  =  .04), difference between measured and preferred weights (P  =  .02), and calculated target weight (P  =  .02) were different between the at-risk and not–at-risk groups. Conclusions: Collegiate

  11. Anthropometric Measurement Standardization in the US-Affiliated Pacific: Report from the Children’s Healthy Living Program

    PubMed Central

    LI, FENFANG; WILKENS, LYNNE R.; NOVOTNY, RACHEL; FIALKOWSKI, MARIE K.; PAULINO, YVETTE C.; NELSON, RANDALL; BERSAMIN, ANDREA; MARTIN, URSULA; DEENIK, JONATHAN; BOUSHEY, CAROL J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Anthropometric standardization is essential to obtain reliable and comparable data from different geographical regions. The purpose of this study is to describe anthropometric standardization procedures and findings from the Children’s Healthy Living (CHL) Program, a study on childhood obesity in 11 jurisdictions in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Methods Zerfas criteria were used to compare the measurement components (height, waist, and weight) between each trainee and a single expert anthropometrist. In addition, intra- and inter-rater technical error of measurement (TEM), coefficient of reliability, and average bias relative to the expert were computed. Results From September 2012 to December 2014, 79 trainees participated in at least 1 of 29 standardization sessions. A total of 49 trainees passed either standard or alternate Zerfas criteria and were qualified to assess all three measurements in the field. Standard Zerfas criteria were difficult to achieve: only 2 of 79 trainees passed at their first training session. Intra-rater TEM estimates for the 49 trainees compared well with the expert anthropometrist. Average biases were within acceptable limits of deviation from the expert. Coefficient of reliability was above 99% for all three anthropometric components. Conclusions Standardization based on comparison with a single expert ensured the comparability of measurements from the 49 trainees who passed the criteria. The anthropometric standardization process and protocols followed by CHL resulted in 49 standardized field anthropometrists and have helped build capacity in the health workforce in the Pacific Region. PMID:26457888

  12. The relationship of anthropometric measures to radiological features of the breast in premenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, N. F.; Lockwood, G. A.; Byng, J. W.; Little, L. E.; Yaffe, M. J.; Tritchler, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied 273 premenopausal women recruited from mammography units who had different degrees of density of the breast parenchyma on mammography, in whom we measured height, weight and skinfold thicknesses. Mammograms were digitized to high spatial resolution by a scanning densitometer and images analysed to measure the area of dense tissue and the total area of the breast. Per cent density and the area of non-dense tissue were calculated from these measurements. We found that the mammographic measures had different associations with body size. Weight and the Quetelet index of obesity were strongly and positively associated with the area of non-dense tissue and with the total area of the breast, but less strongly and negatively correlated with the area of dense tissue. We also found a strong inverse relationship between the areas of radiologically dense and non-dense breast tissue. Statistical models containing anthropometric variables explained up to 8% of the variance in dense area, but explained up to 49% of the variance in non-dense area and 43% of variance in total area. These results suggest that aetiological studies in breast cancer that use mammographic density should consider dense and non-dense tissues separately. In addition to per cent density, methods should be examined that combine information from these two tissues. Images Figure 1 PMID:9820186

  13. The determination of correlation between stature and upper limb and hand measurements in Iranian adults.

    PubMed

    Mahakizadeh, S; Moghani-Ghoroghi, F; Moshkdanian, Gh; Mokhtari, T; Hassanzadeh, G

    2016-03-01

    Estimation of stature is an important issue, which is significantly considered in forensic anthropology. It will be difficult to predict the identification of an individual when only some parts of dead body are discovered following disasters or criminal events. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between stature and upper limb and hand length in Iranian adults to generate regression formulae for stature estimation. Three anthropometric measurements; Stature, Upper Limb Length (ULL) and Hand Length (HL) were taken on subjects, comprising 142 male students (18-25 years) using standard measuring instruments. The data were analysed using SPSS 16. Then linear regression models were used to estimate stature. The results indicated a positive correlation between stature and upper limb and hand measurements. The correlation coefficient with upper limb length was r = 0.89 & p = 0.0001 and with hand length was r = 0.78 & p = 0.0001. In conclusion, we found a strong correlation between stature and upper limb and hand length. The regression analysis also showed that the Upper Limb Length give better prediction of stature compared to Hand length measurements. PMID:26795396

  14. Association of Anthropometric and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Measures of Adiposity with High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei-Fang; Li, Yan; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Qi-Fang; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shuai; Cheng, Yi-Bang; Li, Fei-Ka; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between adiposity measures and plasma concentration of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. Methods In a Chinese sample (n = 1081), we performed measurements of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We defined overweight and obesity as a body mass index between 24 and 27.4 kg/m² and ≥ 27.5 kg/m², respectively, and central obesity as a waist circumference ≥ 90 cm in men and ≥ 80 cm in women. Plasma HMW adiponectin concentration was measured by the ELISA method. Results Plasma HMW adiponectin concentration was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in women (n = 677, 2.47 μg/mL) than men (n = 404, 1.58 μg/mL) and correlated with advancing age in men (r = 0.28) and women (r = 0.29). In adjusted analyses, it was lower in the presence of overweight (n = 159, 1.26 μg/mL in men and n = 227, 2.15μg/mL in women) and obesity (n = 60, 1.31 μg/mL and n = 82, 2.10 μg/mL, respectively) than normal weight subjects (n = 185, 2.07μg/mL and n = 368, 2.94 μg/mL, respectively) and in the presence of central obesity (n = 106, 1.28 μg/mL and n = 331, 2.12 μg/mL, respectively) than subjects with a normal waist circumference (n = 298, 1.74 μg/mL and n = 346, 2.74 μg/mL, respectively). In multiple regression analyses stratified for gender, adjusted for confounders and considered separately each of the adiposity measures, all adiposity measures were significantly (r -0.18 to -0.31, P < 0.001) associated with plasma HMW adiponectin concentration. However, in further stratified and adjusted regression analyses considered stepwise all adiposity measures, only waist-to-hip ratio was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with plasma HMW adiponectin concentration in men (r = -0.10) and women (r = -0.15). Conclusions Anthropometric measures of obesity, such as waist-to-hip ratio, but not BIA measures, are independently associated with plasma adiponectin concentration. PMID:27227680

  15. Comparative Study on the Effect of Plantago psyllium and Ocimum basilicum Seeds on Anthropometric Measures in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Patients

    PubMed Central

    Akbarian, Shahab-Aldin; Asgary, Sedigheh; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the attribution of fatty liver with some chronic diseases such as obesity, finding a way to control obesity can be useful for the management of fatty liver. This study was performed to assess the effects of Plantago psyllium (PP) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) on anthropometric measurements in people with hepatic steatosis. Methods: All patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were enrolled in this four-arm parallel, randomized, and single blind trial. They randomly assigned into four groups receiving (1) OB 10 g/day; (2) PP 10 g/day; (3) mix of OB and PP 10 g/day; and (4) control group without placebo for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were assessed during study baseline and after 12 weeks intervention. The data were analyzed using paired sample t-test for within group and analysis of covariance for between groups. Results: In within group analysis, weight and body mass index show a significant reduction after 12 weeks intervention. In addition, soft lean mass and lean body mass were decreased in PP and mixed of PP and OB groups significantly; another group (OB) shows the same result for mass body fat. Although in intervention groups, we see considerable reduction, between group changes did not demonstrate the same consequences. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that administration of OB, PP, or mix of them for 12 weeks does not affect any of the anthropometric measures in NAFLD. PMID:27761216

  16. Relation of ratio indices of anthropometric measures to obesity in a stunted population.

    PubMed

    Judd, Suzanne E; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D

    2008-01-01

    The ratios of anthropometric measures are used to estimate obesity while controlling for allometric scaling. A good index should be uncorrelated with its denominator; this often requires exponentiation of the denominator. The stability of the derived exponents across populations is not known. We obtained subscapular (SUBS) and triceps (TRI) skinfolds, weight (WT), height (HT), waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) in a population of Guatemalan adults [height 1.63 +/- 0.06 m (868 males); 1.51 +/- 0.06 m (1047 females)]. We derived exponents for the indices WT/HT(P), SUBS/TRI(P), TRI/SUBS(P), WC/HT(P), FM/WT(P), and FM/FFM(P) such that the ratios were free from association with their denominators. The derived exponents were (Men: SUBS/TRI(0.88), FM/WT(2.69), FM/FFM(2.86), WC/HT(0.68), and WT/HT(2.17); Women: SUBS/TRI(0.93), FM/WT(2.01), FM/FFM(3.37), WC/HT(0.47), WT/HT(2.03)). For all examined indices the derived exponents differed (P < 0.05) from 1 and differed (P < 0.05) between men and women. The exponents for the men also differed from those previously published for Brazilian men (JCK Wells and CG Victora [2005]: Int J Obes 29:483-489). The derived indices were not more strongly correlated with adiposity than were simple unexponentiated ratios. Although exponentiation of the denominator eliminates the association of index with its denominator, the resulting exponents lack generalizability across populations, especially those where stunting remains prevalent.

  17. Neck Circumference May Be a Better Alternative to Standard Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Joshipura, Kaumudi; Muñoz-Torres, Francisco; Vergara, José; Palacios, Cristina; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates neck circumference as a metabolic risk marker. Overweight/obese, nondiabetic Hispanics, 40–65 years old, who are free of major cardiovascular diseases, were recruited for the San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS). Baseline exams were completed by 1,206 participants. Partial correlation coefficients (r) and logistic models adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and physical activity were computed. Neck circumference was significantly correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.64), BMI (r = 0.66), and body fat % (r = 0.45). Neck circumference, highest (compared to lowest) tertile, had higher association with prediabetes: multivariable OR = 2.30 (95% CI: 1.71–3.06) compared to waist circumference OR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.48–2.66) and other anthropometric measures. Neck circumference showed higher associations with HOMA, low HDL-C, and triglycerides, multivariable OR = 8.42 (95% CI: 5.43–13.06), 2.41 (95% CI: 1.80–3.21), and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14–2.03), but weaker associations with hs-CRP and hypertension, OR = 3.61 (95% CI: 2.66–4.90) and OR = 2.58 (95% CI: 1.90–3.49), compared to waist circumference. AIC for model fit was generally similar for neck or waist circumference. Neck circumference showed similar or better associations with metabolic factors and is more practicable than waist circumference. Hence, neck circumference may be a better alternative to waist circumference. PMID:26981543

  18. Association of Change of Anthropometric Measurements With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Saskia; Greiser, Karin Halina; Medenwald, Daniel; Tiller, Daniel; Herzog, Beatrice; Schipf, Sabine; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Müller, Grit; Haerting, Johannes; Kluttig, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to investigate the association of change of anthropometric measurements and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within a pooled sample of 2 population-based cohorts. A final sample of 1324 women and 1278 men aged 31 to 83 years from 2 prospective cohorts in Germany, the CARLA (Cardiovascular Disease - Living and Ageing in Halle) and the SHIP study (Study of Health in Pomerania), were pooled. The association of change of body weight and waist circumference (WC) with incidence of T2DM was assessed by calculating sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs). We investigated the absolute change of markers of obesity as well as change relative to the baseline value and estimated crude and adjusted HRs. Furthermore, we conducted the analyses stratified by obesity status and age (<60 vs ≥60 years) at baseline. Associations were found for both change of body weight and WC and incidence of T2DM in the crude and adjusted analyses. In the stratified study sample, those participants with a body mass index of <30 kg/m2 at baseline showed considerably lower HRs compared with obese women and men for both weight and WC. In the age-stratified analysis, we still found associations between change of weight and WC and incident T2DM with only marginal differences between the age groups. Our study showed associations of change of weight and WC as markers of obesity with incidence of T2DM. Keeping a healthy and primarily stable weight should be the goal for preventing the development of T2DM. PMID:26313783

  19. [Comparison of self-reported anthropometric variables and real measurement data].

    PubMed

    Díaz-García, J; González-Zapata, L I; Estrada-Restrepo, A

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate self-reporting of weight, height, and waist circumference, and to compare that perception with the real measurements in college students of the MESPYN cohort--Medellin, Salud Pública y Nutrición--from the University of Antioquia (UdeA), Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted starting with the first measurement of the MESPYN Cohort 2009-2010. The sample included volunteer students from different academic areas. Self-perception of weight, height, and waist circumference were recorded before the real measurements were performed. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for all the variables, and an alpha of 0.05 was used. The concordance between real measurements and self-referred values was evaluated with the Bland and Altman method. 424 volunteer students were included. The average real weight (kg) in males was 67.4 +/- 10.4 and self-reported: 67.0 +/- 11.0; in females the real value was 55.7 +/- 10.1 and self-reported: 55.0 +/- 9.0. The average real height (m) in males was 1.73 +/- 6.1 and self-reported: 1.73 +/- 6.0; in females the real value was 1.60 +/- 5.9 and self-reported: 1.61 +/- 6.0. In males, the average real waist circumference (cm) was 76.6 +/- 8.0 and self-reported: 75.0 +/- 14.0; in females the real value was 69.9 +/- 8.0 and self-reported: 70.0 +/- 9.0. Weight ICC: 0.956, 95% CI (0.95; 0.97), (p < 0.01); height ICC: 0.953, 95%IC (0.91; 0.97), (p < 0.01), and waist circumference ICC: 0.593, 95% IC (0.55; 0.65), (p < 0.01). In conclusion, anthropometric nutritional evaluation of UdeA students can be performed with self-reported data for weight and height, but the evaluation of abdominal obesity requires direct measurement of waist circumference.

  20. The Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Training on Abdominal Strength, Endurance, and Selected Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Porcari, John P.; Miller, Jennifer; Cornwell, Kelly; Foster, Carl; Gibson, Mark; McLean, Karen; Kernozek, Tom

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of self-administered neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on changes in strength, endurance, selected anthropometric measures, and subject’s perceived shape and satisfaction of the abdominal wall. Twenty-four adults (experimental group) stimulated their abdominals 5 days per week (20-40 minutes per session) for 8 weeks and refrained from engaging in any additional exercise during the study. A control group (N=16) refrained from exercising the abdominals or engaging in any other exercise training during the study. Subjects were tested at the beginning, mid-point, and end of the study. Isometric strength of the abdominal muscles was tested using a isokinetic dynamometer, endurance was measured using the ACSM curl-up test, abdominal circumference was measured using a steel tape measure, and body shape and satisfaction were assessed via questionnaire. The stimulation group had a 58% increase in abdominal strength, whereas the control group did not change. The stimulation group also had a 100% increase in abdominal endurance versus a 28% increase in the control group. Waist circumference decreased by of 3.5 cm in the stimulation group compared to no significant change in the control group. All 24 subjects in the stimulation group felt that their midsections were more “toned” and “firmed” and 13/24 (54%) felt that their posture had improved as a result of the stimulation. None of the control group subjects reported changes in these parameters. There were no significant differences in body weight, BMI, or skinfold thickness over the course of the study in either group. NMES, as used in the current study, resulted in significant improvements in the muscular strength and endurance of the abdominal region, as well as subject’s perceived shape and satisfaction of the mid-section. Key Points Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) was effective in increasing muscle strength and endurance All subjects perceived their abdominal muscles to be

  1. Hand Function Measurement with Educable Mental Retardates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sand, Patricia L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reports on results of the Developmental Hand Function Test administered to 28 educable mentally retarded and 34 normal 12-and 14-year-old girls to show that manual dexterity and functional had skills are compromised in the mentally retarded. (DS)

  2. Mercury (Hg) and oxidative stress status in healthy mothers and its effect on birth anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Rouqi, Reem; Obsum, Cercilia Angela; Shinwari, Neptune; Mashhour, Abdullah; Billedo, Grisellhi; Al-Sarraj, Yaser; Rabbah, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    placental tissues and significantly higher TM levels associated with placental Hg in both newborns and their mothers. In contrast, Se/Hg molar ratios in placental tissues were positively associated with MDA and negatively with TM. The disproportion between Hg and Se might be influenced by the length of Hg exposure that in turn might affect Se bioavailability. Each birth anthropometric outcome was modeled as a function of Hg, Se and their interactions. After an adjustment for confounding variables, Hg in cord blood had a significantly positive rather than the expected negative association with crown-heel length. Placental Hg was associated with reduced birth height. Both associations were independent of prematurity. The status of Se in newborns was positively associated with crown-heel length and placental weight, with and without preterm births, and with birth weight, but only without preterm births. In contrast, a lower cephalization index was correlated with Se levels in cord blood, which may be an indicator of a detrimental effect on health. Our study, however, revealed associations between significantly lower levels of placental Se and several birth anthropometric measures (head circumference, birth weight and birth height) but the significance disappeared after excluding preterm births. Regression analyses generally indicated either significant or marginally significant Hg-Se antagonistic interactions that may have moderated the toxic effect of Hg on head circumference and birth weight. This finding may be due to chance or residual confounding and so may not be clinically relevant, but it may also suggest that Hg, Se and Hg-Se interactions are important factors for understanding Hg-induced adverse birth outcomes. Additional research will be necessary to evaluate the biological impact of combined metals in the assessment of fetal growth and development.

  3. Mercury (Hg) and oxidative stress status in healthy mothers and its effect on birth anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Rouqi, Reem; Obsum, Cercilia Angela; Shinwari, Neptune; Mashhour, Abdullah; Billedo, Grisellhi; Al-Sarraj, Yaser; Rabbah, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    placental tissues and significantly higher TM levels associated with placental Hg in both newborns and their mothers. In contrast, Se/Hg molar ratios in placental tissues were positively associated with MDA and negatively with TM. The disproportion between Hg and Se might be influenced by the length of Hg exposure that in turn might affect Se bioavailability. Each birth anthropometric outcome was modeled as a function of Hg, Se and their interactions. After an adjustment for confounding variables, Hg in cord blood had a significantly positive rather than the expected negative association with crown-heel length. Placental Hg was associated with reduced birth height. Both associations were independent of prematurity. The status of Se in newborns was positively associated with crown-heel length and placental weight, with and without preterm births, and with birth weight, but only without preterm births. In contrast, a lower cephalization index was correlated with Se levels in cord blood, which may be an indicator of a detrimental effect on health. Our study, however, revealed associations between significantly lower levels of placental Se and several birth anthropometric measures (head circumference, birth weight and birth height) but the significance disappeared after excluding preterm births. Regression analyses generally indicated either significant or marginally significant Hg-Se antagonistic interactions that may have moderated the toxic effect of Hg on head circumference and birth weight. This finding may be due to chance or residual confounding and so may not be clinically relevant, but it may also suggest that Hg, Se and Hg-Se interactions are important factors for understanding Hg-induced adverse birth outcomes. Additional research will be necessary to evaluate the biological impact of combined metals in the assessment of fetal growth and development. PMID:24332576

  4. The effects of tournament preparation on anthropometric and sport-specific performance measures in youth judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith, Abbie E; Wray, Mandy E; Hetrick, Robert P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the adaptations imposed by 4 weeks of precompetition judo training in youth athletes. It was hypothesized that anthropometric and sport-specific performance would improve during the preparation for a junior national championship event. Twenty youth athletes (mean ± SD; chronological age: 13.1 ± 3.2 years; training age: 5.3 ± 3.5 years; judo experience: 7.8 ± 2.5 hours per week) completed pretesting and posttesting procedures. Child (12 years old; n = 8) and adolescent (13 years old; n = 12) groups were evaluated to determine the anthropometric and sport-specific performance changes caused by 4 weeks of judo training conducted in preparation for the junior national championships. The child group showed an increase in flexibility (11.5%), and the adolescent group showed a decrease in skinfold thickness (-12.2%); increased jumping power (26.7%), force (7.7%), and velocity (19.0%); and improved judo-specific ability (-5.9%), as measured by the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) index. Additionally, the SJFT index for all the study participants was shown to be inversely correlated to handgrip strength (r = -0.681), rope pull performance (r = -0.545), and jump height (r = -0.503). These results support the use of preparatory judo training in the improvement of anthropometric and sport-specific measures in adolescent athletes. Furthermore, the outcomes from this study provide direction for coaches and trainers in their efforts to impact physical performance and judo skills in children and adolescents through precompetition training. PMID:22476167

  5. Anthropometric Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego State Coll., CA.

    The Anthropometric Training Project was aimed at providing a training program for select students to develop research competency in an area relating body type, composition, anthropometric assessment, and physical performance measures. The program involves interdisciplinary cooperation in training through seminars, laboratory practice, and…

  6. A study of the physical, behavioral, and medical phenotype, including anthropometric measures, of females with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hull, C; Hagerman, R J

    1993-11-01

    The physical features of fragile X, including a long face, prominent ears, and hyperextensible joints, are present in affected males and females. Cytogenetically negative heterozygotes have been considered to be unaffected by the fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR-1) gene. This study investigated the penetrance of the FMR-1 gene in cytogenetically negative but DNA-positive heterozygotes with a premutation (cytosine guanine guanine [CGG] amplification in the 50 to 200 repeat range), compared with carriers with a full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats) and control subjects. One hundred thirty-nine women with normal IQs between the ages of 18 and 45 years were studied. All underwent cytogenetic and DNA testing to determine their fragile X carrier status. A medical history-taking and a physical examination, including selected anthropometric measurements, were performed. Results indicate that the FMR-1 mutation mildly affects the physical phenotype of individuals even in the premutation state, although less dramatically than more affected heterozygotes. Carriers with a premutation differed significantly from control subjects in overall physical index score and in the anthropometric measure of ear prominence. These results suggest a phenotypic impact of the FMR-1 mutation even at the 50 to 200 CGG repeat length.

  7. Anthropometric contribution to standardising manikins for artificial-head microphones and to measuring headphones and ear protectors.

    PubMed

    Burandt, U; Pösselt, C; Ambrozus, S; Hosenfeld, M; Knauff, V

    1991-12-01

    True-to-size head-torso manikins are required for research in the field of artificial-head stereophony as well as for testing and measuring headphones, soundproof helmets, ear protectors and other headgear. Attempts to design a manikin according to the available anthropometric data available proved to be difficult. By testing 77 men with technical jobs, 15 new quantities have been measured, some of them for comparison and some to complete existing measurements. The tests showed that it is absolutely essential to differentiate manikins of the desired qualities from an ethnic point of view. Manikins of different model dimensions should not be standardised according to percentiles but should represent typical head shapes. To this end, thorough measurements have to be made.

  8. MediHandTrace ®: a tool for measuring and understanding hand hygiene adherence.

    PubMed

    Boudjema, S; Dufour, J C; Aladro, A S; Desquerres, I; Brouqui, P

    2014-01-01

    The proper implementation of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing healthcare-associated infection. Although there are many programmes aimed at enhancing hand hygiene, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) remains incredibly low. One limiting factor is the lack of standardized measures and reports of hand hygiene opportunities. Direct observational audits have reported the weaknesses in this field. We report here a radiofrequency identification-based real-time automated continuous recording system (MediHandTrace(®)) that permits the tracking of hand hygiene opportunities and the disinfection compliance of HCWs that we evaluated against video recordings as being accurate (99.02%), sensitive (95.65%) and specific (100%). The system can also provide information that is useful to understand HCW non-compliance and will allow the evaluation of future intervention studies. PMID:24261513

  9. Measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on hand wipes: estimating exposure from hand-to-mouth contact.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Heather M; Kelly, Shannon M; Allen, Joseph G; Mcclean, Michael D; Webster, Thomas F

    2008-05-01

    Estimates of exposure to the flame-retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust are very poor due to limited knowledge about dust ingestion. This study was undertaken to determine if PBDEs could be measured on hand wipes, and if so, to determine the distribution of levels present on the skin surface area to provide preliminary exposure estimates from hand-to-mouth contact. Hand wipes were collected from 33 individuals residing in the United States using sterile gauze pads soaked in isopropyl alcohol. The total PBDE residue collected on the wipes ranged from 2.60 to 1982 ng, with a median value of 130 ng, or normalized to hand surface area, a concentration of 135 pg/cm2. The fully brominated congener, BDE 209, was also detected and ranged from < DL to 270 ng with a median value of 26 ng. Congener patterns observed on the wipes were similar to patterns observed in house dust samples, consisting of congeners associated with the PentaBDE and DecaBDE mixtures, suggesting that the source of PBDEs to the hands may be dust particles. However, PBDE hand residues may also be a result of direct contact with PBDE-laden products, leading to adsorption to the skin surface oils. Repeated wipe sampling from three individuals suggests that sigmaPBDE levels on the hand may be relatively consistent for some individuals but not for others. Furthermore, levels of sigmaPBDEs were greater on the bottom of the hands relative to the top of the hands. Using these values we have calculated potential human exposure from hand-to-mouth contact. The median exposure estimates for children and adults are 1380 and 154 ng/day, respectively, whereas the 95th percentile exposure estimates were 6090 and 677 ng/day, respectively. These estimates are greater than dietary intake rates and suggest hand-to-mouth contact may be a key exposure route for PBDEs.

  10. Indices of Central and Peripheral Obesity; Anthropometric Measurements and Laboratory Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Aras, Şükrü; Üstünsoy, Seyfettin; Armutçu, Ferah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity are serious health problems in the World, including Turkey. Contemporary studies have suggested a meaningful association between insulin resistance (IR), MetS parameters, and thyroid function tests. Aims: We aimed to elucidate the impact of fat distribution on the anthropometric and laboratory parameters, especially indices of MetS, IR and thyroid function, in obese women. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Anthropometric measurements of all participants and biochemical tests in their serum samples were performed. Results: Weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and other parameters of fat distribution were significantly increased in all obese compared to control subjects; but there was no significant difference between central and peripheral obese groups. The central obese group had significantly higher insulin levels, components of MetS, the ratio free triiodothyronine (fT3) to free thyroxin fT4, and fT4 than those of peripheral obese and control groups. Conclusion: Elevated triglyceride, glucose and insulin levels may be associated with increased IR, which in turn is related to MetS. Body fat composition may affect thyroid tests in the obese; the changes in fT3/fT4 could be the consequence of fat distribution. PMID:26740903

  11. Relationship of handgrip strength with anthropometric and body composition variables in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Hurbo, T; Jürimäe, J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of handgrip strength with basic anthropometric variables, hand anthropometric variables, total body and hand composition, total body and hand bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in prepubertal children aged between 8 and 11 years (n=64, 27 boys, 37 girls). Height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI kg/m2) was calculated. Biceps and triceps skinfolds, arm relaxed, arm flexed, forearm and wrist girths, acromiale-radiale, radiale-stylion-radiale and midstylion-dactylion length and humerus breadth were measured. Specific hand anthropometric variables according to Visnapuu and Jürimäe [2007. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21, 923-929] were used. Five fingers' spans, fingers' lengths and perimeters of the hand were measured. Total body and right-hand fat percentage, fat mass and lean mass (LBM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Right-hand BMC and BMD were analysed from the bone variables. Maximal handgrip strength of the right hand was measured with the hand dynamometer. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the most important predictive value from the basic anthropometric variables was body height, explaining 76.1% (R2 x 100), 40.7% and 50.6% of the handgrip strength in boys, girls and total group, respectively. Measured skinfold thicknesses and breadths were not related to handgrip strength in any group. Forearm girths significantly predicted handgrip strength in boys (30.8%), girls (43.4%) and total group (43.4%). As a rule, handgrip strength was more dependent on the anthropometric and body composition variables in boys than girls. It was concluded that body height, forearm girth, midstylion-dactylion and acromiale-radiale length and hand LBM and BMC are the most limiting factors influencing handgrip strength in prepubertal children.

  12. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 → 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 → 23.8 kg/m2) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSION Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students. PMID:26060543

  13. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of an anthropometric phantom used for calibrating in vivo K-XRF spectroscopy measurements of stable lead in bone.

    PubMed

    Lodwick, Camille J; Spitz, Henry B

    2008-12-01

    An anthropometric surrogate (phantom) of the human leg was defined in the constructs of the Monte Carlo N Particle (MCNP) code to predict the response when used in calibrating K x-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) spectrometry measurements of stable lead in bone. The predicted response compared favorably with measurements using the anthropometric phantom containing a tibia with increasing stable lead content. These benchmark measurements confirmed the validity of a modified MCNP code to accurately simulate K-XRF spectrometry measurements of stable lead in bone. A second, cylindrical leg phantom was simulated to determine whether the shape of the calibration phantom is a significant factor in evaluating K-XRF performance. Simulations of the cylindrical and anthropometric calibration phantoms suggest that a cylindrical calibration standard overestimates lead content of a human leg up to 4%. A two-way analysis of variance determined that phantom shape is a statistically significant factor in predicting the K-XRF response. These results suggest that an anthropometric phantom provides a more accurate calibration standard compared to the conventional cylindrical shape, and that a cylindrical shape introduces a 4% positive bias in measured lead values.

  15. NOTE Thyroid volume measurement in external beam radiotherapy patients using CT imaging: correlation with clinical and anthropometric characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, C.; Garsi, J. P.; Rubino, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Bidault, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Bridier, A.; Ricard, M.; Ferreira, I.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 89 years. To evaluate uncertainties linked to measured volumes, experimental studies on the Livermore anthropomorphic phantom were performed. For our population of EBRT patients, we observed that in children, thyroid volume increased rapidly with age, from about 3 cm3 at 2 years to about 16 cm3 at 20. In adults, the mean thyroid gland volume was 23.5 ± 9 cm3 for males and 17.5 ± 8 cm3 for females. According to anthropometric parameters, the best fit for children was obtained by modeling the log of thyroid volume as a linear function of body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.04) and for adults, as a linear function of BSA (p < 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.01). This work enabled us to demonstrate that BSA was the best indicator of thyroid volume for both males and females. These results should be taken into account when modeling the volume of the thyroid in human models used to represent EBRT patients for dosimetry in retrospective studies of the relationship between the estimated dose to the thyroid and long-term follow-up data on EBRT patients.

  16. Effect of age on anthropometric and physical performance measures in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Vazquez, Jose; Krause, Matthew C; Gillett, Javair; Pichardo, Napoleon

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players. Baseball players (n = 1,157) from several professional baseball organizations were categorized into 7 cohorts based upon age. All adolescent athletes were categorized as age group 1 (AG1), whereas the next 5 groups (AG2-AG6) consisted of players 20-22, 23-25, 26-28, 29-31, and 31-34 years, respectively. The final group (AG7) comprised athletes ≥35 years. All performance assessments were part of the athlete's normal preseason training camp testing routine. Field assessments were used to analyze lower-body power, speed, agility, grip strength, and body composition. The players were heaviest between the ages of 29 and 31 (AG5), and their body mass in that age group was 10.1% (p = 0.004) greater than that of AG1. A 7.0% increase (p = 0.000) in lean body mass occurred between AG1 and AG5. No differences in 10-yd sprint times or agility were seen across any age group or position. A 2.0 seconds (p = 0.001) slower run time for the 300-yd shuttle was seen between AG4 and AG5 for all positions combined. Elevations in grip strength were seen at AG4 compared with AG1 (p = 0.001) and AG2 (p = 0.007) for all positions combined. No other differences were noted. Lower-body power was increased for all positions combined from AG1 to AG3 (p = 0.007). This pattern was similar to that observed in position players, but a 12.4% decrease (p = 0.024) in VJMP was seen between AG7 and AG5 in pitchers. Results of this study indicate that lower-body power is maintained in baseball players until the age of 29-31, whereas speed, agility, and grip strength are maintained in players able to play past the age of 35 years. Age-related differences observed in this study suggest that athletes focus on their strength and conditioning programs to extend the length of their professional careers.

  17. Measuring and understanding treatment effectiveness in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Coroneos, Christopher J; Thoma, Achilleas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-08-01

    Incorporating evidence-based medicine into practice is now an expectation for hand surgeons. Hand surgeons need to be able to assess associated benefits, risks, cost, and applicability of a treatment option when providing care to their patients. Using a clinical example, this article takes the reader through the three-step approach when using a publication from the medical literature on therapy. The focus of this article is primarily the second and third steps, which involve measuring and understanding treatment effectiveness.

  18. The CODAtwins project: the cohort description of COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins to study macro-environmental variation in genetic and environmental effects on anthropometric traits

    PubMed Central

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire MA; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl-Aslan, Anna K; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    For over one hundred years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically 1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and 2) to study the effects of birth related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects including both monozygotic and dizygotic twins using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes. PMID:26014041

  19. The CODATwins Project: The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-08-01

    For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.

  20. The CODATwins Project: The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-08-01

    For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes. PMID:26014041

  1. Activity levels in pregnant New Zealand women: relationship with socioeconomic factors, well-being, anthropometric measures, and birth outcome.

    PubMed

    Watson, Patricia E; McDonald, Barry W

    2007-08-01

    Activity during pregnancy has health implications for mother and child. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine changes in activity levels during pregnancy; the influence of socioeconomic factors and well-being on activity, and the influence of activity on maternal anthropometric measures and birth outcome. Twenty-four hour activity diaries were collected for 3 d in months 4 and 7 of pregnancy in 197 volunteers. Anthropometric measures and questionnaires to determine personal details were collected at these times and 2 months post-partum. Health records were used to supply infant measures. The time spent on each activity category was calculated, and used to calculate overall daily metabolic equivalents (METs). Low socioeconomic (SES) group 24 h activity levels were significantly higher than for high SES or welfare groups (p = 0.013). Activity declined throughout pregnancy in all groups (p = 0.002). Women with children had higher 24 h activity, spending 41% more time walking and (or) on housework than nulliparous women (p = 0.013). Reduced well-being was associated with lower levels of activity. Sleep and lying down time influenced 2 month post-partum body mass (upper quartile gained 2.54 kg, lower quartile lost 0.24 kg, p < 0.001). Mean infant gestational age increased with increasing 24 h activity (p = 0.047). No infants were born prematurely to mothers who spent more than 190 min/d walking or doing housework activities in month 4. Probability of infant admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) declined with time spent walking or doing housework in month 4 (p = 0.007). Mean (SE) birth weight was 3883 (+/-165) g in the 10% of women spending less than 530 min sleeping or lying down per day, compared with 3413 (+/-104) g in the 10% of women spending 725 min or more sleeping or lying down. Socioeconomic factors were therefore important influences on activity levels during pregnancy. Inactivity, especially in early pregnancy, was associated

  2. The role of geriatric assessment tests and anthropometric measurements in identifying the risk of falls in elderly nursing home residents

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Bulent; Aran, Sinan N.; Ozkaya, Ismail; Aksoy, Sevki M.; Demir, Tarik; Tezcan, Gulsen; Kaptanoglu, Aysegul Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relation among the risk of falls, geriatric assessment, and anthropometric measurements, including the mini mental state examination, geriatric depression scale, handgrip test, and key pinch test. Methods: This prospective study included 89 residents hospitalized between May 2014 and September 2015 in the geriatric care unit of the Istanbul Balikli Rum Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Patients were followed-up for one year, and their falls were recorded. Medical records of the included patients were retrieved and analyzed. Results: A total of 89 patients, comprising 37 men and 52 women with an average age of 75.8 ± 8.2 years were included in the study. The residents’ annual falling averages were 1.0 ± 1.5. The most significant factors were identified to be predicted muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, whole body bioimpedance, dominant arm muscle strength, dominant arm bioimpedance, and free fat mass. Conclusions: The mini mental test, geriatric depression scale and lawton-brody scale combined with the handgrip, 6-meters walking, and bioimpedance tests are favorable for detecting the risk of falls and recurrent falls in vulnerable elderly nursing home residents. PMID:27652361

  3. On the relationship between stature and anthropometric measurements of lumbar vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anke; Nagel, Katrin; Gührs, Julian; Poodendaen, Chanasorn; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Stature estimation is important for identifying human remains. Analysis of body parts has become an important forensic tool during global operations in the context of cases in which human remains have been dismembered, mutilated or decomposed. However, unless almost the full skeleton or at least a long bone of the lower limb is available, accuracy is still limited to approximate body height. Especially with respect to single vertebral measurements, only a rough prediction is possible. Due to their complex geometry, vertebral measurements are possible at various locations. Nine locations have been considered in this study. Regression equations for stature estimation using lumbar vertebral geometry from computed tomography scans have been evaluated to identify the measurement which gives the most reliable body height estimation. The study group comprised a representative sample of a German metropolitan male population (42 autopsied individuals). Comparing the influence of various vertebral geometry measurements with body height resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R) of 0.19-0.53 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of ± 11.6 up to ± 13.1cm. The largest correlation with a single vertebral measurement was achieved with the central height of the vertebral body of L2 as predictor; the standard error (SE) of the estimate was 5.9 cm. Using models from CT scans appeared superior to current invasive procedures that use direct measurements of the vertebral body, in terms of reproducibility and time efficiency. For fragmented non-skeletonized human bodies, height prediction based on an all-virtual model of the vertebrae is possible. However, the regression coefficient may be similar to classic caliper measurements that prove easier if skeletonized bones are available.

  4. Prediction of Resection Weight in Reduction Mammaplasty Based on Anthropometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kececi, Yavuz; Sir, Emin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to develop a simple, clinically useful method to accurately predict resection weight in women undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Patients and Methods 39 women undergoing breast reduction participated in the study. Sternal notch to nipple distance, nipple to inframammary fold distance (NIMF), medial end point to nipple distance (MN), lateral endpoint to nipple distance (LN), superior border of the breast to nipple distance (SN), breast circumference (BC), and chest circumference (CC) were measured. 5 other predicting variables were also derived; horizontal breast measurement (H) by adding MN to LN, vertical breast measurement (V) by adding NIMF to SN, the product of H and V (H*V), the product of H and NIMF (H*NIMF), and the difference between BC and CC (D). Regression analysis was used to compose a formula for predicting resection weight. Results Among the predicting variables, H*NIMF measurements had the highest correlation coefficient value (Pearson correlation = 0.809) with the resection weight. The following formula was obtained with regression analysis: Predicted resection weight = (1.45 × H*NIMF) + (31.5 × D) – 576. Conclusion Breast resection weights can be accurately predicted by the presented method based on anthropomorphic measurements. PMID:24803886

  5. The use and interpretation of anthropometric measures in cancer epidemiology: A perspective from the world cancer research fund international continuous update project.

    PubMed

    Bandera, Elisa V; Fay, Stephanie H; Giovannucci, Edward; Leitzmann, Michael F; Marklew, Rachel; McTiernan, Anne; Mullee, Amy; Romieu, Isabelle; Thune, Inger; Uauy, Ricardo; Wiseman, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    Anthropometric measures relating to body size, weight and composition are increasingly being associated with cancer risk and progression. Whilst practical in epidemiologic research, where population-level associations with disease are revealed, it is important to be aware that such measures are imperfect markers of the internal physiological processes that are the actual correlates of cancer development. Body mass index (BMI), the most commonly used marker for adiposity, may mask differences between lean and adipose tissue, or fat distribution, which varies across individuals, ethnicities, and stage in the lifespan. Other measures, such as weight gain in adulthood, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, contribute information on adipose tissue distribution and insulin sensitivity. Single anthropometric measures do not capture maturational events, including the presence of critical windows of susceptibility (i.e., age of menarche and menopause), which presents a challenge in epidemiologic work. Integration of experimental research on underlying dynamic genetic, hormonal, and other non-nutritional mechanisms is necessary for a confident conclusion of the overall evidence in cancer development and progression. This article discusses the challenges confronted in evaluating and interpreting the current evidence linking anthropometric factors and cancer risk as a basis for issuing recommendations for cancer prevention.

  6. Estimation of sex from the anthropometric ear measurements of a Sudanese population.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Omer, Nosyba

    2015-09-01

    The external ear and its prints have multifaceted roles in medico-legal practice, e.g., identification and facial reconstruction. Furthermore, its norms are essential in the diagnosis of congenital anomalies and the design of hearing aids. Body part dimensions vary in different ethnic groups, so the most accurate statistical estimations of biological attributes are developed using population-specific standards. Sudan lacks comprehensive data about ear norms; moreover, there is a universal rarity in assessing the possibility of sex estimation from ear dimensions using robust statistical techniques. Therefore, this study attempts to establish data for normal adult Sudanese Arabs, assessing the existence of asymmetry and developing a population-specific equation for sex estimation. The study sample comprised 200 healthy Sudanese Arab volunteers (100 males and 100 females) in the age range of 18-30years. The physiognomic ear length and width, lobule length and width, and conchal length and width measurements were obtained by direct anthropometry, using a digital sliding caliper. Moreover, indices and asymmetry were assessed. Data were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses employing jackknife validations of classification results. All linear dimensions used were sexually dimorphic except lobular lengths. Some of the variables and indices show asymmetry. Ear dimensions showed cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranging between 60.5% and 72%. Hence, the ear measurements cannot be used as an effective tool in the estimation of sex. However, in the absence of other more reliable means, it still can be considered a supportive trait in sex estimation. Further, asymmetry should be considered in identification from the ear measurements.

  7. Estimation of sex from the anthropometric ear measurements of a Sudanese population.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Omer, Nosyba

    2015-09-01

    The external ear and its prints have multifaceted roles in medico-legal practice, e.g., identification and facial reconstruction. Furthermore, its norms are essential in the diagnosis of congenital anomalies and the design of hearing aids. Body part dimensions vary in different ethnic groups, so the most accurate statistical estimations of biological attributes are developed using population-specific standards. Sudan lacks comprehensive data about ear norms; moreover, there is a universal rarity in assessing the possibility of sex estimation from ear dimensions using robust statistical techniques. Therefore, this study attempts to establish data for normal adult Sudanese Arabs, assessing the existence of asymmetry and developing a population-specific equation for sex estimation. The study sample comprised 200 healthy Sudanese Arab volunteers (100 males and 100 females) in the age range of 18-30years. The physiognomic ear length and width, lobule length and width, and conchal length and width measurements were obtained by direct anthropometry, using a digital sliding caliper. Moreover, indices and asymmetry were assessed. Data were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses employing jackknife validations of classification results. All linear dimensions used were sexually dimorphic except lobular lengths. Some of the variables and indices show asymmetry. Ear dimensions showed cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranging between 60.5% and 72%. Hence, the ear measurements cannot be used as an effective tool in the estimation of sex. However, in the absence of other more reliable means, it still can be considered a supportive trait in sex estimation. Further, asymmetry should be considered in identification from the ear measurements. PMID:25813757

  8. Microwave pulse propagation measurements in left-handed materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gennaro, Emiliano; Parimi, Patanjali V.; Vodo, Plarenta; Lu, Wentao; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2004-03-01

    Left handed electromagnetism is well established in media with negative permeability and permittivity and in photonic crystals [1]. In such media the negative refractive index is accompanied by large dispersion dn/dω, and consequently a very low group velocity is predicted for left-handed metamaterial (LHM). It is well known that an artificial material consisting of interleaved arrays of wires and split ring resonators in a certain microwave frequency range shows left handed behavior. We have carried out pulse measurements on LHM using a transition analyzer in order to measure the group velocity. Time delay measurements are performed in an X-band and parallel plate waveguide. Sending a 100ns width pulse with a carrier frequency ranging between 9 and 11 GHz, we analyze the signal delay due to the sample. The results suggest that the group velocity in the LHM is very low. Pulse delay measurements in photonic crystals are also discussed. Work supported by NSF & AFRL [1]. P. V. Parimi et al., submitted (2003).

  9. Comparison of measured and self-reported anthropometric information among firefighters: implications and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Weaver, Darlene; Hsiao, James; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Ferri, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height compared to measured values among firefighters and identified factors associated with reporting error. A total of 863 male and 88 female firefighters in four US regions participated in the study. The results showed that both men and women underestimated their body weight (−0.4 ± 4.1, −1.1 ± 3.6 kg) and overestimated their height (29 ± 18, 17 ± 16 mm). Women underestimated more than men on weight (p = 0.022) and men overestimated more than women on height (p < 0.001). Reporting errors on weight were increased with overweight status (p < 0.001) and were disproportionate among subgroups. About 27% men and 24% women had reporting errors on weight greater than ± 2.2 kg, and 59% men and 28% women had reporting errors on height greater than 25 mm. PMID:25198061

  10. Relationship of anthropometric measurements to thyroid nodules in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weimin; Chen, Zexin; Li, Na; Liu, Hui; Huo, Liangliang; Huang, Yangmei; Jin, Xingyi; Deng, Jin; Zhu, Sujuan; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have found that overweight and obesity are related to numerous diseases, including thyroid cancer and thyroid volume. This study evaluates the relationship between body size and the presence of thyroid nodules in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 6793 adults and 2410 children who underwent thyroid ultrasonography were recruited in this cross-sectional study in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, from March to October, 2010. Sociodemographic characteristics and potential risk factors of thyroid nodules were collected by questionnaire. Height and weight were measured using standard protocols. Associations of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) with the presence of thyroid nodules were evaluated using multiple logistic regression models. Results After adjustment for potential risk factors, an increased risk of thyroid nodule incidence was associated with height (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.30), weight (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.58), BMI (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.42) and BSA (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.62) in all adults, but most obviously in women. In children, similar associations were observed between risk of thyroid nodule incidence and weight, BMI and BSA, but not height. BSA was the measurement most significantly associated with thyroid nodules in both adults and children. Conclusions This study identified that the presence of thyroid nodules was positively associated with weight, height, BMI and BSA in both women and girls. It suggests that tall, obese individuals have increased susceptibility to thyroid nodules. Trial registration number: NCT01838629. PMID:26692553

  11. Food habits and anthropometric measurements in a group of independent and institutionalized elderly people in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lasheras, C; González, C; Patterson, A M; Fernández, S

    1998-12-01

    Because of an increase in the number of elderly and the problems of nutrition associated with them, we considered it of interest to study the eating habits of 352 elderly persons (134 males and 218 females) 65 to 95 years of age in an urban area in the north of Spain (Oviedo). The purpose of this study was specifically to describe the differences in the eating habits of elderly institutionalized persons and those resident at home and to detect the nutritional status of 161 subjects living in institutions and 191 living at home. The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and triceps skinfold (PTP) of each were recorded. To determine the eating habits, a questionnaire measuring the frequency of food consumption was distributed to the subjects. The mean age of the institutionalized elderly was greater than those living independently. The mean values of BMI indicated overweight in all cases, with values around those of obesity in independent females (BMI = 29.97). The value of PTP was found to be within normal limits, but a greater percentage of institutionalized subjects showed PTP values of less than P10 (males, 10.2%; females, 11%). Food habits showed that the consumption of fish and margarine/oil was greater in institutionalized subjects of both sexes. Independent males consumed more vegetables; females consumed more milk and greens. Milk, vegetables, fruit, and fish were the food groups with consumption frequencies less than those recommended. A greater percentage of noncompliance was seen among the institutionalized elderly.

  12. Relationship between maternal pelvis height and other anthropometric measurements in a multisite cohort of Ugandan mothers

    PubMed Central

    Munabi, Ian Guyton; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Luboobi, Livingstone; Luboga, Samuel Abilemech; Mirembe, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In sub Saharan Africa, childbirth remains a challenge that creates the need for additional screening tools. Maternal pelvis height, which is currently in use by automotive engineers has previously been shown to have significant associations with various childbirth related outcomes and events. This study set out to determine the associations between maternal: Age, height, weight and number of pregnancies with maternal pelvis height in Ugandan mothers. Methods This was a secondary analysis of maternal birth records from nine Ugandan hospitals, of mothers with singleton pregnancies. Data was analyzed using multilevel regression with respect to maternal pelvis height and additional analysis for tribe and site of childbirth intraclass correlations (ICCs). Results The mean maternal pelvis height was 7.30cm for the 2068 records. Maternal pelvis height was associated with: a 0.01cm reduction per centimeter of maternal height (P=0.02), 0.01cm increase per kg of maternal weight (P<0.01), 0.04cm increase for each additional pregnancy (P=0.03) and 0.03cm increase with respect to tribe of mother (P=0.27), for a constant of 7.97cm (P<0.01). The ICC for tribe was 0.20 (SE=0.08) and 0.37 (SE=0.11) for site. Conclusion Maternal pelvis height was associated with maternal height, maternal weight and number of pregnancies. The site of childbirth had a moderate effect on the above associations with maternal pelvis height. More study on the public health screening value of these measurements in these settings is required. PMID:27800110

  13. Correlation of Insulin Resistance with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Polyana Resende Silva; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Thiago de Souza Veiga; Nascente, Flávia Miquetichuc Nogueira; Mendonça, Karla Lorena; Povoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Carneiro, Carolina de Souza; Ferreira, Vanessa Roriz; de Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood pressure is directly related to body mass index, and individuals with increased waist circumference have higher risk of developing hypertension, insulin resistance, and other metabolic changes, since adolescence. Objective to evaluate the correlation of blood pressure with insulin resistance, waist circumference and body mass index in adolescents. Methods Cross-section study on a representative sample of adolescent students. One group of adolescents with altered blood pressure detected by casual blood pressure and/or home blood pressure monitoring (blood pressure > 90th percentile) and one group of normotensive adolescents were studied. Body mass index, waist circumference were measured, and fasting glucose and plasma insulin levels were determined, using the HOMA-IR index to identify insulin resistance. Results A total of 162 adolescents (35 with normal blood pressure and 127 with altered blood pressure) were studied; 61% (n = 99) of them were boys and the mean age was 14.9 ± 1.62 years. Thirty-eight (23.5%) adolescents had altered HOMA-IR. The group with altered blood pressure had higher values of waist circumference, body mass index and HOMA-IR (p<0.05). Waist circumference was higher among boys in both groups (p<0.05) and girls with altered blood pressure had higher HOMA-IR than boys (p<0.05). There was a significant moderate correlation between body mass index and HOMA-IR in the group with altered blood pressure (ρ = 0.394; p < 0.001), and such correlation was stronger than in the normotensive group. There was also a significant moderate correlation between waist circumference and HOMA-IR in both groups (ρ = 0.345; p < 0.05). Logistic regression showed that HOMA-IR was as predictor of altered blood pressure (odds ratio - OR = 2.0; p = 0.001). Conclusion There was a significant association of insulin resistance with blood pressure and the impact of insulin resistance on blood pressure since childhood. The correlation and association between

  14. Comparative evaluation of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in Indian adult patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Abhishek; Upadhyay, Snehal; Mathur, Somil; Kant, Surya; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Makwana, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to compare the craniofacial features of North Indian patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to that of normal North Indian population. Materials and Methods: Selected 25 North Indian subjects (age: 18–65 years) were divided into two groups (OSA group [n = 14] and non-OSA group [n = 9]) according to the results of full night polysomnographic sleep study. Body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), and lateral cephalograms were recorded for each subject in both groups and total 22 parameters of craniofacial anthropometric features were measured on lateral cephalograms for each subject. The differences in BMI, NC, and craniofacial features between the OSA and non-OSA groups were compared statistically. Results: Independent sample t-test was used to compare the differences between OSA group and non-OSA group. The results showed that the BMI, NC, bulk of tongue (tongue length, tongue height, and tongue area) and length of the soft palate (PNS-U) were significantly higher in OSA group. OSA group was also found to have inferior positioning of hyoid bone (MP-H, ANS-H, PNS-H, ANS-Eb), narrower superior and middle airway space (SPAS and MAS), antero-inferior positioning of mandible (Gn-C3, ANS-Me, SNB, N-Me) and lower cranial base flexure angle (N-S-Ba). Conclusion: Craniofacial features, which play an important role in the pathophysiology of OSA, differ significantly between North Indian patients suffering from OSA and normal North Indian population. PMID:26929536

  15. Increase in cognitive eating restraint predicts weight loss and change in other anthropometric measurements in overweight/obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, J Kalina; Metzgar, Catherine J; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Piehowski, Kathryn E; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2015-04-01

    In modern societies characterized by food abundance, dietary restraint may serve as a factor in the successful control of weight or facilitation of weight loss. This secondary analysis of data examined whether changes in cognitive eating restraint (CER) and disinhibition predicted weight loss in a sample of 60 overweight/obese premenopausal women [mean ± SD, age = 35.9 ± 5.8 y; weight = 84.4 ± 13.1 kg; body mass index (BMI) = 31.0 ± 4.3 kg/m(2)]. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body fat percentage (BF%) were examined in relation to changes in CER, disinhibition and hunger as measured by the Eating Inventory questionnaire at baseline and week 18 of an 18-week dietary intervention. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of weight loss and changes in other anthropometric variables from baseline to study completion. Increase in CER was found to be the most robust predictor of reduction in weight (P < 0.0001), BMI (P < 0.0001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), hip circumference (P < 0.0001) and BF% (P < 0.0001). Effect of increase in CER on change in BMI, hip circumference and BF% was moderated by increase in disinhibition (all P < 0.05). Results suggest that strategies that target CER and disinhibition should be emphasized in programs proposed to treat and prevent obesity.

  16. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects.

    PubMed

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  17. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  18. A hand-held triangulation sensor for small features measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes progressive generations of hand held triangulation sensors for measuring small features, from edge breaks to corrosion pits. We describe the design considerations, ergonomics, packaging and interface between the device and part, such as the sensor tip and optional fixtures. We then present a customized design to address different types of surface features and defects. Next, we present the calibration concept, and its execution. The paper closes by summarizing system performance evaluation experiments and their results. It was shown that the system is capable of measuring edges down to a radius of 250 microns at a repeatability of 50 microns.

  19. A Hand Held Ratioing Radiometer for remote radiance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daubner, L.; Davies, J.; Cumming, C.; Goetz, A.

    1982-01-01

    The small, lightweight Hand Held Ratioing Radiometer (HHRR) measures the ratio of spectral reflectance in any of 25 pairs of narrow bands in the 400 to 2500 nanometer spectral region. Two parallel optical trains view the scene through separate filters mounted in two filter wheels each containing five filters. Absolute reflectance of the scene can also be measured. HHRR is particularly useful for ground truth studies for the interpretation of imagery from Landsat, the thematic mappers and the forthcoming SPOT satellite. Its small size and simplicity of operation make it useful to geologists, botanists, oceanographers and many other geotechnologists.

  20. Smart mug to measure hand's geometrical mechanical impedance.

    PubMed

    Hondori, Hossein Mousavi; Tech, Ang Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel device, which looks like a mug, has been proposed for measuring the impedance of human hand. The device is designed to have convenient size and light weight similar to an ordinary coffee mug. It contains a 2-axis inertia sensor to monitor vibration and a small motor to carry an eccentric mass (m=100 gr, r=2 cm, rpm=600). The centrifugal force due to the rotating mass applies a dynamic force to the hand that holds the mug. Correlation of the acceleration signals with the perturbing force gives the geometrical mechanical impedance. Experimental results on a healthy subject shows that impedance is posture dependant while it changes with the direction of the applied perturbing force. For nine postures the geometrical impedance is obtained all of which have elliptical shapes. The method can be used for assessment of spasticity and monitoring stability in patients with stroke or similar problems. PMID:22255230

  1. A new anthropometric phantom for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in the human leg using X-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, H.; Jenkins, M.; Lodwick, J.; Bornschein, R.

    2000-02-01

    A new anthropometric phantom has been developed for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead deposited in bone using x-ray fluorescence. The phantom reproduces the shape of the mid shaft of the adult human leg and is fabricated using polyurethanes and calcium carbonate to produce materials that exhibit the same density, energy transmission, and calcium content as cortical bone, bone marrow, and muscle. The phantom includes a removable tibia fabricated using simulants for cortical bone and bone marrow to which a precise amount of stable lead has been added to cortical bone. The formulations used in fabricating the new anthropometric phantom are much more uniform in density and composition than the conventional phantom made from Plexiglas cylinders filled with plaster-of-Paris. The energy spectrum from an x-ray fluorescence measurement of the phantom using a {sup 109}Cd source is indistinguishable from an in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurement of the human leg, demonstrating that the materials used in the phantom exhibit the same radiological properties as human tissue. Likewise, results from x-ray fluorescence measurements of the phantom exhibit the same positional dependency as the human leg and vary by approximately 36% when, for example, the phantom containing 54 ppm of stable lead in the tibia was rotated by only 15 degrees. The detection limit for a 30 min {sup 109}Cd K shell x-ray fluorescence in vivo measurement is approximately 20 ppm determined from a background measurement using the new phantom containing no added lead in the muscle, bone, or bone marrow. The new anthropometric phantom significantly improves in vivo x-ray fluorescence calibration measurements by (1) faithfully reproducing the anatomy of the human leg, (2) having components that exhibit radiological properties similar to that of human tissue, and (3) providing a realistic calibration standard that can be used for in vivo x-ray fluorescence intercomparison measurements.

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  5. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  6. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  7. Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hewson, David J; Duchêne, Jacques; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict "normal" MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for both dominant and non-dominant sides. Several anthropometric data were also measured: height; weight; hand, wrist and forearm circumference; hand and palm length. Among these data, hand circumference had the strongest correlation with MGS for all three dynamometers and for both hands (0.789 and 0.782 for Jamar; 0.829 and 0.824 for Myogrip; 0.663 and 0.730 for Vigorimeter). In addition, the only anthropometric variable systematically selected by a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also hand circumference. Based on this parameter alone, a predictive regression model presented good results (r(2) = 0.624 for Jamar; r(2) = 0.683 for Myogrip and r(2) = 0.473 for Vigorimeter; all adjusted r(2)). Moreover a single equation was predictive of MGS for both men and women and for both non-dominant and dominant hands. "Normal" MGS can be predicted using hand circumference alone.

  8. Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hewson, David J; Duchêne, Jacques; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict "normal" MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for both dominant and non-dominant sides. Several anthropometric data were also measured: height; weight; hand, wrist and forearm circumference; hand and palm length. Among these data, hand circumference had the strongest correlation with MGS for all three dynamometers and for both hands (0.789 and 0.782 for Jamar; 0.829 and 0.824 for Myogrip; 0.663 and 0.730 for Vigorimeter). In addition, the only anthropometric variable systematically selected by a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also hand circumference. Based on this parameter alone, a predictive regression model presented good results (r(2) = 0.624 for Jamar; r(2) = 0.683 for Myogrip and r(2) = 0.473 for Vigorimeter; all adjusted r(2)). Moreover a single equation was predictive of MGS for both men and women and for both non-dominant and dominant hands. "Normal" MGS can be predicted using hand circumference alone. PMID:20708427

  9. A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

  10. Fat mass- and obesity-associated genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometric measures in European adults: the Food4Me study.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-02-14

    The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.

  11. An ellipsoidal representation of human hand anthropometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchholz, Bryan; Armstrong, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Anthropometric data concerning the heometry of the hand's surface are presently modeled as a function of gross external hand measurements; an effort is made to evaluate the accuracy with which ellipsoids describe the geometry of the hand segments. Graphical comparisons indicate that differences between the ellipsoidal approximations and the breadth and depth measurements were greatest near the joints. On the bases of the present data, a set of overlapping ellipsoids could furnish a more accurate representation of hand geometry for adaptation to ellipsoid segment-geometry employing biomechanical models.

  12. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

  13. Prevalence of undernutrition among pre-school children of Chapra, Nadia District, West Bengal, India, measured by composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF).

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

    2009-09-01

    Since independence, one of the greatest problems facing India is malnutrition among under five year old children. However, there exists scanty information of the prevalence of undernutrition among preschool children in India and West Bengal. The present cross-sectional study investigates the prevalence of undernutrition among children 3.0-5.9 years old in a rural area of West Bengal covered by the Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF). Randomly selected sixty six ICDS centres of the Chapra Block Nadia District, West Bengal, India, were chosen. A total of 2016 children, aged 3.0-5.9 years were studied. It was observed that boys were heavier and taller than girls at all ages. Significant age differences existed in mean height and weight in boys as well as in girls. Among the children, 48.20%, 10.60% and 48.30% were stunting, wasted and underweight, respectively. The CIAF showed a higher prevalence of undernutrition, with 60.40% of the studied children suffering from anthropometric failure, in comparison to the three other conventional indicators. We conclude that the nutritional status of the subjects is unsatisfactory. More studies dealing with CIAF should be undertaken among pre-school children from different parts of India. Such investigations will allow us not only to compare the rates of three conventional measures of undernutrition with CIAF, but also help to demonstrate the enhanced utility and effectiveness of the latter measure.

  14. Directly measured second hand smoke exposure and asthma health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, M; Klein, J; Hammond, S; Koren, G; Lactao, G; Iribarren, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Because they have chronic airway inflammation, adults with asthma could have symptomatic exacerbation after exposure to second hand smoke (SHS). Surprisingly, data on the effects of SHS exposure in adults with asthma are quite limited. Most previous epidemiological studies used self-reported SHS exposure which could be biased by inaccurate reporting. In a prospective cohort study of adult non-smokers recently admitted to hospital for asthma, the impact of SHS exposure on asthma health outcomes was examined. Methods: Recent SHS exposure during the previous 7 days was directly measured using a personal nicotine badge (n = 189) and exposure during the previous 3 months was estimated using hair nicotine and cotinine levels (n = 138). Asthma severity and health status were ascertained during telephone interviews, and subsequent admission to hospital for asthma was determined from computerised utilisation databases. Results: Most of the adults with asthma were exposed to SHS, with estimates ranging from 60% to 83% depending on the time frame and methodology. The highest level of recent SHS exposure, as measured by the personal nicotine badge, was related to greater asthma severity (mean score increment for highest tertile of nicotine level 1.56 points; 95% CI 0.18 to 2.95), controlling for sociodemographic covariates and previous smoking history. Moreover, the second and third tertiles of hair nicotine exposure during the previous month were associated with a greater baseline prospective risk of hospital admission for asthma (HR 3.73; 95% CI 1.04 to 13.30 and HR 3.61; 95% CI 1.0 to 12.9, respectively). Conclusions: Directly measured SHS exposure appears to be associated with poorer asthma outcomes. In public health terms, these results support efforts to prohibit smoking in public places. PMID:16192366

  15. Interrelationship between bone aging traits and basic anthropometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Cohen, Zvi; Kobyliansky, Eugene; Livshits, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    Using plain hand radiographs, the age dependence of various bone-aging traits (bone mineral density [BMD], cortical index [CI], osteoarthritis [OA], and osseographic [OSS] scores) was evaluated to test whether the correlation among these traits is an individual- or population-based phenomenon. In addition, the effect of anthropometric features on variation of bone-aging traits was estimated. The study included 1,295 individuals from Chuvasha, Russia, 18 to 89 years. BMD was measured from the compact compartment of the middle and distal phalanges of both 3(rd) fingers. The CI of the II-IV metacarpal bones and II-IV proximal phalanges was obtained. The development of OA was based on the standard Kellgren and Lawrence grading scheme for 28 hand joints. OSS score, a surrogate measure that takes into account different kinds of bone changes, was also obtained for each individual. Body weight and height, eight skinfold thicknesses on the trunk and extremities, and breadths of the long bones were measured. Sex-based univariate analyses and multivariate statistical analysis showed the following: 1) Age dependence was defined more strongly in "OA-linked" compared to "osteoporosis (OP)-linked" traits; 2) While "OP-linked" bone-aging traits correlated with age differently between sexes, "OA-linked" traits did not; 3) The strong interrelationship between OA-linked and OP-linked traits in both sexes became very weak and statistically insignificant (P > 0.10) after adjustment for age. Thus, OA and OP conditions in the same individual develop independently and probably reflect different underlying physiological mechanisms. 4) Anthropometric characteristics were significantly correlated with bone-aging traits, but correlations were low (r < 0.20). Thus, the contribution of anthropometric characteristics to the rate and pattern of bone aging of the hand was to relatively small.

  16. DISCORDANCE BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS AMONG HIV-1-INFECTED PATIENTS ON ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND WITH LIPOATROPHY/LIPOHYPERTROPHY SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Lismeia Raimundo; da SILVA, Daniela Cardeal; GONSALEZ, Claudio R.; BATISTA, Felipe G.; FONSECA, Luiz Augusto M.; DUARTE, Alberto J.S.; CASSEB, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has improved and extended the lives of thousands of people living with HIV/AIDS around the world. However, this treatment can lead to the development of adverse reactions such as lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome (LLS) and its associated risks. Objective: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of self-reported lipodystrophy and nutritional status by anthropometric measurements in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: An observational study of 227 adult patients in the Secondary Immunodeficiencies Outpatient Department of Dermatology, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo (3002 ADEE-HCFMUSP). The sample was divided into three groups; Group 1 = 92 patients on HAART and with self-reported lipodystrophy, Group 2 = 70 patients on HAART without self-reported lipodystrophy and Group 3 = 65 patients not taking HAART. The nutritional status of individuals in the study sample was determined by body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat (% BF). The cardiovascular risk and diseases associated with abdominal obesity were determined by waist/hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC). Results: The prevalence of self-reported lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome was 33% among women and 59% among men. Anthropometry showed depletion of fat mass in the evaluation of the triceps (TSF) in the treatment groups with HAART and was statistically independent of gender; for men p = 0.001, and for women p = 0.007. Similar results were found in the measurement of skin folds of the upper and lower body (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively). In assessing the nutritional status of groups by BMI and % BF, excess weight and body fat were more prevalent among women compared to men (p = 0.726). The WHR and WC revealed risks for cardiovascular and other diseases associated with abdominal obesity for women on HAART and with self-reported LLS (p = 0.005) and (p = 0.011). Conclusions

  17. Handgrip strength and hand dimensions in young handball and basketball players.

    PubMed

    Visnapuu, Milvi; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2007-08-01

    In handball and basketball the longer the finger length the better the accuracy of the shot or throw. All shots and throws are finished with the wrist and fingers. It can be proposed that athletes with longer fingers and greater hand surface parameters also probably have greater grip strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of general body and hand-specific anthropometric dimensions on handgrip strength in boys participating in handball and basketball training. In total, 193 boys aged 10-17 years participated in this study. They were divided into 6 groups: 10-, 11-, 12-, 13-, 14-15-, and 16-17-year-olds. The body height and body mass were measured and body mass index was calculated as general anthropometric parameters. The outlines of the hands of the boys were drawn on paper with a thin marker. Three groups of hand anthropometric parameters were measured: 5 finger spans, 5 finger lengths, and 5 perimeters of the hand. Handgrip strength was measured on the dominant hand with a Lafayette dynamometer. As a rule, general anthropometric parameters determined the maximal handgrip strength more accurately than did specific hand anthropometric parameters. From the specific hand anthropometric parameters, finger lengths and perimeters of the hand significantly correlated with the maximal handgrip strength. In summary, fingers are the smallest, lightest parts of the motor apparatus, and, therefore, they represent the parts most easily deflected by force from the ball, but at the same time, finger control is especially important for the accuracy of different shots, both in handball and basketball. Thus, it is especially necessary to measure finger length and perimeters of the hand for practical reasons.

  18. Adult anthropometric measures and socio-demographic factors influencing age at menarche of university students in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T

    2013-09-01

    Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (p<0.05) and negatively associated with BMI (p<0.001). Students from urban areas attained menarche earlier than those from rural areas (p<0.05). Students from small-sized families attained menarche earlier than those from larger families (p<0.05). First-born students experienced menarche earlier than those who were seventh-born or later. Obese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.

  19. The effects of symbiotic therapy on anthropometric measures, body composition and blood pressure in patient with metabolic syndrome: a triple blind RCT

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Samira; Shakerhosseini, Rahebeh; Saadat, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increase in prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes which are of the main risk factors of metabolic syndrome, is not only the result of changes in genetic, diet or physical activity, but also an imbalance of micro flora may play an important role. Therefore, alteration of micro flora using pre/probiotic is considered as a new strategy for treatment of metabolic disorders. Methods: The current study is a triple blind randomized controlled trial. 46 patients from both sexes, who fulfilled inclusion criteria, randomly categorized into intervention or placebo group. The intervention and placebo groups consumed 2 probiotic capsules or 2 placebo capsules during 3 months, respectively. Both groups received a weight loss diet, according to their adjusted ideal body weight. Anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and nutritional measurements were done in the beginning, at 6th week, and at the end of the study. T-test and paired-t test were used for statistical analysis. Results: 40 patients completed the study. BMI, WC, HC, fat mass, lean mass and blood pressure were reduced in all participants (p< 0.05). Systolic blood pressure in symbiotic group was less than placebo group, significantly (p< 0.05). The trend of weight loss in symbiotic group continued at least for 12 weeks while it was stopped at week 6 in placebo group. Conclusion: Symbiotic supplement with the weight loss diet had synergistic effects on improvement in systolic blood pressure and anthropometric measurements. Based on our findings, symbiotic can postpone plateau phase of weight loss and it may prevent resistance to further weight loss. PMID:26478871

  20. Participant adherence indicators predict changes in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity in a lifestyle intervention: HUB city steps.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Zoellner, Jamie M; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a 6-month, community-engaged, multicomponent, noncontrolled intervention targeting hypertension risk factors. Descriptive indicators were constructed using two participant adherence measures, education session attendance (ESA) and weekly steps/day pedometer diary submission (PDS), separately and in combination. Analyses, based on data from 269 primarily African American adult participants, included bivariate tests of association and multivariable linear regression to determine significant relationships between seven adherence indicators and health outcome changes, including clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and PA measures. ESA indicators were significantly correlated with four health outcomes: body mass index (BMI), fat mass, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and PA (-.29 ≤ r ≤ .23, p < .05). PDS indicators were significantly correlated with PA (r = .27, p < .001). Combination ESA/PDS indicators were significantly correlated with five health outcomes: BMI, percentage body fat (%BF), fat mass, LDL, and PA (r = -.26 to .29, p < .05). Results from the multivariate models indicated that the combination ESA/PDS indicators were the most significant predictors of changes for five outcomes--%BF, fat mass, LDL diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and PA--while ESA performed best for BMI only. For DBP, a one-unit increase in the continuous-categorical ESA/PDS indicator resulted in 0.3 mm Hg decrease. Implications for assessing participant adherence in community-based, multicomponent lifestyle intervention research are discussed.

  1. A comparison of the effects of 6 weeks of traditional resistance training, plyometric training, and complex training on measures of strength and anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Christopher J; Lamont, Hugh S; Garner, John C

    2012-02-01

    Complex training (CT; alternating between heavy and lighter load resistance exercises with similar movement patterns within an exercise session) is a form of training that may potentially bring about a state of postactivation potentiation, resulting in increased dynamic power (Pmax) and rate of force development during the lighter load exercise. Such a method may be more effective than either modality, independently for developing strength. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT), plyometric training (PT), and CT on lower body strength and anthropometrics. Thirty recreationally trained college-aged men were trained using 1 of 3 methods: resistance, plyometric, or complex twice weekly for 6 weeks. The participants were tested pre, mid, and post to assess back squat strength, Romanian dead lift (RDL) strength, standing calf raise (SCR) strength, quadriceps girth, triceps surae girth, body mass, and body fat percentage. Diet was not controlled during this study. Statistical measures revealed a significant increase for squat strength (p = 0.000), RDL strength (p = 0.000), and SCR strength (p = 0.000) for all groups pre to post, with no differences between groups. There was also a main effect for time for girth measures of the quadriceps muscle group (p = 0.001), the triceps surae muscle group (p = 0.001), and body mass (p = 0.001; post hoc revealed no significant difference). There were main effects for time and group × time interactions for fat-free mass % (RT: p = 0.031; PT: p = 0.000). The results suggest that CT mirrors benefits seen with traditional RT or PT. Moreover, CT revealed no decrement in strength and anthropometric values and appears to be a viable training modality.

  2. Measuring empathy for human and robot hand pain using electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Galli, Lisa; Ikeda, Ayaka; Itakura, Shoji; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first physiological evidence of humans' ability to empathize with robot pain and highlights the difference in empathy for humans and robots. We performed electroencephalography in 15 healthy adults who observed either human- or robot-hand pictures in painful or non-painful situations such as a finger cut by a knife. We found that the descending phase of the P3 component was larger for the painful stimuli than the non-painful stimuli, regardless of whether the hand belonged to a human or robot. In contrast, the ascending phase of the P3 component at the frontal-central electrodes was increased by painful human stimuli but not painful robot stimuli, though the interaction of ANOVA was not significant, but marginal. These results suggest that we empathize with humanoid robots in late top-down processing similarly to human others. However, the beginning of the top-down process of empathy is weaker for robots than for humans. PMID:26525705

  3. Measuring empathy for human and robot hand pain using electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Galli, Lisa; Ikeda, Ayaka; Itakura, Shoji; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2015-11-03

    This study provides the first physiological evidence of humans' ability to empathize with robot pain and highlights the difference in empathy for humans and robots. We performed electroencephalography in 15 healthy adults who observed either human- or robot-hand pictures in painful or non-painful situations such as a finger cut by a knife. We found that the descending phase of the P3 component was larger for the painful stimuli than the non-painful stimuli, regardless of whether the hand belonged to a human or robot. In contrast, the ascending phase of the P3 component at the frontal-central electrodes was increased by painful human stimuli but not painful robot stimuli, though the interaction of ANOVA was not significant, but marginal. These results suggest that we empathize with humanoid robots in late top-down processing similarly to human others. However, the beginning of the top-down process of empathy is weaker for robots than for humans.

  4. Measuring empathy for human and robot hand pain using electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Galli, Lisa; Ikeda, Ayaka; Itakura, Shoji; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first physiological evidence of humans’ ability to empathize with robot pain and highlights the difference in empathy for humans and robots. We performed electroencephalography in 15 healthy adults who observed either human- or robot-hand pictures in painful or non-painful situations such as a finger cut by a knife. We found that the descending phase of the P3 component was larger for the painful stimuli than the non-painful stimuli, regardless of whether the hand belonged to a human or robot. In contrast, the ascending phase of the P3 component at the frontal-central electrodes was increased by painful human stimuli but not painful robot stimuli, though the interaction of ANOVA was not significant, but marginal. These results suggest that we empathize with humanoid robots in late top-down processing similarly to human others. However, the beginning of the top-down process of empathy is weaker for robots than for humans. PMID:26525705

  5. Repeated tongue and hand strength measurements in normal adults and individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Carol; Frank, Elaine; Montgomery, Allen; Nichols, Michele; McDade, Hiram

    2005-11-01

    Changes in tongue and hand strength measurements of men with Parkinson's Disease and aged-matched controls across multiple days were examined. The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument measured tongue and hand strength during four consecutive days and at day 11. Peak tongue strength measurements occurred on day 3 with a small decrease on day 4, which was maintained at day 11, indicating a significant increase in tongue strength measurements with task repetition in multiple days. No change in hand strength measurements was noted over days. Significant differences in mean tongue and hand strength measurements between the PD and age-matched control group were found. Tongue and hand strength measurements were lower for the PD group compared with the control group on average across days.

  6. A Comparison of Anthropometric Measures for Assessing the Association between Body Size and Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain: The HUNT Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous work indicates that overweight and obese individuals carry an increased risk of experiencing chronic low back pain (LBP). It is not known, however, how the association with body size depends on the choice of anthropometric measure used. Objective This work compares relationships with LBP for several measures of body size. Different results may indicate underlying mechanisms for the association between body size and risk of LBP. Methods In a cohort study, baseline information was collected in the community-based HUNT2 (1995–1997) and HUNT3 (2006–2008) surveys in Norway. Participants were 10,059 women and 8725 men aged 30–69 years without LBP, and 3883 women and 2662 men with LBP at baseline. Associations with LBP at end of follow-up were assessed by generalized linear modeling, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Relationships between waist-hip-ratio and occurrence of LBP at end of follow-up were weak and non-significant after adjustment for age, education, work status, physical activity, smoking, lipid levels and blood pressure. Positive associations with LBP at end of follow-up were all significant for body weight, BMI, waist circumference and hip circumference after similar adjustment, both in women without and with LBP at baseline, and in men without LBP at baseline. After additional mutual adjustment for anthropometric measures, the magnitude of the association with body weight increased in women without LBP at baseline (RR: 1.130 per standard deviation, 95% CI: 0.995–1.284) and in men (RR: 1.124, 95% CI 0.976–1.294), with other measures showing weak associations only. Conclusion Central adiposity is unlikely to play a major role in the etiology of LBP. Total fat mass may be one common factor underlying the associations observed. The association with body weight remaining after mutual adjustment may reflect mechanical or structural components behind the relationship between overweight or obesity and LBP. PMID

  7. U.S. Truck Driver Anthropometric Study and Multivariate Anthropometric Models for Cab Designs

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jinhua; Hsiao, Hongwei; Bradtmiller, Bruce; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Reed, Matthew R.; Jahns, Steven K.; Loczi, Josef; Hardee, H. Lenora; Piamonte, Dominic Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study presents data from a large-scale anthropometric study of U.S. truck drivers and the multivariate anthropometric models developed for the design of next-generation truck cabs. Background Up-to-date anthropometric information of the U.S. truck driver population is needed for the design of safe and ergonomically efficient truck cabs. Method We collected 35 anthropometric dimensions for 1,950 truck drivers (1,779 males and 171 females) across the continental United States using a sampling plan designed to capture the appropriate ethnic, gender, and age distributions of the truck driver population. Results Truck drivers are heavier than the U.S. general population, with a difference in mean body weight of 13.5 kg for males and 15.4 kg for females. They are also different in physique from the U.S. general population. In addition, the current truck drivers are heavier and different in physique compared to their counterparts of 25 to 30 years ago. Conclusion The data obtained in this study provide more accurate anthropometric information for cab designs than do the current U.S. general population data or truck driver data collected 25 to 30 years ago. Multivariate anthropometric models, spanning 95% of the current truck driver population on the basis of a set of 12 anthropometric measurements, have been developed to facilitate future cab designs. Application The up-to-date truck driver anthropometric data and multivariate anthropometric models will benefit the design of future truck cabs which, in turn, will help promote the safety and health of the U.S. truck drivers. PMID:23156628

  8. Hand-Held Electronic Gap-Measuring Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, F. E.; Thompson, F. W.; Aragon, L. A.; Harrington, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Repetitive measurements simplified by tool based on LVDT operation. With fingers in open position, Gap-measuring tool rests on digital readout instrument. With fingers inserted in gap, separation alters inductance of linear variable-differential transformer in plastic handle. Originally developed for measuring gaps between surface tiles of Space Shuttle orbiter, tool reduces measurement time from 20 minutes per tile to 2 minutes. Also reduces possibility of damage to tiles during measurement. Tool has potential applications in mass production; helps ensure proper gap dimensions in assembly of refrigerator and car doors and also used to measure dimensions of components and to verify positional accuracy of components during progressive assembly operations.

  9. Measuring force transfers in the deep flexors of the musician's hand: theoretical analysis, clinical examples.

    PubMed

    Leijnse, J N

    1997-09-01

    In the present paper the anatomical and functional interdependencies which regularly exist between the deep flexor tendons of the different fingers are modelled. The model results are validated by measurements on real hands. The results show that intertendinous force transfers may be caused by (i) coactivation of muscle fibres inserting in different tendons, and (ii) passive connections between tendons or muscle bellies. The coactivation is validated by the measuring results of a hand in which all intertendinous connections were surgically removed. The present models and measurements are currently used for diagnosis of hand problems in musicians at our hand clinic.

  10. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  11. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  12. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  13. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  14. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  15. Third Wave of Measurement in the Self-Regulated Learning Field: When Measurement and Intervention Come Hand in Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panadero, Ernesto; Klug, Julia; Järvelä, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Measurement is a central issue for the self-regulated learning (SRL) field as SRL is a phenomenon difficult to measure in a reliable and valid way. Here, 3 waves in the history of SRL measurement are identified and profiled. Our focus lies on the third and newest one, which combines measurement and intervention within the same tools. The basis for…

  16. Hematological indices and their correlation with fasting blood glucose level and anthropometric measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Biadgo, Belete; Melku, Mulugeta; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Abebe, Molla

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is (DM) a global public health problem and a complex disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that leads to long-term macrovascular and microvascular complications. Recent studies have reported the role of hematological indices in contributing to the vascular injury in diabetic patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine hematological indices and their correlation with fasting blood glucose level and anthropometric measurement in type 2 DM patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the chronic illness clinic of Gondar University Hospital from February to April 2015. A total of 296 participants (148 cases and 148 healthy controls) were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose levels and hematological indices were determined by using Bio Systems A25 and Sysmex-KX 21N analyzers, respectively. Independent sample t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and correlation statistics were used. A P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result There was significant difference in red blood cell distribution width (47.3±2.6 fL vs 45.2±3 fL) between diabetic patients and controls. Total white blood cells in 103/µL (6.59±1.42 vs 5.56±1.38), absolute lymphocyte count in 103/µL (2.60±0.70 vs 2.04±0.63), and absolute neutrophil count in 103/µL (3.57±1.46 vs 3.11±1.04) increased significantly in diabetic patients compared with controls, respectively. Among platelet indices, mean platelet volume (10.4±1.1 fL vs 9.9±1.1 fL) and platelet distribution width (14.5±2.1 fL vs 13.4 ±2.1 fL) were found to be significantly increased in the diabetic patients (P<0.05). Anthropometric measurements significantly correlated with white blood cell and platelet indices. Conclusion The study showed statistically significant difference in some hematological parameters of

  17. Correlation of anthropometric measurements, strength, anterior cruciate ligament size, and intercondylar notch characteristics to sex differences in anterior cruciate ligament tear rates.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A F; Dome, D C; Gautam, S; Awh, M H; Rennirt, G W

    2001-01-01

    We performed a prospective study based on the hypothesis that physiologic differences exist between men and women in strength after adjustments for body weight; that the size of the anterior cruciate ligament is proportionate to the strength of its antagonists, the quadriceps muscles; and that women have a relatively small anterior cruciate ligament, thus predisposing them to a disproportionate number of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. One hundred matched high school basketball players, 50 male and 50 female, were evaluated with anthropometric measurements, body fat analysis, muscle strength evaluation, and magnetic resonance imaging measurements of the intercondylar notch and cross-sectional area of the anterior cruciate ligament at the outlet. The male players were taller and heavier than their female counterparts, although they had 11% less body fat. Male players had statistically greater quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength than female players, even when adjustments were made for body weight. With adjustments for body weight, the size of the anterior cruciate ligament in girls was found to be statistically smaller than in boys. There was no statistically significant difference in the notch width index between the sexes. The study data support our hypothesis that sex differences in anterior cruciate ligament tear rates are caused primarily by several interrelated intrinsic factors. Most importantly, stiffness and muscular strength increase stress on the anterior cruciate ligament in female athletes. The anterior cruciate ligament, when adjustments have been made for body weight, is smaller in female athletes, and therefore, probably does not compensate for the lack of stiffness and strength.

  18. Influence of surface penetration on measured fluid force on a hand model.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Shigetada; Vennell, Ross; Wilson, Barry; Waddell, Neil; Sato, Yohei

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of wave drag due to surface penetration on drag and lift forces (C(d) and C(l)) acting on a hand model. The values of C(d) and C(l) had been acquired to gain the hydrodynamic characteristics of the swimmer's hand and predict force on the swimmer's hand. These values have also been used to benchmark computational fluid dynamics analysis. Because the previous studies used a hand/forearm model which penetrated the water's surface, the values of C(d) and C(l) include the effect of the surface wave on the model. Wave formation causes pressure differences between the frontal and rear sides of a surface-penetrating model as a result of depressions and elevations in the water's surface. This may be considered as wave drag due to surface penetration. Fluid forces due to wave drag on the forearm should not be included in the measured C(d) and C(l) of a swimmer's hand that does not sweep near the water's surface. Two hand/forearm models are compared, one with the hand rigidly connected to the forearm. The other model was constructed to isolate the fluid forces acting on the hand from the influence of wave drag on the forearm. The measurements showed that the effect of wave drag on the hand model caused large increases in the values of C(d), up to 46-98% with lesser increases in C(l) of 2-12% depending on the hand orientation. The present study provides an improved method to determine the values of C(d) and C(l) that eliminates the effect of wave drag on a hand/forearm model by isolating the measurement of fluid forces on the forearm of the hand/forearm model in order to separately acquire the forces on the hand.

  19. Anthropometric correlates of basketball free-throw shootings by young girls.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, D A; Colon, G; Espinoza, D; Overby, L Y; Lewis, D K

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this analysis of data from a larger investigation was to assess effects of anthropometric factors on free throw shooting performance of 15 girls from Michigan and 18 from Puerto Rico. Subjects performed 60 free throws (10 trials x 3 ball sizes x 2 basket heights). Correlations were low, with two exceptions, .53 between shooting performance at the low basket and grip strength (as measured by hand grip dynamometer) for girls from Michigan, and .49 for hand width and performance at the low basket for girls from Michigan.

  20. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  1. Signal processing of anthropometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Anthropometric Measurements Laboratory has accumulated a large body of data from a number of previous experiments. The data is very noisy, therefore it requires the application of some signal processing schemes. Moreover, it was not regarded as time series measurements but as positional information; hence, the data is stored as coordinate points as defined by the motion of the human body. The accumulated data defines two groups or classes. Some of the data was collected from an experiment designed to measure the flexibility of the limbs, referred to as radial movement. The remaining data was collected from experiments designed to determine the surface of the reach envelope. An interactive signal processing package was designed and implemented. Since the data does not include time this package does not include a time series element. Presently the results is restricted to processing data obtained from those experiments designed to measure flexibility.

  2. Signal processing of anthropometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, W. J.

    1983-09-01

    The Anthropometric Measurements Laboratory has accumulated a large body of data from a number of previous experiments. The data is very noisy, therefore it requires the application of some signal processing schemes. Moreover, it was not regarded as time series measurements but as positional information; hence, the data is stored as coordinate points as defined by the motion of the human body. The accumulated data defines two groups or classes. Some of the data was collected from an experiment designed to measure the flexibility of the limbs, referred to as radial movement. The remaining data was collected from experiments designed to determine the surface of the reach envelope. An interactive signal processing package was designed and implemented. Since the data does not include time this package does not include a time series element. Presently the results is restricted to processing data obtained from those experiments designed to measure flexibility.

  3. Comparison of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and anthropometric measurements in metabolic syndrome (MS) cases above and under the age of 65.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Berrin; Ozulu, Banu; Ozturk, Feyza Yener; Oztekin, Erkan; Sener, Nur; Altuntas, Yuksel

    2011-01-01

    EAT is a new index of cardiac and visceral obesity. Waist circumference (WC) measurement is not fully reliable in the determination of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), especially in elderly individuals. Studies on the reflection of the intra-abdominal fat mass by the EAT mass surrounding the heart were performed. Our purpose in this study was to determine the relation between the MS criteria and EAT in MS cases and especially to compare anthropometric measures between non-geriatric patients under the age of 65, and geriatric ones over the age of 65 years. The study was performed during the years 2008 and 2009 on 120 cases; 66.7% of them were under the age of 65 and 33.3% of the cases were 65-year old or older. All of the patients were diagnosed as MS by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. They were randomized as per the application order and included to the study. Each subject underwent transthoracic two-dimensional (2D) guided M-mode echocardiogram. We measured epicardial fat thickness on the 1/3 section close to the ventricle basis adjacent to the free wall of right ventricle from both the parasternal long axis (LA) and parasternal short axis (SA) views. Multiple regression analysis showed that WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and age were the strongest independent variables correlated with EAT (p<0.001). We also determined a significant correlation between low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and EAT (p<0.05). Our data show that EAT-measurement by echocardiography is an efficient method in determination of visceral adiposity and shall be taken into consideration especially when advanced age groups are in question.

  4. Effect of flavor enhancement of foods for the elderly on nutritional status: food intake, biochemical indices, and anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Warwick, Z S

    1993-02-01

    The irreversible declines in taste and smell acuity that occur in many elderly persons can contribute to inadequate food intake and nutrition that are prevalent among the aged. Although chemosensory deficits cannot be reversed, previous studies have shown that the addition of intense flavors to foods can compensate for perceptual losses and improve food palatability and acceptance. In this study, the effect of sustained (3 week) flavor enhancement of typical institutional foods on the diet, health, and well being of 39 elderly (average age 84.6 SE 0.81 years) retirement-home residents was evaluated. For 3 weeks subjects ate an institutional diet (unenhanced). During another 3-week period, the same subjects ate identical foods to which intense flavors were added (enhanced). The 39 subjects were tested in two groups. For group 1 the unenhanced food period preceded the enhanced food period. For group 2, the order was reversed. Food intake was measured every weekday throughout the study, and the nutritional composition of the diet was analyzed. Biochemical measures of health status were obtained at the beginning of the study (baseline) and following both the unenhanced and enhanced periods. These measures included somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I, transferrin, total T- and B-lymphocytes, and routine blood chemistries. Weight, height, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were also measured. Handgrip strength and pinch strength were measured in group 1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Self-Report Measures of Hand Pain Intensity: Current Evidence and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Castarlenas, Elena; de la Vega, Rocío; Jensen, Mark P; Miró, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Successful management of problems related to the hands and upper extremities begins with a comprehensive assessment of the pain experience and related factors. Pain intensity is the domain most commonly assessed, and pain relief is often the primary goal of treatment. Because pain is a private and subjective experience, self-report is considered the gold standard of pain measurement. This article describes and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the most commonly used self-report scales used to measure hand pain intensity, and gives recommendations to help clinicians select from among the various options for measuring the intensity of hand pain.

  6. Prediction of fat-free mass and percentage of body fat in neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measures: validation against the PEA POD.

    PubMed

    Lingwood, Barbara E; Storm van Leeuwen, Anne-Martine; Carberry, Angela E; Fitzgerald, Erin C; Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Ward, Leigh C

    2012-05-01

    Accurate assessment of neonatal body composition is essential to studies investigating neonatal nutrition or developmental origins of obesity. Bioelectrical impedance analysis or bioimpedance analysis is inexpensive, non-invasive and portable, and is widely used in adults for the assessment of body composition. There are currently no prediction algorithms using bioimpedance analysis in neonates that have been directly validated against measurements of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of bioimpedance analysis for the estimation of FFM and percentage of body fat over the first 4 months of life in healthy infants born at term, and to compare these with estimations based on anthropometric measurements (weight and length) and with skinfolds. The present study was an observational study in seventy-seven infants. Body fat content of infants was assessed at birth, 6 weeks, 3 and 4·5 months of age by air displacement plethysmography, using the PEA POD body composition system. Bioimpedance analysis was performed at the same time and the data were used to develop and test prediction equations for FFM. The combination of weight+sex+length predicted FFM, with a bias of < 100 g and limits of agreement of 6-13 %. Before 3 months of age, bioimpedance analysis did not improve the prediction of FFM or body fat. At 3 and 4·5 months, the inclusion of impedance in prediction algorithms resulted in small improvements in prediction of FFM, reducing the bias to < 50 g and limits of agreement to < 9 %. Skinfold measurements performed poorly at all ages.

  7. Study on the relationship between the thickness of the anterior cruciate ligament, anthropometric data and anatomical measurements on the knee☆

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Victor Marques; Latorre, Gabriel Carmona; Netto, Alfredo dos Santos; Jorge, Rafael Baches; Filho, Guinel Hernandez; de Paula Leite Cury, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain thickness measurements on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in its middle third on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and to assess whether there is any association between variations in ligament thickness and patients’ heights and ages, along with variations in the anatomical measurements on the knee. Methods MRI scans on 48 knees were evaluated. The anteroposterior size of the femoral condyles, interepicondylar distance, intercondylar distance and anteroposterior and mediolateral thicknesses of the ACL were measured. It was assessed whether there was any statistical relationship between ACL thickness and the patients’ age, height or other measurements evaluated. Results The mean thickness of the middle third of the ACL was 4.5 mm in the sagittal plane and 4.3 mm in the frontal plane. The anteroposterior thickness of the ACL in its middle third had a positive relationship with the size of the lateral condyle. The mediolateral thickness of the ACL in its middle third had a positive relationship with the size of the lateral condyle and with the intercondylar distance in the axial plane. There was no relationship between the thickness of the ACL and the patients’ age or height. Conclusion The thickness of the ACL presented positive associations with the size of the lateral femoral condyle and the intercondylar distance. PMID:27069889

  8. Do Right- and Left-Handed Monkeys Differ on Cognitive Measures?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve left- and 14 right-handed monkeys were compared on 6 measures of cognitive performance (2 maze-solving tasks, matching-to-sample, delayed matching-to-sample, delayed response using spatial cues, and delayed response using form cues). The dependent variable was trials-to-training criterion for each of the 6 tasks. Significant differences were found between left- and right-handed monkeys on the 2 versions of the delayed response task. Right-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on the form cue version of the task, whereas left-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on delayed response for spatial position (p less than .05). The results suggest that sensitive hand preference measures of laterality can reveal differences in cognitive performance, which in turn may reflect underlying laterality in functional organization of the nervous system.

  9. The effect of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Mitra; Salehi, Rasoul; Feizi, Awat; Mirlohi, Maryam; Kamali, Sara; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP) in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. METHODS A total of 40 patients with T2D, 35-68 years old, were assigned to two groups in this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. The patients in the intervention group consumed 200 ml/day of probiotic soy milk containing Lactobacillus planetarium A7 and those in control group consumed 200 ml/day of soy milk for 8 weeks. Anthropometric and BP measurements were performed according to standard protocols. For detecting within-group differences paired-sample t-tests was used and analysis of covariance was used for determining any differences between two groups. (The trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, identifier: IRCT: IRCT201405265062N8). RESULTS In this study, we failed to find any significant changes between probiotic soy milk and soy milk in term of body mass index (26.65 ± 0.68 vs. 26.33 ± 0.74, P = 0.300) and waist to hip ratio (1.49 ± 0.08 vs. 1.54 ± 0.1, P = 0.170). Although soy milk did not have any effect on BP, probiotic soymilk significantly decreased systolic (14.7 ± 0.48 vs. 13.05 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) and diastolic BP (10 ± 0.7 vs. 9.1 ± 1, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION In our study, probiotic soy milk in comparing with soy milk did not have any beneficial effects on anthropometric measures in these patients. We need more clinical trial for confirming the effect of probiotic foods on anthropometric measure in diabetic patients. However, probiotic soy milk decreased systolic and diastolic BP significantly. PMID:26261453

  10. Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of Yoga in Overweight and Obese Breast Cancer Survivors: Effects on Quality of Life and Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Littman, Alyson J; Bertram, Lisa Cadmus; Ceballos, Rachel; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Ramaprasad, Jaya; McGregor, Bonnie; McTiernan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To obtain estimates of time to recruit the study sample, retention, facility-based class attendance and home practice for a study of yoga in breast cancer survivors, and its efficacy on fatigue, quality of life (QOL), and weight change. METHODS Sixty-three post-treatment stage 0–III borderline overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 24 kg/m2) breast cancer survivors were randomly assigned to a 6-month, facility- and home-based viniyoga intervention (n = 32) or a waitlist control group (n = 31). The yoga goal was 5 practices per week. Primary outcome measures were changes in self-reported QOL, fatigue, and weight from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in waist and hip circumference. RESULTS It took 12 months to complete recruitment. Participants attended a mean of 19.6 classes and practiced at home a mean of 55.8 times during the 6-month period. At follow-up, 90% of participants completed questionnaires and 87% completed anthropometric measurements. QOL and fatigue improved to a greater extent among women in the yoga group relative to women in the control group, although no differences were statistically significant. Waist circumference decreased 3.1 cm (95% CI: −5.7, −0.4) more among women in the yoga compared with the control group, with no differences in weight change. CONCLUSIONS This study provides important information regarding recruitment, retention, and practice levels achieved during a 6-month, intensive yoga intervention in overweight and obese breast cancer survivors. Yoga may help decrease waist circumference and improve quality of life; future studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:21207071

  11. Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Eiji )

    1994-04-01

    Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Anthropometric measurements of the arm span and their correlation with the stature of bangladeshi adult muslim females.

    PubMed

    Laila, S Z; Begum, J A; Ferdousi, R; Parveen, S; Husain, M S; Holy, S Z; Islam, M S

    2010-10-01

    Anthropometry is the science that deals with the measurement of size, weight and proportion of the human body. Stature is natural heights of a person in an upright position. This can be estimated from arm span length. In the last 50 years of the 20th century various mass disasters such as different powerful storm, flood, plane crash, train accident was increased. Very recently in Chittagong and southern Bangladesh many people were killed through land slides and Seder. As so many disasters were occurring it is possible to identify a missing person if a part of his or her body is available. The arm span lengths can be used as a basis for estimating age-related loss in stature and as an alternative measure to stature. The study was done for the estimation of stature from the arm span on one hundred and fifty Bangladeshi adult Muslim females. Subject was collected from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka and some urban region of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The present study showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and the arm span. PMID:20956900

  13. Variation among North Amerindians: analysis of Boas's anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Jantz, R L; Hunt, D R; Falsetti, A B; Key, P J

    1992-06-01

    In the late nineteenth century Franz Boas was responsible for assembling anthropometric data from North Amerindians. Approximately 15,000 subjects were measured, but the data have never been systematically analyzed. Here we describe our efforts to develop a computerized database from Boas's data and present the first systematic analysis of these data. In addition to a general analysis of North Amerindian anthropometric variation, we also present a more detailed analysis of anthropometric variation among tribes located in the American Northwest. In the general analysis we find that anthropometric variation is strongly patterned along geographic lines. We examine geographic and language patterning by grouping tribes by culture area and language phylum. Both have high explanatory power, culture area being the higher. The Northwest analysis shows that both language and geographic location are important in explaining anthropometric variation. PMID:1607187

  14. Variation among North Amerindians: analysis of Boas's anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Jantz, R L; Hunt, D R; Falsetti, A B; Key, P J

    1992-06-01

    In the late nineteenth century Franz Boas was responsible for assembling anthropometric data from North Amerindians. Approximately 15,000 subjects were measured, but the data have never been systematically analyzed. Here we describe our efforts to develop a computerized database from Boas's data and present the first systematic analysis of these data. In addition to a general analysis of North Amerindian anthropometric variation, we also present a more detailed analysis of anthropometric variation among tribes located in the American Northwest. In the general analysis we find that anthropometric variation is strongly patterned along geographic lines. We examine geographic and language patterning by grouping tribes by culture area and language phylum. Both have high explanatory power, culture area being the higher. The Northwest analysis shows that both language and geographic location are important in explaining anthropometric variation.

  15. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  16. Development of gender- and age group-specific equations for estimating body weight from anthropometric measurement in Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Trakulhoon, Vibul; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2012-01-01

    Background Many medical procedures routinely use body weight as a parameter for calculation. However, these measurements are not always available. In addition, the commonly used visual estimation has had high error rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a predictive equation for body weight using body circumferences. Methods A prospective study was performed in healthy volunteers. Body weight, height, and eight circumferential level parameters including neck, arm, chest, waist, umbilical level, hip, thigh, and calf were recorded. Linear regression equations were developed in a modeling sample group divided by sex and age (younger <60 years and older ≥60 years). Original regression equations were modified to simple equations by coefficients and intercepts adjustment. These equations were tested in an independent validation sample. Results A total of 2000 volunteers were included in this study. These were randomly separated into two groups (1000 in each modeling and validation group). Equations using height and one covariate circumference were developed. After the covariate selection processes, covariate circumference of chest, waist, umbilical level, and hip were selected for single covariate equations (Sco). To reduce the body somatotype difference, the combination covariate circumferences were created by summation between the chest and one torso circumference of waist, umbilical level, or hip and used in the equation development as a combination covariate equation (Cco). Of these equations, Cco had significantly higher 10% threshold error tolerance compared with Sco (mean percentage error tolerance of Cco versus Sco [95% confidence interval; 95% CI]: 76.9 [74.2–79.6] versus 70.3 [68.4–72.3]; P < 0.01, respectively). Although simple covariate equations had more evidence errors than the original covariate equations, there was comparable error tolerance between the types of equations (original versus simple: 74.5 [71.9–77.1] versus 71.7 [69.2

  17. CHSIR Anthropometric Database, CHSIR Truncated Anthropometric Database, and Boundary Manikins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The NASA crew anthropometric dimensions that the Commercial Transportation System (CTS) must accommodate are listed in CCT-REQ-1130 Draft 3.0, with the specific critical anthropometric dimensions for use in vehicle design (and suit design in the event that a pressure suit is part of the commercial partner s design solution).

  18. An anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population with ethnic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab

    2015-05-01

    This study constructed an anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population. In total, thirty-seven body dimensions were measured among 3720 Iranian workers with different ethnicities (3000 male and 720 female; aged 20-60 years). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences for most of body dimensions among the ethnical groups. Moreover, the authors compared Iranian anthropometric characteristics with those of four Asian populations: Taiwanese, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Overall, 16 body dimensions for the five Asian populations were selected and compared. Accordingly, different morphological characteristics of these five populations were observed. The Iranian population showed wide shoulders and hips and long legs; the Chinese population showed narrow hips and shoulders and a short height relative to the other populations. The Korean sample recorded moderate body size comparing the other populations. The Taiwanese had large hands, relatively wide shoulders and short upper limbs. These differences in population dimensions should be taken into consideration for product and process design when expanding regional markets.

  19. Installation of the hand influences acceleromyography measurement. A comparison with mechanomyography during neuromuscular recovery.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Ph E; Gourdin, M; Russell, K; Jamart, J

    2005-01-01

    Acceleromyography is commonly used to monitor perioperative neuromuscular blockade and to prevent residual neuromuscular blockade at the time of tracheal extubation. However, there are problems associated with this method, such as obtaining stable values, particularly beneath the surgical fields. We compared TOF ratios obtained on both hands simultaneously using on one side mechanomyography and on the other acceleromyography, installed in four different ways: the hand simply lying on a board, fingers fixed with tape, use of the hand adaptor or the TOF-tube. Further to maintaining free thumb movement, the TOF-tube improves feasibility of acceleromyography by reducing the measurement variability while retaining accuracy. PMID:16013661

  20. A technique for fast and accurate measurement of hand volumes using Archimedes' principle.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S; Lau, J

    2008-03-01

    A new technique for measuring hand volumes using Archimedes principle is described. The technique involves the immersion of a hand in a water container placed on an electronic balance. The volume is given by the change in weight divided by the density of water. This technique was compared with the more conventional technique of immersing an object in a container with an overflow spout and collecting and weighing the volume of overflow water. The hand volume of two subjects was measured. Hand volumes were 494 +/- 6 ml and 312 +/- 7 ml for the immersion method and 476 +/- 14 ml and 302 +/- 8 ml for the overflow method for the two subjects respectively. Using plastic test objects, the mean difference between the actual and measured volume was -0.3% and 2.0% for the immersion and overflow techniques respectively. This study shows that hand volumes can be obtained more quickly than the overflow method. The technique could find an application in clinics where frequent hand volumes are required.

  1. Complex hand dexterity: a review of biomechanical methods for measuring musical performance

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Cheryl D.; Irvine, Thomas A.; Sims, Jennifer L.; Wang, Yu L.; Su, Alvin W. Y.; Norris, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Complex hand dexterity is fundamental to our interactions with the physical, social, and cultural environment. Dexterity can be an expression of creativity and precision in a range of activities, including musical performance. Little is understood about complex hand dexterity or how virtuoso expertise is acquired, due to the versatility of movement combinations available to complete any given task. This has historically limited progress of the field because of difficulties in measuring movements of the hand. Recent developments in methods of motion capture and analysis mean it is now possible to explore the intricate movements of the hand and fingers. These methods allow us insights into the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning complex hand dexterity and motor learning. They also allow investigation into the key factors that contribute to injury, recovery and functional compensation. The application of such analytical techniques within musical performance provides a multidisciplinary framework for purposeful investigation into the process of learning and skill acquisition in instrumental performance. These highly skilled manual and cognitive tasks present the ultimate achievement in complex hand dexterity. This paper will review methods of assessing instrumental performance in music, focusing specifically on biomechanical measurement and the associated technical challenges faced when measuring highly dexterous activities. PMID:24860531

  2. A technique for fast and accurate measurement of hand volumes using Archimedes' principle.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S; Lau, J

    2008-03-01

    A new technique for measuring hand volumes using Archimedes principle is described. The technique involves the immersion of a hand in a water container placed on an electronic balance. The volume is given by the change in weight divided by the density of water. This technique was compared with the more conventional technique of immersing an object in a container with an overflow spout and collecting and weighing the volume of overflow water. The hand volume of two subjects was measured. Hand volumes were 494 +/- 6 ml and 312 +/- 7 ml for the immersion method and 476 +/- 14 ml and 302 +/- 8 ml for the overflow method for the two subjects respectively. Using plastic test objects, the mean difference between the actual and measured volume was -0.3% and 2.0% for the immersion and overflow techniques respectively. This study shows that hand volumes can be obtained more quickly than the overflow method. The technique could find an application in clinics where frequent hand volumes are required. PMID:18488965

  3. A Non-Contact Measurement System for the Range of Motion of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Trieu; Pathirana, Pubudu N.; Trinh, Hieu; Fay, Pearse

    2015-01-01

    An accurate and standardised tool to measure the active range of motion (ROM) of the hand is essential to any progressive assessment scenario in hand therapy practice. Goniometers are widely used in clinical settings for measuring the ROM of the hand. However, such measurements have limitations with regard to inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and involve direct physical contact with the hand, possibly increasing the risk of transmitting infections. The system proposed in this paper is the first non-contact measurement system utilising Intel Perceptual Technology and a Senz3D Camera for measuring phalangeal joint angles. To enhance the accuracy of the system, we developed a new approach to achieve the total active movement without measuring three joint angles individually. An equation between the actual spacial position and measurement value of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint was established through the measurement values of the total active movement, so that its actual position can be inferred. Verified by computer simulations, experimental results demonstrated a significant improvement in the calculation of the total active movement and successfully recovered the actual position of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint angles. A trial that was conducted to examine the clinical applicability of the system involving 40 healthy subjects confirmed the practicability and consistency in the proposed system. The time efficiency conveyed a stronger argument for this system to replace the current practice of using goniometers. PMID:26225976

  4. Changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone in patients participating in a low-energy dietary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Balliett, Mary; Burke, Jeanmarie R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe changes in anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, and testosterone following a low–energy-density dietary intervention plus regimented supplementation program. Methods The study design was a pre-post intervention design without a control group. Normal participants were recruited from the faculty, staff, students, and community members from a chiropractic college to participate in a 21-day weight loss program. All participants (n = 49; 36 women, 13 men; 31 ± 10.3 years of age) received freshly prepared mostly vegan meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) that included 1200 to 1400 daily calories (5020.8 to 5857.6 J) for the women and 1600 to 1800 (6694.4 to 7531.2 J) daily calories for the men. Nutritional supplements containing enzymes that were intended to facilitate digestion, reduce cholesterol levels, increase metabolic rate, and mediate inflammatory processes were consumed 30 minutes before each meal. The regimented supplementation program included once-daily supplementation with a green drink that contained alfalfa, wheatgrass, apple cider vinegar, and fulvic acid throughout the study period. A cleanse supplementation containing magnesium, chia, flaxseed, lemon, camu camu, cat's claw, bentonite clay, tumeric, pau d'arco, chanca piedra, stevia, zeolite clay, slippery elm, garlic, ginger, peppermint, aloe, citrus bioflavonoids, and fulvic acid was added before each meal during week 2. During week 3, the cleanse supplementation was replaced with probiotic and prebiotic supplementation. Results Multiple paired t tests detected clinically meaningful reductions in weight (− 8.7 ± 5.54 lb) (− 3.9 ± 2.5 kg), total cholesterol (− 30.0 ± 29.77 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (− 21.0 ± 25.20 mg/dL) (P < .05). There was a pre-post intervention increase in testosterone for men (111.0 ± 121.13 ng/dL, P < .05). Conclusions Weight loss and improvements

  5. A prospective cohort study of the combined effects of physical activity and anthropometric measures on the risk of post-menopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bellocco, Rino; Marrone, Gaetano; Ye, Weimin; Nyrén, Olof; Adami, Hans-Olov; Mariosa, Daniela; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2016-04-01

    Although keeping a healthy weight and being physically active are among the few modifiable risk factors for post-menopausal breast cancer, the possible interaction between these two risk factors remains to be established. We analyzed prospectively a cohort of 19,196 women who provided detailed self-report on anthropometric measures, physical activity and possible confounders at enrollment in 1997. We achieved complete follow-up through 2010 and ascertained 609 incident cases of post-menopausal invasive breast cancer. We calculated metabolic energy turnover (MET h/day) per day and fitted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). The incidence of post-menopausal breast cancer among obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) was 58 % higher (HR 1.58, CI 1.16-2.16) than in women of normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25). Women in the lowest tertile of total physical activity (< 31.2 MET h/day) had 40 % higher incidence of post-menopausal breast cancer (HR 1.40, CI 1.11-1.75) than those in the highest tertile (≥ 38.2 MET h/day). The excess incidence linked to these two factors seemed to combine in an approximately additive manner; the incidence among the most obese and sedentary women was doubled (HR 2.07, CI 1.31-3.25) compared with the most physically active women with normal weight. No heterogeneity of the physical activity-linked risk ratios across strata of BMI was detected (p value for interaction = 0.98). This prospective study revealed dose-dependent, homogenous inverse associations between post-menopausal breast cancer incidence and physical activity across all strata of BMI, and between post-menopausal breast cancer incidence and BMI across all strata of physical activity, with no evidence of additive or multiplicative interaction between the two, suggesting independent effects.

  6. Hand-held radiometer red and photographic infrared spectral measurements of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1978-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared radiance data, collected under a variety of conditions at weekly intervals throughout the growing season using a hand-held radiometer, were used to monitor crop growth and development. The vegetation index transformation was used to effectively compensate for the different irradiational conditions encountered during the study period. These data, plotted against time, compared the different crops measured by comparing their green leaf biomass dynamics. This approach, based entirely upon spectral inputs, closely monitors crop growth and development and indicates the promise of ground-based hand-held radiometer measurements of crops.

  7. Anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathoners.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M D

    2008-10-01

    Little is known about the anthropometric characteristics of ultramarathon runners. The present work reports on the physical characteristics of the 392 (310 males, 82 females) starters and 270 (216 males, 54 females) finishers of the 2007 Western States Endurance Run, one of the largest 161-km trail runs in North America. Among the starters, mean (and 25th to 75th percentiles) body mass index (BMI) values were 23.2 (21.6 - 24.6) and 20.6 (19.4 - 21.9) kg . m (-2) for the men and women, respectively. Men were significantly taller, heavier and had greater BMI's across all age groups compared with the women. Among the top-5 overall finishers, mean BMI values were 23.2 (range 22.4 - 24.7) for the men and 19.8 (range 17.3 - 21.1) for the women. Average running speed and BMI were negatively correlated for both men (r (2) = 0.11, p < 0.0001) and women (r (2) = 0.10, p = 0.02). From this analysis, it is concluded that those participating in ultramarathon runs can vary widely in physical characteristics with BMI values that would classify some individuals as underweight and others as overweight. BMI varied considerably even among the top finishers, but lower BMI values were associated with faster running times. PMID:18401807

  8. End-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands and robotic assistance with directional damping.

    PubMed

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the end-point, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance. PMID:25148680

  9. End-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands and robotic assistance with directional damping.

    PubMed

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the end-point, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance.

  10. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  11. Knee-laxity measurements examined by a left-hand- and a right-hand-dominant physiotherapist, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injuries and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Sernert, Ninni; Helmers, Janett; Kartus, Catarina; Ejerhed, Lars; Kartus, Jüri

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse and compare KT-1000 knee laxity as examined by a left-hand- and a right-hand-dominant physiotherapist in a group of patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and a group of patients, 2 years after ACL reconstruction. The other aim was to measure and analyse knee laxity in a group of persons without any known knee problems. A cross-sectional examination of two groups of patients pre-operatively and post-operatively after ACL reconstruction and examination of healthy controls on two different occasions was performed. Fifty-three patients who were scheduled for ACL reconstruction and 39 patients who attended a 2-year follow-up examination were included in the study. In the ACL-deficient group, 32 patients had a right-sided ACL injury and 21 patients a left-sided ACL injury. The corresponding figures in the post-operative group were 21 patients with a right-sided ACL injury and 18 patients with a left-sided ACL injury. Twenty-eight healthy persons without any known knee problems served as controls. One left-hand- and one right-hand-dominant experienced physiotherapist performed all the examinations. To be able to evaluate the intra and inter-reliability of the examiners the controls were examined at two occasions. The left-hand-dominant physiotherapist measured significantly higher absolute laxity values in the left knee, both injured and non-injured ones, compared with the right-hand-dominant physiotherapist. This was found irrespectively of whether the patients belonged to the ACL deficient or the post-operative group. In the healthy control group, the right-hand-dominant physiotherapist measured significantly higher knee-laxity values in the right knee compared with the left-hand-dominant physiotherapist. Correspondingly, the left-hand-dominant physiotherapist measured significantly higher knee laxity values in the left knee. We conclude that KT-1000 arthrometer laxity measurements can be affected by the hand

  12. Accuracy of hands v. household measures as portion size estimation aids.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Alice A; Hsu, Michelle S H; Rangan, Anna M; Seimon, Radhika V; Lee, Crystal M Y; Das, Arpita; Finch, Charles H; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of food portion size is critical in dietary studies. Hands are potentially useful as portion size estimation aids; however, their accuracy has not been tested. The aim of the present study was to test the accuracy of a novel portion size estimation method using the width of the fingers as a 'ruler' to measure the dimensions of foods ('finger width method'), as well as fists and thumb or finger tips. These hand measures were also compared with household measures (cups and spoons). A total of sixty-seven participants (70 % female; age 32·7 (sd 13·7) years; BMI 23·2 (sd  3·5) kg/m(2)) attended a 1·5 h session in which they estimated the portion sizes of forty-two pre-weighed foods and liquids. Hand measurements were used in conjunction with geometric formulas to convert estimations to volumes. Volumes determined with hand and household methods were converted to estimated weights using density factors. Estimated weights were compared with true weights, and the percentage difference from the true weight was used to compare accuracy between the hand and household methods. Of geometrically shaped foods and liquids estimated with the finger width method, 80 % were within ±25 % of the true weight of the food, and 13 % were within ±10 %, in contrast to 29 % of those estimated with the household method being within ±25 % of the true weight of the food, and 8 % being within ±10 %. For foods that closely resemble a geometric shape, the finger width method provides a novel and acceptably accurate method of estimating portion size. PMID:27547392

  13. Hands as sex cues: sensitivity measures, male bias measures, and implications for sex perception mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gaetano, Justin; van der Zwan, Rick; Blair, Duncan; Brooks, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Sex perceptions, or more particularly, sex discriminations and sex categorisations, are high-value social behaviours. They mediate almost all inter-personal interactions. The two experiments reported here had the aim of exploring some of the basic characteristics of the processes giving rise to sex perceptions. Experiment 1 confirmed that human hands can be used as a cue to an individual's sex even when colour and texture cues are removed and presentations are brief. Experiment 1 also showed that when hands are sexually ambiguous observers tend to classify them as male more often than female. Experiment 2 showed that "male bias" arises not from sensitivity differences but from differences in response biases. Observers are conservative in their judgements of targets as female but liberal in their judgements of targets as male. These data, combined with earlier reports, suggest the existence of a sex-perception space that is cue-invariant.

  14. Accuracy of plantar electrodes compared with hand and foot electrodes in fat-free-mass measurement.

    PubMed

    Jaffrin, Michel Y; Bousbiat, Sana

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the measurement of fat-free mass (FFM) by bioimpedance using foot-to-foot impedancemeters (FFI) with plantar electrodes measuring the foot-to-foot resistance R34 and hand-to-foot medical impedancemeters. FFM measurements were compared with corresponding data using Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Equations giving FFM were established using linear multiple regression on DXA data in a first group of 170 subjects. For validation, these equations were used on a second group of 86 subjects, and FFM were compared with DXA data; no significant difference was observed. The same protocol was repeated, but using electrodes on the right hand and foot in standing position to measure the hand to-foot resistance R13. Mean differences with DXA were higher for R13 than for R34. Effect of electrode size and feet position on resistance was also investigated. R34 decreased when electrode area increased or if feet were moved forward. It decreased if feet were moved backward. A proper configuration of contact electrodes can improve measurement accuracy and reproducibility of FFI.

  15. The squares test as a measure of hand function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Jeroen; Laton, Jorne; Van Schependom, J; De Deyn, P P; Nagels, Guy

    2014-08-01

    Deterioration of hand function can be important in multiple sclerosis (MS). The standard way of assessing hand function in MS is the 9-hole peg test (9HPT), one of the three components of the MS functional composite measure. In this study we examine the squares test (ST), a test of hand function that is used extensively in handedness research. We evaluated reproducibility of the ST in 49 healthy controls, and both discriminatory power and concurrent validity of the ST in 38 MS patients and 18 age and gender matched controls. The ST proved to be a reliable and easy to administrate paper-and-pencil test of hand function. The ST showed a high and highly significant correlation with the standard 9HPT over a broad range of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and had high discriminatory power, also comparable to the 9HPT. Therefore, the ST is a candidate test for use in composite measures of MS related functional deficits for clinical practice and in clinical trials.

  16. Anthropometric characteristics of female smallholder farmers of Uganda – Toward design of labor-saving tools

    PubMed Central

    Mugisa, Dana J.; Katimbo, Abia; Sempiira, John E.; Kisaalita, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African women on small-acreage farms carry a disproportionately higher labor burden, which is one of the main reasons they are unable to produce for both home and the market and realize higher incomes. Labor-saving interventions such as hand-tools are needed to save time and/or increase productivity in, for example, land preparation for crop and animal agriculture, post-harvest processing, and meeting daily energy and water needs. Development of such tools requires comprehensive and content-specific anthropometric data or body dimensions and existing databases based on Western women may be less relevant. We conducted measurements on 89 women to provide preliminary results toward answering two questions. First, how well existing databases are applicable in the design of hand-tools for sub-Saharan African women. Second, how universal body dimension predictive models are among ethnic groups. Our results show that, body dimensions between Bantu and Nilotic ethnolinguistic groups are different and both are different from American women. These results strongly support the need for establishing anthropometric databases for sub-Saharan African women, toward hand-tool design. PMID:26851477

  17. Anthropometric characteristics of female smallholder farmers of Uganda--Toward design of labor-saving tools.

    PubMed

    Mugisa, Dana J; Katimbo, Abia; Sempiira, John E; Kisaalita, William S

    2016-05-01

    Sub-Saharan African women on small-acreage farms carry a disproportionately higher labor burden, which is one of the main reasons they are unable to produce for both home and the market and realize higher incomes. Labor-saving interventions such as hand-tools are needed to save time and/or increase productivity in, for example, land preparation for crop and animal agriculture, post-harvest processing, and meeting daily energy and water needs. Development of such tools requires comprehensive and content-specific anthropometric data or body dimensions and existing databases based on Western women may be less relevant. We conducted measurements on 89 women to provide preliminary results toward answering two questions. First, how well existing databases are applicable in the design of hand-tools for sub-Saharan African women. Second, how universal body dimension predictive models are among ethnic groups. Our results show that, body dimensions between Bantu and Nilotic ethnolinguistic groups are different and both are different from American women. These results strongly support the need for establishing anthropometric databases for sub-Saharan African women, toward hand-tool design.

  18. Measurement Issues in Anthropometric Measures of Limb Volume Change in Persons at Risk for and Living with Lymphedema: A Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Tidhar, Dorit; Armer, Jane M; Deutscher, Daniel; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Azuri, Josef; Madsen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether a true change has occurred during the process of care is of utmost importance in lymphedema management secondary to cancer treatments. Decisions about when to order a garment, start an exercise program, and begin or end therapy are based primarily on measurements of limb volume, based on circumferences taken by physiotherapists using a flexible tape. This study aimed to assess intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of measurements taken by physiotherapists of legs and arms with and without lymphedema and to evaluate whether there is a difference in reliability when measuring a healthy versus a lymphedematous limb. The intra-rater reliability of arm and leg measurements by trained physiotherapist is very high (scaled standard error of measurements (SEMs) for an arm and a leg volume were 0.82% and 0.64%, respectively) and a cut-point of 1% scaled SEM may be recommended as a threshold for acceptable reliability. Physiotherapists can rely on the same error when assessing lymphedematous or healthy limbs. For those who work in teams and share patients, practice is needed in synchronizing the measurements and regularly monitoring their inter-rater reliability. PMID:26437431

  19. Measurement Issues in Anthropometric Measures of Limb Volume Change in Persons at Risk for and Living with Lymphedema: A Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Tidhar, Dorit; Armer, Jane M.; Deutscher, Daniel; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Azuri, Josef; Madsen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether a true change has occurred during the process of care is of utmost importance in lymphedema management secondary to cancer treatments. Decisions about when to order a garment, start an exercise program, and begin or end therapy are based primarily on measurements of limb volume, based on circumferences taken by physiotherapists using a flexible tape. This study aimed to assess intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of measurements taken by physiotherapists of legs and arms with and without lymphedema and to evaluate whether there is a difference in reliability when measuring a healthy versus a lymphedematous limb. The intra-rater reliability of arm and leg measurements by trained physiotherapist were very high (scaled standard error of measurements (SEMs) for an arm and a leg volume were 0.82% and 0.64%, respectively) and a cut-point of 1% scaled SEM may be recommended as a threshold for acceptable reliability. Physiotherapists can rely on the same error when assessing lymphedematous or healthy limbs. For those who work in teams and share patients, practice is needed in synchronizing the measurements and regularly monitoring their inter-rater reliability. PMID:26437431

  20. Measurement, evaluation, and assessment of occupational exposures to hand-transmitted vibration.

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M J

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of hand-transmitted vibration converts oscillatory movements to a form in which they can be evaluated with respect to human responses and assessed for their acceptability. This paper presents methods of measurement, evaluation, and assessment currently advocated in standards and other forms of guidance. The degree to which the methods of evaluating different frequencies, directions, and durations of vibration affect the assessment of vibration on different tools is illustrated. With the frequency weighting currently used to allow for the effects of different frequencies there is little need to measure vibration at frequencies as high as 1000 Hz; this has significant implications to the design and evaluation of proposed antivibration devices, including gloves. Without the current frequency weighting, vibration at frequencies greater than 250 Hz can contribute to the magnitude of the vibration, but many common causes of injury from hand-transmitted vibration have their dominant components of vibration below 250 Hz. On many powered tools, although the dominant frequency of vibration is the same before and after frequency weighting, the reported magnitude of vibration is greatly affected by the frequency weighting. On tools with dominant low frequencies, their vibration is rated as being of far greater importance relative to other tools when considering frequency-weighted acceleration than when considering unweighted acceleration. It is shown that the effect of considering three axes of vibration as opposed to one axis has a greater effect on some tools than on others. The uncertainties and assumptions involved in the measurement, evaluation, and assessment of hand-transmitted vibration are reviewed. It is suggested that whereas current decisions on health and welfare should be based on current assessment methods, the measurement and evaluation of hand-transmitted vibration should involve the collection and reporting of data which allow other

  1. An examination of the handheld adapter approach for measuring hand-transmitted vibration exposure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xueyan S.; Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of a handheld adapter equipped with a tri-axial accelerometer is the most convenient and efficient approach for measuring vibration exposure at the hand-tool interface, especially when the adapter is incorporated into a miniature handheld or wrist-strapped dosimeter. To help optimize the adapter approach, the specific aims of this study are to identify and understand the major sources and mechanisms of measurement errors and uncertainties associated with using these adapters, and to explore their improvements. Five representative adapter models were selected and used in the experiment. Five human subjects served as operators in the experiment on a hand-arm vibration test system. The results of this study confirm that many of the handheld adapters can produce substantial overestimations of vibration exposure, and measurement errors can significantly vary with tool, adapter model, mounting position, mounting orientation, and subject. Major problems with this approach include unavoidable influence of the hand dynamic motion on the adapter, unstable attachment, insufficient attachment contact force, and inappropriate adapter structure. However, the results of this study also suggest that measurement errors can be substantially reduced if the design and use of an adapter can be systematically optimized toward minimizing the combined effects of the identified factors. Some potential methods for improving the design and use of the adapters are also proposed and discussed. PMID:26744580

  2. Anthropometric Indices in Children With Refractory Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    AMINZADEH, Vahid; DALILI, Setila; ASHOORIAN, Yalda; KOHMANAEE, Shahin; HASSANZADEH RAD, Afagh

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on reducing the risk of refractory seizure due to lipoid tissue factors. Materials & Methods This matched case-control study, consisted of cases (Patients with refractory epilepsy) and controls (Healthy children) referred to 17 Shahrivar Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan, Iran during 2013-2014. Data were gathered by a form including demographic characteristics, type of epilepsy, predominant time of epilepsy, therapeutic approach, frequency of epilepsy, time of disease onset and anthropometric indices. We measured anthropometric indices and transformed them into Z-scores. Data were reported by descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient, paired t test and multinomial regression analysis test using SPSS 19. Results There was no significant difference between sex groups regarding anthropometric indices. Generalized and focal types of epilepsies were noted on 57.5% and 38.75% of patients, respectively. Daytime epilepsies happened in 46.25% of patients and 33.75% noted no predominant time for epilepsies. Clinicians indicated poly-therapy for the majority of patients (92.5%). The most common onset times for epilepsies were 36-72 months for 32.5% of patients. Lower onset time indicated lower frequency of refractory epilepsies. Although, there was significant difference between Zheight and predominant time of epilepsies but no significant relation was found between types of epilepsies and frequency of epilepsies with anthropometric indices. Using multivariate regression analysis by backward LR, Zweight and birth weight were noted as the predicting factors of refractory epilepsies. Conclusion This effect may be because of leptin. Therefore, researchers recommend further investigations regarding this issue in children with epilepsy. PMID:27057188

  3. Anthropometric characteristics of young Turkish male athletes.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Can; Kürkçüoğlu, Ayla; Ozener, Bariş; Yazici, Ayşe Canan

    2009-12-01

    Comparative reports on the anthropometric characteristics of athletes are certainly important in modern sports and have long been studied by sports scientists. Studies on Turkish athletes however, are limited. In the present study physical characteristics of athletes active in various sports (American football, basketball, volleyball and football) were observed and compared to each other and to those of non-athlete individuals. 153 volunteer male subjects participated in the study. All of the athletes were licensed members of teams in inter-university leagues. All subjects were given information about the objectives of the study and were advised of the manner with which the anthropometric measurements would be obtained. In addition to 17 anthropometric values, body mass index (BMI) and somatotype components were calculated and evaluated. Length, breadth, and girth values were evaluated by ANCOVA and height and weight were used as co-variate factors. The other variables were evaluated by metric and non-metric ANOVA. The results of the study indicate that basketball and volleyball players were characteristic with their longer lower limb length; American football players were with their wider biiliac breadth and higher girth values; and football players with their small structure. It was also observed that Turkish athletes have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy values when compared to athletes from other countries.

  4. Best single-slice location to measure visceral adipose tissue on paediatric CT scans and the relationship between anthropometric measurements, gender and VAT volume in children

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, John; Foley, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a significant risk factor for obesity-related metabolic diseases. This study investigates (1) the best single CT slice location for predicting total abdominal VAT volume in paediatrics and (2) the relationship between waist circumference (WC), sagittal diameter (SD), gender and VAT volume. Methods: A random sample of 130 paediatric abdomen CT scans, stratified according to age and gender, was collected. Three readers measured VAT area at each intervertebral level between T12 and S1 using ImageJ analysis (National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD) software by thresholding −190 to −30 HU and manually segmenting VAT. Single-slice VAT measurements were correlated with total VAT volume to identify the most representative slice. WC and SD were measured at L3–L4 and L4–L5 slices, respectively. Regression analysis was used to evaluate WC, SD and gender as VAT volume predictors. Results: Interviewer and intraviewer reliability were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.99). Although VAT measured at multiple slices correlated strongly with abdominal VAT, only one slice in females at L2–L3 and two slices in males at L1–L2 and L5–S1 were strongly correlated across all age groups. Linear regression analysis showed that WC was strongly correlated with VAT volume (beta = 0.970, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Single-slice VAT measurements are highly reproducible. Measurements performed at L2–L3 in females and L1–L2 or L5–S1 in males were most representative of VAT. WC is indicative of VAT. Advances in knowledge: VAT should be measured at L2–L3 in female children and at either L1–L2 or L5–S1 in males. WC is a strong indicator of VAT in children. PMID:26317895

  5. Measurement of Hand/Handrim Grip Forces in Two Different One Arm Drive Wheelchairs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to explore the total and regional grip forces in the hand when propelling two different manual one arm drive wheelchairs: the Neater Uni-wheelchair (NUW) and a foot steered Action3 wheelchair. Methods. 17 nondisabled users were randomly assigned to each wheelchair to drive around an indoor obstacle course. The Grip, a multiple sensor system taking continuous measurement of handgrip force, was attached to the propelling hand. Total grip force in each region of the hand and total grip force across the whole hand were calculated per user per wheelchair. Results. The Action3 with foot steering only generated significantly greater total grip force in straight running compared to the NUW and also in the fingers and thumb in straight running. Conclusions. The results suggest that the Action3 with foot steering generated greater grip forces which may infer a greater potential for repetitive strain injury in the upper limb. Further work is required to explore whether the difference in grip force is of clinical significance in a disabled population. PMID:25045684

  6. Comparison of anthropometric characteristics between professional triathletes and cyclists.

    PubMed

    Brunkhorst, L; Kielstein, H

    2013-12-01

    Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile.

  7. COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN PROFESSIONAL TRIATHLETES AND CYCLISTS

    PubMed Central

    Brunkhorst, L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile. PMID:24744498

  8. Women's dietary diversity scores and childhood anthropometric measurements as indices of nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger; Marschner, Bernd; Schlesinger, Johannes; Nyandoro, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is still prevalent worldwide, and its severity, which differs between regions and countries, has led to international organisations proposing its inclusion in the global development framework that will succeed the Millennium Development Goals (post-2015 framework). In Sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition is particularly severe, among women and children under 5 years. The prevalence of malnutrition has been reported worldwide, differing from region to region and country to country. Nevertheless, little is known about how malnutrition differs between multiple locations along an urban–rural continuum. Objective A survey was carried out in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, between August and September 2014 to map household nutrition insecurity along the urban–rural continuum, using a transect approach to guide the data collection. Design Transects of 70 km long and 2 km wide directed radially from the city centre outwards were laid, and data were collected from randomly selected households along these transects. Women's dietary diversity scores (WDDSs) were calculated from a sample of 179 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from randomly selected households. Additionally, anthropometric data (height/length and weight) of 133 children under 5 years of age were collected along the same transects for the computation of anthropometric indices. Results We found that relative proportions of the nutrition indices such as stunting, wasting and underweight varied across the urban–rural continuum. Rural households (15%) had the highest relative proportion of WDDS compared with urban households (11%) and periurban households (8%). There was a significant association between children under 5 years’ nutritional status (wasting, stunting and underweight) and spatial location (p=0.023). The level of agricultural activities is a possible indicator of wasting in children aged 6–59 months (p=0.032). Conclusion Childhood undernutrition certainly

  9. Relationships between anthropometric measures and athletic performance, with special reference to repeated-sprint ability, in the Qatar national soccer team.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Forchino, Fabricio; Al Haddad, Hani; Dos Santos, Gilvan A; Millet, Grégoire P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine potential relationships between anthropometric parameters and athletic performance with special consideration to repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Sixteen players of the senior male Qatar national soccer team performed a series of anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement jumps without (CMJ) and with free arms (CMJwA), straight-line 20 m sprint, RSA (6 × 35 m with 10 s recovery) and incremental field test. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships occurred between muscle-to-bone ratio and both CMJs height (r ranging from 0.56 to 0.69) as well as with all RSA-related variables (r < -0.53 for sprinting times and r = 0.54 for maximal sprinting speed) with the exception of the sprint decrement score (Sdec). The sum of six skinfolds and adipose mass index were largely correlated with Sdec (r = 0.68, P < 0.01 and r = 0.55, P < 0.05, respectively) but not with total time (TT, r = 0.44 and 0.33, P > 0.05, respectively) or any standard athletic tests. Multiple regression analyses indicated that muscular cross-sectional area for mid-thigh, adipose index, straight-line 20 m time, maximal sprinting speed and CMJwA are the strongest predictors of Sdec (r(2) = 0.89) and TT (r(2) = 0.95) during our RSA test. In the Qatar national soccer team, players' power-related qualities and RSA are associated with a high muscular profile and a low adiposity. This supports the relevance of explosive power for the soccer players and the larger importance of neuromuscular qualities determining the RSA. PMID:24742185

  10. Movement order and saccade direction affect a common measure of eye-hand coordination in bimanual reaching

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cunguo; Ferdoash, Afreen; Snyder, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of visually guided unimanual reaching have established that a saccade usually precedes each reach and that the reaction times (RTs) for the saccade and reach are highly correlated. The correlation of eye and hand RT is commonly taken as a measure of eye-hand coordination and is thought to assist visuospatial guidance of the hand. We asked what happens during a bimanual reach task. As with a unimanual reach, a saccade was executed first. Although latencies were fastest on unimanual trials, eye and hand RT correlation was identical whether just one or both hands reached to a single target. The average correlation was significantly reduced, however, when each hand reached simultaneously to a different target. We considered three factors that might explain the drop. We found that correlation strength depended on which hand reached first and on which hand reached to the same target as the saccade. Surprisingly, these two factors were largely independent, and the identity of the hand, left or right, had little effect. Eye-hand correlation was similar to that seen with unimanual reaching only when the hand that moved to the same target as the saccade was also the first hand to move. Thus both timing as well as spatial pattern are important in determining eye-hand coordination. PMID:24848462

  11. Use of existing standards to measure sound power levels of powered hand tools-necessary revisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Charles S.; Zechmann, Edward

    2005-09-01

    At recent NOISE-CON and Acoustical Society of America meetings, noise rating labeling was discussed as a way of manufacturers providing full disclosure information for their noise emitting products. The first step is to gather sound power level data from these products. Sound power level data should be gathered in accordance with existing ANSI and/or ISO standards. Some standards, such as ANSI 12.15, may not define true operational noise emissions[r1] and thus may provide inaccurate information when that information is used to choose a hearing protection device or used to make a purchasing decision. A number of standards were systematically combined by NIOSH researchers to provide the most accurate information on sound power levels of powered hand tools used in the construction industry. This presentation will detail some of the challenges of existing ANSI 12.15 (and draft ANSI 12.41) to measure sound power levels of electric (and pneumatic) powered hand tools.

  12. Anthropometric and health-related fitness characteristics in middle-aged obese women.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Jürimäe, J

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the possible relationships between anthropometrical and health-related fitness parameters in obese middle-aged women. Twenty one obese (BMI > 27 kg/m2) and 12 control (BMI < 27 kg/m2) middle-aged females (35-45 yrs) participated in this investigation. Three series of anthropometrical measurements on the right side of the body were taken according to the O-scale physique assessment system. The Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotyping method was used and the ratio of waist to hip circumferences was calculated. The body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance method (Bodystat-500, UK). The following health-related fitness tests used were: dynamic sit-up, hand grip, sit-and-reach, single leg balance and plate tapping. Physical working capacity (PWC) was measured using single ergometer test. Obese women possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05) values for skinfold, girth and breadth measurements. While the differences in somatotype indices were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) between obese and control groups, the transformation of somatotype characteristics to the effect sizes (ESs) revealed that these differences were large (ectomorphy: ES = 1.73; endomorphy: ES = 1.64; mesomorphy: ES = 1.71). Relative aerobic fitness (VO2max/kg, calculated from PWC) and dynamic sit-up were higher (p < 0.05) in control subjects, while obese women presented significantly higher values for hand grip strength. The thicker skinfold thicknesses increased the absolute value of PWC in obese group (r = 0.39-0.57; p < 0.05). In contrast, the thinner skinfold thicknesses in suprailiac and mid-thigh significantly increased the absolute value of PWC in control women. There were only a few significant correlations between girth and breadth measures, and health-related fitness parameters. In addition, somatotype characteristics seldom influenced the results of health-related fitness tests. Stepwise multiple regression

  13. Evaluation of Non Diseased Specified Outcome Measures in Hand Injuries to Assess Activity and Participation Based on ICF Content.

    PubMed

    Farzad, Maryam; Layeghi, Fereydoun; Asgari, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Rassafiani, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to provide information about non disease specified outcome measures which evaluate disability in patients who have impairments in hand and upper extremity and to find the extent to which they are evaluating "disability" based on ICF hand Core Set (activity limitation and participation restriction). MEDLINE, CINAHL, GOOGLE SCHOLAR , OVID and SCIENCE DIRECT databases were systematically searched for studies on non disease specified outcome measures used to evaluate upper extremity function; only studies written in English were considered. We reviewed titles and abstracts of the identified studies to determine whether the studies met predefined eligibility criteria (eg, non disease specified out come measures used in hand injured patients). All the outcome measures which had eligibility included. After full text review ,7 non disease specified outcome measures in hand were identified. Studies were extracted, and the information retrieved from them. All the outcome measures which had incuded, were linked with ICF hand core set disability part (activity and participation). All of them only linked to 16 (42 %) components of ICF hand Core Set, which were most activity and less participation from ICF. None of the non disease specified out come measures in hand injuries cover all domains of disability from the ICF Hand Core Set.

  14. Conceptual design of a device to measure hand swelling in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hysinger, Christopher L.

    1993-01-01

    In the design of pressurized suits for use by astronauts in space, proper fit is an important consideration. One particularly difficult aspect of the suit design is the design of the gloves. If the gloves of the suit do not fit properly, the grip strength of the astronaut can be decreased by as much as fifty percent. These gloves are designed using an iterative process and can cost over 1.5 million dollars. Glove design is further complicated by the way the body behaves in a micro-gravity environment. In a micro-gravity setting, fluid from the lower body tends to move into the upper body. Some of this fluid collects in the hands and causes the hands to swell. Therefore, a pair of gloves that fit well on earth may not fit well when they are used in space. The conceptual design process for a device which can measure the swelling that occurs in the hands in a micro-gravity environment is described. This process involves developing a specifications list and function structure for the device and generating solution variants for each of the sub functions. The solution variants are then filtered, with the variants that violate any of the specifications being discarded. After acceptable solution variants are obtained, they are combined to form design concepts. These design concepts are evaluated against a set of criteria and the design concepts are ranked in order of preference. Through this process, the two most plausible design concepts were an ultrasonic imaging technique and a laser mapping technique. Both of these methods create a three dimensional model of the hand, from which the amount of swelling can be determined. In order to determine which of the two solutions will actually work best, a further analysis will need to be performed.

  15. Sampling and analytical method development and hand wipe measurements of dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Boeniger, Mark; Neumeister, Charles; Booth-Jones, Angela

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the laboratory assessment of a hand and surface wipe sampling method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The analytical method employed extraction of the wipe samples into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) flourometric detection of pyrene, a predominant PAH in used gasoline engine oils (UGEO). Recovery of pyrene was evaluated for two different sampling media by first contaminating the hands of a small number of volunteers with UGEO, followed by applying a small amount of corn oil to the palms, and by wiping the skin with a Whatman cellulostic filter paper or a polyester fabric wipe (i.e., Alpha wipes). In summary, using either Whatman or Alpha wipes, the mean recovery of pyrene from the UGEO that was applied to the hands and contained within three consecutive wipes was 69% and 54%, respectively. However, the relative recovery of the first to second wipe was on average 47% and 75% for the two media, respectively. These results indicate that the Alpha wipes were more efficient at recovering pyrene in the first wipe but less efficient overall when all three consecutive samples were included. Even though this sampling was performed in a controlled laboratory environment, the minimum and maximum amount of pyrene recovered in the individual composite samples using either method spanned a range of twofold. Overall, intra-and interpersonal variability, as measured by coefficient of variation, were 22% and 19%, respectively, and were not statistically different by type of media used. This method was used in a pilot field survey to sample the hands of 18 automotive repair technicians and 18 office workers. Detectable amounts of pyrene (>0.2 microg/sample) were found on the hands of 61% and 0% of these two groups, respectively, with the highest measured quantity equal to 1.06 microg. Samples from the upper surfaces of automobile motors were generally low to nondetectable (<0.027 microg/sample), while

  16. Relation between hand grip strength, respiratory muscle strength and spirometric measures in male nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Asli; Ozkaya, Hilal; Tufan, Fatih; Akpinar, Timur Selçuk; Akin, Sibel; Bahat, Zumrut; Kaya, Zuleyha; Kiyan, Esen; Erten, Nilgün; Karan, Mehmet Akif

    2014-09-01

    Adverse-outcomes related to sarcopenia are mostly mentioned as physical disability. As the other skeletal muscles, respiratory muscles may also be affected by sarcopenia. Respiratory muscle strength is known to affect pulmonary functions. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relations between extremity muscle strength, respiratory muscle strengths and spirometric measures in a group of male nursing home residents. Among a total of 104 male residents, residents with obstructive measures were excluded and final study population was composed of 62 residents. Mean age was 70.5 ± 6.7 years, body mass index: 27.7 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and dominant hand grip strength: 29.7 ± 6.5 kg. Hand grip strength was positively correlated with maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) (r = 0.35, p < 0.01 and r = 0.26, p < 0.05, respectively). In regression analysis, the only factor related to MIP was hand grip strength; among spirometric measures only parameter significantly related to grip strength was peak cough flow (PCF). The association of PCF with grip strength disappeared when MIP alone or "MIP and MEP" were included in the regression analysis. In the latter case, PCF was significantly associated only with MIP. We found peripheric muscle strength be associated with MIP and PCF but not with MEP or any other spirometric parameters. The relation between peripheral muscle strength and PCF was mediated by MIP. Our findings suggest that sarcopenia may affect inspiratory muscle strength earlier or more than the expiratory muscle strength. Sarcopenia may cause decrease in PCF in the elderly, which may stand for some common adverse respiratory complications.

  17. Hands-on statistics’—empirical introduction to measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibig, Tadeusz; Dam-o, Punsiri

    2013-03-01

    We would like to share with you our ongoing experiences with ‘hands-on statistics’ lessons we have recently carried out. We have developed a new experimental path for teaching young students using fundamental concepts of ‘statistics’: uncertainty of the measurement, the uncertainty of the mean, the mean itself, etc. The methods themselves need no special skills in mathematics, only the use of a takoyaki setup is needed for the experiments. This equipment we have found makes the lesson far more interesting for the students and has allowed us to work successfully for many years, even with children from elementary schools starting from the age of 10.

  18. Concurrent validity of the Kaufman Hand Movement Test as a measure of limb apraxia.

    PubMed

    Neiman, M R; Duffy, R J; Belanger, S A; Coelho, C A

    1994-12-01

    The concurrent validity of the Kaufman Hand Movement Test as a measure of limb apraxia was investigated. For 23 adult aphasic subjects, a Pearson r of 0.84 was obtained between scores on this test and on the Limb Apraxia Test, a battery of tasks often used in the assessment of limb apraxia. The Kaufman test is a shorter and simpler test to administer than the Limb Apraxia Test. The concurrent validity of the Kaufman test encourages its use in the assessment of limb apraxia.

  19. Hand-Held Sunphotometers for High School Student Construction and Measuring Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almonor, Linda; Baldwin, C.; Craig, R.; Johnson, L. P.

    2000-01-01

    Science education is taking the teaching of science from a traditional (lecture) approach to a multidimensional sense-making approach which allows teachers to support students by providing exploratory experiences. Using projects is one way of providing students with opportunities to observe and participate in sense-making activity. We created a learning environment that fostered inquiry-based learning. Students were engaged in a variety of Inquiry activities that enabled them to work in cooperative planning teams where respect for each other was encouraged and their ability to grasp, transform and transfer information was enhanced. Summer, 1998: An air pollution workshop was conducted for high school students in the Medgar Evers College/Middle College High School Liberty Partnership Summer Program. Students learned the basics of meteorology: structure and composition of the atmosphere and the processes that cause weather. The highlight of this workshop was the building of hand-held sunphotometers, which measure the intensity of the sunlight striking the Earth. Summer, 1999: high school students conducted a research project which measured the mass and size of ambient particulates and enhanced our ability to observe through land based measurements changes in the optical depth of ambient aerosols over Brooklyn. Students used hand held Sunphotometers to collect data over a two week period and entered it into the NASA GISS database by way of the internet.

  20. Effects of Reliability and Global Context on Explicit and Implicit Measures of Sensed Hand Position in Cursor-Control Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Miya K.; Heuer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In a cursor-control task in which the motion of the cursor is rotated randomly relative to the movement of the hand, the sensed directions of hand and cursor are mutually biased. In our previous study, we used implicit and explicit measures of the bias of sensed hand direction toward the direction of the cursor and found different characteristics. The present study serves to explore further differences and commonalities of these measures. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of different relative reliabilities of visual and proprioceptive information on the explicitly and implicitly assessed bias of sensed hand direction. In two conditions, participants made an aiming movement and returned to the start position immediately or after a delay of 6 s during which the cursor was no longer visible. The unimodal proprioceptive information on final hand position in the delayed condition served to increase its relative reliability. As a result, the bias of sensed hand direction toward the direction of the cursor was reduced for the explicit measure, with a complementary increase of the bias of sensed cursor direction, but unchanged for the implicit measure. In Experiment 2, we examined the influence of global context, specifically of the across-trial sequence of judgments of hand and cursor direction. Both explicitly and implicitly assessed biases of sensed hand direction did not significantly differ between the alternated condition (trial-to-trial alternations of judgments of hand and cursor direction) and the blocked condition (judgments of hand or cursor directions in all trials). They both substantially decreased from the alternated to the randomized condition (random sequence of judgments of hand and cursor direction), without a complementary increase of the bias of sensed cursor direction. We conclude that our explicit and implicit measures are equally sensitive to variations of coupling strength as induced by the variation of global context in Experiment 2, but

  1. Opportunities to improve the in vivo measurement of manganese in human hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam; Chettle, D. R.; Pejović-Milić, A.; Waker, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an element which is both essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels. Its excessive inhalation as a result of exposure through industrial and environmental emissions can cause neurological damage, which may manifest as memory deficit, loss of motor control and reduction in the refinement of certain body motions. A number of clinical studies demonstrate that biological monitoring of Mn exposure using body fluids, particularly blood, plasma/serum and urine is of very limited use and reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges. In this context, a non-invasive neutron activation technique has been developed at the McMaster University accelerator laboratory that could provide an alternative to measure manganese stored in the bones of exposed subjects. In a first pilot study we conducted recently on non-exposed human subjects to measure the ratio of Mn to Ca in hand bones, it was determined that the technique needed further development to improve the precision of the measurements. It could be achieved by improving the minimum detection limit (MDL) of the system from 2.1 µg Mn/g Ca to the reference value of 0.6 µg g-1 Ca (range: 0.16-0.78 µg Mn/g Ca) for the non-exposed population. However, the developed procedure might still be a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn, who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. To improve the MDL of the technique to the expected levels of Mn in a reference population, the present study investigates further optimization of irradiation conditions, which includes the optimal selection of proton beam energy, beam current and irradiation time and the effect of upgrading the 4π detection system. The maximum local dose equivalent that could be given to the hand as a result of irradiation

  2. Validity of a simple videogrammetric method to measure the movement of all hand segments for clinical purposes.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Bru, Joaquín L; Jarque-Bou, Néstor J; Vergara, Margarita; Pérez-González, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Hand movement measurement is important in clinical, ergonomics and biomechanical fields. Videogrammetric techniques allow the measurement of hand movement without interfering with the natural hand behaviour. However, an accurate measurement of the hand movement requires the use of a high number of markers, which limits its applicability for the clinical practice (60 markers would be needed for hand and wrist). In this work, a simple method that uses a reduced number of markers (29), based on a simplified kinematic model of the hand, is proposed and evaluated. A set of experiments have been performed to evaluate the errors associated with the kinematic simplification, together with the evaluation of its accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility. The global error attributed to the kinematic simplification was 6.68°. The method has small errors in repeatability and reproducibility (3.43° and 4.23°, respectively) and shows no statistically significant difference with the use of electronic goniometers. The relevance of the work lies in the ability of measuring all degrees of freedom of the hand with a reduced number of markers without interfering with the natural hand behaviour, which makes it suitable for its use in clinical applications, as well as for ergonomic and biomechanical purposes.

  3. Influence of finger amputation on grip strength and objectively measured hand function: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kuret, Zala; Burger, Helena; Vidmar, Gaj

    2015-06-01

    Finger amputations are common and hands are essential for functioning, but studies on factors influencing functioning after finger amputation are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to explore the influence of the number and level of amputated fingers on hand function and grip strength. A prospective descriptive cross-sectional study involving 69 patients with partial or complete amputation of one or more fingers of one hand was carried out. The function of both hands was assessed using the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure test; grip strength was measured in 42 patients. We confirmed that finger amputation worsens hand function (especially tripod and tip pinch) and reduces grip strength, whereby the extent of the worsening depends on amputation type - it is the smallest after thumb amputation and the largest after amputation of the index finger and fingers III-V. However, because of the variety of amputation types, we recommend that future studies either involve very large samples or focus on specific amputations.

  4. The value of anthropometric indices for identifying women with features of metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BMI is a widely used anthropometric measure for identifying CVD and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. Two new anthropometric indices are A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) that may provide better correlations to features of MetS. Methods: Subject data were obtained from 91 over...

  5. HAND WIPE SUBSAMPLING METHOD FOR USE WITH BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure studies incorporating urinary biomarker measurements are complicated because dermal sampling may intercept or remove the target chemical before it is absorbed. A hand wipe subsampling method has been developed using polyurethane foam-tipped (PUF) swabs to minim...

  6. Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators

    SciTech Connect

    You-Hin Liau

    1982-12-01

    Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

  7. Anthropometrics, Physical Performance, and Injury Characteristics of Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Results: Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in

  8. Anthropometric characteristics of high level European junior basketball players.

    PubMed

    Jelicić, M; Sekulić, D; Marinović, M

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess anthropometric status of European high-level junior basketball players and to determine anthropometric differences between the players playing in different game positions (guards, forwards, centers). The sample consisted of 132 young basketball players, participants of the European Junior Basketball Championship, Zadar, 2000. Participants were measured with 31 measures (anthropometric variables), on the basis of which two body composition measures (BMI and relative body fat) and somatotype were calculated. The basic statistical parameters were computed. The analysis of variance and discriminant canonical analysis were employed to determine the differences between positions in play. Results indicate that prominent longitudinal and transversal skeletal dimensions as well as circumference measures characterize players on the position of centers, but they do not have significantly larger skinfold measures in relation to forwards. Centers are also predominantly ectomorphic compared with other players. Guards achieved significantly lower values in all spaces and they are predominantly mesomorphic. Further investigations are necessary in order to assess potential changes in status of these parameters when the participants will reach the age of senior players and afterwards, as well as to determine relations between anthropometric status and skill related variables.

  9. Design and validation of the Grip-ball for measurement of hand grip strength.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Rana; Hewson, David J; Duchêne, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    The Grip-ball is a new dynamometer used to evaluate grip strength, as well as for use in home-based rehabilitation of the hand and forearm. The Grip-ball consists of pressure and temperature sensors and an electronic wireless communication system contained in an airtight ball. That can be inflated to different pressures. The device has advantages over standard dynamometers in that it looks like a simple ball, and can wirelessly communicate via Bluetooth to any compatible receiver, thus have potential to be used for clinical assessment and rehabilitation in a remote setting. The reliability and reproducibility of the device were assessed for the pressure sensor itself, as well as the relationship between the force applied and the pressure measured by the Grip-ball. The initial validation was performed using the pressure sensor without the ball in order to confirm the accuracy of the sensor used. A second validation study was conducted using the Grip-ball rather than just its sensor to examine the relationship between the pressure measured inside the ball and force applied. The results showed that there is a very good correlation (r=0.997, p<0.05) between the pressure measured by the Grip-ball sensor and that measured by a Vigorimeter, thus confirming the reliability of the sensor used in the Grip-ball. A quadratic regression equation was calculated in order to predict the force applied based on the pressure measured inside the ball, and the initial pressure to which the ball was inflated (R(2)=0.97, standard error 10.9N). Such a finding compares favourably with the variability inherent in Jamar recordings, thus indicating that the Grip-ball could be used to assess grip force. An industrial version of the Grip-ball, which is currently under development, will be able to be used for the entire range of grip force in the population.

  10. Genetic and environmental effects on the bone development of the hand and wrist in Chinese young twins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li Yan; Tan, Ji Bin; Zhao, Jing Lan; Jiang, Fa Chun; Tian, Xiao Cao; Ning, Feng; Wang, Shao Jie; Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zeng Chang; Zhao, Zhong Tang

    2015-03-01

    We assessed genetic and environmental effects on bone development of the hand and wrist, and on key anthropometric measures in Chinese young twins. In total, 139 monozygotic and 95 dizygotic twin pairs aged from 5 to 18 years were recruited. The twin correlations of total hand and wrist scores for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 0.71 and 0.36, respectively. Bivariate model analysis showed moderate genetic correlations only for total skeletal maturity vs. weight and total skeletal maturity vs. waist circumference (r, 0.51 and 0.46, respectively). Our findings demonstrated that genetic factors played important roles in bone development of the hand and wrist in Chinese young twins, and that these genetic effects might be distinct from those influencing anthropometric measures. PMID:25800451

  11. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1990-01-01

    A hand controller evaluation process has been developed to determine the appropriate hand controller configurations for supporting remotely controlled devices. These devices include remote manipulator systems (RMS), dexterous robots, and remotely-piloted free flyers. Standard interfaces were developed to evaluate six different hand controllers in three test facilities including dynamic computer simulations, kinematic computer simulations, and physical simulations. The hand controllers under consideration were six degree-of-freedom (DOF) position and rate minimaster and joystick controllers, and three-DOF rate controllers. Task performance data, subjective comments, and anthropometric data obtained during tests were used for controller configuration recommendations to the SSF Program.

  12. Continuing Measurements of CO2 Crystals with a Hand-Held 35 GHz Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J.; Chang, A.; Hall, D.; Tait, A.; Wergin, W.; Erbe, E.

    2000-01-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of the Martian polar caps, an improved understanding of the behavior of both frozen H2O and CO2 in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is needed. The thermal microwave part of the spectrum has received relatively little attention compared to the visible and infrared wavelengths. A simple experiment to measure the brightness temperature of frozen CO2 was first performed in the winter of 1998 using a 35 GHz radiometer. in experiments performed during the winter of 1999 and 2000, passive microwave radiation emanating from within layers of manufactured CO2 (dry ice) crystals was again measured with a 35 GHz handheld radiometer. Both large (0.8 cm) and small (0.3 cm) cylindrical-shaped dry ice pellets, at a temperature of 197 K (-76 C), were measured. A 1 sq m plate of aluminum sheet metal was positioned beneath the dry ice so that microwave emissions from the underlying soil layers would be minimized. Non-absorbing foam was positioned around the sides of the plate in order to keep the dry ice in place and to assure that the incremental deposits were level. Thirty-five GHz measurements of this plate were made through the dry ice deposits in the following way. Layers of dry ice were built up and measurements were repeated for the increasing CO2 pack. First, 7 cm of large CO2 pellets were poured onto the sheet metal plate, then an additional 7 cm were added, and finally, 12 cm were added on top of the 14 cm base. Hand-held 35 GHz measurements were made each time the thickness of the deposit was increased. The same process was repeated for the smaller grain pellets. Furthermore, during the past winter, 35 GHz measurements were taken of a 25 kg (27 cm x 27 cm x 27 cm) solid cube Of CO2, which was cut in half and then re-measured. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Continuing Measurements of CO2 Crystals with a Hand-Held 35 GHz Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J.; Chang, A.; Hall, D.; Tait, A.; Wergin, W.; Erbe, E.

    2000-08-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of the Martian polar caps, an improved understanding of the behavior of both frozen H2O and CO2 in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is needed. The thermal microwave part of the spectrum has received relatively little attention compared to the visible and infrared wavelengths. A simple experiment to measure the brightness temperature of frozen CO2 was first performed in the winter of 1998 using a 35 GHz radiometer. in experiments performed during the winter of 1999 and 2000, passive microwave radiation emanating from within layers of manufactured CO2 (dry ice) crystals was again measured with a 35 GHz handheld radiometer. Both large (0.8 cm) and small (0.3 cm) cylindrical-shaped dry ice pellets, at a temperature of 197 K (-76 C), were measured. A 1 sq m plate of aluminum sheet metal was positioned beneath the dry ice so that microwave emissions from the underlying soil layers would be minimized. Non-absorbing foam was positioned around the sides of the plate in order to keep the dry ice in place and to assure that the incremental deposits were level. Thirty-five GHz measurements of this plate were made through the dry ice deposits in the following way. Layers of dry ice were built up and measurements were repeated for the increasing CO2 pack. First, 7 cm of large CO2 pellets were poured onto the sheet metal plate, then an additional 7 cm were added, and finally, 12 cm were added on top of the 14 cm base. Hand-held 35 GHz measurements were made each time the thickness of the deposit was increased. The same process was repeated for the smaller grain pellets. Furthermore, during the past winter, 35 GHz measurements were taken of a 25 kg (27 cm x 27 cm x 27 cm) solid cube Of CO2, which was cut in half and then re-measured. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Anthropometric and body composition characteristics among preschool children of Coastal, Himalayan and Desert Ecology in India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Kshatriya, Gautam Kumar

    2009-09-01

    The present cross-sectional study was aimed to compare anthropometric and body composition characteristics of preschool children in the three contrasting ecological niches namely Coastal, Himalayan and Desert Ecology. A total of 989 randomly selected children (aged < 6 years) in which 306 children (164 boys and 142 girls) belong to Coastal Ecology, 327 children (177 boys and 150 girls) belong to Himalayan Ecology and 356 children (168 boys and 188 girls) belong to Desert Ecology. Anthropometric measures namely height, weight, skinfolds at biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac were measured for each child. Body mass index (BMI), sum of four skinfolds (SF4), trunk extremity ratio (TER), arm muscle circumference (AMC), arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) was computed accordingly using standard equations. No significant sex difference was observed for the mean age within and between the groups. There existed significant sex differences for SF4, TER across the ecological zones. One way ANOVA with Scheffe's posthoc test revealed that Group II (Himalayan Ecology) had significantly higher means than both Group I (Coastal Ecology) and Group III (Desert Ecology) for BMI, SF4 and AFA. On the other hand, Group I had significantly higher means than Group II and Group III for TER (girls only), AMC and AMA. Percentiles (10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th) were also calculated for anthropometric and body composition variables. It was observed that there existed significant sex differences for anthropometric and body composition variables both within (p < 0.05) and between (p < 0.001) the groups (ecological zones) except for AFA (p = 0.07). The 50th percentiles of BMI for Coastal, Himalayan and Desert Ecology were 11.65, 13.00 and 11.85, respectively. The 95th percentile of AFA was 4.81, 8.15 and 6.06 respectively. Significant group differences for variables reiterated the fact that ecology does influence nutrition and body composition measures through underlying

  15. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  16. A new hand-held optical reflectometer to measure enamel erosion: correlation with surface hardness and calcium release

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Baumann, Tommy; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the surface reflection intensity (SRI) was measured from enamel with different induced erosion degrees using a hand-held pen-size reflectometer (Hand-Held) and a Table-Top reflectometer. To validate the Hand-Held reflectometer, we correlated its optical signals with the change of surface microhardness (SMH), and amount of calcium released from the enamel samples during erosion. We used 124 tooth enamel specimens that were exposed to an erosive challenge of either 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 minutes. SRI and SMH were measured before and after the erosive challenge and we also measured the amount of calcium released to the citric acid. Relative SRI loss (rSRIloss) and relative SMH loss (rSMHloss) were calculated. rSRIloss from the Hand-Held and the Table-Top reflectometers were similar and significantly correlated to rSMHloss and calcium release. The regression analyses showed a significant association between rSRIloss from both reflectometers and rSMHloss and calcium, showing that both reflectometers can be used to measure erosive demineralization of enamel. The Hand-Held reflectometer is capable of assessing in vitro erosion, correlating to other commonly used methods. It is small, easy to handle and provides fast measurement, being a possible candidate to measure erosion in clinical studies. PMID:27121129

  17. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a case-control study evaluating its relationship with body mass index and hand and wrist measurements.

    PubMed

    Farmer, J E; Davis, T R C

    2008-08-01

    This case-control study investigated the associations between the body mass index (BMI), hand and wrist measurements and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The hands and wrists of 50 patients with CTS and 50 age- and sex-matched controls were measured. The right and left wrist indices (wrist depth/wrist width) were significantly greater in CTS patients (mean = 0.71. SD = 0.04) than in the controls (mean = 0.69 SD = 0.04). The hand index (hand length/palm width) and BMI were not significantly different in the two groups. The hand, but not the wrist, index was found to correlate with the BMI. These results provide some support for a causative association between wrist morphometry, as measured by the wrist index, and CTS, but this difference is too small to be of diagnostic value in clinical or epidemiological practice. The results could also suggest that the previously reported association between CTS and the hand index may be secondary to differences in the BMI.

  18. Cognitive Ability and Continuous Measures of Relative Hand Skill: A Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This note re-examines a finding by Crow et al. [Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. "Neuropsychologia", 36(12), 1275-1281] that equal skill of right and left hands is associated with deficits in cognitive ability. This is…

  19. A new method of measuring shoulder hand behind back movement: Reliability, values in symptomatic and asymptomatic people, effect of hand dominance, and side-to-side variability.

    PubMed

    Satpute, Kiran; Hall, Toby; Kumar, Senthil; Deodhar, Ankeeta

    2016-10-01

    Shoulder hand behind back (HBB) range of motion (ROM) is a useful measure of impairment and treatment outcome. The purpose of this repeated measures study was to identify inter- and intra-rater reliability, of a new simplified method of measuring HBB ROM. Two experienced raters measured HBB ROM with a bubble inclinometer on 25 people (aged 42-75 years, 14 female) with unilateral shoulder dysfunction and 25 age- and gender-matched asymptomatic subjects on two different occasions. Statistical analysis included calculation of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), minimal detectable change (MDC), standard error of measurement (SEM), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), coefficient of determination (R(2)), and the lower bound score. Mean HBB ROM was 108.6° (SD = 16.3) and 23.9° (SD = 10.5) on the pain-free and symptomatic side, respectively. Both intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were high (ICC > 0.80). For asymptomatic people the SEM was at most 3° and MDC was 8° with a strong correlation between the dominant and nondominant sides (r > 0.72). The mean absolute values and lower bound scores were at most 10.2° and 26.0°, respectively. These results indicate that this new and novel method of measuring HBB ROM is accurate, has good inter- and intra-rater reliability, and provides normal values for between-limb ROM variability. PMID:27618126

  20. A new method of measuring shoulder hand behind back movement: Reliability, values in symptomatic and asymptomatic people, effect of hand dominance, and side-to-side variability.

    PubMed

    Satpute, Kiran; Hall, Toby; Kumar, Senthil; Deodhar, Ankeeta

    2016-10-01

    Shoulder hand behind back (HBB) range of motion (ROM) is a useful measure of impairment and treatment outcome. The purpose of this repeated measures study was to identify inter- and intra-rater reliability, of a new simplified method of measuring HBB ROM. Two experienced raters measured HBB ROM with a bubble inclinometer on 25 people (aged 42-75 years, 14 female) with unilateral shoulder dysfunction and 25 age- and gender-matched asymptomatic subjects on two different occasions. Statistical analysis included calculation of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), minimal detectable change (MDC), standard error of measurement (SEM), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), coefficient of determination (R(2)), and the lower bound score. Mean HBB ROM was 108.6° (SD = 16.3) and 23.9° (SD = 10.5) on the pain-free and symptomatic side, respectively. Both intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were high (ICC > 0.80). For asymptomatic people the SEM was at most 3° and MDC was 8° with a strong correlation between the dominant and nondominant sides (r > 0.72). The mean absolute values and lower bound scores were at most 10.2° and 26.0°, respectively. These results indicate that this new and novel method of measuring HBB ROM is accurate, has good inter- and intra-rater reliability, and provides normal values for between-limb ROM variability.

  1. An investigation of a method of simplified scoring for the Kaufman Hand Movements test as a measure of limb apraxia.

    PubMed

    Neiman, M R; Duffy, R J; Belanger, S A; Coelho, C A

    1996-02-01

    A simplified, 3-category method for scoring the Kaufman Hand Movements test was devised to replace a previously used, more complex 21-category scoring method. The concurrent validity and diagnostic sensitivity of the rescored test as a measure of limb apraxia were investigated in a reanalysis of the test protocols of 23 aphasic adults. Using the Limb Apraxia Test as the criterion measure, a Pearson r of .71 and predictive validity of 100% were obtained. These results encourage further investigation of the Kaufman Hand Movements test as an efficient measure of limb apraxia.

  2. Anthropometric characteristics account for time to exhaustion in cycling.

    PubMed

    Basset, F A; Billaut, F; Joanisse, D R

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between the phenotypic and anthropometric characteristics and the cycling time to exhaustion (Tlim) at the maximal aerobic power output (Pmax). 12 (7 men, 5 women) physically-active participants performed a square-wave test at Pmax to determine the maximal time limit. Muscle histochemistry, enzymatic activities and buffer capacity were determined from a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy, lean body mass (LBM) by hydrostatic weighing, and total (TV) and lean (LV) volumes of the thigh by anthropometric measurements. The mean (±SD) Tlim was 235±84 s (score range: 108-425 s). No relationship was found between Tlim and any muscle phenotypes. However, we observed a strong, linear relationship between Tlim and LBM (r=0.84, P<0.05). Thigh TV and LV displayed weaker correlation coefficients with Tlim (r=0.66 and r=0.73, respectively; P<0.05). We further estimated the femur length and found this measure to correlate with Tlim (r=0.81, P<0.05). This study suggests that muscle phenotypes may not be representative of Tlim. Rather, anthropometric characteristics account for such performance by conferring a biomechanical advantage in cycling. We conclude that, in addition to metabolic factors, anthropometric characteristics with reasonable accuracy predict Tlim in cycling, and may account for the large inter-subject variability observed in previous studies.

  3. Measurements of the effectiveness of dust extraction systems of hand sanders used on wood.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, A; Brown, R C

    1994-06-01

    An investigation has been made of the production of dust by hand sanders when used without dust extraction, with integral dust extraction and with external dust extraction. The apparatus used for the measurement was designed to carry out sanding in a repeatable manner, simulating normal working practice. The geometry of the wood sanded affects the dust concentration critically, whereas the effects of the sandpaper grade and of the filtration efficiency of the collection system are small. Belt sanders produce high dust levels in all situations, but they are very efficient in removing wood, which means that they need to be used for only a short period. The integral systems of orbital sanders give good dust control on flat wood but not on edges. The high air extraction rate of external systems results in much better dust control during the sanding of edges, though the performance of the two extraction systems on flat wood is broadly similar. The size distribution of the dust clouds produced by the sanding is relatively constant, but that produced by rotary sanders tends to be coarser than that produced by orbital sanders, consistent with the smoother finish given by the latter. The electric charge on the dust produced by sanding is high.

  4. Participant adherence indicatiors predict changes in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity in a lifestyle intervention: HUB City Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose. To evaluate several adherence indicators, created using 2 measures, separately and in combination, for predicting health outcome changes. Design. Non-experimental with pre-post measures. Setting. Mid-sized city in southern region of United States. Subjects. 269 primarily African-America...

  5. Static Anthropometric Characteristics of Bangladeshi Vehicle Driver: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inappropriate design of sitting furniture and working equipment causes the serious musculoskeletal injuries and various pains as well as reducing working efficiency. Uncomfortable sitting posture in prolonged driving in Bangladesh is an issue to be solved immediately. Therefore, anthropometric databank of user population is significantly essential for the suitable dimensional design for avoiding these remarkable problems. Methods. This study analyses the anthropometric data of the Bangladeshi male vehicle driver aged between 30 and 60 years. A total of 210 Bangladeshi healthy drivers are considered for 15 anthropometric measurements and compared with the similar anthropometrics of other nationalities. Results. The mean stature and sitting height erect of Bangladeshi driver are 1645 mm and 843 mm, respectively. The mean of body mass index (BMI) of the drivers is 26.09 kg/m2, which indicates that the drivers are overweight. The mean stature of Bangladeshi driver is 17 mm shorter than the driver of Korea and 115 mm shorter than the driver of Iran. Conclusion. There are substantial differences between the body dimensions of Bangladeshi driver and similar dimensions of other countries. In comparison, Bangladeshi driver is found to be the shortest compared with the sample of other nationalities. PMID:27579216

  6. Static Anthropometric Characteristics of Bangladeshi Vehicle Driver: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Halder, P K; Sarker, E

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inappropriate design of sitting furniture and working equipment causes the serious musculoskeletal injuries and various pains as well as reducing working efficiency. Uncomfortable sitting posture in prolonged driving in Bangladesh is an issue to be solved immediately. Therefore, anthropometric databank of user population is significantly essential for the suitable dimensional design for avoiding these remarkable problems. Methods. This study analyses the anthropometric data of the Bangladeshi male vehicle driver aged between 30 and 60 years. A total of 210 Bangladeshi healthy drivers are considered for 15 anthropometric measurements and compared with the similar anthropometrics of other nationalities. Results. The mean stature and sitting height erect of Bangladeshi driver are 1645 mm and 843 mm, respectively. The mean of body mass index (BMI) of the drivers is 26.09 kg/m(2), which indicates that the drivers are overweight. The mean stature of Bangladeshi driver is 17 mm shorter than the driver of Korea and 115 mm shorter than the driver of Iran. Conclusion. There are substantial differences between the body dimensions of Bangladeshi driver and similar dimensions of other countries. In comparison, Bangladeshi driver is found to be the shortest compared with the sample of other nationalities. PMID:27579216

  7. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  8. Towards a detailed anthropometric body characterization using the Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Ana; Barbosa, Filipa; Pereira, Eduardo M; Santos, Márcio Borgonovo; Seixas, Adérito; Vilas-Boas, João; Gabriel, Joaquim; Vardasca, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry has been widely used in different fields, providing relevant information for medicine, ergonomics and biometric applications. However, the existent solutions present marked disadvantages, reducing the employment of this type of evaluation. Studies have been conducted in order to easily determine anthropometric measures considering data provided by low-cost sensors, such as the Microsoft Kinect. In this work, a methodology is proposed and implemented for estimating anthropometric measures considering the information acquired with this sensor. The measures obtained with this method were compared with the ones from a validation system, Qualisys. Comparing the relative errors determined with state-of-art references, for some of the estimated measures, lower errors were verified and a more complete characterization of the whole body structure was achieved. PMID:26599577

  9. A novel anthropometric chart for craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Efthimios Andreas; Steinmann, Mark Eugene

    2010-03-01

    Various indices and measurements of the growing cranial vault exist, but there is no single head-shape chart specific to craniofacial surgery. The authors have produced a reliable head-shape chart that will enable accurate charting of patients with craniosynostosis both in the preoperative and postoperative period.One thousand eighty-two participants were used to obtain normal anthropometric measurements, specifically the ear-to-ear measurement and the glabella-to-external occipital protuberance measurement. Both male and female participants aged 6 months to 25 years were used to obtain these measurements. These measurements were correlated with the cephalic index as described by Farkas according to the different age groups.A head-shape chart has been created for males and females using the normal ear-to-ear measurements and the cephalic index that define both qualitative and quantitative elements of the growing skull. Craniofacial surgeons may find this chart useful for managing patients with craniosynostosis. This chart is also useful in the assessment of how the skull grows after surgery.

  10. Respirator protection factors: Part I -- Development of an anthropometric test panel.

    PubMed

    Hack, A L; McConville, J T

    1978-12-01

    Respirators are currently approved by testing them on a number of subjects without specifying facial sizes. Anthropometrically designed test panels were developed that represent the majority of the working population in terms of relevant facial measurements.

  11. Eye-rima oris distance and its relation to the vertical dimension of occlusion measured by two methods: Anthropometric study in a sample of Yemeni dental students

    PubMed Central

    Alhajj, Mohammed Nasser; Khalifa, Nadia; Amran, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the distance measured from the distal outer of the eye to the parting line of the lips and the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) measured by two methods. Methods: One hundred and fourteen dental students (76 males and 38 females) were recruited for this study with mean age (22.34 ± 1.83) years. The distance from distal canthus of the eye to rima oris (eye-RO) was compared with two different measurements of the OVD (nasal [N] to gnathion [Gn], and subnasal [Sn] to menton [Me]). All distances were measured using modified digital caliper. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient test for correlations and paired samples t-test for differences were used with a significant level of (P < 0.05). There was a positive significant correlation between the eye-RO distance and the two measurements of the OVD. However, this correlation was stronger between eye-RO and the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin than that between eye-RO and the distance from the septum of the nose to the under of the chin (r = 0.313 with P = 0.0007, r = 0.296 with P = 0.0014), respectively. Conclusion: The distance from the outer canthus of the eye to the parting of the lips seems to be a reliable method in predicting the OVD and should relate to the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin. PMID:27011736

  12. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-06-27

    The study of elite basketball players' anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men's elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  13. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-01-01

    The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  14. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-06-27

    The study of elite basketball players' anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men's elite leagues.

  15. Comparative assessment of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measured using a hand-held vs. isokinetic dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48−0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75−0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2–4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from −0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option. PMID:27799667

  16. Anthropometric data peculiarities in early school children population.

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, L; Karseladze, R; Vekua, M; Chkhartishvili, E; Bigvava, T

    2011-01-01

    The anthropometric data were studied in early school aged (6-7 years old) children and the degree of harmonization during physical development was evaluated. Representative population of 400 otherwise healthy early school aged children was included in study group. Study period covered the end of school year. In the selected under observation focused population the level of individual anthropometric data was determined in percentile intervals according its position. Anthropometric data assessments by using percentile method it was revealed in early school aged (6-7 years of old children) excess in body height and weight in comparison with normal values. This phenomenon indicates the prevalence of acceleration and weight gain. Anthropometric data in boys were increased while comparing with physical development data in girls. This result difference has the tendency to statistically insignificant. Physical development harmonization values were studied in 200 children. Harmonized physical development revealed in 50 children (25%); disharmonized physical development I 50 children (15%), among them with I degree weight gain were 48 (24%), and with I degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). Markedly disharmonized development had 100 children (50%), among them with II degree weight gain were 98 (49%), and with II degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). According to the children's anthropometric data and assessment by physical development harmonization percentiles tables three groups of children were organized: main, risk group and the group with deviation in physical development. On the basis of resulted data the study of early school age children's physical development gives possibility for risk groups stratification, which in turn itself makes a strong basis for reasonable preventive measurements and stepwise monitoring implementation. PMID:21873758

  17. Anthropometric data peculiarities in early school children population.

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, L; Karseladze, R; Vekua, M; Chkhartishvili, E; Bigvava, T

    2011-01-01

    The anthropometric data were studied in early school aged (6-7 years old) children and the degree of harmonization during physical development was evaluated. Representative population of 400 otherwise healthy early school aged children was included in study group. Study period covered the end of school year. In the selected under observation focused population the level of individual anthropometric data was determined in percentile intervals according its position. Anthropometric data assessments by using percentile method it was revealed in early school aged (6-7 years of old children) excess in body height and weight in comparison with normal values. This phenomenon indicates the prevalence of acceleration and weight gain. Anthropometric data in boys were increased while comparing with physical development data in girls. This result difference has the tendency to statistically insignificant. Physical development harmonization values were studied in 200 children. Harmonized physical development revealed in 50 children (25%); disharmonized physical development I 50 children (15%), among them with I degree weight gain were 48 (24%), and with I degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). Markedly disharmonized development had 100 children (50%), among them with II degree weight gain were 98 (49%), and with II degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). According to the children's anthropometric data and assessment by physical development harmonization percentiles tables three groups of children were organized: main, risk group and the group with deviation in physical development. On the basis of resulted data the study of early school age children's physical development gives possibility for risk groups stratification, which in turn itself makes a strong basis for reasonable preventive measurements and stepwise monitoring implementation.

  18. Assessment of insulin sensitivity/resistance and their relations with leptin concentrations and anthropometric measures in a pregnant population with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozgur; Kucuk, Mert; Ilgin, Aydin; Dagdelen, Muride

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 42 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) pregnant women between 26 and 36 gestational weeks were included in the study prospectively. The body fat percentage (BFP) was calculated using the Siri formula from skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements. Both groups were comparable for gestational age, height, weight, and body mass index (P>.05). Insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) method was significantly higher in GDM patients compared to their NGT weight-matched control group. In contrast, the insulin sensitivity calculated from quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI-IS) equation was significantly lower in GDM group. Calculated lean body mass was found to be similar in between both groups. Body fat percentage derived from SFT parameters was significantly higher in women with GDM. Women with GDM had significantly higher levels of serum insulin and leptin concentrations when compared with the NGT group. All SFT measurements were higher in GDM group when compared to those in NGT women. We did not find any correlation between leptin levels and insulin resistance; we found negative correlation between leptin levels and insulin sensitivity. Thus, we observed that leptin may contribute development of GDM by decreasing insulin sensitivity but not increasing insulin resistance. Also, we observed that the BFP estimated by the Siri formula from SFT measurements correlated significantly with HOMA-IR and QUICKI-IS and leptin concentrations in pregnant women. We suggest that by simply evaluating SFT, we may hold a view about BFP and leptin concentrations and insulin sensitivity in pregnant women.

  19. Anthropometric survey of the astronaut applicants and astronauts from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been collecting anthropometric data from astronaut applicants since 1977. These anthropometric measurements had been taken from 473 applicants. Based on the position they applied for, these applicants were classified as either mission specialists, payload specialists, pilots, or observers. The main objective was to document the variations among these applicants and tabulate the percentile data for each anthropometric dimension. The percentile and the descriptive statistics data were tabulated and graphed for the whole astronaut candidate population; for the male and female groups; for each subject classification such as pilot, mission specialist, and payload specialist; and finally, for those who were selected as astronauts.

  20. Anthropometric surrogates for screening of low birth weight newborns: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Neeti; Prasuna, J G; Taneja, D K

    2012-03-01

    In developing countries, where about 75% of births occur at home or in the community, logistic problems prevent the weighing of every newborn child. This study compares various anthropometric surrogates for identification of low birth weight neonates. A longitudinal community based study was done in an urban resettlement colony and 283 singleton neonates within 7 days of birth were examined for the anthropometric measurements such as head, chest, mid upper arm circumference and foot length as a screening tool for low birth weight. Chest circumference measured within 7 days of birth appeared to be the most appropriate surrogate of low birth weight with highest sensitivity (75.4%), specificity (78.4%), and positive predictive value (48.9%) as compared with other anthropometric parameters. Low birth weight neonates in absence of weighing scales can be early identified by using simple anthropometric measurements for enhanced home-based care and timely referral.

  1. Effects of tea combined with high-protein meal replacement shakes on anthropometric measurements, lipid profiles, cellular biochemistry, neurochemistry, and microbial metabolism: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Balliett, Mary; Rasmussen, Oscar; Burke, Jeanmarie R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to report preliminary data on the effects of tea and high-protein meal replacement shakes on weight loss, waist-to-hip ratios, and lipid profiles in healthy subjects. Secondary analyses of urine samples assessed pre-post changes in cellular biochemistry, neurochemistry, and microbial metabolism. Methods This study used a pre-post intervention design without a control group. Thirty healthy subjects (20-60 years of age; 23 women and 7 men) participated in a 28-day diet intervention program consisting of a cleansing day and 6 restricted diet days per week. On cleansing days, the subjects drank 4 oz of tea 4 times per day with a recommendation to drink at least 64 oz of filtered water. On the restricted diet days, the subjects drank 2 high-protein meal replacement shakes, consumed one 400- to 600-cal (1674.3-2511.5 joules) meal consisting of low–glycemic index foods, and drank at least 64 oz of filtered water. Results Multiple paired t tests detected reductions in weight (6.4 lb), waist (1.9 in), and hip (1.1 in) measurements and in total cholesterol (13.3 mg/dL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.4 mg/dL) (P < .05). Multiple paired t tests detected significant increases in energy metabolism from carbohydrates and amino acids and concomitant increases in oxidative stress (P < .05). Conclusion The data support the concept that a low–glycemic load diet intervention incorporating tea and high-protein meal replacement shakes may cause weight loss and improve lipid profiles. The significant physiologic changes from the urine samples did not reflect meaningful metabolic effects. PMID:22654685

  2. Anthropometric Study of the Piriformis Muscle and Sciatic Nerve: A Morphological Analysis in a Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    Haładaj, Robert; Pingot, Mariusz; Polguj, Michał; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Topol, Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine relationships between piriformis muscle (PM) and sciatic nerve (SN) with reference to sex and anatomical variations. Material/Methods Deep dissection of the gluteal region was performed on 30 randomized, formalin-fixed human lower limbs of adults of both sexes of the Polish population. Anthropometric measurements were taken and then statistically analyzed. Results The conducted research revealed that, apart from the typical structure of the piriformis muscle, the most common variation was division of the piriformis muscle into two heads, with the common peroneal nerve running between them (20%). The group with anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course displayed greater diversity of morphometric measurement results. There was a statistically significant correlation between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter in the male specimens. On the other hand, in the female specimens, a statistically significant correlation was observed between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the ischial tuberosity. The shortest distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter measured at the level of the inferior edge of the piriformis was 21 mm, while the shortest distance to the ischial tuberosity was 63 mm. Such correlations should be taken into account during invasive medical procedures performed in the gluteal region. Conclusions It is possible to distinguish several anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course within the deep gluteal region. The statistically significant correlations between some anthropometric measurements were only present within particular groups of male and female limbs. PMID:26629744

  3. EFFECT OF PREGNANCY UPON FACIAL ANTHROPOMETRICS AND RESPIRATOR FIT TESTING

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, Raymond J.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups.There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  4. Effect of Pregnancy Upon Facial Anthropometrics and Respirator Fit Testing.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Raymond J; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Workers required to wear respirators must undergo additional respirator fit testing if a significant change in body weight occurs. Approximately 10% of working women of reproductive age will be pregnant and experience a significant change in weight, yet the effect of pregnancy-associated weight gain on respirator fit is unknown. Cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements and quantitative fit testing of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFR) of 15 pregnant women and 15 matched, non-pregnant women were undertaken for comparisons between the groups. There were no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with respect to cephalo-facial anthropometric measurements or N95 FFR quantitative fit tests. Healthy pregnant workers, who adhere to the recommended weight gain limits of pregnancy, are unlikely to experience an increase in cephalo-facial dimensions that would mandate additional N95 FFR fit testing above that which is normally required on an annual basis. PMID:26011754

  5. A palmar pressure sensor for measurement of upper limb weight bearing by the hands during transfers by paraplegics.

    PubMed

    Kunju, Nissan; Ojha, Rajdeep; Devasahayam, Suresh R

    2013-10-01

    Paraplegic patients have to effect transfer from one seat to another by using their upper limbs. In this process the hands bear almost the entire weight of the body in at least some phases of the transfer. It is desirable to train patients, especially those who are elderly and otherwise weak, to distribute their weight so as to avoid large forces being sustained on any one hand for an extended period. It is also desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of assistive devices like lower limb FES in sharing the load on the hand. This study presents a simple and versatile method of measuring palmar hand force during transfers by paraplegic patients. It is important that this force sensor should not interfere with the grasping and stabilizing properties of the hands and should permit normal transferring. The force sensor comprises an air-filled pouch or pillow that can be placed on any surface. This pneumatic sensor feels like upholstery padding on the surface on which it is placed. The sensor integrates the total pressure applied to the surface of the pouch, thereby obtaining the total force exerted by the palm/hand. The fabrication of the sensor is described, as well as the associated measurement circuit. The static calibration shows that the sensor is linear up to 350 N and the dynamic calibration shows that it has a bandwidth of 13 Hz. The sensor was fabricated using an inflated inelastic airbag attached to a pressure transducer. An automatic offset correction circuit in the preamplifier module ensures that any offset due to initial pressure or sensor drift is removed and the output is zero under no load condition. The key to this sensor arrangement is the ease of fitting it into the intended location without disturbing the existing arrangement for the subject's activities of daily living (ADL).

  6. Development and Application of a Pediatric Anthropometric Evaluation System.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Janet; Ward, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at increased nutritional risk because of feeding problems, abnormal levels of physical activity, and altered weight and growth patterns. Children with physical disabilities are often more difficult to measure because of muscular contractures, spasms, scoliosis, and the presence of splints, braces, or wheelchair accessories. In addition, body weights may be difficult to obtain for heavier children with limited access to wheelchair scales. The purpose of this project was to produce a package of anthropometric measurements easier to use in children with physical disabilities but still applicable to able-bodied children, and computer software to generate growth charts. The project included the development of growth charts for each anthropometric measurement, using data from the Coquitlam Growth Study (921 children aged six to 18) and the Sunny Hill Growth Study (567 children aged one to 5.9). The custom computer software allows serial plotting of a child's measurements on growth charts, permitting comparative assessment of growth and muscle and adipose tissue development. The resultant Sunny Hill Anthropometric Pediatric Evaluation System (SHAPES) provides a tool for nutritional assessment and monitoring after intervention. The use of SHAPES is illustrated with a case study of a child who represented a challenge to traditional nutritional evaluation. PMID:11844402

  7. Development of an intervention to reduce transmission of respiratory infections and pandemic flu: measuring and predicting hand-washing intentions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sascha; Yardley, Lucy; Little, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This was an exploratory pilot study forming part of a programme of work to develop and trial an effective web-based intervention to reduce the risk of transmission of respiratory infections by promoting hand washing and other preventive behaviours in pandemic and non-pandemic contexts. The main purpose of this study was to confirm that the behavioural determinants we had identified from theory were related as predicted to intentions and to establish the validity of our measures of behavioural intentions. Participants (N = 84) completed a self-report web-delivered questionnaire measuring intentions to engage in hand washing and the hypothesised behavioural determinants of intentions, based on the theory of planned behaviour and protection motivation theory. In a factorial 2 × 2 design, half of the participants were first randomised to receive messages about potential negative consequences of pandemic flu (the "high-threat" condition) and half were assigned to receive "coping" messages describing the rationale and effectiveness of hand washing for reducing the risk of infection. A substantial proportion of variance in intentions was explained by measures of attitudes (instrumental and affective), social norms (descriptive and injunctive), perceived behavioural control (especially, access to hand gel) and perceived risk (in particular, the likelihood of catching pandemic flu). Our measures of intentions were sensitive to between-group differences, and although our design did not permit causal inference (particularly in view of selective dropout among those required to read most web pages), the pattern of differences was in the expected direction, that is, hand-washing intentions tended to be stronger in those receiving the high-threat message and coping messages. This study provided encouraging confirmation that our intervention development was proceeding correctly. Measures of intentions proved sensitive to group differences, and the behavioural determinants

  8. Development of an intervention to reduce transmission of respiratory infections and pandemic flu: measuring and predicting hand-washing intentions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sascha; Yardley, Lucy; Little, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This was an exploratory pilot study forming part of a programme of work to develop and trial an effective web-based intervention to reduce the risk of transmission of respiratory infections by promoting hand washing and other preventive behaviours in pandemic and non-pandemic contexts. The main purpose of this study was to confirm that the behavioural determinants we had identified from theory were related as predicted to intentions and to establish the validity of our measures of behavioural intentions. Participants (N = 84) completed a self-report web-delivered questionnaire measuring intentions to engage in hand washing and the hypothesised behavioural determinants of intentions, based on the theory of planned behaviour and protection motivation theory. In a factorial 2 × 2 design, half of the participants were first randomised to receive messages about potential negative consequences of pandemic flu (the "high-threat" condition) and half were assigned to receive "coping" messages describing the rationale and effectiveness of hand washing for reducing the risk of infection. A substantial proportion of variance in intentions was explained by measures of attitudes (instrumental and affective), social norms (descriptive and injunctive), perceived behavioural control (especially, access to hand gel) and perceived risk (in particular, the likelihood of catching pandemic flu). Our measures of intentions were sensitive to between-group differences, and although our design did not permit causal inference (particularly in view of selective dropout among those required to read most web pages), the pattern of differences was in the expected direction, that is, hand-washing intentions tended to be stronger in those receiving the high-threat message and coping messages. This study provided encouraging confirmation that our intervention development was proceeding correctly. Measures of intentions proved sensitive to group differences, and the behavioural determinants

  9. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  10. Anthropometric and physiological measurements in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Rainer, T H; Cattermole, G N; Graham, C A; Chan, S S W

    2013-12-01

    1. Normal ranges for ultrasonic cardiac output monitor-derived cardiovascular indices are derived for Chinese children aged 1 to 12 years in Hong Kong. 2. A simple formula for calculating stroke volume is constructed, but the error varies from 8 to 40%. 3. Stroke volume index and, to a lesser extent, the cardiac index generally increase from ages 1 to 5 years, but plateau or fall slightly thereafter.

  11. Determination of sex from various hand dimensions of Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jee, Soo-Chan; Bahn, Sangwoo; Yun, Myung Hwan

    2015-12-01

    In the case of disasters or crime scenes, forensic anthropometric methods have been utilized as a reliable way to quickly confirm the identification of victims using only a few parts of the body. A total of 321 measurement data (from 167 males and 154 females) were analyzed to investigate the suitability of detailed hand dimensions as discriminators of sex. A total of 29 variables including length, breadth, thickness, and circumference of fingers, palm, and wrist were measured. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test. The accuracy of sex indication from the hand dimensions data was found using discriminant analysis. The age effect and interaction effect according to age and sex on hand dimensions were analyzed by ANOVA. The prediction accuracy on a wide age range was also compared. According to the results, the maximum hand circumference showed the highest accuracy of 88.6% for predicting sex for males and 89.6% for females. Although the breadth, circumference, and thickness of hand parts generally showed higher accuracy than the lengths of hand parts in predicting the sex of the participant, the breadth and circumference of some finger joints showed a significant difference according to age and gender. Thus, the dimensions of hand parts which are not affected by age or gender, such as hand length, palm length, hand breadth, and maximum hand thickness, are recommended to be used first in sex determination for a wide age range group. The results suggest that the detailed hand dimensions can also be used to identify sex for better accuracy; however, the aging effects need to be considered in estimating aged suspects.

  12. Determination of sex from various hand dimensions of Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jee, Soo-Chan; Bahn, Sangwoo; Yun, Myung Hwan

    2015-12-01

    In the case of disasters or crime scenes, forensic anthropometric methods have been utilized as a reliable way to quickly confirm the identification of victims using only a few parts of the body. A total of 321 measurement data (from 167 males and 154 females) were analyzed to investigate the suitability of detailed hand dimensions as discriminators of sex. A total of 29 variables including length, breadth, thickness, and circumference of fingers, palm, and wrist were measured. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test. The accuracy of sex indication from the hand dimensions data was found using discriminant analysis. The age effect and interaction effect according to age and sex on hand dimensions were analyzed by ANOVA. The prediction accuracy on a wide age range was also compared. According to the results, the maximum hand circumference showed the highest accuracy of 88.6% for predicting sex for males and 89.6% for females. Although the breadth, circumference, and thickness of hand parts generally showed higher accuracy than the lengths of hand parts in predicting the sex of the participant, the breadth and circumference of some finger joints showed a significant difference according to age and gender. Thus, the dimensions of hand parts which are not affected by age or gender, such as hand length, palm length, hand breadth, and maximum hand thickness, are recommended to be used first in sex determination for a wide age range group. The results suggest that the detailed hand dimensions can also be used to identify sex for better accuracy; however, the aging effects need to be considered in estimating aged suspects. PMID:26597170

  13. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  14. PERSONALISED BODY COUNTER CALIBRATION USING ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS.

    PubMed

    Pölz, S; Breustedt, B

    2016-09-01

    Current calibration methods for body counting offer personalisation for lung counting predominantly with respect to ratios of body mass and height. Chest wall thickness is used as an intermediate parameter. This work revises and extends these methods using a series of computational phantoms derived from medical imaging data in combination with radiation transport simulation and statistical analysis. As an example, the method is applied to the calibration of the In Vivo Measurement Laboratory (IVM) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) comprising four high-purity germanium detectors in two partial body measurement set-ups. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code and the Extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) phantom series have been used. Analysis of the computed sample data consisting of 18 anthropometric parameters and calibration factors generated from 26 photon sources for each of the 30 phantoms reveals the significance of those parameters required for producing an accurate estimate of the calibration function. Body circumferences related to the source location perform best in the example, while parameters related to body mass show comparable but lower performances, and those related to body height and other lengths exhibit low performances. In conclusion, it is possible to give more accurate estimates of calibration factors using this proposed approach including estimates of uncertainties related to interindividual anatomical variation of the target population. PMID:26396263

  15. The influence of basic body and hand anthropometry on the results of different throwing tests in young handball and basketball players.

    PubMed

    Visnapuu, Milvi; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between basic body and specific hand anthropometric parameters with some specific and non-specific throw test results in young male handball and basketball players. The subjects included 34 handball and 38 basketball players of the 10-11 years old age group, 39 handball and 22 basketball players of the 12-13 years old age group and 39 handball players of the 14-15 years old age group. Body height and body mass, arms' span, height with outstretched hands and sitting height were the basic anthropometric parameters to be measured. For hand anthropometry, 15 specific hand parameters were measured using the method presented by Visnapuu & Jürimäe (2007). Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that medicine ball throw results in the youngest age group are highly dependent on the body height (handball players) and body mass (basketball players). In the middle age group, the most important parameter from the hand anthropometry is TL (handball) or height with outstretched hands (basketball). In the oldest group of handball players, the medicine ball throw results were dependent on the P2 from hand anthropometry and sitting height. Quite different anthropometric parameters appeared to influence the handball or basketball throw results. In the youngest age group, most important were body height (handball) or LFL (basketball). In the middle age group, the most important was height with outstretched hands and in the oldest handball players LFL and sitting height. Handball or basketball pass on speed depended on the combination of body mass and FS5 and body height with height with outstretched hands (even 61.40%, R2 x 100) in the oldest age group. The results of passing the handball or basketball on precision were dependent on body height and P3 or P1 among basketball players in the youngest group. In the middle age group the combination of FS3 and body mass and LFL and height with outstretched hands were the

  16. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated.

  17. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated. PMID:25934209

  18. Anthropometric variation in west-central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A F

    2001-06-01

    Anthropometric data from five indigenous Mexican groups, collected by Carlos and Manuel Basauri in 1933, were reanalyzed and compared with serological and cranial non-metric data. Ten cranial and 14 postcranial measurements were used, both separately and together. Bias-corrected r0 and FST values were slightly higher for the postcranial analysis (0.033) than for the cranial analysis (0.024). Given the degree of linguistic differentiation among the Mexican populations, not to mention the different histories of the communities sampled, this result is surprisingly low. The two groups which were closest linguistically and geographically, the Cora and Huichol, were also close biologically. The other three groups, Tarascan, Aztecan, and Otomi, were not closely related to each other or to the Cora-Huichol pair. More interesting than the relationship between populations in this case are those within them. The Aztecas of Tuxpan, Jalisco, exhibit high rii values and lower-than-expected phenotypic variance, suggesting the pronounced action of genetic drift. The Otomi of Ixmiquilpan and Cora of the Sierra de Nayarit, despite their very different histories, both exhibit low rii values and higher-than-expected phenotypic variance, indicating a high level of gene flow. Despite the phenotypic similarities between the Cora and Huichol, their residual variance is very different; this mirrors serological investigations of relative admixture. Over all, recent population history, and especially non-indigenous admixture, are at least as explicative of the observed biological variation as historical linguistic ties are.

  19. Associations between Handgrip Strength and Ultrasound-Measured Muscle Thickness of the Hand and Forearm in Young Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Counts, Brittany R; Barnett, Brian E; Dankel, Scott J; Lee, Kofan; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2015-08-01

    It is unknown whether muscle size of intrinsic hand muscles is associated with handgrip strength. To investigate the relationships between handgrip strength and flexor muscle size of the hand and forearm, muscle thickness (MT) of 86 young adults (43 men and 43 women) between the ages of 18 and 34 y was measured by ultrasound. Two MTs (forearm radius and forearm ulna MT) in the anterior forearm, two MTs (lumbrical and dorsal interosseous MT) in the anterior hand and handgrip strength were measured on the right side. Linear regression with part (also referred to as semipartial) correlation coefficients revealed that forearm ulna MT positively correlated with handgrip strength in both men (part = 0.379, p = 0.001) and women (part = 0.268, p = 0.002). Dorsal interosseous MT correlated with handgrip strength in women only (part = 0.289, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that the forearm ulna and dorsal interosseous MTs for women and forearm ulna MTs for men are factors contributing to prediction of handgrip strength in young adults.

  20. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys. PMID:24894129

  1. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys.

  2. Reliability and Validity of Electro-Goniometric Range of Motion Measurements in Patients with Hand and Wrist Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Bashardoust Tajali, Siamak; MacDermid, Joy C.; Grewal, Ruby; Young, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Cross-sectional reliability and validity study. Purpose: 1. To determine intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities and validity of two digital electro goniometry to measure active wrist/finger range of motions (ROMs) in patients with limited motion. 2. To determine intrarater and interrater reliabilities of digital goniometry to measure torques of PIP passive flexion of the index finger in patients with limited motion. Methods: The study was designed in a randomized block plan on 44 patients (24 women, 20 men) with limited wrist or hand motions. Two experienced raters measured active wrist ROMs, and active and passive index PIP flexion using two digital goniometers. All measures were repeated by one rater 2-5 days after the initial measurements. The reliability measures were analyzed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and the construct validity was determined by correlation coefficients analysis between sub measures of scores; patient rated pain and function (PRWE) and quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (quick DASH) scores. Results: The intrarater, interrater and inter instrument reliabilities were high in most ROM measures (range 0.64-0.97) for both types of electro-goniometers. The 95% limit of agreements and Bland and Altman plots did not show progressive changes. There was a significant difference in force application between the raters when performing passive ROM measures for PIP index, but the same rater produced consistent force. Most of the NK and J-Tech ROM measures were moderately correlated with the patient rated pain and function scores (range 0.32-0.63). PMID:27398107

  3. The effects measurement of hand massage by the autonomic activity and psychological indicators.

    PubMed

    Kunikata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Kumi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Tanioka, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of hand massage on autonomic activity, anxiety, relaxation and sense of affinity by performing it to healthy people before applying the technic in actual clinical practice. Findings were showed below: 1) the significant increase in the pNN50 and the significant decrease in the heart rate meant the intervention of massage increased the autonomic nervous activity, improved the parasympathetic nerve activity and reduced the sympathetic nerve activity. This means the subjects were considered to be in a state of relaxation. 2) Salivary α amylase has been reported as a possible indicator for sympathetic nerve activity. In this study, there was no significant difference in the salivary α amylase despite a decrease after massage. 3) State anxiety score is temporal situational reactions while being in the state of anxiety and this score decreased significantly after massage. 4) The level of willingness to communicate with other person and the sense of affinity toward the massage-performer had a positive change of 70 percent. From this, it can be considered that a comfortable physical contact between a patient and a nursing profession, who are in a supported-supportive relationship, leads to an effect of shortening the gap in their psychological distance.

  4. [Nicolò Paganini: Devil's violinist because of abnormal hands?--New investigations using a bronze cast from the right hand].

    PubMed

    Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new measurements of a bronze cast from the right hand of the famous Italian violin virtuoso Nicolò Paganini (1782-1840). These are compared to anthropometric standard values. In addition, detailed dorsal and palmar views of the cast are shown. With a middle finger length of 75 mm, the palm width is 60 mm and the hand length 152 mm, which is significantly below the 5% percentile of today's standard values. Also the finger length index (0.55), the ratio of finger length to palm length (0.98) and the ratio of finger length to palm width (1.25) are significantly above normal limits. Hence, Paganini had abnormal hand measurements with a very small palm and relatively "long" fingers. This remarkable constellation, among others, could have been advantageous for his amazing skills as a violinist. PMID:25004620

  5. [Nicolò Paganini: Devil's violinist because of abnormal hands?--New investigations using a bronze cast from the right hand].

    PubMed

    Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new measurements of a bronze cast from the right hand of the famous Italian violin virtuoso Nicolò Paganini (1782-1840). These are compared to anthropometric standard values. In addition, detailed dorsal and palmar views of the cast are shown. With a middle finger length of 75 mm, the palm width is 60 mm and the hand length 152 mm, which is significantly below the 5% percentile of today's standard values. Also the finger length index (0.55), the ratio of finger length to palm length (0.98) and the ratio of finger length to palm width (1.25) are significantly above normal limits. Hence, Paganini had abnormal hand measurements with a very small palm and relatively "long" fingers. This remarkable constellation, among others, could have been advantageous for his amazing skills as a violinist.

  6. Robust Hand Motion Tracking through Data Fusion of 5DT Data Glove and Nimble VR Kinect Camera Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Arkenbout, Ewout A.; de Winter, Joost C. F.; Breedveld, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vision based interfaces for human computer interaction have gained increasing attention over the past decade. This study presents a data fusion approach of the Nimble VR vision based system, using the Kinect camera, with the contact based 5DT Data Glove. Data fusion was achieved through a Kalman filter. The Nimble VR and filter output were compared using measurements performed on (1) a wooden hand model placed in various static postures and orientations; and (2) three differently sized human hands during active finger flexions. Precision and accuracy of joint angle estimates as a function of hand posture and orientation were determined. Moreover, in light of possible self-occlusions of the fingers in the Kinect camera images, data completeness was assessed. Results showed that the integration of the Data Glove through the Kalman filter provided for the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the fingers a substantial improvement of 79% in precision, from 2.2 deg to 0.9 deg. Moreover, a moderate improvement of 31% in accuracy (being the mean angular deviation from the true joint angle) was established, from 24 deg to 17 deg. The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint was relatively unaffected by the Kalman filter. Moreover, the Data Glove increased data completeness, thus providing a substantial advantage over the sole use of the Nimble VR system. PMID:26694395

  7. Hand-held dynamometry in patients with haematological malignancies: Measurement error in the clinical assessment of knee extension strength

    PubMed Central

    Knols, Ruud H; Aufdemkampe, Geert; de Bruin, Eling D; Uebelhart, Daniel; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    Background Hand-held dynamometry is a portable and inexpensive method to quantify muscle strength. To determine if muscle strength has changed, an examiner must know what part of the difference between a patient's pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements is attributable to real change, and what part is due to measurement error. This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of intra and inter-observer strength measurements with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). Methods Two observers performed maximum voluntary peak torque measurements (MVPT) for isometric knee extension in 24 patients with haematological malignancies. For each patient, the measurements were carried out on the same day. The main outcome measures were the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ± 95%CI), the standard error of measurement (SEM), the smallest detectable difference (SDD), the relative values as % of the grand mean of the SEM and SDD, and the limits of agreement for the intra- and inter-observer '3 repetition average' and the 'highest value of 3 MVPT' knee extension strength measures. Results The intra-observer ICCs were 0.94 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.86–0.97) and 0.86 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.71–0.94). The ICCs for the inter-observer measurements were 0.89 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.75–0.95) and 0.77 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.54–0.90). The SEMs for the intra-observer measurements were 6.22 Nm (3.98% of the grand mean (GM) and 9.83 Nm (5.88% of GM). For the inter-observer measurements, the SEMs were 9.65 Nm (6.65% of GM) and 11.41 Nm (6.73% of GM). The SDDs for the generated parameters varied from 17.23 Nm (11.04% of GM) to 27.26 Nm (17.09% of GM) for intra-observer measurements, and 26.76 Nm (16.77% of GM) to 31.62 Nm (18.66% of GM) for inter-observer measurements, with similar results for the limits of agreement. Conclusion The results indicate that there is acceptable relative reliability for

  8. Measuring Vapor Pressure with an Isoteniscope: A Hands-on Introduction to Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenqian; Haslam, Andrew J.; Macey, Andrew; Shah, Umang V.; Brechtelsbauer, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid or azeotropic mixture, and its fluid phase diagram, can be achieved with an isoteniscope and an industrial grade digital pressure sensor using the experimental method reported in this study. We describe vapor-pressure measurements of acetone and n-hexane and their azeotrope, and how the…

  9. Using High-Resolution Hand-Held Radiometers To Measure In-Situ Thermal Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Douglas M.; Krintz, Donald F.

    1984-03-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the accuracy of using high-resolution radiometers to determine the in situ thermal resistance of building components having conventional residential construction. Two different types of radiometers were used to determine the thermal resistances of the walls of six test buildings located at the National Bureau of Standards. These radiometer thermal resistance measurements were compared to reference thermal resistance values determined from steady-state series resistance predictions, time-averaged heat-flow-sensor measurements, and guarded-hot-box measurements. When measurements were carried out 5 hours after sunset when the outdoor temperature was relatively steady and the heating plant was operated in a typical cyclic fashion, the following results were obtained: for lightweight wood-frame cavity walls, the radiometer procedures were found to distinguish wall thermal resistance 4.4 h.ft2- °F/Btu (0.77 m2•K/W) systematically higher than corresponding reference values. Such a discrimination will per-mit insulated and uninsulated walls to be distinguished. However, in the case of walls having large heat capacity (e.g., masonry and log), thermal storage effects produced large time lags between the outdoor diurnal temperature variation and the heat-flow response at the inside surface. This phenomenon caused radiometer thermal resistances to deviate substantially from corresponding reference values. This study recommends that the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 101-1981 be modified requiring the heating plant to be operated in a typical cyclic fashion instead of being turned off prior to and during radiometer measurements.

  10. Modeling and Preventive Measures of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jinhui; Zhang, Xinan

    2014-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the HFMD data of China from March 2009 to December 2012. We set up a mathematical model to fit those data with the goodness of fit and obtain the optimal parameter values of the model. By the Chi-square test of statistical inference, the optimal parameter values of the model are reasonable. We obtained the basic reproductive number of the disease for each year, and it is larger than 1. Thus, we conclude that HFMD will persist in China under the current conditions, so we investigate the preventive measures to control the HFMD. If the preventive measures proposed in our paper were implemented, HFMD would be controlled quickly and the number of infections would decline rapidly over a period of time. PMID:24633146

  11. The anthropometric legacy of Franz Boas.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Richard L

    2003-06-01

    Franz Boas was responsible for obtaining anthropometric data from approximately 27,000 subjects living around the turn-of-the-century. The subjects are of Native American, Siberian and European ancestry. These data have been entered into databases and are available for research. This paper describes the circumstances under which these data were collected and discusses their research potential. PMID:15463979

  12. The anthropometric legacy of Franz Boas.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Richard L

    2003-06-01

    Franz Boas was responsible for obtaining anthropometric data from approximately 27,000 subjects living around the turn-of-the-century. The subjects are of Native American, Siberian and European ancestry. These data have been entered into databases and are available for research. This paper describes the circumstances under which these data were collected and discusses their research potential.

  13. Craniofacial morphologic parameters in a Persian population: an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mashayekhi, Ziba; Rahimi, Hajir; Morad, Golnaz

    2014-09-01

    Limited data are available regarding the reference ranges of facial proportions of the Persian population in Iran. This study aimed to establish the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in an adult Iranian population. On 100 individuals (men = women), aged 18 to 30 years with normal faces and occlusions, 34 linear and 7 angular measurements as well as 24 indices were calculated. The difference of measurements between men and women were evaluated by paired t-test. The data were compared with the norms of North American whites using 1-sample t-test. The subjects belonged to 5 ethnic groups (57% from Fars, 14% from Kord, 11% from Azari, 10% from Gilaki-Mazani, and 2% from Lor). All head measurements were greater in men except for the head index and the head height. The subjects had leptoprosopic faces. The intercanthal width was almost one third of the biocular width and greater than the eye fissure length. Although the nose width of women was significantly smaller, both sexes had leptorrhine noses. The chin height and lower chin height were greater in men. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences were found regarding head height and width, biocular width, nose height, face height, mouth width, and upper chin height. In conclusion, the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements established for the Iranian population might be efficiently used for esthetic treatments.

  14. Anthropometric and performance comparisons in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Vazquez, Jose; Pichardo, Napoleon; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2009-11-01

    This study compared anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players and examined the relationship between these variables and baseball-specific performance (i.e., home runs, total bases, slugging percentage, and stolen bases). During a 2-year period, 343 professional baseball players were assessed for height, weight, body composition, grip strength, vertical jump power, 10-yard sprint speed, and agility. Subject population consisted of players on the rosters of one of the minor league affiliates (Rookie, A, AA, AAA) or major league team (MLB). All testing occurred at the beginning of spring training. Players in Rookie and A were significantly (p < 0.05) leaner than players in MLB and AAA. These same players had significantly lower lean body mass than seen in MLB, AAA, and AA players. Greater grip strength (p < 0.05) was seen in MLB and AAA than in Rookie and A. Players in MLB were also faster (p < 0.05) than players in AA, A, and Rookie. Vertical jump power measures were greater (p < 0.05) in MLB than AA, A, and Rookie. Regression analysis revealed that performance measures accounted for 25-31% of the variance in baseball-specific power performance. Anthropometric measures failed to add any additional explanation to the variance in these baseball-specific performance variables. Results indicated that both anthropometric and performance variables differed between players of different levels of competition in professional baseball. Agility, speed, and lower-body power appeared to provide the greatest predictive power of baseball-specific performance.

  15. A 3D anthropometric analysis of the orolabial region in Chinese young adults.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Deutsch, Curtis K; Zwahlen, Roger A

    2013-12-01

    The orolabial region undergoes considerable changes after orthognathic surgery or orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity, age, and sex-specific norms are needed during the planning of interventions in this region. In 2008 the Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg published anthropometric measurements of the lips of Chinese children, but to our knowledge such reference data for young Chinese adults are not currently available. We therefore used digital anthropometry on 3-dimensional craniofacial images acquired from 103 healthy young Chinese adults with Class I skeletal pattern. Anthropometric landmarks were identified, which provided linear and angular measurements. All orolabial measurements were significantly larger in men than women, with the exception of the labiomental angle. In contrast, there were no sex differences in the anthropometric proportions. We therefore provide what we think are the first cross-sectional norms available for young Chinese adults. These norms can be used to evaluate the morphology of the lips objectively for preoperative diagnosis, planning of treatment, and assessment of postoperative outcomes.

  16. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other.

  17. Relationship Between Patient Expectations and Clinical Measures in Patients Undergoing Rheumatoid Hand Surgery from the Silicone Arthroplasty in Rheumatoid Arthritis (SARA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Erika D.; Burns, Patricia B.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between preoperative patient expectations and clinical measures in patients undergoing rheumatoid hand surgery. Methods Patients were recruited as a part of a larger prospective multicenter study to evaluate outcomes of silicone metacarpophalangeal joint arthroplasty (SMPA). Patients in the surgical cohort completed a baseline expectation questionnaire asking about expectations for function, work, pain, and aesthetics after SMPA. Responses were categorized into low, middle, and high expectations groups for each domain and for cumulative expectations across all domains. Other study measurements were taken at baseline and 1-year, including the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) and objective clinical measurements (grip strength, pinch strength, the Jebson-Taylor Hand Function Test, ulnar drift, and extensor lag). Results Preoperative expectations and clinical measures were complete for 59 patients at baseline and 45 patients at 1-year follow-up. Preoperative expectation level was related to baseline patient-reported domains of ADL and hand satisfaction measured by MHQ (P=0.04 and P=0.07 respectively). Patients had relatively similar satisfaction with hand function postoperatively regardless of preoperative expectation level. No consistent relationship was seen between preoperative expectations and objective measures at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Conclusions High preoperative expectations were not a risk factor for dissatisfaction postoperatively. Preoperative expectation level may be considered to stratify baseline patient-reported hand function in patients with similar objective hand function. Level of Evidence Level II Prognostic PMID:26595031

  18. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1993-01-01

    Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

  19. Anthropometric and physical characteristics of english academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Tester, Emma; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English academy rugby league players by annual-age category (under 16s-under 20s) and between backs and forwards. Data were collected on 133 academy players over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 257 assessments). Player assessments comprised of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (vertical jump, 10- and 20-m sprint, estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max via the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, absolute 1 repetition maximum [1RM], and relative squat, bench press, and prone row) measures. Univariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in height, body mass, vertical jump, absolute, and relative strength measures across the 5 annual-age categories (e.g., body mass: under 16s = 75.2 ± 11.1, under 20s = 88.9 ± 8.5 kg; vertical jump: under 16s = 45.7 ± 5.2, under 20s = 52.8 ± 5.4 cm; 1RM bench press: under 16s = 73.9 ± 13.2, under 20s = 114.3 ± 15.3 kg). Independent t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences between backs and forwards for anthropometric (e.g., under 16s body mass: backs = 68.4 ± 8.6, forwards = 80.9 ± 9.7 kg) and physical (e.g., under 19s 20-m sprint: backs = 3.04 ± 0.08, forwards = 3.14 ± 0.12s; under 18s relative squat: backs = 1.65 ± 0.18, forwards = 1.51 ± 0.17 kg·kg) characteristics that were dependent on the age category and measure assessed. Findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across annual-age categories and between backs and forwards in academy rugby league players. These findings provide comparative data for such populations and support the need to monitor player development in junior rugby league players.

  20. Short-term measurement of linear growth in preterm infants: validation of a hand-held knemometer.

    PubMed

    Michaelsen, K F; Skov, L; Badsberg, J H; Jørgensen, M

    1991-11-01

    A hand-held electronic knemometer, resembling a pair of callipers, for measuring knee-heel length in preterm infants was developed to improve the accuracy of measuring linear growth velocity in infants. The measuring system is based on a magnetic encoder and has a resolution of 0.01 mm. The knee-heel length is recorded automatically when the pressure applied on the heel reaches a preset value. The result of a measurement sequence is expressed as the average of five sequential readings. The error of one measurement sequence was 0.82 mm, corresponding to a coefficient of variation of 0.8% or 2 d of growth in knee-heel length. It includes the technical error and an error component due to the correlation of the readings within a series. The estimated error on the measurement of the knee-heel growth velocity (expressed as mm/d), measured over a 3-wk period, was 0.04 mm, corresponding to a coefficient of variation of 8%. Longitudinal growth data from 11 healthy preterm infants (birth weight 918-1482 g) are presented. Knee-heel length velocity from birth until day of regained birth weight was similar to the velocity during the following weeks, showing that there was no deceleration of growth immediately after birth. In conclusion, the method is accurate and gentle in measuring linear growth velocity over short periods and can be useful in monitoring the progress of ill infants and in growth studies of preterm and mature infants, in which linear growth is a more relevant short-term outcome than weight gain. PMID:1754302

  1. Anthropometric Parameters for Access to Sella Turcica Through the Nostril.

    PubMed

    Mohamadi, Yousef; Mousavi, Mahboubeh; Pakzad, Reza; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2016-09-01

    The pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica. Pituitary tumors constitute approximately 15% of intracranial benign tumors. "Endo nasal endoscopic trans-sphenoidal" method is an appropriate surgical technique to remove this tumor. In this operation an endoscope enters the nasal cavity through the nostril to reach the floor of the sella turcica. The aim of this study was an anthropometric evaluation of the route of endoscope in this surgery. Two hundred twenty-seven patients (116 women, 111 men) were divided into ≥30, 31 to 61, and ≥61-year age groups. Lateral scanograms of skull were used to measure 3 linear distances and 1 angle. While the mean of the linear variables was significantly higher in men (P <0.001), this difference was not significant in angular measurement between sexes. More detail evaluation of the age groups showed age- and sex-specific differences in measurements. The authors concluded that it needs to consider the anthropometrical indexes in pituitary surgery. PMID:27526241

  2. Anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users for Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Lucero-Duarte, Karla; de la Vega-Bustillos, Enrique; López-Millán, Francisco; Soto-Félix, Selene

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users at Mexico. This study count with 108 disabled people (56 men and 52 women) using the wheelchair and having the upper extremities sufficiently efficient to perform professional activities. The subjects were aged 18-60. From the measurements obtained, it can be said that in each of these measures was observed that men have larger dimensions than women, except for body depth, in which women had a slightly greater difference. When comparing the data in this study against other studies it shows that there is a significant difference between the averages of these studies. Similar results were obtained when comparing our data against data of standard population. Anthropometric data obtained through this study appear to be the only of this kind in Mexico and showed significant differences between measures of disabled persons and standard persons. the use of these data may be helpful for the proper design of workstations designed for use by adults who use.

  3. Comparison of a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine urine specific gravity.

    PubMed

    Paris, J K; Bennett, A D; Dodkin, S J; Gunn-Moore, D A

    2012-05-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is used clinically as a measure of urine concentration, and is routinely assessed by refractometry. A comparison between optical analogue and digital refractometers for evaluation of canine urine has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine USG, and to assess correlation with urine osmolality. Prospective study. Free-catch urine samples were collected from 285 hospitalised adult dogs, and paired USG readings were obtained with a digital and an optical analogue refractometer. In 50 dogs, urine osmolality was also measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. There was a small but statistically significant difference between the two refractometers (P<0.001), with the optical analogue refractometer reading higher than the digital refractometer (mean difference 0.0006, sd 0.0012). Paired refractometer measurements varied by <0.002 in 91.5 per cent of cases. The optical analogue and digital refractometer readings showed excellent correlation with osmolality (r=0.980 and r=0.977, respectively, P<0.001 in both cases). Despite statistical significance, the difference between the two refractometers is unlikely to be clinically significant. Both instruments provide an accurate assessment of USG in dogs. PMID:22505243

  4. Chapped hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... mild soaps or non-soap cleansers Use moisturizing lotions on your hands regularly, especially if you live ... To soothe chapped and sore hands: Apply skin lotion frequently (if this does not work, try creams ...

  5. Anthropometric Profiling of New Zealand Junior Elite Triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhargav; Dave, Asmi; Kotecha, Nilesh; Oates, Myrtle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The triathlon involves a combination of three separate disciplines-swimming, cycling and running. To date, very few studies have been conducted on the anthropometric characteristics of the New Zealand junior elite triathletes. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between physical traits of calf girth or sum of eight skinfolds (anthropometry) and running or cycling performances in the triathlon event. Methods Eleven junior elite triathletes (6 females, 5 males; (Av. age: 17) who were selected for the New Zealand national squad, were examined in this cross-sectional study. All athletes were measured for the complete anthropometric profile, as per the International Society for Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) guidelines. It was then correlated with the cycling and running performances using interclass correlation (ICC) with 90% confidence interval (CI) limits. Results A non-significant positive correlation observed between eight skinfolds tests on running performance (ICC: 0.10; 90% CI: −0.68–0.77; p>0.05) and biking performance (ICC: 0.15; 90% CI: −0.65–0.79; p>0.05), suggested athletes with greater body fat may render a better athletic performance. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and running performance (ICC:−0.66; 90% CI: −0.94 – −0.12; p<0.05) and a non-significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and cycling performance (ICC:−0.94; 90% CI: −0.97– 0.68; p>0.05). Conclusion Anthropometric data can help in predicting an ideal body profile. This research indicates the similarities and differences of the New Zealand junior profile and the world junior profile. PMID:27504176

  6. Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. METHODS: The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1kg/m², WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. PMID:25649384

  7. Vestibulo-Ocular Responses to Vertical Translation using a Hand-Operated Chair as a Field Measure of Otolith Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Campbell, D. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Prather, L.; Clement, G.

    2016-01-01

    The translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (tVOR) is an important otolith-mediated response to stabilize gaze during natural locomotion. One goal of this study was to develop a measure of the tVOR using a simple hand-operated chair that provided passive vertical motion. Binocular eye movements were recorded with a tight-fitting video mask in ten healthy subjects. Vertical motion was provided by a modified spring-powered chair (swopper.com) at approximately 2 Hz (+/- 2 cm displacement) to approximate the head motion during walking. Linear acceleration was measured with wireless inertial sensors (Xsens) mounted on the head and torso. Eye movements were recorded while subjects viewed near (0.5m) and far (approximately 4m) targets, and then imagined these targets in darkness. Subjects also provided perceptual estimates of target distances. Consistent with the kinematic properties shown in previous studies, the tVOR gain was greater with near targets, and greater with vision than in darkness. We conclude that this portable chair system can provide a field measure of otolith-ocular function at frequencies sufficient to elicit a robust tVOR.

  8. Some anthropometric aspects of workstation design.

    PubMed

    Pheasant, S

    1987-01-01

    The anthropometric factors which should be taken into account, in the design of any product or environment, fall into four main areas: clearance, reach, posture and strength. A systematic approach to these questions is described and illustrated by reference to certain aspects of the design of hospital equipment. Current standards concerning hospital beds are discussed. The paper concludes with a brief consideration of lifting strength.

  9. Anthropometric and Quality-of-Life Parameters in Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M; Murcia, M Antonia; Gómez-Murcia, Victoria; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena

    2015-07-01

    The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders. The incidence and prevalence are low because the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is rare. Our aim was to assess the use of anthropometric and quality-of-life parameters in porphyric patients in order to identify predictor factors that might help in characterizing AIP patients.Sixteen AIP patients from Murcia (Spain) were recruited from local health centers in 2008 and 2009. A control group of 16 healthy people was established. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements: body weight; height; knee-heel height; waist, hip, upper arm and calf circumferences (CCs); biacromion and biiliac diameters; bicondylar and biepicondylar width; and triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, and calf skinfold thickness. Anthropometric indicators were obtained from anthropometric measurements. A quality-of-life evaluation was carried out using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Barthel and Katz indexes. Significant differences in means were tested by unpaired Student t test. Group differences in anthropometric measurements were tested with a 2-way analysis of variance (group × condition: age group, overweight, and adiposity degree). Relative frequencies were obtained for noncontinuous variables. Significant differences in prevalence were calculated by means of χ.AIP patients showed statistically significant differences in terms of knee-heel height, biiliac diameter, CC, triceps skinfold thickness, BIA, ponderal index, endomorphy, and ectomorphy. Only 1 quality-of-life indicator, visual analog scale, in the EQ-5D questionnaire showed significant differences between porphyric and control groups.Some anthropometric parameters and the EQ-5D questionnaire could be used to appreciate the presence or follow the evolution of the disease in AIP patients.

  10. Anthropometric and Quality-of-Life Parameters in Acute Intermittent Porphyria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M; Murcia, MAntonia; Gómez-Murcia, Victoria; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders. The incidence and prevalence are low because the acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is rare. Our aim was to assess the use of anthropometric and quality-of-life parameters in porphyric patients in order to identify predictor factors that might help in characterizing AIP patients. Sixteen AIP patients from Murcia (Spain) were recruited from local health centers in 2008 and 2009. A control group of 16 healthy people was established. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements: body weight; height; knee-heel height; waist, hip, upper arm and calf circumferences (CCs); biacromion and biiliac diameters; bicondylar and biepicondylar width; and triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, and calf skinfold thickness. Anthropometric indicators were obtained from anthropometric measurements. A quality-of-life evaluation was carried out using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Barthel and Katz indexes. Significant differences in means were tested by unpaired Student t test. Group differences in anthropometric measurements were tested with a 2-way analysis of variance (group × condition: age group, overweight, and adiposity degree). Relative frequencies were obtained for noncontinuous variables. Significant differences in prevalence were calculated by means of χ2. AIP patients showed statistically significant differences in terms of knee-heel height, biiliac diameter, CC, triceps skinfold thickness, BIA, ponderal index, endomorphy, and ectomorphy. Only 1 quality-of-life indicator, visual analog scale, in the EQ-5D questionnaire showed significant differences between porphyric and control groups. Some anthropometric parameters and the EQ-5D questionnaire could be used to appreciate the presence or follow the evolution of the disease in AIP patients. PMID:26222840

  11. Reliability of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument with healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Adams, Valerie; Mathisen, Bernice; Baines, Surinder; Lazarus, Cathy; Callister, Robin

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of tongue and handgrip strength and endurance measurements in healthy adults using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Fifty-one healthy participants (21 males, 30 females; age range = 19-57 years) were tested on four occasions 1 week apart to determine test-retest reliability. The primary outcome measures were isometric tongue and handgrip strength (best of three trials) and sustained isometric endurance. Small increases (changes in group mean) in both anterior (1.7 %) and posterior (2.5 %) tongue strength and handgrip strength (5 %) between weeks 1 and 2 were observed with no change in subsequent weeks, suggesting that there is only a small learning effect for these measurements. The within-subject variation (mean-typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation [CV]) indicated higher than desirable initial variation for anterior (CV 10.8 %) and posterior (CV 11.8 %) tongue strength and handgrip strength (CV 15.2 %) but this was reduced in weeks 2-4. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) indicated acceptable and improved reliability for both anterior (ICC 0.77-0.90) and posterior (ICC 0.79-0.86) tongue strength and handgrip strength (ICC 0.69-0.91) after week 1. Additional exploratory analyses were conducted with a subset of data to determine whether two values within 5 kPa (tongue) or 15 kPa (handgrip) provide superior strength reliability. Neither tongue nor hand endurance measurements were sufficiently reliable. These findings suggest that tongue and handgrip strength values demonstrate acceptable reliability, especially if familiarization is provided. Further investigation is needed to reduce sources of variability in tongue endurance measurements.

  12. Anthropometrical data of middle-aged Japanese women for industrial design applications.

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, K; Okada, A; Kouchi, M; Horino, S; Kikuchi, Y

    1994-06-01

    Despite the growing importance of human interface design, and despite the growing number of working women, no considerations have been given to women's working spaces and tools. Their designs are based on men's anthropometrical data, and this does not assure safety and amenity of women's working environments. Moreover, few data on women's body measurements are available. The Research Institute of Human Engineering for Quality Life is carrying out an ergonomic anthropometrical study on a large number of Japanese people to create a database for industrial use. The fee for the use of these data is, however, making it very difficult to profit from their acquisition. Therefore, we conducted an anthropometrical study for industrial design use on middle-aged female subjects, who are in the most difficult age group to access. This report should be useful in designing working spaces and tools for women as laborers as well as users.

  13. Anthropometric evaluation of cockpit designs.

    PubMed

    Şenol, Mehmet Burak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate all the critical reaches in a cockpit and determine the visual sufficiency of a cockpit to accommodate 90% of potential pilots. While mismatches of measurements with cockpit dimensions are revealed, proposals are made to improve cockpit ergonomics. Regression models were generated to predict and assure adequate exterior vision. Mean, lower and upper control limits of all measurements were found acceptable except eye level. There are very strong positive relationships between stature and eye level (R(2) = 0.972, p < 0.01), and eye level and visual angle (R(2) = 0.994, p < 0.01). Display panel height should be at least 1.645 × SD smaller than the eye level mean or seating adjustment limits in height may be changed. In general, cockpit design is acceptable in terms of fit/reach accommodation for pilots, except eye level and visual variables that could be solved by better seat adjustments.

  14. Anthropometric evaluation of cockpit designs.

    PubMed

    Şenol, Mehmet Burak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate all the critical reaches in a cockpit and determine the visual sufficiency of a cockpit to accommodate 90% of potential pilots. While mismatches of measurements with cockpit dimensions are revealed, proposals are made to improve cockpit ergonomics. Regression models were generated to predict and assure adequate exterior vision. Mean, lower and upper control limits of all measurements were found acceptable except eye level. There are very strong positive relationships between stature and eye level (R(2) = 0.972, p < 0.01), and eye level and visual angle (R(2) = 0.994, p < 0.01). Display panel height should be at least 1.645 × SD smaller than the eye level mean or seating adjustment limits in height may be changed. In general, cockpit design is acceptable in terms of fit/reach accommodation for pilots, except eye level and visual variables that could be solved by better seat adjustments. PMID:26654833

  15. Quenching and Cold-Work Residual Stresses in Aluminum Hand Forgings : Contour Method Measurement and FEM Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Prime, M. B.; Newborn, M. A.; Balog, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    The cold-compression stress relief process used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings does not fully relieve the stresses. This study measured and predicted the residual stress in 7050-T74 (solution heat treated, quenched, and artificially overaged) and 7050-T7452 (cold compressed prior to aging) hand forgings. The manufacturing process was simulated by finite element analysis. First, a thermal analysis simulated the quench using appropriate thermal boundary conditions and temperature dependent material properties. Second, a structural analysis used the thermal history and a temperature and strain-rate dependent constitutive model to predict the stresses after quenching. Third, the structural analysis was continued to simulate the multiple cold compressions of the stress relief process. Experimentally, the residual stresses in the forgings were mapped using the contour method, which involved cutting the forgings using wire EDM and then measuring the contour of the cut surface using a CMM. Multiple cuts were used to map different stress components. The results show a spatially periodic variation of stresses that results from the periodic nature of the cold work stress relief process. The results compare favorably with the finite element prediction of the stresses.

  16. Facial symmetry in robust anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Image analysis methods commonly used in forensic anthropology do not have desirable robustness properties, which can be ensured by robust statistical methods. In this paper, the face localization in images is carried out by detecting symmetric areas in the images. Symmetry is measured between two neighboring rectangular areas in the images using a new robust correlation coefficient, which down-weights regions in the face violating the symmetry. Raw images of faces without usual preliminary transformations are considered. The robust correlation coefficient based on the least weighted squares regression yields very promising results also in the localization of such faces, which are not entirely symmetric. Standard methods of statistical machine learning are applied for comparison. The robust correlation analysis can be applicable to other problems of forensic anthropology.

  17. The Influence of Anthropometric, Kinematic and Energetic Variables and Gender on Swimming Performance in Youth Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Jorge E; Garrido, Nuno D; Marques, Mário C; Silva, António J; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the: (i) gender; (ii) performance and; (iii) gender versus performance interactions in young swimmers’ anthropometric, kinematic and energetic variables. One hundred and thirty six young swimmers (62 boys: 12.76 ± 0.72 years old at Tanner stages 1–2 by self-evaluation; and 64 girls: 11.89 ± 0.93 years old at Tanner stages 1–2 by self-evaluation) were evaluated. Performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetic variables were selected. There was a non-significant gender effect on performance, body mass, height, arm span, trunk transverse surface area, stroke length, speed fluctuation, swimming velocity, propulsive efficiency, stroke index and critical velocity. A significant gender effect was found for foot surface area, hand surface area and stroke frequency. A significant sports level effect was verified for all variables, except for stroke frequency, speed fluctuation and propulsive efficiency. Overall, swimmers in quartile 1 (the ones with highest sports level) had higher anthropometric dimensions, better stroke mechanics and energetics. These traits decrease consistently throughout following quartiles up to the fourth one (i.e. swimmers with the lowest sports level). There was a non-significant interaction between gender and sports level for all variables. Our main conclusions were as follows: (i) there are non-significant differences in performance, anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics between boys and girls; (ii) swimmers with best performance are taller, have higher surface areas and better stroke mechanics; (iii) there are non-significant interactions between sports level and gender for anthropometrics, kinematics and energetics. PMID:24511356

  18. Estimation of stature using hand and foot dimensions in Slovak adults.

    PubMed

    Uhrová, Petra; Beňuš, Radoslav; Masnicová, Soňa; Obertová, Zuzana; Kramárová, Daniela; Kyselicová, Klaudia; Dörnhöferová, Michaela; Bodoriková, Silvia; Neščáková, Eva

    2015-03-01

    Hand and foot dimensions used for stature estimation help to formulate a biological profile in the process of personal identification. Morphological variability of hands and feet shows the importance of generating population-specific equations to estimate stature. The stature, hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth of 250 young Slovak males and females, aged 18-24 years, were measured according to standard anthropometric procedures. The data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test for sex and bilateral differences. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for assessing relationship between stature and hand/foot parameters, and subsequently linear regression analysis was used to estimate stature. The results revealed significant sex differences in hand and foot dimensions as well as in stature (p<0.05). There was a positive and statistically significant correlation between stature and all measurements in both sexes (p<0.01). The highest correlation coefficient was found for foot length in males (r=0.71) as well as in females (r=0.63). Regression equations were computed separately for each sex. The accuracy of stature prediction ranged from ±4.6 to ±6.1cm. The results of this study indicate that hand and foot dimension can be used to estimate stature for Slovak for the purpose of forensic field. The regression equations can be of use for stature estimation particularly in cases of dismembered bodies. PMID:25459368

  19. Estimation of stature using hand and foot dimensions in Slovak adults.

    PubMed

    Uhrová, Petra; Beňuš, Radoslav; Masnicová, Soňa; Obertová, Zuzana; Kramárová, Daniela; Kyselicová, Klaudia; Dörnhöferová, Michaela; Bodoriková, Silvia; Neščáková, Eva

    2015-03-01

    Hand and foot dimensions used for stature estimation help to formulate a biological profile in the process of personal identification. Morphological variability of hands and feet shows the importance of generating population-specific equations to estimate stature. The stature, hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth of 250 young Slovak males and females, aged 18-24 years, were measured according to standard anthropometric procedures. The data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test for sex and bilateral differences. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for assessing relationship between stature and hand/foot parameters, and subsequently linear regression analysis was used to estimate stature. The results revealed significant sex differences in hand and foot dimensions as well as in stature (p<0.05). There was a positive and statistically significant correlation between stature and all measurements in both sexes (p<0.01). The highest correlation coefficient was found for foot length in males (r=0.71) as well as in females (r=0.63). Regression equations were computed separately for each sex. The accuracy of stature prediction ranged from ±4.6 to ±6.1cm. The results of this study indicate that hand and foot dimension can be used to estimate stature for Slovak for the purpose of forensic field. The regression equations can be of use for stature estimation particularly in cases of dismembered bodies.

  20. Hand1-Luc embryonic stem cell test (Hand1-Luc EST): a novel rapid and highly reproducible in vitro test for embryotoxicity by measuring cytotoxicity and differentiation toxicity using engineered mouse ES cells.

    PubMed

    Le Coz, Florian; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Omori, Takashi; Saito, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is a promising alternative method for evaluating embryotoxicity of test chemicals by measuring cytotoxicity and differentiation toxicity using mouse ES cells. Differentiation toxicity is analyzed by microscopically counting the beating of embryonic bodies after 10 days of culture. However, improvements are necessary to reduce the laborious manipulations involved and the time required to obtain results. We have previously reported the successful stable transfection of ES cells (ES-D3) with the heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 1 (Hand1) gene and the establishment of a 96-well multi-plate-based new EST with luciferase reporter assay 6 days after treatment with test chemicals. Now, we propose an even more rapid and easier EST, named Hand1-Luc EST. We established another cell line to monitor the Hand1 gene expression via a luciferase reporter gene. By mRNA analysis and luciferase assay, we examined in detail the luciferase activity during cell differentiation, which allowed us to reduce the time of measurement from day 6 to day 5 (120 hr). Furthermore, the protocol was improved, with, among others, the measurement of cytotoxicity and differentiation toxicity taking place in the same 96-well round bottom plate instead of two different plates. With the positive control, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and 9 test chemicals, data with high reproducibility and very low variation (CV < 50%) in the relevant endpoints were obtained. This study shows that the Hand1-Luc EST could provide an accurate and sensitive short-term test for prediction of embryotoxicants by measuring cytotoxicity and differentiation toxicity from the same sample.

  1. The nutritional and anthropometric status of Gaelic football players.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Sue; Collins, Kieran

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intakes and anthropometric profiles of county and club Gaelic football players and compare them to soccer players and control subjects. Seven-day dietary records were analyzed and anthropometric measurements were taken midway through the Gaelic football competitive season. The county group with a mean height of 1.82 +/- 0.04 m were significantly taller (p < .05) and had less body fat that any other group. The county and club teams consumed 151 +/- 11 and 150 +/- 16 kJ x kg(-1) x day(-1), respectively, with 52.2 +/- 5% and 49.5 +/- 9% of their energy intakes as carbohydrate. This compares to 173 +/- 11 kJ x kg(-1) x day(-1) for the soccer players and 159 +/- 8 kJ x kg(-1) x day(-1) for the controls, with 57 +/- 4% and 44.9 +/- 5% of their energy from carbohydrate. The nature of Gaelic football demands a balanced diet, rich in energy and carbohydrate and with adequate calcium is consumed; the subjects needed to increase these dietary components in order to meet the energetic demands of competition and training. Additional nutritional counseling was provided on an individual basis.

  2. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; de Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults. Methods The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (χ2) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05). Results The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed. Conclusion The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue. PMID:26466060

  3. Validation of Self-Reported Anthropometrics in Female College Freshmen

    PubMed Central

    LEONE, RYAN J.; MORGAN, AMY L.; LUDY, MARY-JON

    2016-01-01

    Most investigations concerning the validity of self-reported anthropometrics focus on weight, height, and body mass index. This study extends those investigations by exploring the impact of self-reporting bias on the disease risk indicators of waist circumference and body fat percentage. Female college freshmen (n=128) self-reported weight and height, then underwent measurements for weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Self-reporting bias was defined as self-reported minus directly-assessed anthropometric value. Despite no differences in self-reported versus directly-assessed weight or height for the total group, students with high waist circumference and excess fat under-reported their weight by 2.3±4.4 lb (p<0.05). Self-reporting bias was negatively correlated with waist circumference (r=−0.362; p<0.001) and body fat percentage (r=−0.317; p<0.001). Although many female college freshmen accurately represent their weight, those with excess fat and waist circumference under-reported their weight. This may lead to missed opportunities for risk identification, prevention, and intervention. PMID:27293506

  4. The interdisciplinary effect of hands-on science as measured by the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Elvis H.

    This study examined the difference in scale scores from Tennessee's standardized test the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP). Archival data from the years 2002 and 2005 were compared using ANOVA tests at < .01 and < .05 levels. TCAP/NCE Scale Scores for academic subjects of Science, Math, Social Studies and Reading were used. 3922 student test results were divided into groups based on the number of years the student had a trained hands-on science teacher. Trained hands-on science teachers were identified from Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools (MNPS) Science Department inservice records, which gave information on the teacher's participation in The Hands-on Science Initiative, Biology Gateway and Physical Science training. This information included not only that the teacher had be trained but also the dates of training. The study revealed 1600 students who attended MNPS between the years 2002 and 2005; in grades five through seven that never had a hands-on science trained teacher. About 1600 students in those same years had a hands-on science teacher for only one year, and 588 students had a hands-on science teacher for two of the three years. Lastly of the 3922 students in the study there were 44 students who had a hands-on science teacher for all three years. The results of the ANOVA test showed statistically significant gains in science, math and social studies but not in reading for students who had trained hands-on science teachers for at least one year.

  5. Correlation of anthropometric variables, conditional and exercise habits in activite olders

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Bermúdez, Santiago; Parra Sánchez, José H

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to correlate the anthropometric and functional variables, and exercise habits in a group of elderly adults who regularly attend exercise programs. Method: Participation of 217 subjects between 60 and 85 years of age, from 13 regions of Colombia. Anthropometric and functional assessment was conducted as a questionnaire on exercise habits. Results: Negative correlations were shown between exercise habits and body fat and positive correlations between hand strength and VO2 max. (r = 0.4), age was negatively associated to functional variables. Conclusions: The functional capacity is influenced by increased age and body fat. With higher frequencies of physical exercise, VO2 max. and strength improved, but less body fat was observed. PMID:24893195

  6. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  7. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments.

  8. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Richard L.; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  9. Measurement of the effect of playground surface materials on hand impact forces during upper limb fall arrests.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woochol J; Kaur, Harjinder; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2014-04-01

    Distal radius fractures are common on playgrounds. Yet current guidelines for the selection of playground surface materials are based only on protection against fall-related head injuries. We conducted "torso release" experiments to determine how common playground surface materials affect impact force applied to the hand during upper limb fall arrests. Trials were acquired for falls onto a rigid surface, and onto five common playground surface materials: engineered wood fiber, gravel, mulch, rubber tile, and sand. Measures were acquired for arm angles of 20 and 40 degrees from the vertical. Playground surface materials influenced the peak resultant and vertical force (P<.001), but not the peak horizontal force (P=.159). When compared with the rigid condition, peak resultant force was reduced 17% by sand (from 1039 to 864 N), 16% by gravel, 7% by mulch, 5% by engineered wood fiber, and 2% by rubber tile. The best performing surface provided only a 17% reduction in peak resultant force. These results help to explain the lack of convincing evidence from clinical studies on the effectiveness of playground surface materials in preventing distal radius fractures during playground falls, and highlight the need to develop playground surface materials that provide improved protection against these injuries.

  10. Hand Washing

    MedlinePlus

    ... dirty little secrets: Students don't wash their hands often or well. In one study, only 58% of female and 48% of male middle- and high-school students washed their hands after using the bathroom. Yuck! previous continue How ...

  11. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby.

  12. (Robotic hands)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1988-09-23

    The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

  13. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby. PMID:27380706

  14. Pain and Hand Function.

    PubMed

    Howland, Nicholas; Lopez, Mariela; Zhang, Andrew Y

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a unique somatosensory perception that can dramatically affect our ability to function. It is also a necessary perception, without which we would do irreparable damage to ourselves. In this article, the authors assess the impact of pain on function of the hand. Pain can be categorized into acute pain, chronic pain, and neuropathic pain. Hand function and objective measurements of hand function are analyzed as well as the impact of different types of pain on each of these areas.

  15. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  16. Relationship Between Grip, Pinch Strengths and Anthropometric Variables, Types of Pitch Throwing Among Japanese High School Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Okura, Chisa; Kanazawa, Saeko; Nagai, Ayako; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate clinical normative data for grip and tip, key, palmar pinch strength and to assess the relationship between these data and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing among Japanese high-school baseball pitchers. Materials and Methods: One hundred-thirty three healthy high school baseball pitchers were examined and had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to age, hand dominance, throwing ratio of type of pitch. A digital dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key and palmer pinch in both dominant and nondominant side. Body composition was measured by the multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer. Results: Grip strength and tip and palmer pinch strength in dominant side were statistically greater than them in nondominant side (P < 0.05). There were significant associations between grip strength and height (r = 0.33, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001), muscle mass of upper extremity (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), fat free mass (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), fat mass (r = 0.22, P < 0.05) in dominant side. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that fat free mass and tip, palmer, key pinch strength were predictors of grip strength in dominant side. No statistical significant correlations were found between the throwing ratio of types of pitches thrown and grip strength and tip, key, palmar pinch strength. Conclusions: Our result provides

  17. Development of a hand- transmitted vibration measurement instrument to perform tests in medical equipment according to the international standard IEC 60601-1-2005 Ed.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, F. F.; Moriya, H. T.; Moraes, J. C. T. B.

    2016-07-01

    According to the sub clause 9.6.3 of the international standard IEC 60601-1-2005, medical electrical equipment must provide means of protection against hazardous hand- transmitted vibrations. Compliance of this sub clause is checked by using a vibration measurement instrument in accordance with ISO 5349-1-2001 standard. The present article describes the development of a vibration measurement instrument to perform vibration measurements tests in medical equipments.

  18. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier than those in the other teams. They had less body fat, as shown by lesser skinfold thicknesses, a smaller percentage body fat as determined by prediction equations, and a greater fat-free mass. The intermediate level team showed an intermediate level of body fat and the lower level team had the highest proportion of fat. Images p100-a p100-b PMID:4027491

  19. Computer-based anthropometrical system for total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Nieto, B; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Terrón, J A; Arráns, R; Errazquin, L

    1997-05-01

    For total body irradiation (TBI) dose calculation requirements, anatomical information about the whole body is needed. Despite the fact that video image grabbing techniques are used by some treatment planning systems for standard radiotherapy, there are no such systems designed to generate anatomical parameters for TBI planning. The paper describes an anthropometrical computerised system based on video image grabbing which was purpose-built to provide anatomical data for a PC-based TBI planning system. Using software, the system controls the acquisition and digitalisation of the images (external images of the patient in treatment position) and the measurement procedure itself (on the external images or the digital CT information). An ASCII file, readable by the TBI planning system, is generated to store the required parameters of the dose calculation points, i.e. depth, backscatter tissue thickness, thickness of inhomogeneity, off-axis distance (OAD) and source to skin distance (SSD). PMID:9246868

  20. Anthropometric Outcomes following Fronto-Orbital Advancement for Metopic Synostosis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kamlesh B.; Skolnick, Gary B.; Mulliken, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The authors’ purpose is to present changes in anthropometric fronto-orbital dimensions after surgical correction of metopic synostosis. Methods The authors retrospectively analyzed craniometric dimensions in older patients with metopic synostosis corrected by fronto-orbital advancement performed by the senior author (J.B.M.). Preoperative and postoperative linear measures (frontal breadth, cranial width, and intercanthal distance) were taken by direct anthropometry. Interdacryon distance and width of the bandeau were also recorded intraoperatively, before and after widening. Follow-up anthropometric values were compared to age- and sex-matched normative data and standard (z) scores were calculated. Results Sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria. Syndromic diagnosis was documented in five of 16 patients. Average age at the last postoperative evaluation was 8.9 ± 3.8 years (range, 4 to 16 years). Mean frontal width z-scores decreased postoperatively from 0.82 to –0.32 (p = 0.007), indicating diminished growth in this dimension. The last measured frontal width strongly correlated with the breadth of the bandeau after surgical correction but not with preoperative values. Postoperative mean cranial width diminished significantly to a more normal value. Mean intercanthal distance was normal preoperatively and remained so but was significantly greater in syndromic than in nonsyndromic cases. Conclusions Frontal growth rate is diminished in the coronal plane after fronto-orbital advancement. The authors recommend primary techniques to overcorrect the width of the bandeau and frontal region, including zygomaticosphenoid osteotomies and interpositional cranial bone grafts to advance/widen the lateral orbital rim. Continued evaluation is required to assess whether overcorrection results in normal frontotemporal shape and breadth at skeletal maturity. PMID:27119926

  1. A systematic review and meta-analysis of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI).

    PubMed

    Adams, Valerie; Mathisen, Bernice; Baines, Surinder; Lazarus, Cathy; Callister, Robin

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the use of the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) to measure strength and endurance of the tongue and hand in healthy populations and those with medical conditions. A systematic search of the scientific literature published since 1991 yielded 38 studies that addressed this purpose. The IOPI was used primarily for tongue strength (38 studies) and endurance (15 studies) measurement; relatively few studies measured hand strength (9 studies) or endurance (6 studies). The majority of the studies identified used the IOPI as an evaluation tool, although four used it as an intervention tool. Half the studies were conducted in healthy people, primarily adults. Most of the other participants had disorders with dysphagia, primarily Parkinson's disease or head or neck cancer. Age and gender, as well as a number of medical conditions, influence the values of tongue and hand strength. There is sufficient evidence to support the use of the IOPI as a suitable tool for measuring tongue strength and endurance and as an assessment tool for intervention studies, and there is growing support for its use to assess hand strength and endurance in healthy and clinical populations.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF EVALUATION OF A QUANTITATIVE VIDEO-FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM AND FLUORESCENT TRACER FOR MEASURING TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SURFACES TO HANDS WITH REPEATED CONTACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfers of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (Vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as...

  3. Evidence of Polygenic Adaptation in the Systems Genetics of Anthropometric Traits.

    PubMed

    Polimanti, Renato; Yang, Bao Zhu; Zhao, Hongyu; Gelernter, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Many signals of natural selection have been identified in the human genome. However, except for some single-locus mechanisms, most molecular processes generating these adaptation signals are still unknown. We developed an approach that integrates datasets related to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with information about systems biology and genetic signatures of natural selection to identify evidence of polygenic adaptation. Specifically, we focused on five anthropometric measurements: body mass index (BMI), height, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), and waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WC), and sex differences for WHR and WC. We performed an enrichment analysis for signals of natural selection in protein interaction networks associated with anthropometric traits in European populations. The adaptation signals-enriched gene networks associated highlighted epistatic interactions in the context of polygenic selection for the investigated traits. These polygenic mechanisms indicated intriguing selective mechanisms related to the anthropometric traits: adult locomotory behavior for BMI, infection resistance for height, interplay between lipid transport and immune systems for WHR, and female-specific polygenic adaptation for WHR and WC. In conclusion, we observed evidence of polygenic adaptation in the context of systems genetics of anthropometric traits that indicates polygenic mechanisms related to the natural selection in European populations. PMID:27537407

  4. Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals☆

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. PMID:25479854

  5. Assessment of male anthropometric trends and the effects on simulated heat stress responses.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Miyo; Bathalon, Gaston P; Berglund, Larry G

    2008-09-01

    Assessing temporal changes in anthropometrics and body composition of US Army soldiers is important because these changes may affect fitness, performance, and safety. This study investigated differences in body dimensions (height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)) of US Army male soldiers by comparing 2004 and 1988 databases. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified and physiological responses of the different somatotypes to simulated heat stress (35 degrees C/50%rh, approximately 550 W work rate, carrying 12 kg load including battle dress uniform and body armor, rest for 30 min and walk for 70 min) using a thermal regulatory model were evaluated. A significant increase in body weight (2.4 kg) was observed between the 2004 and 1988 data (P < 0.05, after Bonferroni correction). However, changes in height and circumference measurements for %BF were insignificant, with the magnitude of the changes not exceeding inter-observer errors. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that anthropometric distributions did not differ between the two databases and identified five primary somatotypes: "tall-fat", "tall-lean", "average", "short-lean", and "short-fat." Within each database, anthropometric values differed among the somatotypes. However, simulated physiological responses to heat stress in each somatotype were similar in the 2004 and 1988 populations. In conclusion, an increase in body weight was the primary change observed in this sample of US Army male soldiers. Temporal changes in somatotypes of soldiers over a 16-year period had minimal impact on simulated physiological response to heat stress using a thermal regulatory model.

  6. Body mass index and other anthropometric variables in children with sickle cell anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Odetunde, Odutola Israel; Chinawa, Josephat Maduabuchi; Achigbu, Kingsley Ihedioha; Achigbu, Eberechukwu O

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the anthropometric variables of children with sickle cell anaemia and comparing it with those with normal haemoglobin genotype. Methods: A cross sectional study of anthropometric measurements was conducted over a period of six months. Children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state aged between 6-20 years were recruited. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometrical variables. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program (SPSS), version 20. Results: The sickle cell patients comprised of 20 males and 20 females. There were an equal number of controls with an equal male to female ratio of 1:1. Forty eight percent (19) of the children with sickle cell anemia were underweight (< 5th %ile) and this is statistically significant. χ2=18.02 and p=0.000. When compared with subjects with normal haemoglobin genotype only five of them (13%) were underweight. χ2=10.286 and p=0.001. The controls weighed significantly more than the HbSS patients and also had significantly larger body surface compared to the HbSS population (P<0.05). Conclusion: BMI and other anthropometric variables among children with sickle cell anemia were low when compared with children with normal Haemoglobin genotype. PMID:27182236

  7. Evidence of Polygenic Adaptation in the Systems Genetics of Anthropometric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Polimanti, Renato; Yang, Bao Zhu; Zhao, Hongyu; Gelernter, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Many signals of natural selection have been identified in the human genome. However, except for some single-locus mechanisms, most molecular processes generating these adaptation signals are still unknown. We developed an approach that integrates datasets related to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with information about systems biology and genetic signatures of natural selection to identify evidence of polygenic adaptation. Specifically, we focused on five anthropometric measurements: body mass index (BMI), height, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), and waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WC), and sex differences for WHR and WC. We performed an enrichment analysis for signals of natural selection in protein interaction networks associated with anthropometric traits in European populations. The adaptation signals-enriched gene networks associated highlighted epistatic interactions in the context of polygenic selection for the investigated traits. These polygenic mechanisms indicated intriguing selective mechanisms related to the anthropometric traits: adult locomotory behavior for BMI, infection resistance for height, interplay between lipid transport and immune systems for WHR, and female-specific polygenic adaptation for WHR and WC. In conclusion, we observed evidence of polygenic adaptation in the context of systems genetics of anthropometric traits that indicates polygenic mechanisms related to the natural selection in European populations. PMID:27537407

  8. Giardia duodenalis infection and anthropometric status in preschoolers in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Prado, Matildes da Silva; Strina, Agostino; Santos, Lenaldo Azevedo dos; Jesus, Sandra Rêgo de; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between Giardia duodenalis infection and anthropometric deficits, as measured by weight-for-age and height-for-age. This cross-sectional study included 629 children from 12 to 48 months of age, selected from 30 geographic areas in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Poisson regression and linear regression were used for the multivariate statistical analyses. G. duodenalis was diagnosed in 13.5% of the children. The children's breastfeeding duration and living conditions (garbage collection and paved streets or sidewalks) modified the effect of G. duodenalis infection on anthropometric status. Among infected children, there were statistically significant associations between weight deficit and shorter breastfeeding (PR=2.22; 95%CI: 1.56-3.14) and inadequate paving of streets and sidewalks (PR=2.00; 95%CI: 1.37-2.92), while height deficit was associated with deficient public garbage collection (PR=2.21; 95%CI: 1.31-2.51). In the linear regression, the association with the anthropometric indicators remained positive and statistically significant. The child's unhealthy living environment aggravated the negative effect of G. duodenalis infection on anthropometric status, and breastfeeding was a protective factor in the outcome.

  9. Using the Hand Laterality Judgement Task to Assess Motor Imagery: A Study of Practice Effects in Repeated Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonstra, Anne M.; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Veenstra, Evelien; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Otten, Egbert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a practice effect on the Hand Laterality Judgement Task (HLJT). The HLJT task is a mental rotation task that can be used to assess motor imagery ability in stroke patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals performed the HLJT and two control tasks twice at a 3-week interval. Differences in the…

  10. Coordination of hand shape.

    PubMed

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  11. Coordination of Hand Shape

    PubMed Central

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In Experiment 1, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  12. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  13. A comparison of cephalometric measurements: a picture archiving and communication system versus the hand-tracing method--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parmjit; Davies, Terence Ian

    2011-08-01

    Traditionally, cephalometric analysis has been carried out using a hand-tracing manual method. In imaging, picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are information management systems used for the capture and measurement of medical and dental radiographs. Although not customized for lateral cephalometry, this study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric measurements made on screen using PACS compared with the conventional hand-tracing method. Six angular and four liner parameters were measured on five radiographs of four females and one male with an age range of 14-20 years. Analysis was completed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. For the electronic method, SNB (P=0.04) and lower incisor angle (P=0.05) were the only parameters found to be significantly different between the two operators. There was no significant difference between operators 1 and 2 for the hand-tracing method for any measurement. All measurements were comparable between the two methods. This preliminary study would suggest that using PACS may be an acceptable method for obtaining cephalometric measurements for treatment planning; however, further evaluation is necessary with a larger sample size. PMID:20923935

  14. Three-Dimensional Anthropometric Database of Attractive Caucasian Women: Standards and Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Galantucci, Luigi Maria; Deli, Roberto; Laino, Alberto; Di Gioia, Eliana; D’Alessio, Raoul; Lavecchia, Fulvio; Percoco, Gianluca; Savastano, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to develop a database to determine a new biomorphometric standard of attractiveness. Sampling was carried out using noninvasive three-dimensional relief methods to measure the soft tissues of the face. These anthropometric measurements were analyzed to verify the existence of any canons with respect to shape, size, and measurement proportions which proved to be significant with regard to the aesthetics of the face. Finally, the anthropometric parameters obtained were compared with findings described in the international literature. The study sample was made up competitors in the Miss Italy 2010 and 2009 beauty contest. The three-dimensional (3D) scanning of soft tissue surfaces allowed 3D digital models of the faces and the spatial 3D coordinates of 25 anthropometric landmarks to be obtained and used to calculate linear and angular measurements. A paired Student t test for the analysis of the means allowed 3 key questions in the study of biomorphometric parameters of the face to be addressed through comparison with the data available in the literature. The question of statistical evidence for the samples analyzed being members of the populations samples reported in literature was also addressed. The critical analysis of the data helped to identify the anthropometric measurements of the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the face, variations in which have a major influence on the attractiveness of the face. These changes involve facial width, height, and depth. Changes in measurements of length, angles, and proportions found in the sample considered were also analyzed. PMID:27763980

  15. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Chettle, D. R.

    2008-02-15

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4{pi} geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when {sup 27}Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1{sigma}). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96{+-}1.25 ({+-}1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several

  16. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A; McNeill, F E; Byun, S H; Prestwich, W V; Chettle, D R

    2008-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the 26Mg (n, gamma) 27Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4 pi geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when 27Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1 sigma). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96 +/- 1.25 (+/- 1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in

  17. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A; McNeill, F E; Byun, S H; Prestwich, W V; Chettle, D R

    2008-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the 26Mg (n, gamma) 27Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4 pi geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when 27Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1 sigma). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96 +/- 1.25 (+/- 1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in

  18. Anthropometric Indices Associated with Variation in Cardiovascular Parameters among Primary School Pupils in Ile-Ife

    PubMed Central

    Abiodun, Adedeji G.; Egwu, Michael O.; Adedoyin, Rufus A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigated the anthropometric indices associated with variations in cardiovascular parameters among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Method. One thousand and twenty-six pupils (age range 6–14 years, mean age 10.12 years) from ten schools were recruited with parents' informed consent. Anthropometric (Height (Ht), Weight (Wt), Abdominal Circumference (AC)) and cardiovascular (Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Heart Rate (HR)) parameters were measured using standard instruments and procedures. Blood pressure (BP) was measured after ten minutes of quiet sitting. Body Mass Index (BMI), Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Pulse Pressure (PP) were estimated. Results. Age, Ht, Wt, BMI, and AC correlated significantly (P < .01) with BP and PP. AC and BMI were predictors of BP, HR, RPP, and PP. Conclusion. Significant correlations exist between age, Ht, Wt, BMI, AC, and BP with weight being a more viable predictor of SBP and age a more viable predictor of DBP. PMID:21747972

  19. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  20. Water-displacement plethysmography: a technique for the simultaneous thermal manipulation and measurement of whole-hand and whole-foot blood flows.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Joanne N; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and validate water-displacement plethysmographs for the forearm, hand and foot that could clamp segmental skin temperature whilst simultaneously measuring cutaneous blood flow. Two experiments were performed. In the first, the forearm plethysmograph was validated against a mercury-in-silastic plethysmograph under thermoneutral conditions, with and without forearm heating. Cutaneous vascular conductance was elevated almost three-fold by this treatment, however, there were no significant differences between the two forms of plethysmography in either state (P > 0.05). In study two, hand and foot blood flows were measured under clamped thermoneutral conditions, but with three local skin temperature treatments (5, 25, 40 °C). The hand had significantly higher blood flows than the foot at both 25 °C (4.07 versus 2.20 mL.100 mL( - 1).min( - 1); P < 0.05) and 40 °C (8.20 versus 4.47 mL.100 mL( - 1).min( - 1); P < 0.05). The foot was maximally constricted during the two lower temperatures, yet the cutaneous thermal sensitivity of the hand was almost two-fold greater (P < 0.05). This evidence supports the significant role played by these appendages in heat loss and conservation, and these plethysmographs will now be used to map cutaneous vascular responses (forearm, hand, calf, foot) across combinations of core and local skin temperatures.

  1. Measurement of hand dynamics in a microsurgery environment: Preliminary data in the design of a bimanual telemicro-operation test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Steve; Williams, Roy

    1989-01-01

    Data describing the microsurgeon's hand dynamics was recorded and analyzed in order to provide an accurate model for the telemicrosurgery application of the Bimanual Telemicro-operation Test Bed. The model, in turn, will guide the development of algorithms for the control of robotic systems in bimanual telemicro-operation tasks. Measurements were made at the hand-tool interface and include position, acceleration and force between the tool-finger interface. Position information was captured using an orthogonal pulsed magnetic field positioning system resulting in measurements in all six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). Acceleration data at the hands was obtained using accelerometers positioned in a triaxial arrangement on the back of the hand allowing measurements in all three cartesian-coordinate axes. Force data was obtained by using miniature load cells positioned between the tool and the finger and included those forces experienced perpendicular to the tool shaft and those transferred from the tool-tissue site. Position data will provide a minimum/maximum reference frame for the robotic system's work space or envelope. Acceleration data will define the response times needed by the robotic system in order to emulate and subsequently outperform the human operator's tool movements. The force measurements will aid in designing a force-reflective, force-scaling system as well as defining the range of forces the robotic system will encounter. All analog data was acquired by a 16-channel analog-to-digital conversion system residing in a IBM PC/AT-compatible computer at the Center's laboratory. The same system was also used to analyze and present the data.

  2. Inter-Investigator Reliability of Anthropometric Prediction of 1RM Bench Press in College Football Players

    PubMed Central

    SCHUMACHER, RICHARD M.; ARABAS, JANA L.; MAYHEW, JERRY L.; BRECHUE, WILLIAM F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inter-investigator differences in anthropometric assessments on the prediction of one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press in college football players. Division-II players (n = 34, age = 20.4 ± 1.2 y, 182.3 ± 6.6 cm, 99.1 ± 18.4 kg) were measured for selected anthropometric variables and 1RM bench press at the conclusion of a heavy resistance training program. Triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfolds were measured in triplicate by three investigators and used to estimate %fat. Arm circumference was measured around a flexed biceps muscle and was corrected for triceps skinfold to estimate muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Chest circumference was measured at mid-expiration. Significant differences among the testers were evident in six of the nine anthropometric variables, with the least experienced tester being significantly different from the other testers on seven variables, although average differences among investigators ranged from 1–2% for circumferences to 4–9% for skinfolds. The two more experienced testers were significantly different on only one variable. Overall agreement among testers was high (ICC>0.895) for each variable, with low coefficients of variation (CV<10.7%). Predicted 1RMs for testers (126.9 ± 20.6, 123.4 ± 22.0, and 132.1 ± 28.4 kg, respectively) were not significantly different from actual 1RM (129.2 ± 20.6 kg). Individuals with varying levels of experience appear to have an acceptable level of ability to estimate 1RM bench press using a non-performance anthropometric equation. Minimal experience in anthropometry may not impede strength and conditioning specialists from accurately estimating 1RM bench press. PMID:27766130

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of thoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of primary hyperhidrosis of hands and armpits using the measurement of skin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jabłoński, Sławomir; Rzepkowska-Misiak, Beata; Piskorz, Łukasz; Brocki, Marian; Wcisło, Szymon; Smigielski, Jacek; Kordiak, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating beyond the needs of thermoregulation. It is disease which mostly affects young people, often carrying a considerable amount of socio-economic implications. Thoracic sympathectomy is now considered to be the "gold standard" in the treatment of idiopathic hyperhidrosis of hands and armpits. Aim Assessment of early effectiveness of thoracic sympathectomy using skin resistance measurements performed before surgery and in the postoperative period. Material and methods A group of 20 patients with idiopathic excessive sweating of hands and the armpit was enrolled in the study. Patients underwent two-stage thoracic sympathectomy with resection of Th2-Th4 ganglions. The skin resistance measurements were made at six previously designated points on the day of surgery and the first day after the operation. Results In all operated patients we obtained complete remission of symptoms on the first day after the surgery. Inhibition of sweating was confirmed using the standard starch iodine (Minor) test. At all measurement points we obtained a statistically significant increase of skin resistance, assuming p < 0.05. To check whether there is a statistically significant difference in the results before and after surgery we used sequence pairs Wilcoxon test. Conclusions Thoracic sympathectomy is an effective curative treatment for primary hyperhidrosis of hands and armpits. Statistically significant increase of skin resistance in all cases is a good method of assessing the effectiveness of the above surgery in the early postoperative period. PMID:23256019

  4. [Analysis of young male anthropometric parameters for design of driving and operations in cars].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yulin; Zhou, Qianxiang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Chunhui; Cai, Gui

    2012-06-01

    Fitting formulas of typical parameters were obtained through analysis of anthropometric parameters of armored car driver and operators. These formulas could be a basis for design of product and equipment of cars, cumulating and updating of basic data of similar sample and edition of relative standards. 76 anthropometric static parameters and 11 functional parameters were chosen, and 1 243 soldiers with armored forces were chosen to be tested. The correlation and fitting formulas of body height, sitting height and other parameters were measured and obtained. We also contrasted measured data with data from GJB1835-1993. The present analysis showed that the correlation between sizes of body length and body height and sitting height was significant. Sizes of body length and enclose size and width direction were all increased compared to those in the 1980s. The present results were consistent with other researchers' current research results. The measured data could be an important basis for the data of young male anthropometric parameters and edition of relative standards and design of specific equipment.

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  6. Towards prenatal biomonitoring in eastern Nigeria: assessing lead levels and anthropometric parameters of newborns.

    PubMed

    Obi, Ejeatuluchukwu; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Okafor, Charles; Igwebe, Anthony; Ebenebe, Joy; Afonne, Onyenmechi Johnson; Ifediata, Francis; Nils, Basu; Nriagu, Jerome

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure maternal blood lead level (BLL) and cord BLL in Nigeria and to compare Nigerian data with other data. We investigated the association among maternal and cord BLLs, and some anthropometric parameters of their babies. BLL was measured in the umbilical and maternal blood samples (using inductively coupled plasma / mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) of 119 women who delivered at three different hospitals in Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria. Anthropometric variables of the babies (head circumference, abdominal circumference, birth weight, birth length, crown rump length) were measured. Lead was detected at >10 μg/l in 10.9 percent of the maternal and 3.4 percent of the cord blood samples. The maternal BLL was 6.19 ± 2.77(mean ± SD) μg/dl while cord BLL was 4.75 ± 2.59(mean ± SD) μg/dl. With the exception of cord BLL and crown rump length positive correlation (R=0.204, P=0.026), neither the maternal nor the cord BLL showed any significant association with any of the children's anthropometric parameters.

  7. Lipid-anthropometric index optimization for insulin sensitivity estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, J.; Wong, S.; Encalada, L.; Herrera, H.; Severeyn, E.

    2015-12-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) is the ability of cells to react due to insulińs presence; when this ability is diminished, low insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance (IR) is considered. IR had been related to other metabolic disorders as metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes. IS can be determined using direct or indirect methods. The indirect methods are less accurate and invasive than direct and they use glucose and insulin values from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The accuracy is established by comparison using spearman rank correlation coefficient between direct and indirect method. This paper aims to propose a lipid-anthropometric index which offers acceptable correlation to insulin sensitivity index for different populations (DB1=MS subjects, DB2=sedentary without MS subjects and DB3=marathoners subjects) without to use OGTT glucose and insulin values. The proposed method is parametrically optimized through a random cross-validation, using the spearman rank correlation as comparator with CAUMO method. CAUMO is an indirect method designed from a simplification of the minimal model intravenous glucose tolerance test direct method (MINMOD-IGTT) and with acceptable correlation (0.89). The results show that the proposed optimized method got a better correlation with CAUMO in all populations compared to non-optimized. On the other hand, it was observed that the optimized method has better correlation with CAUMO in DB2 and DB3 groups than HOMA-IR method, which is the most widely used for diagnosing insulin resistance. The optimized propose method could detect incipient insulin resistance, when classify as insulin resistant subjects that present impaired postprandial insulin and glucose values.

  8. Familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric variables in a business community of Punjab, a north Indian state.

    PubMed

    Badaruddoza; Sawhney, Rashveen

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric variables in an upper-middle class business community in Punjab, a northern state of India. The results were evaluated in a sample of 75 families, constituting 305 individual from three generations such as offspring, parental and grandparental. The data were analyzed through familial correlations, multiple regressions, percent of variance and univariate analysis. The data indicate a strong familial aggregation of blood pressure in this population especially in offspring generations and show that such a familial influence on blood pressure can be detected from the different anthropometric variables, genetic factors, shared household environment and age. These effects were strong in SBP and moderate in DBP. SBP and DBP have showed higher genetic correlation with many anthropometric characters in offspring generation as compared to other generations. These correlations are negligible in male grandparental generation. The results suggest that almost all measured variables are significant multivariate correlates with blood pressure.

  9. Influence of passive smoking on basic anthropometric characteristics and respiratory function in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Goić-Barisić, Ivana; Bradarić, Anteo; Erceg, Marko; Barisić, Igor; Foretić, Nikola; Pavlov, Neven; Tocilj, Jadranka

    2006-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the maintenance difference in basic anthropometric characteristics and to outline the dynamics of respiratory function change in youngsters athletes exposed to passive smoking (PS) and athletes not exposed to passive smoking in their families (NPS). High and weight were determined as basis anthropometric characteristics. Measured parameters for respiratory function were vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), maximum expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% forced vital capacity (MEF 50) and forced expiratory flow at 25% forced vital capacity (MEF 25). Significant statistical differences in separate spirometric variable were found in three variables (FEV1, MEF50, and MEF25) for group older youngsters. Analysis of variance showed statistical differences between athletes unexposed to passive smoking (NPS) and athletes exposed to passive smoking (PS) in even four spirometric variables (VC, FEV1, MEF50 and MEF25).

  10. Relationship of anthropometrical, physiological and motor attributes to sport-specific skills.

    PubMed

    Angyán, L; Téczely, T; Zalay, Z; Karsai, I

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the importance of the athlete's motor capabilities in success in sport. More precisely, the association of anthropometrical and physiological attributes, as well as motor abilities of elite basketball players with play elements of basketball. The subjects were seven elite basketball players. At the end of the competitive season, the anthropometrical and physiological features were measured to establish the physical fitness of the subjects. Both general and sport-specific motor tests were done. The coach estimated the performance of each player during the games of the competitive season. The coach's data sheet incorporated 14 parameters of the game. Regression analyses indicated significant correlation between certain variables of the laboratory tests and the data of the coach's estimation statistics. Knowing these relationships provides us with valuable predictive information about player's capabilities in sport. PMID:14594193

  11. Relationship of anthropometrical, physiological and motor attributes to sport-specific skills.

    PubMed

    Angyán, L; Téczely, T; Zalay, Z; Karsai, I

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the importance of the athlete's motor capabilities in success in sport. More precisely, the association of anthropometrical and physiological attributes, as well as motor abilities of elite basketball players with play elements of basketball. The subjects were seven elite basketball players. At the end of the competitive season, the anthropometrical and physiological features were measured to establish the physical fitness of the subjects. Both general and sport-specific motor tests were done. The coach estimated the performance of each player during the games of the competitive season. The coach's data sheet incorporated 14 parameters of the game. Regression analyses indicated significant correlation between certain variables of the laboratory tests and the data of the coach's estimation statistics. Knowing these relationships provides us with valuable predictive information about player's capabilities in sport.

  12. The Influence of Anthropometric Characteristics on Kinematic Parameters of Children's Sprinter's Running.

    PubMed

    Blažević, Iva; Babić, Vesna; Zagorac, Nebojša

    2015-07-01

    Children's sprinters running differs from the adults' one primarily in their motoric abilities, anthropometric characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics, as well as psychological and sociological characteristics. This research's aim was to examine the influence of anthropometric characteristics on kinematic parameters of children's sprinter's running. The sample of variables consisted of variables which determine anthropometric characteristics (14 anthropometric characteristics) and of 5 kinematic parameters'variables of sprinter's running. Kinematic parameters of sprinter's running in the phase of maximal speed have been collected by applying the Optojump technology (Microgate, Italy) and the sprinter's running times were measured every 5 meters on a 50 m lap. The results obtained from the multiple regression analysis between the group of anthropometric characteristics and the 50 m running results indicate that the percentage of fatty tissue is a statistically significant variable with boys, while the same variable with girls is near the limit of statistical significance. In the factor structure of anthropometric characteristics two factors have been set apart with boys and three with girls. The first factor set apart with both boys and girls is the factor of body voluminosity, the second factor with boys is the factor of longitudinal dimensionality, while with girls it is the factor of fatty tissue quantity. The factor of longitudinal dimensionality is the third girls' factor. For most variables a negative correlation has been determined with a higher percentage of fat or a higher quantity of subcutaneous fatty tissue with both boys and girls. Boys having a lower quantity of subcutaneous fatty tissue achieve better results in 50 m running, they have a shorter duration of contact with the pad, a longer duration of the flight phase and a longer step length when compared to boys with a higher quantity of subcutaneous fatty tissue. Boys with a

  13. Estimation of sex from the upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla

    2013-11-01

    Sex estimation is the first biological attribute needed for personal identification from mutilated and amputated limbs or body parts in medical-legal autopsies. Populations have different sizes and proportions that affect the anthropometric assessment of sex. Relatively few published works assess the accuracy of sex estimation from soft tissue measurements of upper limb parts, except for the hand and its components, but these studies involve a limited range of global populations. The current study aimed to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in upper limb measurements and the accuracy of using these measurements for sex estimation in a contemporary adult Sudanese population. The upper arm length, ulnar length, wrist breadth, hand length, and hand breadth of 240 right-handed Sudanese subjects (120 males and 120 females) aged between 25 and 30 years were measured by international anthropometric standards. Demarking points, sexual dimorphism indices and discriminant functions were developed from 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) who composed the study group. All variables were sexually dimorphic. The ulnar length, wrist breadth and hand breadth significantly contributed to sex estimation. Forearm dimensions showed a higher accuracy for sex estimation than hand dimensions. Cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranged between 78.5% and 89.5%. The reliability of these standards was assessed in a test sample of 20 males and 20 females, and the results showed accuracy between 77.5% and 90%. This study provides new forensic standards for sex estimation from upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults. PMID:24237816

  14. Hand rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Farhaad R; Ozog, David

    2015-09-01

    Aging of the hands results from both natural processes and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Together, these cause textural and pigmentary changes, excess skin laxity, rhytides, and soft tissue atrophy that presents as prominent bones and tendons with easily visible veins. Many options are available for the reversal of these changes. Photoaging can be improved with chemical peels and light-based treatments (such as Q-switched lasers), resurfacing lasers, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy. Soft tissue atrophy can be corrected with autologous fat, nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L lactic acid injections. The literature shows that these treatments have favorable outcomes for most patients; but in order to reduce known complications, it is important to understand the proper use and limitations of each modality. PMID:26566571

  15. Gage for evaluating rheumatoid hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houge, J. C.; Plautz, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two-axis goniometer accurately measures movements of fingers about knuckle joints, diagnosing hands structurally changed by rheumatoid arthritis. Instrument measures lateral movement which is small in normal knuckles but increased in diseased joints. Goniometer is two connected protractors that simultaneously measure angles in perpindicular planes. Dials are offset to clear bony protuberances; extension and offset adjustments span any hand size.

  16. Normative data for hand grip strength and key pinch strength, stratified by age and gender for a multiethnic Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Ngee Wei; Goh, Hui Ting; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Poi, Philip Jun Hua; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hand strength is a good indicator of physical fitness and frailty among the elderly. However, there are no published hand strength references for Malaysians aged > 65 years. This study aimed to establish normative data for hand grip strength (HGS) and key pinch strength (KPS) for Malaysians aged ≥ 60 years, and explore the relationship between hand strength and physical ability. METHODS Healthy participants aged ≥ 60 years with no neurological conditions were recruited from rural and urban locations in Malaysia. HGS and KPS were measured using hand grip and key pinch dynamometers. Basic demographic data, anthropometric measures, modified Barthel Index scores and results of the Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT) were recorded. RESULTS 362 subjects aged 60–93 years were recruited. The men were significantly stronger than the women in both HGS and KPS (p < 0.001). The hand strength of the study cohort was lower than that of elderly Western populations. Significant correlations were observed between hand strength, and residential area (p < 0.001), FRT (r = 0.236, p = 0.028), TUG (r = −0.227, p = 0.009) and JTHFT (r = −0.927, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION This study established reference ranges for the HGS and KPS of rural and urban elderly Malaysian subpopulations. These will aid the use of hand strength as a screening tool for frailty among elderly persons in Malaysia. Future studies are required to determine the modifiable factors for poor hand strength. PMID:26768064

  17. Kinematics and force analysis of a robot hand based on an artificial biological control scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Man Guen

    An artificial biological control scheme (ABCS) is used to study the kinematics and statics of a multifingered hand with a view to developing an efficient control scheme for grasping. The ABCS is based on observation of human grasping, intuitively taking it as the optimum model for robotic grasping. A final chapter proposes several grasping measures to be applied to the design and control of a robot hand. The ABCS leads to the definition of two modes of the grasping action: natural grasping (NG), which is the human motion to grasp the object without any special task command, and forced grasping (FG), which is the motion with a specific task. The grasping direction line (GDL) is defined to determine the position and orientation of the object in the hand. The kinematic model of a redundant robot arm and hand is developed by reconstructing the human upper extremity and using anthropometric measurement data. The inverse kinematic analyses of various types of precision and power grasping are studied by replacing the three-link with one virtual link and using the GDL. The static force analysis for grasping with fingertips is studied by applying the ABCS. A measure of grasping stability, that maintains the positions of contacts as well as the configurations of the redundant fingers, is derived. The grasping stability measure (GSM), a measure of how well the hand maintains grasping under the existence of external disturbance, is derived by the torque vector of the hand calculated from the external force applied to the object. The grasping manipulability measure (GMM), a measure of how well the hand manipulates the object for the task, is derived by the joint velocity vector of the hand calculated from the object velocity. The grasping performance measure (GPM) is defined by the sum of the directional components of the GSM and the GMM. Finally, a planar redundant hand with two fingers is examined in order to study the various postures of the hand performing pinch grasping by

  18. Identification of the Best Anthropometric Predictors of Serum High- and Low-Density Lipoproteins Using Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2015-09-01

    Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are associated with risk factors for various diseases and are related to anthropometric measures. However, controversy remains regarding the best anthropometric indicators of the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. The objectives of this study were to identify the best predictors of HDL and LDL cholesterol using statistical analyses and two machine learning algorithms and to compare the predictive power of combined anthropometric measures in Korean adults. A total of 13,014 subjects participated in this study. The anthropometric measures were assessed with binary logistic regression (LR) to evaluate statistically significant differences between the subjects with normal and high LDL cholesterol levels and between the subjects with normal and low HDL cholesterol levels. LR and the naive Bayes algorithm (NB), which provides more reasonable and reliable results, were used in the analyses of the predictive power of individual and combined measures. The best predictor of HDL was the rib to hip ratio (p =< 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) = 1.895; area under curve (AUC) = 0.681) in women and the waist to hip ratio (WHR) (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.624; AUC = 0.633) in men. In women, the strongest indicator of LDL was age (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.662; AUC by NB = 0.653 ; AUC by LR = 0.636). Among the anthropometric measures, the body mass index (BMI), WHR, forehead to waist ratio, forehead to rib ratio, and forehead to chest ratio were the strongest predictors of LDL; these measures had similar predictive powers. The strongest predictor in men was BMI (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.369; AUC by NB = 0.594; AUC by LR = 0.595 ). The predictive power of almost all individual anthropometric measures was higher for HDL than for LDL, and the predictive power for both HDL and LDL in women was higher than for men. A combination of anthropometric measures slightly improved the predictive power for both HDL and LDL cholesterol

  19. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of amateur rugby league players

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, T.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of amateur rugby league players. Methods—Thirty five amateur rugby league players (19 forwards and 16 backs) were measured for height, body mass, percentage body fat (sum of four skinfolds), muscular power (vertical jump), speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), and maximal aerobic power (multistage fitness test). Data were also collected on match frequency, training status, playing experience, and employment related physical activity levels. Results—The 10 m and 40 m sprint, vertical jump, percentage body fat, and multistage fitness test results were 20–42% poorer than previously reported for professional rugby league players. Compared with forwards, backs had significantly (p<0.01) lower body mass (79.7 (74.7–84.7) kg v 90.8 (86.2–95.4) kg) and significantly (p<0.01) greater speed during the 40 m sprint (6.45 (6.35–6.55) v 6.79 (6.69–6.89) seconds). Values for percentage body fat, vertical jump, 10 m sprint, and maximal aerobic power were not significantly different (p>0.05) between forwards and backs. When compared with professional rugby league players, the training status of amateur rugby league players was 30–53% lower, with players devoting less than three hours a week to team training sessions and about 30 minutes a week to individual training sessions. The training time devoted to the development of muscular power (about 13 minutes a week), speed (about eight minutes a week), and aerobic fitness (about 34 minutes a week) did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between forwards and backs. At the time of the field testing, players had participated, on average, in one 60 minute match every eight days. Conclusions—The physiological and anthropometric characteristics of amateur rugby league players are poorly developed. These findings suggest that position specific training does not occur in amateur rugby league. The poor fitness of non-elite players may be due to a low

  20. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (ɸ) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

  1. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-10-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (ɸ) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data. PMID:25426429

  2. Design and Fabrication of an Instrumented Handrim to Measure the Kinetic and Kinematic Information by the Hand of User for 3D Analysis of Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mallakzadeh, Mohammadreza; Akbari, Hossein

    2014-10-01

    The repetitious nature of propelling a wheelchair has been associated with the high incidence of injury among manual wheelchair users (MWUs), mainly in the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Recent literature has found a link between handrim biomechanics and risk of injury to the upper extremity. The valid measurement of three-dimensional net joint forces and torques, however, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury, the development of prevention techniques, and the reduction of serious injuries to the joints. In this project, an instrumented wheel system was developed to measure the applied loads dynamically by the hand of the user and the angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase. The system is composed of an experimental six-axis load cell, and a wireless eight channel data logger mounted on a wheel hub. The angular position of the wheel is measured by an absolute magnetic encoder. The angular position of the wheelchair user's hand on the handrim during the propulsion phase (ɸ) or point of force application (PFA) is calculated by means of a new-experimental method using 36 pairs of infrared emitter/receiver diodes mounted around the handrim. In this regard, the observed data extracted from an inexperienced able-bodied subject pushed a wheelchair with the instrumented handrim are presented to show the output behavior of the instrumented handrim. The recorded forces and torques were in agreement with previously reported magnitudes. However, this paper can provide readers with some technical insights into possible solutions for measuring the manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanical data.

  3. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making.

  4. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making. PMID:26545537

  5. The effects of smiling or crying facial expressions on grip strength, measured with a hand dynamometer and the bi-digital O-ring test.

    PubMed

    Ozerkan, K N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of smiling or crying facial expressions on grip strength and the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test were evaluated in this study. Ten right-handed basketball players (age group 18-28) were included in the study. Grip strength was measured with a Riester hand dynamometer and the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test successively, after the players had looked at the drawing of a "crying face" for 5 seconds from a distance of 40 cm at the eye level. Immediately afterwards they were shown the drawing of a "smiling face" and were asked to grip with the same condition. Once all 10 players carried out this experiment, the order in which the drawings were shown was reversed. We then proceeded to measure the same variables, using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test. The statistics obtained thereby were subjected to Pearsons correlation coefficient and paired t-test. Using a hand dynamometer and the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test, it was found that, in both tests, the "smiling face" drawing (first crying, then smiling face: with hand dynamometer, it increased from 8.34+/-0.97 kg to 9.18+/-0.9 kg; t=5.39,p=0.0001) increased the grip strength of the basketball players, and the "crying face" drawing (first smiling face, then crying face: with hand dynamometer it decreased from 9.35 +/- 0.90 kg to 8.51+/- 0.96 kg; t=9.81, p=0.0001) decreased the grip strength. Exposure to the smiling face drawing increased the grip strength, and exposure to the crying face decreased it, in every subject tested in this group. Similar effects were observed with the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (first crying, then smiling: it increased from -2.80 +/- 1.13 to 2.20 +/- 1.32; t=33.54, p=0.0001; first smiling then crying: it decreased from 2.40 +/- 1.34 to -2.20 +/- 1.62; t = 15.06, p=0.0001).

  6. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).

  7. The New Zealand rugby injury and performance project. III. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players.

    PubMed Central

    Quarrie, K L; Handcock, P; Waller, A E; Chalmers, D J; Toomey, M J; Wilson, B D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of New Zealand rugby players of different ages and both sexes. METHODS: 356 rugby players (264 male, 92 female) took part in the study during a single season. Playing grade ranged from schoolboys and schoolgirls to senior men and women. Assessment of height, weight, neck circumference, and somatotype was performed before the competitive rugby season. A battery of six physical performance assessments was completed after the anthropometry. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in these variables between field positions and grades. RESULTS: Significant differences between forwards and backs on anthropometric and physical performance variables were apparent at all grades assessed. In terms of anthropometric characteristics, forwards of a given grade were generally taller, possessed greater body mass, and were more endomorphic and less ectomorphic than backs of the same grade. The backs tended to perform better on physical performance measures than forwards, being more aerobically fit, faster, more agile, and possessing a higher degree of muscular endurance. Differences in anthropometry and physical performance attributes were also apparent between players from the various grades. The players at higher levels were generally larger, and performed better on tests of physical performance than the players at lower levels. These differences were found in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The greater body mass of the forwards allows them to obtain greater momentum than the backs when sprinting. The ability to obtain greater momentum is important in the body contact phases of the game. Forwards may compromise their aerobic fitness and speed to some extent in order to maintain a high body mass. The anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players appear to reflect the demands placed on them by the sport. PMID:8808542

  8. Seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within English academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Tester, Emma; Fahey, Jack; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-09-01

    Professional rugby league clubs implement training programmes for the development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within an academy programme. However, research that examines seasonal changes in these characteristics is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics of academy rugby league players by age category (i.e., under 14, 16, 18, 20). Data were collected on 75 players pre- and postseason over a 6-year period (resulting in a total of 195 assessments). Anthropometric (body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, vertical jump, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and 1 repetition maximum squat, bench press, and prone row) measures were collected. The under 14s and 16s showed greater seasonal improvements in body mass (e.g., under 14s = 7.4 ± 4.3% vs. under 20s = 1.2 ± 3.3%) and vertical jump performance than under 18s and under 20s. In contrast, under 18s and under 20s players showed greater seasonal improvements in Yo-Yo performance and 10-m sprint (e.g., under 14s = 1.3 ± 3.9% vs. under 20s = -1.9 ± 1.2%) in comparison to under 14s and under 16s. Seasonal strength improvements were greater for the under 18s compared with under 20s. This study provides comparative data for seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics within rugby league players aged 13-20 years. Coaches should be aware that seasonal improvements in speed may not exist within younger age categories, until changes in body mass stabilize and consider monitoring changes in other characteristics (e.g., momentum). Large interplayer variability suggests that player development should be considered on an individual and longitudinal basis.

  9. Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

    2005-03-15

    Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

  10. Dietary patterns and anthropometric indices among Iranian women with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Rashidkhani, Bahram; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Zareiy, Sanaz; Kargarnovin, Zahra

    2013-11-30

    Major depression is a common mental disorder among women. A number of studies have demonstrated the association between some nutrients and food items with depression, but the studies on the association of dietary patterns with depression, especially in the Middle East, are rare. Further, the literature examining the relationship between anthropometric status and depression are inconsistent. In this study, 45 women with major depression and 90 patients with no mental disorder participated. We collected dietary intakes by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and measured anthropometric indices (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences). Using factor analysis, two major dietary patterns were extracted: Healthy and Unhealthy. After adjusting for confounders, individuals who gained higher scores in healthy dietary pattern, had 84% lower odds of major depression; while the odds of major depression in participants who gained higher scores in unhealthy dietary pattern showed no significant association. No significant association was found between anthropometric indices and major depression. These results suggest that the healthy dietary pattern is significantly associated with lower odds of major depression in adult women. Further researches are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. The relationship between anthropometric indicators and walking distance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shu-Chuan; Hsu, Min-Fang; Kuo, Han-Pin; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Li-Fei; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is a major issue affecting many people with COPD. Six-minute walking distance (6MWD) is a widely used indicator of exercise capacity in patients with COPD. The process is strenuous and time-consuming, especially for patients who have muscle wasting. Anthropometric indicators that reflect body lean mass, such as body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), and calf circumference (CC), may have value in predicting exercise intolerance. Purpose This study attempted to determine the abilities of simple anthropometric indicators including BMI, MAC, and CC in reflecting the exercise intolerance of COPD patients. Methods We recruited 136 nonhospitalized ambulatory COPD patients without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. Each subject’s BMI, MAC, and CC were measured, and they were examined with pulmonary function tests and a 6-minute walk test. Results Among the three anthropometric indicators examined, CC showed the strongest correlation with the 6MWD, followed by MAC and BMI. CC was also strongly associated with functional capacity, followed by MAC, according to the receiver operating characteristic curves. CC and MAC, but not BMI, were significantly associated with exercise intolerance according to logistic regression models that controlled for potential confounders. Conclusion Among the three variables examined, CC and walking distance may have the strongest association in COPD patients. CC may have value in serving as an adjunct to 6MWD in evaluating exercise intolerance of patients with COPD. PMID:26392760

  12. Effect of Forward and Backward Locomotion Training on Anaerobic Performance and Anthropometrical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kachanathu, Shaji John; Alenazi, Aqeel M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Hafez, Ashraf Ramadan; Hameed, Unaise A; Nuhmani, Shibili; Alghamdi, Mansour S; Melam, Ganeshwerarao

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) on a treadmill is a common tool for lower extremity rehabilitation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on anaerobic performance and anthropometrical adaptations during FW and BW on a treadmill. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of thirty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 20.93 ± 2.54 years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, a Forward Walking Group (FWG) (n=15) and a Backward Walking Group (BWG) (n=15), which performed FW and BW on a treadmill at 10° inclination, respectively. The training consisted of three sessions per week for 6 weeks. Study outcomes such as anaerobic performance and anthropometrical body composition were measured at pre- and post-intervention. [Results] Both FW and BW improved anaerobic performance significantly, and the BW group showed better performance than FW. However, changes in anthropometrical body composition were found to be not significant after six weeks of intervention in both the FW and BW groups. [Conclusions] BW training in rehabilitation can be considered more effective than FW at improving anaerobic performance. We also conclude that six weeks of FW and BW training is insufficient for eliciting changes in the body composition. PMID:25540487

  13. Anthropometric Profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of Indian Judo Players

    PubMed Central

    Katralli, Jayasudha; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Judo is a complex sport where different anthropological parameters determine performance. Judo, as a sport is not well known in India. There is evident lack of data concerning the anthropological determinants of judo players. This study was conducted to determine the anthropometric profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of judokas. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on 31 judo players. Anthropometric profile was assessed by measuring height, weight, body mass index, body circumferences at seven sites, seven site skin fold thickness and body fat percentage as per standard accepted protocol. Special Judo Fitness Test – a specific test to evaluate the judo athlete's physical condition was applied. Statistical analysis done using Student's unpaired ‘t’ test and correlation by Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Out of 31 judo players 20 had ≤5 yrs of judo practice (A group) and 11 >5 yrs of judo (B group). Anthropometric findings of both the judo groups were the same. Body fat has negative correlation (r =-0.690, P<0.05) with performance in SJFT. Observations during and after special judo fitness test were also similar. Conclusions Long term training has a minimal effect on anthropometry. Judo athletes of similar age when submitted to the same training type tend to show equal performance in the game and fitness levels after certain years of training. We also confirm existence of negative correlation between body fat and performance. PMID:22942997

  14. Standard anthropometric, body composition, and strength variables as predictors of jumping performance in elite junior athletes.

    PubMed

    Ugarkovic, Dusan; Matavulj, Dragan; Kukolj, Milos; Jaric, Slobodan

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether variables routinely assessed while testing athletes can also predict movement performance. The relation between jumping performance and standard strength, anthropometric, and body composition variables was examined in elite junior basketball players. The 33 males were tested for maximal vertical jump, as well as for maximal isometric voluntary force and rate of force development of hip and knee extensors. Standard anthropometric and body composition measures (body height, lean body mass, as well as the percentage of fat and muscle tissue) were also taken. Except for maximal isometric forces (0.38 and 0.52 N.kg(-1) for hip and knee extensors, respectively), all correlation coefficients between the selected variables and jump height were insignificant. As a consequence, the corresponding multiple correlation coefficient, R = 0.71, also suggested a moderate predictability of jumping performance by the standard strength tests and anthropometric and body composition variables. The results obtained dispute the use of the examined tests in sport performance assessment, and also question applying the tests for other purposes such as evaluation of training procedures or selection of young athletes. Therefore, the results are in line with the concept that a reliable performance assessment in homogeneous groups of athletes requires predominantly movement-specific testing.

  15. Anthropometric, physiological and maturational characteristics in selected elite and non-elite male adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gil, Javier; Ruiz, Fátima; Irazusta, Amaia; Kortajarena, Maider; Seco, Jesus; Irazusta, Jon

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anthropometric, physiological and maturation characteristics of young players (13-14 years old) associated with being successful in basketball. Body parameters were measured (stature, total body mass, skinfolds and lengths) and physiological capacities were assessed by endurance, sprint (20 m), jump and dribbling tests. Chronological age (CA) was recorded and maturity estimated using predicted age at peak height velocity (APHV). Anthropometric analysis indicated that elite players were taller, heavier and had a higher percentage of muscle. Further, physiological testing showed that these elite players perform better in jump, endurance, speed and agility tests (especially in the agility and ball tests). In addition, these skills are correlated with point average during the regular season. More basketball players born in the first semester of the year are selected and there is a predominance of early-maturing boys among those selected for the elite team. Those who are more mature have advantages in anthropometric characteristics and physiological test results. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of basketball players. These findings should be taken into account by trainers and coaches, to avoid artificial bias in their selection choices.

  16. Design of a phantom equivalent to measure bone-fluorine in a human's hand via delayed neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mostafaei, F; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R; Prestwich, W V; Inskip, M

    2013-05-01

    Fluorine is an element that can be either beneficial or harmful, depending on the total amount accumulated in the teeth or bones. In our laboratory, we have developed a non-invasive technique for the in vivo measurement of fluoride in bone using neutron activation analysis and performed the first pilot human study. Fluoride in humans is quantified by comparing the γ-ray signal from a person to the γ-ray signal obtained from appropriate anthropomorphic calibration phantoms. An identified problem with existing fluoride phantoms is contamination with aluminum. Aluminum creates an interfering γ-ray signal which, although it can be subtracted out, increases the uncertainty in the measurement and worsens the detection limit. This paper outlines a series of studies undertaken to develop a better calibration phantom for fluorine measurement, which does not have aluminum contamination. PMID:23587669

  17. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Dermal Carotenoids in Breast Cancer Operated Patients Provide Evidence for the Positive Impact of a Dietary Regimen Rich in Fruit and Vegetables on Body Oxidative Stress and BC Prognostic Anthropometric Parameters: A Five-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Perrone, A; Pintaudi, A M; Traina, A; Carruba, G; Attanzio, A; Gentile, C; Tesoriere, L; Livrea, M A

    2016-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a feasible marker of the body antioxidative network and may reveal a moderate to severe imbalance of the redox status, thereby providing indication of individual oxidative stress. In this work noninvasive Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) measurements of skin carotenoids (skin carotenoid score (SCS)) were used to provide indications of individual oxidative stress, each year for five years, in 71 breast cancer (BC) patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients' SCS has been correlated with parameters relevant to BC risk, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI), in the aim of monitoring the effect of a dietary regimen intended to positively affect BC risk factors. The RRS methodological approach in BC patients appeared from positive correlation between patients' SCS and blood level of lycopene. The level of skin carotenoids was inversely correlated with the patients' WC and BMI. At the end of the 5 y observation BC patients exhibited a significant reduction of WC and BMI and increase of SCS, when strictly adhering to the dietary regimen. In conclusion, noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids can (i) reveal an oxidative stress condition correlated with parameters of BC risk and (ii) monitor dietary-related variations in BC patients.

  18. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Dermal Carotenoids in Breast Cancer Operated Patients Provide Evidence for the Positive Impact of a Dietary Regimen Rich in Fruit and Vegetables on Body Oxidative Stress and BC Prognostic Anthropometric Parameters: A Five-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Perrone, A; Pintaudi, A M; Traina, A; Carruba, G; Attanzio, A; Gentile, C; Tesoriere, L; Livrea, M A

    2016-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a feasible marker of the body antioxidative network and may reveal a moderate to severe imbalance of the redox status, thereby providing indication of individual oxidative stress. In this work noninvasive Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) measurements of skin carotenoids (skin carotenoid score (SCS)) were used to provide indications of individual oxidative stress, each year for five years, in 71 breast cancer (BC) patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients' SCS has been correlated with parameters relevant to BC risk, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI), in the aim of monitoring the effect of a dietary regimen intended to positively affect BC risk factors. The RRS methodological approach in BC patients appeared from positive correlation between patients' SCS and blood level of lycopene. The level of skin carotenoids was inversely correlated with the patients' WC and BMI. At the end of the 5 y observation BC patients exhibited a significant reduction of WC and BMI and increase of SCS, when strictly adhering to the dietary regimen. In conclusion, noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids can (i) reveal an oxidative stress condition correlated with parameters of BC risk and (ii) monitor dietary-related variations in BC patients. PMID:27213029

  19. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Dermal Carotenoids in Breast Cancer Operated Patients Provide Evidence for the Positive Impact of a Dietary Regimen Rich in Fruit and Vegetables on Body Oxidative Stress and BC Prognostic Anthropometric Parameters: A Five-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, A.; Pintaudi, A. M.; Traina, A.; Carruba, G.; Attanzio, A.; Gentile, C.; Tesoriere, L.; Livrea, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a feasible marker of the body antioxidative network and may reveal a moderate to severe imbalance of the redox status, thereby providing indication of individual oxidative stress. In this work noninvasive Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) measurements of skin carotenoids (skin carotenoid score (SCS)) were used to provide indications of individual oxidative stress, each year for five years, in 71 breast cancer (BC) patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients' SCS has been correlated with parameters relevant to BC risk, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI), in the aim of monitoring the effect of a dietary regimen intended to positively affect BC risk factors. The RRS methodological approach in BC patients appeared from positive correlation between patients' SCS and blood level of lycopene. The level of skin carotenoids was inversely correlated with the patients' WC and BMI. At the end of the 5 y observation BC patients exhibited a significant reduction of WC and BMI and increase of SCS, when strictly adhering to the dietary regimen. In conclusion, noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids can (i) reveal an oxidative stress condition correlated with parameters of BC risk and (ii) monitor dietary-related variations in BC patients. PMID:27213029

  20. Physiological, biomechanical and anthropometrical predictors of sprint swimming performance in adolescent swimmers.

    PubMed

    Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Rämson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L; Rodriguez, Ferran A; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (ΔLa). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ∆La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key pointsThis study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys.Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90

  1. Physiological, Biomechanical and Anthropometrical Predictors of Sprint Swimming Performance in Adolescent Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Rämson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L.; Rodriguez, Ferran A.; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (ΔLa). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ∆La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key points This study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys. Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90

  2. Hands-on Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  3. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations. PMID:26207670

  4. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.

  5. In vitro validation of a hand-held optical reflectometer to measure clinically observed erosive tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Assunção, Cristiane Meira; Jost, Fabian; Bürgin, Walter Bruno; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed a newly developed optical reflectometer for measuring erosive tooth wear (ETW) in vitro. Three examiners independently assessed the labial surface of 80 deciduous canines and 75 permanent incisors. One examiner performed visual examinations (BEWE), and the other two used the optical pen-size reflectometer to measure surface reflection intensity (SRI) on the same labial surfaces. The examinations were made in duplicate with at least 1 week interval. Intra- and inter-rater agreements were calculated using weighted kappa analysis for BEWE, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) as well as Bland-Altman plots for SRI. The teeth were separated into without (BEWE 0) or with (BEWE 1-3) ETW, and SRI cut-off points were calculated. Intra-rater agreement for the visual examination was 0.46 and 0.82 for deciduous and permanent teeth, respectively. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement for SRI were good (ICC > 0.7; p < 0.001). SRI measurements produced high specificity values for deciduous and permanent teeth (≥0.74 and ≥ 0.84, respectively), and lower sensitivity values (≥0.37 and ≥ 0.64, respectively), but permanent teeth had generally higher SRI values (p < 0.05). We observed a significant association between BEWE and SRI (p < 0.05). The optical pen-size reflectometer was able to adequately differentiate ETW on permanent teeth, with highly reliable and reproducible measurements, but ETW on deciduous teeth was less accurately differentiated. The reflectometer is a good candidate for clinical research.

  6. Anthropometric Procedures for Protective Equipment Sizing and Design

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article presented four anthropometric theories (univariate, bivariate/probability distribution, multivariate, and shape-based methods) for protective equipment design decisions. Background While the significance of anthropometric information for product design is well recognized, designers continue to face challenges in selecting efficient anthropometric data processing methods and translating the acquired information into effective product designs. Methods For this study, 100 farm tractor operators, 3,718 respirator users, 951 firefighters, and 816 civilian workers participated in four studies on the design of tractor roll-over protective structures (ROPS), respirator test panels, fire truck cabs, and fall-arrest harnesses, respectively. Their anthropometry and participant-equipment interfaces were evaluated. Results Study 1 showed a need to extend the 90-cm vertical clearance for tractor ROPS in the current industrial standards to 98.3 to 101.3 cm. Study 2 indicated that current respirator test panel would have excluded 10% of the male firefighter population; a systematic adjustment to the boundaries of test panel cells was suggested. Study 3 provided 24 principal component analysis-based firefighter body models to facilitate fire truck cab design. Study 4 developed an improved gender-based fall-arrest harness sizing scheme to supplant the current unisex system. Conclusions This article presented four anthropometric approaches and a six-step design paradigm for ROPS, respirator test panel, fire truck cab, and fall-arrest harness applications, which demonstrated anthropometric theories and practices for defining protective equipment fit and sizing schemes. Applications The study provided a basis for equipment designers, standards writers, and industry manufacturers to advance anthropometric applications for product design and improve product efficacy. PMID:23516791

  7. A carpet-weaver's chair based on anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Nader; Bazrafshan, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Ergonomic design of chairs has been well studied by ergonomists. Chair design based on anthropometric data analysis is recommended. Weavers in carpet-weaving workshops use chairs with backrests and armrests. An anthropometric survey was carried out among weavers in Tabriz, Iran, to design a flexible chair and to improve its comfort on the basis of design dimensions. This study focused on the design dimensions of a chair for weavers and its recommended dimensions. The developed chair needs to be tested for its effects on weavers' posture and comfort.

  8. Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Vimala; Yeow, Paul H. P.

    The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS) satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

  9. Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Agner, T

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility of clinically normal skin to a standard irritant trauma under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions. Evaluation of skin responses to patch tests with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was used for assessment of skin susceptibility. The following noninvasive measuring methods were used for evaluation of the skin before and after exposure to irritants: measurement of transepidermal water loss by an evaporimeter, measurement of electrical conductance by a hydrometer, measurement of skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, measurement of skin colour by a colorimeter and measurement of skin thickness by ultrasound A-scan. The studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and patients with eczema. In the first studies the standard irritant patch test for assessment of skin susceptibility was characterized and validated. SLS was chosen among other irritants because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier. The implications of use of different qualities of SLS was investigated. The applied noninvasive measuring methods were evaluated, and for quantification of SLS-induced skin damage measurement of TEWL was found to be the most sensitive method. Application of the standard test on clinically normal skin under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions lead to the following main results: Seasonal variation in skin susceptibility to SLS was found, with increased susceptibility in winter, when the hydration state of the stratum corneum was also found to be decreased. A variation in skin reactivity to SLS during the menstrual cycle was demonstrated, with an increased skin response at day 1 as compared to days 9-11 in the menstrual cycle. The presence of active eczema distant from the test site increased skin susceptibility to SLS, indicating a generalized hyperreactivity of the skin. Taking these sources of variation into account healthy volunteers and patients with hand eczema and

  10. Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Agner, T

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility of clinically normal skin to a standard irritant trauma under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions. Evaluation of skin responses to patch tests with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was used for assessment of skin susceptibility. The following noninvasive measuring methods were used for evaluation of the skin before and after exposure to irritants: measurement of transepidermal water loss by an evaporimeter, measurement of electrical conductance by a hydrometer, measurement of skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, measurement of skin colour by a colorimeter and measurement of skin thickness by ultrasound A-scan. The studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and patients with eczema. In the first studies the standard irritant patch test for assessment of skin susceptibility was characterized and validated. SLS was chosen among other irritants because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier. The implications of use of different qualities of SLS was investigated. The applied noninvasive measuring methods were evaluated, and for quantification of SLS-induced skin damage measurement of TEWL was found to be the most sensitive method. Application of the standard test on clinically normal skin under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions lead to the following main results: Seasonal variation in skin susceptibility to SLS was found, with increased susceptibility in winter, when the hydration state of the stratum corneum was also found to be decreased. A variation in skin reactivity to SLS during the menstrual cycle was demonstrated, with an increased skin response at day 1 as compared to days 9-11 in the menstrual cycle. The presence of active eczema distant from the test site increased skin susceptibility to SLS, indicating a generalized hyperreactivity of the skin. Taking these sources of variation into account healthy volunteers and patients with hand eczema and

  11. Proper hand washing (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ...

  12. Same-session and between-day intra-rater reliability of hand-held dynamometer measurements of isometric shoulder extensor strength

    PubMed Central

    Awatani, Takenori; Mori, Seigo; Shinohara, Junji; Koshiba, Hiroya; Nariai, Miki; Tatsumi, Yasutaka; Nagata, Akinori; Morikita, Ikuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study was to establish the same-session and between-day intra-rater reliability of measurements of extensor strength in the maximum abducted position (MABP) using hand-held dynamometer (HHD). [Subjects] Thirteen healthy volunteers (10 male, 3 female; mean ± SD: age 19.8 ± 0.8 y) participated in the study. [Methods] Participants in the prone position with maximum abduction of shoulder were instructed to hold the contraction against the ground reaction force, and peak isometric force was recorded using the HHD on the floor. Participants performed maximum isometric contractions lasting 3 s, with 3 trials in one session. Between-day measurements were performed in 2 sessions separated by a 1-week interval. Intra-rater reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Systematic errors were assessed using Bland-Altman analysis for between-day data. [Results] ICC values for same-session data and between-day data were found to be “almost perfect”. Systematic errors not existed and only random error existed. [Conclusion] The measurement method used in this study can easily control for experimental conditions and allow precise measurement because the lack of stabilization and the impact of tester strength are removed. Thus, extensor strength in MABP measurement is beneficial for muscle strength assessment. PMID:27134388

  13. Anthropometric analysis of homosexuals and heterosexuals: implications for early hormone exposure.

    PubMed

    Martin, James T; Nguyen, Duc Huu

    2004-01-01

    Early exposure to sex steroids is thought to be important in mediating the differentiation of male-typical sexual orientation. Bone morphology is a marker of childhood sex steroid exposure, because estrogens and androgens control sexual dimorphism in skeletal size. Anthropometric analysis of heterosexuals and homosexuals indicates that those bones, which become sexually dimorphic in childhood, but not those which become sexually dimorphic after puberty, are different in length in homosexuals and heterosexuals. Persons with a sexual preference for males have less long bone growth in the arms, legs and hands, than those with sexual preference for females. The data support the hypothesis that male homosexuals have had less steroid exposure during development than male heterosexuals and that female homosexuals have had greater steroid exposure during development than their heterosexual counterparts.

  14. Anthropometrically Determined Undernutrition among the Adolescent Girls in Kathmandu Valley.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B

    2015-01-01

    Background No information exists regarding the health of the adolescent girls residing in Kathmandu valley in urban setup. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of undernutrition among the adolescent girls living in Kathmandu valley. It also aims to know the distribution of weight, height and body mass index of adolescent girls in relation to the different adolescent age groups. Method A cross sectional study was conducted in one government and two private schools in Kathmandu valley from 16th April to 15th September 2010. Anthropometric measurements were recorded using standardized methodology as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). Standard operational definitions like percentiles, mean, standard deviation and proportions were used for analysis. Result Four hundred adolescent girls were enrolled randomly, out of which 111 girls (27.8%) were from government school and 289 girls (72.2 %) were from private schools. Maximum were of 16 years of age and the least were of 19 years of age, mean age being 15.4 years of age. Of them, early, mid and late adolescents were 41%, 35% and 24% respectively. Around one third of the study population were stunted (32%), one fourth were underweight (24%) and one tenth of them were thin (9.5%) based on National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS )standard. Both underweight and stunted girls were significantly more during the late adolescence period (P<0.001). However, thinness was not significant in any of the three adolescent age groups. Conclusion A high prevalence of undernutrition in terms of stunting, underweight and thinness exists among the adolescent girls in Kathmandu valley. PMID:27180368

  15. Relationships of Pediatric Anthropometrics for CT Protocol Selection

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Grace S.; Stanescu, Arta-Luana; Alessio, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determining the optimal CT technique to minimize patient radiation exposure while maintaining diagnostic utility requires patient-specific protocols that are based on patient characteristics. This work develops relationships between different anthropometrics and CT image noise to determine appropriate protocol classification schemes. MATERIALS AND METHODS We measured the image noise in 387 CT examinations of pediatric patients (222 boys, 165 girls) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis and generated mathematic relationships between image noise and patient lateral and anteroposterior dimensions, age, and weight. RESULTS At the chest level, lateral distance (ld) across the body is strongly correlated with weight (ld = 0.23 × weight + 16.77; R2 = 0.93) and is less well correlated with age (ld = 1.10 × age + 17.13; R2 = 0.84). Similar trends were found for anteroposterior dimensions and at the abdomen level. Across all studies, when acquisition-specific parameters are factored out of the noise, the log of image noise was highly correlated with lateral distance (R2 = 0.72) and weight (R2 = 0.72) and was less correlated with age (R2 = 0.62). Following first-order relationships of image noise and scanner technique, plots were formed to show techniques that could achieve matched noise across the pediatric population. CONCLUSION Patient lateral distance and weight are essentially equally effective metrics to base maximum technique settings for pediatric patient–specific protocols. These metrics can also be used to help categorize appropriate reference levels for CT technique and size-specific dose estimates across the pediatric population. PMID:24951232

  16. [Anthropometric values in a very elderly institutionalized population].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Sanz, M; Fernández Viadero, C; Verduga Vélez, R; Crespo Santiago, D

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study has been to determine, in a population group over 80 years of age in a publicly-funded geriatric institution, the anthropometric parameters that represent reference values for the study of nutritional status. These parameters allow detection of alterations in the nutritional status which, once corrected, will contribute to maintaining an appropriate quality of life in a population group that is highly sensitive to the associated morbidity and mortality processes. In order to carry out this study, a sample of 56 healthy elderly individuals was selected (13 men and 43 women) with a mean age of 86.5 +/- 4.8 years and a range from 80 to 101 years. The parameters measured were: weight, height, tricipital fold, brachial perimeter and the following values calculated on the basis of these figures: body mass index, percentage of body fat, brachial muscular area, brachial muscular perimeter, brachial adipose area and the ratio of muscle to adipose tissue. These values were processed statistically with the assistance of the RSB-SIGMA computer software, with calculation of the percentiles, the mean, and the comparison between the sexes. The criterion for statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Our results confirm the presence of significant differences in the muscle parameters, which are greater in men than in women, whereas the fat parameters are higher in the latter. Thus, it is concluded that weight, height, brachial muscle area and brachial muscle perimeter are significantly higher in men whereas tricipital fold, percentage of body fat, the brachial adipose area and the muscle to adipose tissue ratio are significantly superior among women. There are no significant differences by gender in the body mass index and the brachial perimeter.

  17. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  18. Prediction of kinematic and kinetic performance in a drop vertical jump with individual anthropometric factors in adolescent female athletes: implications for cadaveric investigations.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common, expensive to repair, and often debilitate athletic careers. Robotic manipulators have evaluated knee ligament biomechanics in cadaveric specimens, but face limitations such as accounting for variation in bony geometry between specimens that may influence dynamic motion pathways. This study examined individual anthropometric measures for significant linear relationships with in vivo kinematic and kinetic performance and determined their implications for robotic studies. Anthropometrics and 3D motion during a 31 cm drop vertical jump task were collected in high school female basketball players. Anthropometric measures demonstrated differential statistical significance in linear regression models relative to kinematic variables (p-range <0.01-0.95). However, none of the anthropometric relationships accounted for clinical variance or provided substantive univariate accuracy needed for clinical prediction algorithms (r(2) < 0.20). Mass and BMI demonstrated models that were significant (p < 0.05) and predictive (r(2) > 0.20) relative to peak flexion moment, peak adduction moment, flexion moment range, abduction moment range, and internal rotation moment range. The current findings indicate that anthropometric measures are less associated with kinematics than with kinetics. Relative to the robotic manipulation of cadaveric limbs, the results do not support the need to normalize kinematic rotations relative to specimen dimensions.

  19. Relationship between serum leptin level and laboratory and anthropometric indices of malnutrition in patients on hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahamadi, F.; Bosorgmehr, R.; Razeghi, E.

    2008-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major problem and one of the risk factors for mortality in hemodialysis patients. There is no single index in evaluation of nutritional status in these patients, so leptin can be used as one of the parameters. In this study, the correlation between serum leptin with biochemical and anthropometric parameters of nutrition has been evaluated. This cross-sectional study has been performed on 60 hemodialysis patients (32 males and 28 females) in 2006. The patients on hemodialysis for under 1 year and who has a history of consumption of lipid lowering agents or glucocorticoids, or an infectious or inflammatory disease were excluded. Malnutrition laboratory parameters and serum leptin were measured before hemodialysis. Serum leptin was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with direct dbc kit and malnutrition laboratory parameters measured with standard laboratory methods, patients anthropometric parameters evaluated after hemodialysis. The mean age of patients was 47.5 ± 16.1 years and the range of serum leptin level was 0.6-64.8 ng/ml. Mean serum leptin level were 22.64 ± 19.54 ng/ml in females and 16.74 ± 20.16 ng/ml in males on hemodialysis and in spite of higher level of leptin in females there was not any statistically significant difference between females and males serum leptin. Absolute value of correlation coefficient between serum leptin and anthropometric parameters and most laboratory parameters was < 0.25 (except ferritin, iron, phosphorous in males and total protein, hemoglobin, urea, and creatinin in females which was between 0.25 and 0.50). Our results suggest that the increased serum leptin level does not have a major role in diagnosis of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients and there is a poor correlation between malnutrition parameters and serum leptin level. PMID:20142915

  20. Comparing the Ability of Anthropometric Indicators in Identifying Metabolic Syndrome in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beraldo, Rebeca Antunes; Meliscki, Gabriela Cristina; Silva, Bruna Ramos; Navarro, Anderson Marliere; Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Schmidt, André; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can cause side effects in HIV patients, as the metabolic syndrome. Early identification of risk for development of cardiovascular diseases using available reliable and practical methods is fundamental. On this basis, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of anthropometric indicators to identify metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on HAART. Methods It is a cross-sectional study. A number of 280 stable HIV patients were studied. It measured weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HP), thigh circumference (TC) and calculated body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to thigh ratio (WTR). There was also a performance of biochemical tests of lipid profile and fasting glucose. Systemic blood pressure was measured. The criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program III (NCEP-ATP III) to metabolic syndrome classification was used. Individuals were divided in groups with or without metabolic alterations and their anthropometric indicators were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were designed for each anthropometric indicator using the metabolic syndrome classification to identify sensitivity and specificity. Results WC was a good tool to identify each metabolic disorder separately: total cholesterol (only females, p<0.05), triglycerides (only males, p<0.001), HDL cholesterol (p<0.05), LDL cholesterol (p<005) and fasting glycemic (p<005). WC also showed the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome in both genders (areas under the curve (AUCs): 0.79 and 0.76 for male and female, respectively), while BAI proved to be an inadequate indicator (AUCs: 0.63 and 0.67 for males and females), respectively, in this population. Conclusions The central adiposity measure (WC) had the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome, and it is a convenient, cheap and reliable tool that can be used in clinical

  1. The study of anthropometric estimates in the visceral fat of healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal visceral fat affects the metabolic processes, and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study was to develop a quick and accurate estimate in the visceral fat area (VFA) of the L4-L5 vertebrae using anthropometric predictor variables that can be measured conveniently. Methods A total of 227 individuals participated in this study and were further divided into a Modeling group (MG) and a Validation group (VG). Anthropometrics measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, age, and subcutaneous fat thickness) and VFACT were measured using computer assisted tomography for all participants. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to the MG to construct a VFA estimator using anthropometric predictor variables and to evaluate its performance using the VG. Results The estimate equation obtained from the MG were VFAANT = -144.66 + 1.84X1 + 1.35X2 + 0.52X3 (r = 0.92, SEE =14.58 cm2, P < 0.001, n = 152). The X1, X2, and X3 variables in the equation were denoted as waist circumference (WC), age, and abdomen subcutaneous fat thickness (AS). In addition, the correlation between VFAANT and VFACT showed a high correlation (r = 0.92). Conclusion A rapid and accurate VFA estimation can be achieved by using only age, WC, and AS. The approach in the present study provides an easy and reliable estimate that can be applied widely in health and epidemiology studies. PMID:24884507

  2. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  3. Anthropometric Indices in Adults: Which Is the Best Indicator to Identify Alanine Aminotransferase Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Zhou, Ying; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the correlations between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and a new body index, the A Body Shape Index (ABSI) in Chinese adults. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of China in 2012–2013, and 11,331 adults were included in our final analysis. Results: BMI, WC, HC, WHtR, WHR and ABSI were significantly positively correlated with ALT levels. Spearman rank test showed that WHtR (r = 0.346 for men, r = 0.282 for women, both p < 0.001) had the highest correlation coefficient for ALT level, whereas ABSI showed the lowest, and the correlation coefficient of each measure was higher in men than that in women. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile of each anthropometric measure, the multivariate logistic model presented that WHtR had the superiority of identifying the presence of elevated ALT (OR 4.38; 95% CI 3.15–6.08 for men, OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.91–6.33 for women, both p < 0.001), and the ABSI was the poorest predictor in men (OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.93–3.27, p < 0.001). No association was observed for ABSI in women. Conclusions: Our results indicated that BMI, WC, HC, WHtR and WHR were able to determine elevated ALT presence, while ABSI was not capable. WHtR and to some extent BMI were the best body indices, for predicting the ALT levels in this population. Nevertheless, the predictive ability of ABSI as a novel body index was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices. PMID:26901214

  4. Tracking variability: recent anthropometric data for croatian population and comparison with other world populations.

    PubMed

    Bubas, Marija; Milosević, Milan; Delić-Brkljacić, Diana; Zahariev-Vuksinić, Katarina

    2012-06-01

    The variability that exists within the populations of individual countries and the variability that exists between the populations of different countries are both of interest in practical application. For these reasons, a comparison is made in this work between certain anthropometric variables of our sample of Croatian population and anthropometric variables that are available for other human populations in the world of the same or a similar age. The total sample was 1,372 subjects aged from 23 to 59 years old. For the purpose of comparison, data were taken from the study "International Data on Anthropometry" which provides an overview of anthropometric variables for many world populations, as well as data from Rudan's research that was carried out on Croatian population in the late seventies of the last century. Mean value, standard deviation and coefficient of variation have been calculated for every measured parameter. A comparison between the two research samples of Croatian population fairly displays up going trend, for body mass and other bodily dimensions, formed in three decades of difference. Mean value for body height in Rudan's sample is 161.0 cm, and for Bubas's sample in this research was 170.6 cm, both values state for Croatian population but with difference of more than 30 years. Human biologists use term "secular trend" to describe alterations in the measurable characteristics of a population of humans that occur over a century. Accordingly, in adult age, the rate of gain, concerning body height, is 10 to 30 mm per decade. The changes in body proportions during recent decades are less marked than those in body size, but the relationships between stature and weight within one national group have changed significantly.

  5. Waaler revisited: The anthropometrics of mortality.

    PubMed

    Koch, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Although many studies have been written about the relationship between BMI and human height on the one hand and mortality on the other, the issue of socio-economic status as confounding variable has been at times less emphasized. This study analyzes the influence of education and income on the relationship between BMI and mortality and between height and mortality. It is based on data collected between 1963 and 1975 by the Norwegian National Health Screening Service. 1.7 million subjects were recorded. The Norwegian statistics bureau linked these data to the national death records and to socio-economic information. We apply Cox proportional hazards regressions in order to determine whether adding income and education as covariates affects the relations among BMI, height, and mortality. Previous findings and insights are either not present or ambiguous. We conclude that the omission of SES does not significantly bias the effect of BMI on most causes of death, with one exception: type 2 diabetes mellitus, where the effect of BMI is substantially lower for both adults and adolescents when adjusted for education. PMID:20466603

  6. Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, V.; Joyner, K.H.

    1995-05-01

    Electric fields (E-fields) induced within a phantom head from exposure to three different advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) hand-held telephones were measured using an implantable E-Field probe. Measurements were taken in the eye nearest the phone and along a lateral scan through the brain from its center to the side nearest the phone. During measurement, the phones were positioned alongside the phantom head as in typical use and were configured to transmit at maximum power (600 mW nominal). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated from the in situ E-field measurements, which varied significantly between phone models and antenna configuration. The SARs induced in the eye ranged from 0.007 to 0.21 W/kg. Metal-framed spectacles enhanced SAR levels in the eye by 9--29%. In the brain, maximum levels were recorded at the measurement point closest to the phone and ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 W/kg. These SARs are below peak spatial limits recommended in the US and Australian national standards and the IRPA guidelines for safe exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, a detailed thermal analysis of the eye indicated only a 0.022 C maximum steady-state temperature rise in the eye from a uniform SAR loading of 0.21 W/kg. A more approximate thermal analysis in the brain also indicated only a small maximum temperature rise of 0.034 C for a local SAR loading of 0.83 W/kg.

  7. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.].

  8. Human factors for the Moon: the gap in anthropometric data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Foing, Bernard H.; Rittweger, Joern; Masali, Melchiorre; Stevenin, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Since the space era began, we learned first to survive and then to live in space. In the state of the art, we know how important human factors research and development is to guarantee maximum safety and performance for human missions. With the extension of the duration of space missions, we also need to learn how habitability and comfort factors are closely related to safety and performance. Humanities disciplines such as design, architecture, anthropometry, and anthropology are now involved in mission design from the start. Actual plans for building a simulated Moon village in order to simulate and test Moon missions are now being carried out using a holistic approach, involving multidisciplinary experts cooperating concurrently with regard to the interactions among humans, technology, and the environment. However, in order to implement such plans, we need basic anthropometrical data, which is still missing. In other words: to optimize performance, we need to create doors and ceilings with dimensions that support a natural human movement in the reduced gravity environment of the Moon, but we are lacking detailed anthropometrical data on human movement on the Moon. In the Apollo missions more than 50 years ago, no anthropometrical studies were carried in hypogravity out as far as we know. The necessity to collect data is very consistent with state-of-the-art research. We still have little knowledge of how people will interact with the Moon environment. Specifically, it is not known exactly which posture, which kind of walking and running motions astronauts will use both inside and outside a Moon station. Considering recent plans for a Moon mission where humans will spend extensive time in reduced gravity conditions, the need for anthropometric, biomechanics and kinematics field data is a priority in order to be able to design the right architecture, infrastructure, and interfaces. Objective of this paper: Bring knowledge on the relevance of anthropometrical and

  9. Anthropometric reference data for elderly Swedes and its disease-related pattern

    PubMed Central

    Gavriilidou, N N; Pihlsgård, M; Elmståhl, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Anthropometric measurement is a noninvasive and cost-efficient method for nutritional assessment. The study aims to present age- and gender-specific anthropometric reference data for Swedish elderly in relation to common medical conditions, and also formulate prediction equations for such anthropometric measurements. Subjects/Methods: A cross-sectional study among random heterogeneous sample of 3360 subjects, aged 60–99 years, from a population study ‘Good Aging in Scania. Means (±s.d.) and percentiles for height, weight, waist-, hip-, arm-, calf circumferences, triceps- (TST) and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were presented. The values were estimated based on the prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac failure (CHF), stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia and dependence in daily living activities (ADL). Linear regression analysis was used to formulate the prediction equations. Results: Mean BMI was 27.5±5.8 kg/m2 (men) and 27.2±8.1 kg/m2 (women). WHR was higher among men (Men: 0.98±0.3, women: 0.87±0.2), except at age 85+ (women: 0.91±0.6). TST was 6.7±0.4 mm higher among women. Men with MI had BMI: 28.6±4.8 kg/m2 and SST: 21±9.2 mm, whereas subjects with dementia had lower weight (by 9.5±2.9 kg) compared with the non-demented. ADL-dependent women had BMI= 29.0±3.9 kg/m2, TST=19.2±1.3 mm. Conclusion: New normative data on gender- and age-specific anthropometrics on the general elderly population are presented. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with subcutaneous and central adiposity opposed to fat loss with dementia. ADL dependence indicates inadequate physical activity. The prediction models could be used as possible indicators monitoring physical activity and adiposity among the general elderly population hence potential health indicators in health promotion. PMID:25990690

  10. The Importance of Hand Appearance as a Patient-Reported Outcome in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Rehim, Shady A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Hand appearance is meaningful to patients because hands are an essential part of human interactions, communication, and social integration. Recent literature indicates that hand aesthetics is an important, measurable patient-reported outcome. In hand surgery, several outcome instruments exist that accurately measure functional outcomes, but aesthetics is often overlooked or imprecisely measured. This makes comparison of disease burden and effectiveness of therapies, as they pertain to aesthetics, difficult. This special topic article outlines the aesthetic features of the hand, how literature is evaluating the appearance of the hand in outcomes research, and proposes a novel approach to assessing hand aesthetics. PMID:26893977

  11. A comparison of physiological and anthropometric characteristics among playing positions in junior rugby league players

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of specific playing positions and positional playing groups in junior rugby league players. Methods: Two hundred and forty junior rugby league players underwent measurements of standard anthropometry (body mass, height, sum of four skinfolds), muscular power (vertical jump), speed (10, 20, and 40 m sprint), agility (L run), and estimated maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test) during the competitive phase of the season, after players had obtained a degree of match fitness. Results: Props were significantly (p<0.05) taller, heavier, and had greater skinfold thickness than all other positions. The halfback and centre positions were faster than props over 40 m. Halfbacks had significantly (p<0.05) greater estimated maximal aerobic power than props. When data were analysed according to positional similarities, it was found that the props positional group had lower 20 and 40 m speed, agility, and estimated maximal aerobic power than the hookers and halves and outside backs positional groups. Differences in the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of other individual playing positions and positional playing groups were uncommon. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that few physiological and anthropometric differences exist among individual playing positions in junior rugby league players, although props are taller, heavier, have greater skinfold thickness, lower 20 and 40 m speed, agility, and estimated maximal aerobic power than other positional playing groups. These findings provide normative data and realistic performance standards for junior rugby league players competing in specific individual positions and positional playing groups. PMID:16118309

  12. Fitness and Anthropometric Profiles of International vs. National Judo Medalists in Half-Heavyweight Category.

    PubMed

    Drid, Patrik; Casals, Cristina; Mekic, Amel; Radjo, Izet; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the anthropometric and fitness profiles of European half-heavyweight judokas by success in competition. For this purpose, we compared 5 international medalists (elite) with 5 national medalists (subelite). All male judokas won at least 1 medal in the half-heavyweight category during the previous 2 years. The testing in this cross-sectional study was performed during 4 days. All subjects underwent anthropometric assessment with body mass, height, skinfold, and limb circumference measures, and the body fat percentage was estimated by manual bioimpedance. The physical fitness evaluation consisted in peak torques for thigh and shoulder muscles, handgrip strength, high and long jumps, medicine ball throw, pull-ups, deadlift, bench press, deep squat, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Max Power, and Tokui Waza tests. The statistical analysis by the Student's t test showed significant differences for forearm and upper-arm circumferences, peak torques, pull-ups, bench press, deadlift, deep squat, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Max Power, and Tokui Waza tests. Our results showed that elite judokas have a superior fitness profile than subelite athletes from the half-heavyweight category. Moreover, elite judokas seem to have a higher arm muscle mass than subelite athletes but a similar body fat percentage. This study could be of interest for judo coaches with athletes competing in the half-heavyweight category, as some tests that discriminate by judo success for this specific weight category are described. Few studies analyze anthropometric and fitness profiles in half-heavyweight male judokas, so additionally our results can be used as a reference for coaches, athletes, and scientists.

  13. Fitness and Anthropometric Profiles of International vs. National Judo Medalists in Half-Heavyweight Category.

    PubMed

    Drid, Patrik; Casals, Cristina; Mekic, Amel; Radjo, Izet; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the anthropometric and fitness profiles of European half-heavyweight judokas by success in competition. For this purpose, we compared 5 international medalists (elite) with 5 national medalists (subelite). All male judokas won at least 1 medal in the half-heavyweight category during the previous 2 years. The testing in this cross-sectional study was performed during 4 days. All subjects underwent anthropometric assessment with body mass, height, skinfold, and limb circumference measures, and the body fat percentage was estimated by manual bioimpedance. The physical fitness evaluation consisted in peak torques for thigh and shoulder muscles, handgrip strength, high and long jumps, medicine ball throw, pull-ups, deadlift, bench press, deep squat, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Max Power, and Tokui Waza tests. The statistical analysis by the Student's t test showed significant differences for forearm and upper-arm circumferences, peak torques, pull-ups, bench press, deadlift, deep squat, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Max Power, and Tokui Waza tests. Our results showed that elite judokas have a superior fitness profile than subelite athletes from the half-heavyweight category. Moreover, elite judokas seem to have a higher arm muscle mass than subelite athletes but a similar body fat percentage. This study could be of interest for judo coaches with athletes competing in the half-heavyweight category, as some tests that discriminate by judo success for this specific weight category are described. Few studies analyze anthropometric and fitness profiles in half-heavyweight male judokas, so additionally our results can be used as a reference for coaches, athletes, and scientists. PMID:25647645

  14. General anthropometric and specific physical fitness profile of high-level junior water polo players.

    PubMed

    Kondrič, Miran; Uljević, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Kontić, Dean; Sekulić, Damir

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world's best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position. PMID:23487152

  15. General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Kondrič, Miran; Uljević, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Kontić, Dean; Sekulić, Damir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world’s best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position. PMID:23487152

  16. Anthropometrical data and coefficients of regression related to gender and race.

    PubMed

    Shan, Gongbing; Bohn, Christiane

    2003-07-01

    As a result of migration and globalization, the requirement for anthropometrical data of distinct races and gender has augmented whilst the availability remained minimal. Therefore, several sets of estimation equations, which depend on gender, race, body height (BH), and body mass (BM), were established in this study to fulfill this necessity. The method consisted of: (a) an inexpensive device to scan the body surface, (b) the electronic reconstruction of the body surface and (c) a module to calculate segmental lengths, segmental masses, radii of gyration and moments of inertia, using the 16-segment model (Zatsiorsky, 1983) and density data of Dempster (Space requirements of the seated operator, WADC Technical Report, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1995, pp. 55-159), and (d) the establishment of regression equations. One hundred young Chinese and Germans, representing the Asian and Caucasian races, were randomly recruited to participate in this study. The results revealed contrasting trunk, limb lengths and relative skull volume (skull volume/body volume) between the two races as well as the independence of head mass from body height. The regression equations, which were successfully derived based on the above-unveiled differences, are capable of supplying a prompt way to obtain all anthropometrical parameters of different genders and race groups through individual BM and BH. Anthropometrical data are related to gender, race, BH and BM. In order to obtain the data, one can utilize various measurements, which might have enormous financial expenditure in addition to time-consumption or employ the convenient and economical short-cut-regression-to obtain such data. The results of this study reveal that the accuracy of such estimations is high. The errors of predictions lie under 0.7 Standard deviation, which will satisfy most of applications.

  17. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  18. Chapped hands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

  19. Hand splint - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100142.htm Hand splint - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... out of 4 Overview To begin making a hand dressing, place the injured hand around a cloth ...

  20. Neck Circumference, along with Other Anthropometric Indices, Has an Independent and Additional Contribution in Predicting Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bi-xia; Zhu, Ming-fan; Wu, Ting; Zhou, Jing-ya; Liu, Yan; Chen, Xiao-lin; Zhou, Rui-fen; Wang, Li-jun; Chen, Yu-ming; Zhu, Hui-lian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Previous studies have indicated that neck circumference is a valuable predictor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, but little evidence is available for fatty liver disease. We examined the association of neck circumference with fatty liver disease and evaluated its predictive value in Chinese adults. Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 4053 participants (1617 women and 2436 men, aged 20-88) recruited from the Health Examination Center in Guangzhou, China between May 2009 and April 2010. Anthropometric measurements were taken, abdominal ultrasonography was conducted and blood biochemical parameters were measured. Covariance, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were employed. Results The mean neck circumference was greater in subjects with fatty liver disease than those without the disease in both women and men after adjusting for age (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the age-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of fatty liver disease for quartile 4 (vs. quartile 1) of neck circumference were 7.70 (4.95-11.99) for women and 12.42 (9.22-16.74) for men. After further adjusting for other anthropometric indices, both individually and combined, the corresponding ORs remained significant (all P-trends<0.05) but were attenuated to 1.94-2.53 for women and 1.45-2.08 for men. An additive interaction existed between neck circumference and the other anthropometric measures (all P<0.05). A high neck circumference value was associated with a much greater prevalence of fatty liver disease in participants with both high and normal BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio values. Conclusions Neck circumference was an independent predictor for fatty liver disease and provided an additional contribution when applied with other anthropometric measures. PMID:25679378

  1. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

  2. Bone mass of Spanish school children: impact of anthropometric, dietary and body composition factors.

    PubMed

    Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Calderon-Garcia, Julian F; Moran, Jose M; Canal-Macias, Maria Luz; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Trinidad; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) determine the relationship between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) results and anthropometric, dietary and body composition factors and establish reference ranges for amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) in the phalanges and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in the calcaneus of children from Extremadura, Spain, and (b) to present reference curves for this population. Healthy children (n = 245), aged 4-16 years, were included (124 girls and 121 boys). Phalangeal and calcaneal QUS measurements were performed using DBM Sonic Bone Profiler and McCue CUBA Clinical ultrasound devices, respectively. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated by anthropometric methods. Fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass (FFM) and total body water (TBWater) were evaluated by bioelectrical impedance measurements using a Holtain body composition analyzer. Food intake was evaluated by a 7-day food record. A gender analysis revealed that Ad-SoS and BUA parameters increased significantly with age and that both positively correlated with age, weight, height, BMI, FFM and TBWater. For both genders, Ad-SoS showed significant and positive correlations with age, weight, height, BMI, FFM, BUA and TBWater.

  3. Gender Differences in Anthropometric Predictors of Physical Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fragala, Maren S.; Clark, M.H.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Kleppinger, Alison; Judge, James O.; Kuchel, George A.; Kenny, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Both high body fat and low muscle mass have been associated with physical disability in older adults. However, men and women differ markedly in body composition, where men generally have more absolute and relative lean muscle mass and less fat mass than women. It is not known how these anthropometric differences differentially impact physical ability in men and women. Objectives This study examines differences in anthropometric predictors of physical performance in older women and men. Methods Participants were 470 older women and men aged 72.9±7.9y. Body composition was measured using DXA. Maximum leg strength and power were measured using a leg press. Muscle quality (MQ) was calculated as relative strength (leg press strength per kg of leg muscle mass). Gait speed and chair rise were used to assess mobility performance and functional strength. Results BMI, age and muscle quality emerged as predictors (p<0.05) of functional strength and mobility in men and women somewhat differently. After accounting for age and sample, leg muscle quality was related to chair rise time and gait speed in men but not women. BMI was related to gait speed in both men and women, but BMI was related to chair rise time in only women and not men. Discussion Results implicate the prioritized importance of healthy weight and muscle maintenance in older women and men, respectively for maintained physical functioning with aging. PMID:23123187

  4. Anthropometric and Biochemical Assessment of Nutritional Status in Pediatric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    İlhan, İnci Ergürhan; Sarı, Neriman; Yeşil, Şule; Eren, Tuba; Taçyıldız, Nurdan

    2015-01-01

    Children are at greater risk for malnutrition due to increased needs of nutrients to obtain appropriate growth, and they exhibit elevated substrate needs due to cancer and its treatment. This study aimed to report anthropometric and biochemical evaluation of nutritional status in children with cancer at initial presentation and during treatment. A prospective, controlled study was performed in the pediatric oncology department of a tertiary care center. Control group consisted of the siblings of patients. Weight, height, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and serum levels of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, serum lipids, trace minerals, C-reactive protein (CRP), and vitamins were compared in patients and controls at initial presentation and at 6th month after the onset of treatment. According to weight for height, the frequency of malnutrition was 16% at initial presentation and 22% at 6th month. Triceps skinfold thickness was significantly thinner in patients than controls at both measurements. Patients had lower levels of prealbumin, albumin, iron, folate, zinc, and vitamin C and higher levels of ferritin, vitamin B12, and copper. Serum CRP levels were significantly higher in cancer patients at initial presentation and seemed to be correlated with copper levels. Compared with other patients, malnourished patients had significantly higher levels of vitamin B12 at 6th month. Results of the current study demonstrate that trace minerals, vitamins, and anthropometric measures may yield important clues for nutritional status and disease activity in pediatric oncology patients. However, validation and updating these potential markers warrant further trials on larger series.

  5. An Approach to Precise Nitrogen Management Using Hand-Held Crop Sensor Measurements and Winter Wheat Yield Mapping in a Mediterranean Environment

    PubMed Central

    Quebrajo, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agüera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index—NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha−1 and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm−1 (field 1) and 3221 ± 531 kg ha−1 and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm−1 (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with rxy = 0.64 and p < 10−4 in field 1 and rxy = 0.78 and p < 10−4 in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis. PMID:25756861

  6. The effect of isometric exercise of the hand on the synovial blood flow in patients with rheumatoid arthritis measured by color Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ellegaard, Karen; Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Lund, Hans; Pedersen, Kirsten; Henriksen, Marius; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2013-01-01

    In 90% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the joints of the hand are affected. Studies of grip strength training have not indicated a negative effect on disease activity after training. Introduction of ultrasound Doppler (USD) to measure increased blood flow induced by inflammation has made it possible to investigate the direct effect on blood supply in the synovium after training. In this case-control study, 24 patients with RA with USD activity in the wrist joint participated. The USD activity was measured by the color fraction (CF) (CF = colored pixels/total number of pixels in ROI). Twenty-four patients were assigned to an 8-week grip strength training program. At baseline and after 8 weeks of training, an USD examination of the wrist joint was performed. In the training group, we measured grip strength and pain in the wrist joint. Six patients withdrew from the training because of pain or change in medication. Eighteen patients served as control group. There was a modest, not significant, decrease in the CF in response to training (1.86%; P = 0.08). Grip strength increased 8.8% after training (P = 0.055). Pain in motion deceased after training (P = 0.04). No difference in the CF was seen between the training and control groups, neither at baseline nor at follow-up (P = 0.82 and P = 0.48). Patients withdrawing from training had a significantly higher CF than the other patients (P > 0.001). The results in this study might indicate that the flow in the synovium assessed by USD is not affected by grip strength training.

  7. Dietary intake and anthropometric reference values in population studies.

    PubMed

    Arija, Victoria; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Martínez de Vitoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Luis; Ribas, Lourdes; Aranceta, Javier

    2015-02-26

    In nutritional epidemiology it is essential to have reference values for nutrition and anthropometry in order to compare individual and population data. With respect to reference nutritional intake, the new concept of Dietary Reference Intakes is generated based more on the prevention of chronic diseases than on covering nutritional deficiencies, as would occur in the early Recommendations. As such, the more relevant international organizations incorporated new concepts in their tables, such as the Adequate Intake levels or the Tolerable Upper Intake levels. Currently, the EURRECA recommendations (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) are generating reference values for Europe in a transparent, systematic and scientific manner. Using the DRI, health-care authorities formulated nutritional objectives for countries or territories and Dietary Guides to disseminate the dietary advice to the population. Anthropometric assessment continues to be one of the most-used methods for evaluating and monitoring health status, nutritional state and growth in children, not only individuals but also communities. Different organizations have established anthropometric reference patterns of body mass index (BMI) with cut-off points to define overweight and obesity. In children, growth curves have been revised and adapted to the characteristics of healthy children in order to obtain anthropometric reference standards that better reflect optimum growth in children. The Growth Standards for children below 5 years of age of the WHO are a response to these principles, and are widely accepted and used worldwide.

  8. Anthropometric nutritional assessment is of value in colorectal patients.

    PubMed

    de la Hunt, M N; McDonald, P J; Karran, S J

    1984-05-01

    Eighty patients undergoing elective major colorectal surgery were nutritionally assessed using simple anthropometric methods and serum albumin. Although most of the patients were not malnourished, these tests were able to detect a small group of high-risk patients. Thirty major complications were recorded. The incidence of complications was 72 per cent in patients with low body weight, 69 per cent with low forearm muscle circumference, 55 per cent with recent weight loss, and 57 per cent with serum albumin below 35 g/l. Anthropometric tests were better in predicting postoperative complications than serum albumin. Of those patients who developed complications, 60 per cent had low grip strength, 37 per cent weight loss, 37 per cent high malnutrition score, 33 per cent low body weight, and 27 per cent had lower serum albumin. Anthropometric tests were more sensitive and more accurate than serum albumin. Anthropometry has the additional advantages of being simple, noninvasive, and independent of laboratory facilities; it also provides instant bedside assessment.

  9. Anthropometric, body composition and performance variables of young elite female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Bale, P

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the physique and body composition of young female basketball players and to examine these variables in relation to their playing position. Eighteen members of the under seventeen England Basketball squad were measured on twenty different anthropometric sites from which somatotype and body composition were calculated. Four performance measures, vertical jump, anaerobic power, right and left grip strength and laterality were also measured. The variables of the basketball players grouped according to playing position were then compared statistically using ANOVA. Centres had the largest measures of physique and body composition followed by the forwards and then the guards. These differences were significant, particularly between the centres and the guards. The centres were much taller, had longer limb lengths, hip widths and were more muscular.

  10. Longitudinal development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within academy rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Darrall-Jones, Josh; Emmonds, Stacey; Cooke, Carlton

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the annual and long-term (i.e., 4 years) development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy (16-20 years) rugby league players. Players were assessed at the start of preseason over a 6-year period and were required to be assessed on consecutive years to be included in the study (Under 16-17, n = 35; Under 17-18, n = 44; Under 18-19, n = 35; Under 19-20, n = 16). A subset of 15 players were assessed for long-term changes over 4 years (Under 16-19). Anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 4 skinfolds) and physical (10- and 20-m sprint, 10-m momentum, vertical jump, yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1, 1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat, bench press, and prone row) assessments were collected. Paired t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated significant annual (e.g., body mass, U16 = 76.4 ± 8.4, U17 = 81.3 ± 8.3 kg; p < 0.001, d = 0.59) and long-term (e.g., vertical jump, Under 16 = 44.1 ± 3.8, Under 19 = 52.1 ± 5.3 cm; p < 0.001, d = 1.74) changes in anthropometric and physical characteristics. Greater percentage changes were identified between the Under 16-17 age categories compared with the other ages (e.g., 1RM squat, U16-17 = 22.5 ± 19.5 vs. U18-19 = 4.8 ± 6.4%). Findings demonstrate the annual and long-term development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy rugby league players establishing greater changes occur at younger ages upon the commencement of a structured training program within an academy. Coaches should understand the long-term development of physical characteristics and use longitudinal methods for monitoring and evaluating player performance and development.

  11. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA. PMID:25992659

  12. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA.

  13. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Nepalese Hemodialysis Patients by Anthropometric Examinations and Modified Quantitative Subjective Global Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sedhain, Arun; Hada, Rajani; Agrawal, Rajendra Kumar; Bhattarai, Gandhi R; Baral, Anil

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis by using modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) and anthropometric measurements. METHOD We Conducted a cross sectional descriptive analytical study to assess the nutritional status of fifty four patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis by using MQSGA and different anthropometric and laboratory measurements like body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), triceps skin fold (TSF) and biceps skin fold (BSF), serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile in a government tertiary hospital at Kathmandu, Nepal. RESULTS Based on MQSGA criteria, 66.7% of the patients suffered from mild to moderate malnutrition and 33.3% were well nourished. None of the patients were severely malnourished. CRP was positive in 56.3% patients. Serum albumin, MAC and BMI were (mean + SD) 4.0 + 0.3 mg/dl, 22 + 2.6 cm and 19.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2 respectively. MQSGA showed negative correlation with MAC (r = −0.563; P = <0.001), BMI (r = −0.448; P = <0.001), MAMC (r = −0.506; P = <.0001), TSF (r = −0.483; P = <.0002), and BSF (r = −0.508; P = <0.0001). Negative correlation of MQSGA was also found with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol without any statistical significance. CONCLUSION Mild to moderate malnutrition was found to be present in two thirds of the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Anthropometric measurements like BMI, MAC, MAMC, BSF and TSF were negatively correlated with MQSGA. Anthropometric and laboratory assessment tools could be used for nutritional assessment as they are relatively easier, cheaper and practical markers of nutritional status. PMID:26327781

  14. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  15. Contact transfer of anions from hands as a function of the use of hand lotions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, R. W.; Schulman, M.

    2001-01-01

    Contact transfer of anions from human hands can result in contamination of materials, increasing their rate of corrosion. Two types of hand lotion were applied to the hands: one was specially formulated for cleanroom use and the other was a popular commercial lotion. The effect on contact transfer of anions was measured versus anion transfer from washed hands without lotions.

  16. Associations of anthropometric factors with KRAS and BRAF mutation status of primary colorectal cancer in men and women: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brändstedt, Jenny; Wangefjord, Sakarias; Nodin, Björn; Eberhard, Jakob; Sundström, Magnus; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), and accumulating evidence suggests a differential influence of sex and anthropometric factors on the molecular carcinogenesis of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between height, weight, bodyfat percentage, waist- and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and CRC risk according to KRAS and BRAF mutation status of the tumours, with particular reference to potential sex differences. KRAS and BRAF mutations were analysed by pyrosequencing in tumours from 494 incident CRC cases in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Hazard ratios of CRC risk according to anthropometric factors and mutation status were calculated using multivariate Cox regression models. While all anthropometric measures except height were associated with an increased risk of KRAS-mutated tumours, only BMI was associated with an increased risk of KRAS wild type tumours overall. High weight, hip, waist, WHR and BMI were associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours, but none of the anthropometric factors were associated with risk of BRAF-mutated CRC, neither in the overall nor in the sex-stratified analysis. In men, several anthropometric measures were associated with both KRAS-mutated and KRAS wild type tumours. In women, only a high WHR was significantly associated with an increased risk of KRAS-mutated CRC. A significant interaction was found between sex and BMI with respect to risk of KRAS-mutated tumours. In men, all anthropometric factors except height were associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours, whereas in women, only bodyfat percentage was associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours. The results from this prospective cohort study further support an influence of sex and lifestyle factors on different pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis, defined by KRAS and BRAF mutation status of the tumours.

  17. Waist-to-hip ratio is a better anthropometric index than body mass index for predicting the risk of type 2 diabetes in Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Ho, Chien-Chang; Yang, Chin-Feng; Huang, Yi-Chia; Lai, Cheng-Hsiu; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2010-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been reported to be related to the risk of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. However, waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) can better reflect the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat and might be a better predictor than BMI of the risk of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that other anthropometric indices rather than BMI could more accurately predict the risk of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine which anthropometric index can be a better predictor for forecasting the risk of type 2 diabetes and hypertension in the Taiwanese population. We conducted a cross-sectional study and reviewed data derived from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, 1993-1996. The subjects were 2545 men and 2562 women, aged 18 to 96 years. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to measure the predictive diabetic and hypertensive performance of each anthropometric measurement based on the area under the curve (AUC). Among 5 anthropometric indices, WHR had a significantly adjusted odds ratio (OR) and the highest AUC (0.72 for men and 0.80 for women) to predict the risk of type 2 diabetes. Although BMI had a significantly adjusted OR, the AUC was not the highest among the 5 anthropometric indices used to predict the risk of hypertension. Our findings suggested that WHR is a better anthropometric index for predicting the risk of type 2 diabetes, and the optimal cutoff values of WHR are considered as 0.89 for men and 0.82 for women in the Taiwanese population.

  18. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors.

    PubMed

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke.Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m(3) Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde.We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans. PMID:20161525

  19. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  20. Objectively measured second hand smoke exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease: what is the mediating role of inflammatory and haemostatic factors?

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kivimaki, Mika; Lowe, Gordon D; Batty, G. David

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between objectively measured second–hand-smoke (SHS) exposure and incident CVD death, and assess the extent to which this association can be explained through novel circulating markers of inflammation and haemostasis. Background Existing evidence suggests there is an association between SHS and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, although the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Methods In a prospective study of 13,443 participants living in England and Scotland [aged 53.5, (SD 12.6 yrs), 52.3% women] we measured salivary cotinine (an objective marker of SHS exposure) and novel CVD biomarkers (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen) at baseline. Results 20.8% of the sample had high SHS exposure based on elevated levels of salivary cotinine (0.71 – 14.99 ng/mL). During a mean follow-up of 8 years, there were 1221 all-cause deaths and 364 CVD deaths. High SHS was associated with all-cause (age adjusted HR= 1.25, 95% CI, 1.02 – 1.53) and CVD death (age adjusted HR= 1.21, 95% CI, 0.85 – 1.73). High SHS was also associated with elevated CRP, which explained 48% of the association between SHS and CVD death. The excess risk of CVD associated with active smoking was exaggerated in relation to self report (age adjusted HR= 3.27, 95% CI, 2.48 – 4.31) compared with objective assessment (age adjusted HR= 2.44, 95% CI, 1.75 – 3.40). Conclusion Among a large representative sample of British adults we observed elevated levels of low grade inflammation in otherwise healthy participants exposed to high SHS, and this partly explained their elevated risk of CVD death. PMID:20620712

  1. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC–MS and HPLC–MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2–10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans. PMID:20161525

  2. Wash Your Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... do if you don't have soap and clean, running water? Washing hands with soap and water is the ... specific questions. More Information CDC's Handwashing Work Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Water-related Hygiene Hand Hygiene to Help Prevent Flu ...

  3. Three-dimensional anthropometric techniques applied to the fabrication of burn masks and the quantification of wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitestone, Jennifer J.; Geisen, Glen R.; McQuiston, Barbara K.

    1997-03-01

    Anthropometric surveys conducted by the military provide comprehensive human body measurement data that are human interface requirements for successful mission performance of weapon systems, including cockpits, protective equipment, and clothing. The application of human body dimensions to model humans and human-machine performance begins with engineering anthropometry. There are two critical elements to engineering anthropometry: data acquisition and data analysis. First, the human body is captured dimensionally with either traditional anthropometric tools, such as calipers and tape measures, or with advanced image acquisition systems, such as a laser scanner. Next, numerous statistical analysis tools, such as multivariate modeling and feature envelopes, are used to effectively transition these data for design and evaluation of equipment and work environments. Recently, Air Force technology transfer allowed researchers at the Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base to work with the Dayton, Ohio area medical community in assessing the rate of wound healing and improving the fit of total contract burn masks. This paper describes the successful application of CARD Lab engineering anthropometry to two medically oriented human interface problems.

  4. GENDER FEATURES OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC, CEPHALOMETRIC AND BIOIMPEDANCE PARAMETERS IN THE STUDENTS OF YAKUTIA.

    PubMed

    Guryeva, A B; Alekseyeva, V A; Petrova, P G

    2015-01-01

    To establish the anthropo-ecological portrait of the current population of Yakutia, it is necessary to study the regularities of the variability of physical status in different gender groups and develop regional standards of the physical development of different age-sex groups of the population with regard to the peculiarities of the environment. The aim of this study is to do research on the gender features of anthropometric, cephalometric and bioimpedance parameters in the students of Yakut ethnicity. The measures of 228 Yakut girls and 168 Yakut youths born and permanently resident in Yakutia were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements were performed using the method of V.V. Bunak (1941), somatotyping--using the Rees-Eysenck index (1945). Head type was determined by the cephalic index, face type--by the upper facial index. Bioelectrical impedance analysis with the use of ABC--01 Medass analyzer was performed to estimate body composition. Adipose tissue mass (AM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), lean mass (LM), active cell mass (ACM) and phase angle (PA) were determined. Obtained material was processed by the method of variation statistics with the use of SPSS 17.0 software package. Overall measures of the soma of the examined groups have gender features of body organization that are expressed in the significantly higher values of all measured parameters in the youths of Yakutia. In our study, the sexual dimorphism in the distribution of somatotypes by the Rees-Eysenck index has not been identified. The analysis of cephalometric measures has revealed reliably higher parameters of absolute head sizes in the youths. Gender differences in the distribution of head and face types have not been found in the examined ethno-age group. Significantly larger absolute amount of AM has been established in the girls. The measures of SMM, ACM and LM are reliably higher in the youths. The values of active and reactive tissue resistance are reliably higher in the girls. Gender

  5. GENDER FEATURES OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC, CEPHALOMETRIC AND BIOIMPEDANCE PARAMETERS IN THE STUDENTS OF YAKUTIA.

    PubMed

    Guryeva, A B; Alekseyeva, V A; Petrova, P G

    2015-01-01

    To establish the anthropo-ecological portrait of the current population of Yakutia, it is necessary to study the regularities of the variability of physical status in different gender groups and develop regional standards of the physical development of different age-sex groups of the population with regard to the peculiarities of the environment. The aim of this study is to do research on the gender features of anthropometric, cephalometric and bioimpedance parameters in the students of Yakut ethnicity. The measures of 228 Yakut girls and 168 Yakut youths born and permanently resident in Yakutia were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements were performed using the method of V.V. Bunak (1941), somatotyping--using the Rees-Eysenck index (1945). Head type was determined by the cephalic index, face type--by the upper facial index. Bioelectrical impedance analysis with the use of ABC--01 Medass analyzer was performed to estimate body composition. Adipose tissue mass (AM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), lean mass (LM), active cell mass (ACM) and phase angle (PA) were determined. Obtained material was processed by the method of variation statistics with the use of SPSS 17.0 software package. Overall measures of the soma of the examined groups have gender features of body organization that are expressed in the significantly higher values of all measured parameters in the youths of Yakutia. In our study, the sexual dimorphism in the distribution of somatotypes by the Rees-Eysenck index has not been identified. The analysis of cephalometric measures has revealed reliably higher parameters of absolute head sizes in the youths. Gender differences in the distribution of head and face types have not been found in the examined ethno-age group. Significantly larger absolute amount of AM has been established in the girls. The measures of SMM, ACM and LM are reliably higher in the youths. The values of active and reactive tissue resistance are reliably higher in the girls. Gender

  6. Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in High School Girls in Ilam, West Iran.

    PubMed

    Jamalikandazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbar, Elham; Gholami-Parizad, Eskandar; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations.

  7. Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in High School Girls in Ilam, West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamalikandazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbar, Elham; Gholami-Parizad, Eskandar; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations. PMID:27403373

  8. Anthropometric determinants of rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females.

    PubMed

    Podstawski, R; Choszcz, Dj; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR - 0.1130 LR (2) - 0.0589 LN (2) + 29.2157 CPI(2) + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI - 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890