Science.gov

Sample records for hand hygiene compliance

  1. Moment-specific compliance with hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Lau, Tiffany; Tang, Grace; Mak, Ka-lun; Leung, Gilberto

    2014-06-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component of patient-safety education. The World Health Organization recommends the use of hand hygiene measures at five clinical moments. While previous studies have treated hand hygiene as a single entity, we investigated whether and how the compliance of students may vary across the five clinical moments. We also studied their reasons for non-compliance with a view to inform teaching. A voluntary self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on a convenient sample of 339 medical and nursing students. The five clinical moments studied were: before touching a patient (moment 1); before a clean/aseptic procedure (moment 2); after body fluid exposure risk (moment 3); after touching a patient (moment 4); and after touching the patient's surroundings (moment 5). The overall reported compliance rate was 83.0 per cent. The compliance rates were significantly lower at moments 1 and 5. Nursing students reported better overall compliance (p = 0.01), and at moments 2 (p = 0.0001) and 3 (p = 0.0001), than medical students. Medical students fared better at moment 4 (p = 0.009). The most common reason reported for non-compliance was 'forgetfulness'. We identified differences in compliance rates across the five clinical moments of hand hygiene. Education programmes should not treat the hand hygiene process as a single entity, but should adopt a moment-specific approach to promote recall, with particular emphases on moments 1 and 5. Nursing and medical students may require different education strategies. Future studies on hand hygiene may also adopt a moment-specific approach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of hand sanitizer location on hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Cure, Laila; Van Enk, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important intervention to prevent infection in hospitals. Health care workers should clean their hands at least before and after contact with patients. Hand sanitizer dispensers are important to support hand hygiene because they can be made available throughout hospital units. The aim of this study was to determine whether the usability of sanitizer dispensers correlates with compliance of staff in using the sanitizer in a hospital. This study took place in a Midwest, 404-bed, private, nonprofit community hospital with 15 inpatient care units in addition to several ambulatory units. The usability and standardization of sanitizers in 12 participating inpatient units were evaluated. The hospital measured compliance of staff with hand hygiene as part of their quality improvement program. Data from 2010-2012 were analyzed to measure the relationship between compliance and usability using mixed-effects logistic regression models. The total usability score (P = .0046), visibility (P = .003), and accessibility of the sanitizer on entrance to the patient room (P = .00055) were statistically associated with higher observed compliance rates. Standardization alone showed no significant impact on observed compliance (P = .37). Hand hygiene compliance can be influenced by visibility and accessibility of dispensers. The sanitizer location should be part of multifaceted interventions to improve hand hygiene. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of contact precautions on hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Franca, Sátiro Ribeiro; Marra, Alexandre R; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta; Pavão dos Santos, Oscar Fernando; Teodoro Ramos, Júlio Cesar; Edmond, Michael B

    2013-06-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most important interventions to prevent health care-associated infections. We compared hand hygiene compliance among health care workers when patients were in contact precautions to compliance when patients were not in contact precautions. Our study failed to show differences in adherence to hand hygiene practices in the care of contact isolation versus noncontact isolation patients.

  4. Hand hygiene compliance monitoring: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Jarrin Tejada, Claudia; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-04-01

    Hand hygiene is crucial to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired infections. The WHO recommends five moments for hand hygiene: (1) before patient contact, (2) before performing an aseptic task, (3) after exposure with body fluids, (4) after patient contact, and (5) after contact with patient's surroundings. Nevertheless, hand hygiene compliance rates remain low among healthcare workers. Direct observation is the gold standard method for hand hygiene monitoring; however, it is time consuming and observer dependent. Technology has allowed the development of several other hand hygiene surveillance methods. In this article, we review the different modalities for hand hygiene compliance monitoring.

  5. An observational study of hand hygiene compliance in paediatric wards.

    PubMed

    Randle, Jacqueline; Firth, Joseph; Vaughan, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    To measure healthcare workers', children's and visitors' hand hygiene compliance in a paediatric oncology ward and a paediatric respiratory ward in an English hospital. Children are especially vulnerable to healthcare-associated infections, yet few studies have reported on hand hygiene compliance in paediatric clinical areas. This was an observational study. We measured hand hygiene compliance over an eight-hour period in two hospital wards using the 'five moments of hand hygiene' observation tool. We monitored a total of 407 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall opportunities for compliance were 74% for healthcare workers (n = 315) and children and visitors 23% (n = 92). Compliance was 84% for allied health professionals, 81% for doctors, 75% for nurses and 73% for ancillary and other staff. Hand hygiene compliance varied depending on which of the five moments of hygiene healthcare workers were undertaking (p < 0·001), with compliance before child contact 90% (140/155); after child contact 78% (89/114); after body fluid exposure 75% (3/4); and after surroundings contact 36% (15/42). For healthcare workers and visitors, there was no evidence of an association between time of day and their hand hygiene compliance, and for visitors to the oncology ward, hand hygiene compliance was higher (p < 0·05). Owing to the nature of the clinical environments, we are unable to draw conclusions about children's hand hygiene compliance; however, visitors' compliance was low. Among healthcare workers, levels of compliance were higher compared with previous reported estimates. Visitors had the lowest level of compliance yet owing to the nature of the clinical environments, nearly a quarter of care is delivered by them rather than healthcare workers, and so, this offers opportunities for specific future interventions aimed at families and carers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A multifaceted hospital-wide intervention increases hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Patel, B; Engelbrecht, H; McDonald, H; Morris, V; Smythe, W

    2016-03-07

    Hand hygiene is an important and basic practice that should be used by all healthcare staff to protect both themselves and their patients against infection. Unfortunately hand hygiene compliance remains poor. To show an improvement in hand hygiene compliance using a multifaceted approach. This was a quasiexperimental pre-post intervention study design with a number of standardised interventions to promote hand hygiene. The World Health Organization hand hygiene multimodal (five-step) intervention approach was used. The study ran from June 2015 to August 2015 in 11 selected wards of a 975-bed tertiary and quaternary care public hospital (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa). The outcome was to assess improvement in hand hygiene compliance monthly over the 3 months, compared with non-intervention wards and compared with the wards' own performance measured in 2014. The study included both descriptive and analytical components. Post intervention, hand hygiene compliance showed a statistically significant improvement for before patient contact from 34% in 2014 to 76% in 2015 (p<0.05) and for after patient contact from 47% in 2014 to 82% in 2015 (p<0.05). The intervention improved hand hygiene compliance and can easily be replicated in other wards, resulting in sustaining a culture of hand hygiene improvement and behavioural change throughout the hospital.

  7. Understanding non-compliance with hand hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Gluyas, Heather

    2015-04-29

    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) continue to be a challenge in developed and developing countries. Hand hygiene practice is considered to be the most effective strategy to prevent HCAIs, but healthcare workers' compliance is poor. Using a human factors perspective, this article explores elements that affect healthcare workers' hand hygiene compliance. Slips, lapses and mistakes can occur depending on the worker's skills and knowledge levels. Violations of protocols may also occur, and these may be associated with the intention to provide care efficiently. Strong leadership and an understanding of why non-compliance with hand hygiene occurs assists with developing strategies to improve compliance.

  8. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates at hospital entrances.

    PubMed

    Vaidotas, Marina; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Gysi, Deisy Morselli; Leal, Flavio; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Edmond, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in the health care setting, there are no studies evaluating hand hygiene compliance at hospital entrances. The study was prospectively performed over a 33-week period from March 30, 2014-November 15, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 hospital reception areas. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (GOJO SMARTLINK) (electronic observer) that counts each activation of alcohol gel dispensers to direct observation (human observer) via remote review of video surveillance. We found low hand hygiene compliance rates of 2.2% (99/4,412) and 1.7% (140/8,277), respectively, at reception areas A and D, detected by direct observation. Using the electronic observer, we measured rates of 17% (15,624/91,724) and 7.1% (51,605/730,357) at reception areas A and D, respectively. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, the human observer captured 1% of the hand hygiene episodes detected by the electronic observer. Our study showed very low hand hygiene compliance in hospital reception areas, and we found an electronic hand hygiene system to be a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Compliance with hand hygiene: reference data from the national hand hygiene campaign in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wetzker, W; Bunte-Schönberger, K; Walter, J; Pilarski, G; Gastmeier, P; Reichardt, Ch

    2016-04-01

    Hand hygiene is a key measure to prevent healthcare-associated infection. To promote hand hygiene nationally the German campaign 'Aktion Saubere Hände' was launched in January 2008, based on the World Health Organization's 'Clean Care is Safer Care' initiative. We report the first results from a full year of data collection on hand hygiene compliance recorded with the help of a renewed observation tool. Data were based on submissions from 109 participating hospitals collected from 576 wards between January 1st and December 31st, 2014. The overall median compliance was 73%, ranging from 55% (10th percentile) to 89% (90th percentile). The results demonstrated only small differences between adult and non-adult intensive care units (ICUs) with neonatal ICUs and paediatric non-ICUs maintaining higher compliance than adult care units. Performance among nurses was better than physicians, and overall rates of hand hygiene performance were significantly higher after patient contact than before.

  10. Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance is Associated with the Change of Perception toward Hand Hygiene among Medical Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygiene compliance and perceptions toward hand hygiene among medical personnel were compared between the second quarter of 2009 (before the start of a hand hygiene promotion program) and the second quarter of 2012. We assessed adherence to hand hygiene among medical personnel quarterly according to the WHO recommended method for direct observation. Also, we used a modified self-report questionnaire to collect perception data. Results Hand hygiene compliance among physicians and nurses improved significantly from 19.0% in 2009 to 74.5% in 2012 (P < 0001), and from 52.3% to 91.2% (P < 0.001), respectively. These improvements were observed in all professional status or all medical specialties that were compared between two periods, regardless of the level of the risk for cross-transmission. Hand hygiene compliance among the medical personnel continued to improve, with a slight decline in 2013. Perceptions toward hand hygiene improved significantly between 2009 and 2012. Specifically, improvements were evident in intention to adhere to hand hygiene, knowledge about hand hygiene methods, knowledge about hand hygiene indications including care of a dirty and a clean body site on the same patient, perceived behavioral and subjective norms, positive attitude toward hand hygiene promotion campaign, perception of difficulty in adhering to hand hygiene, and motivation to improve adherence to hand hygiene. Conclusions The examined hand hygiene promotion program resulted in improved hand hygiene

  11. Interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance in patient care.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah J; Moralejo, Donna; Drey, Nicholas; Chudleigh, Jane H

    2010-09-08

    Health care-associated infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is regarded as an effective preventive measure. To update the review done in 2007, to assess the short and longer-term success of strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance and to determine whether a sustained increase in hand hygiene compliance can reduce rates of health care-associated infection. We conducted electronic searches of: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group specialised register of trials; MEDLINE; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; and the BNI. Originally searched to July 2006, for the update databases were searched from August 2006 until November 2009. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series analyses meeting explicit entry and quality criteria used by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group were eligible for inclusion. Studies reporting indicators of hand hygiene compliance and proxy indicators such as product use were considered. Self-reported data were not considered a valid measure of compliance. Studies to promote hand hygiene compliance as part of a care bundle approach were included, providing data relating specifically to hand hygiene were presented separately. Studies were excluded if hand hygiene was assessed in simulations, non-clinical settings or the operating theatre setting. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed data quality. Four studies met the criteria for the review: two from the original review and two from the update. Two studies evaluated simple education initiatives, one using a randomized clinical trial design and the other a controlled before and after design. Both measured hand hygiene compliance by direct observation. The other two studies were both interrupted times series studies. One study presented three separate interventions within the

  12. The six golden rules to improve compliance in hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G

    2004-04-01

    Improvement of compliance in hand hygiene is probably the most effective step in reducing the incidence of nosocomial infections (NI). But improvement of compliance is known to be complex. Six possibilities for improving compliance are available although some of them may be difficult to carry out. Rule 1: Select an alcohol-based hand rub which has a good skin tolerance and is acceptable to health care workers to use. This has been shown to improve compliance. Rule 2: The hand rub shall be easily available. Wall dispensers near the patient and pocket bottles may well help. Other possibilities should be assessed locally. Rule 3: Implement teaching and promotion of hand hygiene, which has been shown to be very effective. This is may be the most effective tool but will cost time and money. If money is a problem, rule 4 may be the solution. Rule 4: Create a hospital budget which covers all costs involved with preventable nosocomial infection. Combine it with the budget for hand hygiene products. Even a small number of prevented NI largely outweighs the cost of effective hand hygiene products. Rule 5: Get senior staff to set a good example in order to motivate junior staff, because negligence in hand hygiene appears to correlate with the number of professional years. Rule 6: Have the patient-staff ratio well balanced. It has been shown that staff shortage decreases hand hygiene compliance. Other factors may be important as well, but implementation of these 6 golden rules could be an effective step into the right direction.

  13. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia.

  14. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A.; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  15. Personal hand gel for improved hand hygiene compliance on the regional anesthesia team.

    PubMed

    Parks, Colby L; Schroeder, Kristopher M; Galgon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    Hand hygiene reduces healthcare-associated infections, and several recent publications have examined hand hygiene in the perioperative period. Our institution's policy is to perform hand hygiene before and after patient contact. However, observation suggests poor compliance. This is a retrospective review of a quality improvement database showing the effect of personal gel dispensers on perioperative hand hygiene compliance on a regional anesthesia team. Healthcare providers assigned to the Acute Pain Service were observed for compliance with hand hygiene policy during a quality improvement initiative. Provider type and compliance were prospectively recorded in a database. Team members were then given a personal gel dispensing device and again observed for compliance. We have retrospectively reviewed this database to determine the effects of this intervention. Of the 307 encounters observed, 146 were prior to implementing personal gel dispensers. Compliance was 34%. Pre- and post-patient contact compliances were 23 and 43%, respectively. For 161 encounters after individual gel dispensers were provided, compliance was 63%. Pre- and post-patient contact compliances were 53 and 72%, respectively. Improvement in overall compliance from 34 to 63% was significant. On the Acute Pain Service, compliance with hand hygiene policy improves when individual sanitation gel dispensing devices are worn on the person.

  16. Influence of job seniority, hand hygiene education, and patient-to-nurse ratio on hand disinfection compliance.

    PubMed

    Buffet-Bataillon, S; Leray, E; Poisson, M; Michelet, C; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Cormier, M

    2010-09-01

    Hand hygiene compliance was evaluated by direct observation in 2006 and 2007. In 2007, data on characteristics such as job seniority, hand hygiene education, and patient-to-nurse ratio during direct observations were collected. A hand hygiene promotional programme was performed between the two evaluations. Univariate and multivariate analysis identified factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance. Between 2006 and 2007, from 761 hand hygiene opportunities, overall and partial compliance improved from 44.9% to 58% (P<0.001) and from 73.5% to 88.4% (P<0.001), respectively. In 2007, improvements in hand hygiene overall or partial compliance were seen when senior healthcare workers (HCWs) were present in the clinical area under investigation (P=0.04 or P=0.08, respectively). Partial hand hygiene compliance was significantly better in 2007 after a hand hygiene educational programme had been presented (P<0.015). Similar rates of compliance were observed whatever the patient-to-nurse ratio during the observation. Multivariate analysis identified job seniority as an independent predictor of hand hygiene compliance. Our results suggest that hand hygiene compliance is influenced by education on hand hygiene and that a senior HCW could act as a role model for other HCWs. These data should be considered when developing future hygiene interventions.

  17. [Intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Catalonia, Spain].

    PubMed

    Sobrequés, Jordi; Espuñes, Jordi; Bañeres, Joaquim

    2014-07-01

    Hand hygiene (HM) is the single most important measure and effective in reducing the risk of Healthcare acquired infections (IRAS). Although HM is an effective, simple and cheap measure, it is usual to find results of low compliance among health professionals. The main objective of this strategy has been to give new force to the promotion of HM in hospitals and educate professionals about the importance of this single action. The strategy was planned as a multicenter intervention study to promote HM in health centers of Catalonia in 2009-2010. The intervention is based on 4 main areas: a survey of barriers and facilitators, distribution of graphic material, training at different levels and measure of quality indicators. With this strategy a total of 57% of the number of acute beds in the concerted public and private network of hospitals were reached. The survey revealed that training was perceived as the main facilitator of the HM action. 15,376 professionals registered to the on-line training. The overall compliance with HM indications (based on "five moments for HM") was 56.45% in the acute areas. The campaigns and programs to promote HM carried out in the last four years in Catalonia has helped to achieve an increasing number of hospitals associated to the strategy of the Alliance for Patient Safety in Catalonia. The on-line curse acceptance was very high and seems a powerful tool to improve hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among health professionals. The compliance of HM seems to increase in the hospitals of Catalonia evaluated.

  18. Hand Hygiene Compliance in an Emergency Department: The Effect of Crowding.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew P; Carter, Eileen; Siddiqui, Naureen; Larson, Elaine

    2015-10-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding results from the need to see high volumes of patients of variable acuity within a limited physical space. ED crowding has been associated with poor patient outcomes and increased mortality. The authors evaluated whether ED crowding is also associated with reduced hand hygiene compliance among health care workers. A trained observer measured hand hygiene compliance using standardized definitions for 22 months in the 40-bed ED of a 475-bed academic hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ED crowding measures, including mean daily patient volumes, time to initial physician assessment, and daily nursing hours, were obtained from hospital administrative and human resource databases. Known predictors of hand hygiene compliance, including the indication for hand hygiene and the health care workers' professions, were also measured. Hand hygiene data, measured during 20-minute observation sessions, were linked to aggregate daily results for each crowding metric. Crowding metrics and known predictors of hand hygiene compliance were then included in a multivariate model if associated with hand hygiene compliance at a p-value of <0.20. Hand hygiene compliance was 29% (325 of 1,116 opportunities). Alcohol-based hand rinse was used 66% of the time. Nurses accounted for 68% of hand hygiene opportunities and physicians for 18%, with the remaining 14% attributed to nonphysician, nonnurse health care workers. The most common indications for hand hygiene were hand hygiene prior to (35%) and hand hygiene following (52%) contact with the patient or his or her environment. In multivariate analysis, time to physician assessment > 1.5 hours was associated with lower compliance (odds ratio [OR] = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51 to 0.89). Additionally, compliance was lower for nonnurse, nonphysician health care workers (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.79) and higher for hand hygiene performed after contact with the patients or his

  19. Hand hygiene-meeting the JCAHO safety goal: can compliance with CDC hand hygiene guidelines be improved by a surveillance and educational program?

    PubMed

    Benton, Carol

    2007-01-01

    While establishing 2004 department goals, the new JCAHO Safety Goal of improving compliance with CDC hand washing recommendations was an appropriate department initiative for a hospital Wound Care Center. The purpose of the project was to improve physician compliance with hand hygiene. Nursing staff monitored physician hand washing and provided a compliance report to each physician. Informative articles pertaining to hand hygiene were provided to each physician. Follow-up monitoring demonstrated a significant increase in physician compliance with an additional benefit of patients showing interest in hand hygiene. Continuous oversight of hand hygiene may ultimately reduce the incidence of infection transmission.

  20. Quantifying the Hawthorne Effect in Hand Hygiene Compliance Through Comparing Direct Observation With Automated Hand Hygiene Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Stefan; Reischke, Jana; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Winning, Johannes; Gastmeier, Petra; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Scherag, André; Pletz, Mathias W

    2015-08-01

    To quantify the Hawthorne effect of hand hygiene performance among healthcare workers using direct observation. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit, university hospital. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance over 48 audits of 2 hours each. Simultaneously, hand hygiene events (HHEs) were recorded using electronic alcohol-based handrub dispensers. Directly observed and electronically recorded HHEs during the 2 hours of direct observation were compared using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots. To quantify the Hawthorne effect, we compared the number of electronically recorded HHEs during the direct observation periods with the re-scaled electronically recorded HHEs in the 6 remaining hours of the 8-hour working shift. A total of 3,978 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed during the 96 hours of direct observation. Hand hygiene compliance was 51% (95% CI, 49%-53%). There was a strong positive correlation between directly observed compliance and electronically recorded HHEs (ρ=0.68 [95% CI, 0.49-0.81], P<.0001). In the 384 hours under surveillance, 4,180 HHEs were recorded by the electronic dispensers. Of those, 2,029 HHEs were recorded during the 96 hours in which direct observation was also performed, and 2,151 HHEs were performed in the remaining 288 hours of the same working shift that were not under direct observation. Healthcare workers performed 8 HHEs per hour when not under observation compared with 21 HHEs per hour during observation. Directly and electronically observed HHEs were in agreement. We observed a marked influence of the Hawthorne effect on hand hygiene performance.

  1. Improved hand hygiene technique and compliance in healthcare workers using gaming technology.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A; Hannan, M M

    2013-05-01

    In 2009, the World Health Organization recommended the use of a 'multi-faceted, multi-modal hand hygiene strategy' (Five Moments for Hand Hygiene) to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers. As part of this initiative, a training programme was implemented using an automated gaming technology training and audit tool to educate staff on hand hygiene technique in an acute healthcare setting. To determine whether using this automated training programme and audit tool as part of a multi-modal strategy would improve hand hygiene compliance and technique in an acute healthcare setting. A time-series quasi-experimental design was chosen to measure compliance with the Five Moments for Hand Hygiene and handwashing technique. The study was performed from November 2009 to April 2012. An adenosine triphosphate monitoring system was used to measure handwashing technique, and SureWash (Glanta Ltd, Dublin, Ireland), an automated auditing and training unit, was used to provide assistance with staff training and education. Hand hygiene technique and compliance improved significantly over the study period (P < 0.0001). Incorporation of new automated teaching technology into a hand hygiene programme can encourage staff participation in learning, and ultimately improve hand hygiene compliance and technique in the acute healthcare setting. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Maureen

    2011-03-01

    The toll of health care-associated infections on patients and the seeming ease of the procedure thought best able to prevent them have focused a spotlight onto hand hygiene performance. Poor performance of hand hygiene by health care workers inspires outrage in the general public. Much is understood regarding barriers to and motivators of hand hygiene performance. Guidelines encouraging use of alcohol-based hand hygiene agents have facilitated hand hygiene improvement efforts. These efforts and evidence that improved hand hygiene performance is associated with a reduction in health care-associated infections should encourage those in the hand hygiene campaigns.

  3. Utilizing improvement science methods to improve physician compliance with proper hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    White, Christine M; Statile, Angela M; Conway, Patrick H; Schoettker, Pamela J; Solan, Lauren G; Unaka, Ndidi I; Vidwan, Navjyot; Warrick, Stephen D; Yau, Connie; Connelly, Beverly L

    2012-04-01

    In 2009, The Joint Commission challenged hospitals to reduce the risk of health care-associated infections through hand hygiene compliance. At our hospital, physicians had lower compliance rates than other health care workers, just 68% on general pediatric units. We used improvement methods and reliability science to increase compliance with proper hand hygiene to >95% by inpatient general pediatric teams. Strategies to improve hand hygiene were tested through multiple plan-do-study-act cycles, first by 1 general inpatient medical team and then spread to 4 additional teams. At the start of each rotation, residents completed an educational module and posttest about proper hand hygiene. Team compliance data were displayed daily in the resident conference room. Real-time identification and mitigation of failures by a hand-washing champion encouraged shared accountability. Organizational support ensured access to adequate hand hygiene supplies. The main outcome measure was percent compliance with acceptable hand hygiene, defined as use of an alcohol-based product or hand-washing with soap and turning off the faucet without using fingers or palm. Compliance was defined as acceptable hand hygiene before and after contact with the patient or care environment. Covert bedside observers recorded at least 8 observations of physicians' compliance per day. Physician compliance with proper hand hygiene improved to >95% within 6 months and was sustained for 11 months. Instituting a hand-washing champion for immediate identification and mitigation of failures was key in sustaining results. Improving physician compliance with proper hand hygiene is achievable and a first step in decreasing health care-associated infections.

  4. Physician report cards and rankings yield long-lasting hand hygiene compliance exceeding 90%.

    PubMed

    Reich, John Adam; Goodstein, Monica E; Callahan, Susan E; Callahan, Kathleen M; Crossley, Lindsay W; Doron, Shira I; Snydman, David R; Nasraway, Stanley A

    2015-08-14

    Hand hygiene is an effective, low-cost intervention that prevents the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Despite mandatory education and reminders, compliance by physicians in our hospital remained stubbornly low. Our objective was to study whether surveillance by our unit coordinator (secretary) paired with regular feedback to chiefs of service would increase physician hand hygiene compliance in the ICU. The ICU unit coordinator was trained to observe and measure hand hygiene compliance. Data were collected on hand hygiene compliance at room entry and exit for 9 months. Percentage compliance for each medical and surgical subspecialty was reported to chiefs of service at the end of each month. Comparative rankings by service were widely distributed throughout the physician organization and the medical center. The hand hygiene compliance rate among physicians increased from 65.1% to 91.6% during the study period (p < 0.0001). More importantly in the succeeding 24 months after study completion, physician hand hygiene compliance remained >90% in every month. Physician hand hygiene compliance increased as a consequence of the surveillance conducted by a full-time ICU team member, leading to a highly significant increase in the number of observations. In turn, this allowed for specific comparative monthly feedback to individual chiefs of service. Over the next 2 years after the study ended, these gains were sustained, suggesting an enduring culture change in physician behavior.

  5. Determinants of hand hygiene compliance in Egypt: building blocks for a communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Lohiniva, A-L; Bassim, H; Hafez, S; Kamel, E; Ahmed, E; Saeed, T; Talaat, M

    2015-10-02

    Hand hygiene of health-care staff is one of the most important interventions in reducing transmission of nosocomial infections. This qualitative study aimed to understand the behavioural determinants of hand hygiene in order to develop sustainable interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospitals. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with nurses in 2 university hospitals in Egypt. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 independent investigators. The findings highlighted that nurses did not perceive the benefits of hand hygiene, and that they linked the need to wash hands to a sense of dirtiness. Knowledge of hand hygiene and related products was limited and preference for water and soap was obvious. Environmental constraints, lack of role models and social control were identified as barriers for compliance with hand hygiene. A multi-faceted hand hygiene strategy was developed based on existing cultural concepts valued by the hospital staff.

  6. SWITCH: Al Wakra Hospital Journey to 90% Hand Hygiene Practice Compliance, 2011 – 2015

    PubMed Central

    Visan, Feah Altura -; Zakaria, Almunzer; Castro, Jenalyn; Alhasanat, Omar; Ismail, Khalil Al; Ansari, Naser Al; Hamed, Manal

    2017-01-01

    Hand Hygiene is the cheapest and simplest way to prevent the spread of infection, however international compliance is below than 40% (WHO, 2009). In the experience of Al Wakra Hospital, the improvement in hand hygiene compliance highlighted not just interventions towards training and education but also behavioral motivation and physical allocations of hand hygiene appliances and equipment. Through motivating the behavioral, emotional, physical and intellectual dimensions of the different healthcare worker professions, hand hygiene compliance has increased from 60.78% in 2011 to 94.14% by the end of December 2015. It took 25 months of continuous and collaborative work with different healthcare workers to reach the 90% hand hygiene target. “Together, we have reached our goals and together we fight against infections! Because we always strive for excellence in everything we do – that is our vision here in Al Wakra Hospital.” PMID:28469905

  7. Environmental factors and their association with emergency department hand hygiene compliance: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Carter, Eileen J; Wyer, Peter; Giglio, James; Jia, Haomiao; Nelson, Germaine; Kauari, Vepuka E; Larson, Elaine L

    2016-05-01

    Hand hygiene is effective in preventing healthcare-associated infections. Environmental conditions in the emergency department (ED), including crowding and the use of non-traditional patient care areas (ie, hallways), may pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance. We examined the relationship between these environmental conditions and proper hand hygiene. This was a single-site, observational study. From October 2013 to January 2014, trained observers recorded hand hygiene compliance among staff in the ED according to the World Health Organization 'My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene'. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the relationship between environmental conditions and hand hygiene compliance, while controlling for important covariates (eg, hand hygiene indication, glove use, shift, etc). A total of 1673 hand hygiene opportunities were observed. In multivariable analyses, hand hygiene compliance was significantly lower when the ED was at its highest level of crowding than when the ED was not crowded and lower among hallway care areas than semiprivate care areas (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.55; OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.97). Unique environmental conditions pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance in the ED setting and should be considered by ED hand hygiene improvement efforts. Further study is needed to evaluate the impact of these environmental conditions on actual rates of infection transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Improving physician hand hygiene compliance using behavioural theories: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare-associated infections affect 10% of patients in Canadian acute-care hospitals and are significant and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is among the simplest and most effective preventive measures to reduce these infections. However, compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers, specifically among physicians, is consistently suboptimal. We aim to first identify the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance, and then to develop and pilot a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to increase physicians’ compliance with best hand hygiene practice. Design The study consists of three phases. In Phase 1, we will identify barriers and enablers to hand hygiene compliance by physicians. This will include: key informant interviews with physicians and residents using a structured interview guide, informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework; nonparticipant observation of physician/resident hand hygiene audit sessions; and focus groups with hand hygiene experts. In Phase 2, we will conduct intervention mapping to develop a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to improve physician hand hygiene compliance. Finally, in Phase 3, we will pilot the knowledge translation intervention in four patient care units. Discussion In this study, we will use a behavioural theory approach to obtain a better understanding of the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance. This will provide a comprehensive framework on which to develop knowledge translation interventions that may be more successful in improving hand hygiene practice. Upon completion of this study, we will refine the piloted knowledge translation intervention so it can be tested in a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial. PMID:23379466

  9. Hand hygiene compliance among the nursing staff in freestanding nursing homes in Taiwan: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-I; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Chuang, Yeu-Hui

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the hand hygiene compliance among the nursing staff in Taiwanese freestanding nursing homes. A descriptive observational research design was used. A total of 782 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed by one trained research assistant in two freestanding nursing homes. The hand-hygiene observation tool was used to assess hand hygiene practice. The overall hand hygiene compliance among nursing staff in nursing homes was only 11.3%. Results further showed that the compliance was greater after contact with body fluids (odds ratio = 6.9, confidence interval (CI) = 3.75-9.88, P = 0.000) and lower before the performance of aseptic procedures (odds ratio = 0.15, CI = 0.04-0.63, P = 0.003) when compared with other activities. Hand hygiene compliance was relatively low among the nursing staff in freestanding nursing homes in Taiwan. To comprehensively analyze this issue, further research involving a larger number of nursing homes and strategies to improve compliance with hand hygiene among the nursing staff at these institutions is needed. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. "The dirty hand in the latex glove": a study of hand hygiene compliance when gloves are worn.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Christopher; Savage, Joanne; Besser, Sarah; Hayward, Andrew; Cookson, Barry; Cooper, Ben; Stone, Sheldon

    2011-12-01

    Wearing of gloves reduces transmission of organisms by healthcare workers' hands but is not a substitute for hand hygiene. Results of previous studies have varied as to whether hand hygiene is worse when gloves are worn. Most studies have been small and used nonstandardized assessments of glove use and hand hygiene. We sought to observe whether gloves were worn when appropriate and whether hand hygiene compliance differed when gloves were worn. Observational study. Healthcare workers in 56 medical or care of the elderly wards and intensive care units in 15 hospitals across England and Wales. We observed hand hygiene and glove usage (7,578 moments for hand hygiene) during 249 one-hour sessions. Observers also recorded whether gloves were or were not worn for individual contacts. Gloves were used in 1,983 (26.2%) of the 7,578 moments for hand hygiene and in 551 (16.7%) of 3,292 low-risk contacts; gloves were not used in 141 (21.1%) of 669 high-risk contacts. The rate of hand hygiene compliance with glove use was 41.4% (415 of 1,002 moments), and the rate without glove use was 50.0% (1,344 of 2,686 moments). After adjusting for ward, healthcare worker type, contact risk level, and whether the hand hygiene opportunity occurred before or after a patient contact, glove use was strongly associated with lower levels of hand hygiene (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65 [95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.79]; P < .0001). The rate of glove usage is lower than previously reported. Gloves are often worn when not indicated and vice versa. The rate of compliance with hand hygiene was significantly lower when gloves were worn. Hand hygiene campaigns should consider placing greater emphasis on the World Health Organization indications for gloving and associated hand hygiene. National Research Register N0256159318.

  11. Qualitative findings from focus group discussions on hand hygiene compliance among health care workers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Sharon; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-10-01

    It is accepted by hospital clinical governance that every clinician's "duty of care" includes hand hygiene, yet globally, health care workers (HCWs) continue to struggle with compliance. Focus group discussions were conducted to explore HCWs' barriers to hand hygiene in Vietnam. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs from 6 public hospitals across Hanoi, Vietnam. Discussions included participants' experiences with and perceptions concerning hand hygiene. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and then translated into English. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Expressed frustration with high workload, limited access to hand hygiene solutions, and complicated guidelines that are difficult to interpret in overcrowded settings were considered by participants to be bona fide reasons for noncompliance. No participant acknowledged hand hygiene as a duty of care practice for her or his patients. Justification for noncompliance was the observation that visitors did not perform hand hygiene. HCWs did acknowledge a personal duty of care when hand hygiene was perceived to benefit her or his own health, and then neither workload or environmental challenges influenced compliance. Limited resources in Vietnam are amplified by overcrowded conditions and dual bed occupancy. Yet without a systematic systemic duty of care to patient safety, changes to guidelines and resources might not immediately improve compliance. Thus, introducing routine hand hygiene must start with education programs focusing on duty of care. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Keep it clean: a visual approach to reinforce hand hygiene compliance in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Lynn L; Roberts, Chris; Schmidt, Kim

    2015-03-01

    Although hand hygiene strategies significantly reduce health care-associated infections, multiple studies have documented that hand hygiene is the most overlooked and poorly performed infection control intervention. Emergency nurses and technicians (n = 95) in a 41-bed emergency department in eastern Virginia completed pretests and posttests, an education module, and two experiential learning activities reinforcing hand hygiene and infection control protocols. Posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest scores (t (108) = -6.928, P = .048). Hand hygiene compliance rates improved at the conclusion of the project and 3 months after the study (F (2, 15) = 9.89, P = .002). Interfaces with staff as they completed the interactive exercise, as well as anecdotal notes collected during the study, identified key times when compliance suffered and offered opportunities to further improve hand hygiene and, ultimately, patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing health care-associated infections by implementing a novel all hands on deck approach for hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; DiBiase, Lauren M; Schade Willis, Tina M; Wolak, Eric S; Weber, David J; Rutala, William A

    2016-05-02

    Hand hygiene is a key intervention for preventing health care-associated infections; however, maintaining high compliance is a challenge, and accurate measurement of compliance can be difficult. A novel program that engaged all health care personnel to measure compliance and provide real-time interventions overcame many barriers for compliance measurement and proved effective for sustaining high compliance and reducing health care-associated infections.

  14. Observing and improving hand hygiene compliance: implementation and refinement of an electronic-assisted direct-observer hand hygiene audit program.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luke F; Carriker, Charlene; Staheli, Russell; Isaacs, Pamela; Elliott, Brandon; Miller, Becky A; Anderson, Deverick J; Moehring, Rebekah W; Vereen, Sheila; Bringhurst, Judie; Rhodes, Lisa; Strittholt, Nancy; Sexton, Daniel J

    2013-02-01

    We implemented a direct-observer hand hygiene audit program that used trained observers, wireless data entry devices, and an intranet portal. We improved the reliability and utility of the data by standardizing audit processes, regularly retraining auditors, developing an audit guidance tool, and reporting weighted composite hand hygiene compliance scores.

  15. Hand sanitizer-dispensing door handles increase hand hygiene compliance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Babiarz, Lukasz S; Savoie, Brent; McGuire, Mark; McConnell, Lauren; Nagy, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Improving rates of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) has been shown to reduce nosocomial disease. We compared the HHC for a traditional wall-mounted unit and a novel sanitizer-dispensing door handle device in a hospital inpatient ultrasound area. HHC increased 24.5%-77.1% (P < .001) for the exam room with the sanitizer-dispensing door handle, whereas it remained unchanged for the other rooms. Technical improvements like a sanitizer-dispensing door handle can improve hospital HHC. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hand hygiene compliance by health care workers at a teaching hospital, Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Alison M; Tennant, Ingrid A; Martin, Allie C; Ehikhametalor, Kelvin; Reynolds, Glendee; Thoms-Rodriguez, Camille-Ann; Nagassar, Rajeev; Hoilett, Tena-Kim; Allen, Roxanne; Redwood, Tahira; Crandon, Ivor

    2016-10-31

    Consistent practice of hand hygiene (HH) has been shown to reduce the incidence and spread of hospital acquired infections. The objectives of this study were to determine the level of compliance and possible factors affecting compliance with HH practices among HCWs at a teaching hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. A prospective observational study was undertaken at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) over a two weeks period. Trained, validated observers identified opportunities for hand hygiene as defined by the WHO "Five Hand Hygiene Moments" and recorded whether appropriate hand hygiene actions were taken or missed. Observations were covert to prevent the observer's presence influencing the behaviour of the healthcare workers (HCWs) and targeted areas included the intensive care units (ICUs), surgical wards and surgical outpatient departments. A ward infrastructure survey was also done. Data were entered and analysed using SPSS version 16 for Windows. Chi-square analysis using Pearson's formula was used to test associations between 'exposure' factors and the outcome 'compliance'. A total of 270 hand hygiene opportunities were observed and the overall compliance rate was 38.9%. No differences were observed between the various types of HCWs or seniority. HCWs were more likely to perform hand hygiene if the indication was 'after' rather than 'before' patient contact (p = 0.001). This study underscores the need for improvement in HH practices among HCWs in a teaching hospital. Health education with particular attention to the need for HH prior to physical contact with patients is indicated.

  17. Effect of a contact monitoring system with immediate visual feedback on hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Storey, S J; FitzGerald, G; Moore, G; Knights, E; Atkinson, S; Smith, S; Freeman, O; Cryer, P; Wilson, A P R

    2014-10-01

    Hand hygiene compliance is traditionally monitored by visual methods that are open to bias and strictly limited in time and place. Automatic monitoring may be more effective for infection control as well as performance management. To establish accuracy and acceptability of an automatic contact monitoring system for hand hygiene. Monitoring equipment was installed across 55 beds in three wards, and included modified identity badges, bedside furniture, sinks and alcohol gel dispensers. Badges were in near-skin contact (through uniform) and could detect alcohol vapour. All devices were linked by wi-fi. A traffic light system on the badge provided immediate feedback to staff and patients on the hand hygiene status of a member of staff on approach to a patient. Compliance was logged automatically. Following a period of immediate feedback, no visual feedback was given for two weeks. Subsequently, feedback was given using red/green lights for 10 days, followed by retrospective feedback to the ward. Hand hygiene was verified independently by an observer. Hand hygiene compliance increased from 21% of 97 opportunities to 66% of 197 opportunities during active immediate feedback. Compliance decreased when feedback was provided to wards retrospectively. Six staff (26%) avoided wearing a badge, saying that it was too heavy or they were not on the ward all day. Only three of 30 patients stated that they would challenge staff who had not performed hand hygiene. Automatic contact monitoring with immediate feedback was effective in increasing hand hygiene compliance, but feedback given retrospectively did not prevent a decrease in compliance. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of a training programme to improve hand hygiene compliance in primary healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the most effective measure for preventing infections related to healthcare, and its impact on the reduction of these infections is estimated at 50%. Non-compliance has been highlighted in several studies in hospitals, although none have been carried out in primary healthcare. Main objective To evaluated the effect of a "Hand Hygiene for the reduction of healthcare-associated infections" training program for primary healthcare workers, measured by variation from correct hand hygiene compliance, according to regulatory and specific criteria, 6 months after the baseline, in the intervention group (group receiving a training program) and in the control group (a usual clinical practice). Secondary objectives -To describe knowledges, attitudes and behaviors as regards hand hygiene among the professionals, and their possible association with "professional burnout", stratifying the results by type of group (intervention and usual clinical practice). -To estimate the logistic regression model that best explains hand hygiene compliance. Methods/Design Experimental study of parallel groups, with a control group, and random assignment by Health Center. Area of study.- Health centers in north-eastern Madrid (Spain). Sample studied.- Healthcare workers (physicians, odontostomatologists, pediatricians, nurses, dental hygienists, midwife and nursing auxiliaries). Intervention.- A hand hygiene training program, including a theoretical-practical workshop, provision of alcohol-based solutions and a reminder strategy in the workplace. Other variables: sociodemographic and professional knowledges, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to hand hygiene. Statistical Analysis: descriptive and inferential, using multivariate methods (covariance analysis and logistic regression). Discussion This study will provide valuable information on the prevalence of hand hygiene non-compliance, and improve healthcare. PMID:20015368

  19. Improving hand hygiene compliance in healthcare settings using behavior change theories: reflections.

    PubMed

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Pittet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Although hand hygiene is the most effective method for preventing healthcare-associated infections, hand hygiene practice falls short in many healthcare facilities. The compliance rate is mostly linked to system design and easily accessible hand hygiene products. System change, healthcare worker motivation, and complex behavioral considerations seem to play a significant role. This article discusses the application of behavioral theories in hand hygiene promotion in a theoretical manner. The program relies on the transtheoretical model (TTM) of health behavior change, John Keller's (ARCS) Model of Motivational Design, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Thus, the program links attitudes and behavior to hand hygiene promotion. The TTM of health behavior change helps to tailor interventions to predict and motivate individual movement across the pathway to change. A program could be based on this theory with multiple intercalations with John Keller's ARCS and the TPB. Such a program could be strengthened by linking attitudes and behavior to promote hand hygiene. The program could utilize different strategies such as organization cultural change that may increase the attention as well as fostering the movement in the ARCS stages. In addition, modeling TPB by creating peer pressure, ability to overcome obstacles, and increasing knowledge of the role of hand hygiene may lead to the desired outcome. The understanding and application of behavior change theories may result in an effective program to improve awareness and raise intention and thus may increase the potential for success of hand hygiene promotion programs.

  20. Does training improve compliance with hand hygiene and decrease infections in the neonatal intensive care unit? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Moghaddam, P; Arjmandnia, M; Shokrollahi, M; Aghaali, M

    2015-01-01

    The most important tool in any infection control program is good hand hygiene. Despite recognizing that hand hygiene is crucial in reducing infection rates, hand hygiene compliance remains suboptimal. This study was designed to determine hand hygiene compliance, before and after an educational intervention and its impact on hospital infection rates. The study was done in neonatal intensive care unit of an educational hospital. All healthcare providers working in the unit at the time of study were trained on importance of hand hygiene and methods of hand hygiene observation; after that hand washing compliance controlled by a physician during postintervention phase. Hand hygiene compliance, healthcare associated infection and mortality rates compared before and after educational intervention. Compliance of health-care workers for all hand hygiene opportunities combined was 30% before intervention and improved to 70% in postintervention. In postintervention phase, healthcare associated infection rates and mortality rates decreased significantly as the hand hygiene compliance improved. Good control of hand hygiene compliance by physician after an educational program may have good effect in healthcare associated infections control in neonatal intensive care unit.

  1. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a

  2. Misuse of gloves: the foundation for poor compliance with hand hygiene and potential for microbial transmission?

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Chai, S H T; Oppein, F; Legrand, P; Ducellier, D; Cizeau, F; Brun-Buisson, C

    2004-06-01

    Improvement in hand hygiene compliance is important for reducing cross-infection by micro-organisms. The objective of this prospective observational study was to measure how the improper use of gloves limits compliance to hand hygiene and exposes patient's to infection. The study was conducted in five wards (three intensive care units and two medical wards) in a French university hospital. Staff-patient and staff-environment contacts were observed in 120 healthcare workers caring for patients colonized or infected with pathogenic bacteria. Hand hygiene was not undertaken due to improper gloving in 64.4% (95%CI, 64.1% to 65.1%) of instances. Possible microbial transmission might have occurred in 18.3% (95%CI, 17.8% to 18.8%) of all contacts because used gloves were not removed before performing care activities that necessitated strict aseptic precautions. Failure to change or remove contaminated gloves was a major component in the poor compliance with hand hygiene and carried a high-risk of microbial transmission. Improving hand hygiene compliance will require changing healthcare workers behaviour towards glove use.

  3. Hospital hand hygiene compliance improves with increased monitoring and immediate feedback.

    PubMed

    Walker, Judy L; Sistrunk, William W; Higginbotham, Mary Ann; Burks, Kristi; Halford, Linda; Goddard, Linda; Thombs, Lori A; Austin, Cindy; Finley, Phillip J

    2014-10-01

    Health care-associated infections are serious complications impacting 2 million patients and accounting for approximately 100,000 deaths per year. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a new hand hygiene monitoring program (HHMP) and measured the sustainability of this effectiveness over a 1-year period. The HHMP consisted of 4 key components: extensive education, conspicuous and visible monitors, immediate feedback concerning compliance to health care workers, and real-time data dissemination to leadership. The HHMP was implemented in 2 hospital care units. Two different, but similar, departments served as controls, and hand hygiene compliance was monitored via the "secret shopper" technique. All 4 departments were followed for 12 months. Both experimental departments showed statistically significant increases in hand hygiene compliance. Experimental department 1 increased compliance from 49% to an average of 90%, and experimental department 2 increased compliance from 60% to an average of 96%. Both experimental departments were able to sustain these results for at least 6 months. Compliance rates were significantly higher in the experimental departments compared with the control departments. No significant changes were seen in the control departments. These finding suggest that continuous monitoring by salient observers and immediate feedback are critical to the success of hand hygiene programs. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of signal colored hand disinfectant dispensers on hand hygiene compliance at a medical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Simone; Häfner, Helga; Schröder, Jörg; Nowicki, Katharina; Lemmen, Sebastian

    2014-08-01

    To assess the influence of signal colors on hand disinfectant dispenser activities, health care workers (HCWs) at a medical intensive care unit were analyzed for a total of 20 weeks with 8 weeks before and 12 weeks after exchange to signal color. No significant increase in hand rubs (HRs) per patient day (PD) was observed (about 40 HRs/PD); however, HCW-adjusted compliance showed a 6% increase with signal colored devices. Therefore, colored devices may help to improve hand hygiene compliance.

  5. Four multifaceted countrywide campaigns to promote hand hygiene in Belgian hospitals between 2005 and 2011: impact on compliance to hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Costers, M; Viseur, N; Catry, B; Simon, A

    2012-05-03

    Four consecutive one-month campaigns were organised to promote hand hygiene in Belgian hospitals between 2005 and 2011. The campaigns included a combination of reminders in wards, educational sessions for healthcare workers, promotion of alcohol-based hand rub use, increasing patient awareness, and audits with performance feedback. Prior and after each one month intervention period, the infection control teams measured hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers by direct observation using a standardised observation roster. A total of 738,367 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed over the four campaigns. Compliance with hand hygiene significantly increased from 49.6% before to 68.6% after the intervention period for the first, from 53.2% to 69.5% for the second, from 58.0% to 69.1% for the third, and from 62.3% to 72.9% for the fourth campaign. The highest compliance rates were consistently observed in paediatric units. Compliance rates were always markedly lower among physicians than nurses. After patient contact and body fluid exposure risk, compliance rates were noticeably higher than before patient contact and performing aseptic procedures. We conclude that repeated countrywide campaigns to promote hand hygiene result in positive long-term outcomes. However, lower compliance rates among physicians compared with nurses, before patient contact, and before performing aseptic procedures remain challenges for future campaigns.

  6. A novel approach to improve hand hygiene compliance of student nurses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The National University Hospital, Singapore routinely undertakes standardized Hand Hygiene auditing with results produced by ward and by staff type. In 2010 concern was raised over consistently low compliance by nursing students averaging 45% (95% CI 42%–48%) prompting us to explore novel approaches to educating our next generation of nurses to improve their hand hygiene practice. We introduced an experiential learning assignment to final year student nurses on attachment to NUH inclusive of hand hygiene auditor training followed by a period of hand hygiene observation. The training was based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) “My 5 moments for hand hygiene” approach. Upon completion students completed an anonymous questionnaire to evaluate their learning experience. Findings By 2012, nursing students were 40% (RR: 1.4, 95% CI 1.3–1.5, p<0.001) more likely to comply with hand hygiene practices. 97.5% (359/368) of nursing students felt that the experience would enhance their own hand hygiene practice and would recommend participating in audits as a learning instrument. Conclusions With consideration of all stakeholders a sustainable, flexible, programme was implemented. Experiential learning of hand hygiene was a highly valued educational tool and in our project was directly associated with improved hand hygiene compliance. Feedback demonstrated popularity amongst participants and success in achieving its program objectives. While this does not guarantee long term behavioural change it is intuitive that instilling good habits and messages at the early stages of a career will potentially have significant long-term impact. PMID:23721611

  7. Effectiveness of an electronic hand hygiene monitoring system on healthcare workers' compliance to guidelines.

    PubMed

    Al Salman, J M; Hani, S; de Marcellis-Warin, N; Isa, Sister Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a growing concern among populations and is a crucial element in ensuring patient safety in a healthcare environment. Numerous management efforts have been conducted in that regard, including education, awareness and observations. To better evaluate the possible impact of technology on a healthcare setting, we observed the impact of a particular niche technology developed as an answer to the growing hand hygiene concerns. A study was conducted at Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC) in Bahrain on a total of 16 Coronary Care Unit (CCU) beds where the system was installed, and the hand hygiene activity of healthcare workers (HCWs) in this area was monitored for a total period of 28 days. Comments, remarks and suggestions were noted, and improvements were made to the technology during the course of the trial. While resistance to change was significant, overall results were satisfactory. Compliance with hand hygiene techniques went from 38-42% to 60% at the beginning of the trial and then increased to an average of 75% at the end of the 28-day trial. In some cases, compliance peaked at 85% or even at 100%. Our case study demonstrates that technology can be used effectively in promoting and improving hand hygiene compliance in hospitals, which is one way to prevent cross-infections, especially in critical care areas.

  8. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates in different special care settings: a comparative study of methodologies.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Thyago Pereira; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; da Costa, Lidiane Soares Sodré; Cardoso, Vanessa Jonas; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Edmond, Michael B

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare methods for assessing compliance with hand hygiene in an intensive care unit (ICU), a step-down unit (SDU), and a hematology-oncology unit. Over a 20-week period, we compared hand hygiene compliance measurements by three different methods: direct observation, electronic handwash counter for alcohol gel, and measuring the volume of product used (alcohol gel) in an ICU, an SDU, and a hematology-oncology unit of a tertiary care, private hospital. By direct observation we evaluated 1078 opportunities in the ICU, 1075 in the SDU, and 517 in the hematology-oncology unit, with compliance rates of 70.7%, 75.4%, and 73.3%, respectively. A total of 342,299, 235,914, and 248,698 hand hygiene episodes were recorded by the electronic devices in the ICU, SDU, and hematology-oncology unit, respectively. There were also 127.2 ml, 85.3 ml, and 67.6 ml of alcohol gel used per patient-day in these units. We could find no correlation between the three methods. Hand hygiene compliance was reasonably high in these units, as measured by direct observation. However, a lack of correlation with results obtained by other methodologies brings into question the validity of direct observation results, and suggests that periodic audits using other methods may be needed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Physician 'defiance' towards hand hygiene compliance: Is there a theory-practice-ethics gap?

    PubMed

    Mortell, Manfred; Balkhy, Hanan H; Tannous, Elias B; Jong, Mei Thiee

    2013-07-01

    The theory-practice gap has always existed [1,2]. This gap is often cited as a culmination of theory being idealistic and impractical, even if practical and beneficial, is often ignored. Most of the evidence relating to the non-integration of theory and practice assumes that environmental factors are responsible and will affect learning and practice outcomes, hence the gap. Therefore, the author believes that to 'bridge the gap' between theory and practice, an additional dimension is required: ethics. A moral duty and obligation ensuring theory and practice integrate. In order to effectively implement new practices, one must deem these practices as worthy and relevant to their role as healthcare providers (HCP). Hence, this introduces a new concept which the author refers to as the theory-practice-ethics gap. This theory-practice-ethics gap must be considered when reviewing some of the unacceptable outcomes in healthcare practice [3]. The literature suggests that there is a crisis of ethics where theory and practice integrate, and healthcare providers are failing to fulfill our duty as patient advocates. Physician hand hygiene practices and compliance at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Centre (KACC) are consistent with those of other physicians in the global healthcare arena. That is one of noncompliance to King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) organizational expectations and the World Health Organization (WHO) requirements? An observational study was conducted on the compliance of cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and nurses in the authors' cardiac center from January 2010 to December 2011. The hand hygiene (HH) compliance elements that were evaluated pertained to the WHO's five moments of HH recommendations. The data was obtained through direct observation by KAMC infection prevention and control practitioners. Physician hand hygiene compliance at KACC was consistently less than 60%, with nurses regularly encouraging physicians to be diligent with hand hygiene practices in the

  10. Systematic qualitative literature review of health care workers' compliance with hand hygiene guidelines.

    PubMed

    Smiddy, Maura P; O' Connell, Rhona; Creedon, Sile A

    2015-03-01

    Acquisition of a health care-associated infection is a substantial risk to patient safety. When health care workers comply with hand hygiene guidelines, it reduces this risk. Despite a growing body of qualitative research in this area, a review of the qualitative literature has not been published. A systematic review of the qualitative literature. The results were themed by the factors that health care workers identified as contributing to their compliance with hand hygiene guidelines. Contributing factors were conceptualized using a theoretical background. This review of the qualitative literature enabled the researchers to take an inductive approach allowing for all factors affecting the phenomenon of interest to be explored. Two core concepts seem to influence health care workers' compliance with hand hygiene guidelines. These are motivational factors and perceptions of the work environment. Motivational factors are grounded in behaviorism, and the way in which employees perceive their work environment relates to structural empowerment. Noncompliance with hand hygiene guidelines remains a collective challenge that requires researchers to adopt a consistent and standardized approach. Theoretical models should be used intentionally to better explain the complexities of hand hygiene. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between students' personality traits and hand hygiene compliance during objective standardized clinical examinations.

    PubMed

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, K; Obertacke, U; Kaden, J; Hagl, C I

    2015-03-01

    Although the need for hand hygiene (HH) is generally accepted, studies continue to document inadequate compliance. Medical students are taught about the importance of HH to prevent nosocomial infections, and receive training in the correct procedures for HH. However, personality traits (social orientation and achievement orientation) may influence HH compliance. People with high social orientation feel socially responsible and act cooperatively, and people with high achievement orientation are ambitious and competitive. To evaluate the relationship between HH compliance and personality traits of medical students. The HH compliance of 155 students was observed during objective standardized clinical examinations (OSCEs). Social orientation and achievement orientation were measured using the corresponding scales of the Freiburg Personality Inventory - Revised. Social orientation did not differ between students with high HH compliance and students with low HH compliance [F(1) = 3.87, P = 0.052, η(2) = 0.045]. For achievement orientation, a moderate effect was found between low and high HH compliance [F(1) = 11.242, P = 0.001, η(2) = 0.119], and students with high HH compliance were found to be more achievement orientated than students with low HH compliance. Achievement orientation plays a major role during OSCEs, while social orientation is less emphasized. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show that HH compliance is associated with achievement orientation in achievement situations. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hand hygiene compliance: is there a theory-practice-ethics gap?

    PubMed

    Mortell, Manfred

    Practice is usually based on tradition, rituals and outdated information; there is often an additional gap between theoretical knowledge and its application in practice. This theory-practice gap has long existed (Allmark, 1995; Hewison et al, 1996). It often arises when theory is ignored because it is seen as idealistic and impractical, even if it is practical and beneficial. Most research relating to the lack of integration between theory and practice has concluded that environmental factors are responsible and will affect learning and practice outcomes. The author believes an additional dimension of ethics is required to bridge the gap between theory and practice. This would be a moral obligation to ensure theory and practice are integrated. To implement new practices effectively, healthcare practitioners must deem these practices worthwhile and relevant to their role. This introduces a new concept that the author calls the theory-practice-ethics gap. This theory-practice-ethics gap must be considered when examining some of the unacceptable outcomes in healthcare practice (Mortell, 2009). The literature suggests that there is a crisis of ethics where theory and practice integrate, and practitioners are failing to fulfil their duty as providers of healthcare and as patient advocates. This article examines the theory-practice-ethics gap when applied to hand hygiene. Non-compliance exists in hand hygiene among practitioners, which may increase patient mortality and morbidity rates, and raise healthcare costs. Infection prevention and control programmes to improve hand hygiene among staff include: ongoing education and training; easy access to facilities such as wash basins; antiseptic/alcohol handgels that are convenient, effective, and skin- and user-friendly; and organisational recognition and support for clinicians in hand washing and handgel practices. Yet these all appear to have failed to achieve the required and desired compliance in hand hygiene.

  13. Improving hand hygiene compliance in the anesthesia working room work area: More than just more hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Simone; Rosarius, Anna; Rex, Steffen; Post, Peter; Heisel, Hans; Krizanovic, Vedranka; Schulze-Röbbecke, Roland; Rossaint, Rolf; Lemmen, Sebastian W

    2013-11-01

    The anesthesia working area represents an environment with a high density of invasive and, thus, infection-prone procedures. The 2 primary goals of this study were (1) to perform a precise analysis of anesthesia-related hand hygiene (HH) procedures and (2) to optimize HH compliance. We conducted a prospective, triphase before/after study to determine opportunities for and compliance with hand disinfection (World Health Organization definition) in an anesthesia working area. Standard operating procedures were optimized for invasive procedures during 2 predefined intervention periods to improve work flow practices. Seven hundred fifty anesthesia procedures were evaluated with 12,142 indications for HH. Compliance significantly increased from 10% (465/4,636) to 30% (1,202/4,029) and finally to 55% (1,881/3,477; all P < .001) in phases I, II, and III, respectively. We identified a significant increase in the number of hand rubs performed during 1 anesthesia procedure (2 to 8, respectively; P < .001) in parallel with a significant decrease in number of opportunities needing a hand rub (24 to 14, respectively; P < .0001) because of improved work flow practices. Notably, the greatest improvement was seen before aseptic tasks (8% to 55%, respectively). Our study provides the first detailed data on anesthesia-related and indication-specific HH. Importantly, HH compliance improved significantly without a noticeable increasing workload. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Gamification Combined with Indoor Location to Improve Nurses' Hand Hygiene Compliance in an ICU Ward.

    PubMed

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Marques, Rita; Gregório, João; Pinheiro, Fernando; Póvoa, Pedro; Mira da Silva, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare acquired infections are among the biggest unsolved problems in healthcare, implying an increasing number of deaths, extra-days of hospital stay and hospital costs. Performing hand hygiene is a simple and inexpensive prevention measure, but healthcare workers compliance with it is still far from optimal. Recognized hurdles are lack of time, forgetfulness, wrong technique and lack of motivation. This study aims at exploring gamification to promote nurses' HH compliance self-awareness and action. Real-time data collected from an indoor location system will provide feedback information to a group of nurses working in an ICU ward. In this paper both the research's motivation and methods is presented, along with the first round of results and its discussion.

  15. A nationwide covert observation study using a novel method for hand hygiene compliance in health care.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Chen, Yao-Shen; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Hsieh, E-Lun; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lin, Chun-Yu; Hung, Ching-Tzu; Sy, Cheng Len; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation and feedback is a core hand hygiene (HH) improvement strategy. The covert observation method avoids observation bias inherent to the overt method. The aim of the study was to observe HH compliance by a novel covert method in a real-world setting. We conducted a 2-year, nationwide, prospective, observational study in teaching hospitals across Taiwan. Medical students and students who may have contact with patients in their careers were recruited as participants. A novel, shorthand notation method for covert observation was used. Observation results were reported through a study website. There were a total of 25,379 HH opportunities covertly observed by 93 observers. Overall HH compliance was 32.0%. Health care workers had the highest HH compliance for indication 4 (42.6%), and the lowest for indication 5 (21.7%). Overall handrubbing percentage was high, reaching 83.6%. The HH compliance increased significantly with an increase in the number of indications within 1 HH opportunity (P < .001). The overall HH compliance by the covert observation method was low. An innovative shorthand notation method facilitated covert observation, and website reporting was demonstrated to be feasible for large-scale observation. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving hand hygiene compliance in the emergency department: getting to the point.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Simone; Kamerseder, Vanessa; Petersen, Peter; Brokmann, Jörg Christian; Lopez-Gonzalez, Luis-Alberto; Mach, Carsten; Schulze-Röbbecke, Roland; Lemmen, Sebastian W

    2013-08-07

    The emergency department (ED) represents an environment with a high density of invasive, and thus, infection-prone procedures. The two primary goals of this study were (1) to define the number of hand-rubs needed for an individual patient care at the ED and (2) to optimize hand hygiene (HH) compliance without increasing workload. Prospective tri-phase (6-week observation phases interrupted by two 6-week interventions) before after study to determine opportunities for and compliance with HH (WHO definition). Standard operating procedures (SOPs) were optimized for invasive procedures during two predefined intervention periods (phases I and II) to improve workflow practices and thus compliance with HH. 378 patient cases were evaluated with 5674 opportunities for hand rubs (HR) and 1664 HR performed. Compliance significantly increased from 21% (545/2603) to 29% (467/1607), and finally 45% (652/1464; all p<0.001) in phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The number of HR needed for one patient care significantly decreased from 22 to 13 for the non-surgical and from 13 to 7 for the surgical patients (both p<0.001) due to improved workflow practices after implementing SOPs. In parallel, the number of HR performed increased from 3 to 5 for non-surgical (p<0.001) and from 2 to 3 for surgical patients (p=0.317). Avoidable opportunities as well as glove usage instead of HR significantly decreased by 70% and 73%, respectively. Our study provides the first detailed data on HH in an ED setting. Importantly, HH compliance improved significantly without increasing workload.

  17. Improving hand hygiene compliance in the emergency department: getting to the point

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The emergency department (ED) represents an environment with a high density of invasive, and thus, infection-prone procedures. The two primary goals of this study were (1) to define the number of hand-rubs needed for an individual patient care at the ED and (2) to optimize hand hygiene (HH) compliance without increasing workload. Methods Prospective tri-phase (6-week observation phases interrupted by two 6-week interventions) before after study to determine opportunities for and compliance with HH (WHO definition). Standard operating procedures (SOPs) were optimized for invasive procedures during two predefined intervention periods (phases I and II) to improve workflow practices and thus compliance with HH. Results 378 patient cases were evaluated with 5674 opportunities for hand rubs (HR) and 1664 HR performed. Compliance significantly increased from 21% (545/2603) to 29% (467/1607), and finally 45% (652/1464; all p<0.001) in phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The number of HR needed for one patient care significantly decreased from 22 to 13 for the non-surgical and from 13 to 7 for the surgical patients (both p<0.001) due to improved workflow practices after implementing SOPs. In parallel, the number of HR performed increased from 3 to 5 for non-surgical (p<0.001) and from 2 to 3 for surgical patients (p=0.317). Avoidable opportunities as well as glove usage instead of HR significantly decreased by 70% and 73%, respectively. Conclusions Our study provides the first detailed data on HH in an ED setting. Importantly, HH compliance improved significantly without increasing workload. PMID:23919402

  18. Hand hygiene compliance and environmental determinants in child day care centers: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Zomer, Tizza P; Erasmus, Vicki; van Beeck, Ed F; Tjon-A-Tsien, Aimée; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Voeten, Hélène A C M

    2013-06-01

    Children attending day care centers (DCCs) are at high risk for contracting infections, for which hand hygiene (HH) is an effective prevention measure. The study objectives were to assess caregivers' compliance to HH guidelines in DCCs and to identify environmental determinants of HH behavior. We observed caregivers' compliance to HH guidelines and collected data on environmental determinants (ie, number of sinks, number and type of towel and soap facilities, availability of alcohol-based hand sanitizers). Using multilevel logistic regression analyses, odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained for environmental determinants of HH behavior. In 122 participating DCCs, 350 caregivers and 2,003 HH opportunities were observed. The overall compliance was 42% (95% CI: 40%-44%). Compliance for different activities for which HH was indicated ranged from 20% to 79%. In the multivariable model, the number of towel facilities per caregiver (OR, 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40-3.88) and type of towel facilities were significantly associated with HH. Hands were most frequently washed when only paper towels were available compared to only fabric towels (OR, 1.47; 95% CI: 1.00-2.16) or a combination of both paper and fabric towels (OR, 2.13; 95% CI: 1.32-3.44). HH compliance of caregivers in Dutch child DCCs can be improved. Interventions for this should take into account environmental determinants such as the number and type of towel facilities. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hand contamination during routine care in medical wards: the role of hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Monistrol, Olga; López, M Liboria; Riera, Montserrat; Font, Roser; Nicolás, Carme; Escobar, Miguel Angel; Freixas, Núria; Garau, Javier; Calbo, Esther

    2013-04-01

    The hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) are the most common vehicle for the transmission of micro-organisms from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a multimodal campaign on the type and amount of resident and transient flora and the presence of potential risk factors for hand contamination during routine care. A before-after (PRE and POST periods) interventional study was carried out in medical wards of a tertiary care hospital. Eighty-nine samples were analysed. Samples were cultured immediately before patient contact using a glove-juice method. Data collected included socio-demographic and risk factors for hand contamination. Flora was measured as log10 c.f.u. ml(-1) and evaluated by comparing median values in the PRE and POST periods. Transient flora was isolated from the hands of 67.4 and 46.1 % of HCWs in the PRE and POST periods, respectively (P<0.001). Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant contaminants. Resident flora was isolated from 92.1 % of HCWs in the PRE period and from 70.8 % in the POST period (P<0.001). The meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci log10 c.f.u. count ml(-1) decreased from 1.96 ± 1.2 to 0.89 ± 1.2 (mean ± s d; P<0.001), and the global flora count decreased from 2.77 ± 1.1 to 1.56 ± 1.4 (P<0.001). In the POST period, the wearing of fewer rings (P<0.001), shorter fingernail length (P = 0.008), a shorter time since recent hand hygiene (HH) (P = 0.007) and an increased use of alcohol-based hand rub instead of soap (P<0.001) were documented. The HH multimodal strategy reduced the number of risk factors and the level of HCW hand contamination.

  20. Compliance of Health Care Workers with Hand Hygiene Practices: Independent Advantages of Overt and Covert Observers

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sung-Ching; Tien, Kuei-Lien; Hung, I-Chen; Lin, Yu-Jiun; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Wang, Ming-Jiuh; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Kunin, Calvin M.; Chen, Yee-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluation and feedback of hand hygiene (HH) compliance are important elements of the WHO multimodal strategy for hospital infection control. Overt observation is recommended, but it may be confounded by Hawthorne effect. Covert observation offers the opportunity to decrease observer bias. In this study we conducted a one year hospital-wide HH promotion program that included medical students (MS) as covert observers. Methods HH compliance for the five WHO indications was determined by trained and validated observers. The overt observers consisted of eleven infection control nurses (ICNs) and two unit HH ambassadors (UAs) in each of 83 wards. The covert observers consisted of nine MS during their rotating clinical clerkships. Feedback was provided to department heads and staff each quarter. Results Of the 23,333 HH observations 76.0% were by MS, 5.3% by ICNs and 18.7% by UAs. The annual compliance rates were MS 44.1%, ICNs 74.4% and UAs 94.1%; P<0.001. The MS found significantly lower annual compliance rates for 4/5 HH indications compared to ICNs and UAs; P<0.05. The ICNs reported significantly improvement from the first to the fourth quarter; P<0.001. This was associated with feedback from the MS of very poor compliance by nurses during the first quarter. Conclusions Based on these findings we recommend a two-pronged approach to HH programs. The role of ICNs and UAs is to educate, serve as role models, establish, sustain good HH practices and provide direct feedback. The role of the covert observers is to measure compliance and provide independent feedback. PMID:23341991

  1. Quantification of the Hawthorne effect in hand hygiene compliance monitoring using an electronic monitoring system: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Srigley, Jocelyn A; Furness, Colin D; Baker, G Ross; Gardam, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Hawthorne effect, or behaviour change due to awareness of being observed, is assumed to inflate hand hygiene compliance rates as measured by direct observation but there are limited data to support this. To determine whether the presence of hand hygiene auditors was associated with an increase in hand hygiene events as measured by a real-time location system (RTLS). The RTLS recorded all uses of alcohol-based hand rub and soap for 8 months in two units in an academic acute care hospital. The RTLS also tracked the movement of hospital hand hygiene auditors. Rates of hand hygiene events per dispenser per hour as measured by the RTLS were compared for dispensers within sight of auditors and those not exposed to auditors. The hand hygiene event rate in dispensers visible to auditors (3.75/dispenser/h) was significantly higher than in dispensers not visible to the auditors at the same time (1.48; p=0.001) and in the same dispensers during the week prior (1.07; p<0.001). The rate increased significantly when auditors were present compared with 1-5 min prior to the auditors' arrival (1.50; p=0.009). There were no significant changes inside patient rooms. Hand hygiene event rates were approximately threefold higher in hallways within eyesight of an auditor compared with when no auditor was visible and the increase occurred after the auditors' arrival. This is consistent with the existence of a Hawthorne effect localised to areas where the auditor is visible and calls into question the accuracy of publicly reported hospital hand hygiene compliance rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. The use of real-time feedback via wireless technology to improve hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Marra, Alexandre R; Sampaio Camargo, Thiago Zinsly; Magnus, Thyago Pereira; Blaya, Rosangela Pereira; Dos Santos, Gilson Batista; Guastelli, Luciana Reis; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Dias; Prado, Marcelo; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Bogossian, Humberto; Monte, Julio Cesar Martins; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Oyama, Carlos Kazume; Edmond, Michael B

    2014-06-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is widely regarded as the most effective preventive measure for health care-associated infection. However, there is little robust evidence on the best interventions to improve HH compliance or whether a sustained increase in compliance can reduce rates of health care-associated infection. To evaluate the effectiveness of a real-time feedback to improve HH compliance in the inpatient setting, we used a quasiexperimental study comparing the effect of real-time feedback using wireless technology on compliance with HH. The study was conducted in two 20-bed step-down units at a private tertiary care hospital. Phase 1 was a 3-month baseline period in which HH counts were performed by electronic handwash counters. After a 1-month washout period, a 7-month intervention was performed in one step-down unit while the other unit served as a control. HH, as measured by dispensing episodes, was significantly higher in the intervention unit (90.1 vs 73.1 dispensing episodes/patient-day, respectively, P = .001). When the intervention unit was compared with itself before and after implementation of the wireless technology, there was also a significant increase in HH after implementation (74.5 vs 90.1 episodes/patient-day, respectively, P = .01). There was also an increase in mean alcohol-based handrub consumption between the 2 phases (68.9 vs 103.1 mL/patient-day, respectively, P = .04) in the intervention unit. We demonstrated an improvement in alcohol gel usage via implementation of real-time feedback via wireless technology. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Update on hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2013-05-01

    Recent developments related to hand hygiene include new test methods for evaluating hand hygiene products, improvements in alcohol-based hand rubs, novel methods of hand antisepsis, and new strategies and technologies for monitoring hand hygiene practices among health care personnel.

  4. Evidence-based practices to increase hand hygiene compliance in health care facilities: An integrated review.

    PubMed

    Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey; Sagha-Zadeh, Rana; Vielemeyer, Ole; Franklin, Ella

    2016-06-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) in health care facilities is a key component to reduce pathogen transmission and nosocomial infections. However, most HH interventions (HHI) have not been sustainable. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of recently published evidence-based HHI designed to improve HH compliance (HHC) that will enable health care providers to make informed choices when allocating limited resources to improve HHC and patient safety. The Medline electronic database (using PubMed) was used to identify relevant studies. English language articles that included hand hygiene interventions and related terms combined with health care environments or related terms were included. Seventy-three studies that met the inclusion criteria were summarized. Interventions were categorized as improving awareness with education, facility design, and planning, unit-level protocols and procedures, hospital-wide programs, and multimodal interventions. Past successful HHIs may not be as effective when applied to other health care environments. HH education should be interactive and engaging. Electronic monitoring and reminders should be implemented in phases to ensure cost-effectiveness. To create hospitalwide programs that engage end users, policy makers should draw expertise from interdisciplinary fields. Before implementing the various components of multimodal interventions, health care practitioners should identify and examine HH difficulties unique to their organizations. Future research should seek to achieve the following: replicate successful HHI in other health care environments, develop reliable HHC monitoring tools, understand caregiver-patient-family interactions, examine ways (eg, hospital leadership, financial support, and strategies from public health and infection prevention initiatives) to sustain HHC, and use simulated lab environments to refine study designs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc

  5. Feasibility of monitoring compliance to the My 5 Moments and Entry/Exit hand hygiene methods in US hospitals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Nai-Chung N; Reisinger, Heather S; Jesson, Andrew R; Schweizer, Marin L; Morgan, Daniel J; Forrest, Graeme N; Perencevich, Eli N

    2016-08-01

    We compared the ability to observe hand hygiene opportunities using the World Health Organization My 5 Moments method to the Entry/Exit method. Under covert direct observation, Entry/Exit method opportunities were observed at all times. My 5 Moments were observable in 32.3% of episodes, with a lower rate in wards versus intensive care units (28.0% vs 39.4%; P < .01). In US hospitals, the Entry/Exit method appears to be more feasible for directly observed hand hygiene compliance monitoring due to line-of-sight issues and other barriers.

  6. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  7. Direct observation of hand hygiene can show differences in staff compliance: Do we need to evaluate the accuracy for patient safety?

    PubMed

    Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Villanueva Arias, Ariadna; Ramírez Miranda, Fernando; Rubiera Jimenez, Reynol; Alfonso Serrano, Ramón N

    2017-01-01

    Background: Direct observation of hand hygiene is the standard practice recommended by the World Health Organization to monitor its compliance. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of hand hygiene observation performed by units' observers. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in seven patient care units in a 75-bed community hospital in Qatar. Four trained nurses performed hand hygiene observation in May 2016, any day of the week and in different shifts, following the same methodology as routine units' observers. Hand hygiene opportunities were registered, including hand hygiene moments, staff category, and actions (handrubs, hand washing, missed hand hygiene, and gloves without hand hygiene). Results: During January-May 2016, routine monitoring reported 25,319 opportunities with a compliance of 89.2%, and 91.6% for nurses, 89.6% for physicians, and 85.1% for ancillary staff. Trained external observers reported 815 opportunities and compliance of 54.7%, with the highest compliance observed after blood and body fluid exposure (80.0%) and after patient contact (85.5%), and the lowest figures before patient contact (34.2%) and before aseptic procedure (34.0%). Conclusion: This study provides essential information about the accuracy of the monitoring procedure and the compliance of hand hygiene that requires immediate action to protect patients and staff from healthcare-associated infections.

  8. Observation and measurement of hand hygiene and patient identification improve compliance with patient safety practices.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Tom; Erbeznik, Mary; Padilla, Tony; Zaroda, Teresa; Nguyen, Daniel H; Rodriguez, Marcela

    2009-12-01

    Measurement, a crucial step in any quality improvement activity, is difficult in two important patient safety processes: hand hygiene and patient identification. This study describes a program at the UCLA Medical Center, called Measure to Achieve Patient Safety (MAPS), which uses undergraduate student volunteers to carry out observations in the hospital. This program has been an important part of UCLA's efforts for quality improvement in patient safety efforts. Since 2004, approximately 20 students per year plus two student leaders have been selected to participate in the MAPS program. They were trained in techniques of measuring and observation and in professional behavior. They participated in weekly and monthly meetings with program leadership, received continuing education from the UCLA patient safety staff, and were trained in observational measurement. The students' observational results have been systematically reported to clinicians and departmental and hospital leadership. Handwashing increased from 50% to 93%, and nurses' checking of two identifiers at the time of medication administration increased from 50% to 95%. Compliance with proper patient identification at the time of nurse-to-transporter handoffs of patients for procedures increased to >90%. This unique program has made a significant contribution to UCLA's quality, safety, and service programs. MAPS has been widely accepted by the clinical staff and has also been valuable to the student volunteers. Such an approach is easily adaptable to other academic medical centers.

  9. [Compliance on hand-hygiene among healthcare providers working at secondary and tertiary general hospitals in Chengdu].

    PubMed

    Han, Ke; Dou, Feng-man; Zhang, Li-jie; Zhu, Bao-ping

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the compliance on hand-hygiene and related factors among healthcare providers working at secondary and tertiary hospitals in Chengdu. On-site observations regarding hand-hygiene compliance and facilities were conducted in 6 hospitals in Chengdu. Doctors and nurses were asked and recorded about their knowledge regarding hand-hygiene. Of 1535 activities where hand-hygiene was deemed necessary, under observating healthcare providers would perform hand-hygiene procedures 17.8% of the time (12.8% of the time before touching a patient, 21.0% of the time before touching objects around a patient, 27.3% of the time after touching a patient, and 31.5% of the time after removing gloves). Only 2.2% of the treating rooms were equipped with foot-operated or automatic faucets;of these only 24.5% had soap or alcohol-based hand-sanitizer, and 6.3% had paper towel or other hand-drying equipment. 92.8% of the healthcare providers knew of the six-step method on hand-washing. More than 90.0% of the healthcare providers knew that both palm and back of the hands as well as the front and back of the fingers should be washed. However, only 22.8% knew that the hand-washing procedure should last ≥ 15 seconds. Rates on hand hygiene among chief or more senior physicians (14.6%), attending physicians (9.2%) and junior doctors (15.6%), nurses in chief (25.0%), senior nurses (26.3%) and junior nurses (20.5%) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). Similarly, scores on related knowledge between chief or senior physicians (12.4 ± 3.2), attending physicians (13.6 ± 3.3) and junior doctors (13.4 ± 2.9), nurses in charge (15.2 ± 2.0), senior nurses (14.8 ± 2.1) and junior nurses (14.3 ± 2.6) also showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). Rate on hand hygiene among nurses (22.7%) was significantly higher than that of the doctors (13.6%). Rate of hand hygiene among 50 - 59 years old healthcare providers (7.4%) was significantly lower than those of all the other age groups

  10. A lean Six Sigma team increases hand hygiene compliance and reduces hospital-acquired MRSA infections by 51%.

    PubMed

    Carboneau, Clark; Benge, Eddie; Jaco, Mary T; Robinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    A low hand hygiene compliance rate by healthcare workers increases hospital-acquired infections to patients. At Presbyterian Healthcare Services in Albuquerque, New Mexico a Lean Six Sigma team identified the reasons for noncompliance were multifaceted. The team followed the DMAIC process and completed the methodology in 12 months. They implemented multiple solutions in the three areas: Education, Culture, and Environment. Based on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) mortality research the team's results included an estimated 2.5 lives saved by reducing MRSA infections by 51%. Subsequently this 51% decrease in MRSA saved the hospital US$276,500. For those readers tasked with increasing hand hygiene compliance this article will provide the knowledge and insight needed to overcome multifaceted barriers to noncompliance.

  11. The Safety Stand-down: A Technique for Improving and Sustaining Hand Hygiene Compliance Among Health Care Personnel.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Dennis; Brilli, Richard J; McClead, Richard E; Davis, J Terrance

    2015-03-23

    Hand hygiene (HH) is critical to prevent health care-acquired infections. However, compliance by health care workers remains between 30% and 70% at most institutions. Most efforts to improve compliance have proven ineffective. The objective of this study was to determine whether a safety stand-down can improve HH compliance. We adapted and borrowed from the military an approach known as a stand-down. A mandatory Hand-Hygiene Leadership Safety Summit was called for all hospital leaders-physicians and nonphysicians. Four days later, a hospital-wide 15-minute-long safety stand-down occurred, during which all nonessential activity was suspended and action plans to improve HH compliance were discussed. All medical sections and hospital departments were required to submit written action plans. After the stand-down, HH compliance monitoring was increased, and noncompliers were required to speak to senior hospital administration. Compliance increased from less than 65% to greater than 95% (P < 0.001) and has been sustained for 3½ years. A health care safety stand-down can be an effective method to rapidly change and sustain culture change regarding HH in the inpatient hospital setting.

  12. Correlation between glove use practices and compliance with hand hygiene in a multicenter study with elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Eveillard, Matthieu; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Brunel, P

    2012-05-01

    In a study conducted in 11 health care settings for elderly patients, we demonstrated a significant negative correlation between the proportion of glove use outside any risk of exposure to body fluids and compliance with hand hygiene (P < .02). This result underscores a major limitation of strategies for controlling the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria that recommend systematic glove use for each contact with carriers or their environment.

  13. Low compliance with alcohol gel compared with chlorhexidine for hand hygiene in ICU patients: results of an alcohol gel implementation program.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues; Silva, Cláudia Vallone; Laselva, Cláudia Regina; Moura Junior, Denis Faria; Cal, Ruy Guilherme G; Yamashita, Maria Aparecida; Knobel, Elias

    2009-10-01

    Although the introduction of alcohol based products have increased compliance with hand hygiene in intensive care units (ICU), no comparative studies with other products in the same unit and in the same period have been conducted. We performed a two-month-observational prospective study comparing three units in an adult ICU, according to hand hygiene practices (chlorhexidine alone-unit A, both chlorhexidine and alcohol gel-unit B, and alcohol gel alone-unit C, respectively). Opportunities for hand hygiene were considered according to an institutional guideline. Patients were randomly allocated in the 3 units and data on hand hygiene compliance was collected without the knowledge of the health care staff. TISS score (used for measuring patient complexity) was similar between the three different units. Overall compliance with hand hygiene was 46.7% (659/1410). Compliance was significantly higher after patient care in unit A when compared to units B and C. On the other hand, compliance was significantly higher only between units A (32.1%) and C (23.1%) before patient care (p=0.02). Higher compliance rates were observed for general opportunities for hand hygiene (patient bathing, vital sign controls, etc), while very low compliance rates were observed for opportunities related to skin and gastroenteral care. One of the reasons for not using alcohol gel according to health care workers was the necessity for water contact (35.3%, 12/20). Although the use of alcohol based products is now the standard practice for hand hygiene the abrupt abolition of hand hygiene with traditional products may not be recommended for specific services.

  14. A study of the efficacy of flashing lights to increase the salience of alcohol-gel dispensers for improving hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    D'Egidio, Gianni; Patel, Rakesh; Rashidi, Babak; Mansour, Marlene; Sabri, Elham; Milgram, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Many interventions have been implemented to improve hand hygiene compliance, each with varying effects and monetary costs. Although some previous studies have addressed the issue of conspicuousness, we found only 1 study that considered improving hand hygiene by using flashing lights. Our attention theory-based hypothesis tested whether a simple red light flashing at 2-3 Hz affixed to the alcohol gel dispensers, within the main hospital entrance, would increase hand hygiene compliance over the baseline rate. Baseline and intervention observations were completed over five 60-minute periods (Monday-Friday) from 7:30 to 8:30 AM using a covert observation method. Baseline hand hygiene compliance was 12.4%. Our intervention increased compliance to 23.5% during cold weather and 27.1% during warm weather. Overall, our pooled compliance rate increased to 25.3% (P < .0001). A simple, inexpensive flashing red light affixed to alcohol gel dispensers was sufficiently salient to approximately double overall hand hygiene compliance within the main hospital entrance. We hypothesize that our intervention drew attention to the dispensers, which then reminded employees and visitors alike to wash their hands. Compliance was worse during cold days, presumably related to more individuals wearing gloves. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Disentangling quality and safety indicator data: a longitudinal, comparative study of hand hygiene compliance and accreditation outcomes in 96 Australian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Debono, Deborah; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-09-23

    The study aims are twofold. First, to investigate the suitability of hand hygiene as an indicator of accreditation outcomes and, second, to test the hypothesis that hospitals with better accreditation outcomes achieve higher hand hygiene compliance rates. A retrospective, longitudinal, multisite comparative survey. Acute public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. 96 acute hospitals with accreditation survey results from two surveys during 2009-2012 and submitted data for more than four hand hygiene audits between 2010 and 2013. Our primary outcome comprised observational hand hygiene compliance data from eight audits during 2010-2013. The explanatory variables in our multilevel regression model included: accreditation outcomes and scores for the infection control standard; timing of the surveys; and hospital size and activity. Average hand hygiene compliance rates increased from 67.7% to 80.3% during the study period (2010-2013), with 46.7% of hospitals achieving target compliance rates of 70% in audit 1, versus 92.3% in audit 8. Average hand hygiene rates at small hospitals were 7.8 percentage points (pp) higher than those at the largest hospitals (p<0.05). The association between hand hygiene rates, accreditation outcomes and infection control scores is less clear. Our results indicate that accreditation outcomes and hand hygiene audit data are measuring different parts of the quality and safety spectrum. Understanding what is being measured when selecting indicators to assess the impact of accreditation is critical as focusing on accreditation results would discount successful hand hygiene implementation by smaller hospitals. Conversely, relying on hand hygiene results would discount the infection control related research and leadership investment by larger hospitals. Our hypothesis appears to be confounded by an accreditation programme that makes it more difficult for smaller hospitals to achieve high infection control scores. Published by the BMJ

  16. Disentangling quality and safety indicator data: a longitudinal, comparative study of hand hygiene compliance and accreditation outcomes in 96 Australian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Debono, Deborah; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The study aims are twofold. First, to investigate the suitability of hand hygiene as an indicator of accreditation outcomes and, second, to test the hypothesis that hospitals with better accreditation outcomes achieve higher hand hygiene compliance rates. Design A retrospective, longitudinal, multisite comparative survey. Setting Acute public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Participants 96 acute hospitals with accreditation survey results from two surveys during 2009–2012 and submitted data for more than four hand hygiene audits between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes Our primary outcome comprised observational hand hygiene compliance data from eight audits during 2010–2013. The explanatory variables in our multilevel regression model included: accreditation outcomes and scores for the infection control standard; timing of the surveys; and hospital size and activity. Results Average hand hygiene compliance rates increased from 67.7% to 80.3% during the study period (2010–2013), with 46.7% of hospitals achieving target compliance rates of 70% in audit 1, versus 92.3% in audit 8. Average hand hygiene rates at small hospitals were 7.8 percentage points (pp) higher than those at the largest hospitals (p<0.05). The association between hand hygiene rates, accreditation outcomes and infection control scores is less clear. Conclusions Our results indicate that accreditation outcomes and hand hygiene audit data are measuring different parts of the quality and safety spectrum. Understanding what is being measured when selecting indicators to assess the impact of accreditation is critical as focusing on accreditation results would discount successful hand hygiene implementation by smaller hospitals. Conversely, relying on hand hygiene results would discount the infection control related research and leadership investment by larger hospitals. Our hypothesis appears to be confounded by an accreditation programme that makes it more difficult for smaller

  17. Observer accuracy and behavior analysis: Data collection procedures on hand hygiene compliance in a neurovascular unit.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Krista L; McGee, Heather M; Huitema, Bradley E; Dickinson, Alyce M; Van Enk, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    Although observational studies are popular, little has been done to study the integrity of human observers and the data collection process. Issues of data collection integrity threaten functional findings, leading to problematic interpretation and decreased replication. In our study the response effort associated with hand hygiene data collection in a hospital setting was manipulated using an altered data collection tool. A counterbalanced ABAB design was implemented across 2 semesters of a hand hygiene data collection practicum course. When response effort increased, compliant audits decreased and when response effort decreased, compliant audits increased. These results were statistically significant, with an overall level change z that had a P value of .001 (first semester) and .007 (second semester). These findings may warrant an increased awareness of data collection procedures where recording options include a less effortful response. The results of our study support basic research on response effort and choice behavior in an applied setting, bringing into question the integrity of data collection procedures and the integrity of the data collected. These results also suggest the need for standardizing reporting systems to ensure hand hygiene collection and reporting procedures are comparable across settings. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of an extended period of flashing lights and strategic signage to increase the salience of alcohol-gel dispensers for improving hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Babak; Li, Aimee; Patel, Rakesh; Harmsen, Irene E; Sabri, Elham; Kyeremanteng, Kwadwo; D'Egidio, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    Multiple factors affect compliance with hand hygiene, including conspicuity of alcohol-gel dispensers. Previous studies have shown that flashing lights increase hand hygiene compliance; however, the durability of this effect has not been studied. We affixed flashing lights to hand sanitizer dispensers for a total of 6 weeks. Regression analysis was used to compare compliance rates between the beginning and end of the intervention. Our secondary objective was to determine whether compliance rates in cold weather could be improved by adding a sign separated in time and space from the dispensers. Flashing lights improved hand hygiene compliance from 11.8% to 20.7%, and this effect was unchanged over the 6-week study period. Fully charged lights resulted in a greater compliance increase. A preemptive sign did not have a significant effect on hand hygiene rates nor did absolute temperatures. Flashing lights are a simple, inexpensive way of improving hand hygiene. Brighter lights appear to have a greater effect; however, this must be balanced with annoyance in specific settings. Temperature did not have a significant effect; however, this may be because the relationship does not fit a linear model. Other interventions, such as signs, may need to be tailored specifically to individual hospital environments. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New technologies to monitor healthcare worker hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Marra, A R; Edmond, M B

    2014-01-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene is a good quality indicator for hospital patient safety programmes. Hand hygiene is a major infection control prevention intervention, but in many medical centres compliance rates are only c. 50%. Given the enormous number of hand hygiene opportunities in hospitals, direct observation to monitor compliance is very inefficient. However, technologies are emerging to obviate the need for direct observation. These new technologies for monitoring hand hygiene compliance are discussed in this article.

  20. Hand Hygiene: An Update.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Maureen K

    2016-09-01

    The medical field has long recognized the importance of hand hygiene in preventing health care-associated infections, yet studies indicate that this important task is performed only 40% of the time. Health care workers cite several barriers to optimal performance of hand hygiene, but the time required to perform this task is foremost among them. Introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs, bundled interventions, and incorporation of technologies designed to monitor and promote hand hygiene all represent promising advances in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance in neonatal units: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ofek Shlomai, N; Rao, S; Patole, S

    2015-05-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Meticulous hand hygiene is the most effective strategy to prevent HCAI. However, hand hygiene compliance (HHC) is low, especially in ICUs. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of strategies for improving HHC in NICUs. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis were carried out. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and CINAHL were searched in October 2013. PRISMA guidelines were followed. The quality of included studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Sixteen eligible non-randomised studies were included. A total of 27,155 hand hygiene moments were observed. Meta-analysis using a random effects model indicated that a range of strategies, such as educational campaigns, musical parodies, reminders, easy access to hand hygiene sanitisers, UV sensors and performance feedback, improved HHC [odds ratio (OR) 2.04; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.40, 2.97]. Significant statistical heterogeneity was noted. Studies which specifically provided performance feedback at either the individual or group levels reported a more significant improvement in HHC compared to those that did not (OR 2.81; 95 % CI 1.32, 5.96 vs. OR 1.55; 95 % CI 1.13-2.11). Strategies to improve HHC in NICUs seem to be more effective when they include performance feedback at the personal or group levels. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) specifically assessing the benefits of performance feedback in improving HHC are needed.

  2. Using the Targeted Solutions Tool® to Improve Hand Hygiene Compliance Is Associated with Decreased Health Care-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Shabot, M Michael; Chassin, Mark R; France, Anne-Claire; Inurria, Juan; Kendrick, Jan; Schmaltz, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    In 2010 Memorial Hermann Health System (MHHS) implemented the Joint Commission Center for Transforming Healthcare's (the Center's) Web-based Targeted Solutions Tool ®(TST ®) for improving hand hygiene through-out its 12 hospitals after participating in the Center's first project on hand hygiene, pilot testing the TST, and achieving significant improvement for each pilot unit. Because hand hygiene is a key contributing factor in health care-associated infections (HAIs), this project was an important part of MHHS's strategy to eliminate HAIs. MHHS implemented the TST for hand hygiene in 150 inpatient units in 12 hospitals and conducted a system wide process improvement project from October 2010 through December 2014. The TST enabled MHHS to measure compliance rates, identify reasons for noncompliance, implement tested interventions provided by the TST, and sustain the improvements. Data on rates of ICU central line- associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and ventilator- associated pneumonia (VAP) were also collected and analyzed. Based on 31,600 observations (October 2010- May 2011), MHHS's system wide hand hygiene compliance baseline rate averaged 58.1%. Compliance averaged 84.4% during the "improve" phase (June 2011-November 2012), 94.7% in the first 13 months of the "control phase" (December 2012-December 2014) and 95.6% in the final 12 months (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons to baseline). Con comitantly, adult ICU CLABSI and VAP rates decreased by 49% (p = 0.024) and 45% (p = 0.045), respectively. MHHS substantially improved hand hygiene compliance in its hospitals and sustained high levels of compliance for 25 months following implementation. Adult ICU CLABSI and VAP rates decreased in association with the hand hygiene compliance improvements.

  3. Impact of an educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance and infection rate in a developing country neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Chhapola, Viswas; Brar, Rekha

    2015-10-01

    Nosocomial infections are a significant problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and hand hygiene (HH) has been stated as an effective mean to prevent spread of infections. The aim of study was to assess the baseline compliance HH practices and to evaluate the impact of hand washing educational programme on infection rate in a NICU. Continuous surveillance of nosocomial infections was done. A total of 15,797 and 12 ,29 opportunities for HH were observed in pre-intervention and postintervention phases, respectively. Compliance of health-care workers for all HH opportunities combined was 46% before intervention and improved significantly to 69% in postintervention (RR 1.49, CI 1.46-1.52, P < 0.0001). Compliance for nurses and doctors was similar. Nosocomial sepsis rate showed a significant decline from 96 per 1000 patient-days in pre-intervention to 47 per 1000 patient-days in postintervention phase (RR 0.44, CI 0.33-0.58, P < 0.0001). We conclude that effective HH practices can serve as an economical and effective nosocomial infection control approach especially important in developing nations.

  4. Introduction of an electronic monitoring system for monitoring compliance with Moments 1 and 4 of the WHO "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background MedSense is an electronic hand hygiene compliance monitoring system that provides Infection Control Practitioners with continuous access to hand hygiene compliance information by monitoring Moments 1 and 4 of the WHO "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" guidelines. Unlike previous electronic monitoring systems, MedSense operates in open cubicles with multiple beds and does not disrupt existing workflows. Methods This study was conducted in a 6-bed neurosurgical intensive care unit with technical development and evaluation phases. Healthcare workers (HCWs) wore an electronic device in the style of an identity badge to detect hand hygiene opportunities and compliance. We compared the compliance determined by the system and an infection control nurse. At the same time, the system assessed compliance by time of day, day of week, work shift, professional category of HCWs, and individual subject, while the workload of HCWs was monitored by measuring the amount of time they spent in patient zones. Results During the three-month evaluation phase, the system identified 13,694 hand hygiene opportunities from 17 nurses, 3 physiotherapists, and 1 healthcare assistant, resulting in an overall compliance of 35.1% for the unit. The per-indication compliance for Moment 1, 4, and simultaneous 1 and 4 were 21.3% (95%CI: 19.0, 23.6), 39.6% (95%CI: 37.3, 41.9), and 49.2% (95%CI: 46.6, 51.8), respectively, and were all statistically significantly different (p < 0.001). In the four 20-minute sessions when hand hygiene was monitored concurrently by the system and infection control nurse, the compliance were 88.9% and 95.6% respectively (p = 0.34), and the activity indices were 11.1 and 12.9 opportunities per hour, respectively. The hours from 12:00 to 14:00 had a notably lower compliance (21.3%, 95%CI: 17.2, 25.3) than nearly three quarters of the other periods of the day (p < 0.001). Nurses who used shared badges had significantly (p < 0.01) lower compliance (23.7%, 95%CI: 17

  5. Improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers: an intervention study in a Hospital in Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xia; Xu, Yan; Yang, Tingxiu; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Jing; Tang, Luyu; Yang, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is a critical component for controlling hospital-acquired infection (HAI). The present study was designed to develop an intervention approach to improve compliance with HH among healthcare workers in a hospital setting. The HH intervention study was conducted in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, China and organized by its Department of HAI Management. It was an observational, prospective, quasiexperimental (before-after intervention) study. The study was divided into two phases: the baseline phase and the intervention phase. The investigative team included clinical monitoring staff and infection control practitioners who received a series of instructions on HH compliance, monitoring skills, and measurement of the use of HH products. Based on 27,852 observations in a 17-month period, the rate of compliance with HH improved from 37.78% at baseline to 75.90% after intervention. Significant improvement in compliance and an increase in consumption of HH products was observed after intervention. The per patient-day consumption of alcohol-based hand rub products and handwash agents increased by 4.75mL and 4.55mL, respectively. The consumption of paper towels increased 3.41 sheets per patient-day. During the same period, the prevalence rate of HAI decreased 0.83%. This study demonstrates that a significant improvement in compliance with HH can be achieved through a systemic, multidimensional intervention approach involving all categories of healthcare workers in a hospital setting, which may result in a decrease of the HAI rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of sink location on hand hygiene compliance after care of patients with Clostridium difficile infection: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Deyneko, Alexander; Cordeiro, Fernanda; Berlin, Laurie; Ben-David, Debby; Perna, Silvana; Longtin, Yves

    2016-05-16

    The impact of sink location on hand washing compliance after contact with patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to determine the location of hand wash sinks available to healthcare workers (HCWs) after caring for patients with CDI and to assess the impact on hand washing compliance. We performed a cross-sectional study in a 637-bed tertiary care hospital, Canada. HCW hand hygiene compliance after contact with CDI patients was measured through direct unobtrusive observations. Location of sinks in relation with the patients' rooms was assessed on the day of diagnosis. Predictors of compliance were assessed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression. 247 hand hygiene opportunities following care of a CDI patient were observed. Glove use compliance was 85.4 % (211/247), but hand washing compliance after care of CDI patients was only 14.2 % (35/247). Hand rubbing was performed instead of hand washing in 33.2 % of opportunities (82/247). The median distance between the patient zone of CDI patients and the nearest sink was 13.1 m (interquartile range, 7.6-23.2). Sinks were directly visible upon exiting the patient's room on only 33.2 % (82/247) occasions. By multivariate analysis, an increasing distance between the patient zone and the nearest sink was inversely associated with hand washing compliance (adjusted OR, 0.90, 95 % CI, 0.84-0.97; P = 0.008), while proper timing of glove removal upon leaving the patient zone was directly associated with hand washing compliance (adjusted OR, 14.87; 95 % CI, 1.93-114.43; P = 0.01). Hand washing compliance following contact with patients with C. difficile infections was low. Poor access to sinks is associated with decreased hand washing compliance. Improvement strategies are urgently needed.

  7. Compliance with hand hygiene in patients with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, S; Oberröhrmann, A; Haefner, H; Kopp, R; Schürholz, T; Schwanz, T; Engels, A; Lemmen, S W

    2010-12-01

    Hand hygiene is considered to be the single most effective measure to prevent healthcare-associated infection. Although there have been several reports on hand hygiene compliance, data on patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms in special isolation conditions are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a prospective observational study of indications for, and compliance with, hand hygiene in patients colonised or infected with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria in surgical intensive and intermediate care units. Hand disinfectant used during care of patients with MRSA was measured. Observed daily hand hygiene indications were higher in MRSA isolation conditions than in ESBL isolation conditions. Observed compliance rates were 47% and 43% for the MRSA group and 54% and 51% for the ESBL group in the surgical intensive care unit and the intermediate care unit, respectively. Compliance rates before patient contact or aseptic tasks were significantly lower (17-47%) than after contact with patient, body fluid or patient's surroundings (31-78%). Glove usage instead of disinfection was employed in up to 100% before patient contact. However, compliance rates calculated from disinfectant usage were two-fold lower (intensive care: 24% vs 47%; intermediate care: 21% vs 43%). This study is the first to provide data on hand hygiene in patients with MDR bacteria and includes a comparison of observed and calculated compliance. Compliance is low in patients under special isolation conditions, even for the indications of greatest impact in preventing healthcare-associated infections. These data may help to focus measures to reduce transmission of MDR bacteria and improve patient safety.

  8. Evaluation of hand hygiene compliance and associated factors with a radio-frequency-identification-based real-time continuous automated monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Dufour, J-C; Reynier, P; Boudjema, S; Soto Aladro, A; Giorgi, R; Brouqui, P

    2017-04-01

    Hand hygiene is a major means for preventing healthcare-associated infections. One critical point in understanding poor compliance is the lack of relevant markers used to monitor practices systematically. This study analysed hand hygiene compliance and associated factors with a radio-frequency-identification-based real-time continuous automated monitoring system in an infectious disease ward with 17 single bedrooms. Healthcare workers (HCWs) were tracked while performing routine care over 171 days. A multi-level multi-variate logistics model was used for data analysis. The main outcome measures were hand disinfection before entering the bedroom (outside use) and before entering the patient care zone, defined as the zone surrounding the patient's bed (inside/bedside use). Variables analysed included HCWs' characteristics and behaviour, patients, room layouts, path chains and duration of HCWs' paths. In total, 4629 paths with initial hand hygiene opportunities when entering the patient care zone were selected, of which 763 (16.5%), 285 (6.1%) and 3581 (77.4%) were associated with outside use, inside/bedside use and no use, respectively. Hand hygiene is caregiver-dependent. The shorter the duration of the HCW's path, the worse the bedside hand hygiene. Bedside hand hygiene is improved when one or two extra HCWs are present in the room. Hand hygiene compliance at the bedside, as analysed using the continuous monitoring system, depended upon the HCW's occupation and personal behaviour, number of HCWs, time spent in the room and (potentially) dispenser location. Meal tray distribution was a possible factor in the case of failure to disinfect hands. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceived effectiveness of messages promoting hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ronald E

    2017-03-01

    Eighty-six infection control specialists evaluated 24 messages promoting hand hygiene (HH). Brief, simple messages using appeals to social situations and to ego (self-efficacy) were rated as most likely to increase HH compliance.

  10. Kaiser Permanente National Hand Hygiene Program

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sue; Barron, Dana; Becker, Linda; Canola, Teresa; Salemi, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hand hygiene has historically been identified as an important intervention for preventing infection acquired in health care settings. Recently, the advent of waterless, alcohol-based skin degermer and elimination of artificial nails have been recognized as other important interventions for preventing infection. Supplied with this information, the National Infection Control Peer Group convened a KP Hand Hygiene Work Group, which, in August 2001, launched a National Hand Hygiene Program initiative titled “Infection Control: It’s In Our Hands” to increase compliance with hand hygiene throughout the Kaiser Permanente (KP) organization. Design: The infection control initiative was designed to include employee and physician education as well as to implement standard hand hygiene products (eg, alcohol degermers), eliminate use of artificial nails, and monitor outcomes. Results: From 2001 through September 2003, the National KP Hand Hygiene Work Group coordinated implementation of the Hand Hygiene initiative throughout the KP organization. To date, outcome monitoring has shown a 26% increase in compliance with hand hygiene as well as a decrease in the number of bloodstream infections and methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. As of May 2003, use of artificial nails had been reduced by 97% nationwide. Conclusions: Endorsement of this Hand Hygiene Program initiative by KP leadership has led to implementation of the initiative at all medical centers throughout the KP organization. Outcome indicators to date suggest that the initiative has been successful; final outcome monitoring will be completed in December 2003. PMID:26704605

  11. [Hand hygiene: revolution and globalization].

    PubMed

    Pittet, Didier

    2009-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging.

  12. Relationship between Systems-Level Factors and Hand Hygiene Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Dunn-Navarra, Ann-Margaret; Cohen, Bevin; Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Jordan, Sarah; Larson, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This study was a cross sectional descriptive survey of acute care hospitals in California to describe staff hand hygiene compliance and related predictors, and explore the relationship between hand hygiene adherence to health care-associated infections. Although there was a relatively small sample size, institutions with morning huddles reported a significantly higher proportion of ≥95% hand hygiene compliance. Huddles are an organizational tool to improve teamwork and communication and may offer promise to influence hand hygiene adherence. PMID:20489659

  13. Effect of guideline implementation on costs of hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Stone, Patricia W; Hasan, Sumya; Quiros, Dave; Larson, Elaine L

    2007-01-01

    Hands of health care personnel frequently serve as vectors for the transmission of organisms between patients and are also a major reservoir for pathogens with antimicrobial resistance. Hand hygiene is one effective strategy to reduce health care associated infections. The purposes of this study were to (a) compare the costs of hand hygiene in hospitals with high and low hand hygiene compliance as well as high and low frequency of alcohol hand rub use; and (b) examine associations between hospital characteristics and hand hygiene compliance as well as frequency of alcohol hand rub use. Nursing and health care policy leaders should look for ways to promote sustained adherence to hand hygiene recommendations.

  14. Assessing patient awareness of proper hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Busby, Sunni R; Kennedy, Bryan; Davis, Stephanie C; Thompson, Heather A; Jones, Jan W

    2015-05-01

    The authors hypothesized that patients may not understand the forms of effective hand hygiene employed in the hospital environment. Multiple studies demonstrate the importance of hand hygiene in reducing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Extensive research about how to improve compliance has been conducted. Patients' perceptions of proper hand hygiene were evaluated when caregivers used soap and water, waterless hand cleaner, or a combination of these. No significant differences were observed, but many patients reported they did not notice whether their providers cleaned their hands. Educating patients and their caregivers about the protection afforded by proper, consistent hand hygiene practices is important. Engaging patients to monitor healthcare workers may increase compliance, reduce the spread of infection, and lead to better overall patient outcomes. This study revealed a need to investigate the effects of patient education on patient perceptions of hand hygiene. Results of this study appear to indicate a need to focus on patient education and the differences between soap and water versus alcohol-based hand sanitizers as part of proper hand hygiene. Researchers could be asking: "Why have patients not been engaged as members of the healthcare team who have the most to lose?"

  15. The Feedback Intervention Trial (FIT) — Improving Hand-Hygiene Compliance in UK Healthcare Workers: A Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Christopher; Michie, Susan; Savage, Joanne; McAteer, John; Besser, Sarah; Charlett, Andre; Hayward, Andrew; Cookson, Barry D.; Cooper, Ben S.; Duckworth, Georgia; Jeanes, Annette; Roberts, Jenny; Teare, Louise; Stone, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Achieving a sustained improvement in hand-hygiene compliance is the WHO’s first global patient safety challenge. There is no RCT evidence showing how to do this. Systematic reviews suggest feedback is most effective and call for long term well designed RCTs, applying behavioural theory to intervention design to optimise effectiveness. Methods Three year stepped wedge cluster RCT of a feedback intervention testing hypothesis that the intervention was more effective than routine practice in 16 English/Welsh Hospitals (16 Intensive Therapy Units [ITU]; 44 Acute Care of the Elderly [ACE] wards) routinely implementing a national cleanyourhands campaign). Intervention-based on Goal & Control theories. Repeating 4 week cycle (20 mins/week) of observation, feedback and personalised action planning, recorded on forms. Computer-generated stepwise entry of all hospitals to intervention. Hospitals aware only of own allocation. Primary outcome: direct blinded hand hygiene compliance (%). Results All 16 trusts (60 wards) randomised, 33 wards implemented intervention (11 ITU, 22 ACE). Mixed effects regression analysis (all wards) accounting for confounders, temporal trends, ward type and fidelity to intervention (forms/month used). Intention to Treat Analysis Estimated odds ratio (OR) for hand hygiene compliance rose post randomisation (1.44; 95% CI 1.18, 1.76;p<0.001) in ITUs but not ACE wards, equivalent to 7–9% absolute increase in compliance. Per-Protocol Analysis for Implementing Wards OR for compliance rose for both ACE (1.67 [1.28–2.22]; p<0.001) & ITUs (2.09 [1.55–2.81];p<0.001) equating to absolute increases of 10–13% and 13–18% respectively. Fidelity to intervention closely related to compliance on ITUs (OR 1.12 [1.04, 1.20];p = 0.003 per completed form) but not ACE wards. Conclusion Despite difficulties in implementation, intention-to-treat, per-protocol and fidelity to intervention, analyses showed an intervention coupling feedback to

  16. Hand hygiene in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Pargger, Hans; Widmer, Andreas F

    2010-08-01

    Healthcare-associated infections affect 1.4 million patients at any time worldwide, as estimated by the World Health Organization. In intensive care units, the burden of healthcare-associated infections is greatly increased, causing additional morbidity and mortality. Multidrug-resistant pathogens are commonly involved in such infections and render effective treatment challenging. Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of preventing healthcare-associated infections. In addition, it is equally important to stop transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, alcohol-based handrub should be used as the preferred means for routine hand antisepsis. Alcohols have excellent in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a variety of fungi, and most viruses. Some pathogens, however, such as Clostridium difficile, Bacillus anthracis, and noroviruses, may require special hand hygiene measures. Failure to provide user friendliness of hand hygiene equipment and shortage of staff are predictors for noncompliance, especially in the intensive care unit setting. Therefore, practical approaches to promote hand hygiene in the intensive care unit include provision of a minimal number of handrub dispensers per bed, monitoring of compliance, and choice of the most attractive product. Lack of knowledge of guidelines for hand hygiene, lack of recognition of hand hygiene opportunities during patient care, and lack of awareness of the risk of cross-transmission of pathogens are barriers to good hand hygiene practices. Multidisciplinary programs to promote increased use of alcoholic handrub lead to an increased compliance of healthcare

  17. Enhancing the evaluation of pathogen transmission risk in a hospital by merging hand-hygiene compliance and contact data: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Mastrandrea, Rossana; Soto-Aladro, Alberto; Brouqui, Philippe; Barrat, Alain

    2015-09-10

    Hand-hygiene compliance and contacts of health-care workers largely determine the potential paths of pathogen transmission in hospital wards. We explored how the combination of data collected by two automated infrastructures based on wearable sensors and recording (1) use of hydro-alcoholic solution and (2) contacts of health-care workers provide an enhanced view of the risk of transmission events in the ward. We perform a proof-of-concept observational study. Detailed data on contact patterns and hand-hygiene compliance of health-care workers were collected by wearable sensors over 12 days in an infectious disease unit of a hospital in Marseilles, France. 10,837 contact events among 10 doctors, 4 nurses, 4 nurses' aids and 4 housekeeping staff were recorded during the study. Most contacts took place among medical doctors. Aggregate contact durations were highly heterogeneous and the resulting contact network was highly structured. 510 visits of health-care workers to patients' rooms were recorded, with a low rate of hand-hygiene compliance. Both data sets were used to construct histories and statistics of contacts informed by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution, or lack thereof, of the involved health-care workers. Hand-hygiene compliance data strongly enrich the information concerning contacts among health-care workers, by assigning a 'safe' or 'at-risk' value to each contact. The global contact network can thus be divided into 'at-risk' and 'safe' contact networks. The combined data could be of high relevance for outbreak investigation and to inform data-driven models of nosocomial disease spread.

  18. Hand hygiene in emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Teter, Jonathan; Millin, Michael G; Bissell, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) affect millions of patients annually (World Health Organization. Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare. Geneva: WHO Press; 2009). Hand hygiene compliance of clinical staff has been identified by numerous studies as a major contributing factor to HAIs around the world. Infection control and hand hygiene in the prehospital environment can also contribute to patient harm and spread of infections. Emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners are not monitored as closely as hospital personnel in terms of hand hygiene training and compliance. Their ever-changing work environment is less favorable to traditional hospital-based aseptic techniques and education. This study aimed to determine the current state of hand hygiene practices among EMS providers and to provide recommendations for improving practices in the emergency health services environment. This study was a prospective, observational prevalence study and survey, conducted over a 2-month period. We selected participants from visits to three selected hospital emergency departments in the mid-Atlantic region. There were two data components to the study: a participant survey and hand swabs for pathogenic cultures. This study recruited a total sample of 62 participants. Overall, the study revealed that a significant number of EMS providers (77%) have a heavy bacterial load on their hands after patient care. All levels of providers had a similar distribution of bacterial load. Survey results revealed that few providers perform hand hygiene before (34%) or in between patients (24%), as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. This study demonstrates that EMS providers are potential vectors of microorganisms if proper hand hygiene is not performed properly. Since EMS providers treat a variety of patients and operate in a variety of environments, providers may be exposed to potentially pathogenic organisms, serving as vectors for the exposure of

  19. Compliance with hand hygiene on surgical, medical, and neurologic intensive care units: direct observation versus calculated disinfectant usage.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Simone; Haefner, Helga; Schwanz, Thomas; Schulze-Steinen, Henna; Schiefer, Johannes; Koch, Alexander; Engels, Astrid; Lemmen, Sebastian W

    2009-12-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is considered the single most effective measure to prevent and control health care-associated infections (HAIs). Although there have been several reports on compliance rates (CRs) to HH recommendations, data for intensive care units (ICUs) in general and for shift- and indication-specific opportunities in particular are scarce. The aim of this study was to collect data on ICU-, shift-, and indication-specific opportunities, activities and CRs at a surgical ICU (SICU), a medical ICU (MICU), and a neurologic ICU (NICU) at the University Hospital Aachen based on direct observation (DO) and calculated disinfectant usage (DU). Opportunities for HH recorded over a 24-hour period were significantly higher for the SICU (188 per patient day [PD]) and MICU (163 per PD) than for the NICU (124 per PD). Directly observed CRs were 39% (73/188) in the SICU, 72% (117/163) in the MICU, and 73% (90/124) in the NICU. However, CRs calculated as a measure of DU were considerably lower: 16% (29/188) in the SICU, 21% (34/163) in the MICU, and 25% (31/124) in the NICU. Notably, CRs calculated from DO were lowest before aseptic tasks and before patient contact. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first data picturing a complete day, including shift- and indication-specific analyses, and comparing directly observed CRs with those calculated based on DU, the latter of which revealed a 2.75-fold difference. Worrisomely, CRs were very low, especially concerning indications of greatest impact in preventing HAIs, such as before aseptic task. Thus, the gathering of additional data on CRs and the reasons for noncompliance is warranted.

  20. [Hand hygiene: basic, but not trivial].

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, S; Schwanz, T; Lemmen, S

    2011-07-01

    Hand hygiene is considered as the pillar of infection control and prevention. Healthcare-associated infections have a great impact on morbidity, length of hospital stay, and treatment costs. Hand disinfection is considered to be the single most effective tool to prevent healthcare-associated infections and cross-transmission of multi-drug resistant bacteria. The WHO defined "5 moments" for hand hygiene and highlighted the need for new strategies to improve everyday hand hygiene practices on the basis of the current low compliance. Reasons for non-compliance are multifaceted and behavioural, religious, and sociocultural aspects have to be considered when designing intervention programs. Despite all these barriers it is worth the effort to aim at quality of care improvement.

  1. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and risk factors for noncompliance and proposes strategies for promoting hand hygiene. PMID:11294714

  2. New technology markedly improves hand-hygiene performance among healthcare workers after restroom visits.

    PubMed

    Møller-Sørensen, H; Korshin, A; Mogensen, T; Høiby, N

    2016-04-01

    The risks to patients from pathogens present on healthcare workers' (HCWs') hands are high; however, compliance with hand hygiene among HCWs is low. We devised a prospective intervention trial of a new hand-hygiene dispensing technology to improve HCWs' compliance with hand hygiene. Baseline hand-hygiene compliance was observed for three months before and after an intervention consisting of implementation of an electronic device that reminds people to comply with hand hygiene after restroom visits. Compliance in hand-hygiene performance after restroom visits increased among HCWs from 66% to 91% after the intervention.

  3. Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

    PubMed Central

    Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation. PMID:24945613

  4. Impact on hand hygiene compliance following migration to a new hospital with improved resources and the sequential introduction of World Health Organization recommendations.

    PubMed

    Abela, Noel; Borg, Michael A

    2012-10-01

    One commonly cited reason for inadequate hand hygiene (HH) in health care facilities is lack of handwashing sinks and alcohol hand rub (AHR). Using the World Health Organization (WHO) direct observation method, we studied HH compliance after migration from an old hospital having 1 HH station (sink and AHR) per 6 beds to a new institution with 1 per 0.85 beds. We then introduced the other WHO strategy components in a sequential manner-posters, active education, and performance feedback-and assessed the impact of the various elements over time. Migration from the old to the new hospital was actually accompanied by a reduction in HH from 27.3% to 14.5% (P < .01), with a 52% decline in handwashing (P = .01) after patient contact. Small group interactive teaching improved HH compliance but only reached a maximum of 33.1%. No change was seen where only posters and leaflets (without educational sessions) were adopted. Significant improvement was only obtained after a performance feedback campaign coupled with increased staff accountability, reaching an overall average of 63% (P < .001). Our results suggest that, on their own, better resources do not offer any guarantees of improved HH practices. However, once in place, audit and feedback-coupled with genuine administrative support and fostering of individual accountability-appear to be effective change tools to increase HH compliance. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathways to clean hands: highlights of successful hand hygiene implementation strategies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Magiorakos, A P; Leens, E; Drouvot, V; May-Michelangeli, L; Reichardt, C; Gastmeier, P; Wilson, K; Tannahill, M; McFarlane, E; Simon, A

    2010-05-06

    Hand hygiene is the most effective way to stop the spread of microorganisms and to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The World Health Organization launched the First Global Patient Safety Challenge - Clean Care is Safer Care - in 2005 with the goal to prevent HAI globally. This year, on 5 May, the WHO s initiative SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands, which focuses on increasing awareness of and improving compliance with hand hygiene practices, celebrated its second global day. In this article, four Member States of the European Union describe strategies that were implemented as part of their national hand hygiene campaigns and were found to be noteworthy. The strategies were: governmental support, the use of indicators for hand hygiene benchmarking, developing national surveillance systems for auditing alcohol-based hand rub consumption, ensuring seamless coordination of processes between health regions in countries with regionalised healthcare systems, implementing the WHO's My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene, and auditing of hand hygiene compliance.

  6. The evolution: Handwashing to hand hygiene guidance.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, Nancy B

    2004-01-01

    Handwashing is a fundamental principle and practice in the prevention, control, and reduction of healthcare-acquired infection. Advocated by Semmelweiss (Nursing, The Finest Art: An Illustrated History. St Louis: Mosby; 1985:204) from the 1800s to resolve an obstetric morbidity and mortality occurrence, the simple act of hand cleansing portrays the intuitive benefits to basic hygiene, health continuum, and, most important, disease prevention. According to recently published guidance (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. October 25, 2002;51:32-34), the term handwashing is replaced by the new term hand hygiene, which includes hand cleansing, hand disinfecting, and surgical hand scrub. This article focuses on the published guidance, blending the salient aspects of hand hygiene practices from noted champions, reinforcing the aesthetics of meticulous cleansing, to guidance on its practice in healthcare settings. In healthcare, the principle of "clean hands are healing hands" bears value and demands compliance in order to prevent and control infectious processes while protecting the person from acquiring infectious diseases.

  7. Contact precautions and hand hygiene in veterinary clinics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maureen E C

    2015-03-01

    Hand hygiene, contact precautions, and other basic infection control measures are crucial in veterinary clinics, because these facilities can be community mixing pots of animals and people with a wide range of health and disease-carrier states. Veterinary staff must be knowledgeable and well trained regarding when and how to apply situation-appropriate contact precautions and to properly perform hand hygiene. The limited information on the use of contact precautions and hand hygiene practices among veterinary staff suggests that compliance is low. Improving the infection control culture in clinics and in veterinary medicine is critical to achieving better compliance with these practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hand hygiene for the prevention of nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald; Gastmeier, Petra

    2009-10-01

    The WHO regards hand hygiene as an essential tool for the prevention of nosocomial infection, but compliance in clinical practice is often low. The relevant scientific literature and national and international evidence-based recommendations (Robert Koch Institute [Germany], WHO) were evaluated. Hygienic hand disinfection has better antimicrobial efficacy than hand-washing and is the procedure of choice to be performed before and after manual contact with patients. The hands should be washed, rather than disinfected, only when they are visibly soiled. Skin irritation is quite common among healthcare workers and is mainly caused by water, soap, and prolonged wearing of gloves. Compliance can be improved by training, by placing hand-rub dispensers at the sites where they are needed, and by physicians setting a good example for others. Improved compliance in hand hygiene, with proper use of alcohol-based hand rubs, can reduce the nosocomial infection rate by as much as 40%.

  9. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  10. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  11. Impact of INICC Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach in ICUs in Four Cities in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Viegas, Mónica; Sztokhamer, Daniel; Benchetrit, Guillermo; Santoro, Beatriz; Lastra, Carlos Esteban; Romani, Adriana; Di Núbila, Beatriz Marta Alicia; Lanzetta, Diana; Fernández, Leonardo J; Rossetti, María Adelaida; Migazzi, Claudia; Barolin, Clarisa; Martínez, Estela; Bonaventura, Claudio; Caridi, Maria de Los Ángeles; Messina, Adriana; Ricci, Beatriz; Soroka, Luisa C; Frías, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium multidimensional approach to hand hygiene in 11 intensive care units in 4 cities in Argentina and analyzed predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance. We had a baseline period and a follow-up period. We observed 21 100 hand hygiene opportunities. Hand hygiene compliance increased from 28.3% to 64.8% (P = .0001). Males versus females (56.8% vs 66.4%; P < .001) and physicians versus nurses (46.6% vs 67.8%; P < .001) were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance.

  12. The impact of the Hand Hygiene New Zealand programme on hand hygiene practices in New Zealand's public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Joshua; Dawson, Louise; Jowitt, Deborah; White, Margo; Callard, Hayley; Sieczkowski, Christine; Kuriyan, Ron; Roberts, Sally

    2016-10-14

    To detail the progress made by Hand Hygiene New Zealand (HHNZ) since 2011 and also describe the challenges experienced along the way and the factors required for delivery of a successful hand hygiene programme at a national level. HHNZ is a multimodal culture-change programme based on the WHO '5 moments for hand hygiene' approach. The key components of the programme include clinical leadership, auditing of hand hygiene compliance with thrice yearly reporting of improvement in hand hygiene practice, biannual reporting of the outcome marker, healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (HA-SAB), effective communication with key stakeholders and the use of the front-line ownership (FLO) principles for quality improvement. The nationally aggregated hand hygiene compliance has increased from 62% in June 2012 to 81% in March 2016. There has been improvement across all 'moments', all healthcare worker groups and a range of different clinical specialties. The rate of HA-SAB has remained stable. The HHNZ programme has led to significant improvements in hand hygiene practice in DHBs throughout New Zealand. The principles of FLO are now widely used to drive hand hygiene improvement in New Zealand DHBs.

  13. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines - significance of measuring fidelity.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hand hygiene and skin health.

    PubMed

    Kownatzki, E

    2003-12-01

    The high rate of hand problems associated with the hand hygiene of medical professions is due to a combination of damaging factors: (1) the removal of barrier lipids by detergent cleaning and alcohol antisepsis followed by a loss of moisturizers and stratum corneum water and (2) the overhydration of the stratum corneum by sweat trapped within gloves. Together the facilitate the invasion of irritants and allergens which elicit inflammatory responses in the dermis. Among the lipids and water-soluble substances removed are natural antibacterials. Their loss leads to increased growth of transient and pathogenic micro-organisms which jeapordizes the very intention of skin hygiene. The kinetics of damage and its repair, and epidemiological evidence suggest that modern synthetic detergents as used in foaming liquid cleansers are the major offender. Conversely, the replacement of detergents with non-detergent emulsion cleansers has been shown to be effective in reducing the prevalence of hand problems among hospital staff. Presently recommended hand antisepsis reduces the risks to patients, but puts the burden on the health care provider. Rather than fighting micro-organisms at the expense of the skin's health, the skin and its own defences should be considered a collaborator in combating infectious diseases.

  15. Measuring healthcare worker hand hygiene activity: current practices and emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring hand hygiene compliance and providing healthcare workers with feedback regarding their performance are considered integral parts of multidisciplinary hand hygiene improvement programs. Observational surveys conducted by trained personnel are currently considered the "gold standard" method for establishing compliance rates, but they are time-consuming and have a number of shortcomings. Monitoring hand hygiene product consumption is less time-consuming and can provide useful information regarding the frequency of hand hygiene that can be used to give caregivers feedback. Electronic counting devices placed in hand hygiene product dispensers provide detailed information about hand hygiene frequency over time, by unit and during interventions. Electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems that utilize wireless systems to monitor room entry and exit of healthcare workers and their use of hand hygiene product dispensers can provide individual and unit-based data on compliance with the most common hand hygiene indications. Some systems include badges (tags) that can provide healthcare workers with real-time reminders to clean their hands upon entering and exiting patient rooms. Preliminary studies suggest that use of electronic monitoring systems is associated with increased hand hygiene compliance rates and that such systems may be acceptable to care givers. Although there are many questions remaining about the practicality, accuracy, cost, and long-term impact of electronic monitoring systems on compliance rates, they appear to have considerable promise for improving our efforts to monitor and improve hand hygiene practices among healthcare workers.

  16. Hand hygiene--comparison of international recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wendt, C

    2001-08-01

    The value of hand hygiene for the prevention of cross-infection was first observed in the middle of the 19th century. Since then, which procedure is the most suitable for hand hygiene has been repeatedly discussed and several different guidelines and recommendations have been published. The aim of this review is to compare different recommendations for hand hygiene regarding technique and indication. Medline, the internet and a personal library were searched to obtain as many written recommendations as possible. In addition, a small questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 20 international colleagues. As a result, written recommendations from 10 countries could be compared. Recommended methods of hand hygiene include handwashing (washing hands with plain soap), hygienic handwash (washing hands with medicated soap) and hygienic hand-rub (use of antiseptic rubs). In most countries handwashing and hygienic handwash are the methods of choice and only in central European countries is hygienic hand-rub the preferred technique. Situations in which performance of hand hygiene is recommended are comparable. However, no single indication is recommended in all guidelines. Hand hygiene is most often recommended before performing invasive procedures and after microbial contamination. Guidelines should be clear and easy to follow for them to become standard of care. Thus, guidelines are needed that do not leave to the health care worker a decision as to whether hand hygiene is indicated.

  17. Comparison of hand hygiene monitoring using the 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method versus a wash in-wash out method.

    PubMed

    Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Meranda, David; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Zabarsky, Trina F; McKee, Melissa; Macinga, David R; Donskey, Curtis J

    2015-01-01

    One strategy to promote improved hand hygiene is to monitor health care workers' adherence to recommended practices and give feedback. For feasibility of monitoring, many health care facilities assess hand hygiene practices on room entry and exit (wash in-wash out). It is not known if the wash in-wash out method is comparable with a more comprehensive approach, such as the World Health Organization's My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method. During a 1-month period, a surreptitious observer monitored hand hygiene compliance simultaneously using the wash in-wash out and My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene methods. For 283 health care worker room entries, the methods resulted in similar rates of hand hygiene compliance (70% vs 72%, respectively). The wash in-wash out method required 148 hand hygiene events not required by the My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method (ie, before and after room entry with no patient or environmental contact) while not providing monitoring for 89 hand hygiene opportunities in patient rooms. The monitoring methods resulted in similar overall rates of hand hygiene compliance. Use of the wash in-wash out method should include ongoing education and intermittent assessment of hand hygiene before clean procedures and after body fluid exposure in patient rooms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare worker hand hygiene is thought to be one of the most important strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but compliance is generally poor. Hand hygiene improvement interventions must include audits of compliance (almost always with feedback), which are most often done by direct observation - a method that is expensive, subjective, and prone to bias. New technologies, including electronic and video hand hygiene monitoring systems, have the potential to provide continuous and objective monitoring of hand hygiene, regular feedback, and for some systems, real-time reminders. We propose a systematic review of the evidence supporting the effectiveness of these systems. The primary objective is to determine whether hand hygiene monitoring systems yield sustainable improvements in hand hygiene compliance when compared to usual care. Methods/Design MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and other relevant databases will be searched for randomized control studies and quasi-experimental studies evaluating a video or electronic hand hygiene monitoring system. A standard data collection form will be used to abstract relevant information from included studies. Bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Studies will be reviewed independently by two reviewers, with disputes resolved by a third reviewer. The primary outcome is directly observed hand hygiene compliance. Secondary outcomes include healthcare-associated infection incidence and improvements in hand hygiene compliance as measured by alternative metrics. Results will be qualitatively summarized with comparisons made between study quality, the measured outcome, and study-specific factors that may be expected to affect outcome (for example, study duration, frequency of feedback, use of real-time reminders). Meta-analysis will be performed if there is more than one study of similar systems with comparable outcome definitions

  19. Hand hygiene-related clinical trials reported since 2010: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kingston, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2016-04-01

    Considerable emphasis is currently placed on reducing healthcare-associated infection through improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. There is also increasing discussion in the lay media of perceived poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare staff. Our aim was to report the outcomes of a systematic search for peer-reviewed, published studies - especially clinical trials - that focused on hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. Literature published between December 2009, after publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene guidelines, and February 2014, which was indexed in PubMed and CINAHL on the topic of hand hygiene compliance, was searched. Following examination of relevance and methodology of the 57 publications initially retrieved, 16 clinical trials were finally included in the review. The majority of studies were conducted in the USA and Europe. The intensive care unit emerged as the predominant focus of studies followed by facilities for care of the elderly. The category of healthcare worker most often the focus of the research was the nurse, followed by the healthcare assistant and the doctor. The unit of analysis reported for hand hygiene compliance was 'hand hygiene opportunity'; four studies adopted the 'my five moments for hand hygiene' framework, as set out in the WHO guidelines, whereas other papers focused on unique multimodal strategies of varying design. We concluded that adopting a multimodal approach to hand hygiene improvement intervention strategies, whether guided by the WHO framework or by another tested multimodal framework, results in moderate improvements in hand hygiene compliance.

  20. Enhanced performance feedback and patient participation to improve hand hygiene compliance of health-care workers in the setting of established multimodal promotion: a single-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stewardson, Andrew James; Sax, Hugo; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Touveneau, Sylvie; Longtin, Yves; Zingg, Walter; Pittet, Didier

    2016-12-01

    Hand hygiene compliance of health-care workers remains suboptimal despite standard multimodal promotion, and evidence for the effectiveness of novel interventions is urgently needed. We aimed to assess the effect of enhanced performance feedback and patient participation on hand hygiene compliance in the setting of multimodal promotion. We did a single-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial at University of Geneva Hospitals (Geneva, Switzerland). All wards hosting adult, lucid patients, and all health-care workers and patients in these wards, were eligible. After a 15-month baseline period, eligible wards were assigned by computer-generated block randomisation (1:1:1), stratified by the type of ward, to one of three groups: control, enhanced performance feedback, or enhanced performance feedback plus patient participation. Standard multimodal hand hygiene promotion was done hospital-wide throughout the study. The primary outcome was hand hygiene compliance of health-care workers (according to the WHO Five Moments of Hand Hygiene) at the opportunity level, measured by direct observation (20-min sessions) by 12 validated infection control nurses, with each ward audited at least once every 3 months. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN43599478. We randomly assigned 67 wards to the control group (n=21), enhanced performance feedback (n=24), or enhanced performance feedback plus patient participation (n=22) on May 19, 2010. One ward in the control group became a high-dependency unit and was excluded from analysis. During 1367 observation sessions, 12 579 hand hygiene opportunities were recorded. Between the baseline period (April 1, 2009, to June 30, 2010) and the intervention period (July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012), mean hand hygiene compliance increased from 66% (95% CI 62-70) to 73% (70-77) in the control group (odds ratio [OR] 1·41, 95% CI 1·21-1·63), from 65% (62-69) to 75% (72-77) in the enhanced performance feedback group (1·61, 1·41-1

  1. Costing the Australian National Hand Hygiene Initiative.

    PubMed

    Page, K; Barnett, A G; Campbell, M; Brain, D; Martin, E; Fulop, N; Graves, N

    2014-11-01

    The Australian National Hand Hygiene Initiative (NHHI) is a major patient safety programme co-ordinated by Hand Hygiene Australia (HHA) and funded by the Australian Commission for Safety and Quality in Health Care. The annual costs of running this programme need to be understood to know the cost-effectiveness of a decision to sustain it as part of health services. To estimate the annual health services cost of running the NHHI; the set-up costs are excluded. A health services perspective was adopted for the costing and collected data from the 50 largest public hospitals in Australia that implemented the initiative, covering all states and territories. The costs of HHA, the costs to the state-level infection-prevention groups, the costs incurred by each acute hospital, and the costs for additional alcohol-based hand rub are all included. The programme cost AU$5.56 million each year (US$5.76, £3.63 million). Most of the cost is incurred at the hospital level (65%) and arose from the extra time taken for auditing hand hygiene compliance and doing education and training. On average, each infection control practitioner spent 5h per week on the NHHI, and the running cost per annum to their hospital was approximately AU$120,000 in 2012 (US$124,000, £78,000). Good estimates of the total costs of this programme are fundamental to understanding the cost-effectiveness of implementing the NHHI. This paper reports transparent costing methods, and the results include their uncertainty. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of automated monitoring and real-time prompting on nurses' hand hygiene performance.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2013-10-01

    Adequate hand hygiene compliance by healthcare staff is considered an effective method to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The electronic system developed at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute automatically detects hand hygiene opportunities and records hand hygiene actions. It includes an optional visual hand hygiene status indication, generates real-time hand hygiene prompting signals, and enables automated monitoring of individual and aggregated hand hygiene performance. The system was installed on a complex continuous care unit at the entrance to 17 patient rooms and a utility room. A total of 93 alcohol gel and soap dispensers were instrumented and 14 nurses were provided with the personal wearable electronic monitors. The study included three phases with the system operating in three different modes: (1) an inactive mode during the first phase when hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions were recorded but prompting and visual indication functions were disabled, (2) only hand hygiene status indicators were enabled during the second phase, and (3) both hand hygiene status and real-time hand hygiene prompting signals were enabled during the third phase. Data collection was performed automatically during all of the three phases. The system indicated significantly higher hand hygiene activity rates and compliance during the third phase, with both hand hygiene indication and real-time prompting functions enabled. To increase the efficacy of the technology, its use was supplemented with individual performance reviews of the automatically collected data.

  3. National hand hygiene campaigns in Europe, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Magiorakos, A P; Suetens, C; Boyd, L; Costa, C; Cunney, R; Drouvot, V; Farrugia, C; Fernandez-Maillo, M M; Iversen, B G; Leens, E; Michael, S; Moro, M L; Reinhardt, C; Serban, R; Vatcheva-Dobrevska, R; Wilson, K; Heisbourg, E; Maltezou, H C; Strauss, R; Borocz, K; Dolinsek, M; Dumpis, U; Erne, S; Gudlaugsson, O; Heczko, P; Hedlova, D; Holt, J; Joe, L; Lyytikainen, O; Riesenfeld-Orn, I; Stefkovikova, M; Valinteliene, R; Voss, A; Monnet, D L

    2009-04-30

    Hand hygiene represents the single most effective way to prevent healthcare-associated infections. The World Health Organization, as part of its First Global Patient Safety Challenge, recommends implementation of multi-faceted strategies to increase compliance with hand hygiene. A questionnaire was sent by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control to 30 European countries, regarding the availability and organisation of their national hand hygiene campaigns. All countries responded. Thirteen countries had organised at least one national campaign during the period 2000-2009 and three countries were in the process of organising a national campaign. Although the remaining countries did not have a national campaign, several reported regional and local hand hygiene activities or educational resources on national websites.

  4. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene.

  5. Understanding the determinants of Australian hospital nurses' hand hygiene decisions following the implementation of a national hand hygiene initiative.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Campbell, Megan; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-12-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure in hospitals to reduce the spread of infections, with nurses experiencing the greatest frequency of patient contact. The '5 critical moments' of hand hygiene initiative has been implemented in hospitals across Australia, accompanied by awareness-raising, staff training and auditing. The aim of this study was to understand the determinants of nurses' hand hygiene decisions, using an extension of a common health decision-making model, the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), to inform future health education strategies to increase compliance. Nurses from 50 Australian hospitals (n = 2378) completed standard TPB measures (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control [PBC], intention) and the extended variables of group norm, risk perceptions (susceptibility, severity) and knowledge (subjective, objective) at Time 1, while a sub-sample (n = 797) reported their hand hygiene behaviour 2 weeks later. Regression analyses identified subjective norm, PBC, group norm, subjective knowledge and risk susceptibility as the significant predictors of nurses' hand hygiene intentions, with intention and PBC predicting their compliance behaviour. Rather than targeting attitudes which are already very favourable among nurses, health education strategies should focus on normative influences and perceptions of control and risk in efforts to encourage hand hygiene adherence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Hand hygiene prior to contact lens handling is problematical.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2012-04-01

    To establish guidelines for contact lens wearers' hand hygiene practices which achieve a balance between minimising risk of infection and reasonable expectations on the ability of patients to follow them. Evidence has been obtained from publications via PubMed, Advanced Medline Search, Cochrane Reviews, Google Scholar and using the key words hand hygiene, washing and contact lens. Guidelines for effective hand washing and the bother involved vary according to the level of hygiene required. High levels of non-compliance with hand hygiene practices, even among healthcare workers, gives an indication of how important the level of bother involved when following guidelines can be in contributing to non-compliance. Better patient education to improve hand washing techniques as well as patient attitudes toward hand hygiene are needed to reduce high non-compliance levels. Better hand hygiene techniques and higher frequency of their application give the prospect of reduced risk of infection and of any discomfort that arises from increased lens and ocular bioburden. In order that adoption rates might be maximised, the guidelines which have been distilled from this review attempt to strike a balance between technique redundancy and the associated higher levels of hygiene achieved and the possibility that the perception of too much bother involved could reduce participation rates. The guidelines have been expanded by the inclusion of suggested explanatory information in the expectation that helping patients to understand why the recommendations are made will have the effect of increasing their adoption. Copyright © 2011 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene.

  8. Patient empowerment and hand hygiene, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    McGuckin, M; Govednik, J

    2013-07-01

    Multi-modal hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment are promoted as a necessary component of hand hygiene compliance. However, the question still remains, do we have enough information to determine if, and under what conditions, patients will be able to play an immediate role in healthcare workers' hand hygiene behaviour? To review the current literature on patient willingness to be empowered, barriers to empowerment, and hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment and hand hygiene improvement. A Medline (Ovid) search of all English-language papers for 1997-2007 and 2008-2012 was conducted using the following keywords alone and in various combinations: 'patient participation', 'involvement', 'empowerment', 'education', 'decision-making', 'professional-patient relations', 'behavioural change', 'culture of safety', 'social marketing', 'consumer awareness', 'leadership', 'institutional climate', 'hand hygiene' and 'patient reminders'. The 1997-2007 review was conducted as part of the World Health Organization's Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, and updated with the 2008-2012 review. Several studies show that, in principle, patients are willing to be empowered. However, there is variation in the actual number of patients that practice empowerment for hand hygiene, ranging from 5% to 80%. The actual performance of patient empowerment can be increased when a patient is given explicit permission by a healthcare worker. There is ongoing support from patients that they are willing to be empowered. There is a need to develop programmes that empower both healthcare workers and patients so that they become more comfortable in their roles. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M

    2014-03-17

    Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs' perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3). In the

  10. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2

  11. Comparative study of presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution versus traditional presurgical hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    López Martín, M Beatriz; Erice Calvo-Sotelo, Alejo

    To compare presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution following the WHO protocol with traditional presurgical hand hygiene. Cultures of the hands of surgeons and surgical nurses were performed before and after presurgical hand hygiene and after removing gloves at the end of surgery. Cultures were done in 2different days: the first day after traditional presurgical hand hygiene, and the second day after presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution following the WHO protocol. The duration of the traditional hand hygiene was measured and compared with the duration (3min) of the WHO protocol. The cost of the products used in the traditional technique was compared with the cost of the hydroalcoholic solution used. The variability of the traditional technique was determined by observation. Following presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution, colony-forming units (CFU) were detected in 5 (7.3%) subjects, whereas after traditional presurgical hand hygiene CFU were detected in 14 subjects (20.5%) (p < 0.05). After glove removal, the numbers of CFU were similar. The time employed in hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution (3min) was inferior to the time employed in the traditional technique (p < 0.05), its cost was less than half, and there was no variability. Compared with other techniques, presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution significantly decreases CFU, has similar latency time, a lower cost, and saves time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Cost analysis of hand hygiene using antimicrobial soap and water versus an alcohol-based hand rub.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michaell A; Holton, Ronald H; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2006-05-01

    Proper hand hygiene is acknowledged as the most critical element of an adequate infection control program in the oral healthcare setting. However, adherence to proper hand hygiene protocols is often lacking. Poor compliance with hand hygiene protocols has been attributed to such factors as lack of time, hand irritation, hand dryness, forgetfulness, skepticism over importance, understaffing, perceived low risk of cross-infection, inconvenience, and the belief gloves alone offer protection. In the medical environment the use of alcohol-based hand rubs now represent the preferred method of performing hand hygiene when delivering non-surgical care. In this study we compared the costs associated with traditional hand washing against an alcohol-based hand rub protocol in the dental setting. The results indicate an alcohol-based hand rub protocol is less costly and less time consuming when compared to traditional handwashing in the dental setting, creating a new paradigm for hand hygiene in the dental office.

  13. Improving hand hygiene after neurological injury.

    PubMed

    Duke, Lynsay; Gibbison, Lucy; McMahon, Victoria

    Caring for hands tightened by spasticity after stroke, brain injury or other neurological conditions can be challenging for care staff. Opening and cleaning the hand, managing pressure areas, cutting nails and reducing pain becomes more complex if muscles are tight and short. Hand hygiene is key for staff but literature on patients' hand and nail care is lacking, so specialist education and care planning may be needed to help staff ensure these activities are done well. This article outlines the importance of maintaining patients' hand hygiene, explores the barriers to providing effective care and discusses how they might be overcome.

  14. Hand hygiene improvement in the community: a systems approach.

    PubMed

    Storr, Julie; Kilpatrick, Claire

    2012-03-01

    Hand hygiene compliance, which is influenced in part by human behaviour, is central to infection prevention in all care settings. This article focuses specifically on the importance of a multimodal strategy for continued hand hygiene improvement, and its relevance to community nursing. Additionally, the article addresses the challenges and opportunities of infection prevention and control in a community context, and highlights current national and international guidelines that offer a framework and set of principles for implementation and sustainability with a specific focus on the multimodal strategy associated with the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care (2009). The authors conclude with some considerations for community nurses when addressing translation of these principles into their everyday working context.

  15. The impact of workload on hygiene compliance in nursing.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Martin; Lautenschlaeger, Christine; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    The objective of this research was to clarify whether external factors (e.g. ward capacity, level of nursing intensity) had an influence on nursing staff compliance with hand hygiene guidelines. The study was conducted at a German hospital (450 beds). Quantitative data were collected prospectively in six trial phases (E1-E6) starting in June 2007 and ending in May 2008. Included in the study were ten hospital departments: four surgical wards, four internal medicine departments, and two interdisciplinary intensive care units. In six participant observation trials, nursing staff were monitored for the disinfection of hands. Narrative interviews were conducted immediately after the observation with those who did not disinfect their hands in accordance with national guidelines. Observations and interviews were unannounced, taking place at different times. The collected data was analysed on subsequent categorization after summarizing the core statements (content analysis). The statistical relevance of staff compliance to the rate of used ward capacity could be proved using a multifactorial regression model (P=0.011). Workload factors (e.g. maximum ward capacity, severity of patient cases) have an impact on staff compliance with hand hygiene guidelines, even where non-compliance contradicts the personal level of professional training.

  16. Feasibility and effectiveness of an electronic hand hygiene feedback device targeted to improve rates of hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Sahud, A G; Bhanot, N; Narasimhan, S; Malka, E S

    2012-12-01

    Various electronic tools have been developed to monitor hand hygiene compliance (HHC). A prospective, investigator-blinded, pilot study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of an electronic hand hygiene feedback device to improve rates of hand hygiene. The first month of participation provided baseline rates of HHC (37%). During months 2-5, mean HHC rates were 43%, 44%, 45%, and 49% respectively (P < 0.001). Implementing this electronic device was feasible and showed a modest improvement in rates of HHC. Subsequent studies are warranted to validate the impact of such electronic devices on a larger scale. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An assessment of hand hygiene practices of healthcare workers of a semi-urban teaching hospital using the five moments of hand hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Shobowale, Emmanuel Olushola; Adegunle, Benjamin; Onyedibe, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene has been described as the cornerstone and starting point in all infection control programs, with the hands of healthcare staff being the drivers and promoters of infection in critically ill patients. The objectives of this study were to access healthcare workers compliance with the World Health Organization (WHO) prescribed five moments of hand hygiene as it relates to patient care and to determine the various strata of healthcare workers who are in default of such prescribed practices. Methods: The study was an observational, cross-sectional one. Hand hygiene compliance was monitored using the hand hygiene observation tool developed by the WHO. A nonidentified observer was used for monitoring compliance with hand hygiene. The observational period was over a 60-day period from August 2015 to October 2015. Results: One hundred and seventy-six observations were recorded from healthcare personnel. The highest number of observations were seen in surgery, n = 40. The following were found to be in noncompliance before patient contact – anesthetist P = 0.00 and the Intensive Care Unit P = 0.00 while compliance was seen with senior nurses (certified registered nurse anesthetist [CRNA]) P = 0.04. Concerning hand hygiene after the removal of gloves, the following were areas of noncompliance - the emergency room P = 0.00, CRNA P = 0.00, dental P = 0.04, and compliance was seen with surgery P = 0.01. With regards to compliance after touching the patient, areas of noncompliance were the anesthetists P = 0.00, as opposed to CRNA P = 0.00, dental P = 0.00, and Medicine Department P = 0.02 that were compliant. Overall, the rates of compliance to hand hygiene were low. Discussion: The findings however from our study show that the rates of compliance in our local center are still low. The reasons for this could include lack of an educational program on hand hygiene; unfortunately, healthcare workers in developing settings such as ours regard such programs

  18. State-of-the-art hand hygiene in community medicine.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter

    2003-10-01

    Hand hygiene becomes more important in community medicine not only since antibiotic resistant bacteria such as MRSA spread within the community. Hands may be colonized with transient microorganism in up to 75%. Among those transient pathogens S. aureus, C. difficile or the hepatitis C virus may be found. During patient care the number of microorganisms on the hands steadily increases. In addition hands may be contaminated with different kinds of germs even if only "clean" activities are carried out. Gloves may be worn but do not provide complete protection from contamination due to leaks. Therefore hands should always be treated after gloves are taken off. State-of-the-art treatment of hands is the hygienic hand disinfection with alcohol-based hand rubs. They are more effective, quicker to carry out, better tolerated by the skin, with a positive effect on compliance, and cost effective in comparison to antiseptic soaps based on chlorhexidine or triclosan and in comparison to normal non-medicated soaps. Healthy skin easily tolerates alcohol-based products from the beginning on. Only health care workers with an underlying irritative contact dermatitis which is often caused by bar or liquid antiseptic soaps may have difficulties to use alcohol-based products initially. In such a case treatment of the underlying skin condition is the way to go and not staying with a preparation which has caused the dermatitis. All this knowledge is now reflected in current guidelines on hand hygiene. Beside liquids alcohol-based gels can be used if they have an antimicrobial activity equal to alcohol-based liquid preparations. Hand hygiene remains the single most important tool to avoid cross transmission of microorganisms between patients. This state-of-the-art hand hygiene should also be emphasized more in community medicine. This review may help to go the first step into this direction.

  19. Perspective of health professionals on hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniel; Andrade, Otília; Silva, Ernestina

    2014-11-01

    To identify the practices reported by health professionals on hand hygiene; To determine how the practices of hand hygiene are related to socio-demographic and professional variables and variables in the context of practice. A descriptive-correlational and cross-sectional study conducted in a hospital in central Portugal, in May and June, 2012. 71 health professionals participated, with 23.9% physicians, 64.8% nurses and 11.3% operating assistants, in paediatrics, neonatology and paediatric emergencies. The majority was female (91.5%) and 32.4% are between the ages of 31 and 40 years. A questionnaire developed from DGS (General Health Directorate) recommendations was applied with questions on socio-demographic and professional characteristics as well as on the context of practice. The professionals are motivated to perform hand hygiene (98.6%). In self-assessment, they practice hand hygiene appropriately, however the results revealed that 43.7% of subjects reported little knowledge concerning the interference of ornaments on the practice of hand hygiene, 38% of the sample reported the steps of the hand washing technique improperly, and approximately 43% of the sample does not practice hygiene at the correct times. The majority of the participants who use a proper technique are nurses, with significant differences with regards to doctors and operating assistants (P=.001). Most have knowledge about the practice of hand hygiene; however, some professional groups need to improve their practice of proper technique and the correct time to do so. Approximately a third did not attend specific training, leading us to reflect on the need to invest in training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Hand hygiene knowledge and perceptions among anesthesia providers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Patrick G; Loftus, Randy W; Dodds, Thomas M; Koff, Matthew D; Reddy, Sundara; Heard, Stephen O; Beach, Michael L; Yeager, Mark P; Brown, Jeremiah R

    2015-04-01

    Health care worker compliance with hand hygiene guidelines is an important measure for health care-associated infection prevention, yet overall compliance across all health care arenas remains low. A correct answer to 4 of 4 structured questions pertaining to indications for hand decontamination (according to types of contact) has been associated with improved health care provider hand hygiene compliance when compared to those health care providers answering incorrectly for 1 or more questions. A better understanding of knowledge deficits among anesthesia providers may lead to hand hygiene improvement strategies. In this study, our primary aims were to characterize and identify predictors for hand hygiene knowledge deficits among anesthesia providers. We modified this previously tested survey instrument to measure anesthesia provider hand hygiene knowledge regarding the 5 moments of hand hygiene across national and multicenter groups. Complete knowledge was defined by correct answers to 5 questions addressing the 5 moments for hand hygiene and received a score of 1. Incomplete knowledge was defined by an incorrect answer to 1 or more of the 5 questions and received a score of 0. We used a multilevel random-effects XTMELOGIT logistic model clustering at the respondent and geographic location for insufficient knowledge and forward/backward stepwise logistic regression analysis to identify predictors for incomplete knowledge. The survey response rates were 55.8% and 18.2% for the multicenter and national survey study groups, respectively. One or more knowledge deficits occurred with 81.6% of survey respondents, with the mean number of correct answers 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 2.78- 2.99). Failure of providers to recognize prior contact with the environment and prior contact with the patient as hand hygiene opportunities contributed to the low mean. Several cognitive factors were associated with a reduced risk of incomplete knowledge including providers responding

  1. Key beliefs of hospital nurses' hand-hygiene behaviour: protecting your peers and needing effective reminders.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine M; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Campbell, Megan; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-04-01

    Hand hygiene in hospitals is vital to limit the spread of infections. This study aimed to identify key beliefs underlying hospital nurses' hand-hygiene decisions to consolidate strategies that encourage compliance. Informed by a theory of planned behaviour belief framework, nurses from 50 Australian hospitals (n=797) responded to how likely behavioural beliefs (advantages and disadvantages), normative beliefs (important referents) and control beliefs (barriers) impacted on their hand-hygiene decisions following the introduction of a national '5 moments for hand hygiene' initiative. Two weeks after completing the survey, they reported their hand-hygiene adherence. Stepwise regression analyses identified key beliefs that determined nurses' hand-hygiene behaviour. Reducing the chance of infection for co-workers influenced nurses' hygiene behaviour, with lack of time and forgetfulness identified as barriers. Future efforts to improve hand hygiene should highlight the potential impact on colleagues and consider strategies to combat time constraints, as well as implementing workplace reminders to prompt greater hand-hygiene compliance. SO WHAT?: Rather than emphasising the health of self and patients in efforts to encourage hand-hygiene practices, a focus on peer protection should be adopted and more effective workplace reminders should be implemented to combat forgetting.

  2. [Infrastructure and adherence to hand hygiene: challenges to patient safety].

    PubMed

    Bathke, Janaína; de Cunico, Priscila Almeida; Maziero, Eliane Cristina Sanches; Cauduro, Fernanda Leticia Frates; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; de Cruz, Elaine Drehmer Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Considering the importance of hands in the chain of transmission of microorganisms, this observational research investigated the material infrastructure and compliance of hand hygiene in an intensive care unit in the south of Brazil in 2010. The data was collected by direct non-participant observation and through the use of self-administered questionnaires to be completed by the 39 participants, which was analyzed with the assistance of the chi2 Test, descriptive statistics and quantitative discourse analysis. Although health professionals overestimate compliance rates, recognize the practice as relevant to the prevention of infection and refer there are no impeding factors, of the 1,277 opportunities observed, compliance was 26% and significantly lower before patient contact and the use of aseptic procedures than after patient contact: infrastructure was shown to be deficient. The results indicate risk to patient safety, and thus, the planning of corrective actions to promote hand washing is relevant.

  3. Patient hand hygiene practices in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Laura L; Smolowitz, Janice; Kline, Nancy; Thom, Bridgette; Larson, Elaine L

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the hand hygiene practices of surgical patients. Most of the research has been directed at the health care worker, and this may discount the role that hand hygiene of the surgical patient might play in surgical site infections. A quasiexperimental, pretest/post-test study was conducted in which patients (n = 72) and nurses (n = 42) were interviewed to examine perceptions and knowledge about patient hand hygiene. Concurrently, observations were conducted to determine whether surgical patients were offered assistance by the nursing staff. Following an initial observation period, nursing staff received an educational session regarding general hand hygiene information and observation results. One month after the education session, patient/nurse dyads were observed for an additional 6 weeks to determine the impact of the educational intervention. Eighty observations, 72 patient interviews, and 42 nurse interviews were completed preintervention, and 83 observations were completed postintervention. In response to the survey, more than half of patients (n = 41, 55%) reported that they were not offered the opportunity to clean their hands, but a majority of the nursing staff reported (n = 25, 60%) that they offered patients the opportunity to clean their hands. Prior to the educational intervention, nursing staff assisted patients in 14 of 81 hand hygiene opportunities. Following the intervention, nursing staff assisted patients 37 out of 83 opportunities (17.3% vs 44.6%, respectively, [χ(2)1 = 13.008, P = .0003]). This study suggests that efforts to increase hand hygiene should be directed toward patients as well as health care workers. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Promoting Hand Hygiene With a Lighting Prompt.

    PubMed

    Diegel-Vacek, Lauren; Ryan, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to assess an automatic sink light design intervention as a prompt for clinician hand hygiene (as defined by World Health Organization [WHO]). Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are still leading causes of morbidity and mortality and contribute to burdens on our healthcare system. Hand hygiene has been related to reducing the rate of HAIs and positively impacting both patient and hospital outcomes. This pilot study was a prospective, longitudinal observational study of a convenience sample of healthcare clinicians. In one inpatient room, clinicians were exposed to a hand hygiene reminder that consisted of a light turning on over the sink as they entered. A control room (the adjacent inpatient room) did not have the intervention. A total of 88 clinician encounters were monitored during the study. On the first observation day at the initial activation of the signal light system, the percentage of clinicians performing hand hygiene upon entering a room was only 7% in the control room and 23% in the intervention room. During the second observation (Day 14), those percentages were 16% in the control room and 30% in the intervention room. During the third observation (Day 21), those percentages were 23% in the control room and 23% in the intervention room. The healthcare system frequently relies on expensive technology to improve healthcare delivery, but implementation of low-cost, low-technology methods such as this light may be effective in prompting hand hygiene. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of a National Initiative to Improve Hand Hygiene Compliance Using the Outcome of Healthcare Associated Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Graves, Nicholas; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Hall, Lisa; Campbell, Megan; Fulop, Naomi; Jimmeison, Nerina; White, Katherine; Paterson, David; Barnett, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of the Australian National Hand Hygiene Inititiave implemented between 2009 and 2012 using healthcare associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia as the outcome. Baseline comparators are the eight existing state and territory hand hygiene programmes. The setting is the Australian public healthcare system and 1,294,656 admissions from the 50 largest Australian hospitals are included. The design is a cost-effectiveness modelling study using a before and after quasi-experimental design. The primary outcome is cost per life year saved from reduced cases of healthcare associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, with cost estimated by the annual on-going maintenance costs less the costs saved from fewer infections. Data were harvested from existing sources or were collected prospectively and the time horizon for the model was 12 months, 2011-2012. No useable pre-implementation Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia data were made available from the 11 study hospitals in Victoria or the single hospital in Northern Territory leaving 38 hospitals among six states and territories available for cost-effectiveness analyses. Total annual costs increased by $2,851,475 for a return of 96 years of life giving an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $29,700 per life year gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed a 100% chance the initiative was cost effective in the Australian Capital Territory and Queensland, with ICERs of $1,030 and $8,988 respectively. There was an 81% chance it was cost effective in New South Wales with an ICER of $33,353, a 26% chance for South Australia with an ICER of $64,729 and a 1% chance for Tasmania and Western Australia. The 12 hospitals in Victoria and the Northern Territory incur annual on-going maintenance costs of $1.51M; no information was available to describe cost savings or health benefits. The Australian National Hand Hygiene Initiative was cost-effective against

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of a National Initiative to Improve Hand Hygiene Compliance Using the Outcome of Healthcare Associated Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Nicholas; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Hall, Lisa; Campbell, Megan; Fulop, Naomi; Jimmeison, Nerina; White, Katherine; Paterson, David; Barnett, Adrian G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective is to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of the Australian National Hand Hygiene Inititiave implemented between 2009 and 2012 using healthcare associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia as the outcome. Baseline comparators are the eight existing state and territory hand hygiene programmes. The setting is the Australian public healthcare system and 1,294,656 admissions from the 50 largest Australian hospitals are included. Methods The design is a cost-effectiveness modelling study using a before and after quasi-experimental design. The primary outcome is cost per life year saved from reduced cases of healthcare associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, with cost estimated by the annual on-going maintenance costs less the costs saved from fewer infections. Data were harvested from existing sources or were collected prospectively and the time horizon for the model was 12 months, 2011–2012. Findings No useable pre-implementation Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia data were made available from the 11 study hospitals in Victoria or the single hospital in Northern Territory leaving 38 hospitals among six states and territories available for cost-effectiveness analyses. Total annual costs increased by $2,851,475 for a return of 96 years of life giving an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $29,700 per life year gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed a 100% chance the initiative was cost effective in the Australian Capital Territory and Queensland, with ICERs of $1,030 and $8,988 respectively. There was an 81% chance it was cost effective in New South Wales with an ICER of $33,353, a 26% chance for South Australia with an ICER of $64,729 and a 1% chance for Tasmania and Western Australia. The 12 hospitals in Victoria and the Northern Territory incur annual on-going maintenance costs of $1.51M; no information was available to describe cost savings or health benefits. Conclusions The Australian National Hand

  7. Hand hygiene among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ameet; Shubangi, A M; Saini, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  8. Effect of hand lotion on the effectiveness of hygienic hand antisepsis: Implications for practicing hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Paula, Helga; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Assadian, Ojan; Bransmöller, Katja; Baguhl, Romy; Löffler, Harald; Kramer, Axel

    2017-08-01

    Skin protection products should be used after washing hands with soap, during breaks, after work, and during leisure time. Aside from their beneficial effects, skin care products may also interact with alcohol-based hand disinfectants by reducing their efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a hand lotion on the effectiveness of hygienic hand antisepsis using an alcohol-based handrub. The effect of a protective hand lotion against an isopropyl alcohol-based handrub was investigated in 20 healthy volunteers according to the European standard test procedure EN 1500 in the following combinations: handwashing and application of hand lotion, only application of hand lotion, and no washing and no hand lotion (control), each for 5 minutes or 1 hour before hand antisepsis. The difference in microbiologic before-and-after values were expressed as log reduction factor. The effectiveness of hand antisepsis was not significantly affected in any of the groups using the tested hand lotion. Hand antisepsis may be delayed for 5 minutes after hand lotion application. Shorter time intervals might be possible but were not tested. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Patient-as-observer approach: an alternative method for hand hygiene auditing in an ambulatory care setting.

    PubMed

    Le-Abuyen, Sheila; Ng, Jessica; Kim, Susie; De La Franier, Anne; Khan, Bibi; Mosley, Jane; Gardam, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A survey pilot asked patients to observe the hand hygiene compliance of their health care providers. Patients returned 75.1% of the survey cards distributed, and the overall hand hygiene compliance was 96.8%. Survey results and patient commentary were used to motivate hand hygiene compliance. The patient-as-observer approach appeared to be a viable alternative for hand hygiene auditing in an ambulatory care setting because it educated, engaged, and empowered patients to play a more active role in their own health care. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: a systematic review of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Srigley, J A; Gardam, M; Fernie, G; Lightfoot, D; Lebovic, G; Muller, M P

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and video monitoring systems (EMS/VMS) may improve hand hygiene by providing feedback, real-time reminders or via the Hawthorne effect. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of EMS/VMS in improving hand hygiene or reducing the incidence of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they measured any hand hygiene outcome and/or HCAI incidence. Of the studies included, seven used system-defined compliance (SDC) (N = 6) or hand hygiene event rate (N = 1) as their outcome. SDC differed for all systems. Most (N = 6) were single ward studies. Two uncontrolled pretest‒post-test studies evaluating EMS that provided voice prompts showed increases in SDC, but risk of bias was high. Two uncontrolled time-series analyses of VMS that provided aggregate feedback demonstrated large, sustained improvement in SDC and were at moderate risk of bias. One non-randomized controlled trial of EMS with aggregate feedback found no difference in hand hygiene frequency but was at high risk of bias. Two studies evaluated EMS providing individual feedback and real-time reminders. A pretest‒post-test study at high risk of bias showed an increase in SDC. An RCT at low risk of bias showed 6.8% higher SDC in the intervention arm partially due to a fall in SDC in the control arm. In conclusion, the overall study quality was poor. The study at lowest risk of bias showed only a small increase in SDC. VMS studies at moderate risk of bias showed rapid and sustained increases in SDC. Data were insufficient to recommend EMS/VMS. Future studies should prioritize testing of VMS using stronger study designs including control arms and validated, system-independent measures of hand hygiene. Copyright © 2014 Taibah University. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between hand hygiene and health care-associated infection: it’s complicated

    PubMed Central

    McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The reasoning that improved hand hygiene compliance contributes to the prevention of health care-associated infections is widely accepted. It is also accepted that high hand hygiene alone cannot impact formidable risk factors, such as older age, immunosuppression, admission to the intensive care unit, longer length of stay, and indwelling devices. When hand hygiene interventions are concurrently undertaken with other routine or special preventive strategies, there is a potential for these concurrent strategies to confound the effect of the hand hygiene program. The result may be an overestimation of the hand hygiene intervention unless the design of the intervention or analysis controls the effect of the potential confounders. Other epidemiologic principles that may also impact the result of a hand hygiene program include failure to consider measurement error of the content of the hand hygiene program and the measurement error of compliance. Some epidemiological errors in hand hygiene programs aimed at reducing health care-associated infections are inherent and not easily controlled. Nevertheless, the inadvertent omission by authors to report these common epidemiological errors, including concurrent infection prevention strategies, suggests to readers that the effect of hand hygiene is greater than the sum of all infection prevention strategies. Worse still, this omission does not assist evidence-based practice. PMID:25678805

  12. A Prospective Controlled Trial of an Electronic Hand Hygiene Reminder System.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Richard T; Barysauskas, Constance M; Rundensteiner, Elke A; Wang, Di; Barton, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    Background.  The use of electronic hand hygiene reminder systems has been proposed as an approach to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, although information on efficacy is limited. We prospectively assessed whether hand hygiene activities among healthcare workers could be increased using an electronic hand hygiene monitoring and reminder system. Methods.  A prospective controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 medical intensive care units (ICUs) at an academic medical center with comparable patient populations, healthcare staff, and physical layout. Hand hygiene activity was monitored concurrently in both ICUs, and the reminder system was installed in the test ICU. The reminder system was tested during 3 administered phases including: room entry/exit chimes, display of real-time hand hygiene activity, and a combination of the 2. Results.  In the test ICU, the mean number of hand hygiene events increased from 1538 per day at baseline to 1911 per day (24% increase) with the use of a combination of room entry/exit chimes, real-time displays of hand hygiene activity, and manager reports (P < .001); in addition, the ratio of hand hygiene to room entry/exit events also increased from 26.1% to 36.6% (40% increase, P < .001). The performance returned to baseline (1473 hand hygiene events per day) during the follow-up phase. There was no significant change in hand hygiene activity in the control ICU during the course of the trial. Conclusions.  In an ICU setting, an electronic hand hygiene reminder system that provided real-time feedback on overall unit-wide hand hygiene performance significantly increased hand hygiene activity.

  13. A Prospective Controlled Trial of an Electronic Hand Hygiene Reminder System

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Richard T.; Barysauskas, Constance M.; Rundensteiner, Elke A.; Wang, Di; Barton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of electronic hand hygiene reminder systems has been proposed as an approach to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, although information on efficacy is limited. We prospectively assessed whether hand hygiene activities among healthcare workers could be increased using an electronic hand hygiene monitoring and reminder system. Methods. A prospective controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 medical intensive care units (ICUs) at an academic medical center with comparable patient populations, healthcare staff, and physical layout. Hand hygiene activity was monitored concurrently in both ICUs, and the reminder system was installed in the test ICU. The reminder system was tested during 3 administered phases including: room entry/exit chimes, display of real-time hand hygiene activity, and a combination of the 2. Results. In the test ICU, the mean number of hand hygiene events increased from 1538 per day at baseline to 1911 per day (24% increase) with the use of a combination of room entry/exit chimes, real-time displays of hand hygiene activity, and manager reports (P < .001); in addition, the ratio of hand hygiene to room entry/exit events also increased from 26.1% to 36.6% (40% increase, P < .001). The performance returned to baseline (1473 hand hygiene events per day) during the follow-up phase. There was no significant change in hand hygiene activity in the control ICU during the course of the trial. Conclusions. In an ICU setting, an electronic hand hygiene reminder system that provided real-time feedback on overall unit-wide hand hygiene performance significantly increased hand hygiene activity. PMID:26430698

  14. Impact of WHO Hand Hygiene Improvement Program Implementation: A Quasi-Experimental Trial

    PubMed Central

    Farhoudi, Farinaz; Hoshangi Davani, Minoo; Ghalebi, Nadiyeh; Sajadi, Golnar; Taghizadeh, Raziyeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. As affirmed by the World Health Organization (WHO), hand hygiene is the most powerful preventive measure against healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) and, thus, it has become one of the five key elements of patient safety program. The aim is to assess the effect of implementation of the WHO's Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy among healthcare workers of a tertiary teaching hospital in a developing country. Methods. Hand hygiene compliance was assessed among healthcare workers, according to five defined moments for hand hygiene of the WHO, before and after implementation of the WHO's Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in fourteen wards of a tertiary teaching hospital in Shiraz, Iran. We used direct observation method and documented the results in WHO hand hygiene observation forms. Results. There was a significant change in compliance before and after implementation of WHO's Multimodal HH Improvement Strategy (29.8% and 70.98%, resp.). Conclusions. Implementing WHO hand hygiene program can significantly improve hand hygiene compliance among nurses. PMID:27999811

  15. Impact of WHO Hand Hygiene Improvement Program Implementation: A Quasi-Experimental Trial.

    PubMed

    Farhoudi, Farinaz; Sanaei Dashti, Anahita; Hoshangi Davani, Minoo; Ghalebi, Nadiyeh; Sajadi, Golnar; Taghizadeh, Raziyeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. As affirmed by the World Health Organization (WHO), hand hygiene is the most powerful preventive measure against healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) and, thus, it has become one of the five key elements of patient safety program. The aim is to assess the effect of implementation of the WHO's Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy among healthcare workers of a tertiary teaching hospital in a developing country. Methods. Hand hygiene compliance was assessed among healthcare workers, according to five defined moments for hand hygiene of the WHO, before and after implementation of the WHO's Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in fourteen wards of a tertiary teaching hospital in Shiraz, Iran. We used direct observation method and documented the results in WHO hand hygiene observation forms. Results. There was a significant change in compliance before and after implementation of WHO's Multimodal HH Improvement Strategy (29.8% and 70.98%, resp.). Conclusions. Implementing WHO hand hygiene program can significantly improve hand hygiene compliance among nurses.

  16. Applying psychological frameworks of behaviour change to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Srigley, J A; Corace, K; Hargadon, D P; Yu, D; MacDonald, T; Fabrigar, L; Garber, G

    2015-11-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in preventing transmission of healthcare-associated infections, compliance rates are suboptimal. Hand hygiene is a complex behaviour and psychological frameworks are promising tools to influence healthcare worker (HCW) behaviour. (i) To review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behaviour change to improve HCW hand hygiene compliance; (ii) to determine which frameworks have been used to predict HCW hand hygiene compliance. Multiple databases and reference lists of included studies were searched for studies that applied psychological theories to improve and/or predict HCW hand hygiene. All steps in selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. The search yielded 918 citations; seven met eligibility criteria. Four studies evaluated hand hygiene interventions based on psychological frameworks. Interventions were informed by goal setting, control theory, operant learning, positive reinforcement, change theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the transtheoretical model. Three predictive studies employed the theory of planned behaviour, the transtheoretical model, and the theoretical domains framework. Interventions to improve hand hygiene adherence demonstrated efficacy but studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. For many studies, it was unclear how theories of behaviour change were used to inform the interventions. Predictive studies had mixed results. Behaviour change theory is a promising tool for improving hand hygiene; however, these theories have not been extensively examined. Our review reveals a significant gap in the literature and indicates possible avenues for novel research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patient-centered hand hygiene: the next step in infection prevention.

    PubMed

    Landers, Timothy; Abusalem, Said; Coty, Mary-Beth; Bingham, James

    2012-05-01

    Hand hygiene has been recognized as the most important means of preventing the transmission of infection, and great emphasis has been placed on ways to improve hand hygiene compliance by health care workers (HCWs). Despite increasing evidence that patients' flora and the hospital environment are the primary source of many infections, little effort has been directed toward involving patients in their own hand hygiene. Most previous work involving patients has included patients as monitors or auditors of hand hygiene practices by their HCWs. This article reviews the evidence on the benefits of including patients more directly in hand hygiene initiatives, and uses the framework of patient-centered safety initiatives to provide recommendations for the timing and implementation of patient hand hygiene protocols. It also addresses key areas for further research, practice guideline development, and implications for training of HCWs.

  18. Alcohol-based hand disinfection: a more robust hand-hygiene method in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Tvedt, C; Bukholm, G

    2005-03-01

    This study involved observation of hand-hygiene behaviour and evaluation of the effect of alcohol-based hand disinfection and handwashing with plain liquid soap on microbial flora. The study was performed in a combined medical and surgical intensive care unit. We demonstrated a crude compliance of hand hygiene of 50.4%, which was only performed adequately in 20.8% of cases. Of this group, handwashing and hand-disinfection procedures were performed properly 34.0% and 71.6% of the time, respectively. Hand samples for bacteriological examinations with the glove juice method demonstrated that whilst handwashing was sensitive to the way in which hand hygiene was performed, alcohol-based hand disinfection was less sensitive to such performance. Our study demonstrated that alcohol-based hand disinfection is a robust hand-hygiene method with many advantages in a practical setting. It is very feasible for use in hospital wards.

  19. A person-oriented approach to hand hygiene behaviour: Emotional empathy fosters hand hygiene practice.

    PubMed

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Diefenbacher, Svenja; Siegel, André; Keller, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a social-psychological approach, this research examines whether emotional empathy, an affective reaction regarding another's well-being, fosters hand hygiene as this affects other's health-related well-being extensively. Three studies tested this notion: (a) a cross-sectional study involving a sample of health care workers at a German hospital, (b) an experiment testing the causal effect of empathy on hand hygiene behaviour and (c) an 11-week prospective study testing whether an empathy induction affected disinfectant usage frequency in two different wards of a hospital. Self-reported hand hygiene behaviour based on day reconstruction method was measured in Study 1, actual hand sanitation behaviour was observed in Study 2 and disinfectant usage frequency in two different hospital wards was assessed in Study 3. Study 1 reveals an association of empathy with hand hygiene cross-sectionally, Study 2 documents the causal effect of empathy on increased hand sanitation. Study 3 shows an empathy induction increases hand sanitiser usage in the hospital. Increasing emotional empathy promotes hand hygiene behaviour, also in hospitals. Besides providing new impulses for the design of effective interventions, these findings bear theoretical significance as they document the explanatory power of empathy regarding a distal explanandum (hand hygiene).

  20. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination.

    PubMed

    Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training.

  1. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    PubMed Central

    Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training

  2. Automated hand hygiene auditing with and without an intervention.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Yen Lee Angela; Juergens, Craig P; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2016-12-01

    Daily feedback from continuous automated auditing with a peer reminder intervention was used to improve compliance. Compliance rates from covert and overt automated auditing phases with and without intervention were compared with human mandatory audits. An automated system was installed to covertly detect hand hygiene events with each depression of the alcohol-based handrub dispenser for 5 months. The overt phase included key clinicians trained to share daily rates with clinicians, set compliance goals, and nudge each other to comply for 6 months. During a further 6 months, the intervention continued without being refreshed. Hand Hygiene Australia (HHA) human audits were performed quarterly during the intervention in accordance with the World Health Organization guidelines. Percentage point (PP) differences between compliance rates were used to determine change. HHA rates for June 2014 were 85% and 87% on the medical and surgical wards, respectively. These rates were 55 PPs and 38 PPs higher than covert automation rates for June 2014 on the medical and surgical ward at 30% and 49%, respectively. During the intervention phase, average compliance did not change on the medical ward from their covert rate, whereas the surgical ward improved compared with the covert phase by 11 PPs to 60%. On average, compliance during the intervention without being refreshed did not change on the medical ward, whereas the average rate on the surgical ward declined by 9 PPs. Automation provided a unique opportunity to respond to daily rates, but compliance will return to preintervention levels once active intervention ceases or human auditors leave the ward, unless clinicians are committed to change. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Promotion of hand hygiene strengthening initiative in a Nigerian teaching hospital: implication for improved patient safety in low-income health facilities.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Oyibo, Patrick Gold; Nwakpu, Kingsley Onuoha; Nnabu, Richard Chukwuka; Prasopa-Plaizier, Nittita

    2014-01-01

    Health care-associated infection remains a significant hazard for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a fundamental action for ensuring patient safety. To promote adoption of World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Guidelines to enhance compliance among doctors and nurses and improve patient safety. The study design was a cross sectional intervention in a Federal Teaching Hospital South-eastern Nigeria. Interventions involved training/education; introduction of hand rub; and hand hygiene reminders. The impact of interventions and hand hygiene compliance were evaluated using World Health Organization direct observation technique. The post-intervention hand hygiene compliance rate was 65.3%. Hand hygiene indications showed highest compliance rate 'after body fluid exposure' (75.3%) and 'after touching a patient' (73.6%) while the least compliance rate was recorded 'before touching a patient' (58.0%). Hand hygiene compliance rate was significantly higher among nurses (72.9%) compared to doctors (59.7%) (χ(2)=23.8, p<0.05). Hand hygiene indication with significantly higher compliance rate was "before clean/aseptic procedure" (84.4%) (χ(2)=80.74, p<0.05). Out of the 815 hand hygiene practices recorded 550 (67.5%) were hand rub action. hand hygiene campaigns using the World Health Organization tools and methodology can be successfully executed in a tertiary health facility of a low-income setting with far reaching improvements in compliance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards.

  5. [Beliefs - Misbeliefs, answering essential questions about hand hygiene from the view of the evidences].

    PubMed

    Szél, Borbála; Nagy, Kamilla; Milassin, Márta; Tálosi, Gyula

    2017-02-01

    Contaminated hands can play pivotal role in the development and spread of healthcare-associated infections. Consequently hand hygiene practice performed with adequate technique and with adequate timing is an essential implement for patient safety. Inhibition of the practice of high level hand hygiene by the misconceptions or deficient knowledge of healthcare workers may lead to negative influence on the quality of patient care. Erroneous beliefs or "rumourous knowledge" acquired from colleagues can not only influence the attitude of healthcare workers, but can also give rise to insufficient hand hygiene compliance. Finding, interpreting and imparting the related evidence by delivering continuing education and lectures, highlighting the theoretical and practical know-how on hand hygiene could help to understand and imprint the evidence-based practice and adequate technique in the essential issue of hand hygiene. Orv. Hetil., 2017., 158(6), 212-219.

  6. Monitoring hand hygiene: meaningless, harmful, or helpful?

    PubMed

    Larson, Elaine

    2013-05-01

    Whereas monitoring adherence to hand hygiene (HH) guidelines is standard practice in most acute care facilities, practice improvement has been slow. In hospitals primarily concerned with reputation, incentives to report high HH rates may create negative consequences. Practice change will require increased staff engagement and more sustainable methods to monitor HH and provide feedback. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hand hygiene--when and how should it be done?

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Claire; Hosie, Linda; Storr, Julie

    Practising hand hygiene at the right times to prevent healthcare-associated infections is one of the most important patient care practices health professionals can undertake. However, changing behaviour to ensure staff practise appropriate hand hygiene requires a multifaceted approach. This article highlights two important aspects of the message staff need--the when and the how of hand hygiene.

  8. A point prevalence survey on hand hygiene, with a special focus on Candida species.

    PubMed

    Brühwasser, Christina; Hinterberger, Guido; Mutschlechner, Wolfgang; Kaltseis, Josef; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    A 1-day point prevalence study evaluated hand hygiene compliance, yeast colonization, and contamination, focusing on the hands of health care workers (HCWs) and patient-oriented surfaces. Hand hygiene compliance was evaluated by applying the direct observation technique and the World Health Organization's compliance program, "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene." A total of 128 samples from HCWs working in intensive care (n = 11) and intermediate care (n = 2) units and 65 environmental samples from Innsbruck Medical University Hospital were investigated. Hand hygiene compliance was superior for nurses (83.5%) and moderate for medical doctors (45.2%). In general, fungal growth was unique; only 9 of 128 HCW samples and only 4 of 65 environmental samples yielded positive results. The genetic relatedness of yeasts from the same species was investigated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing. RAPD profiles exhibited the potential for cross-transmission of yeasts. In general, the fungal colonization and contamination rate was low, but a high level of hand hygiene compliance was lacking. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hand hygiene and healthcare system change within multi-modal promotion: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Allegranzi, B; Sax, H; Pittet, D

    2013-02-01

    Many factors may influence the level of compliance with hand hygiene recommendations by healthcare workers. Lack of products and facilities as well as their inappropriate and non-ergonomic location represent important barriers. Targeted actions aimed at making hand hygiene practices feasible during healthcare delivery by ensuring that the necessary infrastructure is in place, defined as 'system change', are essential to improve hand hygiene in healthcare. In particular, access to alcohol-based hand rubs (AHRs) enables appropriate and timely hand hygiene performance at the point of care. The feasibility and impact of system change within multi-modal strategies have been demonstrated both at institutional level and on a large scale. The introduction of AHRs overcomes some important barriers to best hand hygiene practices and is associated with higher compliance, especially when integrated within multi-modal strategies. Several studies demonstrated the association between AHR consumption and reduction in healthcare-associated infection, in particular, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. Recent reports demonstrate the feasibility and success of system change implementation on a large scale. The World Health Organization and other investigators have reported the challenges and encouraging results of implementing hand hygiene improvement strategies, including AHR introduction, in settings with limited resources. This review summarizes the available evidence demonstrating the need for system change and its importance within multi-modal hand hygiene improvement strategies. This topic is also discussed in a global perspective and highlights some controversial issues. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determinants of success and sustainability of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene promotion campaign, Italy, 2007-2008 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Moro, Maria Luisa; Morsillo, Filomena; Nascetti, Simona; Parenti, Mita; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Pittet, Didier

    2017-06-08

    A national hand hygiene promotion campaign based on the World Health Organization (WHO) multimodal, Clean Care is Safer Care campaign was launched in Italy in 2007. One hundred seventy-five hospitals from 14 of 20 Italian regions participated. Data were collected using methods and tools provided by the WHO campaign, translated into Italian. Hand hygiene compliance, ward infrastructure, and healthcare workers' knowledge and perception of healthcare-associated infections and hand hygiene were evaluated before and after campaign implementation. Compliance data from the 65 hospitals returning complete data for all implementation tools were analysed using a multilevel approach. Overall, hand hygiene compliance increased in the 65 hospitals from 40% to 63% (absolute increase: 23%, 95% confidence interval: 22-24%). A wide variation in hand hygiene compliance among wards was observed; inter-ward variability significantly decreased after campaign implementation and the level of perception was the only item associated with this. Long-term sustainability in 48 of these 65 hospitals was assessed in 2014 using the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework tool. Of the 48 hospitals, 44 scored in the advanced/intermediate categories of hand hygiene implementation progress. The median hand hygiene compliance achieved at the end of the 2007-2008 campaign appeared to be sustained in 2014. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  11. Determinants of success and sustainability of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene promotion campaign, Italy, 2007–2008 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Maria Luisa; Morsillo, Filomena; Nascetti, Simona; Parenti, Mita; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Pittet, Didier

    2017-01-01

    A national hand hygiene promotion campaign based on the World Health Organization (WHO) multimodal, Clean Care is Safer Care campaign was launched in Italy in 2007. One hundred seventy-five hospitals from 14 of 20 Italian regions participated. Data were collected using methods and tools provided by the WHO campaign, translated into Italian. Hand hygiene compliance, ward infrastructure, and healthcare workers’ knowledge and perception of healthcare-associated infections and hand hygiene were evaluated before and after campaign implementation. Compliance data from the 65 hospitals returning complete data for all implementation tools were analysed using a multilevel approach. Overall, hand hygiene compliance increased in the 65 hospitals from 40% to 63% (absolute increase: 23%, 95% confidence interval: 22–24%). A wide variation in hand hygiene compliance among wards was observed; inter-ward variability significantly decreased after campaign implementation and the level of perception was the only item associated with this. Long-term sustainability in 48 of these 65 hospitals was assessed in 2014 using the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework tool. Of the 48 hospitals, 44 scored in the advanced/intermediate categories of hand hygiene implementation progress. The median hand hygiene compliance achieved at the end of the 2007–2008 campaign appeared to be sustained in 2014. PMID:28661390

  12. A comparison of the hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs and practices of Italian nursing and medical students.

    PubMed

    van De Mortel, Thea F; Kermode, Stephen; Progano, Tomaso; Sansoni, Julita

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports a study examining the hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs and practices of Italian nursing and medical students with the aim of informing undergraduate curricula. In comparison with registered nurses, physician status is a risk factor for non-compliance with hand hygiene guidelines. Little research has been conducted to determine if differences between the professions in relation to hand hygiene are apparent at the undergraduate level. Cross-disciplinary studies that may provide an insight into this topic are lacking. A questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 117 nursing and 119 medical students in a large university in Rome, Italy, to determine their hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs and practices. The data were collected in 2007-2008. Nursing students' hand hygiene knowledge (F = 9·03(1,230); P = 0·003), percentage compliance (Z = 6·197; P < 0·001) and self-reported hand hygiene practices (F = 34·54(1,230); P < 0·001) were significantly higher than that of medical students. There were no statistically significant differences between hand hygiene beliefs. Mean scores on the knowledge questions were low for both groups, reflecting primarily a knowledge deficit in relation to the use of alcohol-based hand rubs to decontaminate hands in the healthcare setting. Statistically significant disciplinary differences in hand hygiene knowledge and self-reported practices were apparent among undergraduate Italian healthcare students. Further research is needed to determine the causative factors. The overall low scores on the knowledge items indicate that these students require further education on hand hygiene, particularly in relation to the use of alcohol-based hand rubs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Hand hygiene practices among health care workers (HCWs) in a tertiary care facility in Pune

    PubMed Central

    Anargh, V.; Singh, Harpreet; Kulkarni, Aniket; Kotwal, Atul; Mahen, Ajoy

    2012-01-01

    Background Improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers (HCWs) is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections resulting in prolonged illnesses, hospital stays, long-term disability and unexpected high costs on patients and their families, and also lead to a massive additional financial burden on the health-care system. Objective To assess knowledge and practices regarding hand hygiene among HCWs of a tertiary health care facility. Methods A cross sectional, questionnaire and observation based study was carried out in a tertiary care health care facility in Pune. Based on sample size calculations, 100 HCWs working in medical and surgical wards were studied. Results The proportion knowledgeable about hand hygiene practices was 85% and 73% HCWs were of the belief that unclean hands are an important route of cross transmission. WHO guidelines regarding procedure were being followed by 90% for hand washing with soap and water and 64% for alcohol based rubs. Majority preferred hand washing with soap and water over hand rubbing with alcohol based solutions. 21% of HCWs were missing hand hygiene opportunities 1 in 5 times. Heavy workload (38%), non availability (52%) and inaccessibility (9%) of hand hygiene facilities were the common reasons for non-compliance. Availability of ‘one time use paper towels’ was low (12%). Conclusion Inadequate compliance despite knowledge and false sense of security by alcohol based rubs was seen. A multi disciplinary, multifaceted approach is required to tackle issues of non-compliance. PMID:24532935

  14. Hand hygiene practices among health care workers (HCWs) in a tertiary care facility in Pune.

    PubMed

    Anargh, V; Singh, Harpreet; Kulkarni, Aniket; Kotwal, Atul; Mahen, Ajoy

    2013-01-01

    Improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers (HCWs) is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections resulting in prolonged illnesses, hospital stays, long-term disability and unexpected high costs on patients and their families, and also lead to a massive additional financial burden on the health-care system. To assess knowledge and practices regarding hand hygiene among HCWs of a tertiary health care facility. A cross sectional, questionnaire and observation based study was carried out in a tertiary care health care facility in Pune. Based on sample size calculations, 100 HCWs working in medical and surgical wards were studied. The proportion knowledgeable about hand hygiene practices was 85% and 73% HCWs were of the belief that unclean hands are an important route of cross transmission. WHO guidelines regarding procedure were being followed by 90% for hand washing with soap and water and 64% for alcohol based rubs. Majority preferred hand washing with soap and water over hand rubbing with alcohol based solutions. 21% of HCWs were missing hand hygiene opportunities 1 in 5 times. Heavy workload (38%), non availability (52%) and inaccessibility (9%) of hand hygiene facilities were the common reasons for non-compliance. Availability of 'one time use paper towels' was low (12%). Inadequate compliance despite knowledge and false sense of security by alcohol based rubs was seen. A multi disciplinary, multifaceted approach is required to tackle issues of non-compliance.

  15. Outcomes of an infection prevention project focusing on hand hygiene and isolation practices.

    PubMed

    Aragon, Daleen; Sole, Mary Lou; Brown, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major health problem for hospitalized patients and their families. Since the 1800s, hand hygiene has been recognized as the single best method to prevent the spread of pathogens and nosocomial infections. Despite this fact, many healthcare workers do not adhere to hand hygiene policies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a guideline for hand hygiene practices in 2002. Multifaceted approaches to improve hand hygiene have been shown to increase compliance among healthcare workers and subsequently reduce infections. A performance improvement project was initiated to implement this guideline and other strategies to prevent nosocomial infection. This article summarizes the performance improvement processes and the preliminary outcomes on adherence to infection prevention policies related to hand hygiene and isolation practices. Clinically and statistically significant increases were noted for hand hygiene prior to patient care and in wearing masks when indicated. Nurses and patient care technicians had the greatest increases in compliance. Increases in hand hygiene after patient contact and wearing of gown and gloves were also noted, but results were not statistically significant. Nosocomial infection rates from antibiotic-resistant organisms decreased in the first surveillance, but rates increased during the 1-year surveillance. Consumption of alcohol-based foam disinfectant doubled from baseline. Findings are consistent with other published studies. The project will continue with further reinforcement and education over the second year.

  16. A qualitative study of senior hospital managers' views on current and innovative strategies to improve hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Phillips, Rosemary; Middleton, Sandy; Gould, Dinah

    2014-11-18

    Despite universal recognition of the importance of hand hygiene in reducing the incidence of healthcare associated infections, health care workers' compliance with best practice has been sub-optimal. Senior hospital managers have responsibilities for implementing patient safety initiatives and are therefore ideally placed to provide suggestions for improving strategies to increase hand hygiene compliance. This is an under-researched area, accordingly the aim of this study was to identify senior hospital managers' views on current and innovative strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance. Qualitative design comprising face-to-face interviews with thirteen purposively sampled senior managers at a major teaching and referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. Data were analysed thematically. Seven themes emerged: culture change starts with leaders, refresh and renew the message, connect the five moments to the whole patient journey, actionable audit results, empower patients, reconceptualising non-compliance and start using the hammer. To strengthen hand hygiene programmes, strategies based on the five moments of hand hygiene should be tailored to specific roles and settings and take into account the whole patient journey including patient interactions with clinical and non-clinical staff. Senior clinical and non-clinical leaders should visibly champion and mandate best practice initiatives and articulate that hand hygiene non-compliance is culturally and professionally unacceptable to the organization. Strategies that included a disciplinary component and which conceptualise hand hygiene non-compliance as a patient safety error may be worth evaluating in terms of staff acceptability and effectiveness.

  17. Impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach, over 8 years, in 11 cities of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Koksal, Iftihar; Akan, Özay Arıkan; Özgültekin, Asu; Kendirli, Tanil; Erben, Nurettin; Yalcin, Ata Nevzat; Ulusoy, Sercan; Sirmatel, Fatma; Ozdemir, Davut; Alp, Emine; Yıldızdaş, Dinçer; Esen, Saban; Ulger, Fatma; Dilek, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Hava; Yýlmaz, Gürdal; Kaya, Selçuk; Ulusoy, Hülya; Tulunay, Melek; Oral, Mehmet; Ünal, Necmettin; Turan, Güldem; Akgün, Nur; İnan, Asuman; Ince, Erdal; Karbuz, Adem; Çiftçi, Ergin; Taşyapar, Nevin; Güneş, Melek; Ozgunes, Ilhan; Usluer, Gaye; Turhan, Ozge; Gunay, Nurgul; Gumus, Eylul; Dursun, Oguz; Arda, Bilgin; Bacakoglu, Feza; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Leyla; Geyik, Mehmet Faruk; Şahin, Ahmet; Erdogan, Selvi; Kılıc, Aysegul Ulu; Horoz, Ozden Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach in Turkey and analyse predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance. Design: An observational, prospective, interventional, before-and-after study was conducted from August 2003 to August 2011 in 12 intensive care units (ICU) of 12 hospitals in 11 cities. The study was divided into a baseline and a follow-up period and included random 30-minute observations for hand hygiene compliance in ICU. The hand hygiene approach included administrative support, supplies availability, education and training, reminders in the workplace, process surveillance, and performance feedback. Results: We observed 21,145 opportunities for hand hygiene. Overall hand hygiene compliance increased from 28.8% to 91% (95% CI 87.6–93.0, p 0.0001). Multivariate and univariate analyses showed that several variables were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance: males vs. females (39% vs. 48%; 95% CI 0.79–0.84, p 0.0001), ancillary staff vs. physicians (35% vs. 46%, 95% CI 0.73–0.78, p 0.0001), and adult vs. pediatric ICUs (42% vs. 74%, 95% CI 0.54–0.60, p 0.0001). Conclusions: Adherence to hand hygiene was significantly increased with the INICC Hand Hygiene Approach. Specific programmes should be directed to improve hand hygiene in variables found to be predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance.

  18. [Evaluation of hand hygiene guidelines and protocols used in Spain].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Espinosa, Emma; Dolores Menéndez, María; Valbuena, Susana; Aibar, Carlos; Aranaz-Andrés, Jesús M; Vázquez, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, through a retrospective and external study, the quality of Spanish hand hygiene guidelines and protocols. None of the guidelines achieved a score of 100% in all areas. The mean score was only 43.9%, ranging from 23.8% for rigorous design to 69.4% for clarity and presentation. None of the protocols achieved a score of 100% in all areas; 100% clearly named the health problem dealt with in the protocol, which was reflected in its contents, and complied with length specifications and absence of formal defects; 80% had a paginated index and 66.7% a definition of compliance, while only 6.7% contained information on organization and functioning, the necessary resources, procedures and evaluation period. In general, the average compliance was less than 50%, except in one guideline, which met 87.5% of the requirements Problems with references were found in 77.7%. In view of the problems detected, a new guide for the drafting of hand hygiene guidelines and protocols is proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Challenges of hand hygiene in healthcare: the development of a tool kit to create supportive processes and environments.

    PubMed

    Chagpar, Anjum; Banez, Carleene; Lopez, Raquel; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2010-01-01

    Hand hygiene compliance by healthcare providers has been difficult to achieve due to diverse environments, work culture, processes and task requirements. Because of this complexity, hand hygiene lends itself well to a human factors analysis in order to design a system that matches human cognitive and physical strengths and makes allowances for human limitations.

  20. Implementing and sustaining a hand hygiene culture change programme at Auckland District Health Board.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sally A; Sieczkowski, Christine; Campbell, Taima; Balla, Greg; Keenan, Andrew

    2012-05-11

    In January 2009 Auckland District Health Board commenced implementation of the Hand Hygiene New Zealand (HHNZ) programme to bring about a culture change and to improve hand hygiene compliance by healthcare workers. We describe the implementation process and assess the effectiveness of this programme 36 months after implementation. In keeping with the HHNZ guideline the implementation was divided into five steps: roll-out and facility preparation, baseline evaluation, implementation, follow-up evaluation and sustainability. The process measure was improvement in hand hygiene compliance and the outcome measure was Staphylococcus aureus clinical infection and bacteraemia rates. The mean (95% CI; range) baseline compliance rates for the national reporting wards was 35% (95% CI 24-46%, 25-61%). The overall compliance by the 7th audit period was 60% (95% CI 46-74; range 47-91). All healthcare worker groups had improvement in compliance. The reduction in healthcare-associated S. aureus bacteraemia rates following the implementation was statistically significant (p=0.027). Compliance with hand hygiene improved following implementation of a culture change programme. Sustaining this improvement requires commitment and strong leadership at a senior level both nationally and within each District Health Board.

  1. Hand hygiene of medical students and resident physicians: predictors of attitudes and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Violeta; Caceres, Wendy; Loftus, Pooja; Evans, Kambria H; Shieh, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    We measured medical students' and resident trainees' hand hygiene behaviour, knowledge and attitudes in order to identify important predictors of hand hygiene behaviour in this population. An anonymous, web-based questionnaire was distributed to medical students and residents at Stanford University School of Medicine in August of 2012. The questionnaire included questions regarding participants' behaviour, knowledge, attitude and experiences about hand hygiene. Behaviour, knowledge and attitude indices were scaled from 0 to 1, with 1 representing superior responses. Using multivariate regression, we identified positive and negative predictors of superior hand hygiene behaviour. We investigated effectiveness of interventions, barriers and comfort reminding others. 280 participants (111 students and 169 residents) completed the questionnaire (response rate 27.8%). Residents and medical students reported hand hygiene behaviour compliance of 0.45 and 0.55, respectively (p=0.02). Resident and medical student knowledge was 0.80 and 0.73, respectively (p=0.001). The attitude index for residents was 0.56 and 0.55 for medical students. Regression analysis identified experiences as predictors of hand hygiene behaviour (both positive and negative influence). Knowledge was not a significant predictor of behaviour, but a working gel dispenser and observing attending physicians with good hand hygiene practices were reported by both groups as the most effective strategy in influencing trainees. Medical students and residents have similar attitudes about hand hygiene, but differ in their level of knowledge and compliance. Concerns about hierarchy may have a significant negative impact on hand hygiene advocacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Effectiveness of hand hygiene education among a random sample of women from the community.

    PubMed

    Ubheeram, J; Biranjia-Hurdoyal, S D

    2017-03-01

    The effectiveness of hand hygiene education was investigated by studying the hand hygiene awareness and bacterial hand contamination among a random sample of 170 women in the community. Questionnaire was used to assess the hand hygiene awareness score, followed by swabbing of the dominant hand. Bacterial identification was done by conventional biochemical tests. Better hand hygiene awareness score was significantly associated with age, scarce bacterial growth and absence of potential pathogen (p < 0.05). Out of the 170 hand samples, bacterial growth was noted in 155 (91.2%), which included 91 (53.5%) heavy growth, 53 (31.2%) moderate growth and 11 (6.47%) scanty growth. The presence of enteric bacteria was associated with long nails (49.4% vs 29.2%; p = 0.007; OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.25-4.44) while finger rings were associated with higher bacterial load (p = 0.003). Coliforms was significantly higher among women who had a lower hand hygiene awareness score, washed their hands at lower frequency (59.0% vs 32.8%; p = 0.003; OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.41-6.13) and used common soap as compared to antiseptic soaps (69.7% vs 30.3%, p = 0.000; OR = 4.11; 95% CI: 1.67-10.12). Level of hand hygiene awareness among the participants was satisfactory but not the compliance of hand washing practice, especially among the elders.

  3. Dissemination of the CDC's Hand Hygiene Guideline and impact on infection rates

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elaine L.; Quiros, Dave; Lin, Susan X.

    2007-01-01

    Background The diffusion of national evidence-based practice guidelines and their impact on patient outcomes often go unmeasured. Methods Our objectives were to (1) evaluate implementation and compliance with clinical practices recommended in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hand Hygiene Guideline, (2) compare rates of health care-associated infections (HAI) before and after implementation of the Guideline recommendations, and (3) examine the patterns and correlates of changes in rates of HAI. We used pre- and post-Guideline implementation site visits and surveys in the setting of 40 US hospitals—members of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System—and measured HAI rates 1 year before and after publication of the CDC Guideline and used direct observation of hand hygiene compliance and Guideline implementation scores. Results All study hospitals had changed their policies and procedures and provided products in compliance with Guideline recommendations; 89.8% of 1359 staff members surveyed anonymously reported that they were familiar with the Guideline. However, in 44.2% of the hospitals (19/40), there was no evidence of a multidisciplinary program to improve compliance. Hand hygiene rates remained low (mean, 56.6%). Rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections were significantly lower in hospitals with higher rates of hand hygiene (P < .001). No impact of Guideline implementation or hand hygiene compliance on other HAI rates was identified. Other factors occurring over time could affect rates of HAI. Observed hand hygiene compliance rates were likely to overestimate rates in actual practice. The study may have been of too short duration to detect the impact of a practice guideline. Conclusion Wide dissemination of this Guideline was not sufficient to change practice. Only some hospitals had initiated multidisciplinary programs; practice change is unlikely without such multidisciplinary efforts and explicit

  4. Sustained increase in resident meal time hand hygiene through an interdisciplinary intervention engaging long-term care facility residents and staff.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Marguerite; Harris, Tony; Horn, Terancita; Midamba, Blondelle; Primes, Vickie; Sullivan, Nancy; Shuler, Rosalyn; Zabarsky, Trina F; Deshpande, Abhishek; Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2015-02-01

    Hand hygiene by patients may prevent acquisition and dissemination of health care-associated pathogens, but limited efforts have been made to engage patients in hand hygiene interventions. In a long-term care facility, we found that residents were aware of the importance of hand hygiene, but barriers, such as inaccessible products or difficult to use products, limited compliance. A dramatic and sustained improvement in meal time hand hygiene was achieved through engagement of staff and residents.

  5. Hand hygiene perception among health care workers in Hungarian hospitals: prior to a nationwide microbiological survey.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Rita; Böröcz, Karolina; Nagy, Orsolya; Takács, Mária; Szomor, Katalin N

    2013-03-01

    Transmission of pathogens via healthcare workers' (HCWs) hands is one of the most frequent means of spreading multi-resistant organisms and occurring healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in hospitals. The role of contaminated hands in pathogen transmission was recognized by Hungarian physician, Ignác Semmelweis. Hand hygiene prevents cross-infections in hospitals, but numerous epidemiological and microbiology-based studies have documented low compliance of HCWs with this simple procedure. Furthermore, hand hygiene perception of HCWs plays an important role in determining hand hygiene compliance. Our aim was to describe the opinion of HCWs about their perception regarding hand hygiene practice. Our further goal was to strengthen a laboratory basis for bacterial backup control of nosocomial pathogens. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between December 2010 and February 2011 in 13 participating hospitals in Hungary. HCWs know that there is correlation between contaminated hands and HAIs (83%), but neither the frequency (62%) nor the implementation (73%) of their hand hygiene performance are satisfying.We recommend that multimodal interventions - highlighted active microbiological surveillance of HCWs' hands - are the most suitable strategies to reduce the occurrence of HAIs and to determine their impact on cross-transmission of microorganisms and to overcome barriers of HCWs.

  6. Why language matters: a tour through hand hygiene literature.

    PubMed

    Pires, Daniela; Tartari, Ermira; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Pittet, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Hand hygiene has evolved over the last decades and many terminologies emerged. We aimed to analyse the evolution in the frequency of utilization of key hand hygiene terms in the literature along the years. We identified keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used in MEDLINE® indexation related to hand hygiene by searching international guidelines and the MeSH database. We performed a MEDLINE® search combining the selected keywords and MeSH and analysed the number of publications retrieved yearly. The literature search yielded 9019 publications when all hand hygiene related search terms were combined, between 1921 and November 2016. The total number of publications per year increased from a median of 4 (IQR 3, 6) in the 1950's to 554 (IQR 478, 583) between 2011 and 2015. The most frequently used keywords are hand disinfection, hand hygiene, hand washing, handrub, hand sanitizer and alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR). Until the 1990s, hand disinfection and hand washing were the most frequently used terms. Whilst the last decade has seen a remarkable increase in publications mentioning hand disinfection and hand hygiene and for the first time handrub, hand sanitizers and ABHR were introduced in the literature. Hand disinfection, hand hygiene and hand sanitizers are the main MeSH used by MEDLINE®. Since 2013 hand hygiene is the most frequently used MeSH and keyword. The change seen in literature in the last two decades, from hand washing and hand disinfection to hand hygiene, most probably reflect the paradigm shift favouring use of ABHR over soap and water promoted by international guidelines in the early 2000s.

  7. Compliance with hygiene guidelines: the effect of a multimodal hygiene intervention and validation of direct observations.

    PubMed

    Mernelius, Sara; Svensson, Per-Olof; Rensfeldt, Gunhild; Davidsson, Ewa; Isaksson, Barbro; Löfgren, Sture; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Good compliance with hygiene guidelines is essential to prevent bacterial transmission and health care-associated infections. However, the compliance is usually <50%. A multimodal and multidisciplinary hygiene intervention was launched once the baseline compliance was determined through direct observations in 4 departments of obstetrics and gynecology. Detailed evaluations of the compliance rates were performed at point of stability (at 80%) and follow-up (3 years after hygiene intervention). Validation of direct observations was performed using blinded double appraisal and multiappraisal. At baseline, the compliance with barrier precautions and the dress code at the 4 departments were 39% to 47% and 79% to 98%, respectively. Point of stability was reached approximately 1 year after the hygiene intervention was launched. The compliance with barrier precautions was significantly higher at follow-up compared with baseline in 3 departments. In the validation by double appraisal, 471 of 483 components were judged identical between observers. In the multiappraisal, 95% to 100% of the observers correctly judged the 7 components. It is possible to improve compliance with hygiene guidelines, but, to ensure a long-lasting effect, a continuous focus on barrier precautions is required. Observation is a valid method to monitor compliance. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hand hygiene in rural Indonesian healthcare workers: barriers beyond sinks, hand rubs and in-service training.

    PubMed

    Marjadi, B; McLaws, M-L

    2010-11-01

    Few attempts to increase healthcare workers' hand hygiene compliance have included an in-depth analysis of the social and behavioural context in which hand hygiene is not undertaken. We used a mixed method approach to explore hand hygiene barriers in rural Indonesian healthcare facilities to develop a resource-appropriate adoption of international guidelines. Two hospitals and eight clinics (private and public) in a rural Indonesian district were studied for three months each. Hand hygiene compliance was covertly observed for two shifts each in three adult wards at two hospitals. Qualitative data were collected from direct observation, focus group discussions and semistructured in-depth and informal interviews within healthcare facilities and the community. Major barriers to compliance included longstanding water scarcity, tolerance of dirtiness by the community and the healthcare organisational culture. Hand hygiene compliance was poor (20%; 57/281; 95% CI: 16-25%) and was more likely to be undertaken after patient contact (34% after-patient contact vs 5% before-patient contact, P<0.001) and 'inherent' opportunities associated with contacts perceived to be dirty (49% 'inherent' vs 11% 'elective' opportunities associated with clean contacts, P<0.001). Clinicians frequently touched patients without hand hygiene, and some clinicians avoided touching patients altogether. The provision of clean soap and water and in-service training will not overcome strong social and behavioural barriers unless interventions focus on long term community education and managerial commitment to the provision of supportive working conditions. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Hand hygiene promotion and the participation of infection control link nurses: an effective innovation to overcome campaign fatigue.

    PubMed

    Seto, Wing Hong; Yuen, Shanny W S; Cheung, Christina W Y; Ching, Patricia T Y; Cowling, Benjamin J; Pittet, Didier

    2013-12-01

    Campaign fatigue was evident in a large hospital in Hong Kong when hand hygiene compliance remained just above 50% after 4 years of aggressive and varied promotional activities. A new innovative strategy was developed that directly involved the infection control link nurses both in formulating the strategy and in implementing the various proposed programs. The new strategy was successful in increasing hand hygiene compliance to 83%.

  10. Impact of observing hand hygiene in practice and research: a methodological reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Gould, D J; Creedon, S; Jeanes, A; Drey, N S; Chudleigh, J; Moralejo, D

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of hand hygiene is to break the chain of healthcare-associated infection. In many countries hand hygiene is regularly audited as part of quality assurance based on recommendations from the World Health Organization. Direct observation is the recommended audit method but is associated with disadvantages, including potential for being observed to alter usual behaviour. The Hawthorne effect in relation to hand hygiene is analogous with productivity improvement by increasing the frequency with which hand hygiene is undertaken. Unobtrusive and/or frequent observation to accustom staff to the presence of observers is considered an acceptable way of reducing the Hawthorne effect, but few publications have discussed how to implement these techniques or examine their effectiveness. There is evidence that awareness of being watched can disrupt the usual behaviour of individuals in complex and unpredictable ways other than simple productivity effect. In the presence of auditors, health workers might defer or avoid activities that require hand hygiene, but these issues are not addressed in guidelines for practice or research studies. This oversight has implications for the validity of hand hygiene audit findings. Measuring hand hygiene product use overcomes avoidance tactics. It is cheaper and generates data continuously to assess the compliance of all clinicians without disrupting patient care. Disadvantages are the risk of overestimating uptake through spillage, wastage, or use by visitors and non-clinical staff entering patient care areas. Electronic devices may overcome the Hawthorne and avoidance effects but are costly and are not widely used outside research studies.

  11. Cluster randomized trial to evaluate the effect of a multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy in primary care.

    PubMed

    Martín-Madrazo, Carmen; Soto-Díaz, Sonia; Cañada-Dorado, Asuncion; Salinero-Fort, Miguel Angel; Medina-Fernández, Manuela; Carrillo de Santa Pau, Enrique; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multimodal intervention in primary care health professionals for improved compliance with hand hygiene practice, based on the World Health Organization's 5 Moments for Health Hygiene. Cluster randomized trial, parallel 2-group study (intervention and control). Primary healthcare centers in Madrid, Spain. Eleven healthcare centers with 198 healthcare workers (general practitioners, nurses, pediatricians, auxiliary nurses, midwives, odontostomatologists, and dental hygienists). Methods. The multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy consisted of training of healthcare workers by teaching sessions, implementation of hydroalcoholic solutions, and installation of reminder posters. The hand hygiene compliance level was evaluated by observation during regular care activities in the office visit setting, at the baseline moment, and 6 months after the intervention, all by a single external observer. The overall baseline compliance level was 8.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.2-10.1), and the healthcare workers of the intervention group increased their hand hygiene compliance level by 21.6% (95% CI, 13.83-28.48) compared with the control group. This study has demonstrated that hand hygiene compliance in primary healthcare workers can be improved with a multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy.

  12. Hand hygiene performance and beliefs among public university employees.

    PubMed

    Stedman-Smith, Maggie; DuBois, Cathy L Z; Grey, Scott F

    2015-10-01

    The workplace is an important location to access community members, and employers have a direct interest in employee well-being. A survey administered to a random sample of employees at a Midwestern US university tested the ability of a model informed by the theory of planned behavior to predict hand hygiene practices and beliefs using structural equation modeling. Questions demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. Constructs predicted self-reported hand hygiene behaviors, and hand hygiene behaviors reduced the odds of reporting sickness from respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections. The findings support multi-modal hand hygiene improvement interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. "Take time. Save lives. Clean hands protect." A comparison of two hand hygiene health promotion posters.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Champlin, Sara; Liang, Ming-Ching; Mabry, Amanda; Stroever, Stephanie; Guadagno, Marie; Watkins, Lynda

    2014-05-01

    Two posters were designed to encourage hospital staff hand hygiene. One focused on broad benefits of hand hygiene to patients and staff, and the other highlighted hand hygiene as a long-known measure to infection control. The former was better received in terms of attention, likability, and potential to promote hand hygiene. A third-person effect, the perception of stronger impact of communication messages on others, was observed. Implications on health promotion message design were discussed.

  14. Use of a patient hand hygiene protocol to reduce hospital-acquired infections and improve nurses' hand washing.

    PubMed

    Fox, Cherie; Wavra, Teresa; Drake, Diane Ash; Mulligan, Debbie; Bennett, Yvonne Pacheco; Nelson, Carla; Kirkwood, Peggy; Jones, Louise; Bader, Mary Kay

    2015-05-01

    Critically ill patients are at marked risk of hospital-acquired infections, which increase patients' morbidity and mortality. Registered nurses are the main health care providers of physical care, including hygiene to reduce and prevent hospital-acquired infections, for hospitalized critically ill patients. To investigate a new patient hand hygiene protocol designed to reduce hospital-acquired infection rates and improve nurses' hand-washing compliance in an intensive care unit. A preexperimental study design was used to compare 12-month rates of 2 common hospital-acquired infections, central catheter-associated bloodstream infection and catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and nurses' hand-washing compliance measured before and during use of the protocol. Reductions in 12-month infection rates were reported for both types of infections, but neither reduction was statistically significant. Mean 12-month nurse hand-washing compliance also improved, but not significantly. A hand hygiene protocol for patients in the intensive care unit was associated with reductions in hospital-acquired infections and improvements in nurses' hand-washing compliance. Prevention of such infections requires continuous quality improvement efforts to monitor lasting effectiveness as well as investigation of strategies to eliminate these infections. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  15. Changing the paradigm: messages for hand hygiene education and audit from cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Gould, D J; Navaïe, D; Purssell, E; Drey, N S; Creedon, S

    2017-07-29

    Hand hygiene is considered to be the foremost infection prevention measure. How healthcare workers accept and make sense of the hand hygiene message is likely to contribute to the success and sustainability of initiatives to improve performance, which is often poor. A survey of nurses in critical care units in three National Health Service trusts in England was undertaken to explore opinions about hand hygiene, use of alcohol hand rubs, audit with performance feedback, and other key hand-hygiene-related issues. Data were analysed descriptively and subjected to cluster analysis. Three main clusters of opinion were visualized, each forming a significant group: positive attitudes, pragmatism and scepticism. A smaller cluster suggested possible guilt about ability to perform hand hygiene. Cluster analysis identified previously unsuspected constellations of beliefs about hand hygiene that offer a plausible explanation for behaviour. Healthcare workers might respond to education and audit differently according to these beliefs. Those holding predominantly positive opinions might comply with hand hygiene policy and perform well as infection prevention link nurses and champions. Those holding pragmatic attitudes are likely to respond favourably to the need for professional behaviour and need to protect themselves from infection. Greater persuasion may be needed to encourage those who are sceptical about the importance of hand hygiene to comply with guidelines. Interventions to increase compliance should be sufficiently broad in scope to tackle different beliefs. Alternatively, cluster analysis of hand hygiene beliefs could be used to identify the most effective educational and monitoring strategies for a particular clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Patient-centred hand hygiene information in orthopaedics units: an evidence-based implementation project.

    PubMed

    Ong, Arielle Yi Jia; Tan, Joanne; Yeo, Hui Ling; Goh, Mien Li

    2017-03-01

    This project aimed to improve patients' knowledge on the importance of hand hygiene. It involved providing patients with a patient and family education on the importance of hand hygiene using a patient information leaflet that introduces the rationale of hand hygiene, possible consequences of poor hand hygiene, and the seven steps of hand hygiene. This projected used a preimplementation and postimplementation audit strategy using the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research Into Practice programs. The implementation occurred in three phases over a period of 6 months from January 2014 to June 2014. The audits took place in two orthopaedic wards in a large acute care setting tertiary hospital in Singapore and involved a sample size of 54 patients. It involved going through the medical records of the cases, assessment of patient knowledge based on the audit criteria, and checking if the patients received the patient information leaflet on hand hygiene. The postimplementation audit found significant improvements in all three audit criteria. The percentage of patients who demonstrated knowledge in the importance of hand hygiene saw an improvement of 48.1%. There was an improvement of 44.5% in nurses' compliance to the documentation of patient education being carried out. The percentage of patients who received a patient information leaflet on hand hygiene saw an increase of 36.1%. This project demonstrated that a preimplementation and postimplementation audit is a viable method to implement change and translate evidence into practice. Through this project, patients gained an understanding on the importance of hand hygiene and could take better ownership of their well being. This may potentially improve hospitalization experience and benefit health outcomes. The positive results of this project are contributed by the enthusiastic involvement of all the stakeholders, from patients and their caregivers to the bedside

  17. A multimodal intervention to improve hand hygiene in ICUs in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a stepped wedge trial.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Viviana; Giuffre, Carolina; Villa, Silvia; Almada, Griselda; Prasopa-Plaizier, Nittita; Gogna, Monica; Gibbons, Luz; García Elorrio, Ezequiel

    2015-10-01

    Hand hygiene is a cost-effective measure to reduce microbial transmission (Teare EL, Cookson B, French GL, et al. UK handwashing initiative. J Hosp Infect. 1999;43:1-3.) and is considered to be the most important measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections (Pittet D, Allegranzi B, Sax H, Evidence-based model for hand transmission during patient care and the role of improved practices. Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:641-52). Unfortunately, the compliance rate of healthcare workers (HCWs) with recommended hand hygiene procedures is less than expected. In order to estimate the effect of a multimodal intervention on improving healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene in eleven intensive care units (ICUs) from 11 hospitals of Buenos Aires, a randomized cluster-stepped wedge trial was designed. A multimodal intervention was designed based on practices characterized by being evidence-based, low cost and suggested by qualitative research: (i) leadership commitment, (ii) surveillance of materials needed to comply with hand hygiene and alcohol consumption, (iii) utilization of reminders, (iv) a storyboard of the project and (v) feedback (hand hygiene compliance rate). The study enrolled 705 participants, comprising nurses (66.4%), physicians (25.8%) and other HCW (7.8%) along 9 months of observation. Compliance with hand hygiene in the control group was 66.0% (2354/3565) vs. 75.6% (5190/6864) in the intervention group. Univariate analysis showed an association between the intervention and hand hygiene compliance (odds ratio, OR 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-1.22). The effect was still present after adjustment by calendar's time and providers' characteristics-age, gender and profession (OR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14). His study supports that a multimodal intervention was effective to improve compliance with hand hygiene in ICUs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care

  18. Multicentre study on hand hygiene facilities and practice in the Mediterranean area: results from the NosoMed Network.

    PubMed

    Amazian, K; Abdelmoumène, T; Sekkat, S; Terzaki, S; Njah, M; Dhidah, L; Caillat-Vallet, E; Saadatian-Elahi, M; Fabry, J

    2006-03-01

    Hand hygiene literature is scarce in the southern Mediterranean area. In order to establish a baseline position, a study was performed in four Mediterranean countries. Seventy-seven hospital wards in 22 hospitals were enrolled and information on hand hygiene practice and facilities were collected. The overall compliance rate was very low (27.6%), and was significantly higher where the perceived risk was considered to be high. Intensive care units showed the highest level of compliance. Analysis by country indicated higher compliance in Egypt (52.8%) and Tunisia (32.3%) compared with Algeria (18.6%) and Morocco (16.9%). Facilities for hand hygiene, particularly consumables, were shown to be deficient. Multi-approach programmes combining the production of official local recommendations, education and regular evaluation of hand hygiene practice are much needed to improve the present situation.

  19. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

  20. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

  1. Exploring the hand hygiene competence of student nurses: a case of flawed self assessment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Hand hygiene remains the single most effective measure to prevent hospital acquired infection and yet poor compliance is reported repeatedly. Nurses represent the largest labour group and perform the greatest amount of direct patient care in the contemporary National Health Service. They receive their initial hand hygiene training in the pre-registration curriculum within a competence framework based on knowledge, skills and attitudes. The pre-eminent training method is one that delivers behavioural competence, making the tacit assumption that compliance will follow. In this study a mixed methods approach demonstrated that students overestimated their knowledge and skills, found it difficult to give an objective account of their performance, and reported an improbable level of compliance. The reasons why people can be self serving in their judgements may be due to information processing errors, exacerbated by the model of education and training. Flawed self assessments may present major barriers to improved performance if students view their compliance as better than it actually is. Conceptualising hand hygiene as a taxonomy of learning and introducing the cognitive strategies of reflection and self assessment would better enable students to problem solve, seek out new information, draw on past experience and gain greater and deeper understanding of the complex topic of hand hygiene behaviour.

  2. A systematic review on the effectiveness of alcohol-based solutions for hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Picheansathian, Wilawan

    2004-02-01

    The use of alcohol has been proposed as an option for hand hygiene. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the clinical evidence supporting the use of alcohol-based solutions in hospitals as an option for hand hygiene. Studies published between January 1992 and April 2002 in English and Thai, related to the effectiveness of alcohol-based solutions, were reviewed. The databases searched included Medline, DARE, CINAHL and Dissertation Abstracts International. All studies were assessed as having adequate methodological quality. Results of this systematic review supported that alcohol-based hand rubbing removes microorganisms effectively, requires less time and irritates hands less often than does handwashing with soap or other antiseptic agents and water. Furthermore, the availability of bedside alcohol-based solutions increases compliance with hand hygiene among health care workers.

  3. Has improved hand hygiene compliance reduced the risk of hospital-acquired infections among hospitalized patients in Ontario? Analysis of publicly reported patient safety data from 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    DiDiodato, Giulio

    2013-06-01

     Prospective, observational, ecological, time series, cross-sectional study examining the association between hand hygiene compliance (HHC) rates and the incidence of hospital-acquired infections.  Acute care hospitals (N = 166) located in the province of Ontario, Canada.  All data were extracted from the Ontario patient safety indicator database ( http://www.hqontario.ca/public-reporting/patient-safety). Complete data were available for 166 acute care hospitals from October 1, 2008, to December 31, 2011. The rates of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are reported monthly, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia quarterly, and HHC rates yearly. Trends and associations for each indicator were evaluated by ordinary least squares regression (HHC), zero-inflated Poisson regression (MRSA bacteremia), or Poisson regression (CDI). Dependent variables included in the regression analyses were extracted from the same database and included year, healthcare region, and type of hospital (teaching or small or large community). Compared to those in 2008, reported HHC rates improved every year both before and after environment/patient contact (range, 10.6%-25.3%). Compared to those in 2008, there was no corresponding change in the rates of MRSA bacteremia; however, the rates of CDI decreased in 2009 but were not statistically significantly decreased from baseline in either 2010 or 2011. No consistent association was demonstrated between changes in the rates of HHC and these two healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).  Despite significant improvements in reported rates of HHC among healthcare personnel in Ontario's hospitals, we could not demonstrate a positive ecological impact on rates of these two HAIs.

  4. Self-reported hand hygiene practices, and feasibility and acceptability of alcohol-based hand rubs among village healthcare workers in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Wang, Y; Yan, D; Rao, C Y

    2015-08-01

    Good hand hygiene is critical to reduce the risk of healthcare-associated infections. Limited data are available on hand hygiene practices from rural healthcare systems in China. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of sanitizing hands with alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) among Chinese village healthcare workers, and to assess their hand hygiene practice. Five hundred bottles of ABHR were given to village healthcare workers in Inner Mongolia, China. Standardized questionnaires collected information on their work load, availability, and usage of hand hygiene facilities, and knowledge, attitudes, and practices of hand hygiene. In all, 369 (64.2%) participants completed the questionnaire. Although 84.5% of the ABHR recipients believed that receiving the ABHR improved their hand hygiene practice, 78.8% of recipients would pay no more than US$1.5 out of their own pocket (actual cost US$4). The majority (77.2%) who provided medical care at patients' homes never carried hand rubs with them outside their clinics. In general, self-reported hand hygiene compliance was suboptimal, and the lowest compliance was 'before touching a patient'. Reported top three complaints with using ABHR were skin irritation, splashing, and unpleasant residual. Village doctors with less experience practised less hand hygiene. The overall acceptance of ABHR among the village healthcare workers is high as long as it is provided to them for free/low cost, but their overall hand hygiene practice is suboptimal. Hand hygiene education and training is needed in settings outside of traditional healthcare facilities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Understanding the Determinants of Australian Hospital Nurses' Hand Hygiene Decisions Following the Implementation of a National Hand Hygiene Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Starfelt, Louise C.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Campbell, Megan; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G.; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure in hospitals to reduce the spread of infections, with nurses experiencing the greatest frequency of patient contact. The "5 critical moments" of hand hygiene initiative has been implemented in hospitals across Australia, accompanied by awareness-raising, staff training and auditing. The aim of this…

  6. Understanding the Determinants of Australian Hospital Nurses' Hand Hygiene Decisions Following the Implementation of a National Hand Hygiene Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Starfelt, Louise C.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Campbell, Megan; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G.; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure in hospitals to reduce the spread of infections, with nurses experiencing the greatest frequency of patient contact. The "5 critical moments" of hand hygiene initiative has been implemented in hospitals across Australia, accompanied by awareness-raising, staff training and auditing. The aim of this…

  7. The first step in infection control is hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Canham, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A dental health care worker (DHCW) has an obligation to prevent the spread of health care associated infections. Adhering to proper hand hygiene procedures, selecting appropriate hand hygiene products and the use of gloves are all important elements of infection control. The CDC Guidelines for Hand Hygiene state that improved hand hygiene practices can reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health care settings. DHCWs must also protect themselves by recognizing pitfalls such as irritants or allergies that may pose obstacles to proper hand hygiene. Occupational irritants and allergies can be caused by frequent hand washing, exposure to hand hygiene products, exposure to chemicals and shear forces associated with wearing or removing gloves. Since the primary defense against infection and transmission of pathogens is healthy, unbroken skin, DHCWs must take steps to ensure that their skin remains healthy and intact. These steps include evaluating different types of hand hygiene products, lotions and gloves for the best compatibility. If the DHCW sees a breakdown of his or her skin barrier, steps should be taken to determine the cause and remedy. Remedies can include the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing emollients and moisturizers and regular use of a medical grade hand lotion. The bottom line: healthy skin protects you at work and at home. Selection and use of appropriate hand hygiene products, including moisturizers, are an essential part ofa dental office infection control program. My coworker lost the use of her thumb for several months due to complications of a staph infection. She was unable to work and found even simple tasks such as closing a button hard to do. Think of how difficult your work would be if something happened to your hands. Injury, irritation or allergies could alter your ability to work or even perform routine tasks. Our hands provide us with the ability to work in clinical dentistry. It makes

  8. Bundling hand hygiene interventions and measurement to decrease health care-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Pincock, Ted; Bernstein, Paul; Warthman, Shawn; Holst, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    Proper performance of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing health care-associated infections (HAIs). With increasing awareness of the cost and societal impact caused by HAIs has come the realization that hand hygiene improvement initiatives are crucial to reducing the burden of HAIs. Multimodal strategies have emerged as the best approach to improving hand hygiene compliance. These strategies use a variety of intervention components intended to address obstacles to complying with good hand hygiene practices, and to reinforce behavioral change. Although research has substantiated the effectiveness of the multimodal design, challenges remain in promoting widespread adoption and implementation of a coordinated approach. This article reviews elements of a multimodal approach to improve hand hygiene and advocates the use of a "bundled" strategy. Eight key components of this bundle are proposed as a cohesive program to enable the deployment of synergistic, coordinated efforts to promote good hand hygiene practice. A consistent, bundled methodology implemented at multiple study centers would standardize processes and allow comparison of outcomes, validation of the methodology, and benchmarking. Most important, a bundled approach can lead to sustained infection reduction.

  9. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  10. Comparison of ethanol hand sanitizer versus moist towelette packets for mealtime patient hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Rai, Herleen; Knighton, Shanina; Zabarsky, Trina F; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-09-01

    To facilitate patient hand hygiene, there is a need for easy-to-use products. In a survey of 100 patients, a single-use ethanol hand sanitizer packet took less time to access than a single-use moist towelette packet (3 vs 23 seconds) and was preferred by 74% of patients for mealtime hand hygiene. Performance of patient hand hygiene increased when a reminder was provided at the time of meal tray delivery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Compliance and hygiene behaviour among soft contact lens wearers in the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Nestha Mohamed, Fathimath; Bist, Jeewanand; Kandel, Himal; Marasini, Sanjay; Khadka, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Significant levels of non-compliance and poor hygiene among contact lens wearers have been reported previously from different parts of the world. This survey aimed at identifying the scope of hygiene and non-compliant behaviour of soft contact lens wearers in the Maldives. Established soft lens wearers attending two eye clinics in Male' city, were interviewed in office or via telephone. A set of interviewer-administered questions was used to access the subjective response on compliance and hygiene behaviour (hand and lens case hygiene, water exposure, adherence to lens replacement schedule, dozing and overnight wear, awareness of aftercare visits and reuse of disinfecting solution). Participants were also asked to rate themselves as a contact lens user based on their perceived compliance and hygiene practices. Out of 107 participants, 79 (74.8 per cent) were interviewed in the office and the rest via telephone. The majority of lens wearers were female, office workers and students, with a mean age of 20.64 ± 4.4 years. Mean duration of lens wear was 28.04 ± 8.36 months. Most of them were using spherical lenses (86.9 per cent) on a daily wear basis (96.3 per cent). Major reported forms of non-compliance were poor hand hygiene (60.7 per cent), lack of aftercare awareness (39.3 per cent), water exposure (35.5 per cent) and over-use of lenses (24.3 per cent). While females were more likely to overuse their lenses than males (p < 0.005), other socio-demographic factors were not associated with reported non-compliance. Although around 90 per cent of the participants considered themselves average or good contact lens wearers, most exhibited some form of non-compliant and poor hygienic behaviour. A significant number of Maldivian contact lens wearers exhibited poor levels of hygiene and compliance with contact lenses and lens care systems. An effective educational reinforcement strategy needs to be developed to modify lens wearers' non-compliance. © 2013 The Authors

  12. University students' hand hygiene practice during a gastrointestinal outbreak in residence: what they say they do and what they actually do.

    PubMed

    Surgeoner, Brae V; Chapman, Benjamin J; Powell, Douglas A

    2009-09-01

    Published research on outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness has focused primarily on the results of epidemiological and clinical data collected postoutbreak; little research has been done on actual preventative practices during an outbreak. In this study, the authors observed student compliance with hand hygiene recommendations at the height of a suspected norovirus outbreak in a university residence in Ontario, Canada. Data on observed practices was compared to postoutbreak self-report surveys administered to students to examine their beliefs and perceptions about hand hygiene. Observed compliance with prescribed hand hygiene recommendations occurred 17.4% of the time. Despite knowledge of hand hygiene protocols and low compliance, 83.0% of students indicated that they practiced correct hand hygiene during the outbreak. To proactively prepare for future outbreaks, a current and thorough crisis communications and management strategy, targeted at a university student audience and supplemented with proper hand washing tools, should be enacted by residence administration.

  13. Hand hygiene after touching a patient's surroundings: the opportunities most commonly missed.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, G; Moore, G; Wilson, A P R

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare workers generally underestimate the role of environmental surfaces in the transmission of infection, and compliance with hand hygiene following contact with the environment is generally lower than following direct patient contact. To reduce the risk of onward transmission, healthcare workers must identify the need to wash hands with specific tasks or events. To observe the movement of staff in critical care and general wards and determine the routes most commonly travelled and the surfaces most frequently touched with and without appropriate hand hygiene. Fifty-eight 90 min sessions of unobtrusive observation were made in open bays and isolation rooms. Link analysis was used to record staff movement from one location to another as well as the frequency of motion. Hand-hygiene audits were conducted using the World Health Organization 'five moments for hand hygiene' observational tool. In critical care, the majority of movement occurred within the bed space. The bedside computer and equipment trolley were the surfaces most commonly touched, often immediately after patient contact. In the general ward, movement between bed spaces was more common and observed hand hygiene ranged from 25% to 33%. Regardless of ward type, observed hand-hygiene compliance when touching the patient immediately on entering an isolation room was less than 30%. Healthcare workers must be made aware that bacterial spread can occur even during activities of perceived low risk. Education and intervention programmes should focus on the potential contamination of ward computers, case notes and door handles. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated and electronically assisted hand hygiene monitoring systems: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ward, Melissa A; Schweizer, Marin L; Polgreen, Philip M; Gupta, Kalpana; Reisinger, Heather S; Perencevich, Eli N

    2014-05-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most effective ways to prevent transmission of health care-associated infections. Electronic systems and tools are being developed to enhance hand hygiene compliance monitoring. Our systematic review assesses the existing evidence surrounding the adoption and accuracy of automated systems or electronically enhanced direct observations and also reviews the effectiveness of such systems in health care settings. We systematically reviewed PubMed for articles published between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2013, containing the terms hand AND hygiene or hand AND disinfection or handwashing. Resulting articles were reviewed to determine if an electronic system was used. We identified 42 articles for inclusion. Four types of systems were identified: electronically assisted/enhanced direct observation, video-monitored direct observation systems, electronic dispenser counters, and automated hand hygiene monitoring networks. Fewer than 20% of articles identified included calculations for efficiency or accuracy. Limited data are currently available to recommend adoption of specific automatic or electronically assisted hand hygiene surveillance systems. Future studies should be undertaken that assess the accuracy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of such systems. Given the restricted clinical and infection prevention budgets of most facilities, cost-effectiveness analysis of specific systems will be required before these systems are widely adopted. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  15. Influencing factors on hand hygiene behavior of nursing students based on theory of planned behavior: A descriptive survey study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sun Young; Kim, Kyung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is the single most important measure to prevent transmission of infection, but the compliance rate of healthcare workers is relatively low. This study was conducted to identify the knowledge, beliefs, behavior, and affecting factors about hand hygiene among nursing students. A descriptive survey study. The study was carried out in two South Korean nursing schools. A total 208 nursing students participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The percentage of correct answers in the survey section concerning hand hygiene knowledge was 68.1%. No significant difference in the knowledge, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, or control beliefs data was found related to general characteristics. Behavioral beliefs correlated with normative beliefs (r=.25, p<.001) and hand hygiene behavior (r=.17, p=.017), and control beliefs correlated with hand hygiene behavior (r=.18, p=.010). The results suggest that knowledge is not enough to change the beliefs related to hand hygiene; positive behavioral beliefs and strong control beliefs are also needed to increase hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of adherence to hand hygiene practice using a multimodal intervention program in a neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    van den Hoogen, Agnes; Brouwer, Annemieke J; Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata A; Gerards, Leo J; Fleer, André; Krediet, Tannette G

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are serious complications among preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Hand hygiene is one of the most effective measures to prevent these infections. This study, performed in a tertiary level NICU, highlights the importance of a multimodal intervention program for adherence to hand hygiene. The compliance with hand hygiene among health care workers of the NICU increased significantly from 23% in the baseline assessment to 50% in the second assessment and the incidence of sepsis decreased from 13.4% to 11.3% after implementation of an intervention program.

  17. Standard work for room entry: Linking lean, hand hygiene, and patient-centeredness.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Kristin; Ruokis, Samantha; Russell, Kristin; Teves, Tim; DiLibero, Justin; Yassa, David; Berry, Hannah; Howell, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are costly and fatal. Substantial front-line, administrative, regulatory, and research efforts have focused on improving hand hygiene. While broad agreement exists that hand hygiene is the most important single approach to infection prevention, compliance with hand hygiene is typically only about 40%(1). Our aim was to develop a standard process for room entry in the intensive care unit that improved compliance with hand hygiene and allowed for maximum efficiency. We recognized that hand hygiene is a single step in a substantially more complicated process of room entry. We applied Lean engineering techniques to develop a standard process that included both physical steps and also standard communication elements from provider to patients and families and created a physical environment to support this. We observed meaningful improvement in the performance of the new standard as well as time savings for clinical providers with each room entry. We also observed an increase in room entries that included verbal communication and an explanation of what the clinician was entering the room to do. The design and implementation of a standardized room entry process and the creation of an environment that supports that new process has resulted in measurable positive outcomes on the medical intensive care unit, including quality, patient experience, efficiency, and staff satisfaction. Designing a process, rather than viewing tasks that need to happen in close proximity in time (either serially or in parallel) as unrelated, simplifies work for staff and results in higher compliance to individual tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of Fidelity in Interventions to Improve Hand Hygiene of Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Musuuza, Jackson S.; Barker, Anna; Ngam, Caitlyn; Vellardita, Lia; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compliance with hand hygiene in healthcare workers is fundamental to infection prevention yet remains a challenge to sustain. We examined fidelity reporting in interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance, and we assessed 5 measures of intervention fidelity: (1) adherence, (2) exposure or dose, (3) quality of intervention delivery, (4) participant responsiveness, and (5) program differentiation. DESIGN Systematic review METHODS A librarian performed searches of the literature in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, and Web of Science of material published prior to June 19, 2015. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, and assessment of study quality was conducted for each study reviewed. RESULTS A total of 100 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only 8 of these 100 studies reported all 5 measures of intervention fidelity. In addition, 39 of 100 (39%) failed to include at least 3 fidelity measures; 20 of 100 (20%) failed to include 4 measures; 17 of 100 (17%) failed to include 2 measures, while 16 of 100 (16%) of the studies failed to include at least 1 measure of fidelity. Participant responsiveness and adherence to the intervention were the most frequently unreported fidelity measures, while quality of the delivery was the most frequently reported measure. CONCLUSIONS Almost all hand hygiene intervention studies failed to report at least 1 fidelity measurement. To facilitate replication and effective implementation, reporting fidelity should be standard practice when describing results of complex behavioral interventions such as hand hygiene. PMID:26861117

  19. Improving hand hygiene behaviour among adolescents by a planning intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Jiang, Tingting; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To improve regular hand hygiene in adolescents, educational messages based on medical information have not been very successful. Therefore, a theory-guided self-regulatory intervention has been designed with a particular focus on planning strategies. A randomised controlled trial with 307 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, was conducted in high schools. The control group received educational hand hygiene leaflets, whereas the experimental group received a self-regulatory treatment which required them to generate specific action plans and coping plans. Three times during one month, both groups received verbal reminder messages about planning to wash their hands properly. At one-month follow-up, hand hygiene behaviour as well as planning to practise hand hygiene were higher in the self-regulation than in the education group (p < .01). Moreover, changes in planning levels operated as a mediator between experimental conditions and changes in behavioural outcomes. Teaching self-regulatory planning strategies may constitute a superior approach than educational messages to improve regular hand hygiene practice in adolescents.

  20. Semmelweis revisited: hand hygiene and nosocomial disease transmission in the anesthesia workstation.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Chuck

    2009-06-01

    Hospital-acquired infections occur at an alarmingly high frequency, possibly affecting as many as 1 in 10 patients, resulting in a staggering morbidity and an annual mortality of many tens of thousands of patients. Appropriate hand hygiene is highly effective and represents the simplest approach that we have to preventing nosocomial infections. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has targeted hand-washing compliance as a top research agenda item for patient safety. Recent research has identified inadequate hand washing and contaminated anesthesia workstation issues as likely contributors to nosocomial infections, finding aseptic practices highly variable among providers. It is vital that all healthcare providers, including anesthesia providers, appreciate the role of inadequate hand hygiene in nosocomial infection and meticulously follow the mandates of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists and other professional healthcare organizations.

  1. Survey of attitudes and practices of Irish nursing students towards hand hygiene, including handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Liz M; O'Connell, Nuala H; Dunne, Colum P

    2017-05-01

    Hand hygiene is widely recognised as the most important measure a healthcare worker can take in preventing the spread of healthcare associated infections. As a member of the healthcare team, nursing students have direct patient contact during clinical practice; hence, good hand hygiene practice among nursing students is essential. Low to moderate levels of hand hygiene knowledge and poor attitudes and practices are reported among nursing students. However, less is known about their attitudes and practices of handrubbing with ABHR, even though handrubbing is the recommended optimum practice in most situations. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes and practices of hand hygiene, in particular handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub, among nursing students in Ireland. This survey employed a descriptive, self-report design using a questionnaire to gather data. It was administered electronically to all undergraduate nursing students (n=342) in the Department of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Limerick, Ireland in March and April 2015. Response rate was 66%. Attitudes towards hand hygiene were generally positive. Compliance with hand hygiene after contact with body fluid was high (99.5%) and before a clean or aseptic procedure (98.5%). However, suboptimal practices emerged, before touching a patient (85%), after touching a patient (87%) and after touching patients' surroundings (61%), with first year students more compliant than fourth year students. 16% of students were not aware of the clinical contraindications for using alcohol-based hand rub and 9% did not know when to use soap and water and when to use alcohol-based hand rub. Educators and practitioners play an important role in ensuring that nursing students develop appropriate attitudes towards hand hygiene and engage in optimal handrubbing practices. Raising awareness among nursing students of their responsibility in preventing the occurrence and reducing the transmission of HCAI as an on

  2. Feasibility: An important but neglected issue in patient hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Knighton, Shanina C; McDowell, Cherese; Rai, Herleen; Higgins, Patricia; Burant, Christopher; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-06-01

    Patient hand hygiene may be a useful strategy to prevent acquisition of pathogens and to reduce the risk for transmission by colonized patients. Several studies demonstrate that patients and long-term-care facility (LTCF) residents may have difficulty using hand hygiene products that are provided; however, none of them measure feasibility for patients to use different hand hygiene products. A convenience sample of 42 hospitalized patients and 46 LTCF residents was assessed for their ability to use 3 hand sanitizer products (8-oz pushdown pump bottle, 2-oz pocket-sized bottle with a reclosable lid, and alcohol-impregnated hand wipes). The time (seconds) required for accessing each product was compared among acute-care patients and LTCF residents. Participants provided feedback on which product they preferred and found easiest to use. Of 88 participants, 86 (97.7%) preferred the pushdown pump, 2 (2.3%) preferred the bottle with the reclosable lid, and none preferred the hand wipes. For both hospitalized patients and LTCF residents, the average time required to access the pushdown pump was significantly less than the time required to access the other products (pushdown pump, 0.45 seconds; bottle with reclosable lid, 3.86 seconds; and wipes, 5.66 seconds; P < .001). Feasibility and ease of use should be considered in the selection of hand hygiene products for patients and LTCF residents. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative impact of direct, personal feedback on hand hygiene technique.

    PubMed

    Lehotsky, Á; Szilágyi, L; Ferenci, T; Kovács, L; Pethes, R; Wéber, G; Haidegger, T

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of targeting hand hygiene technique using a new training device that provides objective, personal and quantitative feedback. One hundred and thirty-six healthcare workers in three Hungarian hospitals participated in a repetitive hand hygiene technique assessment study. Ultraviolet (UV)-labelled hand rub was used at each event, and digital images of the hands were subsequently taken under UV light. Immediate objective visual feedback was given to participants, showing missed areas on their hands. The rate of inadequate hand rubbing reduced from 50% to 15% (P < 0.001). However, maintenance of this reduced rate is likely to require continuous use of the electronic equipment. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hand hygiene in reducing transient flora on the hands of healthcare workers: an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Kapil, R; Bhavsar, H K; Madan, M

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene has now been recognised as one of the most effective intervention to control the transmission of infections in a hospital and education is an important tool to ensure its implementation. In order to convince the users and as a part of education, it is important to generate evidence on the role of hand hygiene in reducing the bacterial flora on their hands. The present study was undertaken in a tertiary care hospital to demonstrate the presence of bacterial flora on the hands of healthcare workers (HCW) in different categories, to teach them proper hand hygiene technique using alcohol-based hand rub and determine the outcome for reduction of bacteria. A total sample size of 60 subjects including resident doctors, medical students, nurses and hospital attendants were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. Each person was educated on the technique of hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub and hand impressions were cultured before and after hand hygiene. All the subjects were also given a questionnaire to assess their perception on hand hygiene. The WHO posters on proper hand hygiene were displayed in the appropriate areas of the hospital in addition, as an educational tool. Majority (42 out of 60) of the HCWs had bacterial count up to 100 colonies or more on both hands before the application of hand rub while working in the hospital. After use of alcohol hand rub with a proper hand hygiene technique, it was found that the percentage reduction was 95-99% among doctors and nurses, 70% among hospital attendants and 50% among sanitary attendants. Staphylococcus aureus was present on the hands of eight persons of which three were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The study demonstrates that transient bacteria are present on the hands of HCWs but majority could be removed by proper hand hygiene, which needs continuous education to be effective. It also shows that active education by demonstrating the proper hand hygiene technique

  5. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low-quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower-middle-income setting. There was high-quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high-quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low-income setting. There was moderate- to high-quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Factors related with the performance of a proper hand hygiene].

    PubMed

    Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; de la Cal-López, Marta; Navarro-Córdoba, Mar; Rebollo-Rodrigo, Henar; Antolín-Juarez, Francisco Manuel; Llorca, Javier

    2010-11-06

    To identify factors related with the performance of a proper hand hygiene technique in a hand hygiene campaign. We developed two cross-sectional studies on 15 hospital units. The outcome variable was complied HH with proper technique and the exposures variables were care factors (unit, professional group, etc) and other factors related with the HH campaign (training on hand washing). The strength of association was measured using odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence interval (CI). Adjusting for confounders was performed using multiple logistic regression. 12% of the observed 1241 hand hygiene were performed with proper technique. The strongest associated factors were ICUS (OR: 4.07 (CI 95% (1.95-8.51)), surgical wards (OR: 3.24 (CI 95% (1.52-6.92), procedures with high risk of contamination (OR: 2,56 CI 95% (1.34-4.70)), and physicians (OR: 2.52 CI 95% (0.93-6.85)). Training increased by 21% the probability of hand hygiene with proper technique for every 10% increase in trained health care workers (OR: 1.21 CI 95% (1.01-1.45). Hand Washing Training was associated with proper technique especially in surgical services and physicians. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Student-led intervention to inNOvate hand hygiene practice in Auckland Region's medical students (the No HHARMS study).

    PubMed

    Lucas, Nathanael Cc; Hume, Carl G; Al-Chanati, Abdal; Diprose, William; Roberts, Sally; Freeman, Josh; Mogol, Vernon; Hoskins, David; Hamblin, Richard; Frampton, Chris; Bagg, Warwick; Merry, Alan F

    2017-01-13

    Hand hygiene is important in reducing healthcare-associated infections. The World Health Organization has defined 'five moments' when hand hygiene compliance is required. During 2013, New Zealand national data showed poor compliance with these moments by medical students. To improve medical students' compliance with the five moments. In this prospective student-led quality improvement initiative, student investigators developed, implemented and evaluated a multi-modal intervention comprising a three-month social media campaign, a competition and an entertaining educational video. Data on individual patient-medical student interactions were collected covertly by observers at baseline and at one week, six weeks and three months after initiation of the intervention. During the campaign, compliance improved in moment 2, but not significantly in moments 1, 3, 4 or 5. Statistical analysis of amalgamated data was limited by non-independent data points-a consideration apparently not always addressed in previous studies. The initiative produced improvements in compliance by medical students with one hand hygiene moment. Statistical analysis of amalgamated data for all five moments should allow for the non-independence of each occasion in which clinicians interact with a patient. More work is needed to ensure excellent hand hygiene practices of future doctors.

  8. [A photographic competition on hand hygiene in a nursing home].

    PubMed

    Guerre, Graziella; Aho-Glele, Ludwig-Serge; Astruc, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is often considered as the attribute of caregivers. However, it is the patient who is increasingly targeted by improved communication around hygiene in care notably in the framework of the "Clean Hands Mission". In this sense, the French regional centres for the fight against nosocomial infections in Burgundy has proved itself innovative on two levels by organising a photo competition in nursing homes. The aim was to show residents how to prevent care-related infections through the simple act of handwashing.

  9. Compliance and efficacy of hand rubbing during in-hospital practice.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Oguz; Sencan, Irfan; Sahin, Idris; Alpteker, Hacer; Ozcan, Arzu; Oksuz, Sukru

    2005-01-01

    To compare alcohol-based hand rubbing with hand washing using antimicrobial soap regarding antimicrobial efficacy and compliance with routine practice in hospital and intensive care units. From February to June 2003, 35 nurses were randomly selected from a nursing staff of 141 and divided into two groups: hand rubbing and hand washing groups. Hand cultures were obtained before and after health care procedures. The nurses were observed on days 1, 7 and 14 of the study, in order to determine compliance and efficacy of the hand hygiene methods. A total of 368 routine patient care activities were observed during the study period. Hand rubbing with alcohol-based solutions significantly reduced the bacterial contamination of the hands of the nurses more than hand washing with an antimicrobial soap (54 and 27%, respectively; p < 0.01). Compliance was also better in the hand rubbing group than in the hand washing group (72.5 and 15.4%, respectively; p < 0.001). Compliance with hand rubbing was markedly lower among the nurses who had experience of more than 3 years in hospital practice. Both hand rubbing and hand washing compliance were poorer among nurses working in intensive care units than among nurses working in the other hospital wards. Generally, after taking off gloves, nurses preferred hand washing to hand rubbing. These data indicate that alcohol-based hand rubbing reduces mean bacterial counts on the hands of nurses more effectively than hand washing with antimicrobial soaps, and compliance rates with hand rubbing were also higher than with hand washing. Nevertheless, the compliance with hand rubbing was markedly lower in more experienced nurses.

  10. Prevention of irritant contact dermatitis among health care workers by using evidence-based hand hygiene practices: a review.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2007-10-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is often found on the hands of healthcare workers and is generally caused by frequent hand washing, gloves, aggressive disinfectants or detergents. Alcohols have only a marginal irritation potential, although they may cause a burning sensation on pre-irritated skin. A burning sensation when using alcohols therefore, suggests that the skin barrier is already damaged. Two options for hand hygiene are generally available in clinical practice: (1) hand washing with some type of soap and water or (2) hand disinfection with alcohol-based hand rubs. Most clinical situations require the use of an alcohol-based hand rub for decontamination, which is especially useful for reducing the nosocomial transmission of various infectious agents. Washing one's hands should be the exception, to be performed only when they are visibly soiled or contaminated with proteinaceous material, or visibly soiled with blood or other body fluids. The overall compliance rate in hand hygiene is around 50%, which is far too low. In addition, healthcare workers quite often wash their hands with soap and water, when they should use an alcohol-based hand rub. This not only adds to the degree of skin irritation, but is also potentially dangerous for patients, due to the low efficacy of hand washing when compared to hand disinfection with alcohol rubs. Adhering to evidence-based hand hygiene protocols and following international guidelines on hand hygiene practices therefore, can help prevent irritant contact dermatitis among healthcare workers.

  11. Adherence to hand hygiene protocol by clinicians and medical students at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre-Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kalata, N L; Kamange, L; Muula, A S

    2013-06-01

    , with forgetfulness and negligence being the major contributing factors. A hospital-wide multifaceted program aiming at clinicians and students education, adoption of alcohol based hand rubs as a primary formulation, production of colored poster reminders and encouraging role modeling of junior practitioners by senior practitioners can help improve compliance to hand hygiene.

  12. [Impact of a hand hygiene campaign on alcoholic hand rub consumption in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Robles-García, Mónica; Rebollo-Rodrigo, Henar; Antolín-Juárez, Francisco Manuel; de la Cal López, Marta; Navarro-Córdoba, Mar; Llorca, Javier

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of a hand hygiene program on consumption of alcoholic hand rub, and specifically the impact of the development of hand washing training in a tertiary hospital belonging to the Cantabrian Health Service in Spain. We performed an ecological study from January 2005 to December 2008. The dependent variable was consumption of alcoholic hand rub (ml/day). As the independent variable, we used the hand hygiene campaign developed by the Cantabrian Health Service. The relationship between alcoholic hand rub consumption and the campaign was evaluated using multiple linear regression. The training received in hand hygiene in hospital wards was associated with consumption of alcoholic hand rub, which improved as the campaign became consolidated (in 2008) and showed a positive effect, particularly its training aspects. Copyright © 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Face touching: a frequent habit that has implications for hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Yen Lee Angela; Gralton, Jan; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-02-01

    There is limited literature on the frequency of face-touching behavior as a potential vector for the self-inoculation and transmission of Staphylococcus aureus and other common respiratory infections. A behavioral observation study was undertaken involving medical students at the University of New South Wales. Their face-touching behavior was observed via videotape recording. Using standardized scoring sheets, the frequency of hand-to-face contacts with mucosal or nonmucosal areas was tallied and analyzed. On average, each of the 26 observed students touched their face 23 times per hour. Of all face touches, 44% (1,024/2,346) involved contact with a mucous membrane, whereas 56% (1,322/2,346) of contacts involved nonmucosal areas. Of mucous membrane touches observed, 36% (372) involved the mouth, 31% (318) involved the nose, 27% (273) involved the eyes, and 6% (61) were a combination of these regions. Increasing medical students' awareness of their habituated face-touching behavior and improving their understanding of self-inoculation as a route of transmission may help to improve hand hygiene compliance. Hand hygiene programs aiming to improve compliance with before and after patient contact should include a message that mouth and nose touching is a common practice. Hand hygiene is therefore an essential and inexpensive preventive method to break the colonization and transmission cycle associated with self-inoculation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring Hand Hygiene via Human Observers: How Should We be Sampling?

    PubMed Central

    Fries, Jason; Segre, Alberto M.; Thomas, Geb; Herman, Ted; Ellingson, Katherine; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore how hand-hygiene-observer scheduling influences the number of events and unique individuals observed. Design We deployed a mobile sensor network to capture detailed movement data for 6 categories of healthcare workers (HCWs) over 2 weeks Setting: The University of Iowa Hospital and Clinic’s MICU. Methods We recorded 33721 time-stamped HCW entries to and exits from patient rooms and considered each entry or exit an opportunity for hand hygiene. Architectural drawings were used to derive 4 optimal line-of-sight placements for observers. We ran simulations for different observer movement schedules, all with a budget of 1 hour total observation time. We considered observation times of 1–15, 15–30, 30 and 60 minutes per station. We stochastically generated HCW hand-hygiene compliance based on all data and recorded the total unit compliance as it would be reported by each simulated observer. Results Considering a 60 minute total observation period, aggregate simulated observers captured at best 1.7% of the average total number of opportunities per day and at worst 0.5%. The 1–15 minute schedule captures on average 16% fewer events than the 60-minute (i.e., static) schedule, but samples 17% more unique individuals. The 1–15 minute schedule also provides the best estimator of compliance for the duration of the shift, with a mean standard deviation of 17% versus 23% for the 60-minute schedule. Conclusions Our results show that observations are sensitive to different observers’ schedules and suggest the importance of using data-driven approaches to schedule hand-hygiene audits. PMID:22669230

  15. Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey.

    PubMed

    Horng, L M; Unicomb, L; Alam, M-U; Halder, A K; Shoab, A K; Ghosh, P K; Opel, A; Islam, M K; Luby, S P

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. More than 96% of facilities had 'improved' water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78-92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4-30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey

    PubMed Central

    Horng, L.M.; Unicomb, L.; Alam, M.-U.; Halder, A.K.; Shoab, A.K.; Ghosh, P.K.; Opel, A.; Islam, M.K.; Luby, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. Aim To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. Methods The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. Findings More than 96% of facilities had ‘improved’ water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78–92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4–30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Conclusion Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi health-care facilities. PMID:27665311

  17. Successful implementation of the World Health Organization hand hygiene improvement strategy in a referral hospital in Mali, Africa.

    PubMed

    Allegranzi, Benedetta; Sax, Hugo; Bengaly, Loséni; Richet, Hervé; Minta, Daouda K; Chraiti, Marie-Noelle; Sokona, Fatoumata Maiga; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Bonnabry, Pascal; Pittet, Didier

    2010-02-01

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the World Health Organization hand hygiene improvement strategy in a low-income African country. A before-and-after study from December 2006 through June 2008, with a 6-month baseline evaluation period and a follow-up period of 8 months from the beginning of the intervention. University Hospital, Bamako, Mali. Participants. Two hundred twenty-four healthcare workers. The intervention consisted of introducing a locally produced, alcohol-based handrub; monitoring hand hygiene compliance; providing performance feedback; educating staff; posting reminders in the workplace; and promoting an institutional safety climate according to the World Health Organization multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy. Hand hygiene infrastructure, compliance, healthcare workers' knowledge and perceptions, and handrub consumption were evaluated at baseline and at follow-up. Severe deficiencies in the infrastructure for hand hygiene were identified before the intervention. Local handrub production and quality control proved to be feasible, affordable, and satisfactory. At follow-up, handrubbing was the quasi-exclusive hand hygiene technique (93.3%). Compliance increased from 8.0% at baseline to 21.8% at follow-up (P < .001). Improvement was observed across all professional categories and medical specialities and was independently associated with the intervention (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5). Knowledge enhanced significantly (P < .05), and perception surveys showed a high appreciation of each strategy component by staff. Multimodal hand hygiene promotion is feasible and effective in a low-income country. Access to handrub was critical for its success. These findings motivated the government of Mali to expand the intervention nationwide. This experience represents a significant advancement for patient safety in developing countries.

  18. Effective hand hygiene education with the use of flipcharts in a hospital in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Caniza, M A; Maron, G; Moore, E J; Quintana, Y; Liu, T

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, continuing education for healthcare staff may be limited by staff shortages and lack of sophisticated means of delivery. These limitations have implications for compliance with an important infection control practice, namely good hand hygiene. A comparison was made between the efficacy of two educational tools commonly used in healthcare and practical sanitation settings in developing countries, i.e. videotapes and flipcharts, in delivering hand hygiene education to 67 nurses in a paediatric hospital in El Salvador. Efficacy was measured on the basis of scores obtained in pre- and post-training tests consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions. Half of the nurses received video-based instruction and half received instruction via flipcharts. Both methods of instruction increased participants' knowledge of good hand hygiene, and the extent of knowledge acquisition by the two methods was similar. Feedback obtained from flipchart users six months after training indicated that most of the respondents used the flipchart to teach hand hygiene to patients' families (62.5%), patients (50%) and healthcare workers (43.8%). Flipchart users ranked flipcharts as their favourite educational tool. Flipcharts offer an economical, easy-to-use, non-technological yet effective alternative to videotapes for delivering education in developing countries. Although the use of flipcharts requires a skilled and well-trained instructor, flipcharts could be used more widely to deliver education in resource-poor settings.

  19. Point-of-care hand hygiene: preventing infection behind the curtain.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Anson; Landers, Timothy; Kirk, Jane; Young, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    Best practices for hand hygiene provide indications for performance of hand hygiene at specific points in time during patient care. For hand hygiene to prevent infections, hand hygiene resources must be readily available to health care workers whenever required. This article reviews practices and recommendations intended to facilitate hand hygiene behavior at the point of care (POC) within the health care setting. Key aspects of POC hand hygiene include the provision of alcohol-based hand rub products, integration of dispensing solutions within the patient zone, consideration of patient care workflow, and dispenser designs that optimize acceptance and usage.

  20. Marketing hand hygiene in hospitals--a case study.

    PubMed

    Gopal Rao, G; Jeanes, A; Osman, M; Aylott, C; Green, J

    2002-01-01

    Hand hygiene of healthcare workers is frequently poor despite the efforts of infection control teams to promote hand decontamination as the most important method to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired infections. In this case study, we describe how principles of societal marketing were applied to improve hand hygiene. Pre-marketing analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to implementation; attention to product, price, promotion and placement; and post-marketing 'customer' surveys were the essential components of the marketing strategy and its implementation. Placement of an alcohol-based gel decontaminant (Spirigel) at the bedside of every patient was widely welcomed in the hospital, and has played a major role in improving hand hygiene of healthcare workers. In the twelve months following the implementation, the decontaminant was used at least 440,000 times. The cost of purchasing the decontaminant was approximately 5000 pounds sterling. Following the introduction of Spirigel, there was a consistent reduction in the proportion of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in each of the quarters of 2000-2001 compared with 1999-2000. In the period 1999-2000, nearly 50% of the MRSA were hospital acquired compared with 39% in 2000-2001. Similarly, the average incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) decreased in each of the quarters in 2000-2001 following the introduction of Spirigel. During this period, there was an average incidence of 9.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions compared with 11.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions in 1999-2000. This represents a 17.4% reduction in the incidence of CDAD. However, this reduction was not statistically significant (P=0.2). Our case study demonstrates that principles of societal marketing methods can be used effectively to promote and sustain hand hygiene in hospitals. Improvement in hand hygiene will lead to considerable reduction in hospital

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Study on Hand Hygiene Among Imam Hossein Hospital’s Residents in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Mahmoud; Alavi-Moghaddam, Mostafa; Gachkar, Latif; Moeinian, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures for preventing health care-associated infections. Although the techniques involved in hand hygiene are simple, compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is poor worldwide. Objectives: We sought to perform a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study on hand hygiene among medical residents at Imam Hossein hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional KAP study was conducted among medical residents in Imam Hossein hospital, Iran, 2013. All medical residents from different wards were invited to participate in this study (270 in total). The world health organization questionnaires and an observational checklist were used to collect data. The χ2 test and the Fisher exact test were utilized to analyze the qualitative variables. Since the quantitative variables had no normal distribution, the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis method were employed. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 17. Results: The mean overall score of the residents’ knowledge was 14.2 ± 2.6 (mean ± SD). The residents received weak scores in attitudes and practices. Forty-nine percent (n = 124) of the residents responded to the questions on attitudes toward hand hygiene, and only 20.16% (n = 25) managed to identify the correct answer. Moreover, 3.1% (n = 8) of the residents adhered to the 8 standard steps, 12.1% (n = 31) washed their hands for 20 - 30 seconds, and only 2 residents observed the sequences of hand hygiene. Additionally, none of the residents performed hand washing with available means (water and hand-washing liquid) in the morning visit hours. Conclusions: Concerning hand hygiene, the residents had moderate knowledge but overall poor attitudes and practices. The present study underscores the need for further improvement in the existing training programs to address the gaps in KAP regarding hand

  2. Sustained improvement in hand hygiene at a children's hospital.

    PubMed

    Crews, Jonathan D; Whaley, Elaine; Syblik, Dorothy; Starke, Jeffrey

    2013-07-01

    A quality improvement project was conducted to improve hand hygiene at a children's hospital. Interventions included education, performance feedback, an incentive program, and a marketing campaign. There were 9,322 observations performed over a 5-year period. Hospital-wide adherence increased from 39.9% to 97.9%. Adherence of 95% or greater was sustained for over 3 years.

  3. Clean Hands for Life: results of a large, multicentre, multifaceted, social marketing hand-hygiene campaign.

    PubMed

    Forrester, L A; Bryce, E A; Mediaa, A K

    2010-03-01

    A year-long multifaceted hand-hygiene campaign entitled Clean Hands for Life targeting individual, environmental and organisational factors that influence healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour was implemented in 36 acute and long-term care facilities in Vancouver Coastal Health region. The campaign involved rotation of ten novel posters, two poster contests, and distribution of multiple promotional items. A social marketing approach was used to implement and monitor the effectiveness of the campaign. Evaluation included quality assurance surveys, staff surveys (baseline, mid- and post-campaign), and focus groups. A total of 141 poster contest submissions was received, 5452 staff surveys completed and 14 focus groups conducted. Overall knowledge of the importance of hand-hygiene and intention to clean hands was high at baseline. No significant differences were observed when mid- and post-campaign scores were compared to baseline. The majority (89.5%) of HCWs reported that they preferred soap and water over alcohol hand gel. A significant increase in the self-reported use of hand-hygiene products was observed particularly among HCWs not providing direct patient care. Barriers to hand-hygiene included inappropriate placement of sinks, traffic flow issues, inadequately stocked washrooms, workload and time constraints. Organisational support was visible throughout the campaign. The results showed that social marketing is an effective approach in engaging HCWs. Hand-hygiene campaigns that focus almost exclusively on increasing awareness among HCWs may not be as successful as multifaceted campaigns or campaigns that target identified barriers to hand-hygiene.

  4. Hand hygiene in long-term care facilities: a multicenter study of knowledge, attitudes, practices, and barriers.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Salman; Hussain, Syed Wasif; Agarwal, Nimit; Ashraf, Sadaf; El-Kass, Gabriel; Hussain, Roshan; Nemat, Hashim; Haller, Nairmeen; Pekmezaris, Renee; Sison, Cristina; Walia, Rajni; Eichorn, Ann; Cal, Charles; Dlugacz, Yosef; Edwards, Barbara T; Louis, Betina; Alano, Gloria; Wolf-Klein, Gisele

    2010-07-01

    An anonymous survey of 1143 employees in 17 nursing facilities assessed knowledge of, attitudes about, self-perceived compliance with, and barriers to implementing the 2002 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hand hygiene guidelines. Overall, employees reported positive attitudes toward the guidelines but differed with regard to knowledge, compliance, and perceived barriers. These findings provide guidance for practice improvement programs in long-term care settings.

  5. Hand hygiene practices and resources in a teaching hospital in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Yawson, Alfred Edwin; Hesse, Afua A J

    2013-04-17

    Nosocomial infections have long been neglected in Sub-Saharan Africa, and hand hygiene (HH) is usually neglected in hospital settings. This study aimed to provide baseline data on HH compliance among health workers and HH resources in a large West African teaching hospital. A cross-sectional, unobtrusive observational study assessed personal and care-related HH compliance among doctors and nurses and HH resources in 15 service provision centres of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Ghana, in 2011. Data was collected with an infection prevention checklist and health worker HH compliance form, based on World Health Organization guidelines. Care-related HH compliance of doctors and nurses was low and basic HH resources were deficient in all 15 service centres. Care-related HH compliance among doctors ranged from 9.2% to 57% and 9.6% to 54% among nurses. HH compliance was higher when risk was perceived to be higher (i.e., in the emergency and wound dressing/treatment rooms and labour wards). The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) showed the highest level of compliance among health workers. Facilities for HH, particularly alcohol hand rub and liquid soap dispensers were shown to be deficient. Care-related HH compliance among doctors and nurses in this large West African hospital is low; however, the NICU, which had implemented HH interventions, had better HH compliance. HH intervention programs should be designed and promoted in all service centres. Also, the introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs as an accessible and effective HH alternative in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is recommended.

  6. Developing professional habits of hand hygiene in intensive care settings: An action-research intervention.

    PubMed

    Battistella, Giuseppe; Berto, Giuliana; Bazzo, Stefania

    2017-02-01

    To explore perceptions and unconscious psychological processes underlying handwashing behaviours of intensive care nurses, to implement organisational innovations for improving hand hygiene in clinical practice. An action-research intervention was performed in 2012 and 2013 in the intensive care unit of a public hospital in Italy, consisting of: structured interviews, semantic analysis, development and validation of a questionnaire, team discussion, project design and implementation. Five general workers, 16 staff nurses and 53 nurse students participated in the various stages. Social handwashing emerged as a structured and efficient habit, which follows automatically the pattern "cue/behaviour/gratification" when hands are perceived as "dirty". The perception of "dirt" starts unconsciously the process of social washing also in professional settings. Professional handwashing is perceived as goal-directed. The main concern identified is the fact that washing hands requires too much time to be performed in a setting of urgency. These findings addressed participants to develop a professional "habit-directed" hand hygiene procedure, to be implemented at beginning of workshifts. Handwashing is a ritualistic behaviour driven by deep and unconscious patterns, and social habits affect professional practice. Creating professional habits of hand hygiene could be a key solution to improve compliance in intensive care settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Assessment of hand hygiene resources and practices at the 2 children's hospitals in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kouni, Sofia; Kourlaba, Georgia; Mougkou, Katerina; Maroudi, Stefania; Chavela, Betty; Nteli, Chara; Lourida, Athanasia; Spyridis, Nikos; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Coffin, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is the most effective way to prevent health care-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. The aim of our study was to assess the existing HH resources and current HH practices at 2 hospitals in Athens, Greece. Observational HH data and an inventory of HH resources were collected from 13 wards including medical/surgical, oncology/transplant and intensive care units, during 65, 1-hour observations periods. A total of 1271 HH opportunities were observed during the study period, including 944 of Health Care Workers (HCW) and 327 of visitors and parents. The nursing HH compliance was highest (49%) followed by medical compliance (24%, P < 0.001). HCW HH compliance was highest in intensive care units and the transplant unit (64-87%). The rate of appropriate HH for HCW was 22.6%. HCW most commonly used soap and water (76.1%). The HH procedure was more likely to be appropriate when soap and water were used as compared with alcohol based hand rub (64.6% and 47.5%, P = 0.006). A marginally significant association was identified between the HH compliance rate and the number of alcohol based hand rub dispensers per room (P = 0.057). In visitors and parents, the HH compliance was found to be 19%, whereas the rate of appropriate HH was 8.9%. Low levels of HH were observed.

  8. [The effectiveness of hand hygiene products on MRSA colonization of health care workers by using CHROMagar MRSA].

    PubMed

    Koçak Tufan, Zeliha; Irmak, Hasan; Bulut, Cemal; Cesur, Salih; Kınıklı, Sami; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were; to investigate the hand hygiene compliance of the health care workers (HCWs) during their routine patient care, to determine the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) hand colonization of the HCWs, to investigate the effect of different hand hygiene products on MRSA colonization and to evaluate the effectiveness of chromogenic agar for detecting MRSA. HCWs were investigated during their routine patient care and hand cultures were taken before and after hand wash/hygiene. Two different techniques were used to obtain the hand cultures: fingertip method (CHROMagar MRSA containing HygiSlide); and direct swab method and then inoculation to CHROMagar MRSA media. MRSA strains grown on those cultures were confirmed with conventional methods. A total of 100 HCWs (of them 61 were female; mean age: 32.7 ± 5.2 years; age range: 25-51 years) involving physicians (n= 33), nurses (n= 38) and health care assistants (n= 29), were included in the study. MRSA was detected in 39% and 11% before hand hygiene and in 13% and 6% after hand hygiene, with HygiSlide CHROMagar media and with CHROMagar in plate media, respectively. No difference were found regarding clinics, occupations, or the type of patient handling in those HCWs who were positive (n= 13) for MRSA colonization following hand hygiene, and those who were negative (n= 26). However, the type of the hand hygiene product used exhibited a statistical difference. None of the seven HCWs who used alcohol based hand rub revealed growth in the second culture while 10 of 19 (53%) HCWs who used soap and three of 13 (23%) HCWs who used chlorhexidine were still colonized with MRSA. In terms of reduction in the MRSA counts, the most effective one was the alcohol based hand rub while the soap was the least, since seven of 19 (37%) HCWs who used soap showed no reduction at all in the MRSA counts. A high ratio of hand colonization with MRSA was detected in our hospital staff (39%). It was shown that

  9. Comparative efficacy of interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospital: systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luangasanatip, Nantasit; Hongsuwan, Maliwan; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Lubell, Yoel; Lee, Andie S; Harbarth, Stephan; Day, Nicholas P J; Graves, Nicholas; Cooper, Ben S

    2015-07-28

    To evaluate the relative efficacy of the World Health Organization 2005 campaign (WHO-5) and other interventions to promote hand hygiene among healthcare workers in hospital settings and to summarize associated information on use of resources. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Cochrane Library, and the EPOC register (December 2009 to February 2014); studies selected by the same search terms in previous systematic reviews (1980-2009). Included studies were randomised controlled trials, non-randomised trials, controlled before-after trials, and interrupted time series studies implementing an intervention to improve compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers in hospital settings and measuring compliance or appropriate proxies that met predefined quality inclusion criteria. When studies had not used appropriate analytical methods, primary data were re-analysed. Random effects and network meta-analyses were performed on studies reporting directly observed compliance with hand hygiene when they were considered sufficiently homogeneous with regard to interventions and participants. Information on resources required for interventions was extracted and graded into three levels. Of 3639 studies retrieved, 41 met the inclusion criteria (six randomised controlled trials, 32 interrupted time series, one non-randomised trial, and two controlled before-after studies). Meta-analysis of two randomised controlled trials showed the addition of goal setting to WHO-5 was associated with improved compliance (pooled odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.76; I(2)=81%). Of 22 pairwise comparisons from interrupted time series, 18 showed stepwise increases in compliance with hand hygiene, and all but four showed a trend for increasing compliance after the intervention. Network meta-analysis indicated considerable uncertainty in the relative effectiveness of

  10. Comparative efficacy of interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospital: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hongsuwan, Maliwan; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Lubell, Yoel; Lee, Andie S; Harbarth, Stephan; Day, Nicholas P J; Graves, Nicholas; Cooper, Ben S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative efficacy of the World Health Organization 2005 campaign (WHO-5) and other interventions to promote hand hygiene among healthcare workers in hospital settings and to summarize associated information on use of resources. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Cochrane Library, and the EPOC register (December 2009 to February 2014); studies selected by the same search terms in previous systematic reviews (1980-2009). Review methods Included studies were randomised controlled trials, non-randomised trials, controlled before-after trials, and interrupted time series studies implementing an intervention to improve compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers in hospital settings and measuring compliance or appropriate proxies that met predefined quality inclusion criteria. When studies had not used appropriate analytical methods, primary data were re-analysed. Random effects and network meta-analyses were performed on studies reporting directly observed compliance with hand hygiene when they were considered sufficiently homogeneous with regard to interventions and participants. Information on resources required for interventions was extracted and graded into three levels. Results Of 3639 studies retrieved, 41 met the inclusion criteria (six randomised controlled trials, 32 interrupted time series, one non-randomised trial, and two controlled before-after studies). Meta-analysis of two randomised controlled trials showed the addition of goal setting to WHO-5 was associated with improved compliance (pooled odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.76; I2=81%). Of 22 pairwise comparisons from interrupted time series, 18 showed stepwise increases in compliance with hand hygiene, and all but four showed a trend for increasing compliance after the intervention. Network meta-analysis indicated

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial of Antiseptic Hand Hygiene Methods in an Outpatient Surgery Clinic.

    PubMed

    Therattil, Paul J; Yueh, Janet H; Kordahi, Anthony M; Cherla, Deepa V; Lee, Edward S; Granick, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Outpatient wound care plays an integral part in any plastic surgery practice. However, compliance with hand hygiene measures has shown to be low, due to skin irritation and lack of time. The objective of this trial was to determine whether single-use, long-acting antiseptics can be as effective as standard multiple-use hand hygiene methods in an outpatient surgical setting. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed in the authors' outpatient plastic surgery clinic at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ to compare the efficacy of an ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer (Avagard D Instant Hand Aniseptic, 3M Health Care, St. Paul, MN), a benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer (Soft & Shield, Bioderm Technologies, Inc, Trenton, NJ, distributed by NAPP Technologies, Hackensack, NJ ), and soap and- water handwashing. Subjects included clinic personnel, who were followed throughout the course of a 3-hour clinic session with hourly hand bacterial counts taken. During the course of the trial, 95 subjects completed the clinic session utilizing 1 of the hand hygiene methods (36 ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer, 38 benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer, and 21 soap-and-water handwashing). There was no difference between hand bacterial counts using the different methods at 4 hourly time points (P greater than 0.05). Hand bacterial counts increased significantly over the 3-hour clinic session with the ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer (9.24 to 21.90 CFU, P less than 0.05), benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer (6.69 to 21.59 CFU, P less than 0.05), and soap-and-water handwashing (8.43 to 22.75 CFU, P less than 0.05). There does not appear to be any difference in efficacy between single-use, long-acting sanitizer, and standard multiple-use hand hygiene methods. Hand bacterial counts increased significantly over the course of the 3-hour clinic session regardless of the hand hygiene measure used. Hand condition of subjects was improved with the ethyl alcohol

  12. Replicating changes in hand hygiene in a surgical intensive care unit with remote video auditing and feedback.

    PubMed

    Armellino, Donna; Trivedi, Manish; Law, Isabel; Singh, Narendra; Schilling, Mary Ellen; Hussain, Erfan; Farber, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    Using remote video auditing (RVA) and real-time feedback, we replicated health care workers hand hygiene in a second intensive care unit. During the first 4 weeks using RVA without feedback, the compliance rate was 30.42%. The rate during the 64-week postfeedback period (initial 16 and 48 weeks maintenance) with RVA and feedback exceeded 80% on average. These data demonstrate that improved hand hygiene was achieved and sustained with the use of RVA and feedback. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Procedures for hand hygiene in German-speaking countries].

    PubMed

    Rotter, M

    1996-12-01

    According to the field of application, strategies for the prevention of the transfer of microbial skin flora from the hands must consider the various categories of flora: transient, resident or stemming from infected lesions on the hands (infection flora). Depending on the species and virulence of the microorganism and of the susceptibility of the infection target, transient flora may or may not be of pathogenic importance. In contrast, resident skin flora is usually regarded as pathogenic only under certain circumstances such as in surgery, especially with transplantation of foreign bodies and in highly susceptible hosts. Microorganisms stemming from infected lesions are of proven pathogenicity. In the non-surgical field, only the transient and infection flora from the hands play a role. Such lesions are an absolute contraindication for patient-care, preparation of pharmaceuticals or foodstuff. In some procedures, the transmission of transient flora can be prevented by use of the non-touch technique ("instruments instead of fingers") or by the intelligent use of protective gloves. Hands already contaminated may be rendered safe by procedures for the elimination of transients such as handwashing, hygienic handwash and hygienic hand rub (in the order of increasing efficacy). Among all useable chemicals, ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol (in the order of increasing efficacy) are the strongest and fastest agents. Furthermore, the duration of treatment (between 30 and 60 s) significantly influences the achievable reduction of microbial release. According to the new European standards (CEN) for testing chemical disinfectants and antiseptics, products for hygienic handwash must be significantly more efficacious than unmedicated soap, on artificially contaminated hands. In contrast, products for the hygienic hand rub must not be significantly less efficacious than a reference disinfection including isopropanol 60% vol rubbed onto the hands of the same volunteers during

  14. [Products for hand hygiene and antisepsis: use by health professionals and relationship with hand eczema].

    PubMed

    Batalla, A; García-Doval, I; de la Torre, C

    2012-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important measure for the prevention of nosocomial infection. We describe the different products available for hygiene and antisepsis of the hands and the use of these products in daily practice. Hand hygiene products such as soaps and detergents are a cause of irritant dermatitis in health professionals. This irritation is one of the principal factors affecting their use in clinical practice. Alcohol-based products are better tolerated and less irritant than soap and water; irritation should not therefore be a limiting factor in the use of these products and they are to be recommended in place of soap and water. Informative and continued education programs could increase their use.

  15. Epidemiologic Background of Hand Hygiene and Evaluation of the Most Important Agents for Scrubs and Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Kramer, Axel

    2004-01-01

    from comparative trials are available to reliably rank triclosan. Personnel should be reminded that it is neither necessary nor recommended to routinely wash hands after each application of an alcohol-based hand rub. Long-lasting improvement of compliance with hand hygiene protocols can be successful if an effective and accessible alcohol-based hand rub with a proven dermal tolerance and an excellent user acceptability is supplied, accompanied by education of health care workers and promotion of the use of the product. PMID:15489352

  16. Unit-Specific Rates of Hand Hygiene Opportunities in an Acute-Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Han, Angela; Conway, Laurie J; Moore, Christine; McCreight, Liz; Ragan, Kelsey; So, Jannice; Borgundvaag, Emily; Larocque, Mike; Coleman, Brenda L; McGeer, Allison

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the frequency of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) in multiple units of an acute-care hospital. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING The adult intensive care unit (ICU), medical and surgical step-down units, medical and surgical units, and the postpartum mother-baby unit (MBU) of an academic acute-care hospital during May-August 2013, May-July 2014, and June-August 2015. PARTICIPANTS Healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS HHOs were recorded using direct observation in 1-hour intervals following Public Health Ontario guidelines. The frequency and distribution of HHOs per patient hour were determined for each unit according to time of day, indication, and profession. RESULTS In total, 3,422 HHOs were identified during 586 hours of observation. The mean numbers of HHOs per patient hour in the ICU were similar to those in the medical and surgical step-down units during the day and night, which were higher than the rates observed in medical and surgical units and the MBU. The rate of HHOs during the night significantly decreased compared with day (P92% of HHOs on medical and surgical units, compared to 67% of HHOs on the MBU. CONCLUSIONS Assessment of hand hygiene compliance using product utilization data requires knowledge of the appropriate opportunities for hand hygiene. We have provided a detailed characterization of these estimates across a wide range of inpatient settings as well as an examination of temporal variations in HHOs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:411-416.

  17. Impact of environmental olfactory cues on hand hygiene behaviour in a simulated hospital environment: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Birnbach, D J; King, D; Vlaev, I; Rosen, L F; Harvey, P D

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of a fresh scent on the rate of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) among novice healthcare providers. In all, 165 participants examined a standardized patient with one sample exposed to fresh scent (N = 79) and the other exposed to the standard environment (N = 86). Hand hygiene behaviours were tracked before patient contact using video surveillance. The standard environment group had an HHC rate of 51% whereas participants in the fresh scent group had a higher HHC rate of 80% (P < 0.001). These data demonstrate that hand hygiene behaviour may be subconsciously influenced by cues in the environment. © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hand Hygiene – Evaluation of Three Disinfectant Hand Sanitizers in a Community Setting

    PubMed Central

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group. PMID:25379773

  19. Hand hygiene--evaluation of three disinfectant hand sanitizers in a community setting.

    PubMed

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education about the correct use of hand sanitizers. The study is the first to evaluate the efficacy and ease of use of different formulations of hand rubs used by the general population. The products tested were: Sterillium (perfumed, liquid), desderman pure gel (odorless, gel) and Lavit (perfumed, spray). Sterillium and desderman are EN1500 (hygienic hand rub) certified products (available in pharmacy) and Lavit is non EN1500 certified and available in supermarkets. The two EN1500 certified products were found to be significantly superior in terms of reducing bacterial load. desderman pure gel, Sterillium and Lavit reduced the bacterial count to 6.4%, 8.2% and 28.0% respectively. After education in the correct use of each hand rub, the bacterial load was reduced even further, demonstrating the value of education in improving hand hygiene. Information about the testers' perceptions of the three sanitizers, together with their expectations of a hand sanitizer was obtained through a questionnaire. Efficacy, followed by skin compatibility were found to be the two most important attributes of a hand disinfectant in our target group.

  20. Using the Six Sigma Process to Implement the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline for Hand Hygiene in 4 Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Noel E; Woods, Susan S; Bonello, Robert S; Clutter, Kay; Ellingson, LeAnn; Harris, Mary Ann; Livingston, Barbara K; Bagian, James P; Danko, Linda H; Dunn, Edward J; Parlier, Renee L; Pederson, Cheryl; Reichling, Kim J; Roselle, Gary A; Wright, Steven M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health Care Settings was issued in 2002. In 2003, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) established complying with the CDC Guideline as a National Patient Safety Goal for 2004. This goal has been maintained through 2006. The CDC's emphasis on the use of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) rather than soap and water was an opportunity to improve compliance, but the Guideline contained over 40 specific recommendations to implement. OBJECTIVE To use the Six Sigma process to examine hand hygiene practices and increase compliance with the CDC hand hygiene recommendations required by JCAHO. DESIGN Six Sigma Project with pre-post design. PARTICIPANTS Physicians, nurses, and other staff working in 4 intensive care units at 3 hospitals. MEASUREMENTS Observed compliance with 10 required hand hygiene practices, mass of ABHR used per month per 100 patient-days, and staff attitudes and perceptions regarding hand hygiene reported by questionnaire. RESULTS Observed compliance increased from 47% to 80%, based on over 4,000 total observations. The mass of ABHR used per 100 patient-days in 3 intensive care units (ICUs) increased by 97%, 94%, and 70%; increases were sustained for 9 months. Self-reported compliance using the questionnaire did not change. Staff reported increased use of ABHR and increased satisfaction with hand hygiene practices and products. CONCLUSIONS The Six Sigma process was effective for organizing the knowledge, opinions, and actions of a group of professionals to implement the CDC's evidence-based hand hygiene practices in 4 ICUs. Several tools were developed for widespread use. PMID:16637959

  1. Helping hands: a cluster randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses.

    PubMed

    Huis, Anita; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Grol, Richard; Borm, George; Adang, Eddy; Hulscher, Marlies; van Achterberg, Theo

    2011-09-03

    Hand hygiene prescriptions are the most important measure in the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Yet, compliance rates are generally below 50% of all opportunities for hand hygiene. This study aims at evaluating the short- and long-term effects of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses. This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial with inpatient wards as the unit of randomisation. Guidelines for hand hygiene will be implemented in this study. Two strategies will be used to improve the adherence to guidelines for hand hygiene. The state-of-the-art strategy is derived from the literature and includes education, reminders, feedback, and targeting adequate products and facilities. The extended strategy also contains activities aimed at influencing social influence in groups and enhancing leadership. The unique contribution of the extended strategy is built upon relevant behavioural science theories. The extended strategy includes all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy supplemented with gaining active commitment and initiative of ward management, modelling by informal leaders at the ward, and setting norms and targets within the team. Data will be collected at four points in time, with six-month intervals. An average of 3,000 opportunities for hand hygiene in approximately 900 nurses will be observed at each time point. Performing and evaluating an implementation strategy that also targets the social context of teams may considerably add to the general body of knowledge in this field. Results from our study will allow us to draw conclusions on the effects of different strategies for the implementation of hand hygiene guidelines, and based on these results we will be able to define a preferred implementation strategy for hospital based nursing. The study is registered as a Clinical Trial in ClinicalTrials.gov, dossier number: NCT00548015.

  2. Improving healthcare worker hand hygiene adherence before patient contact: A multimodal intervention of hand hygiene practice in Three Japanese tertiary care centers.

    PubMed

    Sakihama, Tomoko; Honda, Hitoshi; Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Kamiya, Toru; Sato, Yumiko; Iuchi, Ritsuko; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2016-03-01

    Though hand hygiene is an important method of preventing healthcare-associated infection, we found suboptimal hand hygiene adherence among healthcare workers in 4 diverse Japanese hospitals (adherence rates of 11%-25%). Our goal was to assess multimodal hand hygiene intervention coupled with a contest to improve hand hygiene adherence. A total of 3 to 4 inpatient wards in 3 Japanese hospitals. Pre-post intervention study. The intervention was a multimodal hand hygiene intervention recommended by the World Health Organization that was tailored to each facility. The hospital with the highest adherence after the intervention was given $5000 US dollars and a trophy, provided by an American coinvestigator unaffiliated with any of the Japanese hospitals. We tracked hand hygiene adherence rates before patient contact for each unit and hospital and compared these to pre-intervention adherence rates. We observed 2982 postintervention provider-patient encounters in 10 units across 3 hospitals. Hand hygiene adherence rates were improved overall after the intervention (18% pre- to 33% postintervention; P < 0.001), but postintervention adherence rates varied considerably: hospital A + 29%, B + 5%, C + 8%. Hospital A won the contest with 40% adherence after the intervention. Using a novel contest coupled with a multimodal intervention successfully improved hand hygiene rates among Japanese healthcare workers. Given the overall low rates, however, further improvement is necessary. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  3. Effects of hand hygiene education and individual feedback on hand hygiene behaviour, MRSA acquisition rate and MRSA colonization pressure among intensive care unit nurses.

    PubMed

    Chun, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Park, Ho-Ran

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to increase the frequency and level of thoroughness of hand hygiene practice by nurses, and to assess the influence of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquired incidence rate and the MRSA colonization pressure in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). A total of 24 MICU nurses received hand hygiene education and individual feedback of hand hygiene frequency and method after a session of education, and two posteducation evaluations were followed. The frequency of hand hygiene (P = 0.001) and the methodology score of hand hygiene increased significantly (P = 0.001). The MRSA acquisition rate decreased significantly, from 11.1% before the education to 0% after (P = 0.014). The MRSA colonization pressure decreased significantly from 39.5% to 8.6% after the education sessions (P = 0.001). This indicates that providing individual feedback after hand hygiene education was very effective in increasing nurses' hand hygiene frequency and improving hand hygiene method; furthermore, it was expected to decrease health care-associated infections. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. The effect of health beliefs on the compliance of periodontal patients with oral hygiene instructions.

    PubMed

    Kühner, M K; Raetzke, P B

    1989-01-01

    Problems of patient compliance in periodontics are evident. This study explored factors which may contribute to the degree of adherence. Using the "Health Belief Model" a questionnaire was constructed and administered to 120 patients of the Department of Periodontology, University of Frankfurt Dental School. Compliance of these patients during the hygienic phase was assessed using a bleeding index. The data set for statistical evaluation comprised 96 patients. The loss was due to missing of appointments and incomplete questionnaires. There was no significant correlation between patient compliance on the one hand and sociodemographic variables (age, sex, family status), disease parameters, and the health beliefs "susceptibility," "barriers," "dentist-patient-relationship," and "experience with therapy" on the other hand. "Motivation," "seriousness," "benefits," "experience with affected organ," and tooth-loss-index were significant predictors with Spearman correlation coefficients running from 0.17 to 0.32. When the predictor variables were combined the coefficient was 0.59. This study further supports the assumption that health beliefs play a significant role in the determination of health related behavior.

  5. Hand Hygiene With Alcohol-Based Hand Rub: How Long Is Long Enough?

    PubMed

    Pires, Daniela; Soule, Hervé; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Pittet, Didier

    2017-05-01

    BACKGROUND Hand hygiene is the core element of infection prevention and control. The optimal hand-hygiene gesture, however, remains poorly defined. OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the influence of hand-rubbing duration on the reduction of bacterial counts on the hands of healthcare personnel (HCP). METHODS We performed an experimental study based on the European Norm 1500. Hand rubbing was performed for 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, or 60 seconds, according to the WHO technique using 3 mL alcohol-based hand rub. Hand contamination with E. coli ATCC 10536 was followed by hand rubbing and sampling. A generalized linear mixed model with a random effect on the subject adjusted for hand size and gender was used to analyze the reduction in bacterial counts after each hand-rubbing action. In addition, hand-rubbing durations of 15 and 30 seconds were compared to assert non-inferiority (0.6 log10). RESULTS In total, 32 HCP performed 123 trials. All durations of hand rubbing led to significant reductions in bacterial counts (P<.001). Reductions achieved after 10, 15, or 20 seconds of hand rubbing were not significantly different from those obtained after 30 seconds. The mean bacterial reduction after 15 seconds of hand rubbing was 0.11 log10 lower (95% CI, -0.46 to 0.24) than after 30 seconds, demonstrating non-inferiority. CONCLUSIONS Hand rubbing for 15 seconds was not inferior to 30 seconds in reducing bacterial counts on hands under the described experimental conditions. There was no gain in reducing bacterial counts from hand rubbing longer than 30 seconds. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of our findings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:547-552.

  6. Promoting a Hand Hygiene Program Using Social Media: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sung-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Tien, Kuei-Lien; Chien, Kuang-Tse; Chang, Shawn-Chwen

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is an important component in infection control to protect patient safety and reduce health care-associated infection. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of different social media on the promotion of a hand hygiene (HH) program. Methods The observational study was conducted from May 5 to December 31, 2014, at a 2600-bed tertiary care hospital. A 3-minute video of an HH campaign in 8 languages was posted to YouTube. The Chinese version was promoted through three platforms: the hospital website, the hospital group email, and the Facebook site of a well-known Internet illustrator. The video traffic was analyzed via Google Analytics. HH compliance was measured in November 2013 and 2014. Results There were 5252 views of the video, mainly of the Chinese-language version (3509/5252, 66.81%). The NTUH website had 24,000 subscribers, and 151 of them viewed the video (connection rate was 151/24,000, 0.63%). There were 9967 users of the hospital email group and the connection rate was 0.91% (91/9967). The connection rate was 6.17% (807/13,080) from Facebook, significantly higher than the other 2 venues (both P<.001). HH compliance sustained from 83.7% (473/565) in 2013 to 86.7% (589/679) in 2014 (P=.13) among all HCWs. Conclusions Facebook had the highest connection rate in the HH video campaign. The use of novel social media such as Facebook should be considered for future programs that promote hand hygiene and other healthy behaviors. PMID:27227159

  7. Effectiveness of hand hygiene education in a basic nursing school curricula.

    PubMed

    Kelcíkova, Simona; Skodova, Zuzana; Straka, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Although hand hygiene (HH) is the cheapest and simplest tool for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections, poor HH compliance has been reported among health care professionals. A variety of factors influence the compliance with HH guidelines, the most important being the quality of the basic nursing education. The aims of this study were to analyze the effectiveness of the basic nursing education in relation to HH, and to explore the skills and attitudes toward HH among nursing students in praxis. A mixed-method approach using a cross-sectional survey combined with observation and curricular analysis was used. A total of 188 nursing students participated in the study. Content analysis revealed significant deficits in the quality of HH-related information in basic nursing educational programs. Our results correlate directly with the reported insufficient levels of HH knowledge and the associated poor HH compliance by students during their training in clinical settings; as shown in observation and questionnaire-based surveys. The lack of compliance with HH standards among students lead to poor compliance among health care professionals in praxis. Consequently, the role of educational institutions in the prevention of hospital-acquired infections is significant, if the effectiveness of HH education is to be improved. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Interventions to improve patient hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Srigley, J A; Furness, C D; Gardam, M

    2016-09-01

    Nosocomial pathogens may be acquired by patients via their own unclean hands, but there has been relatively little emphasis on patient hand hygiene as a tool for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of patient hand hygiene interventions in reducing HCAIs and improving patient hand hygiene rates compared to usual care. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched to August 2014. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they evaluated a patient hand hygiene intervention conducted in an acute or chronic healthcare facility and included HCAI incidence and/or patient hand hygiene rates as an outcome. All steps were performed independently by two investigators. Ten studies were included, most of which were uncontrolled before-after studies (N=8). The majority of interventions (N=7) were multi-modal, with components similar to healthcare worker hand hygiene programmes, including education, reminders, audit and feedback, and provision of hand hygiene products. Six studies reported HCAI outcomes and four studies assessed patient hand hygiene rates; all demonstrated improvements but were at moderate to high risk of bias. In conclusion, interventions to improve patient hand hygiene may reduce the incidence of HCAIs and improve hand hygiene rates, but the quality of evidence is low. Future studies should use stronger designs and be more selective in their choice of outcomes.

  9. Effectiveness of hand hygiene for removal of Clostridium difficile spores from hands.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; Zapka, Carrie; Kasper, Douglas; Gerber, Robert; McCormack, Robert; Macinga, David; Johnson, Stuart; Sambol, Susan; Fricker, Christopher; Arbogast, James; Gerding, Dale N

    2013-03-01

    This study determined whether surrogate organisms can predict activity against Clostridium difficile spores and compared the efficacy of hand hygiene preparations against C. difficile. Our data suggest that surrogate organisms were not predictive of C. difficile spore removal. Four preparations were significantly more effective than tap water at removing C. difficile.

  10. [Hand hygiene technique assessment using electronic equipment in 26 Hungarian healthcare institutions].

    PubMed

    Lehotsky, Ákos; Morvai, Júlia; Szilágyi, László; Bánsághi, Száva; Benkó, Alíz; Haidegger, Tamás

    2017-07-01

    Hand hygiene is probably the most effective tool of nosocomial infection prevention, however, proper feedback and control is needed to develop the individual hand hygiene practice. Assessing the efficiency of modern education tools, and digital demonstration and verification equipment during their wide-range deployment. 1269 healthcare workers took part in a training organized by our team. The training included the assessment of the participants' hand hygiene technique to identify the most often missed areas. The hand hygiene technique was examined by a digital device. 33% of the participants disinfected their hands incorrectly. The most often missed sites are the fingertips (33% on the left hand, 37% on the right hand) and the thumbs (42% on the left hand, 32% on the right hand). The feedback has a fundamental role in the development of the hand hygiene technique. With the usage of electronic devices feedback can be provided efficiently and simply. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1143-1148.

  11. Effectiveness and limitations of hand hygiene promotion on decreasing healthcare-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yee-Chun; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Wang, Jann-Tay; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Lin, Hui-Chi; Tien, Kuei-Lien; Hsu, Le-Yin; Tsai, Keh-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Limited data describe the sustained impact of hand hygiene programs (HHPs) implemented in teaching hospitals, where the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is high. We use a quasi-experimental, before and after, study design with prospective hospital-wide surveillance of HAIs to assess the cost effectiveness of HHPs. A 4-year hospital-wide HHP, with particular emphasis on using an alcohol-based hand rub, was implemented in April 2004 at a 2,200-bed teaching hospital in Taiwan. Compliance was measured by direct observation and the use of hand rub products. Poisson regression analyses were employed to evaluate the densities and trends of HAIs during the preintervention (January 1999 to March 2004) and intervention (April 2004 to December 2007) periods. The economic impact was estimated based on a case-control study in Taiwan. We observed 8,420 opportunities for hand hygiene during the study period. Compliance improved from 43.3% in April 2004 to 95.6% in 2007 (p<.001), and was closely correlated with increased consumption of the alcohol-based hand rub (r = 0.9399). The disease severity score (Charlson comorbidity index) increased (p = .002) during the intervention period. Nevertheless, we observed an 8.9% decrease in HAIs and a decline in the occurrence of bloodstream, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and intensive care unit infections. The intervention had no discernable impact on HAI rates in the hematology/oncology wards. The net benefit of the HHP was US$5,289,364, and the benefit-cost ratio was 23.7 with a 3% discount rate. Implementation of a HHP reduces preventable HAIs and is cost effective.

  12. Automated monitoring: a potential solution for achieving sustainable improvement in hand hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2014-08-01

    Adequate hand hygiene is often considered as the most effective method of reducing the rates of hospital-acquired infections, which are one of the major causes of increased cost, morbidity, and mortality in healthcare. Electronic monitoring technologies provide a promising direction for achieving sustainable hand hygiene improvement by introducing the elements of automated feedback and creating the possibility to automatically collect individual hand hygiene performance data. The results of the multiphase testing of an automated hand hygiene reminding and monitoring system installed in a complex continuing care setting are presented. The study included a baseline Phase 1, with the system performing automated data collection only, a preintervention Phase 2 with hand hygiene status indicator enabled, two intervention Phases 3 and 4 with the system generating hand hygiene reminding signals and periodic performance feedback sessions provided, and a postintervention Phase 5 with only hand hygiene status indicator enabled and no feedback sessions provided. A significant increase in hand hygiene performance observed during the first intervention Phase 3 was sustained over the second intervention Phase 4, with the postintervention phase also indicating higher hand hygiene activity rates compared with the preintervention and baseline phases. The overall trends observed during the multiphase testing, the factors affecting acceptability of the automated hand hygiene monitoring system, and various strategies of technology deployment are discussed.

  13. Hand Hygiene Adherence Among Health Care Workers at Japanese Hospitals: A Multicenter Observational Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakihama, Tomoko; Honda, Hitoshi; Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Shimizu, Taro; Kamiya, Toru; Sato, Yumiko; Arakawa, Soichi; Lee, Jong Ja; Iwata, Kentaro; Mihashi, Mutsuko; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2016-03-01

    Although proper hand hygiene among health care workers is an important component of efforts to prevent health care-associated infection, there are few data available on adherence to hand hygiene practices in Japan. The aim of this study was to examine hand hygiene adherence at teaching hospitals in Japan. An observational study was conducted from July to November 2011 in 4 units (internal medicine, surgery, intensive care, and/or emergency department) in 4 geographically diverse hospitals (1 university hospital and 3 community teaching hospitals) in Japan. Hand hygiene practice before patient contact was assessed by an external observer. In a total of 3545 health care worker-patient observations, appropriate hand hygiene practice was performed in 677 (overall adherence, 19%; 95% confidence interval, 18%-20%). Subgroup rates of hand hygiene adherence were 15% among physicians and 23% among nurses. The ranges of adherence were 11% to 25% between hospitals and 11% to 31% between units. Adherence of the nurses and the physicians to hand hygiene was correlated within each hospital. There was a trend toward higher hand hygiene adherence in hospitals with infection control nurses, compared with hospitals without them (29% versus 16%). The hand hygiene adherence in Japanese teaching hospitals in our sample was low, even lower than reported mean values from other international studies. Greater adherence to hand hygiene should be encouraged in Japan.

  14. Hand hygiene: back to the basics of infection control.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Purva

    2011-11-01

    Health care associated infections are drawing increasing attention from patients, insurers, governments and regulatory bodies. This is not only because of the magnitude of the problem in terms of the associated morbidity, mortality and cost of treatment, but also due to the growing recognition that most of these are preventable. The medical community is witnessing in tandem unprecedented advancements in the understanding of pathophysiology of infectious diseases and the global spread of multi-drug resistant infections in health care set-ups. These factors, compounded by the paucity of availability of new antimicrobials have necessitated a re-look into the role of basic practices of infection prevention in modern day health care. There is now undisputed evidence that strict adherence to hand hygiene reduces the risk of cross-transmission of infections. With "Clean Care is Safer Care" as a prime agenda of the global initiative of WHO on patient safety programmes, it is time for developing countries to formulate the much-needed policies for implementation of basic infection prevention practices in health care set-ups. This review focuses on one of the simplest, low cost but least accepted from infection prevention: hand hygiene.

  15. Hand hygiene: Back to the basics of infection control

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Purva

    2011-01-01

    Health care associated infections are drawing increasing attention from patients, insurers, governments and regulatory bodies. This is not only because of the magnitude of the problem in terms of the associated morbidity, mortality and cost of treatment, but also due to the growing recognition that most of these are preventable. The medical community is witnessing in tandem unprecedented advancements in the understanding of pathophysiology of infectious diseases and the global spread of multi-drug resistant infections in health care set-ups. These factors, compounded by the paucity of availability of new antimicrobials have necessitated a re-look into the role of basic practices of infection prevention in modern day health care. There is now undisputed evidence that strict adherence to hand hygiene reduces the risk of cross-transmission of infections. With “Clean Care is Safer Care” as a prime agenda of the global initiative of WHO on patient safety programmes, it is time for developing countries to formulate the much-needed policies for implementation of basic infection prevention practices in health care set-ups. This review focuses on one of the simplest, low cost but least accepted from infection prevention: hand hygiene. PMID:22199099

  16. How "user friendly" is the hospital for practicing hand hygiene? An ergonomic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Gautham; Cahill, John

    2007-03-01

    An important cause of nonoptimal hand hygiene may be lack of "user friendliness" of hand hygiene resources due to violation of ergonomic principles in the design of the hospital environment and lack of timely replenishment of consumable resources. An ergonomics-based tool, SWAG (for the four main hand hygiene resources-sinks, waste receptacles, alcohol-based hand rub dispensers, and gloves) was developed and implemented to assess the intensive care units and 59 individual rooms in the hospital for structural ergonomic characteristics that facilitate usage of these resources. Several deficiencies in the structural layout of hand hygiene resources were identified that hinder their usage, such as poor visibility, difficulty of access, placement at undesirable height, lack of redundancy, and wide spatial separation of resources that are used sequentially. Consumable hand hygiene resources were often not available because of lack of timely replenishment. Many simple inexpensive changes using ergonomic principles can be implemented to promote hand hygiene in hospitals.

  17. Patients' potential role in the transmission of health care-associated infections: prevalence of contamination with bacterial pathogens and patient attitudes toward hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Istenes, Nancy; Bingham, James; Hazelett, Susan; Fleming, Eileen; Kirk, Jane

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of health care-associated infections (HAIs) has been primarily attributed to health care workers, and hand hygiene is considered the most important means to reduce transmission. Whereas hand hygiene research has focused on reducing health care worker hand contamination and improving hand hygiene compliance, contamination of patients' hands and their role in the transmission of HAIs remains unknown. Patients' hands were sampled by a "glove juice" recovery method and enumerated for the presence of common health care-associated pathogens. Patient demographics and other covariates were collected to determine their association with patient hand contamination. Patient attitudes and practices toward hand hygiene were also surveyed and analyzed. Of the 100 patients in the study, 39% of hands were contaminated with at least 1 pathogenic organism, and 8% were contaminated with 2 or more pathogens 48 hours after admission. Patient admission from or discharge to an outside institution and self-reported functional limitations were the only covariates that were significantly associated with hand contamination. Pathogenic organisms can be frequently detected on hands of acute care patients. Future studies are needed to better understand the relationship between patient hand contamination and the acquisition of HAIs in addition to the role patient hand hygiene can play in reducing HAIs. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional hand hygiene approach over 13 years in 51 cities of 19 limited-resource countries from Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Pawar, Mandakini; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Navoa-Ng, Josephine Anne; Villamil-Gómez, Wilmer; Armas-Ruiz, Alberto; Cuéllar, Luis E; Medeiros, Eduardo A; Mitrev, Zan; Gikas, Achilleas; Yang, Yun; Ahmed, Altaf; Kanj, Souha S; Dueñas, Lourdes; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Mapp, Trudell; Guanche-Garcell, Humberto; Fernández-Hidalgo, Rosalía; Kübler, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional hand hygiene approach in 19 limited-resource countries and to analyze predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance. An observational, prospective, cohort, interventional, before-and-after study from April 1999 through December 2011. The study was divided into 2 periods: a 3-month baseline period and a 7-year follow-up period. Ninety-nine intensive care unit (ICU) members of the INICC in Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Greece, India, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mexico, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, and Turkey. Healthcare workers at 99 ICU members of the INICC. A multidimensional hand hygiene approach was used, including (1) administrative support, (2) supplies availability, (3) education and training, (4) reminders in the workplace, (5) process surveillance, and (6) performance feedback. Observations were made for hand hygiene compliance in each ICU, during randomly selected 30-minute periods. A total of 149,727 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed. Overall hand hygiene compliance increased from 48.3% to 71.4% ([Formula: see text]). Univariate analysis indicated that several variables were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance, including males versus females (63% vs 70%; [Formula: see text]), physicians versus nurses (62% vs 72%; [Formula: see text]), and adult versus neonatal ICUs (67% vs 81%; [Formula: see text]), among others. Adherence to hand hygiene increased by 48% with the INICC approach. Specific programs directed to improve hand hygiene for variables found to be predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance should be implemented.

  19. Hand hygiene in the dental setting: reducing the risk of infection.

    PubMed

    Fluent, Marie T

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene remains the single most important measure for reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections. In the past 20 years, hand-washing recommendations and guidelines have become increasingly complex, and a plethora of products have become available. This article aims to discuss and clarify the fundamentals of appropriate hand hygiene in dentistry.

  20. Culture change in infection control: applying psychological principles to improve hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Cumbler, Ethan; Castillo, Leilani; Satorie, Laura; Ford, Deborah; Hagman, Jan; Hodge, Therese; Price, Lisa; Wald, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Hand hygiene occurs at the intersection of habit and culture. Psychological and social principles, including operant conditioning and peer pressure of conforming social norms, facilitate behavior change. Participatory leadership and level hierarchies are needed for sustainable patient safety culture. Application of these principles progressively and significantly improved hand hygiene compared with the hospital aggregate control. Changes to hand hygiene auditing and response processes demonstrate ability to improve and sustain adherence rates within a clinical microsystem.

  1. [Health professionals facing hand hygiene improvement: state-of-the-art strategies versus extended strategies].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Usagre, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, Pastora; Vázquez-Vázquez, Marta; Santana-López, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    The hand hygiene (HH) is one of the preventive practices more .widely and effectively implemented in the control of healthcare associated infections. However, there are several barriers to compliance. To assess which strategy, state-of-the-art strategies (availability of alcohol-based preparations, posters, instructions and training) or extended strategies (feedbacks, formal and informal leadership), are seen as more effective to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Analytical study using a self-completed questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. 2,068 questionnaires, completed by healthcare professionals (HP) in Andalusia (Spain), were received from 2010 to 2012. Analytical technique: Structural equation modeling and multi group measurement invariance. Once the reliability of the proposed constructs was achieved (Cronbach α=0.73, 0.84, 0.70), it was found that those HP working in centers with the highest level of commitment with HH are those who see extended strategies as more effective (χ2=298.3, df=39, CFI=0.972, TLI=0.961, RMSEA=0.057, SRMR=0.028). Our results have shown that hospitals' HP, compared to primary care HP, see state-of-the-art strategies as more effective, as well as they give less importance to HH, meanwhile nurses, compared to physicians, see effective both strategies. HP contemplate the combination of state-of-the-art and extended strategies as an effective way to improve the HH compliance. In addition, extended strategies are considered more effective amongst the most "advanced" healthcare settings in terms of their commitment to HH. The results highlight the need for commitment at management, collective and individual level in order to maintain patient safety.

  2. Evaluation of a hand hygiene campaign in outpatient health care clinics.

    PubMed

    Kukanich, Kate Stenske; Kaur, Ramandeep; Freeman, Lisa C; Powell, Douglas A

    2013-03-01

    To improve hand hygiene in two outpatient health care clinics through the introduction of a gel sanitizer and an informational poster. In this interventional study, health care workers at two outpatient clinics were observed for frequency of hand hygiene (attempts versus opportunities). Gel sanitizer and informational posters were introduced together as an intervention. Direct observation of the frequency of hand hygiene was performed during baseline, intervention, and follow-up. A poststudy survey of health care workers was also distributed and collected. In both clinics, the frequency of hand hygiene was poor at baseline (11% and 21%) but improved significantly after intervention (36% and 54%) and was maintained through the follow-up period (32% and 51%). Throughout the study, postcontact hand hygiene was observed significantly more often than precontact hand hygiene. In both clinics, health care workers reported a preference for soap and water; yet observations showed that when the intervention made gel sanitizer available, sanitizer use predominated. Fifty percent of the surveyed health care workers considered the introduction of gel sanitizer to be an effective motivating tool for improving hand hygiene. Hand hygiene performance by health care workers in outpatient clinics may be improved through promoting the use of gel sanitizer and using informational posters. Compared with surveys, direct observation by trained observers may provide more accurate information about worker preferences for hand hygiene tools.

  3. Challenges in implementing electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Conway, Laurie J

    2016-05-02

    Electronic hand hygiene (HH) monitoring systems offer the exciting prospect of a more precise, less biased measure of HH performance than direct observation. However, electronic systems are challenging to implement. Selecting a system that minimizes disruption to the physical infrastructure and to clinician workflow, and that fits with the organization's culture and budget, is challenging. Getting front-line workers' buy-in and addressing concerns about the accuracy of the system and how the data will be used are also difficult challenges. Finally, ensuring information from the system reaches front-line workers and is used by them to improve HH practice is a complex challenge. We describe these challenges in detail and suggests ways to overcome them. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Hand Hygiene on Infectious Disease Risk in the Community Setting: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Allison E.; Coulborn, Rebecca M.; Perez, Vanessa; Larson, Elaine L.

    2008-01-01

    To quantify the effect of hand-hygiene interventions on rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses and to identify interventions that provide the greatest efficacy, we searched 4 electronic databases for hand-hygiene trials published from January 1960 through May 2007 and conducted meta-analyses to generate pooled rate ratios across interventions (N=30 studies). Improvements in hand hygiene resulted in reductions in gastrointestinal illness of 31% (95% confidence intervals [CI]=19%, 42%) and reductions in respiratory illness of 21% (95% CI=5%, 34%). The most beneficial intervention was hand-hygiene education with use of nonantibacterial soap. Use of antibacterial soap showed little added benefit compared with use of nonantibacterial soap. Hand hygiene is clearly effective against gastrointestinal and, to a lesser extent, respiratory infections. Studies examining hygiene practices during respiratory illness and interventions targeting aerosol transmission are needed. PMID:18556606

  5. Dental Student Hand Hygiene Decreased With Increased Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Yaembut, Nanmanas; Ampornaramveth, Ruchanee S; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn P; Subbalekha, Keskanya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness, related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of hand hygiene (HH) among dental students with different levels of clinical experience. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Bacterial samples on the participants' hands were obtained using a swab technique before and after handwashing, for oral surgical procedures. After culturing, the colony-forming units were counted. Self-reported questionnaires reflecting the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HH were completed by the participants. This study was performed in a primary oral health care institution, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University (Bangkok, Thailand). Bacterial samples and self-reported questionnaires were collected in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Bacterial culture was performed in the Department of Microbiology. The 120 participants comprised first, second, third-year clinical training students (CTs), and postgraduate dental students (PGs) (32, 34, 30, and 24 participants, respectively). More than 99% of the bacteria were eliminated from the participants' hands after handwashing. Significantly higher numbers of bacteria were recovered from the hands of the PGs compared with those of the CTs, and the hands of the third-year CTs compared with those of the first-year CTs (p < 0.001), after HH. The first-year CTs had the highest attitude scores, whereas the PGs had the lowest practice scores. The knowledge scores were similar in all groups. HH effectiveness, attitudes, and practices of dental students decreased as students gained more clinical experience, whereas knowledge did not. Our results suggest that HH instruction should be given throughout the duration of dental students' education. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Time-Motion Analysis of Health Care Workers’ Contact With Patients and Workers’ Hand Hygiene: Open vs Closed Units

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Babar A.; Hui, Ken Yon; Hui, Siu L.; Gulati, Rajesh; Tricker, Jason; Campbell, Noll L.; Farber, Mark O.; Boustani, Malaz A.; Buckley, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of open (care provided by general medicine teams with a pulmonary intensivist consultant) vs closed (care provided by a dedicated critical care team) intensive care units on health care workers’ contact with patients and their hand hygiene is uncertain. Objective To determine if closed intensive care units have fewer visits of patients by health care providers and greater hand-washing compliance among providers than do open units. Methods Time-motion analysis was used to observe 2 rooms in a medical intensive care unit at a teaching hospital affiliated with Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, for 96 hours before and after closure of the unit. The main outcome measures were frequency of health care providers’ visits and their hand-washing hygiene compliance rates. Results Mean number of visits per room per hour by physicians (1.53 in the open unit vs 1.27 in the closed unit; P = .93) and nurses (3.98 in open unit vs 4.14 in closed unit; P = .60) did not differ. No differences were observed in gold-standard hand washing among physicians (0.00% in open unit vs 2.63% in closed unit; P = .11) or nurses (2.50% in open unit vs 3.49% in closed unit; P = .51). However, hand washing decreased significantly in nurses in the closed unit (40.94% in open unit vs 29.84% in closed unit; P = .002). Conclusion Closing the intensive care unit did not decrease the number of contacts between health care providers and patients nor did it increase the providers’ compliance with hand hygiene. PMID:21532037

  7. Access to waterless hand sanitizer improves student hand hygiene behavior in primary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F; Ram, Pavani K

    2013-09-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access.

  8. Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G.; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access. PMID:23836575

  9. Cost-effectiveness of a team and leaders-directed strategy to improve nurses' adherence to hand hygiene guidelines: a cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Huis, Anita; Hulscher, Marlies; Adang, Eddy; Grol, Richard; van Achterberg, Theo; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2013-04-01

    Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address poor hand hygiene compliance. Unfortunately, well-designed economic evaluations of hand hygiene improvement strategies are lacking. To compare the cost-effectiveness of two successful implementation strategies for improving nurses' hand hygiene compliance and reducing hospital acquired infections (HAI's). A cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 67 nursing wards of three hospitals in the Netherlands. The evaluation used a hospital perspective. All affiliated nurses of the nursing wards. Wards were randomly assigned to either the control group (n=30) or the experimental group (n=37). The control group received a state-of-the-art strategy including education, reminders feedback and optimising materials and facilities. The experimental group received a team and leaders-directed strategy which included all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy supplemented with interventions aimed at the social context of teams and enhancing leadership. The most efficient implementation strategy was determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per extra percentage of hand hygiene compliance gained and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per additional percentage reduction in the HAI rate. Bootstrap methods were used to determine confidence intervals for these incremental cost-effectiveness ratio's. Two scenarios of 15 and 30% were used to express the association between increased hand hygiene compliance and the reduction in HAIs. The team and leaders-directed strategy was significantly more effective in improving hand hygiene compliance. The mean difference effect was 8.91% (95% CI, 0.75-17.06). This extra increase was achieved at an average cost of €5497 per ward. The incremental cost per extra percentage of hand hygiene gained on ward level was €622. The incremental cost per additional percentage reduction in the HAI rate on ward level was €2074

  10. Children's hand hygiene behaviour and available facilities: an observational study in Dutch day care centres.

    PubMed

    van Beeck, A H Elise; Zomer, Tizza P; van Beeck, Eduard F; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Voeten, Helene A C M; Erasmus, Vicki

    2016-04-01

    Children attending day care centres are at increased risk of infectious diseases, in particular gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Hand hygiene of both caregivers and children is an effective prevention measure. This study examined hand hygiene behaviour of children attending day care centres, and describes hygiene facilities at day care centres. Data were collected at 115 Dutch day care centres, among 2318 children cared for by 231 caregivers (August to October 2010). Children's hand hygiene behaviour was observed and data on hand hygiene facilities of the day care centres collected by direct unobtrusive observation. National guidelines indicate hand hygiene is required before eating, after toilet use and after playing outside. Among 1930 observed hand hygiene opportunities for children, overall adherence to hand hygiene guidelines was 31% (95% CI: 29-33%). Adherence after both toilet use and playing outside was 48%. Hands were less frequently washed before eating, where guideline adherence was 15%. In 38% of the playrooms there was no soap within reach of children and 17% had no towel facilities. In over 40% of the playrooms, appropriate hand hygiene facilities for children were lacking. Adequate hand washing facilities were available for children in only half of the participating day care centres in our study and children washed their hands in only 15-48% of the occasions defined by official guidelines. More attention is needed to hand hygiene of children attending day care centres in the prevention of infectious diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Using a theory of planned behaviour framework to explore hand hygiene beliefs at the '5 critical moments' among Australian hospital-based nurses.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine M; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Obst, Patricia L; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Haneman, Lara; Page, Katie; Campbell, Megan; Martin, Elizabeth; Paterson, David

    2015-02-13

    Improving hand hygiene among health care workers (HCWs) is the single most effective intervention to reduce health care associated infections in hospitals. Understanding the cognitive determinants of hand hygiene decisions for HCWs with the greatest patient contact (nurses) is essential to improve compliance. The aim of this study was to explore hospital-based nurses' beliefs associated with performing hand hygiene guided by the World Health Organization's (WHO) 5 critical moments. Using the belief-base framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, we examined attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs underpinning nurses' decisions to perform hand hygiene according to the recently implemented national guidelines. Thematic content analysis of qualitative data from focus group discussions with hospital-based registered nurses from 5 wards across 3 hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Important advantages (protection of patient and self), disadvantages (time, hand damage), referents (supportive: patients, colleagues; unsupportive: some doctors), barriers (being too busy, emergency situations), and facilitators (accessibility of sinks/products, training, reminders) were identified. There was some equivocation regarding the relative importance of hand washing following contact with patient surroundings. The belief base of the theory of planned behaviour provided a useful framework to explore systematically the underlying beliefs of nurses' hand hygiene decisions according to the 5 critical moments, allowing comparisons with previous belief studies. A commitment to improve nurses' hand hygiene practice across the 5 moments should focus on individual strategies to combat distraction from other duties, peer-based initiatives to foster a sense of shared responsibility, and management-driven solutions to tackle staffing and resource issues. Hand hygiene following touching a patient's surroundings continues to be reported as the most neglected opportunity for compliance.

  12. How can information systems provide support to nurses' hand hygiene performance? Using gamification and indoor location to improve hand hygiene awareness and reduce hospital infections.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rita; Gregório, João; Pinheiro, Fernando; Póvoa, Pedro; da Silva, Miguel Mira; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2017-01-31

    Hospital-acquired infections are still amongst the major problems health systems are facing. Their occurrence can lead to higher morbidity and mortality rates, increased length of hospital stay, and higher costs for both hospital and patients. Performing hand hygiene is a simple and inexpensive prevention measure, but healthcare workers' compliance with it is often far from ideal. To raise awareness regarding hand hygiene compliance, individual behaviour change and performance optimization, we aimed to develop a gamification solution that collects data and provides real-time feedback accurately in a fun and engaging way. A Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) was used to conduct this work. DSRM is useful to study the link between research and professional practices by designing, implementing and evaluating artifacts that address a specific need. It follows a development cycle (or iteration) composed by six activities. Two work iterations were performed applying gamification components, each using a different indoor location technology. Preliminary experiments, simulations and field studies were performed in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a Portuguese tertiary hospital. Nurses working on this ICU were in a focus group during the research, participating in several sessions across the implementation process. Nurses enjoyed the concept and considered that it allows for a unique opportunity to receive feedback regarding their performance. Tests performed on the indoor location technology applied in the first iteration regarding distances estimation presented an unacceptable lack of accuracy. Using a proximity-based technique, it was possible to identify the sequence of positions, but beacons presented an unstable behaviour. In the second work iteration, a different indoor location technology was explored but it did not work properly, so there was no chance of testing the solution as a whole (gamification application included). Combining automated monitoring

  13. Method for Automated Monitoring of Hand Hygiene Adherence without Radio-Frequency Identification

    PubMed Central

    Polgreen, Philip M.; Hlady, Christopher S.; Severson, Monica A.; Segre, Alberto M.; Herman, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Many efforts to automatically measure hand hygiene activity depend on radio-frequency identification equipment or similar technology that can be expensive to install. We have developed a method for automatically tracking the use of hand hygiene dispensers before healthcare workers enter (or after they exit) patient rooms that is easily and quickly deployed without permanent hardware. PMID:20973724

  14. A bundle strategy including patient hand hygiene to decrease clostridium difficile infections.

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, Marian; Feigel, Jody; Douglas, Barbara; Grossberger, Susan; Hensler, Amelia; Hensler, Amelia; Weber, David

    2014-01-01

    Prevention strategies for Clostridium difficile infection traditionally have addressed barrier precautions, environmental disinfection, and health care worker hand hygiene. When applied as a bundle, this approach has been used widely as an evidence-based strategy to prevent hospital-acquired C. difficile infection. Expanding the bundle to include patient hand hygiene is a nurse-driven approach to prevent C. difficile transmission.

  15. Method for automated monitoring of hand hygiene adherence without radio-frequency identification.

    PubMed

    Polgreen, Philip M; Hlady, Christopher S; Severson, Monica A; Segre, Alberto M; Herman, Ted

    2010-12-01

    Many efforts to automatically measure hand hygiene activity depend on radio-frequency identification equipment or similar technology that can be expensive to install. We have developed a method for automatically tracking the use of hand hygiene dispensers before healthcare workers enter (or after they exit) patient rooms that is easily and quickly deployed without permanent hardware.

  16. Point of care hand hygiene-where's the rub? A survey of US and Canadian health care workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jane; Kendall, Anson; Marx, James F; Pincock, Ted; Young, Elizabeth; Hughes, Jillian M; Landers, Timothy

    2016-10-01

    Hand hygiene at the point of care is recognized as a best practice for promoting compliance at the moments when hand hygiene is most critical. The objective of this study was to compare knowledge, attitudes, and practices of US and Canadian frontline health care personnel regarding hand hygiene at the point of care. Physicians and nurses in US and Canadian hospitals were invited to complete a 32-question online survey based on evidence supporting point of care hand hygiene. Eligible health care personnel were in direct clinical practice at least 50% of the time. Three hundred fifty frontline caregivers completed the survey. Among respondents, 57.1% were from the United States and 42.9% were from Canada. Respondents were evenly distributed between physician and nurses. The US and Canadian respondents gave identical ranking to their perceived barriers to hand hygiene compliance. More than half of the respondents from both the United States and Canada agreed or strongly agreed that they would be more likely to clean their hands when recommended if alcohol-based handrub was closer to the patient. This survey demonstrates that similarities between Canada and the United States were more common than not, and the survey raises, or suggests, potential knowledge gaps that require further illumination. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. It's not all about me: motivating hand hygiene among health care professionals by focusing on patients.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam M; Hofmann, David A

    2011-12-01

    Diseases often spread in hospitals because health care professionals fail to wash their hands. Research suggests that to increase health and safety behaviors, it is important to highlight the personal consequences for the actor. However, because people (and health care professionals in particular) tend to be overconfident about personal immunity, the most effective messages about hand hygiene may be those that highlight its consequences for other people. In two field experiments in a hospital, we compared the effectiveness of signs about hand hygiene that emphasized personal safety ("Hand hygiene prevents you from catching diseases") or patient safety ("Hand hygiene prevents patients from catching diseases"). We assessed hand hygiene by measuring the amount of soap and hand-sanitizing gel used from dispensers (Experiment 1) and conducting covert, independent observations of health care professionals' hand-hygiene behaviors (Experiment 2). Results showed that changing a single word in messages motivated meaningful changes in behavior: The hand hygiene of health care professionals increased significantly when they were reminded of the implications for patients but not when they were reminded of the implications for themselves.

  18. Hand Hygiene Practices Among Indian Medical Undergraduates: A Questionnaire-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Pranav D; Solanki, Rajavi; Modi, Janhavi; Chandramani, Srinath; Gill, Niharika

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives To prevent the spread of infections in all healthcare settings, hand hygiene must be routinely practiced. Appropriate hand hygiene techniques can go a long way in reducing nosocomial infections, cross-transmission of microorganisms and the risk of occupational exposure to infectious diseases. World Health Organisation (WHO) has taken an incredible approach called “My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" which defines the key moments when health-care workers should perform hand hygiene. We thus carried out a survey to assess knowledge of hand hygiene practices among undergraduate medical students.  Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 523 Indian medical undergraduates. The questionnaire used was adapted from the WHO hand hygiene knowledge questionnaire for health-care workers and was distributed both, in print and online formats. The response to each question was examined using percentages. Results Nearly 57% (n=298) of medical students who participated in this study did not receive any formal training in hand hygiene. Only 27% (n=141) students knew that the most frequent source of germs responsible for health-care associated infections were the germs already present on or within the patient. Nearly 68.6% (n= 359) students were unaware of the sequence of hand washing and hand rubbing. Although 71.9% (n=376 ) students claimed that they use an alcohol-based hand rub routinely, only 36.1% (n=189 ) students knew the time required for a hand rub to kill the germs on the hands. Overall hand hygiene knowledge was low in 6.9% (n=36), moderate in 80.9% (n=423) and good in 12.2% (n=23) of respondents.  Conclusions The awareness about hand hygiene practices among medical students is low. Nearly 57% (n=298) of the respondents never received any formal training in hand hygiene throughout their course of medical undergraduate study. To prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings, medical students should be given

  19. Evaluation of an educational campaign to increase hand hygiene at a small animal veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Shea, Annie; Shaw, Scott

    2012-01-01

    To establish baseline data on rates of hand hygiene behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at improving hand hygiene, and determine whether methods similar to those applied in human hospitals to improve hand hygiene can be successfully applied in a small animal veterinary hospital. Prospective observational study. 568 and 187 observations of interactions between small animal patients and veterinary health-care providers before and after, respectively, educational intervention. Proper hand hygiene practices were defined as use of antibacterial foam or hand washing before or after physical interactions between health-care providers (veterinary medical faculty members, residents, interns, students, and technicians) and patients or proper use of gloves. Data were collected by anonymous direct observation. After an initial observation period, a multimodal educational campaign promoted proper hand hygiene with specific attention to increasing use of antibacterial foam. Two months later, data on proper hand hygiene practices after intervention were collected. At baseline, 117 of 568 (20.6%) interactions met criteria for proper hand hygiene practices; after intervention, a significantly greater proportion (78/187 [41.7%]) of interactions met criteria for proper hand hygiene practices. Use of antibacterial foam significantly increased from 34 of 568 (6.0%) to 67 of 187 (35.8%) interactions. Health-care providers were 4.1 times as likely to wash their hands with soap and water or to use antibacterial foam on their hands after the intervention than before the intervention. Initial low rates of proper hand hygiene practices at baseline were improved substantially 2 months after implementing a low-cost multimodal educational campaign.

  20. Health care workers' hand contamination levels and antibacterial efficacy of different hand hygiene methods used in a Vietnamese hospital.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Sharon; Truong, Anh Thu; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Pittet, Didier; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2014-02-01

    Handwashing with soap or another antisepsis disinfectant solution is a common practice in Vietnam, but the availability and quality of tap water is unpredictable. We assessed the risk for hand contamination and compared the efficacy of 5 hand hygiene methods in a tertiary Vietnamese hospital. Five fingertip imprints of the dominant hand of 134 health care workers (HCWs) were sampled to establish the average bacterial count before and after hand hygiene action using (1) alcohol-based handrub (ABHR), (2) plain soap and water handwashing with filtered and unfiltered water, or (3) 4% chlorhexidine gluconate hand antisepsis with filtered and unfiltered water. Average bacterial contamination of hands before hand hygiene was 1.65 log(10). Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogens. The highest average count before hand hygiene was recovered from HCWs without direct patient contact (2.10 ± 0.11 log(10)). Bacterial counts were markedly reduced after hand hygiene with ABHR (1.4 log(10); P < .0001) and 4% chlorhexidine gluconate with filtered water (0.8 log(10); P < .0001). Use of unfiltered water was associated with minimal nonsignificant bacterial reduction. HCWs carry high levels of bacteria on their dominant hand, even without direct patient contact. ABHR as an additional step may overcome the effect of high bacterial counts in unfiltered water when soap and water handwashing is indicated. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Wyeth, Jenny

    Infection prevention and control nurses (IPCNs) have an extremely wide remit in relation to the facilitation of appropriate infection prevention and control practice within healthcare environments. In order to be effective IPCNs need to be involved at all stages of healthcare service delivery and need to form close working relationships with staff at all levels and in all departments within their organisation. The provision of the necessary facilities within the clinical environment, along with the ongoing training and support of staff are essential prerequisites to changing the behaviour of staff in order to consistently deliver effective hand hygiene and other infection prevention and control practices. Auditing of practice and the investigation of incidents enable the identification of areas of practice requiring improvement, which subsequently informs the continual development of training programmes and initiatives with a view to improving patient and staff safety. IPCNs need to be able to react swiftly to the emergence of new infectious organisms and/or evidence to identify what is required in order to ensure that staff are compliant with anticipated practice to maintain the safety of the patients in their care, themselves and their colleagues.

  2. Skin care: an essential component of hand hygiene and infection control.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Linda

    Skin care is an important component of hand hygiene and also infection prevention education programmes relating to hand hygiene (Bissett, 2007a,b). Hand hygiene is the term commonly used to describe hand washing using plain soap or antiseptic soaps and hand rubbing using waterless antiseptic products or alcohol-based products. The importance of effective hand hygiene is well documented (Larson, 1997; Boyce et al, 2002; Horton and Parker, 2002) and can be achieved by following the six-step technique used for hand washing as illustrated by the Royal College of Nursing (2000). During hand washing, hand soaps not only remove soils, but also the natural oils that protect the skin. This can vary depending on the frequency of hand washing, the temperature of the water and the ability of the soap to be rinsed from the surface of the hands (Starobin, 2007). This article aims to examine the evidence available to enable healthcare staff to make an informed decision on the importance of following a skin care regime to reduce the risk of bacterial loading on the hands caused by damaged skin. This would consequently lead to an improvement in hand hygiene efficacy.

  3. Meta-analysis of food safety training on hand hygiene knowledge and attitudes among food handlers.

    PubMed

    Soon, Jan Mei; Baines, Richard; Seaman, Phillip

    2012-04-01

    Research has shown that traditional food safety training programs and strategies to promote hand hygiene increases knowledge of the subject. However, very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of food safety training on food handlers' attitudes about good hand hygiene practices. The objective of this meta-analytical study was to assess the extent to which food safety training or intervention strategies increased knowledge of and attitudes about hand hygiene. A systematic review of food safety training articles was conducted. Additional studies were identified from abstracts from food safety conferences and food science education conferences. Search terms included combinations of "food safety," "food hygiene," "training," "education," "hand washing," "hand hygiene," "knowledge," "attitudes," "practices," "behavior," and "food handlers." Only before- and after-training approaches and cohort studies with training (intervention group) and without training (control group) in hand hygiene knowledge and including attitudes in food handlers were evaluated. All pooled analyses were based on a random effects model. Meta-analysis values for nine food safety training and intervention studies on hand hygiene knowledge among food handlers were significantly higher than those of the control (without training), with an effect size (Hedges' g) of 1.284 (95% confidence interval [CI] ∼ 0.830 to 1.738). Meta-analysis of five food safety training and intervention studies in which hand hygiene attitudes and self-reported practices were monitored produced a summary effect size of 0.683 (95% CI ∼ 0.523 to 0.843). Food safety training increased knowledge and improved attitudes about hand hygiene practices. Refresher training and long-term reinforcement of good food handling behaviors may also be beneficial for sustaining good hand washing practices.

  4. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene.

  5. Hand Hygiene in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Comparison of Two Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; d’Avila, Domingos O.

    2013-01-01

    ♦ Introduction and Objectives: Hand hygiene is essential for preventing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections. The present study compared the effectiveness of two hygiene techniques in reducing the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) on the hands of patients undergoing PD. ♦ Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 22 participants enrolled in the same PD program underwent a two-hand evaluation for microbiologic flora. Participants participated in two treatments: a) simple hand hygiene plus antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients washed their hands with water and glycerin soap for 1 minute and then rubbed and dried their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel; and b) antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients rubbed their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel until fully dry. To sample distal finger surfaces, we asked the participants to touch sheep blood agar plates directly. ♦ Results: The CFU count for both hands was significantly higher in the regular hygiene group than in the gel-only group [69.0 (16.0 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.0 (2.2 - 55.5) CFU, p < 0.010]. Growth of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus colonies was significantly higher in right-hand cultures from the regular hygiene group than in those from the gel-only group [69.5 (26.25 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.5 (1.0 - 41.7) CFU; p < 0.050]. ♦ Conclusions: Among patients undergoing PD, using 70% ethyl alcohol gel to cleanse the hands may be more effective than following the regular hygiene recommendations in reducing bacterial populations. PMID:24179108

  6. Hand hygiene in peritoneal dialysis patients: a comparison of two techniques.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; d'Avila, Domingos O

    2013-01-01

    Hand hygiene is essential for preventing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections. The present study compared the effectiveness of two hygiene techniques in reducing the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) on the hands of patients undergoing PD. In this controlled clinical trial, 22 participants enrolled in the same PD program underwent a two-hand evaluation for microbiologic flora. Participants participated in two treatments: a) simple hand hygiene plus antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients washed their hands with water and glycerin soap for 1 minute and then rubbed and dried their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel; and b) antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients rubbed their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel until fully dry. To sample distal finger surfaces, we asked the participants to touch sheep blood agar plates directly. The CFU count for both hands was significantly higher in the regular hygiene group than in the gel-only group [69.0 (16.0 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.0 (2.2 - 55.5) CFU, p < 0.010]. Growth of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus colonies was significantly higher in right-hand cultures from the regular hygiene group than in those from the gel-only group [69.5 (26.25 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.5 (1.0 - 41.7) CFU; p < 0.050]. Among patients undergoing PD, using 70% ethyl alcohol gel to cleanse the hands may be more effective than following the regular hygiene recommendations in reducing bacterial populations.

  7. The World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care and their consensus recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Didier; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Boyce, John

    2009-07-01

    The World Health Organization's Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care have been issued by WHO Patient Safety on 5 May 2009 on the occasion of the launch of the Save Lives: Clean Your Hands initiative. The Guidelines represent the contribution of more than 100 international experts and provide a comprehensive overview of essential aspects of hand hygiene in health care, evidence- and consensus-based recommendations, and lessons learned from testing their Advanced Draft and related implementation tools.

  8. Monitoring Pharmacy Student Adherence to World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Indications Using Radio Frequency Identification

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Andrew S.; Cipriano, Gabriela C.; Tsouri, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student’s seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique. PMID:27170822

  9. Monitoring Pharmacy Student Adherence to World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Indications Using Radio Frequency Identification.

    PubMed

    Decker, Andrew S; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Tsouri, Gill; Lavigne, Jill E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student's seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique.

  10. Saving time and resources: observational research to support adoption of a hand hygiene promotion campaign.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Liang, Ming-Ching; Mabry, Amanda; Champlin, Sara; Stroever, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Hand hygiene is the most effective way to prevent the spread of health care-associated infections, but many facilities may not have the resources or expertise to develop their own hand hygiene promotion campaign. This observational study demonstrated that a campaign developed for 1 facility could successfully contribute to behavior change at another, unrelated facility. It serves as a model and evidence that health care facilities can successfully adopt hand hygiene promotion campaigns developed and validated at other facilities. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Claudia H; Springston, Elizabeth E; Sohn, Min-Woong; Mason, Iyana; Gadola, Emily; Damitz, Maureen; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2012-05-15

    Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4-14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers' perceptions of students' hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, respectively). This difference peaked

  12. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P = 0.002, P < 0

  13. Predictors of hand hygiene practice among Saudi nursing students: A cross-sectional self-reported study.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jonas P; Bashtawi, Meshrif A

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control, which is critical to ensuring patients' safety in hospitals. Nursing students are regarded as healthcare workers in training and can also be vehicles of cross-contamination within the hospital. Thus, this study aimed to identify the predictors of hand hygiene practice among Saudi nursing students. A descriptive, cross-sectional, self-reported study was conducted among 198 Saudi nursing students. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of hand hygiene were assessed using the WHO Hand Hygiene Knowledge Questionnaire for Health-Care Workers and its adopted scales. A regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of hand hygiene practice. The respondents demonstrated moderate knowledge of hand hygiene (mean 13.20±2.80). The majority displayed a moderate attitude toward hand hygiene (52.1%), while only a few reported a poor attitude (13.1%). Approximately 68.7%, 29.8%, and 1.5% of the respondents reported moderate, good, and poor practice of hand hygiene, respectively. Having a good attitude toward hand hygiene, being male, being aware that hand hygiene is an effective intervention in preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), attendance at hand hygiene trainings and seminars, and being in the lower academic level of nursing education were identified as predictors of better hand hygiene practice. The importance of ensuring a positive attitude toward hand hygiene and improving awareness of hand hygiene is emphasized, as are educational interventions. Educational interventions should be implemented to reinforce knowledge and instill a positive attitude toward hand hygiene.

  14. Human-like Compliance for Dexterous Robot Hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Active Electromechanical Compliance (AEC) system that was developed for the Jau-JPL anthropomorphic robot. The AEC system imitates the functionality of the human muscle's secondary function, which is to control the joint's stiffness: AEC is implemented through servo controlling the joint drive train's stiffness. The control strategy, controlling compliant joints in teleoperation, is described. It enables automatic hybrid position and force control through utilizing sensory feedback from joint and compliance sensors. This compliant control strategy is adaptable for autonomous robot control as well. Active compliance enables dual arm manipulations, human-like soft grasping by the robot hand, and opens the way to many new robotics applications.

  15. Human-like Compliance for Dexterous Robot Hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Active Electromechanical Compliance (AEC) system that was developed for the Jau-JPL anthropomorphic robot. The AEC system imitates the functionality of the human muscle's secondary function, which is to control the joint's stiffness: AEC is implemented through servo controlling the joint drive train's stiffness. The control strategy, controlling compliant joints in teleoperation, is described. It enables automatic hybrid position and force control through utilizing sensory feedback from joint and compliance sensors. This compliant control strategy is adaptable for autonomous robot control as well. Active compliance enables dual arm manipulations, human-like soft grasping by the robot hand, and opens the way to many new robotics applications.

  16. Hand hygiene as a caring practice: a reflection on professional responsibility.

    PubMed

    Belela-Anacleto, Aline Santa Cruz; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2017-04-01

    Hand hygiene represents a fundamental nursing care practice and is traditionally considered the most important and effective measure in the prevention and control of healthcare-related infections. However, studies indicate that adherence to the procedure is unsatisfactory throughout the world, and show low adherence rates. In a context in which patient safety stands out as a priority, this text submits refl ections about professional responsibility when not adhering to hand hygiene practices, and ethical aspects related to this conduct.

  17. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic habits and seasonal influenza infection. We conducted a case-control study to test whether the risk of influenza transmission associated with self-reported hand-washing and unhealthy hygienic habits among residents in Fujian Province, southeastern China. Laboratory confirmed seasonal influenza cases were consecutively included in the study as case-patients (n = 100). For each case, we selected 1 control person matched for age and city of residence. Telephone interview was used to collect information on hand-washing and hygienic habits. The associations were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the poorest hand-washing score of 0 to 3, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased progressively from 0.26 to 0.029 as hand-washing score increased from 4 to the maximum of 9 (P < 0.001). Compared with the poorest hygienic habit score of 0 to 2, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased from 0.10 to 0.015 with improving score of hygienic habits (P < 0.001). Independent protective factors against influenza infection included good hygienic habits, higher hand-washing score, providing soap or hand cleaner beside the hand-washing basin, and receiving influenza vaccine. Regular hand-washing and good hygienic habits were associated with a reduced risk of influenza infection. These findings support the general recommendation for nonpharmaceutical interventions against influenza. PMID:26986125

  18. Hand contamination before and after different hand hygiene techniques: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lucet, J-C; Rigaud, M-P; Mentre, F; Kassis, N; Deblangy, C; Andremont, A; Bouvet, E

    2002-04-01

    The efficacy of alcohol-based handrubs (ABH) for hand hygiene (HH) compared with handwashing (HW) remains to be established in the clinical setting. Factors associated with severe hand contamination before HH techniques were medical ward, physician and not wearing gloves. Forty-three healthcare workers [HCW, 26 nurses (N), nine nurse assistants (NA) and eight physicians (P)] each performed six HH techniques in random order, immediately after a patient care activity: HW with non-antiseptic soap for 10 (US10) and 30 (US30) s; HW with antiseptic (polyvidone iodine- or chlorhexidine-based) soap for 10 (AS10), 30 (AS30) or 60 (AS60) s; and ABH (Sterillium, Bode Chemie, Germany). The fingertips of the dominant hand were pressed on to agar for culture before and after each HH technique. Five hundred and sixteen specimens were obtained. Log(10)-transformed bacterial count reductions after HH were 0.74, 0.51, 1.13, 1.14, 1.21 and 1.40 for US10, US30, AS10, AS30, AS60 and ABH, respectively; both AS and ABH were significantly better than US. Qualitative assessment showed that 11 of the 256 pre-HH specimens (4.3%) had pathogenic bacteria, and that two of these 11 remained positive after HH (US in both instances).

  19. The effect of improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus to newborn infants: the Swedish Hygiene Intervention and Transmission of S aureus study.

    PubMed

    Mernelius, Sara; Löfgren, Sture; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Blomberg, Marie; Olhager, Elisabeth; Gunnervik, Christina; Lenrick, Raymond; Thrane, Malena Tiefenthal; Isaksson, Barbro; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Newborn infants are often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus originating from health care workers (HCWs). We therefore use colonization with S aureus of newborn infants to determine the effect of an improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on bacterial transmission. Compliance with hygiene guidelines was monitored prior to (baseline) and after (follow-up) a multimodal hygiene intervention in 4 departments of obstetrics and gynecology. spa typing was used to elucidate transmission routes of S aureus collected from newborn infants, mothers, fathers, staff members, and environment. The compliance with hygiene guidelines increased significantly from baseline to follow-up. The transmission of S aureus from HCWs to infants was however not affected. Fathers had the highest colonization rates. Persistent carriage was indicated in 18% of the HCWs. The most commonly isolated spa type was t084, which was not detected in a previous study from the same geographic area. It is possible to substantially improve the compliance with hygiene guidelines, by using multimodal hygiene intervention. The improved compliance did not decrease the transmission of S aureus from sources outside the own family to newborn infants. Furthermore, we show the establishment of a new spa type (t084), which now is very common in our region. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Health professionals and hand hygiene: a question of pediatric patient safety].

    PubMed

    Botene, Daisy Zanchi de Abreu; Pedro, Eva Neri Rubim

    2014-09-01

    This paper is a qualitative descriptive study, which aims to analyze how the academic education concerning hand hygiene contributes to the pediatric patient safety. This research was developed in an university hospital in Southern Brazil, in the pediatric unit, during the period of August to December, 2012. Sixteen healthcare professionals participated (doctors, nurses and physical therapists). A semi-structured interview was used to gather information. Data was organized by the software QSR Nvivo and analyzed using the content analysis technique. The results allowed us to list two thematic categories:"Hand hygiene and healthcare professionals' academic education"; and "Hand hygiene and professional life". The first thematic category will be presented in this paper. It was identified that the academic education contributes in an ineffective way to the creation of a patient safety culture. According to the professionals, there are gaps during the educational process regarding hand hygiene. The topic is treated in an ineffective and not very significant way to the learning and adhesion of hand hygiene in the professional life. It is recommended that, for the internalization of the practice by future professionals, a transversal, continuous and systematical approach is adopted during the professional's training, evaluations concerning the hand hygiene are done throughout the academic life as well as healthcare professors bethink the topic.

  1. Construct validity-Current issues and recommendations for future hand hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey

    2017-03-10

    Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items. Every construct needs to be operationalized by measure(s) to make it a variable. Hence, construct validity refers to the degree of fit between the construct of interest and its operational measure. However, issues with construct validity often weaken the translation from construct to measure(s). This article will (1) describe the common threats to construct validity pertaining to hand hygiene research, (2) identify practical limitations in current research design, and (3) provide recommendations to improve construct validity in future hand hygiene research. By understanding how construct validity may affect hand hygiene research design, there is great potential to improve the validity of future hand hygiene research findings.

  2. Contact lens hygiene compliance and lens case contamination: A review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yvonne Tzu-Ying; Willcox, Mark; Zhu, Hua; Stapleton, Fiona

    2015-10-01

    A contaminated contact lens case can act as a reservoir for microorganisms that could potentially compromise contact lens wear and lead to sight threatening adverse events. The rate, level and profile of microbial contamination in lens cases, compliance and other risk factors associated with lens case contamination, and the challenges currently faced in this field are discussed. The rate of lens case contamination is commonly over 50%. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens are frequently recovered from lens cases. In addition, we provide suggestions regarding how to clean contact lens cases and improve lens wearers' compliance as well as future lens case design for reducing lens case contamination. This review highlights the challenges in reducing the level of microbial contamination which require an industry wide approach. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health care worker hand hygiene in the pediatric special care unit at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Uganda: a best practice implementation project.

    PubMed

    Muhumuza, Christine; Gomersall, Judith Streak; Fredrick, Makumbi E; Atuyambe, Lynn; Okiira, Christopher; Mukose, Aggrey; Ssempebwa, John

    2015-03-01

    The hands of a health care worker are a common vehicle of pathogen transmission in hospital settings. Health care worker hand hygiene is therefore critical for patients' well being. Whilst failure of health care workers to comply with the best hand hygiene practice is a problem in all health care settings, issues of lack of access to adequate cleaning equipment and in some cases even running water make practicing good hand hygiene particularly difficult in low-resource developing country settings. This study reports an audit and feedback project that focused on the hand hygiene of the health care worker in the pediatric special care unit of the Mulago National Referral Hospital, which is a low-resource setting in Uganda. To improve hand hygiene among health care workers in the pediatric special care unit and thereby contribute to reducing transmission of health care worker-associated pathogens. The Joanna Briggs Institute three-phase Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System audit and feedback tool for promoting evidence utilization and change in health care was used. In phase one of the project, stakeholders were engaged and seven evidence-based audit criteria were developed. A baseline audit was then conducted. In phase two, barriers underpinning areas of noncompliance found in the baseline audit were identified and three strategies - education, reminders and provision of hand cleaning equipment - were implemented to overcome them. In phase three, a follow-up audit was conducted. Compliance with best practice hygiene was found to be poor in the baseline audit for all but one of the audit criteria. Following the implementation of the strategies, hand hygiene improved. The compliance rate increased substantially across all criteria. Staff education achieved 100%, whilst criterion 4 increased to 70%. However, use of alcohol-based hand-rub for hand hygiene only improved to 66%, and for six of the seven audit criteria, compliance remained below 74%. The

  4. Public health campaign to promote hand hygiene before meals in a college of veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (p<.01). Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 2/42 samples, and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 4/42 samples. A short-term public health campaign targeting veterinary students successfully improved hand hygiene before meals.

  5. Impact of the amount of hand rub applied in hygienic hand disinfection on the reduction of microbial counts on hands.

    PubMed

    Goroncy-Bermes, P; Koburger, T; Meyer, B

    2010-03-01

    Two different hand rubs were tested in order to investigate the minimum volume required for microbicidal efficacy according to the European Norm EN 1500; we also sought to determine whether there is a correlation with hand size. Eight male volunteers with big hands (mean 184 cm(2)) and eight female volunteers with significantly smaller hands (mean 148 cm(2); P<0.001) participated in our study. Application of 2 mL of both products (P) provided mean log(10) reductions significantly smaller than those of the reference disinfectant (R) (product A: P=3.34, R=4.00, P=0.001; product B: P=3.37, R=3.75, P=0.022). Higher volumes (product A: 3 and 4 mL; product B: 2.5, 3 and 4 mL) ensured that the pass criteria of the European Norm (EN) 1500 were fulfilled. For both products log(10) reductions increased with increasing product volume until a plateau was reached. For the smaller female hands, this plateau level was reached after applying 3 mL of product A and 2.5 mL of product B. The plateau level on male hands was observed after treating the hands with > or =4 mL of product A and 3 mL of product B. The increase in product volume also correlated with the decrease in the number of volunteers considering the product volume applied as insufficient. In conclusion, the applied volume for hygienic hand rub should not fall below 3 mL in order to achieve maximum benefit.

  6. Impact of a multi-faceted training intervention on the improvement of hand hygiene and gloving practices in four healthcare settings including nursing homes, acute-care geriatric wards and physical rehabilitation units.

    PubMed

    Eveillard, Matthieu; Raymond, Françoise; Guilloteau, Véronique; Pradelle, Marie-Thérèse; Kempf, Marie; Zilli-Dewaele, Marina; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Brunel, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    To assess the impact of a multi-faceted training program on the compliance with hand hygiene and gloving practices. Hand hygiene is considered as the cornerstone of the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Several studies have enhanced the poor effectiveness of training programs in improving hand hygiene compliance. A before-after evaluation study. The study was conducted in four healthcare settings before and after an intervention program which included the performance feedback of the first evaluation phase, three six-h training sessions, the assessment of hand hygiene performance with teaching boxes and the organisation of one full-day session devoted to institutional communication around hand hygiene in each setting. Hand hygiene compliance and quality of hand rubbing were evaluated. Hand hygiene opportunities were differentiated into extra-series opportunities (before or after a single contact and before the first contact or after the last contact of a series of consecutive contacts) and intra-series opportunities (from the opportunity following the first contact to the opportunity preceding the last in the same series). Overall, 969 contacts corresponding to 1,470 hand hygiene opportunities (760 during the first phase and 710 during the second) were observed. A significant improvement of observed practices was recorded for the hand hygiene compliance in intra-series opportunities (39·0% vs. 19·0%; p < 10(-5) ), the proportion of gloves worn if indicated (71·4% vs. 52·0%; p < 0·001) and the quality of hand rubbing (85·0% vs. 71·9%; p < 10(-5) ). Some of the performances measured for both hand hygiene and gloving practices were improved. We plan to extend this investigation by performing a qualitative study with experts in behavioural sciences to try improving practices for which adherence was still weak after the training program such as hand hygiene in intra-series opportunities. This study underscored the usefulness of implementing

  7. [A multimodal strategy to improve adherence to hand hygiene in a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Fariñas-Alvarez, C; Portal-María, T; Flor-Morales, V; Aja-Herrero, A; Fabo-Navarro, M; Lanza-Marín, S; Lobeira-Rubio, R; Polo-Hernández, N; Sixto-Montero, M; Moreta-Sánchez, R; Ballesteros-Sanz, M Á; Yañez-San Segundo, L; Bartalome-Pacheco, M J; Armiñanzas-Castillo, C

    Within the framework of the PaSQ (Patient Safety and Quality care) Project, this hospital decided to implement a multifaceted hospital-wide Hand Hygiene (HH) intervention based on a multimodal WHO approach over one year, focusing on achieving a sustained change in HH cultural change in this hospital. Setting: University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander (Spain), a tertiary hospital with 900 beds. Intervention period: 2014. An action plan was developed that included the implementation of activities in each component of the 5-step multimodal intervention. An observation/feedback methodology was used that included the provision of performance and results feedback to the staff. A 3/3 strategy (non-blinded direct observation audits performed during 3 randomised days every 3 weeks with pro-active corrective actions at the end of each observation period). HH compliance, alcohol-based hand-rub (ABHR) consumption, and rate of MRSA infection, were monitored during the intervention. Hospital ABHR consumption increased during the study period: from 17.5 to 19.7mL/patient-days. In the intervention units, this consumption was 24.8mL pre-intervention, 42.5mL during the intervention, and 30.4mL two months post-intervention. There were 137 evaluation periods in 30 different days, in which a total of 737 health-care workers were observed and 1,870 HH opportunities. HH compliance was 54.5%, ranging between 44.8% and 69.9%. The incidence of MRSA infection decreased during the intervention in the selected units, from 13.2 infections per 10,000 patient-days pre-intervention to 5.7 three months post-intervention. Our HH strategy, supported by a 3/3 strategy increased alcohol-based hand-rub consumption and compliance. A reduction in MRSA infections was observed. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional hand hygiene approach in three cities of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Barahona-Guzmán, Nayide; Rodríguez-Calderón, María Eugenia; Rosenthal, Victor D; Olarte, Narda; Villamil-Gómez, Wilmer; Rojas, Catherine; Rodríguez-Ferrer, Marena; Sarmiento-Villa, Guillermo; Lagares-Guzmán, Alfredo; Valderrama, Alberto; Menco, Antonio; Arrieta, Patrick; Dajud-Cassas, Luis Enrique; Mendoza, Mariela; Sabogal, Alejandra; Carvajal, Yulieth; Silva, Edwin

    2014-02-01

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional hand hygiene (HH) approach in Colombia, and analyze predictors of poor HH compliance. An observational, prospective, interventional, before-and-after study was conducted from May 2003 through September 2010 in 10 intensive care units (ICUs) of six hospitals in three cities. The study was divided into two periods: a baseline and a follow-up period. Observations for HH compliance were done in each ICU during randomly selected 30-min periods. The multidimensional HH approach included: (1) administrative support, (2) supplies availability, (3) education and training, (4) reminders in the workplace, (5) process surveillance, and (6) performance feedback. A total of 13 187 opportunities for HH were observed. Overall HH compliance increased from 50% to 77% (relative risk 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.43-1.68; p=0.0001). Multivariate and univariate analyses showed that several variables were significantly associated with poor HH compliance: males vs. females (67% vs. 77%; p=0.0001), physicians vs. nurses (59% vs. 78%; p<0.0001), and adult vs. pediatric ICUs (76% vs. 42%; p<0.001), among others. Adherence to HH was increased by 55% with the INICC approach. Programs targeted at improving HH in variables found to be predictors of poor compliance should be implemented. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Experiences of hand hygiene among acute care nurses: An interpretative phenomenological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chatfield, Sheryl L; Nolan, Rachael; Crawford, Hannah; Hallam, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Occurrences of healthcare-associated infections are associated with substantial direct and indirect costs. Improvement in hand hygiene among acute care nurses has potential to reduce incidence of healthcare-associated infections. Findings from reviews of intervention research have not conclusively identified components that are more or less efficient or effective. Much prior qualitative research has focused on descriptive analysis of policies and practices rather than providing interpretive explorations of how individuals’ perceptions of hygiene might drive practices. Methods: We conducted qualitative interview research with eight nurses in the United States who were employed in various patient-care roles. We analyzed the data using an interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology to explore how nurses described their perceptions of, and experiences with, hygiene. We developed themes that explored individual, workplace, and management influences on perception of hygiene. Results: Developed themes include practical hygiene, risky business, and hygiene on trial; the latter theme described the conflict between how nurses perceived their own hygiene practices and how they felt hospital management perceived these practices. Other findings included that participants distinguished between policy-mandated use of sanitizer and a personal sense of cleanliness; the latter was more likely to be associated with scrubbing or removal of contaminants than with use of protectants. Conclusion: While participants asserted support for facility hand hygiene policies, their behavior in certain instances might be mediated by broadly defined emergent situations and a belief that it is not currently possible to establish a causal link between an healthcare-associated infections and a specific individual or occurrence. Researchers and infection prevention practitioners might consider soliciting greater input from nurses in planning hand hygiene improvement interventions

  10. The public hand hygiene practices of New Zealanders: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Garbutt, Claire; Simmons, Greg; Patrick, Daniel; Miller, Thomas

    2007-11-09

    To survey hand hygiene practices of the New Zealand public. Hand hygiene practices of subjects after they had used the toilet were observed in the washrooms of shopping malls in the cities of Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, and Christchurch. The frequency and duration of hand hygiene were recorded by gender-appropriate observers. A total of 1200 subjects were observed. The overall frequency of hand washing was 86.7% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 84.6-88.5). Significant (p<0.0001) gender differences were found with males (81.0%, 95% CI 77.6-84.0) having a lower frequency of hand hygiene than females (92.4%, 95% CI 89.9-94.4). Soap was used by 71.6% (95% CI 68.7-74.3) of subjects but less frequently by males (66.2%) than females (76.5%). Nine out of ten (91.2%, 95% CI 89.3-92.9) subjects who washed their hands, dried them. Males washed (median 8.0 seconds) and dried (median 7.0 seconds) their hands for a shorter period of time than females who washed and dried for medians of 8.8 and 8.0 seconds respectively. The median duration of handwashing (8.6 seconds) and drying with paper towels (7.9 seconds) was well below current recommendations of 20 seconds for each practice. The median duration of use of air towels at 16 seconds was far short of the recommended time of 45 seconds. The New Zealand public appear to practise suboptimal hand hygiene in public washrooms. Future hand hygiene promotion should focus on males; on achieving adequate hand washing (using soap) and drying times; and on promoting drying times appropriate to the chosen method.

  11. HAND HYGIENE PRACTICES POST EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE OUTBREAK IN A NIGERIAN TEACHING HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Martins, S O; Osiyemi, A O

    2017-06-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly contagious viral infection that requires a high risk perception and practice of good hand hygiene by regular hand washing or use of hand sanitizers for infection control at all time. The declaration of Nigeria as an Ebola-free country by the World Health Organization on the 20th of October, 2014 has prompted many Nigerians, including healthcare workers, to discontinue the regular practice of good hand hygiene which was commonplace during the EVD outbreak. The study assessed hand hygiene practices for infection control after the West African Ebola virus disease outbreak in a Nigerian teaching hospital. This study was cross-sectional in design. A total of 450 staff of the University College Hospital, Ibadan participated in the survey. Data was collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine associations between predictors of good hand hygiene practice at 5% level of significance. The mean age was 42.2 ± 8.6 years. A higher proportion of respondents in this study had a good knowledge of the risk factors of EVD; good knowledge of the precautionary measures against EVD and a good risk perception towards EVD. However, the majority of respondents, 359 (80.0%), had a poor practice of hand hygiene for infection control. Having good knowledge of risk factors and precautionary measures against EVD was associated with practice of good hand hygiene. Respondents with good risk perception of EVD were 1.63 times more likely to practice good hand hygiene (OR= 1.63; 95% CI= 1.20 - 4.38; p= 0.019). There was a good knowledge of risk factors and precautionary measures of EVD among staff of the University College Hospital, Ibadan. However, the majority of respondents had a poor practice of hand hygiene for infection control, Post EVD. Sensitization workshops to promote the regular practice of good hand hygiene is recommended for healthcare workers to control

  12. The World Health Organization '5 moments of hand hygiene': the scientific foundation.

    PubMed

    Chou, D T S; Achan, P; Ramachandran, M

    2012-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) launched the first Global Patient Safety Challenge in 2005 and introduced the '5 moments of hand hygiene' in 2009 in an attempt to reduce the burden of health care associated infections. Many NHS trusts in England adopted this model of hand hygiene, which prompts health care workers to clean their hands at five distinct stages of caring for the patient. Our review analyses the scientific foundation for the five moments of hand hygiene and explores the evidence, as referenced by WHO, to support these recommendations. We found no strong scientific support for this regime of hand hygiene as a means of reducing health care associated infections. Consensus-based guidelines based on weak scientific foundations should be assessed carefully to prevent shifting the clinical focus from more important issues and to direct limited resources more effectively. We recommend caution in the universal adoption of the WHO '5 moments of hand hygiene' by orthopaedic surgeons and other health care workers and emphasise the need for evidence-based principles when adopting hospital guidelines aimed at promoting excellence in clinical practice.

  13. Hand hygiene knowledge and practice among university students: evidence from Private Universities of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Hossain, Sarder Mahmud

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene has achieved the reputation of being a convenient means of preventing communicable diseases. Although causal links between hand hygiene and rates of infectious disease have also been established earlier, studies focusing on hand hygiene among university-going students are not adequate in number. This study evaluated handwashing knowledge, practice, and other related factors among the selected university students in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 undergraduate students from four selected universities. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire, that included a checklist associated with handwashing practice, was applied to capture all relevant data. The mean (± SD) age of the participants was 20.4 (±1.8) years. The majority of the students washed their hands with water, but only 22.5% washed their hands effectively by maintaining the correct steps and frequency of handwashing with water, and soap or hand sanitizer. The mean (± SD) score of the participants’ hand hygiene practice was 50.81 (±4.79), while the total score with all perfect answers was considered as 66. Regression coefficient demonstrated that age has a negative influence on hand hygiene practice, as older students have lower scores compared to the younger ones (P<0.01). However, the unmarried students were a significant predictor for influencing the incensement of handwashing practice compared to the married ones (P<0.01). Findings of this study designate widespread insufficient hand hygiene practice in the university-going students and indicate a need for an extensive public health education program on this topic. Furthermore, availability of soap and sufficient water supply is needed within the university setting to facilitate handwashing. Therefore, supporting quantity and quality of available campus-based public health education programs along with providing health-washing equipment is suggested. PMID:26929673

  14. Hand hygiene knowledge and practice among university students: evidence from Private Universities of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Hossain, Sarder Mahmud

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene has achieved the reputation of being a convenient means of preventing communicable diseases. Although causal links between hand hygiene and rates of infectious disease have also been established earlier, studies focusing on hand hygiene among university-going students are not adequate in number. This study evaluated handwashing knowledge, practice, and other related factors among the selected university students in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 undergraduate students from four selected universities. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire, that included a checklist associated with handwashing practice, was applied to capture all relevant data. The mean (± SD) age of the participants was 20.4 (±1.8) years. The majority of the students washed their hands with water, but only 22.5% washed their hands effectively by maintaining the correct steps and frequency of handwashing with water, and soap or hand sanitizer. The mean (± SD) score of the participants' hand hygiene practice was 50.81 (±4.79), while the total score with all perfect answers was considered as 66. Regression coefficient demonstrated that age has a negative influence on hand hygiene practice, as older students have lower scores compared to the younger ones (P<0.01). However, the unmarried students were a significant predictor for influencing the incensement of handwashing practice compared to the married ones (P<0.01). Findings of this study designate widespread insufficient hand hygiene practice in the university-going students and indicate a need for an extensive public health education program on this topic. Furthermore, availability of soap and sufficient water supply is needed within the university setting to facilitate handwashing. Therefore, supporting quantity and quality of available campus-based public health education programs along with providing health-washing equipment is suggested.

  15. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  16. Increase in hospital purchase of hand hygiene products: The importance of focusing on the right product.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Manisha; Prasad, Amber; Dhaliwal, Navneet; Gupta, A K; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol-based handrub (AHR) consumption is positively correlated with increases in hand hygiene (HH) compliance. In our 2,000-bed hospital in India, multiple awareness drives have been conducted to promote HH. This study aimed to determine the quantitative effect of these campaigns on use of HH products (soap and AHR) in the hospital. Over the last 6 years, bar soap consumption has increased by 389.15%, whereas that of AHR increased by 146.7%. We also evaluated microbial contamination of 99 bar soap and 60 liquid soap samples in our hospital for a year. Of the samples, 61 (61.6%) of the bar soaps and 2 (3.3%) of the liquid soaps were found to be contaminated with various organisms (P < .0002). To conclude, the focus should be to increase the right kind of HH product so that hospitals in developing countries procure liquid soaps instead of bar soaps for handwashing purposes. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?

    PubMed

    Gerald, Lynn B; Gerald, Joe K; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathy F

    2012-12-01

    Viral upper respiratory tract infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school-aged children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory tract infections, but effective hand-washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools' usual hand hygiene practices. This was a 2-year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care and then intervention (sequence 1) or intervention and then usual care (sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Five hundred twenty-seven students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations compared with the schools' usual hand hygiene practices (P = .132). There was a strong temporal trend because both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during year 2 compared with year 1 (P < .001). Although the intervention was not found to be effective, the results were confounded by the H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in substantially increased hand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual-care schools. Therefore these results should be viewed cautiously. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (p<0.001). Conclusions While the intervention was not found to be effective, the results were confounded by the H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in substantially increased hand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487

  19. Hand hygiene and infection control survey pre- and peri-H1N1-2009 pandemic: knowledge and perceptions of final year medical students in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hsu, L Y; Jin, J; Ang, B S; Kurup, A; Tambyah, P A

    2011-07-01

    Infection control and hand hygiene are taught at different points in the undergraduate medical curriculum. We conducted a survey on fifth year medical (M5) students pre- and peri-influenza A (H1N1-2009) pandemic, attempting to ascertain whether the pandemic had affected their knowledge, perception and practice of hand hygiene and other aspects of infection control. A self-administered anonymous survey of M5 students was performed between August 2008 and February 2010, corresponding to two successive classes: M5-2008 (Class of 2004/09) and M5-2009 (Class of 2005/10). Completed survey forms were collated and analysed centrally. There were 191 and 123 respondents for M5-2008 and M5-2009, respectively, corresponding to 74.9% and 47.3% of the respective classes. More M5-2009 respondents recognised alcohol hand rub as the preferred mode of hand hygiene practice and felt that there were insufficient isolation facilities in hospitals. Otherwise, survey responses were consistent. The majority felt that few doctors practiced hand hygiene appropriately, with the major obstructing factor being lack of time during ward rounds. The most important factor for improving hand hygiene compliance among junior doctors and students was for senior clinicians to lead by example. A significant minority believed that it was necessary to isolate patients with chikungunya, malaria or HIV. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic made little impact on medical students' knowledge and practice of infection control. Nonetheless, their responses have suggested avenues for improving infection control practice, including persuading senior clinicians to lead by example in hand hygiene practice and addressing gaps in knowledge on patient isolation policies.

  20. Guidelines for reducing pathogens in veterinary hospitals: disinfectant selection, cleaning protocols, and hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Portner, Joshua A; Johnson, Justine A

    2010-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in the hospital setting. Organisms that cause hospital-acquired infections are generally highly resistant, requiring expensive antibiotics and further hospitalization. As a result, many owners of infected pets choose euthanasia. Appropriate hospital disinfection and staff hygiene practices can prevent such infections by reducing the pathogen load in a facility in accordance with the "nosocomial prevention triad"-appropriate antibiotic usage, staff and patient hygiene, and hospital maintenance and disinfection. This review outlines the development and implementation of hospital disinfection protocols and hand hygiene practices in small animal veterinary hospitals.

  1. Randomized crossover study evaluating the effect of a hand sanitizer dispenser on the frequency of hand hygiene among anesthesiology staff in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Patel, Zalak; Banks, Shawn; Arheart, Kristopher; Eber, Scott; Lubarsky, David A; Birnbach, David J

    2014-06-01

    Forty anesthesia providers were evaluated with and without hand sanitizer dispensers present on the anesthesia machine. Having a dispenser increased the frequency of hand hygiene only from 0.5 to 0.8 events per hour (P = .01). Other concomitant interventions are needed to further increase hand hygiene frequency among anesthesia providers.

  2. The hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cunrui; Ma, Wenjun; Stack, Susan

    2012-08-01

    The transmission of bacteria is more likely to occur from wet skin than from dry skin; therefore, the proper drying of hands after washing should be an integral part of the hand hygiene process in health care. This article systematically reviews the research on the hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods. A literature search was conducted in April 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Search terms used were hand dryer and hand drying. The search was limited to articles published in English from January 1970 through March 2011. Twelve studies were included in the review. Hand-drying effectiveness includes the speed of drying, degree of dryness, effective removal of bacteria, and prevention of cross-contamination. This review found little agreement regarding the relative effectiveness of electric air dryers. However, most studies suggest that paper towels can dry hands efficiently, remove bacteria effectively, and cause less contamination of the washroom environment. From a hygiene viewpoint, paper towels are superior to electric air dryers. Paper towels should be recommended in locations where hygiene is paramount, such as hospitals and clinics. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Hygienic Efficacy of Different Hand-Drying Methods: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cunrui; Ma, Wenjun; Stack, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The transmission of bacteria is more likely to occur from wet skin than from dry skin; therefore, the proper drying of hands after washing should be an integral part of the hand hygiene process in health care. This article systematically reviews the research on the hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods. A literature search was conducted in April 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Search terms used were hand dryer and hand drying. The search was limited to articles published in English from January 1970 through March 2011. Twelve studies were included in the review. Hand-drying effectiveness includes the speed of drying, degree of dryness, effective removal of bacteria, and prevention of cross-contamination. This review found little agreement regarding the relative effectiveness of electric air dryers. However, most studies suggest that paper towels can dry hands efficiently, remove bacteria effectively, and cause less contamination of the washroom environment. From a hygiene viewpoint, paper towels are superior to electric air dryers. Paper towels should be recommended in locations where hygiene is paramount, such as hospitals and clinics. PMID:22656243

  4. Breath alcohol of anesthesiologists using alcohol hand gel and the "five moments for hand hygiene" in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Helen A; Hannam, Jacqueline A; Bradfield, Charles N; Mitchell, Simon J

    2016-08-01

    Appropriate hand hygiene reduces hospital-acquired infections. Anesthesiologists work in environments with numerous hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs). In a prospective observational study, we investigated the potential for an anesthesiologist to return a positive alcohol breath test during routine practice when using alcohol hand gel. We observed ten volunteer anesthesiologists over four hours while they implemented the World Health Organization (WHO) "five moments for hand hygiene" using our hospital's adopted standard 70% ethanol hand gel. We measured the expired alcohol concentration at shift start and every fifteen minutes thereafter with a fuel cell breathalyzer calibrated to measure the percentage of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Blood alcohol specimens (analyzed with gas chromatography) were collected at shift start and, when possible, immediately after a participant's first positive breathalyzer test. Of the 130 breathalyzer tests obtained, there were eight (6.2%) positive breath alcohol results from six of the ten participants, all within two minutes of a HHO. The highest value breathalyzer BAC recorded was 0.064%, with an overall mean (SD) of 0.023 (0.017)%. Five (62.5%) of the positive breathalyzer tests returned to zero in less than seven minutes. All of three blood specimens obtained immediately after a positive breathalyzer reading tested negative for alcohol. Anesthesia practitioners using alcohol hand gel in a manner that conforms with recommended hand hygiene can test positive for alcohol on a breathalyzer assay. Positive tests probably arose from inhalation of alcohol vapour into the respiratory dead space following gel application. If workplace breath testing for alcohol is implemented, it should be completed more than 15 min after applying alcohol hand gel. Positive results should be verified with a BAC test.

  5. The Impact of a Health Campaign on Hand Hygiene and Upper Respiratory Illness among College Students Living in Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a key element in preventing the transmission of cold and flu viruses. The authors conducted an experimental-control design study in 4 campus residence halls to determine whether a message campaign about hand hygiene and the availability of gel hand sanitizer could decrease cold and flu illness and school and work absenteeism. Their…

  6. The Impact of a Health Campaign on Hand Hygiene and Upper Respiratory Illness among College Students Living in Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a key element in preventing the transmission of cold and flu viruses. The authors conducted an experimental-control design study in 4 campus residence halls to determine whether a message campaign about hand hygiene and the availability of gel hand sanitizer could decrease cold and flu illness and school and work absenteeism. Their…

  7. Patient empowerment and multimodal hand hygiene promotion: a win-win strategy.

    PubMed

    McGuckin, Maryanne; Storr, Julie; Longtin, Yves; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Pittet, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Patient empowerment is a new concept in health care that has now been extended to the domain of patient safety. Within the framework of the development of the new World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, the authors conducted a review of the literature from 1997 to 2008 to identify the evidence supporting programs aimed at encouraging patients to take an active role in their care. Patient empowerment is an integral part of the WHO hand hygiene multimodal strategy. Hand hygiene promotion strategies that have demonstrated evidence of successfully empowering patients include one or all of the following components: educational tools, motivation and reminder tools, and role modeling. What is important is that programs and models to empower patients must be developed with an inbuilt evaluation component that includes both qualitative and quantitative measures to determine not only what works but under what conditions and within which organizational context.

  8. Evaluation of two different hand hygiene procedures during routine patient care.

    PubMed

    Eksi, F; Mehli, M; Akgun, S; Bayram, A; Balci, I; Aydin, N

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of hand washing (HW) and hand washing plus rubbing with an alcohol-based solution (HWR) on numbers of total and transient flora colonies on the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) during routine patient care was assessed. Samples were collected, using a standard bag broth technique, from the hands of 154 HCWs, before and immediately after carrying out a hand hygiene procedure. The numbers of total and transient flora colonies per plate were counted and transient pathogens were identified. A significant statistical difference between ward speciality was detected with respect to the isolation rate of transient flora. Transient hand flora were recovered from 25.3% of HCWs before carrying out the hand hygiene procedure. With respect to the disappearance and prevention of regrowth of transient flora after hand hygiene, the HWR technique was significantly more effective than HW. In conclusion, a disinfectant should be added to the hand washing process to achieve optimum protection against nosocomial infections in routine hospital practice.

  9. Validation of a questionnaire on hand hygiene in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Johan G; Zilaout, Hicham; Heederik, Dick; Spee, Ton; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2014-10-01

    Construction workers are at risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis. Gloves, when used properly, may protect against chemicals and coarse materials. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of contact dermatitis in a population of Dutch construction workers and aimed at validating questionnaire items on hand hygiene. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 13 construction sites, yielding data of 177 subjects (95% response rate). A questionnaire covering questions on hand hygiene and contact dermatitis symptoms was used. Agreement between workplace observations and a number of questionnaire items was assessed by calculating Cohen's kappa. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to assess the association between contact dermatitis and various hand hygiene-related determinants. The 1-year prevalence of self-reported contact dermatitis in our study sample was 46.9%. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive association with difficulties with hand cleaning (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.52), hand contamination at the end of the working day (PR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.14-4.65), and intensive hand cream use (PR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.42-3.01). Observations of hand contamination, glove use, and glove types were found to agree well with the self-reported data from the questionnaire (Cohen's kappa's 0.75, 0.97, and 0.88). Self-reported contact dermatitis prevalence in construction workers was high and related to hand hygiene. A strong agreement was found between workplace observations and self-reported questionnaire data. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  10. [Hand hygiene--part of patient safety from Semmelweis to the present].

    PubMed

    Anttila, Veli-Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Hand disinfection is one of the most important part of patient safety. By adequate hand disinfection healthcare workers can prevent about 40 per cent of healthcare-associated infections and about 50 per cent of patients' MRSA contaminations in hospitals. Adherence to hand disinfection has been observed in an average of 40 per cent of patient contacts. One of the risk factors leading to poor adherence is the "doctor" status of a healthcare worker. Introduction of an alcohol-based hand rub close to the patient is one of the most significant factors for improved hand hygiene.

  11. Using medical student observers of infection prevention, hand hygiene, and injection safety in outpatient settings: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Deborah; Bowdey, Lisa; Brett, Meghan; Cheek, James

    2016-04-01

    Health care-associated infection outbreaks have occurred in outpatient settings due to lapses in infection prevention. However, little is known about the overall infection prevention status in outpatient environments. A cross-sectional design was employed to assess infection prevention policies and practices at 15 outpatient sites across New Mexico in 2014 during a medical student outpatient rotation. A standardized infection prevention checklist was completed via staff interview; observations of injection safety practices and hand hygiene behavior were conducted. Aggregate data were analyzed using Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) and Stata (version 12.1, Stata Corp, College Station, TX) statistical software. Medical practice staff interviews reported a mean of 92.8% (median, 96.7%; range, 75.0%-98.9%) presence of recommended policies and practices. One hundred sixty-three injection safety observations were performed that revealed medication vial rubber septums were disinfected with alcohol 78.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.1%-84.7%) of the time before piercing. Three hundred thirty hand hygiene observations revealed 33.9% (95% CI, 28.8%-39.1%) use of alcohol-based handrub, 29.1% (95% CI, 24.2%-34.0%) use of soap and water, and 37.0% (95% CI, 31.8%-42.4%) use of no hand hygiene. These findings support the need for ongoing infection prevention quality improvement initiatives in outpatient settings and underscore the importance of assessing both self-report and observed behavior of infection prevention compliance. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol-impregnated wipes as an alternative in hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Butz, A M; Laughon, B E; Gullette, D L; Larson, E L

    1990-04-01

    The antimicrobial effectiveness of four hand-wash products for health care personnel included three liquid soaps that contained 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% triclosan, or no antiseptic ingredient, respectively, and a 30% w/w ethyl alcohol-impregnated hand wipe. These products were evaluated for reduction in bacterial counts on hands after extended use of 15 handwashes per day for 5 consecutive days. The order of greatest to least log reduction among products at the end of the 5-day test period was chlorhexidine gluconate (2.01), triclosan (1.52), alcohol wipe (0.04), and control soap (0.03). Skin condition before and after handwash was assessed for each treatment group. Subjects reported less skin irritation with alcohol wipes than with the two antiseptic products. Repeated washing with alcohol wipes results in reductions in bacterial colony counts comparable with nonmedicated soap, sufficient to prevent transmission of pathogens by the hands in most situations that arise in nonacute health care settings. This evidence, in addition to increased user acceptability reported by the subjects who used alcohol wipes, suggests that alcohol wipes are an acceptable alternative to soap-and-water handwashing in nonacute health care settings.

  13. Implementation and impact of an automated group monitoring and feedback system to promote hand hygiene among health care personnel.

    PubMed

    Conway, Laurie J; Riley, Linda; Saiman, Lisa; Cohen, Bevin; Alper, Paul; Larson, Elaine L

    2014-09-01

    Despite substantial evidence to support the effectiveness of hand hygiene for preventing health care-associated infections, hand hygiene practice is often inadequate. Hand hygiene product dispensers that can electronically capture hand hygiene events have the potential to improve hand hygiene performance. A study on an automated group monitoring and feedback system was implemented from January 2012 through March 2013 at a 140-bed community hospital. An electronic system that monitors the use of sanitizer and soap but does not identify individual health care personnel was used to calculate hand hygiene events per patient-hour for each of eight inpatient units and hand hygiene events per patient-visit for the six outpatient units. Hand hygiene was monitored but feedback was not provided during a six-month baseline period and three-month rollout period. During the rollout, focus groups were conducted to determine preferences for feedback frequency and format. During the six-month intervention period, graphical reports were e-mailed monthly to all managers and administrators, and focus groups were repeated. After the feedback began, hand hygiene increased on average by 0.17 events/patient-hour in inpatient units (interquartile range = 0.14, p = .008). In outpatient units, hand hygiene performance did not change significantly. A variety of challenges were encountered, including obtaining accurate census and staffing data, engendering confidence in the system, disseminating information in the reports, and using the data to drive improvement. Feedback via an automated system was associated with improved hand hygiene performance in the short-term.

  14. Implementation and Impact of an Automated Group Monitoring and Feedback System to Promote Hand Hygiene Among Health Care Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Laurie J.; Riley, Linda; Saiman, Lisa; Cohen, Bevin; Alper, Paul; Larson, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    Article-at-a-Glance Background Despite substantial evidence to support the effectiveness of hand hygiene for preventing health care–associated infections, hand hygiene practice is often inadequate. Hand hygiene product dispensers that can electronically capture hand hygiene events have the potential to improve hand hygiene performance. A study on an automated group monitoring and feedback system was implemented from January 2012 through March 2013 at a 140-bed community hospital. Methods An electronic system that monitors the use of sanitizer and soap but does not identify individual health care personnel was used to calculate hand hygiene events per patient-hour for each of eight inpatient units and hand hygiene events per patient-visit for the six outpatient units. Hand hygiene was monitored but feedback was not provided during a six-month baseline period and three-month rollout period. During the rollout, focus groups were conducted to determine preferences for feedback frequency and format. During the six-month intervention period, graphical reports were e-mailed monthly to all managers and administrators, and focus groups were repeated. Results After the feedback began, hand hygiene increased on average by 0.17 events/patient-hour in inpatient units (interquartile range = 0.14, p = .008). In outpatient units, hand hygiene performance did not change significantly. A variety of challenges were encountered, including obtaining accurate census and staffing data, engendering confidence in the system, disseminating information in the reports, and using the data to drive improvement. Conclusions Feedback via an automated system was associated with improved hand hygiene performance in the short term. PMID:25252389

  15. The 'My five moments for hand hygiene' concept for the overcrowded setting in resource-limited healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Salmon, S; Pittet, D; Sax, H; McLaws, M L

    2015-10-01

    Hand hygiene is a core activity of patient safety for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). To standardize hand hygiene practices globally the World Health Organization (WHO) released Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care and introduced the 'My five moments for hand hygiene' concept to define indications for hand hygiene rooted in an evidence-based model for transmission of micro-organisms by healthcare workers' (HCWs) hands. Central to the concept is the division of the healthcare environment into two geographical care zones, the patient zone and the healthcare zone, that requires the HCW to comply with specific hand hygiene moments. In resource-limited, overcrowded healthcare settings inadequate or no spatial separation between beds occurs frequently. These conditions challenge the HCW's ability to visualize and delineate patient zones. The 'My five moments for hand hygiene' concept has been adapted for these conditions with the aim of assisting hand hygiene educators, auditors, and HCWs to minimize ambiguity regarding shared patient zones and achieve the ultimate goal set by the WHO Guidelines--the reduction of infectious risks.

  16. Self-reported hand hygiene perceptions and barriers among companion animal veterinary clinic personnel in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maureen E C; Weese, J Scott

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived importance of and barriers to hand hygiene among companion animal clinic staff. An anonymous, voluntary written questionnaire was completed by 356 of approximately 578 individuals (62%) from 49/51 clinics. On a scale of 1 (not important) to 7 (very important), the percentage of respondents who rated hand hygiene as a 5 or higher was at least 82% in all clinical scenarios queried. The most frequently reported reason for not performing hand hygiene was forgetting to do so (40%, 141/353). Specific discussion of hand hygiene practices at work was recalled by 32% (114/354) of respondents. Although veterinary staff seem to recognize the importance of hand hygiene, it should be emphasized more during staff training. Other barriers including time constraints and skin irritation should also be addressed, possibly through increased access to and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers.

  17. Self-reported hand hygiene perceptions and barriers among companion animal veterinary clinic personnel in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Maureen E.C.; Weese, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived importance of and barriers to hand hygiene among companion animal clinic staff. An anonymous, voluntary written questionnaire was completed by 356 of approximately 578 individuals (62%) from 49/51 clinics. On a scale of 1 (not important) to 7 (very important), the percentage of respondents who rated hand hygiene as a 5 or higher was at least 82% in all clinical scenarios queried. The most frequently reported reason for not performing hand hygiene was forgetting to do so (40%, 141/353). Specific discussion of hand hygiene practices at work was recalled by 32% (114/354) of respondents. Although veterinary staff seem to recognize the importance of hand hygiene, it should be emphasized more during staff training. Other barriers including time constraints and skin irritation should also be addressed, possibly through increased access to and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. PMID:26933265

  18. Increasing hand washing compliance with a simple visual cue.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric W; Boyer, Brian T; Menachemi, Nir; Huerta, Timothy R

    2014-10-01

    We tested the efficacy of a simple, visual cue to increase hand washing with soap and water. Automated towel dispensers in 8 public bathrooms were set to present a towel either with or without activation by users. We set the 2 modes to operate alternately for 10 weeks. Wireless sensors were used to record entry into bathrooms. Towel and soap consumption rates were checked weekly. There were 97,351 hand-washing opportunities across all restrooms. Towel use was 22.6% higher (P=.05) and soap use was 13.3% higher (P=.003) when the dispenser presented the towel without user activation than when activation was required. Results showed that a visual cue can increase hand-washing compliance in public facilities.

  19. Increasing Hand Washing Compliance With a Simple Visual Cue

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Brian T.; Menachemi, Nir; Huerta, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a simple, visual cue to increase hand washing with soap and water. Automated towel dispensers in 8 public bathrooms were set to present a towel either with or without activation by users. We set the 2 modes to operate alternately for 10 weeks. Wireless sensors were used to record entry into bathrooms. Towel and soap consumption rates were checked weekly. There were 97 351 hand-washing opportunities across all restrooms. Towel use was 22.6% higher (P = .05) and soap use was 13.3% higher (P = .003) when the dispenser presented the towel without user activation than when activation was required. Results showed that a visual cue can increase hand-washing compliance in public facilities. PMID:24228670

  20. Social marketing analysis of 20 [corrected] years of hand hygiene promotion.

    PubMed

    Mah, Manuel W; Tam, Yat Cho; Deshpande, Sameer

    2008-03-01

    To assess published hand hygiene behavioral interventions that employed a social marketing framework and to recommend improvements to future interventions. We performed a systematic literature review by searching the PubMed database and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature for published articles about hand hygiene behavioral interventions in healthcare facilities, schools, and community settings. Our analysis included articles that describe multifaceted interventions and evaluated them with predefined social marketing benchmark criteria. Of 53 interventions analyzed in this review, 16 (30.2%) employed primary formative audience research, 5 (9.4%) incorporated social or behavioral theories, 27 (50.9%) employed segmentation and targeting of the audience, 44 (83.0%) used components of the "marketing mix," 3 (5.7%) considered the influence of competing behaviors, 7 (13.2%) cultivated relationships with the target audience, and 15 (28.3%) provided simple behavioral messages. Thirty-five (66.0%) of the interventions demonstrated a significant improvement in performance, but only 21 (39.6%) were considered to have a strong evaluative design. The median duration of the interventions was 8.0 months. From a social marketing perspective, the promotion of hand hygiene could be improved in several ways. The effectiveness of social marketing in hand hygiene promotion should be tested in future interventions.

  1. Using psychological theory to inform methods to optimize the implementation of a hand hygiene intervention.

    PubMed

    Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R; Lee, Jae H; Jaglal, Susan B

    2012-08-28

    Careful hand hygiene (HH) is the single most important factor in preventing the transmission of infections to patients, but compliance is difficult to achieve and maintain. A lack of understanding of the processes involved in changing staff behaviour may contribute to the failure to achieve success. The purpose of this study was to identify nurses' and administrators' perceived barriers and facilitators to current HH practices and the implementation of a new electronic monitoring technology for HH. Ten key informant interviews (three administrators and seven nurses) were conducted to explore barriers and facilitators related to HH and the impact of the new technology on outcomes. The semi structured interviews were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework by Michie et al. and conducted prior to intervention implementation. Data were explored using an inductive qualitative analysis approach. Data between administrators and nurses were compared. In 9 of the 12 domains, nurses and administrators differed in their responses. Administrators believed that nurses have insufficient knowledge and skills to perform HH, whereas the nurses were confident they had the required knowledge and skills. Nurses focused on immediate consequences, whereas administrators highlighted long-term outcomes of the system. Nurses concentrated foremost on their personal safety and their families' safety as a source of motivation to perform HH, whereas administrators identified professional commitment, incentives, and goal setting. Administrators stated that the staff do not have the decision processes in place to judge whether HH is necessary or not. They also highlighted the positive aspects of teams as a social influence, whereas nurses were not interested in group conformity or being compared to others. Nurses described the importance of individual feedback and self-monitoring in order to increase their performance, whereas administrators reported different views. This study highlights the

  2. Hand hygiene technique quality evaluation in nursing and medicine students of two academic courses 1

    PubMed Central

    Škodová, Manuela; Gimeno-Benítez, Alfredo; Martínez-Redondo, Elena; Morán-Cortés, Juan Francisco; Jiménez-Romano, Ramona; Gimeno-Ortiz, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: because they are health professionals, nursing and medical students' hands during internships can function as a transmission vehicle for hospital-acquired infections. Method: a descriptive study with nursing and medical degree students on the quality of the hand hygiene technique, which was assessed via a visual test using a hydroalcoholic solution marked with fluorescence and an ultraviolet lamp. Results: 546 students were assessed, 73.8% from medicine and 26.2% from nursing. The area of the hand with a proper antiseptic distribution was the palm (92.9%); areas not properly scrubbed were the thumbs (55.1%). 24.7% was very good in both hands, 29.8% was good, 25.1% was fair, and 20.3% was poor. The worst assessed were the male, nursing and first year students. There were no significant differences in the age groups. Conclusions: hand hygiene technique is not applied efficiently. Education plays a key role in setting a good practice base in hand hygiene, theoretical knowledge, and in skill development, as well as good practice reinforcement. PMID:26444174

  3. Impact of implementation of the World Health Organization multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy in a teaching hospital in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jui-Kuang; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Li, Ching-Hsien; Chao, Hsueh-Lan; Chou, Hsueh-Chih; Chen, Yueh-Ju; Huang, Yu-Hsiu; Ke, Chin-Mei; Sy, Cheng Len; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Yao-Shen

    2016-02-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is considered to be the most simple, rapid, and economic way to prevent health care-associated infection (HAI). However, poor HH compliance has been repeatedly reported. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of implementing the updated World Health Organization (WHO) multimodal HH guidelines on HH compliance and HAI in a tertiary hospital in Taiwan. We conducted a before-and-after interventional study during 2010-2011. A multimodal HH promotion campaign was initiated. Key strategies included providing alcohol-based handrub dispensers at points of care, designing educational programs tailored to the needs of different health care workers, placement of general and individual reminders in the workplace, and establishment of evaluation and feedback for HH compliance and infection rates. Overall HH compliance increased from 62.3% to 73.3% after 1 year of intervention (P < .001). The rate of overall HAI decreased from 3.7% to 3.1% (P < .05), urinary tract infection rate decreased from 1.5% to 1.2% (P < .05), and respiratory tract infection rate decreased from 0.53% to 0.35% (P < .05). This campaign saved an estimated $940,000 and 3,564 admission patient days per year. The WHO multimodal HH guidelines are feasible and effective for the promotion of HH compliance and are associated with the reduction of HAIs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin irritation and dryness associated with two hand-hygiene regimens: soap-and-water hand washing versus hand antisepsis with an alcoholic hand gel.

    PubMed

    Boyce, J M; Kelliher, S; Vallande, N

    2000-07-01

    gels that are tolerated better than soap may be more acceptable to staff and may lead to improved hand-hygiene practices.

  5. Hygiene practices and faecal contamination of the hands of children attending primary school in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Padaruth, S K; Biranjia-Hurdoyal, S D

    2015-07-01

    An increasing prevalence of paediatric infections have been associated with poor levels of hygienic practices. This study aimed at investigating the level of hygiene practices among 200 school children aged 6-10 years. Their hands were swabbed and the bacteria were identified by Gram staining and conventional biochemical tests. Of the 200 samples, 91.0% (182) showed bacterial growth. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus was the most common bacterium isolated from 76.9% (140) of the samples followed by Micrococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Escherichia coli. Children aged 9-10 years were more likely to wash their hands before eating than those aged 6-8 years (OR=2.0; p<0.05). A higher bacterial growth was noted from children who washed their hands with water only than those who used soap (OR=5.9; p<0.05). Furthermore, children aged 6-8 years were more likely to have oral-digital habits (OR=2.5; p<0.05), less likely to wash hands after using the toilet, more prone to use water only to wash their hands at home and had higher bacterial growth (p<0.05). A scarcity of soap was noted in the schools which could prevent the children from adopting proper hygiene practices. Furthermore, children should be often reminded of the importance of hygienic practices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A hand hygiene intervention to decrease infections among children attending day care centers: design of a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zomer, Tizza P; Erasmus, Vicki; Vlaar, Nico; van Beeck, Ed F; Tjon-A-Tsien, Aimée; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Voeten, Hélène A C M

    2013-06-03

    Day care center attendance has been recognized as a risk factor for acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, which can be prevented with adequate hand hygiene (HH). Based on previous studies on environmental and sociocognitive determinants of caregivers' compliance with HH guidelines in day care centers (DCCs), an intervention has been developed aiming to improve caregivers' and children's HH compliance and decrease infections among children attending DCCs. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. The intervention will be evaluated in a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial among 71 DCCs in the Netherlands. In total, 36 DCCs will receive the intervention consisting of four components: 1) HH products (dispensers and refills for paper towels, soap, alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and hand cream); 2) training to educate about the Dutch national HH guidelines; 3) two team training sessions aimed at goal setting and formulating specific HH improvement activities; and 4) reminders and cues to action (posters/stickers). Intervention DCCs will be compared to 35 control DCCs continuing usual practice. The primary outcome measure will be observed HH compliance of caregivers and children, measured at baseline and one, three, and six months after start of the intervention. The secondary outcome measure will be the incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in 600 children attending DCCs, monitored over six months by parents using a calendar to mark the days their child has diarrhea and/or a cold. Multilevel logistic regression will be performed to assess the effect of the intervention on HH compliance. Multilevel poisson regression will be performed to assess the incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children attending DCCs. This is one of the first DCC intervention studies to assess HH compliance of both caregivers and

  7. A hand hygiene intervention to decrease infections among children attending day care centers: design of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Day care center attendance has been recognized as a risk factor for acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, which can be prevented with adequate hand hygiene (HH). Based on previous studies on environmental and sociocognitive determinants of caregivers’ compliance with HH guidelines in day care centers (DCCs), an intervention has been developed aiming to improve caregivers’ and children’s HH compliance and decrease infections among children attending DCCs. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. Methods/design The intervention will be evaluated in a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial among 71 DCCs in the Netherlands. In total, 36 DCCs will receive the intervention consisting of four components: 1) HH products (dispensers and refills for paper towels, soap, alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and hand cream); 2) training to educate about the Dutch national HH guidelines; 3) two team training sessions aimed at goal setting and formulating specific HH improvement activities; and 4) reminders and cues to action (posters/stickers). Intervention DCCs will be compared to 35 control DCCs continuing usual practice. The primary outcome measure will be observed HH compliance of caregivers and children, measured at baseline and one, three, and six months after start of the intervention. The secondary outcome measure will be the incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in 600 children attending DCCs, monitored over six months by parents using a calendar to mark the days their child has diarrhea and/or a cold. Multilevel logistic regression will be performed to assess the effect of the intervention on HH compliance. Multilevel poisson regression will be performed to assess the incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children attending DCCs. Discussion This is one of the first DCC intervention studies to assess

  8. Role of parents in the promotion of hand hygiene in the paediatric setting: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F; Pires, D; Zingg, W; Pittet, D

    2016-06-01

    When a child is hospitalized, parents have to share their role to protect the child with the hospital, and establish a partnership with healthcare workers to deliver safe care to the child, including undertaking good hand hygiene practices. To review the scientific evidence about the participation of parents in the promotion of hand hygiene in paediatric settings. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and SciELO databases was undertaken using the following terms: ('hand hygiene'[MeSH] OR 'hand hygiene' OR 'hand disinfection'[MeSH] OR hand disinf* OR hand wash* OR handwash* OR hand antisep*) AND (parent OR caregiver OR mother OR father OR family OR families OR relatives). The Integrated Quality Criteria for Review of Multiple Study Designs tool was used for quality assessment. The literature search yielded 1645 articles, and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria for the final analysis. Most studies were observational, and were based on questionnaires or interviews. Most parents had little knowledge about the indications to perform hand hygiene, but recognized hand hygiene as a relevant tool for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Their willingness to remind healthcare workers about a failed opportunity to perform hand hygiene was variable and, overall, rather low. Parents felt more comfortable about reminding healthcare workers about hand hygiene if they had previously been invited to do so. Literature on the subject is scarce. The promotion of hand hygiene by parents should be further explored by research as a potential intervention for enhancing patient safety in paediatric settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Implementation of WHO multimodal strategy for improvement of hand hygiene: a quasi-experimental study in a Traditional Chinese Medicine hospital in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Wang, Xiaoqing; An, Junming; An, Jialu; Zhou, Ning; Sun, Lu; Chen, Hong; Feng, Lin; Han, Jing; Liu, Xiaorong

    2017-01-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is an essential component for preventing and controlling of healthcare-associated infection (HAI), whereas compliance with HH among health care workers (HCWs) is frequently poor. This study aimed to assess compliance and correctness with HH before and after the implementation of a multimodal HH improvement strategy launched by the World Health Organization (WHO). A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaire survey generalizing possible factors affecting HH behaviors of HCWs and direct observation method was used to evaluate the effectiveness of WHO multimodal HH strategy in a hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Multimodal HH improvement strategy was drawn up according to the results of questionnaire survey. Compliance and correctness with HH among HCWs were compared before and after intervention. Also HH practices for different indications based on WHO "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" were recorded. In total, 553 HCWs participated in the questionnaire survey and multimodal HH improvement strategy was developed based on individual, environment and management levels. A total of 5044 observations in 23 wards were recorded in this investigation. The rate of compliance and correctness with HH improved from 66.27% and 47.75% at baseline to 80.53% and 88.35% after intervention. Doctors seemed to have better compliance with HH after intervention (84.04%) than nurses and other HCWs (81.07% and 69.42%, respectively). When stratified by indication, compliance with HH improved for all indications after intervention (P < 0.05) except for "after body fluid exposure risk" and "after touching patient surroundings". Implementing the WHO multimodal HH strategy can significantly improve HH compliance and correctness among HCWs.

  10. Using Workflow Diagrams to Address Hand Hygiene in Pediatric Long-Term Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Carter, Eileen J; Cohen, Bevin; Murray, Meghan T; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine L

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) in pediatric long-term care settings has been found to be sub-optimal. Multidisciplinary teams at three pediatric long-term care facilities developed step-by-step workflow diagrams of commonly performed tasks highlighting HH opportunities. Diagrams were validated through observation of tasks and concurrent diagram assessment. Facility teams developed six workflow diagrams that underwent 22 validation observations. Four main themes emerged: 1) diagram specificity, 2) wording and layout, 3) timing of HH indications, and 4) environmental hygiene. The development of workflow diagrams is an opportunity to identify and address the complexity of HH in pediatric long-term care facilities.

  11. A microbiological evaluation of warm air hand driers with respect to hand hygiene and the washroom environment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J H; Brown, K L; Toivenen, J; Holah, J T

    2000-12-01

    A finger rinse technique for counting micro-organisms on hands showed no significant difference in the level of recovered micro-organisms following hand drying using either warm air or paper towels. Contact plate results appeared to reflect the degree of dampness of hands after drying rather than the actual numbers of micro-organisms on the hands. In laboratory tests, a reduction in airborne count of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus of between 40 and 75% was achieved from 600 readings comparing inlets and outlets of warm air hand driers. In washroom trials, the number of airborne micro-organisms was reduced by between 30 and 75%. Air emitted from the outlet of the driers contained significantly fewer micro-organisms than air entering the driers. Drying of hands with hand driers was no more likely to generate airborne micro-organisms than drying with paper towels. Levels of micro-organisms on external surfaces of hand driers were not significantly different to those on other washroom surfaces. This work shows that warm air hand driers, of the type used in this study, are a hygienic method of drying hands and therefore appropriate for use in both the healthcare and food industry.

  12. [Preventive measures for avoiding transmission of microorganisms between hospitalised patients. Hand hygiene].

    PubMed

    Lupión, Carmen; López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Health-care associated infections are an important public health problem worldwide. The rates of health-care associated infections are indicators of the quality of health care. The infection control activities related to prevention of transmission of hospital microorganisms can be grouped in 4 mayor areas: standard precautions, specific precautions (including isolation if appropriate), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and surveillance activities (including providing infection rates and monitoring procedures). Hand hygiene and the correct use of gloves are the most important measures to prevent health-care associated infections and to avoid the dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Continuous educational activities aimed at improving adherence to hand hygiene are needed. Periodical assessment of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations with feed-back have been shown to provide sustained improvement. Several complementary activities are being evaluated, including skin decolonization prior to certain surgeries, a package of measures in patients with central venous catheters or mechanical ventilation, and universal body hygiene with chlorhexidine. The present area of discussion concerns in which situations and in which groups would such measures be effective and efficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of the Intelligent Health Messenger Box on health care professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to hand hygiene and hand bacteria counts.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Mohsen; Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Fattahipour, Rasoul; Khalaji, Kazem; Pakpour, Amir H; Koenig, Harold G

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of the Intelligent Health Messenger Box in promoting hand hygiene using a quasiexperimental design. Knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices related to hand hygiene as well as hand bacteria counts and amount of liquid soap used were measured. The intervention involved broadcasting preventive audio messages. All outcomes showed significant change after the intervention compared with before. The Intelligent Health Messenger Box can serve as a practical way to improve hand hygiene. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Graphical Assessment Technique (GAT) - An Objective, Comprehensive and Comparative Hand Hygiene Quantification Tool

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Prasad, Monika; Pandita, Venisha; Malhi, Ravneet; Vashishtha, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There has been a profound leap in developing countries in sectors of human development but it falls short of millennium development goals. Diarrhoea, respiratory infections are primary cause of child deaths around the world due to improper hygiene practice. There is lack of systematic objective analysis, follow-up and quantification of hand hygiene guidelines. So, there is an urgent requisite of a tool to assess the same. Aim To conduct a pilot test for assessing the efficacy of Graphical Assessment Technique (GAT) in objectively evaluating and comparing intervention based hand hygiene among students of National Association of Blind School (NABS) and a government school. Materials and Methods GAT was used to assess the baseline and post-intervention improvement of 80 students considered for the study. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and was subjected to quantitative analysis and parametric tests. Results Non-significant difference (p≥0.05) was found at baseline and immediate post-intervention on percentage mean scores of blind school students and government school student, while government school children also showed non-significant difference at one week. Significant difference (p≤0.05) was found at baseline, post-intervention one week and post-intervention one month for blind school children along with baseline and post-intervention mean percentage scores for government school children. Conclusion The primary agenda behind the study was to test a tool which can objectively evaluate, quantify and compare the follow-up of hand hygiene guidelines and aid in better hand hygiene promotion. PMID:27656553

  15. Assessment of two hand hygiene regimens for intensive care unit personnel.

    PubMed

    Larson, E L; Aiello, A E; Bastyr, J; Lyle, C; Stahl, J; Cronquist, A; Lai, L; Della-Latta, P

    2001-05-01

    To compare skin condition and skin microbiology among intensive care unit personnel using one of two randomly assigned hand hygiene regimens: a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)-containing traditional antiseptic wash and a waterless handrub containing 61% ethanol with emollients (ALC). Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Two critical care units (medical and surgical) in a large, metropolitan academic health center in Manhattan. Fifty staff members (physicians, nurses, housekeepers, respiratory therapists) working full time in the intensive care unit. One of two hand hygiene regimens randomly assigned for four consecutive weeks. The two outcomes were skin condition (measured by two tools: Hand Skin Assessment form and Visual Skin Scaling form) and skin microbiology. Samples were obtained at baseline, on day 1, and at the end of wks 2 and 4. Participants in the ALC group had significant improvements in the Hand Skin Assessment scores at wk 4 (p = 0.04) and in Visual Skin Scaling scores at wks 3 (p = 0.01) and 4 (p = 0.0005). There were no significant differences in numbers of colony-forming units between participants in the CHG or ALC group at any time period. The ALC regimen required significantly less time than the CHG regimen (mean: 12.7 secs and 21.1 secs, respectively; p = 0.000) and resulted in a 50% reduction in material costs. Changes in hand hygiene practices in acute care settings from the traditional antiseptic wash to use of plain, mild soap and an alcohol-based product should be considered. Further research is needed to examine the association between use of antiseptic products for hand hygiene of staff and reductions in nosocomial infection rates among patients.

  16. A Randomized Trial to Determine the Impact of an Educational Patient Hand-Hygiene Intervention on Contamination of Hospitalized Patient's Hands with Healthcare-Associated Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Knighton, Shanina; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-01-05

    We conducted a non-blinded randomized trial to determine the impact of a patient hand-hygiene intervention on contamination of hospitalized patients' hands with healthcare-associated pathogens. Among patients with negative hand cultures on admission, recovery of pathogens from hands was significantly reduced in those receiving the intervention versus those receiving standard care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-3.

  17. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HIPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Pittet, Didier

    2002-12-01

    The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings. This report reviews studies published since the 1985 CDC guideline (Garner JS, Favero MS. CDC guideline for handwashing and hospital environmental control, 1985. Infect Control 1986;7:231-43) and the 1995 APIC guideline (Larson EL, APIC Guidelines Committee. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:251-69) were issued and provides an in-depth review of hand-hygiene practices of HCWs, levels of adherence of personnel to recommended handwashing practices, and factors adversely affecting adherence. New studies of the in vivo efficacy of alcohol-based hand rubs and the low incidence of dermatitis associated with their use are reviewed. Recent studies demonstrating the value of multidisciplinary hand-hygiene promotion programs and the potential role of alcohol-based hand rubs in improving hand-hygiene practices are summarized. Recommendations concerning related issues (e.g., the use of surgical hand antiseptics, hand lotions or creams, and wearing of artificial fingernails) are also included.

  18. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Aim To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. Setting A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. Method The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Results Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to ‘always’ practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40–96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Conclusion Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers’ knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations. PMID:27711173

  19. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Vishal; Gustafsson, Charlotte; Rosales Klintz, Senia; Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to 'always' practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40-96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers' knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations.

  20. Brief Report on Hand-Hygiene Monitoring Systems: A Pilot Study of a Computer-Assisted Image Analysis Technique.

    PubMed

    Deochand, Neil; Deochand, Michelle E

    2016-06-01

    Various methodologies have been utilized in hand- hygiene (HH) research to measure the quality and compliance rates of hand washing. Some notable examples are direct observation, self-report, image quantification of fluorescence, microbial sampling, automated systems, and electronically assisted devices. While direct observation is considered the gold standard of HH monitoring systems, its methodological limitations (e.g., high staffing demands, participant reactivity, and undersampling) have yet to be overcome. As a result, there is renewed interest in developing technologies or methods of assessment that are cost-effective, accurate, and not intrusive. This article provides a brief review of HH monitoring systems while presenting a less resource-intensive methodology utilizing image analysis of fluorescence to assess hand washing. Results indicate that the proposed HH protocol could be used to replace human visual analysis of fluorescence, as well as provide a less resource-intensive option to assess HH under controlled conditions. Future implications and the need for additional research, such as cross-validating the results in a real-world clinical setting, are discussed.

  1. Influence of rub-in technique on required application time and hand coverage in hygienic hand disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Reichel, Mirja; Feil, Yvonne; Eggerstedt, Sven; Kaulfers, Paul-Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent data indicate that full efficacy of a hand rub preparation for hygienic hand disinfection can be achieved within 15 seconds (s). However, the efficacy test used for the European Norm (EN) 1500 samples only the fingertips. Therefore, we investigated hand coverage using sixteen different application variations. The hand rub was supplemented with a fluorescent dye, and hands were assessed under UV light by a blind test, before and after application. Fifteen non-healthcare workers were used as subjects for each application variation apart from one test which was done with a group of twenty healthcare workers. All tests apart from the reference procedure were performed using 3 mL of hand rub. The EN 1500 reference procedure, which consists of 6 specific rub-in steps performed twice with an aliquot of 3 ml each time, served as a control. In one part of this study, each of the six steps was performed from one to five times before proceeding to the next step. In another part of the study, the entire sequence of six steps was performed from one to five times. Finally, all subjects were instructed to cover both hands completely, irrespective of any specific steps ("responsible application"). Each rub-in technique was evaluated for untreated skin areas. Results The reference procedure lasted on average 75 s and resulted in 53% of subjects with at least one untreated area on the hands. Five repetitions of the rub-in steps lasted on average 37 s with 67% of subjects having incompletely treated hands. One repetition lasted on average 17 s, and all subjects had at least one untreated area. Repeating the sequence of steps lasted longer, but did not yield a better result. "Responsible application" was quite fast, lasting 25 s among non-healthcare worker subjects and 28 s among healthcare workers. It was also effective, with 53% and 55% of hands being incompletely treated. New techniques were as fast and effective as "responsible application". Large untreated areas

  2. Influence of rub-in technique on required application time and hand coverage in hygienic hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Reichel, Mirja; Feil, Yvonne; Eggerstedt, Sven; Kaulfers, Paul-Michael

    2008-10-29

    Recent data indicate that full efficacy of a hand rub preparation for hygienic hand disinfection can be achieved within 15 seconds (s). However, the efficacy test used for the European Norm (EN) 1500 samples only the fingertips. Therefore, we investigated hand coverage using sixteen different application variations. The hand rub was supplemented with a fluorescent dye, and hands were assessed under UV light by a blind test, before and after application. Fifteen non-healthcare workers were used as subjects for each application variation apart from one test which was done with a group of twenty healthcare workers. All tests apart from the reference procedure were performed using 3 mL of hand rub. The EN 1500 reference procedure, which consists of 6 specific rub-in steps performed twice with an aliquot of 3 ml each time, served as a control. In one part of this study, each of the six steps was performed from one to five times before proceeding to the next step. In another part of the study, the entire sequence of six steps was performed from one to five times. Finally, all subjects were instructed to cover both hands completely, irrespective of any specific steps ("responsible application"). Each rub-in technique was evaluated for untreated skin areas. The reference procedure lasted on average 75 s and resulted in 53% of subjects with at least one untreated area on the hands. Five repetitions of the rub-in steps lasted on average 37 s with 67% of subjects having incompletely treated hands. One repetition lasted on average 17 s, and all subjects had at least one untreated area. Repeating the sequence of steps lasted longer, but did not yield a better result. "Responsible application" was quite fast, lasting 25 s among non-healthcare worker subjects and 28 s among healthcare workers. It was also effective, with 53% and 55% of hands being incompletely treated. New techniques were as fast and effective as "responsible application". Large untreated areas were found only

  3. The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

  4. Oral hygiene compliance in orthodontic patients: a randomized controlled study on the effects of a post-treatment communication.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, Mauro; Ragazzini, Giulia; Delucchi, Alessia; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Barreca, Carlo; Rinchuse, Daniel J; Servetto, Roberto; Piras, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have recently demonstrated that a post-treatment communication to explain the importance of an oral hygiene can improve the orthodontic patients' compliance over a period of 66 days. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of a structured follow-up communication after orthodontic appliance application on oral hygiene compliance after 30-40 days. Eighty-four orthodontic participants enrolled from patients who were beginning fixed orthodontic treatment at the Orthodontic Department, Gaslini Hospital, Genova, between July and October 2014 were randomly assigned to one of three trial arms. Before the bonding, all patients underwent a session of oral hygiene aimed at obtaining an plaque index of "zero." At the following orthodontic appointment, the plaque index was calculated for each patient in order to assess oral hygiene compliance. The first group served as control and did not receive any post-procedure communication, the second group received a structured text message giving reassurance, and the third group received a structured telephone call. Participants were blinded to group assignment and were not made aware that the text message or the telephone call was part of the study. (The research protocol was approved by the Italian Comitato Etico Regionale della Liguria-sezione 3^ c/o IRCCS-Istituto G. Gaslini 845/2014, and it is not registered in the trial's register.) RESULTS: Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the control group, 28 participants to the text message group, and 26 to the telephone group. Participants who received a post-treatment communication reported higher level of oral hygiene compliance than participants in the control group. The plaque index was 0.3 (interquartile range (Iqr), 0.60) and 0.75 (Iqr, 1.30), respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.0205). A follow-up procedure after orthodontic treatment may be an effective tool to increase oral hygiene compliance also over a short period.

  5. Making change easy: A peer-to-peer guide on transitioning to new hand hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Amirov, Chingiz M; Candon, Heather L; Jacob, Latha

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes our experiences planning and implementing the transition to a new commercial line of hand hygiene products and their dispensing systems in a large academic health care facility in Toronto, Canada. Our lessons learned are organized into a practical guide made available in 2 different formats: this article and an illustrated peer-to-peer guide (http://www.baycrest.org/wp-content/uploads/HCE-PROG-HH_HighQuality.pdf).

  6. Is compliance with hand disinfection in the intensive care unit related to work experience?

    PubMed

    Noritomi, Danilo Teixeira; Chierego, Marialuisa; Byl, Bauduin; Menestrina, Nicola; Carollo, Tiziana; Struelens, Marc; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    The performance of hand disinfection by staff in a 31-bed department of intensive care was monitored. During 32 hours of observation, 727 opportunities for hand disinfection were observed, and the compliance rate was 27.9%. The level of work experience was not correlated with hand disinfection compliance rates.

  7. Design study to develop screen savers aimed at improving hand hygiene behavior.

    PubMed

    Weggelaar-Jansen, Anne Marie; van Buren-Jansen, Esther; van 't Schip, Sabine; Pel, Johan J M; Nieboer, Anna P; Helder, Onno K

    2016-08-01

    Displaying screen savers with gain-framed messages are effective to improve hand hygiene, but the design of screen savers has not been studied yet. Based on the literature, scientific propositions were developed for the design of screen savers, exploring 2 strategies to subconsciously influence hand hygiene behavior; the first was to gain attention, and the second was to exert peer pressure. The designed screen savers were tested for attention with an eye-tracking study (N = 27) and for the influence of peer pressure with a questionnaire (N = 25). Twenty-five propositions for gaining attention concerned the format and color of the screen saver itself and color, position, and style of visual and text elements. Seven propositions for peer pressure concerned the influence of peers, role models, and feelings of being watched. Eye-tracking measurements showed that text on the 4 screen savers based on propositions gained more, earlier, and longer attention and the visual elements gained earlier and longer attention than the control screen savers. The questionnaire results showed that feelings of peer pressure were evoked by 3 screen savers; of these, one was not based on propositions. Screen savers designed according to scientific propositions for visual attention and peer pressure have the potential to alter hand hygiene behavior. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Wearable Sensors for eLearning of Manual Tasks: Using Forearm EMG in Hand Hygiene Training.

    PubMed

    Kutafina, Ekaterina; Laukamp, David; Bettermann, Ralf; Schroeder, Ulrik; Jonas, Stephan M

    2016-08-03

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to eLearning that makes use of smart wearable sensors. Traditional eLearning supports the remote and mobile learning of mostly theoretical knowledge. Here we discuss the possibilities of eLearning to support the training of manual skills. We employ forearm armbands with inertial measurement units and surface electromyography sensors to detect and analyse the user's hand motions and evaluate their performance. Hand hygiene is chosen as the example activity, as it is a highly standardized manual task that is often not properly executed. The World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene are taken as a model of the optimal hygiene procedure, due to their algorithmic structure. Gesture recognition procedures based on artificial neural networks and hidden Markov modeling were developed, achieving recognition rates of 98 . 30 % ( ± 1 . 26 % ) for individual gestures. Our approach is shown to be promising for further research and application in the mobile eLearning of manual skills.

  9. What is left to justify the use of chlorhexidine in hand hygiene?

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter

    2008-10-01

    The CDC guideline for hand hygiene describes chlorhexidine gluconate as an agent with "substantial residual activity". But not all studies support this claim. In both suspension tests (e.g. EN 13727) and tests under practical conditions (e.g. EN 1500) it is crucial to neutralize any residual activity in the sampling fluid in order to make sure that the agent does not continue to damage surviving cells after exposure. The neutralization step must also be validated. If this is not done the efficacy may be significantly overestimated, and the healthcare professional may rely on data which do not represent the true efficacy of an agent. A review of eight studies which are cited to support "substantial residual activity" show that none of them were performed with validated neutralization. Seven of them do not demonstrate any residual activity for chlorhexidine gluconate. Only in one study some residual activity is described but the validity of the study design does not allow make this claim as no neutralizing agents were used at all. The benefits of using an active agent must outweigh any risks in order to justify its use. If no real benefits are left for chlorhexidine gluconate in hand hygiene, all the risks count even more such as skin irritation, allergic reactions including anaphylactic shock, and acquired bacterial resistance. Unless there is new and valid evidence to clearly support a benefit of using chlorhexidine gluconate in hand hygiene, healthcare workers should prefer formulations without this agent.

  10. Wearable Sensors for eLearning of Manual Tasks: Using Forearm EMG in Hand Hygiene Training

    PubMed Central

    Kutafina, Ekaterina; Laukamp, David; Bettermann, Ralf; Schroeder, Ulrik; Jonas, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to eLearning that makes use of smart wearable sensors. Traditional eLearning supports the remote and mobile learning of mostly theoretical knowledge. Here we discuss the possibilities of eLearning to support the training of manual skills. We employ forearm armbands with inertial measurement units and surface electromyography sensors to detect and analyse the user’s hand motions and evaluate their performance. Hand hygiene is chosen as the example activity, as it is a highly standardized manual task that is often not properly executed. The World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene are taken as a model of the optimal hygiene procedure, due to their algorithmic structure. Gesture recognition procedures based on artificial neural networks and hidden Markov modeling were developed, achieving recognition rates of 98.30% (±1.26%) for individual gestures. Our approach is shown to be promising for further research and application in the mobile eLearning of manual skills. PMID:27527167

  11. Accuracy of a radiofrequency identification (RFID) badge system to monitor hand hygiene behavior during routine clinical activities.

    PubMed

    Pineles, Lisa L; Morgan, Daniel J; Limper, Heather M; Weber, Stephen G; Thom, Kerri A; Perencevich, Eli N; Harris, Anthony D; Landon, Emily

    2014-02-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is a critical part of infection prevention in health care settings. Hospitals around the world continuously struggle to improve health care personnel (HCP) HH compliance. The current gold standard for monitoring compliance is direct observation; however, this method is time-consuming and costly. One emerging area of interest involves automated systems for monitoring HH behavior such as radiofrequency identification (RFID) tracking systems. To assess the accuracy of a commercially available RFID system in detecting HCP HH behavior, we compared direct observation with data collected by the RFID system in a simulated validation setting and to a real-life clinical setting over 2 hospitals. A total of 1,554 HH events was observed. Accuracy for identifying HH events was high in the simulated validation setting (88.5%) but relatively low in the real-life clinical setting (52.4%). This difference was significant (P < .01). Accuracy for detecting HCP movement into and out of patient rooms was also high in the simulated setting but not in the real-life clinical setting (100% on entry and exit in simulated setting vs 54.3% entry and 49.5% exit in real-life clinical setting, P < .01). In this validation study of an RFID system, almost half of the HH events were missed. More research is necessary to further develop these systems and improve accuracy prior to widespread adoption. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of a waterless hand-hygiene preparation and soap-and-water hand washing to reduce coliforms on hands in animal exhibit settings.

    PubMed

    Davis, M A; Sheng, H; Newman, J; Hancock, D D; Hovde, C J

    2006-10-01

    Outbreaks of enteric disease associated with exposure to live animals on exhibit have occurred with increasing frequency in recent years. Possibly the most important pathogen causing such outbreaks is Escherichia coli O157:H7, because of the serious illness it can cause. Hand hygiene is consistently protective against disease among persons exposed to animals implicated in these outbreaks. Livestock barns have limited hand-washing facilities, therefore a waterless hand-sanitizing gel would be a potentially preventive measure readily available to visitors and animal exhibitors. This study compared the reduction of bacterial counts on hands of animal exhibitors when soap and water was used or when an ethanol-based hand gel was used after animal handling. Participants were youth and adults involved with showing livestock. The sanitation methods were similar in reducing the total bacteria and coliform counts on the hands of the participants (Wilcoxon rank sum test P values 0.12 and 0.69 respectively).

  13. Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (hands before meals, 26.5% after toileting and 59.8% washing their hands with soap (59.8%). In multivariate analysis, male gender, health risk behaviours and lack of protective factors were associated with sub-optimal tooth brushing, and lower socioeconomic status, health risk behaviours, psychological distress and lack of protective factors were found to be associated with sub-optimal hand washing hygiene behaviour. As a conclusion, the cross-national data on oral and hand hygiene behaviour from four Southeast Asian countries found sub-optimal hygiene behaviour. Several determinants of sub-optimal hygiene behaviour were identified that can inform programmes in order to improve oral and hand hygiene behaviour of this adolescent population. PMID:24608901

  14. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  15. REAL-TIME FEEDBACK FOR IMPROVING COMPLIANCE TO HAND SANITIZATION AMONG HEALTHCARE WORKERS IN AN OPEN LAYOUT ICU USING RADIOFREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Waghmare, Abijeet; Ekstrand, Maria; Raj, Tony; Selvam, Sumithra; Sreerama, Sai Madhukar; Sampath, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Objective To increase hand sanitizer usage among healthcare workers by developing and implementing a low-cost intervention using RFID and wireless mesh networks to provide real-time alarms for increasing hand hygiene compliance during opportune moments in an open layout Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Method A wireless, RFID based system was developed and deployed in the ICU. The ICU beds were divded into an intervention arm (n=10) and a control arm (n=14). Passive RFID tags were issued to the doctors, nurses and support staff of the ICU. Long range RFID readers were positioned strategically. Sensors were placed beneath the hand sanitizers to record sanitizer usage. The system would alert the HCWs by flashing a light if an opportune moment for hand sanitization was detected. Results A significant increase in hand sanitizer use was noted in the intervention arm. Usage was highest during the early part of the workday and decreased as the day progressed. Hand wash events per person hour was highest among the ancilliary staff followed by the doctors and nurses. Conclusion Real-time feedback has potential to increase hand hygiene compliance among HCWs. The system demonstrates the possibility of automating compliance monitoring in an ICU with an open layout. PMID:25957165

  16. Real-time feedback for improving compliance to hand sanitization among healthcare workers in an open layout ICU using radiofrequency identification.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, Kedar; Waghmare, Abijeet; Ekstrand, Maria; Raj, Tony; Selvam, Sumithra; Sreerama, Sai Madhukar; Sampath, Sriram

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to increase hand sanitizer usage among healthcare workers by developing and implementing a low-cost intervention using RFID and wireless mesh networks to provide real-time alarms for increasing hand hygiene compliance during opportune moments in an open layout Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A wireless, RFID based system was developed and implemented in the ICU. The ICU beds were divded into an intervention arm (n = 10) and a control arm (n = 14). Passive RFID tags were issued to the doctors, nurses and support staff of the ICU. Long range RFID readers were positioned strategically. Sensors were placed beneath the hand sanitizers to record sanitizer usage. The system would alert the HCWs by flashing a light if an opportune moment for hand sanitization was detected. A significant increase in hand sanitizer use was noted in the intervention arm. Usage was highest during the early part of the workday and decreased as the day progressed. Hand wash events per person hour was highest among the ancilliary staff followed by the doctors and nurses. Real-time feedback has potential to increase hand hygiene compliance among HCWs. The system demonstrates the possibility of automating compliance monitoring in an ICU with an open layout.

  17. An evaluation of hand hygiene in an intensive care unit: Are visitors a potential vector for pathogens?

    PubMed

    Birnbach, David J; Rosen, Lisa F; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Arheart, Kristopher L; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) are frequently immunocompromised and might be highly susceptible to infection. Visitors to an ICU who do not adequately clean their hands could carry pathogenic organisms, resulting in risk to a vulnerable patient population. This observational study identifies pathogens carried on the hands of visitors into an ICU and investigates the effect of hand hygiene. Two observers, one stationed outside and one inside the ICU, evaluated whether visitors performed hand hygiene at any of the wall-mounted alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers prior to reaching a patient's room. Upon reaching a patient's room, the dominant hand of all of the participants was cultured. Of the 55 participating visitors, 35 did not disinfect their hands. Among the cultures of those who failed to perform hand hygiene, eight cultures grew Gram-negative rods and one grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Of the cultures of the 20 individuals who performed hand hygiene, 14 (70%) had no growth on the cultures, and the remaining six (30%) showed only the usual skin flora. The visitors who do not perform hand hygiene might carry pathogens that pose a risk to ICU patients.

  18. Use of a simulation intervention to examine differences in nursing students' hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Konicki, Tara; Miller, Elaine

    2016-10-01

    Although hand hygiene remains an essential aspect of quality care, adherence to best patient safety practices continues to pose major challenges. The objectives of this study are to examine hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs, practices, perceived importance and behaviors using Social Cognitive Theory and simulation-based intervention. Participants were taken from a convenience sample of 131 undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a nursing fundamentals course at an urban university in the midwestern United States, and then randomly assigned to their respective groups. Using an experimental pretest-posttest design, control and intervention groups received the same lecture pertaining to hand hygiene and 3 data collection points where van de Mortel's Hand Hygiene Questionnaire (HHQ) was administered. In addition, the intervention group viewed a 6.5min video related to healthcare acquired infection and participated in 4 simulated situations requiring hand hygiene, based on World Health Organization guidelines. For all students, the hand hygiene technique was assessed through the use of Glo Germ, followed by handwashing and photography under ultraviolet light (posttest only). Image illumination was analyzed using image processing software. Microbiological sampling plates (pretest-posttest) were assessed quantitatively by colony counting. Study findings did not support differences in the intervention group for the 5 hypothesized relationships. Social desirability responding and negative item confusion were found to occur with the HHQ in the student population. There was a significant difference in the UV hand photographs, with students in the afternoon having lower values than students in the morning. Given the study results, there were no definitive educational recommendations to teach hand hygiene to nursing students. Future research should continue to further examine multi-focal modalities to enhance adherence to hand hygiene practices, as well as control for

  19. Hand hygiene behavior among urban slum children and their care takers in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Pati, S; Kadam, S S; Chauhan, A S

    2014-06-01

    To study the knowledge and practice of hand washing among mothers and children of shikharchandi slum of Bhubaneswar, Odisha and to recommend possible measures to improve the current practices. Present cross-sectional study was carried out in the Shikharchandi slum located in the Bhubaneswar city of Orissa state in India. 150 women and 80 children were interviewed. Children questionnaire were prepared to suit to their age and according to local context. Components of sanitation like food handling and hand washing were covered in this questionnaire. Hand washing before preparing food is being practiced by 85% of women. Of all women interviewed, 77% wash hands before serving food. Only 15% children said soap was available in their school to wash hands. Out of total children interviewed, 76% told that their teachers tell about sanitation and hand washing in the class. Only 5% children told they were consulted by doctor/health worker during last 3 months. As many as 81% children told that they wash their hands before taking food and 19% children said they take their food without washing hands. Though most of the children told that they wash hands before taking food, but only 17.5% told that they use soap for hand washing. Only 29% children told that their teachers check hand washing in school. When asked about critical timing of hand washing, 44% children told about at least two critical timings and 56% were unaware about the critical timings of hand washing. Inadequate knowledge on this among our study participant is a point of concern. Systematic integration of health and hygiene education in schools through curricular modifications could be an appropriate strategy.

  20. [Comparison of efficacy of 14 procedures for the hygienic disinfection of hands (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wewalka, G; Rotter, M; Koller, W; Stanek, G

    1977-10-01

    The efficacy of 14 procedures for the hygienic disinfection of hands mostly with commerical preparations was tested by a new experimental model developed at the Institute of Hygiene of the university Vienna (1,3). The disinfectant power was clearly dependent on the duration of treatment as well as on the kind of alcohol used in the preparation (n-Propanol better than iso-Propanol better than Ethanol). After one minute the efficacy of all preparations containing one of the three alcohols as active agent was well comparable to that of the standard procedure which according to our proposal (5) uses iso-Propanol 60% (ml/ml) for 1 minute. For preparations with n-Propanol as the main active agent (Satinazid and Sterillium) this was true even after treatment for a period as short as 0.5 min. In our opinion disinfecting detergents are out of place for hygienic disinfection of hands. One preparation representing this group (Versuchspräparat A) was far less effective than the standard procedure.

  1. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic habits and seasonal influenza infection. We conducted a case-control study to test whether the risk of influenza transmission associated with self-reported hand-washing and unhealthy hygienic habits among residents in Fujian Province, southeastern China.Laboratory confirmed seasonal influenza cases were consecutively included in the study as case-patients (n = 100). For each case, we selected 1 control person matched for age and city of residence. Telephone interview was used to collect information on hand-washing and hygienic habits. The associations were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the poorest hand-washing score of 0 to 3, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased progressively from 0.26 to 0.029 as hand-washing score increased from 4 to the maximum of 9 (P < 0.001). Compared with the poorest hygienic habit score of 0 to 2, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased from 0.10 to 0.015 with improving score of hygienic habits (P < 0.001). Independent protective factors against influenza infection included good hygienic habits, higher hand-washing score, providing soap or hand cleaner beside the hand-washing basin, and receiving influenza vaccine. Regular hand-washing and good hygienic habits were associated with a reduced risk of influenza infection. These findings support the general recommendation for nonpharmaceutical interventions against influenza.

  2. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of antibacterial hand hygiene products on risk of shigellosis.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Donald W; Bowman, James P; English, Donald J; Fischler, George E; Fuls, Janice L; Krowka, John F; Kruszewski, Francis H

    2014-04-01

    There are conflicting reports on whether antibacterial hand hygiene products are more effective than nonantibacterial products in reducing bacteria on hands and preventing disease. This research used new laboratory data, together with simulation techniques, to compare the ability of nonantibacterial and antibacterial products to reduce shigellosis risk. One hundred sixtythree subjects were used to compare five different hand treatments: two nonantibacterial products and three antibacterial products, i.e., 0.46% triclosan, 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, or 62% ethyl alcohol. Hands were inoculated with 5.5 to 6 log CFU Shigella; the simulated food handlers then washed their hands with one of the five products before handling melon balls. Each simulation scenario represented an event in which 100 people would be exposed to Shigella from melon balls that had been handled by food workers with Shigella on their hands. Analysis of experimental data showed that the two nonantibacterial treatments produced about a 2-log reduction on hands. The three antibacterial treatments showed log reductions greater than 3 but less than 4 on hands. All three antibacterial treatments resulted in statistically significantly lower concentration on the melon balls relative to the nonantibacterial treatments. A simulation that assumed 1 million Shigella bacteria on the hands and the use of a nonantibacterial treatment predicted that 50 to 60 cases of shigellosis would result (of 100 exposed). Each of the antibacterial treatments was predicted to result in an appreciable number of simulations for which the number of illness cases would be 0, with the most common number of illness cases being 5 (of 100 exposed). These effects maintained statistical significance from 10(6) Shigella per hand down to as low as 100 Shigella per hand, with some evidence to support lower levels. This quantitative microbial risk assessment shows that antibacterial hand treatments can significantly reduce Shigella risk.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of hand hygiene reminder signs on the use of antimicrobial hand gel in a clinical skills center.

    PubMed

    Wearn, Andy; Bhoopatkar, Harsh; Nakatsuji, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a critical element of patient care, which needs to be learned and reinforced to become an autonomous behavior. Previous studies have explored aspects of hand hygiene behavior in the clinical workplace, but not in controlled learning environments with health professional students. Development of good hand hygiene behavior requires a multi-faceted approach, including education, reinforcement, feedback and audit. Our study aimed to identify the effect of unannounced hand hygiene reminder signs on the use of antimicrobial hand gel in a clinical skills center. Year 2 MBChB students received practical learning regarding hand hygiene in their clinical skills sessions. Baseline hand gel use was measured using before and after weighing of the bottles. An A5 sign was created to remind the students to hand cleanse and was used as an unannounced intervention. In semester 2 (2012), the student groups were randomly allocated as intervention (signs) or control (no signs). Hand gel use at all sessions was measured. Data were compared between groups and over time. In total, 237 students attended the skills sessions twice during the study. Hand gel use was not significantly different between the two study arms. Overall use was low, typically 1-2 hand gel pumps per student per session. In addition, hand gel use fell over time. A visual reminder to cleanse hands did not appear to have any effect on behavior. These findings may have implications for their value in a clinical setting. Low overall use of hand gel may be context-dependent. Students are in a simulated environment and examine 'healthy' peers or actors. There may have been inconsistent tutor role-modeling or problems with the educational approach to the skill. Analysis at the level of the group, and not the individual, may have also limited our study.

  4. Hand hygiene regimens for the reduction of risk in food service environments.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities.

  5. Tolerance and acceptability of 14 surgical and hygienic alcohol-based hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Girard, R; Bousquet, E; Carré, E; Bert, C; Coyault, C; Coudrais, S; Regard, A; Garcia, E Laprugne; Valdeyron, M L; Pergay, V

    2006-07-01

    Tests were performed under working practice conditions to measure the tolerance and acceptability of commercially available hand rubs with proven efficacy. The products were compared with those in current use at the Hospices Civils de Lyon for surgical hand disinfection (Sterillium) and hygienic hand disinfection (Purell) to obtain information for public sector purchases. The 12 test products were Alcogel H, Assanis Pro, Clinogel, Dermalcool, Manugel Plus, Manugel Plus NPC, Manurub Liquid, Manurub Gel, Purell 85, Spitacid, Spitagel and Sterillium Gel. They were tested from mid-November to mid-April over four periods of three weeks, separated by two-week intervals during which the customary product was re-introduced. Participation of hospital wards and theatres was voluntary. Skin dryness and irritation were scored before and after each test period. Acceptability and ease of use were assessed by means of a questionnaire. Among the eight surgical hand rubs, only Manurub Liquid, Manurub Gel and Manugel Plus NPC did not cause significantly more dryness and irritation than Sterillium. For the 10 hygienic hand rubs, differences were noted depending upon the test period. Overall, Assanis Pro, Clinogel, Purell 85 and Sterillium Gel did not cause significantly more dryness and irritation than Purell. However, over the (colder) first three test periods, Assanis Pro and Sterillium Gel caused more irritation and Purell 85 caused more dryness than Purell. Responses to the questionnaires on acceptability indicated that users preferred their customary hand rubs (Sterillium and Purell). As these field tests involving many participants did not identify any superior products, previous purchase orders were renewed.

  6. Factors influencing compliance to hygiene routines in community care - the viewpoint of medically responsible nurses in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Marianne; Kihlgren, Annica; Perseius, Kent-Inge

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to describe factors influencing compliance to hygiene routines in community care in Swedish municipalities from the perspective of medically responsible nurses (MRN). A web-based questionnaire was sent to all MRNs in Swedish municipalities, N = 268. Beside demographical background data, the questionnaire contained two core open-ended questions generating free text data. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Four categories of factors were found: resources, management, staff and external factors. All four categories contained subcategories. To some extent, the challenges to uphold adequate compliance to hygiene routines seem different in community care than in hospitals. Resources regarding equipment and supplies seem as an uncertain asset and uneven distributed among municipalities. Home likeness was seen as a major obstacle for upholding adequate hygiene routines. To uphold sufficient hygiene routines in a person's home or in a home-like environment might be one of the major challenges for community health care in the future. The MRN's narratives suggest that Registered Nurses have a key role in upholding sufficient hygiene in community care. This report might contribute in providing them with more knowledge to take on this urgent task. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Video surveillance captures student hand hygiene behavior, reactivity to observation, and peer influence in Kenyan primary schools.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Blum, Annalise G; Breiman, Robert F; Ram, Pavani K; Davis, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In-person structured observation is considered the best approach for measuring hand hygiene behavior, yet is expensive, time consuming, and may alter behavior. Video surveillance could be a useful tool for objectively monitoring hand hygiene behavior if validated against current methods. Student hand cleaning behavior was monitored with video surveillance and in-person structured observation, both simultaneously and separately, at four primary schools in urban Kenya over a study period of 8 weeks. Video surveillance and in-person observation captured similar rates of hand cleaning (absolute difference <5%, p = 0.74). Video surveillance documented higher hand cleaning rates (71%) when at least one other person was present at the hand cleaning station, compared to when a student was alone (48%; rate ratio  = 1.14 [95% CI 1.01-1.28]). Students increased hand cleaning rates during simultaneous video and in-person monitoring as compared to single-method monitoring, suggesting reactivity to each method of monitoring. This trend was documented at schools receiving a handwashing with soap intervention, but not at schools receiving a sanitizer intervention. Video surveillance of hand hygiene behavior yields results comparable to in-person observation among schools in a resource-constrained setting. Video surveillance also has certain advantages over in-person observation, including rapid data processing and the capability to capture new behavioral insights. Peer influence can significantly improve student hand cleaning behavior and, when possible, should be exploited in the design and implementation of school hand hygiene programs.

  8. [Influence of promotional material on hand