Science.gov

Sample records for hand-held semiconductor cdznte-based

  1. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  2. Hand-held medical robots.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  3. Microfluidic MEMS hand-held flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafton, Meggie M. G.; Maleki, Teimour; Zordan, Michael D.; Reece, Lisa M.; Byrnes, Ron; Jones, Alan; Todd, Paul; Leary, James F.

    2011-02-01

    Due to a number of recent technological advances, a hand-held flow cytometer can be achieved by use of semiconductor illuminators, optical sensors (all battery powered) and sensitive cell markers such as immuno-quantum dot (Qdot) labels. The specific application described is of a handheld blood analyzer that can quickly process a drop of whole, unfractionated human peripheral blood by real-time, on-chip magnetic separation of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) and further fluorescence analysis of Qdot labeled WBC subsets. Various microfluidic patterns were fabricated in PDMS and used to characterize flow of single cells and magnetic deflection of magnetically labeled cells. An LED excitation, avalanche photodiode detection system (SensL Technologies, Ltd., Cork, Ireland) was used for immuno-Qdot detection of WBC subsets. A static optical setup was used to determine the sensitivity of the detection system. In this work we demonstrate: valve-less, on-chip magnetic sorting of immunomagnetically labeled white blood cells, bright Qdot labeling of lymphocytes, and counting of labeled white blood cells. Comparisons of these results with conventional flow cytometric analyses are reported. Sample preparation efficiency was determined by labeling of isolated white blood cells. Appropriate flow rates were determined for optical detection and confirmed with flowing particles. Several enabling technologies required for a truly portable, battery powered, hand-held flow cytometer for use in future point-of-care diagnostic devices have been demonstrated. The combining of these technologies into an integrated handheld instrument is in progress and results on whole blood cell analysis are to be reported in another paper.

  4. Choosing a Hand-Held Inventory Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lois; Hughes, Janet; Neff, Verne; Notartomas, Trish

    2008-01-01

    In spring of 2006, a task force was charged to look at the feasibility of acquiring hand-held inventory devices for the Pennsylvania State University Libraries (PSUL). The task force's charge was not to look at the whole concept of doing an inventory, but rather to focus on the feasibility of acquiring hand-held devices to use in an inventory.…

  5. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  6. NMR hand-held moisture sensor.

    PubMed

    Prado, P J

    2001-01-01

    An open magnet design, hand-held NMR sensor head is presented. Wood moisture content and cement hydration tests demonstrate the potential of the tool for in-situ material assessment. The magnetic field distribution was adjusted by positioning blocks of permanent magnets using millimeter scale 3-dimensional magnetic field modeling. A low Q-factor circuit was used for spin-echo sequences with short echo times.

  7. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.M.

    1998-04-28

    The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a high performance hand-held, real time detection gas chromatograph (HHGC) by Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this hand-held gas chromatograph is about five lbs., with a physical size of 8{close_quotes} x 5{close_quotes} x 3{close_quotes} including carrier gas and battery. It consumes about 12 watts of electrical power with a response time on the order of one to two minutes. This HHGC has an average effective theoretical plate of about 40k. Presently, its sensitivity is limited by its thermal sensitive detector at PPM. Like a conventional G.C., this HHGC consists mainly of three major components: (1) the sample injector, (2) the column, and (3) the detector with related electronics. The present HHGC injector is a modified version of the conventional injector. Its separation column is fabricated completely on silicon wafers by means of MEMS technology. This separation column has a circular cross section with a diameter of 100 pm. The detector developed for this hand-held GC is a thermal conductivity detector fabricated on a silicon nitride window by MEMS technology. A normal Wheatstone bridge is used. The signal is fed into a PC and displayed through LabView software.

  8. Hand-held and automated breast ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Kimme-Smith, C.

    1985-01-01

    The book is a guide for physicians and technologists who use US as an adjunct to mammography; it carefully outlines the pros and cons of US of the breast and its role in the diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. After an introduction that discusses the philosophy of breast US, the chapters cover the physics of US and instrumentation (both hand-held transducers as well as automated water path scanners), then proceed to a discussion of the normal breast. Sections on benign disorders, malignant lesions, and pitfalls of diagnosis are followed by quiz cases.

  9. A hand-held immaterial volumetric display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, Antti; Rakkolainen, Ismo

    2014-03-01

    We have created an ultralight, movable, "immaterial" fogscreen. It is based on the fogscreen mid-air imaging technology. The hand-held unit is roughly the size and weight of an ordinary toaster. If the screen is tracked, it can be swept in the air to create mid-air slices of volumetric objects, or to show augmented reality (AR) content on top of real objects. Interfacing devices and methodologies, such as hand and gesture trackers, camera-based trackers and object recognition, can make the screen interactive. The user can easily interact with any physical object or virtual information, as the screen is permeable. Any real objects can be seen through the screen, instead of e.g., through a video-based augmented reality screen. It creates a mixed reality setup where both the real world object and the augmented reality content can be viewed and interacted with simultaneously. The hand-held mid-air screen can be used e.g., as a novel collaborating or classroom tool for individual students or small groups.

  10. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be operated at high potential...

  11. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be operated at high potential...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be...

  13. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from one...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from one...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from one...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from one...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from one...

  2. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held...

  3. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated...

  5. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated...

  17. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  18. Digital hand-held temperature monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allin, L. V.; Ferrari, I.

    1980-09-01

    A hand-held non-invasive monitoring instrument has been designed, constructed and tested to allow core temperature measurements to be obtained from human subjects who have swallowed a temperature-sensing radio transmitter (radio pill). This instrument uses a simple AM radio for a receiver, digital circuitry to decode the received signal and a four-digit LED module to display the temperature. The unit, which is battery-powered, can be held in one hand while an antenna probe is swept over the abdomen of the subject until a continuously audible signal is generated by a piezoelectric sound source, indicating reception. The digital display then presents the body core temperature in tenths of a degree Celsius.

  19. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C M; Koo, J C

    2001-01-10

    Gas chromatography is a prominent technique for separating complex gases and then analyzing the relative quantities of the separate components. This analytical technique is popular with scientists in a wide range of applications, including environmental restoration for air and water pollution, and chemical and biological analysis. Today the analytical instrumentation community is to working towards moving the analysis away from the laboratory to the point of origin of the sample (''the field'') to achieve real-time data collection and lower analysis costs. The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has developed a hand-held, real-time detection gas chromatograph (GC) through Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this GC is approximately 8 pounds, and it measures 8 inches by 5 inches by 3 inches. It consumes approximately 12 watts of electrical power and has a response time on the order of 2 minutes. The current detector is a glow discharge detector with a sensitivity of parts per billion. The average retention time is about 30 to 45 seconds. Under optimum conditions, the calculated effective plate number is 40,000. The separation column in the portable GC is fabricated completely on silicon wafers. Silicon is a good thermal conductor and provides rapid heating and cooling of the column. The operational temperature can be as high as 350 degrees Celsius. The GC system is capable of rapid column temperature ramping and cooling operations. These are especially important for organic and biological analyses in the GC applications.

  20. Practical applications of hand-held computers in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Goldblum, Orin M

    2002-09-01

    For physicians, hand-held computers are gaining popularity as point of care reference tools. The convergence of hand-held computers, the Internet, and wireless networks will enable these devices to assume more essential roles as mobile transmitters and receivers of digital medical Information. In addition to serving as portable medical reference sources, these devices can be Internet-enabled, allowing them to communicate over wireless wide and local area networks. With enhanced wireless connectivity, hand-held computers can be used at the point of patient care for charge capture, electronic prescribing, laboratory test ordering, laboratory result retrieval, web access, e-mail communication, and other clinical and administrative tasks. Physicians In virtually every medical specialty have begun using these devices in various ways. This review of hand-held computer use in dermatology illustrates practical examples of the many different ways hand-held computers can be effectively used by the practicing dermatologist.

  1. Hand-held digital line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. D.; Ustun, Teoman E.; Maislin, Gami; Webb, Robert H.

    2004-07-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy is a powerful research tool with specialized but, to date, limited use in ophthalmic clinics due in part to the size, cost, and complexity of instruments. Conversely, low-cost retinal imaging devices have limited capabilities in screening, detection, and diagnosis of diseases. To fill the niche between these two, a low-cost, hand-held, line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO) was designed, constructed, and tested on normal human subjects. The LSLO has only one moving part, multiple imaging modes, and uses low-cost but highly sensitive complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) linear arrays for imaging with a detector dynamic range of 12-bits. The line-scanning approach produces high contrast quasi-confocal images with nearly the same performance as a flying-spot SLO. Imaging modes include simultaneous dual wavelength illumination and live stereoscopic imaging with a split aperture. Image processing and display functions are controlled with two stacked prototype compact printed circuit boards using field-programmable gated arrays (FPGA) and other digital electronic elements. With near shot-noise limited performance, the digital LSLO camera requires low illumination power (~ 100 μW) at near-infrared wavelengths. Wide field fundus images with several imaging modes have been obtained from several human subjects. The LSLO will significantly enhance confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for routine use by ophthalmologist, optometrists, general practitioners and also non-specialized emergency medical personnel and technicians in the field for retinal disease detection and other diverse applications.

  2. Electronic, Hand-Held, Wireless Text-And-Graphics Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed electronic, hand-held, wireless viewer presents written material to reader in way that closely resembles that of paper reading material. Viewer presents text and graphics like those normally found in books, newspapers, and magazines. Its hand-held and wireless features enable it to be used in positions and areas where books and magazines are normally used. Device consists primarily of two parts: the receiver/information store and viewing screen.

  3. Electronic, Hand-Held, Wireless Text-And-Graphics Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed electronic, hand-held, wireless viewer presents written material to reader in way that closely resembles that of paper reading material. Viewer presents text and graphics like those normally found in books, newspapers, and magazines. Its hand-held and wireless features enable it to be used in positions and areas where books and magazines are normally used. Device consists primarily of two parts: the receiver/information store and viewing screen.

  4. The use of hand held mobile phones by drivers.

    PubMed

    Bedford, D; O'Farrell, A; Downey, J; McKeown, N; Howell, F

    2005-01-01

    The use of mobile phones by drivers has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this study was to identify the use of hand held mobiles phones by drivers in Ireland. Their use was investigated by a direct observation survey of drivers. The study showed that 3.6% of drivers were using hand held mobile phones while driving. This rate is high compared to other studies. Van drivers were three times more likely than other drivers to use a mobile phone whilst driving. Legislation needs to be introduced to ban their use and thereby reduce the risk of crashes.

  5. Hand held phase-shifting diffraction moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    An interferometer in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case.

  6. Hand held phase-shifting diffraction Moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1994-09-20

    An interferometer is described in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case. 4 figs.

  7. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  9. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  10. Hand-held Calculators: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Max; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations of several publications with regard to the use of hand-held calculators in the mathematics curriculum are presented. Relevant portions of the NACOME and Euclid Conference reports are cited as well as a report to NSF and recommendations from an NIE/NSF conference. Recommendations support expanded use of, and research concerning,…

  11. Evaluation of a hand-held lactate analyzer in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Thorneloe, Charlotte; Bédard, Christian; Boysen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A hand-held lactate test device and a blood gas auto analyzer were compared. The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of the hand-held device in dogs in a clinical setting. Blood lactate levels were evaluated on 30 samples from healthy client-owned dogs and 48 samples from client-owned dogs with various diseases. A blood sample was collected from each healthy dog by either jugular or cephalic venipuncture and from each sick dog from the jugular, cephalic, or saphenous vein, or from an arterial catheter if applicable. One and a half milliliters of the blood sample was immediately transferred to a heparinized vacutainer tube. Enough blood was then drawn from the heparinized tube to allow split sample simultaneous analysis with both machines. Samples from the sick dogs represented a wide range of clinically relevant lactate values. Good agreement between lactate values from both devices was obtained in both sick and healthy dogs. Lactate values in the healthy group (< 2.9 mmol/L with the hand-held device, < 2.6 mmol/L with the blood gas analyzer) were similar to those previously reported (< 2.5 mmol/L). The results of this study support the use of the hand-held device in dogs in a clinical setting. PMID:17436905

  12. Epilepsy Forewarning Using A Hand-Held Device

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, LM

    2005-02-21

    Over the last decade, ORNL has developed and patented a novel approach for forewarning of a large variety of machine and biomedical events. The present implementation uses desktop computers to analyze archival data. This report describes the next logical step in this effort, namely use of a hand-held device for the analysis.

  13. Hand-held Calculators: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Max; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations of several publications with regard to the use of hand-held calculators in the mathematics curriculum are presented. Relevant portions of the NACOME and Euclid Conference reports are cited as well as a report to NSF and recommendations from an NIE/NSF conference. Recommendations support expanded use of, and research concerning,…

  14. Fabricating a custom earpiece for hand-held radios.

    PubMed

    Potter, James V; Hansen, Nancy A; Schroetlin, Robert G; Jones, John D

    2009-12-01

    This article describes the fabrication of a custom earpiece for use with hand-held radios. The technique can be used to fabricate custom earpieces, as a public service, for law enforcement personnel, firefighters, emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, and others, improving safety and providing a valuable benefit to the community.

  15. Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

    2008-01-01

    A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

  16. Manual for 70 mm hand-held photography from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.; Frey, H. V.; Shenk, W. E.; Dunkelman, L.

    1973-01-01

    A manual and atlas used on the Skylab mission for hand-held photography are presented. The manual covers terrain, environmental, meteorological, and dim light photography while the atlas covers sections from the Army Map Service 1:40.000,000 world map, a glossary of geologic terms, geologic maps, and recommended exposure times.

  17. 16 CFR 1225.2 - Requirements for hand-held infant carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for hand-held infant carriers... ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR HAND-HELD INFANT CARRIERS (Eff. 6-6-14) § 1225.2 Requirements for hand-held infant carriers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each hand-held...

  18. Hand-held radiometry: A set of notes developed for use at the Workshop of Hand-held radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A set of notes was developed to aid the beginner in hand-held radiometry. The electromagnetic spectrum is reviewed, and pertinent terms are defined. View areas of multiband radiometers are developed to show the areas of coincidence of adjacent bands. The amounts of plant cover seen by radiometers having different fields of view are described. Vegetation indices are derived and discussed. Response functions of several radiometers are shown and applied to spectrometer data taken over 12 wheat plots, to provide a comparison of instruments and bands within and among instruments. The calculation of solar time is reviewed and applied to the calculation of the local time of LANDSAT satellite overpasses for any particular location in the Northern Hemisphere. The use and misuse of hand-held infrared thermometers are discussed, and a procedure for photographic determination of plant cover is described. Some suggestions are offered concerning procedures to be followed when collecting hand-held spectral and thermal data. A list of references pertinent to hand-held radiometry is included.

  19. Engineering issues for hand-held sensing devices, with examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiwald, David A.; Freiwald, Joyce

    1994-03-01

    It is now U.S. defense policy that there will be no new platform starts. The emphasis for platforms will be on O&M cost reduction, life-extension improvements, and force-multiplier- device upgrades. There is also an increasing emphasis on hand-held force-multiplier devices for individuals, which is the focus of this paper. Engineering issues include operations analysis, weight, cube, cost, prime power, ease of use, data storage, reliability, fault tolerance, data communications and human factors. Two examples of hand-held devices are given. Applications include USMC, Army, SOCOM, DEA, FBI, SS, Border Patrol and others. Barriers to adoption of such technology are also discussed.

  20. A First Look at Mobile Hand-Held Device Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Gregor; Schneider, Fabian; Feldmann, Anja

    Although mobile hand-held devices (MHDs) are ubiquitous today, little is know about how they are used - especially at home. In this paper, we cast a first look on mobile hand-held device usage from a network perspective. We base our study on anonymized packet level data representing more than 20,000 residential DSL customers. Our characterization of the traffic shows that MHDs are active on up to 3% of the monitored DSL lines. Mobile devices from Apple (i.e., iPhones and iPods) are, by a huge margin, the most commonly used MHDs and account for most of the traffic. We find that MHD traffic is dominated by multimedia content and downloads of mobile applications.

  1. A Cheap, Semiquantitative Hand-Held Conductivity Tester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacky, Susan K. S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a design for a hand-held conductivity tester powered by a 9V battery that gives semi-quantitative results for aqueous electrolyte solutions of concentrations ranging from 0.001 M to 0.1 M. The tester uses a bar-graph LED driven by an LM3914 integrated circuit to indicate the level of conductivity. A list of parts, procedures, and results…

  2. A Cheap, Semiquantitative Hand-Held Conductivity Tester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacky, Susan K. S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a design for a hand-held conductivity tester powered by a 9V battery that gives semi-quantitative results for aqueous electrolyte solutions of concentrations ranging from 0.001 M to 0.1 M. The tester uses a bar-graph LED driven by an LM3914 integrated circuit to indicate the level of conductivity. A list of parts, procedures, and results…

  3. Hand Held Numeric Prototype For Breath Analyzing Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambre, Aditya; Stanacevic, Milutin; Gouma, Perena

    2011-09-01

    This paper summarizes the workings of a hand held numerical prototype device that incorporates resistive sensor arrays for breath analysis diagnostics. The sensor array detects and measures three distinct biomarkers in exhaled human breath. The device has an advance peripheral interface controller with internal ADCs and LCD driver. The LCD used is a 16×2 display that shows the readings for all the three sensors. The device may be used as a simple health monitoring system.

  4. Hand-held calculators augment optimized drilling programs. Part 9

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, B.

    1982-09-01

    This paper shows how common calculations of drilling and rig parameters can be simplified with the use of a hand-held programmable calculator. It presents a program which is divided into 6 sections: annular velocities, pump output, bottoms up (or bit-to-surface calculations), surface to bit, tripping ton miles, and drilling ton miles. Each section is examined. User instructions, program description, and program listing for the rig utility program are provided.

  5. Vibration and impulsivity analysis of hand held olive beaters.

    PubMed

    Deboli, Roberto; Calvo, Angela; Preti, Christian

    2016-07-01

    To provide more effective evaluations of hand arm vibration syndromes caused by hand held olive beaters, this study focused on two aspects: the acceleration measured at the tool pole and the analysis of the impulsivity, using the crest factor. The signals were frequency weighted using the weighting curve Wh as described in the ISO 5349-1 standard. The same source signals were also filtered by the Wh-bl filter (ISO/TS 15694), because the weighting filter Wh (unlike the Wh-bl filter) could underestimate the effect of high frequency vibration on vibration-induced finger disorders. Ten (experienced) male operators used three beater models (battery powered) in the real olive harvesting condition. High vibration total values were obtained with values never lower than 20 m(-2). Concerning the crest factor, the values ranged from 5 to more than 22. This work demonstrated that the hand held olive beaters produced high impulsive loads comparable to the industry hand held tools.

  6. Distributing Data from Desktop to Hand-Held Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    A system of server and client software formats and redistributes data from commercially available desktop to commercially available hand-held computers via both wired and wireless networks. This software is an inexpensive means of enabling engineers and technicians to gain access to current sensor data while working in locations in which such data would otherwise be inaccessible. The sensor data are first gathered by a data-acquisition server computer, then transmitted via a wired network to a data-distribution computer that executes the server portion of the present software. Data in all sensor channels -- both raw sensor outputs in millivolt units and results of conversion to engineering units -- are made available for distribution. Selected subsets of the data are transmitted to each hand-held computer via the wired and then a wireless network. The selection of the subsets and the choice of the sequences and formats for displaying the data is made by means of a user interface generated by the client portion of the software. The data displayed on the screens of hand-held units can be updated at rates from 1 to

  7. Using hand-held computer technologies to improve dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Audie A; King, Abby C; Oliveira, Brian M; Ahn, David K; Gardner, Christopher D

    2008-06-01

    Portable hand-held information technology offers much promise not only in assessing dietary intake in the real world, but also in providing dietary feedback to individuals. However, stringent research designs have not been employed to examine whether it can be effective in modifying dietary behaviors. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hand-held computer (i.e., personal digital assistant [PDA]) for increasing vegetable and whole-grain intake over 8 weeks in mid-life and older adults, using a randomized study design. Twenty-seven healthy adults aged > or =50 were randomized and completed the 8-week study. Intervention participants received an instructional session and a PDA programmed to monitor their vegetable and whole-grain intake levels twice per day and to provide daily individualized feedback, goal-setting, and support. Controls received standard, age-appropriate, written nutritional education materials. Dietary intake was assessed via the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire at baseline and 8 weeks. Relative to controls, intervention participants reported significantly greater increases in vegetable servings (1.5-2.5 servings/day; p=0.02), as well as a trend toward greater intake of dietary fiber from grains (3.7-4.5 servings/day; p=0.10). This study's findings provide preliminary evidence that using portable hand-held technology to provide daily individualized feedback on dietary behavior in the real world can increase the dietary intake of healthy food groups.

  8. Promoting physical activity through hand-held computer technology.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Ahn, David K; Oliveira, Brian M; Atienza, Audie A; Castro, Cynthia M; Gardner, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    Efforts to achieve population-wide increases in walking and similar moderate-intensity physical activities potentially can be enhanced through relevant applications of state-of-the-art interactive communication technologies. Yet few systematic efforts to evaluate the efficacy of hand-held computers and similar devices for enhancing physical activity levels have occurred. The purpose of this first-generation study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hand-held computer (i.e., personal digital assistant [PDA]) for increasing moderate intensity or more vigorous (MOD+) physical activity levels over 8 weeks in mid-life and older adults relative to a standard information control arm. Randomized, controlled 8-week experiment. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2006-2007. Community-based study of 37 healthy, initially underactive adults aged 50 years and older who were randomized and completed the 8-week study (intervention=19, control=18). Participants received an instructional session and a PDA programmed to monitor their physical activity levels twice per day and provide daily and weekly individualized feedback, goal setting, and support. Controls received standard, age-appropriate written physical activity educational materials. Physical activity was assessed via the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire at baseline and 8 weeks. Relative to controls, intervention participants reported significantly greater 8-week mean estimated caloric expenditure levels and minutes per week in MOD+ activity (p<0.04). Satisfaction with the PDA was reasonably high in this largely PDA-naive sample. Results from this first-generation study indicate that hand-held computers may be effective tools for increasing initial physical activity levels among underactive adults.

  9. Promoting Physical Activity through Hand-Held Computer Technology

    PubMed Central

    King, Abby C.; Ahn, David K.; Oliveira, Brian M.; Atienza, Audie A.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Efforts to achieve population-wide increases in walking and similar moderate-intensity physical activities potentially can be enhanced through relevant applications of state-of-the-art interactive communication technologies. Yet few systematic efforts to evaluate the efficacy of hand-held computers and similar devices for enhancing physical activity levels have occurred. The purpose of this first-generation study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hand-held computer (i.e., personal digital assistant [PDA]) for increasing moderate intensity or more vigorous (MOD+) physical activity levels over 8 weeks in mid-life and older adults relative to a standard information control arm. Design Randomized, controlled 8-week experiment. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2006-2007. Setting/Participants Community-based study of 37 healthy, initially underactive adults aged 50 years and older who were randomized and completed the 8-week study (intervention=19, control=18). Intervention Participants received an instructional session and a PDA programmed to monitor their physical activity levels twice per day and provide daily and weekly individualized feedback, goal setting, and support. Controls received standard, age-appropriate written physical activity educational materials. Main Outcome Measure Physical activity was assessed via the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire at baseline and 8 weeks. Results Relative to controls, intervention participants reported significantly greater 8-week mean estimated caloric expenditure levels and minutes per week in MOD+ activity (p<0.04). Satisfaction with the PDA was reasonably high in this largely PDA-naive sample. Conclusions Results from this first-generation study indicate that hand-held computers may be effective tools for increasing initial physical activity levels among underactive adults. PMID:18201644

  10. A Hand Held Ratioing Radiometer for remote radiance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daubner, L.; Davies, J.; Cumming, C.; Goetz, A.

    1982-01-01

    The small, lightweight Hand Held Ratioing Radiometer (HHRR) measures the ratio of spectral reflectance in any of 25 pairs of narrow bands in the 400 to 2500 nanometer spectral region. Two parallel optical trains view the scene through separate filters mounted in two filter wheels each containing five filters. Absolute reflectance of the scene can also be measured. HHRR is particularly useful for ground truth studies for the interpretation of imagery from Landsat, the thematic mappers and the forthcoming SPOT satellite. Its small size and simplicity of operation make it useful to geologists, botanists, oceanographers and many other geotechnologists.

  11. Development of dual sensor hand-held detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    In this paper hand-held dual sensor detector development requirements are considered dedicated to buried object detection. Design characteristics of such a system are categorized and listed. Hardware and software structures, ergonomics, user interface, environmental and EMC/EMI tests to be applied and performance test issues are studied. Main properties of the developed system (SEZER) are presented, which contains Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The realized system has ergonomic structure and can detect both metallic and non-metallic buried objects. Moreover classification of target is possible if it was defined to the signal processing software in learning phase.

  12. A hand-held triangulation sensor for small features measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes progressive generations of hand held triangulation sensors for measuring small features, from edge breaks to corrosion pits. We describe the design considerations, ergonomics, packaging and interface between the device and part, such as the sensor tip and optional fixtures. We then present a customized design to address different types of surface features and defects. Next, we present the calibration concept, and its execution. The paper closes by summarizing system performance evaluation experiments and their results. It was shown that the system is capable of measuring edges down to a radius of 250 microns at a repeatability of 50 microns.

  13. Video indirect ophthalmoscopy using a hand-held video camera.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mahesh P

    2011-01-01

    Fundus photography in adults and cooperative children is possible with a fundus camera or by using a slit lamp-mounted digital camera. Retcam TM or a video indirect ophthalmoscope is necessary for fundus imaging in infants and young children under anesthesia. Herein, a technique of converting and using a digital video camera into a video indirect ophthalmoscope for fundus imaging is described. This device will allow anyone with a hand-held video camera to obtain fundus images. Limitations of this technique involve a learning curve and inability to perform scleral depression.

  14. Hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Deanna Lynn; Coleman, Matthew A; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Albala, Joanna; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2013-04-23

    A hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection includes a microarray reader engineered to be small enough for portable applications. The invention includes a high-powered light-emitting diode that emits excitation light, an excitation filter positioned to receive the excitation light, a slide, a slide holder assembly for positioning the slide to receive the excitation light from the excitation filter, an emission filter positioned to receive the excitation light from the slide, a lens positioned to receive the excitation light from the emission filter, and a CCD camera positioned to receive the excitation light from the lens.

  15. Hand held data collection and monitoring system for nuclear facilities

    DOEpatents

    Brayton, Darryl D.; Scharold, Paul G.; Thornton, Michael W.; Marquez, Diana L.

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method is disclosed for a data collection and monitoring system that utilizes a pen based hand held computer unit which has contained therein interaction software that allows the user to review maintenance procedures, collect data, compare data with historical trends and safety limits, and input new information at various collection sites. The system has a means to allow automatic transfer of the collected data to a main computer data base for further review, reporting, and distribution purposes and uploading updated collection and maintenance procedures. The hand held computer has a running to-do list so sample collection and other general tasks, such as housekeeping are automatically scheduled for timely completion. A done list helps users to keep track of all completed tasks. The built-in check list assures that work process will meet the applicable processes and procedures. Users can hand write comments or drawings with an electronic pen that allows the users to directly interface information on the screen.

  16. A hand-held EPR scanner for transcutaneous oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, Helen; Ahmad, Rizwan; Twig, Ygal; Blank, Aharon; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous (skin) oxygenation is an important prognostic factor for the treatment of chronic wounds, skin cancer, diabetes side effects, and limb amputation. Currently, there are no reliable methods for measuring this parameter. Oximetry, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, is emerging as a potential tool for clinical oximetry, including cutaneous applications. The problem with EPR oximetry, however, is that the conventional EPR design requires the use of a large magnet that can generate homogeneous field across the sample, making it unattractive for clinical practice. We present a novel approach that makes use of a miniature permanent magnet, combined with a small microwave resonator, to enable the acquisition of EPR signals from paramagnetic species placed on the skin. The instrumentation consists of a hand-held, modular, cylindrical probehead with overall dimensions of 36-mm diameter and 24-mm height, with 150-g weight. The probehead includes a Halbach array of 16 pieces (4×4×8 mm3) of Sm-Co permanent magnet and a loop-gap resonator (2.24 GHz). Preliminary measurements using a Hahn-echo pulse sequence (800 echos in 20 ms) showed a signalto- noise ratio of ~70 compared to ~435 in a homogenous magnet under identical settings. Further work is in progress to improve the performance of the probehead and to optimize the hand-held system for clinical use

  17. Simulation for optimal design of hand-held surgical robots.

    PubMed

    Zahraee, Ali Hassan; Szewczyk, Jerome; Morel, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Hand-held surgical robots are manipulators with dexterous effectors to be used by surgeons in minimally invasive surgery and especially in laparoscopy. Mechanical manipulators for laparoscopy have appeared on the markets in recent years with various interfaces and dexterities. 2 examples are RealHand and Laparo-Angle. The question of which interface and control mode is the best has not been answered yet. Also, the effector kinematics has not been studied much. We have made a simulator to study the robot's interface, control mode and kinematics to design a hand-held surgical robot for laparoscopic surgery. We asked test subjects to use the simulator and try to make sutures in a virtual environment. Users opinion is that a joystick as interface is easier to use, compared to a jointed interface translating hand's orientation to that of the effector. It appears that a 6 DOF effector coupled to the shaft is necessary and dexterous enough to make sutures in different angles.

  18. Bone age maturity assessment using hand-held device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Gilsanz, Vicente; Liu, Xiaodong; Boechat, M. I.

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: Assessment of bone maturity is traditionally performed through visual comparison of hand and wrist radiograph with existing reference images in textbooks. Our goal was to develop a digital index based on idealized hand Xray images that can be incorporated in a hand held computer and used for visual assessment of bone age for patients. Material and methods: Due to the large variability in bone maturation in normals, we generated a set of "ideal" images obtained by computer combinations of images from our normal reference data sets. Software for hand-held PDA devices was developed for easy navigation through the set of images and visual selection of matching images. A formula based on our statistical analysis provides the standard deviation from normal based on the chronological age of the patient. The accuracy of the program was compared to traditional interpretation by two radiologists in a double blind reading of 200 normal Caucasian children (100 boys, 100 girls). Results: Strong correlations were present between chronological age and bone age (r > 0.9) with no statistical difference between the digital and traditional assessment methods. Determinations of carpal bone maturity in adolescents was slightly more accurate using the digital system. The users did praise the convenience and effectiveness of the digital Palm Index in clinical practice. Conclusion: An idealized digital Palm Bone Age Index provides a convenient and effective alternative to conventional atlases for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

  19. Ultratrace detector for hand-held gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Miller, Fred S.

    1999-01-01

    An ultratrace detector system for hand-held gas chromatography having high sensitivity, for example, to emissions generated during production of weapons, biological compounds, drugs, etc. The detector system is insensitive to water, air, helium, argon, oxygen, and C0.sub.2. The detector system is basically composed of a hand-held capillary gas chromatography (GC), an insulated heated redox-chamber, a detection chamber, and a vapor trap. For example, the detector system may use gas phase redox reactions and spectral absorption of mercury vapor. The gas chromatograph initially separates compounds that percolate through a bed of heated mercuric oxide (HgO) in a silica--or other metal--aerogel material which acts as an insulator. Compounds easily oxidized by HgO liberate atomic mercury that subsequently pass through a detection chamber which includes a detector cell, such as quartz, that is illuminated with a 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) mercury discharge lamp which generates the exact mercury absorption bands that are used to detect the liberated mercury atoms. Atomic mercury strongly absorbs 254 nm energy is therefore a specific signal for reducing compounds eluting from the capillary GC, whereafter the atomic mercury is trapped for example, in a silicon-aerogel trap.

  20. Ultratrace detector for hand-held gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.D.; Miller, F.S.

    1999-11-09

    An ultratrace detector system is described for hand-held gas chromatography having high sensitivity, for example, to emissions generated during production of weapons, biological compounds, drugs, etc. The detector system is insensitive to water, air, helium, argon, oxygen, and CO{sub 2}. The detector system is basically composed of a hand-held capillary gas chromatography (GC), an insulated heated redox-chamber, a detection chamber, and a vapor trap. For example, the detector system may use gas phase redox reactions and spectral absorption of mercury vapor. The gas chromatograph initially separates compounds that percolate through a bed of heated mercuric oxide (HgO) in a silica-or other metal-aerogel material which acts as an insulator. Compounds easily oxidized by HgO liberate atomic mercury that subsequently pass through a detection chamber which includes a detector cell, such as quartz, that is illuminated with a 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) mercury discharge lamp which generates the exact mercury absorption bands that are used to detect the liberated mercury atoms. Atomic mercury strongly absorbs 254 nm energy is therefore a specific signal for reducing compounds eluting from the capillary GC, whereafter the atomic mercury is trapped for example, in a silicon-aerogel trap.

  1. Hand held data collection and monitoring system for nuclear facilities

    DOEpatents

    Brayton, D.D.; Scharold, P.G.; Thornton, M.W.; Marquez, D.L.

    1999-01-26

    Apparatus and method is disclosed for a data collection and monitoring system that utilizes a pen based hand held computer unit which has contained therein interaction software that allows the user to review maintenance procedures, collect data, compare data with historical trends and safety limits, and input new information at various collection sites. The system has a means to allow automatic transfer of the collected data to a main computer data base for further review, reporting, and distribution purposes and uploading updated collection and maintenance procedures. The hand held computer has a running to-do list so sample collection and other general tasks, such as housekeeping are automatically scheduled for timely completion. A done list helps users to keep track of all completed tasks. The built-in check list assures that work process will meet the applicable processes and procedures. Users can hand write comments or drawings with an electronic pen that allows the users to directly interface information on the screen. 15 figs.

  2. 78 FR 27441 - NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices AGENCY: National...) is soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an... soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an evaluation...

  3. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to operate...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant...

  5. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to operate...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant...

  7. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to operate...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant...

  9. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to operate...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant...

  12. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to operate...

  13. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone. (a)(1) No driver shall use a hand-held mobile telephone while driving a CMV. (2) No motor carrier... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Using a hand-held mobile telephone. 392.82 Section...

  14. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone. (a)(1) No driver shall use a hand-held mobile telephone while driving a CMV. (2) No motor carrier... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Using a hand-held mobile telephone. 392.82 Section...

  15. Center of percussion of hand-held implements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2004-05-01

    The center of percussion is commonly regarded as a sweet spot when referring to a baseball bat or a tennis racquet because it is assumed that there will be no sudden motion of the handle with respect to the hand if the corresponding axis of rotation passes through the hand. A problem with this interpretation is that the hand extends over a finite length of the handle and exerts an opposing reaction force on the handle. The hand also changes the total mass and moment of inertia of the system, while the arm restricts free motion of the hand. Experimental results are presented showing that the axis of rotation passes through the hand or the wrist for all the usual impact points on a hand-held implement. As a result, the impact point that feels best is usually the node of the fundamental vibration mode, not the center of percussion.

  16. Hand-held spectrophotometer design for textile fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böcekçi, Veysel Gökhan; Yıldız, Kazım

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a hand-held spectrophotometer was designed by taking advantage of the developments in modern optoelectronic technology. Spectrophotometer devices are used to determine the color information from the optic properties of the materials. As an alternative to a desktop spectrophotometer device we have implemented, it is the first prototype, low cost and portable. The prototype model designed for the textile industry can detect the color tone of any fabric. The prototype model consists of optic sensor, processor, display floors. According to the color applied on the optic sensor, it produces special frequency information on its output at that color value. In Arduino type processor, the frequency information is evaluated by the program we have written and the color tone information between 0-255 ton is decided and displayed on the screen.

  17. A Smart Haptic Hand-Held Device for Neurosurgical Microdissection.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Marcus, Hani J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Microneurosurgery requires dexterity, precision and delicate force application in order to be carried out safely and effectively. Neurosurgeons must apply sufficient force in order to carry out microsurgical procedures effectively but not excessive force such that iatrogenic injury occurs. This paper presents a smart hand-held microsurgical instrument that indicates to the surgeon when a force-threshold has been exceeded by providing vibrotactile feedback. Many existing haptic-feedback systems, particularly master-slave robotic platforms, are large, highly complex, and costly. By comparison, the proposed device is compact, fail-safe and low cost. Two psychophysical user studies were carried out to assess the proposed vibrotactile force-threshold feedback system. A cadaveric pilot study was carried out to evaluate the device in a microdissection task. In all the studies performed, the haptic dissector device has shown to be effective in providing real-time feedback in terms of force application during microsurgical tasks.

  18. Hand-Held and Integrated Single-Cell Pipettes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Successful single-cell isolation is a primary step for subsequent chemical and biological analyses of single cells. Conventional single-cell isolation methods often encounter operational complexity, limited efficiency, deterioration of cell viability, incompetence in the isolation of a single-cell into nanoliter liquid, and/or inability to select single adherent cells with specific phenotypes. Here, we develop a hand-held single-cell pipet (hSCP) that is rapid, operationally simple, highly efficient, and inexpensive for unbiased isolation of single viable suspended cells directly from submicroliter cell suspensions into nanoliter droplets without the assistance of any additional equipment. An integrated SCP (iSCP) has also been developed for selective isolation of single suspended and adherent cells according to the fluorescence imaging and morphological features. The isolated single cells can be conveniently transferred into standard 96-/384-well plates, Petri dishes, or vials for cloning, PCR, and other single-cell biochemical assays. PMID:25036187

  19. Occupational risk identification using hand-held or laptop computers.

    PubMed

    Naumanen, Paula; Savolainen, Heikki; Liesivuori, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Work Environment Profile (WEP) program and its use in risk identification by computer. It is installed into a hand-held computer or a laptop to be used in risk identification during work site visits. A 5-category system is used to describe the identified risks in 7 groups, i.e., accidents, biological and physical hazards, ergonomic and psychosocial load, chemicals, and information technology hazards. Each group contains several qualifying factors. These 5 categories are colour-coded at this stage to aid with visualization. Risk identification produces visual summary images the interpretation of which is facilitated by colours. The WEP program is a tool for risk assessment which is easy to learn and to use both by experts and nonprofessionals. It is especially well adapted to be used both in small and in larger enterprises. Considerable time is saved as no paper notes are needed.

  20. Comparative Geometrical Investigations of Hand-Held Scanning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Lindstaedt, M.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Misgaiski-Hass, M.

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of hand-held scanning systems by different manufacturers are becoming available on the market. However, their geometrical performance is little-known to many users. Therefore the Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has carried out geometrical accuracy tests with the following systems in co-operation with the Bochum University of Applied Sciences (Laboratory for Photogrammetry) as well as the Humboldt University in Berlin (Institute for Computer Science): DOTProduct DPI-7, Artec Spider, Mantis Vision F5 SR, Kinect v1 + v2, Structure Sensor and Google's Project Tango. In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data were acquired by measurement with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M). The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  1. Assessment of vibration levels associated with hand-held roadbreakers.

    PubMed

    Tasker, E G

    1986-08-01

    The hand-held roadbreaker plays a vital role in enabling the British gas distribution workforce to install gas supply pipework. Hence, any potential problem which could lead to a restriction of the use of this equipment would present pipework installation departments with serious operational problems. A test program was therefore set up to enable risks to operators to be quantified. The vibration levels measured exceeded proposed limits laid down in current guidelines for vibration exposure. If these limits were realistic, a high prevalence of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) would have been expected. However, a survey of the workforce using the roadbreakers indicated a VWF prevalence of 20 times less than that predicted by the guidelines. It was concluded that a possible explanation could be that the current frequency-weighting factors used in the guidelines are inappropriate for application to this type of equipment with dominant frequencies below 25 Hz. The application of the current weighting factors to the test data produced during the program led to high weighted acceleration values and unrealistic dose-response relationships. It is proposed that the application of the various guidelines to the use of this equipment be reconsidered.

  2. Cordless hand-held optical 3D sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munkelt, Christoph; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Kühmstedt, Peter; Schmidt, Ingo; Notni, Gunther

    2007-07-01

    A new mobile optical 3D measurement system using phase correlation based fringe projection technique will be presented. The sensor consist of a digital projection unit and two cameras in a stereo arrangement, whereby both are battery powered. The data transfer to a base station will be done via WLAN. This gives the possibility to use the system in complicate, remote measurement situations, which are typical in archaeology and architecture. In the measurement procedure the sensor will be hand-held by the user, illuminating the object with a sequence of less than 10 fringe patterns, within a time below 200 ms. This short sequence duration was achieved by a new approach, which combines the epipolar constraint with robust phase correlation utilizing a pre-calibrated sensor head, containing two cameras and a digital fringe projector. Furthermore, the system can be utilized to acquire the all around shape of objects by using the phasogrammetric approach with virtual land marks introduced by the authors 1, 2. This way no matching procedures or markers are necessary for the registration of multiple views, which makes the system very flexible in accomplishing different measurement tasks. The realized measurement field is approx. 100 mm up to 400 mm in diameter. The mobile character makes the measurement system useful for a wide range of applications in arts, architecture, archaeology and criminology, which will be shown in the paper.

  3. Hand-held metal detector identification of ingested foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, A; Carraccio, C; Lichenstein, R

    1994-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine the ability of hand-held metal detectors (HHMDs) to identify the presence of ingested metallic foreign bodies (MFBs). Twenty-three children presenting to the emergency department with a complaint of MFBs ingested were enrolled. Sixteen of 23 patients had radiographically proven foreign bodies. The MFBs comprised coins (n = 11), a button battery (n = 1), a medallion (n = 1), a token (n = 1), a needle (n = 1), and a marble (leaded glass) (n = 1). The HHMD correctly detected 15 of 16 radiographically positive MFBs (93%) and correctly excluded a potential MFB in six of six radiographically negative cases. The only foreign body not detected was an ingested needle. One radiograph was equivocal. Radiographic localization of the ingested objects was as follows: esophagus, n = 4; stomach, n = 9; and intestines, n = 3. The HHMD correctly localized all detected MFBs. The HHMD had a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 86%. HHMDs are effective screening devices for possible ingested MFBs. Positive studies localized to the stomach and lower gastrointestinal tract do not require confirmatory radiographic studies.

  4. Stereo vision based hand-held laser scanning system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jinming

    2011-11-01

    Although 3D scanning system is used more and more broadly in many fields, such computer animate, computer aided design, digital museums, and so on, a convenient scanning device is expansive for most people to afford. In another hand, imaging devices are becoming cheaper, a stereo vision system with two video cameras cost little. In this paper, a hand held laser scanning system is design based on stereo vision principle. The two video cameras are fixed tighter, and are all calibrated in advance. The scanned object attached with some coded markers is in front of the stereo system, and can be changed its position and direction freely upon the need of scanning. When scanning, the operator swept a line laser source, and projected it on the object. At the same time, the stereo vision system captured the projected lines, and reconstructed their 3D shapes. The code markers are used to translate the coordinate system between scanned points under different view. Two methods are used to get more accurate results. One is to use NURBS curves to interpolate the sections of the laser lines to obtain accurate central points, and a thin plate spline is used to approximate the central points, and so, an exact laser central line is got, which guards an accurate correspondence between tow cameras. Another way is to incorporate the constraint of laser swept plane on the reconstructed 3D curves by a PCA (Principle Component Analysis) algorithm, and more accurate results are obtained. Some examples are given to verify the system.

  5. [Intraoperative Measurement of Refraction with a Hand-Held Autorefractometer].

    PubMed

    Gesser, C; Küper, T; Richard, G; Hassenstein, A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an intraoperative measurement of objective refraction with a hand-held retinomax instrument. At the end of cataract surgery objective refraction in a lying position was measured with a retinomax instrument. On the first postoperative day the same measurement was performed with a retinomax and a standard autorefractometer. To evaluate the differences between measurements, the spherical equivalent (SE) and Jackson's cross cylinder at 0° (J0) and 45° (J45) was used. 103 eyes were included. 95 of them had normal cataract surgery. Differences between retinomax at the operative day and the standard autorefractometer were 0.68 ± 2.58 D in SE, 0.05 ± 1.4D in J0 and 0.05 ± 1.4D in J45. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Intraoperative measurement of the refraction with a retinomax can predict the postoperative refraction. Nevertheless, in a few patients great differences may occur. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Hand Held Device for Wireless Powering and Interrogation of Biomems Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix Antonio (Inventor); Simons, Rainee N (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A compact, hand-held device for wireless powering, interrogation and data retrieval from at least one implanted sensor. The hand-held device includes an antenna for powering an implanted sensor and for receiving data from the implanted sensor to the hand-held device for at least one of storage, display or analysis. The hand-held device establishes electromagnetic coupling with a low radiating radio frequency power inductor in the implanted sensor at a predefined separation and the antenna geometry allows for the antenna to power, interrogate and retrieve data from the implanted sensor without strapping the hand-held device to a human body housing the implanted sensor The hand-held device optionally allows for activation of the implanted sensor only during interrogation and data retrieval.

  7. Electronic imaging system incorporating a hand-held fundus camera for canine ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Hoang, H D; Brant, L M; Jaksetic, M D; Lake, S G; Stuart, B P

    2001-11-01

    An electronic imaging system incorporating a hand-held fundus camera was used to collect images of the canine ocular fundus. The electronic imaging system comprised a hand-held fundus camera, an IBM personal computer (PC 350), Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Adobe Photoshop, and a color printer (Tektronix Phaser 550) and was used to store, edit, and print the images captured by the fundus camera. Hand-held fundus cameras are essential for use in canine ophthalmology. The Nidek NM-100 hand-held fundus camera digitalizes images, enabling their direct transfer into reports and their storage on writeable CDs.

  8. Hand-Held Units for Short-Range Wireless Biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2008-01-01

    Special-purpose hand-held radiotransceiver units have been proposed as means of short-range radio powering and interrogation of surgically implanted microelectromechanical sensors and actuators. These units are based partly on the same principles as those of the units described in "Printed Multi- Turn Loop Antennas for RF Biotelemetry" (LEW-17879-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 48. Like the previously reported units, these units would make it unnecessary to have wire connections between the implanted devices and the external equipment used to activate and interrogate them. Like a unit of the previously reported type, a unit of the type now proposed would include a printed-circuit antenna on a dielectric substrate. The antenna circuitry would include integrated surface-mount inductors for impedance tuning. Circuits for processing the signals transmitted and received by the antenna would be included on the substrate. During operation, the unit would be positioned near (but not in electrical contact with) a human subject, in proximity to a microelectromechanical sensor or actuator that has been surgically implanted in the subject. It has been demonstrated that significant electromagnetic coupling with an implanted device could be established at a distance of as much as 4 in. (.10 cm). During operation in the interrogation mode, the antenna of the unit would receive a radio telemetry signal transmitted by the surgically implanted device. The antenna substrate would have dimensions of approximately 3.25 by 3.75 inches (approximately 8.3 by 9.5 cm). The substrate would have a thickness of the order of 30 mils (of the order of a somewhat less than a millimeter). The substrate would be made of low-radiofrequency- loss dielectric material that could be, for example, fused quartz, alumina, or any of a number of commercially available radio-frequency dielectric composite materials. The antenna conductors would typically be made of copper or a

  9. Portable Hand-Held Electrochemical Sensor for the Transuranics

    SciTech Connect

    Dale D. Russell, William B. Knowlton, Ph.D.; Russel Hertzog, Ph.D

    2005-11-25

    sensitive detector for uranium. Millimeter scale electrodes, operated by a hand-held instrument assembled in this lab and operated in the voltammetric mode, were transported to the DOE-Nevada test site (Las Vegas, NV) where field detection and quantitation of plutonium, uranium, and a mixture of these two elements was also demonstrated. Several probe designs were prepared, built and tested including probes with movable protective windows. A miniature, battery powered potentiostat was designed, built and demonstrated for use in a hand-held field portable instrument. This work was performed largely by undergraduates who gained valuable research experience, and many of them have continued on to graduate schools. In addition, they all gained exposure to and appreciation for national security research, in particular non-proliferation research. Four graduate students participated and one earned the MS degree on this project.

  10. A high resolution hand-held focused beam profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Farfan, J.; Garduño-Mejía, J.; Rosete-Aguilar, M.; Ascanio, G.; Román-Moreno, C. J.

    2017-05-01

    The shape of a beam is important in any laser application and depending on the final implementation, there exists a preferred one which is defined by the irradiance distribution.1 The energy distribution (or laser beam profile) is an important parameter in a focused beam, for instance, in laser cut industry, where the beam shape determines the quality of the cut. In terms of alignment and focusing, the energy distribution also plays an important role since the system must be configured in order to reduce the aberration effects and achieve the highest intensity. Nowadays a beam profiler is used in both industry and research laboratories with the aim to characterize laser beams used in free-space communications, focusing and welding, among other systems. The purpose of the profile analyzers is to know the main parameters of the beam, to control its characteristics as uniformity, shape and beam size as a guide to align the focusing system. In this work is presented a high resolution hand-held and compact design of a beam profiler capable to measure at the focal plane, with covered range from 400 nm to 1000 nm. The detection is reached with a CMOS sensor sized in 3673.6 μm x 2738.4 μm which acquire a snap shot of the previously attenuated focused beam to avoid the sensor damage, the result is an image of beam intensity distribution, which is digitally processed with a RaspberryTMmodule gathering significant parameters such as beam waist, centroid, uniformity and also some aberrations. The profiler resolution is 1.4 μm and was probed and validated in three different focusing systems. The spot sizes measurements were compared with the Foucault knife-edge test.

  11. Direction-Sensitive Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2012-10-04

    A novel, light-weight, hand-held gamma-ray detector with directional sensitivity is being designed. The detector uses a set of multiple rings around two cylindrical surfaces, which provides precise location of two interaction points on two concentric cylindrical planes, wherefrom the source location can be traced back by back projection and/or Compton imaging technique. The detectors are 2.0 × 2.0 mm europium-doped strontium iodide (SrI2:Eu2+) crystals, whose light output has been measured to exceed 120,000 photons/MeV, making it one of the brightest scintillators in existence. The crystal’s energy resolution, less than 3% at 662 keV, is also excellent, and the response is highly linear over a wide range of gamma-ray energies. The emission of SrI2:Eu2+ is well matched to both photo-multiplier tubes and blue-enhanced silicon photodiodes. The solid-state photomultipliers used in this design (each 2.0 × 2.0 mm) are arrays of active pixel sensors (avalanche photodiodes driven beyond their breakdown voltage in reverse bias); each pixel acts as a binary photon detector, and their summed output is an analog representation of the total photon energy, while the individual pixel accurately defines the point of interaction. A simple back-projection algorithm involving cone-surface mapping is being modeled. The back projection for an event cone is a conical surface defining the possible location of the source. The cone axis is the straight line passing through the first and second interaction points.

  12. Hand-Held Color Meters Based on Interference Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Chen, Gang; Yang, Rong Gui

    2004-01-01

    Small, inexpensive, hand-held optoelectronic color-measuring devices based on metal-film/dielectric-film interference filters are undergoing development. These color meters could be suitable for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements to quantify or match colors for aesthetic purposes but there is no need for the high spectral resolution of scientific-grade spectrometers. Such applications typically occur in the paint, printing, and cosmetic industries, for example. The figure schematically depicts a color meter of this type being used to measure the color of a sample in terms of the spectrum of light reflected from the sample. Light from a white source (for example, a white light-emitting diode) passes through a collimating lens to the sample. Another lens collects some of the light reflected from the sample and focuses the light onto the input end of optical fiber. Light emerging from the output end of the optical fiber illuminates an array of photodetectors covered with metal/dielectric-film interference filters like those described in Metal/Dielectric-film Interference Color Filters (NPO-20217), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 70. Typically, these are wide-band-pass filters, as shown at the bottom of the figure. The photodetector array need not be of any particular design: it could be something as simple as an assembly containing several photodiodes or something as elaborate as an active-pixel sensor or other imaging device. What is essential is that each of the photodetectors or each of several groups of photodetectors is covered with a metal/dielectric-film filter of a different color. In most applications, it would be desirable to have at least three different filters, each for a spectral band that contains one of the three primary additive red, green, and blue colors. In some applications, it may be necessary to have more than three different color filters in order to characterize subtle differences in color

  13. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone... highway, including while temporarily stationary because of traffic, a traffic control device, or other...

  14. A Novel Hand-Held Optical Imager with Real-Time Coregistration Facilities Toward Diagnostic Mammography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Journal Publications (1) S.J. Erickson, S.L. Martinez, J. Gonzalez, L. Caldera , and A. Godavarty. “Improved detection limits using a hand-held...Erickson, S. Martinez, J. Gonzalez, L. Caldera , and A. Godavarty. “Non- invasive Diagnostic Breast Imaging using a Hand-held Optical Imager...Proceedings of the 14th World Multi-Conference on Systems, Cybernetics and Informatics, 2010. (4) S.J. Erickson, S. Martinez, L. Caldera , and A

  15. Hand-held water fluoride analysis: An accessible caries prevention tool for dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Quock, Ryan L; Yank, Stephanie W; Chan, Jarvis T

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to compare the relative accuracy of a commercially available hand-held water fluoride analysis unit with a standard laboratory bench-top fluoride-specific electrode/millivoltmeter apparatus, with the goal of identifying possible practical applications of the hand-held unit for preventive dentistry. The units analyzed identical gravimetrically prepared fluoride solutions ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 ppm. The average difference between the measurements from the hand-held unit and the nominal values of the fluoride solutions was 0.011 ppm (SD = 0.068), and the average difference between the hand-held unit's measurements and the bench-top unit's measurements was 0.030 ppm (SD = 0.115). T-test analysis demonstrated no statistical difference between measurements from the hand-held unit with either the nominal values of the fluoride solutions or the bench-top unit's measurements. Results indicate that the hand-held water fluoride analysis unit has an appropriate level of accuracy for the measurement of fluoride levels in drinking water samples by dental professionals.

  16. Comparing hand-held computers and paper diaries for haemophilia home therapy: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Walker, I; Sigouin, C; Sek, J; Almonte, T; Carruthers, J; Chan, A; Pai, M; Heddle, N

    2004-11-01

    Treatment of severe haemophilia with factor concentrates is by self-infusion in the home. Adherence to record keeping on paper diaries is poor. A randomized-controlled trial compared adherence with record keeping of paper diaries with hand-held computers. Forty-one individuals with severe haemophilia, were randomized to hand-held computers (n = 22) or paper diaries (n = 19) and followed for 6 months. About 86.2% (679 of 788) of infusions by patients in the computer group were in compliance with the data submission schedule compared with only 48.3% (358 of 741) of infusions by patients using paper diaries (P < 0.0001). The time intervals between infusions and the receipt of data were shorter in the computer group (median 0.25 vs. 25 days respectively, P < 0.0001). Reminder phone calls by the clinic were made less frequently to users of hand-held computers than to users of paper diaries (median one vs. five times, P < 0.0001). Accuracy of data was similar for both methods. Compliance with hand-held computers was superior to paper diaries. The clinic received data from hand-held computers mostly on the same day, and nurses could thereby provide clinical advice more effectively. Although hand-held computers did not result in increased accuracy, errors could be detected and corrected more rapidly. Electronic data can more easily be verified, analysed and summarized than that from paper diaries.

  17. Computer implemented method, and apparatus for controlling a hand-held tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Kenneth William (Inventor); Taylor, James Clayton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The invention described here in is a computer-implemented method and apparatus for controlling a hand-held tool. In particular, the control of a hand held tool is for the purpose of controlling the speed of a fastener interface mechanism and the torque applied to fasteners by the fastener interface mechanism of the hand-held tool and monitoring the operating parameters of the tool. The control is embodied in intool software embedded on a processor within the tool which also communicates with remote software. An operator can run the tool, or through the interaction of both software, operate the tool from a remote location, analyze data from a performance history recorded by the tool, and select various torque and speed parameters for each fastener.

  18. Measurement of nasal nitric oxide by hand-held and stationary devices.

    PubMed

    Montella, Silvia; Alving, Kjell; Maniscalco, Mauro; Sofia, Matteo; De Stefano, Sara; Raia, Valeria; Santamaria, Francesca

    2011-10-01

    Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is assessed by nasal aspiration/insufflation via one nostril or by nasal silent exhalation through a facemask and is also measured during humming, a manoeuvre that results in increased nNO in the presence of a patent osteomeatal complex. Humming nNO peak is absent in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and in cystic fibrosis (CF). Hand-held devices are used successfully for exhaled or nNO analysis. No study compared nNO during silent and humming exhalation using hand-held and stationary analysers. Thirty-eight subjects (14 PCD; 11 CF; 13 healthy individuals) measured nNO with a stationary and a hand-held analyser during silent and humming exhalations. No difference between nNO obtained from stationary or hand-held analyser during silent and humming exhalation was found (P > 0·05). Patients with PCD exhibited lower silent and humming nNO than CF or controls (P < 0·001). During both silent and humming exhalation, there was a significant correlation between nNO from the two analyzers both in the whole study population and within each group (r ≥ 0·7, P < 0·01). Bland-Altman plots confirmed this agreement. Using the hand-held device during humming, nNO values of 50, 81 and 21 ppb had sensitivity and specificity > 90% for discriminating PCD or CF from healthy subjects, and patients with PCD from patients with CF, respectively. The hand-held device is as effective as the stationary analyzer for assessing nNO during silent and humming exhalation. Its wider use might result in an increased number of subjects suspected to have PCD. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. Longer-term effects of Washington, DC, law on drivers' hand-held cell phone use.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the substantial short-term declines in drivers' use of hand-held phones achieved in the District of Columbia (DC) were sustained 1 year after a ban. Drivers' daytime hand-held cell phone use was observed in DC and nearby areas of Virginia and Maryland, states without bans. Observations were conducted several months before the ban, shortly after, and 1 year later. The number of vehicles observed in all three surveys combined was 51,945 in DC, 36,796 in Maryland, and 43,033 in Virginia. The rate of talking on hand-held phones declined significantly from 6.1 percent before the law to 3.5 percent shortly after; when measured 1 year later, use was 4.0 percent, still significantly lower than baseline. Based on increases in rates of talking on hand-held phones in Maryland and Virginia, longer-term phone use in DC was estimated to be 53 percent lower than would have been expected without the ban. Declines in DC were identified for drivers of vehicles registered in all three jurisdictions. In DC, there was an initial decline of about 50 percent in drivers talking on hand-held cell phones following a ban, and this decline was sustained about 1 year later. After a similar ban in New York, there was an initial decline in phone use comparable with the initial decline in DC, but the decline a year after the New York ban took full effect was only about 21 percent and not statistically significant. The potential difference in sustained effectiveness for the DC ban may reflect tougher enforcement in DC. Even if full compliance with hand-held phone bans can be achieved, the risks from drivers' use of hands-free phones will remain.

  20. Characterization of the magnetic fields around walk-through and hand-held metal detectors.

    PubMed

    Boivin, W; Coletta, J; Kerr, L

    2003-05-01

    Magnetic field strength measurements were made around eight hand-held and 10 walk-through metal detectors. The method was similar to that used in previous research for Electronic Article Surveillance units except a Cartesian rather than cylindrical coordinate system was used. Special magnetic field probes specifically designed for metal detector measurements were used. A non-metallic positioning apparatus was designed and fabricated. Magnetic field strength measurements were collected on one hand-held metal detector in the laboratory. The remaining data were collected at airport terminals, federal and state government buildings, and a local high school. Walk-through metal detectors had considerably higher magnetic field strengths [up to 299 Am(-1) p-p (3,741 mG)] than hand-held metal detectors [up to 6 Am(-1) p-p (76 mG)]. The frequencies of the magnetic field signal for walk-through detectors were between 0.1 kHz and 3.5 kHz while those for hand-held detectors were between 89 kHz and 133 kHz. Waveforms for all hand-held metal detectors were sinusoidal; those for walk-through metal detectors varied with most being saw-toothed or pulsed. Due to their higher field strengths and the pulsed nature of their magnetic fields, walk-through metal detectors likely pose a higher risk for medical device electromagnetic interference than do hand-held units. Root mean squared magnetic field strengths were calculated from the peak-to-peak values and compared to occupational and general public exposure limits. None of these limits were exceeded. Measurement repeatability was examined for one hand-held and two walk-through metal detectors. For the hand-held metal detector measurements at the location of the maximum magnetic field strength, measurements by three individuals had a repeatability (percent standard deviation) of 5.9%. Limited repeatability data were collected for on-site measurements of walk-through detectors. One unit showed repeatability of 0.1 to 4.5%; a multi

  1. Hand-held radiometer red and photographic infrared spectral measurements of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1978-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared radiance data, collected under a variety of conditions at weekly intervals throughout the growing season using a hand-held radiometer, were used to monitor crop growth and development. The vegetation index transformation was used to effectively compensate for the different irradiational conditions encountered during the study period. These data, plotted against time, compared the different crops measured by comparing their green leaf biomass dynamics. This approach, based entirely upon spectral inputs, closely monitors crop growth and development and indicates the promise of ground-based hand-held radiometer measurements of crops.

  2. Surgical procedure logging with use of a hand-held computer

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Sandra; Lapinsky, Stephen E.; Weshler, Jason; Howard, Frazer; Rotstein, Lorne E.; Cohen, Zane; Stewart, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of incorporating hand-held computing technology in a surgical residency program, by means of hand-held devices for surgical procedure logging linked through the Internet to a central database. Setting Division of General Surgery, University of Toronto. Design A survey of general surgery residents. Methods The 69 residents in the general surgery training program received hand-held computers with preinstalled medical programs and a program designed for surgical procedure logging. Procedural data were uploaded via the Internet to a central database. Survey data were collected regarding previous computer use as well as previous procedure logging methods. Main outcome measure Utilization of the procedure logging system. Results After a 5-month pilot period, 38% of surgical residents were using the procedure-logging program successfully and on a regular basis. Program use was higher among more junior trainees. Analysis of the database provided valuable information on individual trainees, hospital programs and supervising surgeons, data that would assist in program development. Conclusions Hand-held devices can be implemented in a large division of general surgery to provide a reference database and a procedure-logging platform. However, user acceptance is not uniform and continued training and support are necessary to increase acceptance. The procedure database provides important information for optimizing trainees’ educational experience. PMID:12387537

  3. 77 FR 40637 - Honeywell International, Scanning and Mobility Division, Formerly Known as Hand Held Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Known as Hand Held Products, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, Skaneatelles Falls... workers from Manpower, Skaneateles Falls, New York. The Department's notice of determination was published...., including on-site leased workers from Manpower, Skaneateles Falls, New York, separated from employment on or...

  4. Physician Use of Hand-Held Computers for Drug Information and Prescribing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    variables such as psychomotor skills that may influence behavior intentions and actual usage of hand-held technology. The learning of new technology...handwriting the prescriptions. 0.84 a 3 Perceived ease of use: No human factors limitations with computing devices ( psychomotor skills ) • I have

  5. Surgical procedure logging with use of a hand-held computer.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sandra; Lapinsky, Stephen E; Weshler, Jason; Howard, Frazer; Rotstein, Lorne E; Cohen, Zane; Stewart, Thomas E

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of incorporating hand-held computing technology in a surgical residency program, by means of hand-held devices for surgical procedure logging linked through the Internet to a central database. Division of General Surgery, University of Toronto. A survey of general surgery residents. The 69 residents in the general surgery training program received hand-held computers with preinstalled medical programs and a program designed for surgical procedure logging. Procedural data were uploaded via the Internet to a central database. Survey data were collected regarding previous computer use as well as previous procedure logging methods. Utilization of the procedure logging system. After a 5-month pilot period, 38% of surgical residents were using the procedure-logging program successfully and on a regular basis. Program use was higher among more junior trainees. Analysis of the database provided valuable information on individual trainees, hospital programs and supervising surgeons, data that would assist in program development. Hand-held devices can be implemented in a large division of general surgery to provide a reference database and a procedure-logging platform. However, user acceptance is not uniform and continued training and support are necessary to increase acceptance. The procedure database provides important information for optimizing trainees' educational experience.

  6. Close-up view of Hand Held Maneuvering Unit for Gemini 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Close-up view of the Hand Held Maneuvering Unit which will be used by Astronaut David R. Scott during the extravehicular activity on the Gemini 8 space flight. High pressure cold gas released through the unit's nozzles produces the required controlled thrust to maneuver in a zero-gravity environment.

  7. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... serious injury or death to a consumer. An estimated 23 million units of hand-held hair dryers are sold... 104 deaths and 43 electric shock injuries due to hair dryer immersion/water contact from 1984 to 2004. Of the 104 electrocutions resulting in death, the most incidents (91) occurred during 1984-90...

  8. Enhancing Mathematical Concepts through Leading Questions and Hand-Held Data Collection Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    Hand-held data collection technology allows for access to real-world data collection--at any other time and almost any place. Is the use of data and its collection desirable to the mathematical learning process? The answer is a resounding yes! Not only can significant mathematical ideas be taught in the process; colleagues are also helped in the…

  9. Online Responses towards Parental Rearing Styles Regarding Hand-Held Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Disney, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This article reviewed the literature on parental rearing styles and used responses from an online discussion forum to investigate people's opinions towards parental rearing styles and strategies when children use hand-held devices. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used as an analysis method via micro, meso and macro multi-level…

  10. Hand-Held Model of a Sarcomere to Illustrate the Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    From our teaching of the contractile unit of the striated muscle, we have found limitations in using textbook illustrations of sarcomere structure and its related dynamic molecular physiological details. A hand-held model of a striated muscle sarcomere made from common items has thus been made by us to enhance students' understanding of the…

  11. The Weak Link HP-41C hand-held calculator program

    Treesearch

    Ross A. Phillips; Penn A. Peters; Gary D. Falk

    1982-01-01

    The Weak Link hand-held calculator program (HP-41C) quickly analyzes a system for logging production and costs. The production equations model conventional chain saw, skidder, loader, and tandemaxle truck operations in eastern mountain areas. Production of each function of the logging system may be determined so that the system may be balanced for minimum cost. The...

  12. How to use hand-held computers to evaluate wood drying.

    Treesearch

    Howard N. Rosen; Darrell S. Martin

    1985-01-01

    Techniques have been developed to evaluate end generate wood drying curves with hand-held computers (3-5K memory). Predictions of time to dry to a specific moisture content, drying rates, and other characteristics of wood drying curves can be made. The paper describes the development of programs and illustrates their use.

  13. 78 FR 73415 - Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ...-sided'' and ``semi- rigid-sided'' products. III. Incident Data The preamble to the NPR summarized incident data involving bassinets and cradles reported to the Commission as of June 8, 2012. 77 FR 73354... include hand-held infant carrier- related incident data reported to the Commission from June 8, 2012...

  14. Automated coregistered imaging using a hand-held probe-based optical imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regalado, Steven; Erickson, Sarah J.; Zhu, Banghe; Ge, Jiajia; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Near-infrared optical imaging holds a promise as a noninvasive technology toward cancer diagnostics and other tissue imaging applications. In recent years, hand-held based imagers are of great interest toward the clinical translation of the technology. However hand-held imagers developed to date are typically designed to obtain surface images and not tomography information due to lack of coregistration facilities. Herein, a recently developed hand-held probe-based optical imager in our Optical Imaging Laboratory has been implemented with novel coregistration facilities toward real-time and tomographic imaging of tissue phantoms. Continuous-wave fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging studies were performed using an intensified charge coupled device camera based imaging system in order to demonstrate the feasibility of automated coregistered imaging of flat phantom surfaces, using a flexible probe that can also contour to curvatures. Three-dimensional fluorescence tomographic reconstructions were also demonstrated using coregistered frequency-domain measurements obtained using the hand-held based optical imager. It was also observed from preliminary studies on cubical phantoms that multiple coregistered scans differentiated deeper targets (˜3 cm) from artifacts that were not feasible from a single coregistered scan, demonstrating the possibility of improved target depth detectability in the future.

  15. Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit to be used during EVA on Gemini 4

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-02

    Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit to be used during extravehicular activity (EVA) on Gemini 4 flight. It is an integral unit that contains its own high pressure metering valves and nozzles required to produce controlled thrust. A camera is mounted on the front of the unit.

  16. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-8 (MANEUVERING UNIT)(HAND-HELD) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-01

    S66-19184 (1966) --- Close-up view of the Hand Held Maneuvering Unit which will be used by astronaut David R. Scott during the extravehicular activity on the Gemini-8 spaceflight. High pressure cold gas released through the unit's nozzles produces the required controlled thrust to maneuver in a zero-gravity environment. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Using Hand-Held Calculators in Sixth Grade Classes. A Brief Report of an Educational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Ray; Keefe, Michael

    This brief report describes an exploratory pilot project in which sixth-grade students used hand-held calculators throughout the school year. The report includes guidelines on the purchase and use of calculators as well as advice on gaining community support for such a project. Issues related to classroom management are discussed; in particular,…

  18. Hand-Held Model of a Sarcomere to Illustrate the Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    From our teaching of the contractile unit of the striated muscle, we have found limitations in using textbook illustrations of sarcomere structure and its related dynamic molecular physiological details. A hand-held model of a striated muscle sarcomere made from common items has thus been made by us to enhance students' understanding of the…

  19. Integrating a hand held computer and stethoscope into a fetal monitor.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mitra Ahmad

    2009-02-07

    This article presents procedures for modifying a hand held computer or personal digital assistant (PDA) into a versatile device functioning as an electronic stethoscope for fetal monitoring. Along with functioning as an electronic stethoscope, a PDA can provide a useful information source for a medical trainee. Feedback from medical students, residents and interns suggests the device is well accepted by medical trainees.

  20. Breast cancer imaging and tomography using a hand-held optical imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Roman, Manuela; Gonzalez, Jean; Kiszonas, Richard; Lopez-Penalver, Cristina; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2012-03-01

    Hand-held optical imaging devices are currently developed by several research groups as a noninvasive and non-ionizing method towards clinical imaging of breast cancer. The devices developed to date are typically utilized towards spectroscopic imaging via reflectance-based measurements. Additionally, a couple of devices have been used to perform 3D tomography with the addition of a second modality (e.g. ultrasound). A hand-held optical device that is unique in its ability to perform rapid 2D imaging and 3D tomography (without the use of a second modality) has been developed in our Optical Imaging laboratory. Herein, diffuse optical imaging studies are performed in breast cancer subjects. For these studies, the subject lay in a recliner chair and both breast tissues were imaged with the hand-held optical device which uses 785 nm laser source and an intensified CCD camera-based detector. Preliminary results demonstrate the ability to image invasive ductal carcinoma and lymphatic spread, as compared to the patient's medical records (e.g. xray, ultrasound, MRI). Multiple imaging studies with a subject undergoing chemotherapy demonstrated the potential to monitor response to treatment. Currently, studies are carried out to tomographically determine the 3D location of the tumor(s) in breast cancer subjects using the hand-held optical device.

  1. Note: A hand-held high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device operating without shielding.

    PubMed

    He, D F

    2011-02-01

    By improving the compensation circuit, a hand-held high-Tc rf superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID) system was developed. It could operate well when moving in unshielded environment. To check the operation, it was used to do eddy-current testing by hand moving the SQUID, and the artificial defect under 6 mm aluminum plate could be successfully detected in shielded environment.

  2. The accuracy of a hand-held navigation system in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Loh, Bryan; Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Yew, Andy Khye Soon; Pang, Hee Nee; Tay, Darren Keng Jin; Chia, Shi-Lu; Lo, Ngai Nung; Yeo, Seng Jin

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a new hand-held navigation system. The authors of this study hypothesize that this navigation system will improve overall lower limb alignment and implant placement without causing a delay in surgery. Two hundred consecutive patients diagnosed with tricompartmental osteoarthritis and underwent total knee arthroplasty by a senior surgeon were included in this study. One hundred patients underwent TKA using the hand-held navigation system, while the other 100 patients underwent TKA using the conventional technique. The primary outcomes of this study were the overall alignment of the lower limb and the position of the components. This was determined radiologically using the: (1) Hip-Knee-Ankle angle (HKA) for lower limb alignment; (2) Coronal Femoral-Component angle (CFA); and (3) Coronal Tibia-Component angle (CTA) for component position. Normal alignment was taken as 180° ± 3° for the HKA and 90° ± 3° for both the CFA and CTA. For the CFA, the proportion of outliers was 7 and 17% in the hand-held navigation and conventional group, respectively (p = 0.030). For the HKA and CTA, there was no difference in the proportion of outliers between the two groups. The duration of surgery was 73 ± 9 min and 87 ± 15 min in the hand-held navigation and conventional group, respectively (p < 0.001). This hand-held navigation system is an effective intraoperative tool for reducing the proportion of outliers for femoral implant placement as well as the duration of surgery. The authors conclude that it can be considered for use to check femoral implant placement intra-operatively. III.

  3. Hand-held probe based optical imaging system towards breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jiajia; Jayachandran, Bhavani; Regalado, Steven; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2007-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging is an emerging noninvasive modality for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the currently available optical imaging systems towards tomography studies are limited either by instrument portability, patient comfort, or flexibility to image any given tissue volume. Herein, a hand-held based optical imaging system is developed such that it can possibly overcome some of the above limitations. The unique features of the hand-held optical probe are: (i) to perform simultaneous multiple point illumination and detection, thus decreasing the total imaging time and improving the overall signal strength; (ii) to adapt to the contour of tissue surface, thus decreasing the leakage of excitation and emission signal at contact surface; and (iii) to obtain trans-illumination measurements apart from reflectance measurements, thus improving the depth information. The increased detected signal strength as well as total interrogated tissue volume is demonstrated by simulation studies (i.e. forward model) over a 5×10×10 cc slab phantom. The appropriate number and layout of the source and detection points on the probe head is determined and the hand-held optical probe is developed. A frequency-domain ICCD (intensified charge coupled device) detection system, which allows simultaneous multiple points detection, is developed and coupled to the hand-held probe in order to perform fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging of tissue phantoms. In the future, imaging of homogenous liquid phantoms will be used for the assessment of this hand-held system, followed by extensive imaging studies on different phantoms types under various experimental conditions.

  4. Hand-Held Dynamometer Measurements Obtained in a Home Environment Are Reliable but Not Correlated Strongly with Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohannon, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    This research report describes the reliability and validity of hand-held dynamometer measurements of knee extension force obtained from 13 patients referred for physical therapy. Results found that hand-held dynamometry can be used to obtain reliable measures of muscle strength; however, correlation between strength measures and function was not…

  5. Hand-Held Dynamometer Measurements Obtained in a Home Environment Are Reliable but Not Correlated Strongly with Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohannon, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    This research report describes the reliability and validity of hand-held dynamometer measurements of knee extension force obtained from 13 patients referred for physical therapy. Results found that hand-held dynamometry can be used to obtain reliable measures of muscle strength; however, correlation between strength measures and function was not…

  6. 78 FR 20695 - Walk-Through Metal Detectors and Hand-Held Metal Detectors Test Method Validation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Office of Justice Programs Walk-Through Metal Detectors and Hand-Held Metal Detectors Test Method... has recently developed updated versions of its minimum performance standards for walk-through metal detectors and hand-held metal detectors. In order to ensure that the test methods in the standards...

  7. Hand-held cow horn: resurgence of an old arm or apotential terrorist weapon

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Lawal; Ahmed, Adamu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A 23 year old man presented with intestinal evisceration from stab injury to the left side of the abdomen with a hand-held cow horn at a local night party. He complained of severe abdominal pain and bleeding at the site of injury. He was hemodynamically stable. At emergency exploration, the eviscerated bowel was viable with no adjacent mesenteric tear. Other intra abdominal organs were normal. The eviscerated bowel was lavaged and reduced into the abdomen through the 7cm anterior abdominal wall laceration. The laceration was repaired and abdomen closed in layers. Post operative recovery was uneventful. The hand-held cow horn can easily be concealed and may pass through security checks undetected. It should be added to the ever increasing list of weapons of small scale terror. PMID:21502787

  8. Do hand-held calorimeters provide reliable and accurate estimates of resting metabolic rate?

    PubMed

    Van Loan, Marta D

    2007-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of a new technique for indirect calorimetry and the assessment of resting metabolic rate. Information from the research literature includes findings on the reliability and validity of a new hand-held indirect calorimeter as well as use in clinical and field settings. Research findings to date are of mixed results. The MedGem instrument has provided more consistent results when compared to the Douglas bag method of measuring metabolic rate. The BodyGem instrument has been shown to be less accurate when compared to standard metabolic carts. Furthermore, when the Body Gem has been used with clinical patients or with under nourished individuals the results have not been acceptable. Overall, there is not a large enough body of evidence to definitively support the use of these hand-held devices for assessment of metabolic rate in a wide variety of clinical or research environments.

  9. System design of a hand-held mobile robot for craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Kane, Gavin; Eggers, Georg; Boesecke, Robert; Raczkowsky, Jörg; Wörn, Heinz; Marmulla, Rüdiger; Mühling, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This contribution reports the development and initial testing of a Mobile Robot System for Surgical Craniotomy, the Craniostar. A kinematic system based on a unicycle robot is analysed to provide local positioning through two spiked wheels gripping directly onto a patients skull. A control system based on a shared control system between both the Surgeon and Robot is employed in a hand-held design that is tested initially on plastic phantom and swine skulls. Results indicate that the system has substantially lower risk than present robotically assisted craniotomies, and despite being a hand-held mobile robot, the Craniostar is still capable of sub-millimetre accuracy in tracking along a trajectory and thus achieving an accurate transfer of pre-surgical plan to the operating room procedure, without the large impact of current medical robots based on modified industrial robots.

  10. An efficient solid modeling system based on a hand-held 3D laser scan device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The hand-held 3D laser scanner sold in the market is appealing for its port and convenient to use, but price is expensive. To develop such a system based cheap devices using the same principles as the commercial systems is impossible. In this paper, a simple hand-held 3D laser scanner is developed based on a volume reconstruction method using cheap devices. Unlike convenient laser scanner to collect point cloud of an object surface, the proposed method only scan few key profile curves on the surface. Planar section curve network can be generated from these profile curves to construct a volume model of the object. The details of design are presented, and illustrated by the example of a complex shaped object.

  11. Diolistic labeling of neuronal cultures and intact tissue using a hand-held gene gun

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John A; Lummis, Sarah CR

    2009-01-01

    Diolistic labeling is a highly efficient method for introducing dyes into cells using biolistic techniques. The use of lipophilic carbocyanine dyes, combined with particle-mediated biolistic delivery using a hand-held gene gun, allows non-toxic labeling of multiple cells in both living and fixed tissue. The technique is rapid (labeled cells can be visualized in minutes) and technically undemanding. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for diolistic labeling of cultured human embryonic kidney 293 cells and whole brain using a hand-held gene gun. There are four major steps: (i) coating gold microcarriers with one or more dyes; (ii) transferring the microcarriers into a cartridge to make a bullet; (iii) preparation of cells or intact tissue; and (iv) firing the microcarriers into cells or tissue. The method can be readily adapted to other cell types and tissues. This protocol can be completed in less than 1 h. PMID:17406443

  12. Hand-held transendoscopic robotic manipulators: A transurethral laser prostate surgery case study

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Richard J.; Mitchell, Christopher R.; Herrell, S. Duke; Webster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural orifice endoscopic surgery can enable incisionless approaches, but a major challenge is the lack of small and dexterous instrumentation. Surgical robots have the potential to meet this need yet often disrupt the clinical workflow. Hand-held robots that combine thin manipulators and endoscopes have the potential to address this by integrating seamlessly into the clinical workflow and enhancing dexterity. As a case study illustrating the potential of this approach, we describe a hand-held robotic system that passes two concentric tube manipulators through a 5 mm port in a rigid endoscope for transurethral laser prostate surgery. This system is intended to catalyze the use of a clinically superior, yet rarely attempted, procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia. This paper describes system design and experiments to evaluate the surgeon’s functional workspace and accuracy using the robot. Phantom and cadaver experiments demonstrate successful completion of the target procedure via prostate lobe resection. PMID:27570361

  13. Use of the hand held video camcorder in the evaluation of seizures.

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, M; Duncan, J S

    1994-01-01

    Epilepsy is primarily a clinical diagnosis and eye witness accounts are invaluable in the differential diagnosis of seizures, but may be incomplete or misleading. A hand held video camcorder was used in this study to record seizures of patients to clarify the nature of their attacks. The videotapes assisted the diagnosis of non-epileptic attacks in nine of 22 patients (41%), and of epileptic attacks in eight of 22 patients (36%). Interactions with patients during filming were particularly helpful. Five patients (23%) could not be filmed, three of whom had seizures that were too shortlived to be recorded. In two patients (9%) a confident diagnosis of non-epileptic seizures could be made from the videotapes alone. Seven patients subsequently required video-EEG telemetry. It is concluded that the hand held video camera is a useful and inexpensive tool to provide accurate seizure descriptions, but it should be used in conjunction with other evidence to classify seizures. PMID:7964824

  14. Hand-held cow horn: resurgence of an old arm or a potential terrorist weapon.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Lawal; Ahmed, Adamu

    2012-01-01

    A 23 year old man presented with intestinal evisceration from stab injury to the left side of the abdomen with a hand-held cow horn at a local night party. He complained of severe abdominal pain and bleeding at the site of injury. He was hemodynamically stable. At emergency exploration, the eviscerated bowel was viable with no adjacent mesenteric tear. Other intra abdominal organs were normal. The eviscerated bowel was lavaged and reduced into the abdomen through the 7 cm anterior abdominal wall laceration. The laceration was repaired and abdomen closed in layers. Post operative recovery was uneventful. The hand-held cow horn can easily be concealed and may pass through security checks undetected. It should be added to the ever increasing list of weapons of small scale terror.

  15. Use of a hand-held Doppler to avoid abdominal wall vessels in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, M. S.; Laws, S. A.; Wise, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Laparoscopy in general surgery is becoming a wide-spread technique. Substantial anterior abdominal wall haemorrhage is a recognised complication of the laparoscopic technique. Ten patients were examined with an 8 MHz hand-held Doppler and the anterior abdominal wall vessels were marked on the skin. Colour flow duplex was used to confirm the presence of vessels found in this way. All 40 epigastric arteries were marked accurately and confirmed; 75 other intramural arteries were identified, although the majority were too small for duplex confirmation. The preoperative use of hand-held Doppler is a quick and non-invasive way to identify the epigastric and larger intramural arteries. Routine use of this technique to mark abdominal wall vessels in the areas of trocar insertion should reduce this complication of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:7661918

  16. Early Childhood Vision Screening in Hawai'i Utilizing a Hand-Held Screener.

    PubMed

    Chang, Duane A; Ede, Roger C; Chow, Dominic C; Souza, Ryan D; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A; Hanks, Nancy; Nakamoto, Beau K; Mitchell, Brooks; Masutani, Alison T; Fisk, Sam; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Dill, Jan E

    2015-09-01

    The goal of early childhood vision screening is to detect subnormal vision and amblyopic risk factors that threaten visual development so that treatment can be initiated early to yield the highest benefit. Hand-held, portable, instrument-based vision screening devices can be used in children as young as 6 months of age. We assessed the feasibility of hand-held photoscreeners to screen for vision disorders in pre-school children in Hawai'i. A total of 137 preschool children on O'ahu in the "Tutu and Me"/Partners in Development program were screened at 6 different locations using the Plusoptix S12 hand-held photoscreener. Once technical issues were resolved, screening was fast and well tolerated. Possible vision abnormalities were found in 11 of the 137 children (8%). Poor compliance for follow-up with formal vision examination limited our ability to confirm these abnormalities. We conclude that photoscreening has the potential to facilitate early childhood vision screening in Hawai'i. The optimal referral criteria for use in Hawai'i will need to be determined after considering the age of the screening population and the available medical resources in Hawai'i. Early detection of treatable eye disorders has far-reaching benefits for the visual development and long term health and well-being of children. A comprehensive early childhood vision screening program in Hawai'i utilizing automated hand-held photoscreeners may have public health value. Such a program should integrate referral to an eye care professional for confirmation and management of vision disorders of at-risk children found on screening.

  17. DataPlus™ - a revolutionary applications generator for DOS hand-held computers

    Treesearch

    David Dean; Linda Dean

    2000-01-01

    DataPlus allows the user to easily design data collection templates for DOS-based hand-held computers that mimic clipboard data sheets. The user designs and tests the application on the desktop PC and then transfers it to a DOS field computer. Other features include: error checking, missing data checks, and sensor input from RS-232 devices such as bar code wands,...

  18. Older People with Access to Hand-Held Devices: Who Are They?

    PubMed

    Shahrokni, Armin; Mahmoudzadeh, Sanam; Saeedi, Ramyar; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Multiple comorbid conditions among older patients require frequent physician office and emergency room visits, at times leading to hospitalization. In recent years, mobile health (m-health) systems utilizing hand-held devices (e.g., smartphones) have been developed, which could be used for health-related interventions. This study investigates sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of individuals who have or have not accessed Internet via hand-held devices. Adults older than 65 years of age who participated in the Health Tracking survey of the Pew Internet and American Life Project in 2012 were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed for prevalence of Internet access via hand-held devices and differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Different online health information seeking behavior is also reported. In the weighted sample size of 3,116 responses, 472 (15.1%) had access to Internet via hand-held devices. Those with such an access were younger and had higher income and education and better overall quality of life and quality of life at the time of answering the survey. They were more likely to be female and married or living as married. Those with diabetes or significant change in physical condition in the prior year were less likely to have such an access. In the multivariate analysis, older or diabetic individuals had lower probability of such access. Higher likelihood of access was associated with higher income and education, being married, female gender, better quality of life, higher number of comorbid illnesses, and emergency room visit or hospital admission in the last 12 months. Investigators should pay attention to sociodemographic and clinical disparities of older adults to develop feasible m-health interventions.

  19. Hand-held internet tablets for school-based data collection

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Simon J; Milfont, Taciano L; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Ameratunga, Shanthi N; Merry, Sally N; Fleming, Theresa M; Watson, Peter D

    2008-01-01

    Background In the last 20 years, researchers have been using computer self-administered questionnaires to gather data on a wide range of adolescent health related behaviours. More recently, researchers collecting data in schools have started to use smaller hand-held computers for their ease of use and portability. The aim of this study is to describe a new technology with wi-fi enabled hand-held internet tablets and to compare adolescent preferences of laptop computers or hand-held internet tablets in administering a youth health and well-being questionnaire in a school setting. Methods A total of 177 students took part in a pilot study of a national youth health and wellbeing survey. Students were randomly assigned to internet tablets or laptops at the start of the survey and were changed to the alternate mode of administration about half-way through the questionnaire. Students at the end of the questionnaire were asked which of the two modes of administration (1) they preferred, (2) was easier to use, (3) was more private and confidential, and (4) was easier to answer truthfully. Results Many students expressed no preference between laptop computers or internet tablets. However, among the students who expressed a preference between laptop computers or internet tablets, the majority of students found the internet tablets more private and confidential (p < 0.001) and easier to answer questions truthfully (p < 0.001) compared to laptop computers. Conclusion This study demonstrates that using wi-fi enabled hand-held internet tablets is a feasible methodology for school-based surveys especially when asking about sensitive information. PMID:18710505

  20. Long-Wavelength 256 x 256 QWIP Hand-Held Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Liu, J. K.; Sundaram, M.; Bandara, S. V.; Shott, C. A.; Hoelter, T.; Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of very sensitive long wavelength infrared (LWIR) GaAs/Al(x)Ga(l-x)As quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), fabrication of random reflectors for efficient light coupling, and the demonstration of the first hand-held long-wavelength 256 x 256 QWIP focal plane array camera. Excellent imagery, with a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE Delta T) of 25 mK has been achieved.

  1. Prediction of essential oil content of oregano by hand-held and Fourier transform NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Camps, Cédric; Gérard, Marianne; Quennoz, Mélanie; Brabant, Cécile; Oberson, Carine; Simonnet, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of a breeding programme, the analysis of hundreds of oregano samples to determine their essential oil content (EOC) is time-consuming and expensive in terms of labour. Therefore developing a new method that is rapid, accurate and less expensive to use would be an asset to breeders. The aim of the present study was to develop a method based on near-inrared (NIR) spectroscopy to determine the EOC of oregano dried powder. Two spectroscopic approaches were compared, the first using a hand-held NIR device and the second a Fourier transform (FT) NIR spectrometer. Hand-held NIR (1000-1800 nm) measurements and partial least squares regression allowed the determination of EOC with R² and SEP values of 0.58 and 0.81 mL per 100 g dry matter (DM) respectively. Measurements with FT-NIR (1000-2500 nm) allowed the determination of EOC with R² and SEP values of 0.91 and 0.68 mL per 100 g DM respectively. RPD, RER and RPIQ values for the model implemented with FT-NIR data were satisfactory for screening application, while those obtained with hand-held NIR data were below the level required to consider the model as enough accurate for screening application. The FT-NIR approach allowed the development of an accurate model for EOC prediction. Although the hand-held NIR approach is promising, it needs additional development before it can be used in practice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Area estimation in pharmacokinetic studies using a hand-held programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Bury, R W

    1984-01-01

    A short program for area analysis in pharmacokinetic studies using the Hewlett-Packard HP41C hand-held programmable calculator is described. Area under the concentration-time curve is calculated firstly within defined time limits and then with extrapolation to infinite time using the slope constant of the terminal phase. Input of concentration-time data is simple and there is no limit on the number of time-concentration co-ordinates which can be entered for area calculation.

  3. Noise reduction techniques in the design of a pneumatic-driven hand held power tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Christian M.

    2005-09-01

    Pneumatic-driven hand-held power tools generate noise in the workplace. Current legislation in Europe and the USA aims at protecting workers against noise exposure. In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that employers create a hearing conservation program if the noise exposure exceeds 85 dB(A). In the European Community under the Directive 2003/10/EC, employers are required to provide hearing protection if the noise exposure within the working environment exceeds 80 dB(A) and must require hearing protection to be worn if the noise exposure exceeds 85 dB(A). This paper examines the sources of noise which contribute to the overall noise from a hand-held power tool. A test plan was developed to identify these individual sources of noise and to determine if structure-borne noise or airborne noise is the dominant source relative to the overall noise level. The measurements were performed per International Standards Organization (ISO) 15744. This paper will describe the methodology used to identify the noise sources and reduce the overall noise of a hand-held power tool.

  4. Hand-held computers can help to distract children undergoing painful venipuncture procedures.

    PubMed

    Crevatin, Franca; Cozzi, Giorgio; Braido, Elena; Bertossa, Gabriella; Rizzitelli, Patrizia; Lionetti, Daniela; Matassi, Daniela; Calusa, Dorotea; Ronfani, Luca; Barbi, Egidio

    2016-08-01

    Needle-related procedures can be painful for children, and distraction provides ideal pain relief in blood-drawing centres. This study assessed the effectiveness of playing a computer game during venipuncture, compared with low-tech distraction by a nurse. We conducted this prospective, randomised controlled trial at the blood-drawing centre of a tertiary-level children's hospital in Italy. Half of the 200 children played Angry Birds on a hand-held computer while the other half were distracted by a second, specifically trained nurse who sang to them, read a book, blew bubbles or played with puppets. Pain was measured using a faces pain scale for children aged 4-7 years and a numeric scale for children aged 8-13 years. The 200 children had a median age of eight years. Children reported significant pain in 16 cases (16%) in the hand-held computer distraction group and in 15 cases (15%) in the nurse-led low-tech distraction group (p = 0.85). The procedural success rate at the first attempt was not different in the two groups. Playing a game on a hand-held computer meant that only one in six children reported pain during venipuncture, but it was not superior to being distracted by nurses. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Gen-2 Hand-Held Optical Imager towards Cancer Imaging: Reflectance and Transillumination Phantom Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jean; Roman, Manuela; Hall, Michael; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Hand-held near-infrared (NIR) optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards non-invasive clinical breast imaging. Unlike these existing imagers that can perform only reflectance imaging, a generation-2 (Gen-2) hand-held optical imager has been recently developed to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging. The unique forked design of the hand-held probe head(s) allows for reflectance imaging (as in ultrasound) and transillumination or compressed imaging (as in X-ray mammography). Phantom studies were performed to demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) target detection via reflectance and transillumination imaging at various target depths (1–5 cm deep) and using simultaneous multiple point illumination approach. It was observed that 0.45 cc targets were detected up to 5 cm deep during transillumination, but limited to 2.5 cm deep during reflectance imaging. Additionally, implementing appropriate data post-processing techniques along with a polynomial fitting approach, to plot 2D surface contours of the detected signal, yields distinct target detectability and localization. The ability of the gen-2 imager to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging allows its direct comparison to ultrasound and X-ray mammography results, respectively, in future clinical breast imaging studies. PMID:22438743

  6. A hand-held electronic tongue based on fluorometry for taste assessment of tea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuang-Hua; Chen, Richie L C; Hsieh, Bo-Chuan; Chen, Po-Chung; Hsiao, Hsien-Yi; Nieh, Chi-Hua; Cheng, Tzong-Jih

    2010-12-15

    A hand-held electronic tongue was developed for determining taste levels of astringency and umami in tea infusions. The sensing principles are based on quenching the fluorescence of 3-aminophthalate by tannin, and the fluorogenic reaction of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) with amino acids to determine astringency and umami levels, respectively. Both reactions were measured by a single fluorescence sensing system with same excitation and emission wavelengths (340/425 nm). This work describes in detail the design, fabrication, and performance evaluation of a hand-held fluorometer with an ultra-violet light emitted diode (UVLED) and a photo-detector with a filter built-in. The dimension and the weight of proposed electronic tongue prototype are only 120×60×65 mm(3) and 150 g, respectively. The detection limits of this prototype for theanine and tannic acid were 0.2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Correlation coefficients of this prototype compared with a commercial fluorescence instrument are both higher than 0.995 in determinations of tannin acid and theanine. Linear detection ranges of the hand-held fluorometer for tannic acid and theanine are 1-20 μg/ml and 0.2-10 μg/ml (CV<5%, n=3), respectively. A specified taste indicator for tea, defined as ratio of umami to astringency, was adopted here to effectively distinguish flavour quality of partially fermented Oolong teas.

  7. Assembling a Hand-Held Trichotillometer and Determination of Epilation Force in Normal Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Muthuvel, Kumaresan; Chakravati, Srinivas; Nair, Sasidaharan

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To assemble a simple, inexpensive hand-held trichotillometer and to determine the epilation force (EF) required to pluck the anagen hair and telogen hair from four regions of the scalp in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: A simple hand-held trichotillometer was assembled by modifying a laboratory spring balance, and the instrument was calibrated after attachments. EF was measured in 30 healthy individuals on four regions of the scalp. Results: A total of 30 volunteers were included in the study, among them 15 were males and 15 were females. A total of 1200 hairs were examined. The mean EF in our study was 70.15 grams (g). The mean EF required to pluck the anagen hair was 86.61 g and telogen hair was 53.69 g. Conclusion: The assembled- hand held trichotillometer is a simple and reliable device. Tricotillometer is a useful device to measure the EF in various physiological and pathological conditions and may have diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value in various hair diseases.

  8. Hand-held optical imager (Gen-2): improved instrumentation and target detectability.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jean; Decerce, Joseph; Erickson, Sarah J; Martinez, Sergio L; Nunez, Annie; Roman, Manuela; Traub, Barbara; Flores, Cecilia A; Roberts, Seigbeh M; Hernandez, Estrella; Aguirre, Wenceslao; Kiszonas, Richard; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2012-08-01

    Hand-held optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards reflectance-based spectroscopic imaging of breast cancer. Recently, a Gen-1 handheld optical imager was developed with capabilities to perform two-dimensional (2-D) spectroscopic as well as three-dimensional (3-D) tomographic imaging studies. However, the imager was bulky with poor surface contact (~30%) along curved tissues, and limited sensitivity to detect targets consistently. Herein, a Gen-2 hand-held optical imager that overcame the above limitations of the Gen-1 imager has been developed and the instrumentation described. The Gen-2 hand-held imager is less bulky, portable, and has improved surface contact (~86%) on curved tissues. Additionally, the forked probe head design is capable of simultaneous bilateral reflectance imaging of both breast tissues, and also transillumination imaging of a single breast tissue. Experimental studies were performed on tissue phantoms to demonstrate the improved sensitivity in detecting targets using the Gen-2 imager. The improved instrumentation of the Gen-2 imager allowed detection of targets independent of their location with respect to the illumination points, unlike in Gen-1 imager. The developed imager has potential for future clinical breast imaging with enhanced sensitivity, via both reflectance and transillumination imaging.

  9. Gen-2 hand-held optical imager towards cancer imaging: reflectance and transillumination phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jean; Roman, Manuela; Hall, Michael; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Hand-held near-infrared (NIR) optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards non-invasive clinical breast imaging. Unlike these existing imagers that can perform only reflectance imaging, a generation-2 (Gen-2) hand-held optical imager has been recently developed to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging. The unique forked design of the hand-held probe head(s) allows for reflectance imaging (as in ultrasound) and transillumination or compressed imaging (as in X-ray mammography). Phantom studies were performed to demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) target detection via reflectance and transillumination imaging at various target depths (1-5 cm deep) and using simultaneous multiple point illumination approach. It was observed that 0.45 cc targets were detected up to 5 cm deep during transillumination, but limited to 2.5 cm deep during reflectance imaging. Additionally, implementing appropriate data post-processing techniques along with a polynomial fitting approach, to plot 2D surface contours of the detected signal, yields distinct target detectability and localization. The ability of the gen-2 imager to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging allows its direct comparison to ultrasound and X-ray mammography results, respectively, in future clinical breast imaging studies.

  10. Hand-held optical imager (Gen-2): improved instrumentation and target detectability

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jean; DeCerce, Joseph; Erickson, Sarah J.; Martinez, Sergio L.; Nunez, Annie; Roman, Manuela; Traub, Barbara; Flores, Cecilia A.; Roberts, Seigbeh M.; Hernandez, Estrella; Aguirre, Wenceslao; Kiszonas, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Hand-held optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards reflectance-based spectroscopic imaging of breast cancer. Recently, a Gen-1 handheld optical imager was developed with capabilities to perform two-dimensional (2-D) spectroscopic as well as three-dimensional (3-D) tomographic imaging studies. However, the imager was bulky with poor surface contact (∼30%) along curved tissues, and limited sensitivity to detect targets consistently. Herein, a Gen-2 hand-held optical imager that overcame the above limitations of the Gen-1 imager has been developed and the instrumentation described. The Gen-2 hand-held imager is less bulky, portable, and has improved surface contact (∼86%) on curved tissues. Additionally, the forked probe head design is capable of simultaneous bilateral reflectance imaging of both breast tissues, and also transillumination imaging of a single breast tissue. Experimental studies were performed on tissue phantoms to demonstrate the improved sensitivity in detecting targets using the Gen-2 imager. The improved instrumentation of the Gen-2 imager allowed detection of targets independent of their location with respect to the illumination points, unlike in Gen-1 imager. The developed imager has potential for future clinical breast imaging with enhanced sensitivity, via both reflectance and transillumination imaging. PMID:23224163

  11. Detector optimization for hand-held CsI(Tl)/HgI{sub 2} gamma-ray scintillation spectrometer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.J.; Patt, B.E.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Cherry, S.R.; Shao, Y.

    1996-06-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometers using mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) photodetectors (PDs) coupled with CsI(Tl) scintillators have shown excellent energy resolutions and high detection efficiency at room temperature. Additionally HgI{sub 2} semiconductor PDs allow for extreme miniaturization of the detector packaging compared with photomultiplier tube (PMT) based detectors. These advantages make possible the construction of a new generation of hand-held gamma-ray spectrometers. Studies of detector optimization for this application have been undertaken. Several contact materials including hydrogen and semi-transparent metal films have been evaluated and compared for their performances and long term stability. In order to provide higher gamma-ray detection efficiency (i.e., larger scintillator volume), but without causing significant degradation of the excellent response achieved with the matched scintillator/PD interface, the scintillator/PD configuration has been studied. A Monte Carlo simulation model has been developed so that the spectral shape can be predicted for various scintillator shapes and surface treatments.

  12. A hand-held ultrasound machine vs. conventional ultrasound machine in the bedside assessment of post-liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Bruno, Onorina; Angeli, Maria Luigia; Belghiti, Jacques; Chatellier, Gilles; Vilgrain, Valérie

    2009-10-01

    The purpose was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a hand-held Doppler ultrasound (US) machine for the bedside detection of liver and vascular abnormalities after liver transplantation in the intensive care unit. The IRB approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients or the patient's legal representative. Any liver transplant recipient at our institution who needed a bedside Doppler US examination in the intensive care unit was eligible. Patients underwent routine grey-scale, colour, and spectral Doppler US examinations of the liver with a conventional machine, which was taken as the reference method, and with a hand-held machine on the same day. Examinations followed one another and were performed in a blinded fashion by two radiologists. Over a 4-month period, 24 consecutive patients (16 men, median age 54 years old; 16 cadaveric and 8 living related right liver transplantations) underwent 43 examinations with both conventional and hand-held machines. Image quality and overall satisfaction scores of grey-scale were lower with the hand-held than with the conventional machine. The hand-held was similar to the conventional machine for assessing the patency of portal veins, hepatic veins and the IVC in all patients but one. The hand-held machine failed to detect signals in the right branch of the hepatic artery and in the hilum in two and one cases, respectively. There was no abnormal hepatic arterial flow with the conventional machine in any of the patients, and the results were the same with the hand-held machine. Total examination time was significantly longer with the hand-held machine. The hand-held US machine had a high diagnostic accuracy for both parenchymal and vascular analyses compared with a conventional US machine in the bedside assessment of post-liver transplant patients.

  13. Noninvasive Surface Imaging of Breast Cancer in Humans using a Hand-held Optical Imager.

    PubMed

    Erickson-Bhatt, Sarah J; Roman, Manuela; Gonzalez, Jean; Nunez, Annie; Kiszonas, Richard; Lopez-Penalver, Cristina; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2015-12-01

    X-ray mammography, the current gold standard for breast cancer detection, has a 20% false-negative rate (cancer is undetected) and increases in younger women with denser breast tissue. Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a safe (nonionizing), and relatively inexpensive method for noninvasive imaging of breast cancer in human subjects (including dense breast tissues) by providing physiological information (e.g. oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin concentration). At the Optical Imaging Laboratory, a hand-held optical imager has been developed which employs a breast contourable probe head to perform simultaneous illumination and detection of large surfaces towards near real-time imaging of human breast cancer. Gen-1 and gen-2 versions of the handheld optical imager have been developed and previously demonstrated imaging in tissue phantoms and healthy human subjects. Herein, the hand-held optical imagers are applied towards in vivo imaging of breast cancer subjects in an attempt to determine the ability of the imager to detect breast tumors. Five female human subjects (ages 51-74) diagnosed with breast cancer were imaged with the gen-1 optical imager prior to surgical intervention. One of the subjects was also imaged with the gen-2 optical imager. Both imagers use 785 nm laser diode sources and ICCD camera detectors to generate 2D surfaces maps of total hemoglobin absorption. The subjects lay in supine position and images were collected at various locations on both the ipsilateral (tumor-containing) and contralateral (non-tumor containing) breasts. The optical images (2D surface maps of optical absorption due to total hemoglobin concentration) show regions of higher intensity at the tumor location, which is indicative of increased vasculature and higher blood content due to the presence of the tumor. Additionally, a preliminary result indicates the potential to image lymphatic spread. This study demonstrates the potential of the hand-held optical devices to noninvasively image

  14. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening program using hand-held ultrasound in primary healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Kostov, Belchin; Navarro González, Marta; Cararach Salami, Daniel; Pérez Jiménez, Alfonso; Gilabert Solé, Rosa; Bru Saumell, Concepció; Donoso Bach, Lluís; Villalta Martí, Mireia; González-de Paz, Luis; Ruiz Riera, Rafael; Riambau Alonso, Vicenç; Acar-Denizli, Nihan; Farré Almacellas, Marta; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Benavent Àreu, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    We determined the feasibility of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening program led by family physicians in public primary healthcare setting using hand-held ultrasound device. The potential study population was 11,214 men aged ≥ 60 years attended by three urban, public primary healthcare centers. Participants were recruited by randomly-selected telephone calls. Ultrasound examinations were performed by four trained family physicians with a hand-held ultrasound device (Vscan®). AAA observed were verified by confirmatory imaging using standard ultrasound or computed tomography. Cardiovascular risk factors were determined. The prevalence of AAA was computed as the sum of previously-known aneurysms, aneurysms detected by the screening program and model-based estimated undiagnosed aneurysms. We screened 1,010 men, with mean age of 71.3 (SD 6.9) years; 995 (98.5%) men had normal aortas and 15 (1.5%) had AAA on Vscan®. Eleven out of 14 AAA-cases (78.6%) had AAA on confirmatory imaging (one patient died). The total prevalence of AAA was 2.49% (95%CI 2.20 to 2.78). The median aortic diameter at diagnosis was 3.5 cm in screened patients and 4.7 cm (p<0.001) in patients in whom AAA was diagnosed incidentally. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified coronary heart disease (OR = 4.6, 95%CI 1.3 to 15.9) as the independent factor with the highest odds ratio. A screening program led by trained family physicians using hand-held ultrasound was a feasible, safe and reliable tool for the early detection of AAA. PMID:28453577

  15. Noninvasive Surface Imaging of Breast Cancer in Humans using a Hand-held Optical Imager

    PubMed Central

    Erickson-Bhatt, Sarah J.; Roman, Manuela; Gonzalez, Jean; Nunez, Annie; Kiszonas, Richard; Lopez-Penalver, Cristina; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    X-ray mammography, the current gold standard for breast cancer detection, has a 20% false-negative rate (cancer is undetected) and increases in younger women with denser breast tissue. Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a safe (nonionizing), and relatively inexpensive method for noninvasive imaging of breast cancer in human subjects (including dense breast tissues) by providing physiological information (e.g. oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin concentration). At the Optical Imaging Laboratory, a hand-held optical imager has been developed which employs a breast contourable probe head to perform simultaneous illumination and detection of large surfaces towards near real-time imaging of human breast cancer. Gen-1 and gen-2 versions of the handheld optical imager have been developed and previously demonstrated imaging in tissue phantoms and healthy human subjects. Herein, the hand-held optical imagers are applied towards in vivo imaging of breast cancer subjects in an attempt to determine the ability of the imager to detect breast tumors. Five female human subjects (ages 51–74) diagnosed with breast cancer were imaged with the gen-1 optical imager prior to surgical intervention. One of the subjects was also imaged with the gen-2 optical imager. Both imagers use 785 nm laser diode sources and ICCD camera detectors to generate 2D surfaces maps of total hemoglobin absorption. The subjects lay in supine position and images were collected at various locations on both the ipsilateral (tumor-containing) and contralateral (non-tumor containing) breasts. The optical images (2D surface maps of optical absorption due to total hemoglobin concentration) show regions of higher intensity at the tumor location, which is indicative of increased vasculature and higher blood content due to the presence of the tumor. Additionally, a preliminary result indicates the potential to image lymphatic spread. This study demonstrates the potential of the hand-held optical devices to noninvasively image

  16. The reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Jason J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Good, Gregory W

    2003-06-01

    To investigate within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. Nineteen lenses of various nominal water contents were examined by two examiners on two occasions separated by 1 hour. An Atago N2 hand-held refractometer was used for all water content measures. Lenses were presented in a random order to each examiner by a third party, and examiners were masked to any potential lens identifiers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% limits of agreement, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to characterize the within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of lens water content measures. Within-examiner reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.97; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6% to +5.7%), and the inter-visit mean difference of 1.1 +/- 2.4% was not biased (p = 0.08). Between-examiner reliability was also excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% limits of agreement, -4.1% to +3.9%). The mean difference between examiners was -0.1 +/- 2.1% (p = 0.83). The mean difference between the nominally reported water content and our water content measures was -2.1 +/- 1.7% (p < 0.001); the 95% limits of agreement for this difference were -5.4% to +1.1%. There is good reliability within and between examiners in measuring water content of hydrogel lenses. However, with our sample of lenses, examiners tended to overestimate the nominal water content of hydrogel lenses. As discussed, this bias may be associated with the Brix scale used in refractometry and is material dependent. Therefore, investigators may need to account for bias when measuring hydrogel lens water content via hand-held refractometry.

  17. Improved detection limits using a hand-held optical imager with coregistration capabilities.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Sarah J; Martinez, Sergio L; Gonzalez, Jean; Caldera, Lizeth; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-07-15

    Optical imaging is emerging as a non-invasive and non-ionizing method for breast cancer diagnosis. A hand-held optical imager has been developed with coregistration facilities towards flexible imaging of different tissue volumes and curvatures in near real-time. Herein, fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging experiments are performed to demonstrate deeper target detection under perfect and imperfect (100:1) uptake conditions in (liquid) tissue phantoms and in vitro. Upon summation of multiple scans (fluorescence intensity images), fluorescent targets are detected at greater depths than from single scan alone.

  18. Applications of a hand-held GPS receiver in South American rain forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baksh, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A hand-held Global Positioning System receiver was used to determine the precise locations of villages, houses, gardens, and other cultural and environmental features in poorly mapped South American rain forests. The Magellan NAV 1000 unit profides extremely accurate latitude and longitude information, but determination of altitude is problematical. Overall, the receiver effectively allows anthropologists to obtain essential locational data useful for categorizing land uses, mapping tribal boundaries, and other applications in regions where environmental conditions are harsh and/or accessibility is difficult.

  19. Applications of a hand-held GPS receiver in South American rain forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baksh, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A hand-held Global Positioning System receiver was used to determine the precise locations of villages, houses, gardens, and other cultural and environmental features in poorly mapped South American rain forests. The Magellan NAV 1000 unit profides extremely accurate latitude and longitude information, but determination of altitude is problematical. Overall, the receiver effectively allows anthropologists to obtain essential locational data useful for categorizing land uses, mapping tribal boundaries, and other applications in regions where environmental conditions are harsh and/or accessibility is difficult.

  20. Real time OCT-based angiography device with hand-held probe (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexander A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Ksenofontov, Sergey Y.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Matveev, Lev A.; Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Matveev, Alexander L.; Sirotkina, Marina A.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2017-02-01

    This work is dedicated to development of the OCT system with angiography for everyday clinical use. Two major problems were solved during the development: compensation of specific tissue displacements, induced by contact scanning mode and physiological motion of patients (e.g. respiratory and cardiac motions) and on-line visualization of vessel net, to provide the feedback for system operator. The performance of the resulting OCT-based microangiography device with hand-held probe was evaluated by visualization of vessels nets of volunteers oral mucosa and skin on different locations (hands, face, abdomen etc.). Success-rate more than 90% was demonstrated during the experiments.

  1. Rapid Diagnosis of an Ulnar Fracture with Portable Hand-Held Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Brown, Ross; Diebel, Lawrence N.; Nicolaou, Savvas; Marshburn, Tom; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Orthopedic fractures are a common injury in operational activities, injuries that often occur in isolated or hostile environments. Clinical ultrasound devices have become more user friendly and lighter allowing them to be easily transported with forward medical teams. The bone-soft tissue interface has a very large acoustic impedance, with a high reflectance that can be used to visualize breaks in contour including fractures. Herein reported is a case of an ulnar fracture that was quickly visualized in the early phase of a multi-system trauma resuscitation with a hand-held ultrasound device. The implications for operational medicine are discussed.

  2. An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Using Hand-Held Computers for Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-30

    wEt ________ S, r V .. = lrny. ntO i 3, owrl. S.1 Sly96, or ato h b * - - m, Applya Wa dom toy- n E-4 Adoption of BASIC language BASK lagaeue idlfo...These Memtory Modules can quintuple the HP.41C’s memnory. x). ei, 1,y., V a. I/it. r . +. - X. +, LN. H.MS1. CHS. Each module contains an additional 64... R -A28 973 AN EVALUATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF USING HAND-HELD - COMPUTERS FOR TARINING(U) BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABS OH L D FRANCIS ET AL. 30 MAY 82 TDI

  3. Sensitive SERS nanotags for use with a hand-held 1064 nm Raman spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearns, Hayleigh; Ali, Fatima; Bedics, Matthew A.; Shand, Neil C.; Faulds, Karen; Detty, Michael R.; Graham, Duncan

    2017-07-01

    This is the first report of the use of a hand-held 1064 nm Raman spectrometer combined with red-shifted surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags to provide an unprecedented performance in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region. A library consisting of 17 chalcogenopyrylium nanotags produce extraordinary SERS responses with femtomolar detection limits being obtained using the portable instrument. This is well beyond previous SERS detection limits at this far red-shifted wavelength and opens up new options for SERS sensors in the SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum (between 950 and 1700 nm).

  4. Application of elastically deformed test samples for measuring stresses using a hand-held X-ray diffractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitkin, S. L.; Rozhnov, A. B.; Matveev, D. B.; Kotelkin, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    To test a mock-up of a hand-held X-ray diffractometer intended for determining the surface stresses in the important parts of rail transport, we propose to use control samples subjected to elastic deformation by three-point bending. The results obtained with hand-held and stationary X-ray diffractometers and the calculated stresses are compared. The stresses to be compared agree well within the limits of an acceptable error.

  5. Hand-Held Sunphotometers for High School Student Construction and Measuring Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almonor, Linda; Baldwin, C.; Craig, R.; Johnson, L. P.

    2000-01-01

    Science education is taking the teaching of science from a traditional (lecture) approach to a multidimensional sense-making approach which allows teachers to support students by providing exploratory experiences. Using projects is one way of providing students with opportunities to observe and participate in sense-making activity. We created a learning environment that fostered inquiry-based learning. Students were engaged in a variety of Inquiry activities that enabled them to work in cooperative planning teams where respect for each other was encouraged and their ability to grasp, transform and transfer information was enhanced. Summer, 1998: An air pollution workshop was conducted for high school students in the Medgar Evers College/Middle College High School Liberty Partnership Summer Program. Students learned the basics of meteorology: structure and composition of the atmosphere and the processes that cause weather. The highlight of this workshop was the building of hand-held sunphotometers, which measure the intensity of the sunlight striking the Earth. Summer, 1999: high school students conducted a research project which measured the mass and size of ambient particulates and enhanced our ability to observe through land based measurements changes in the optical depth of ambient aerosols over Brooklyn. Students used hand held Sunphotometers to collect data over a two week period and entered it into the NASA GISS database by way of the internet.

  6. Stabilized, hand-held, gamma-ray verification instrument for special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Wiig, G.

    1988-01-01

    For many years, Los Alamos has developed intelligent, hand-held, search instruments for use by non-specialists to search for special nuclear materials (SNM). The instruments sense SNM by detecting its emitted radiation with scintillation detectors monitored by digital alarm circuitry. Now, we have developed a new hand-held instrument that can verify the presence or absence of particular radioisotopes by analyzing gamma-ray spectra. The new instrument is similar to recent, microprocessor-based, search instruments, but has LED detector stabilization, three adjustable regions-of-interest, and additional operating programs for spectrum analysis. We call the new instrument an SNM verification instrument. Its spectrum analysis capability can verify the presence or absence of specific plutonium isotopes in containers or verify the presence of uranium and its enrichment. The instrument retains the search capability, light weight, and low-power requirement of its predecessors. Its ready portability, detector stabilization, and simple operation allow individuals with little technical training to verify the contents of SNM containers. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Contributions of a hand-held fan to self-management of chronic breathlessness

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Jane; Johnson, Miriam J.; Farquhar, Morag; Swan, Flavia; Assen, Teresa; Bhattarai, Priyanka; Booth, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the benefits of a hand-held fan as perceived by patients with chronic breathlessness and their carers. A secondary multimethod analysis was conducted of interview data collected in three clinical trials. Two researchers independently coded level of benefit qualitatively reported by each patient. Univariate and multivariate statistics were used to explore perceived benefit as a factor of sex, age and diagnosis. Qualitative analysis used an integrative method. 133 patients commented on the fan, of whom 72 had a carer. Diagnoses included nonmalignant (n=91, 68.4%) and malignant (n=21, 15.8%) conditions. Of 111 patients who provided codable data, four (3.6%) perceived no benefit, 16 (14.4%) were uncertain, 80 (72.0%) perceived some benefit and 11 (10.0%) perceived very substantial benefit. Multivariate analysis was inconclusive. Benefit was described in terms of shorter recovery time, especially after activity. 10 (7.5%) patients said the fan reduced their need for home oxygen or inhaled β-agonist medications. Negative perceptions of a few included dislike of the cooling sensation and embarrassment in public. Findings suggest that a hand-held fan is a portable intervention with few disadvantages from which most patients with chronic breathlessness will derive benefit alongside other nonpharmacological and pharmacological strategies. Research is needed to optimise guidance on fan administration. PMID:28818884

  8. A review of hand-held, home-use cosmetic laser and light devices.

    PubMed

    Hession, Meghan T; Markova, Alina; Graber, Emmy M

    2015-03-01

    As the market for home-use light-based and laser-based devices grows, consumers will increasingly seek advice from dermatologists regarding their safety and efficacy profiles. To review the literature on home-use hand-held devices for various dermatologic conditions. To educate dermatologists about commercially available products their patients may be using. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of home-use laser and light devices for the treatment of the following: hair removal, acne, photoaging, scars, psoriasis, and hair regrowth. In addition, a thorough search of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) radiation-emitting electronic products' database was performed; by searching specific product codes, all hand-held devices that are FDA-approved for marketing in the United States were identified. Of the various home-use devices reviewed, intense pulsed light (IPL) for hair removal and light-emitting diode (LED) for treatment of acne have the most published data. Although the literature shows modest results for home-use IPL and LED, small sample sizes and short follow-up periods limit interpretation. There is a paucity of randomized, double-blind controlled trials to support the use of home-use laser and light devices; smaller, uncontrolled industry-sponsored single-center studies suggest that some of these devices may have modest results.

  9. Hand-Held Sunphotometers for High School Student Construction and Measuring Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almonor, Linda; Baldwin, C.; Craig, R.; Johnson, L. P.

    2000-01-01

    Science education is taking the teaching of science from a traditional (lecture) approach to a multidimensional sense-making approach which allows teachers to support students by providing exploratory experiences. Using projects is one way of providing students with opportunities to observe and participate in sense-making activity. We created a learning environment that fostered inquiry-based learning. Students were engaged in a variety of Inquiry activities that enabled them to work in cooperative planning teams where respect for each other was encouraged and their ability to grasp, transform and transfer information was enhanced. Summer, 1998: An air pollution workshop was conducted for high school students in the Medgar Evers College/Middle College High School Liberty Partnership Summer Program. Students learned the basics of meteorology: structure and composition of the atmosphere and the processes that cause weather. The highlight of this workshop was the building of hand-held sunphotometers, which measure the intensity of the sunlight striking the Earth. Summer, 1999: high school students conducted a research project which measured the mass and size of ambient particulates and enhanced our ability to observe through land based measurements changes in the optical depth of ambient aerosols over Brooklyn. Students used hand held Sunphotometers to collect data over a two week period and entered it into the NASA GISS database by way of the internet.

  10. Development of a hand-held forensic-lidar for standoff detection of chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Grant; Batchelder, David

    2002-12-01

    The design of a forensic-lidar is reported, enabling a single operator to perform the spectral identification of a labeled object at 5 m distance using a compact, hand-held instrument, low-power excitation (1 mW) and short sampling times (under 2 s) from a sample less than 100-μm thick. The system integrates a modified single-lens-reflex (SLR) telephoto camera with an optical-fiber coupled Raman probe head. Spectral analysis was achieved using an optical-fiber coupled spectrograph employing a volume-phase holographic grating, charge coupled device array detection and visible excitation. Thus, spectra may be acquired from objects encased in transparent packaging or behind glass windows. The use of a modified SLR camera enables accurate sample alignment using the visible spectrum and collection of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattered flux through the SLR camera lens using epi-illumination. A single operator may acquire fingerprint recognition of a material using a single hand-held unit and spectrum-matching software. The instrument design is reported with preliminary performance such as spectrograph resolution and transmission. A preliminary spectrum is presented at a standoff distance of 5 m.

  11. Intraoperative radioimmunodetection of colorectal tumor with a hand-held radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.T.; Hinkle, G.H.; Tuttle, S.; Olsen, J.; Nabi, H.; Houchens, D.; Thurston, M.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    A hand-held gamma detection probe was used intraoperatively to localize primary and recurrent colorectal tumors in 28 patients 48 to 72 hours after they received an intravenous injection of 2.2 mCi of iodine-131 labeled anticarcinoembryonic antigen polyclonal baboon antibody. Preoperative evaluation included determination of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, barium enema, colonoscopy, chest film, computerized axial tomography, liver, spleen, and bone scans, and endoscopy when indicated. Preoperative whole-body imaging correctly localized primary tumors in only 33 percent of the patients, whereas it correctly demonstrated tumor in 64 percent of those with recurrent disease. Intraoperative tumor-to-background ratios derived from the detector probe were elevated in all patients, averaging 3.97:1 in primary lesions and 4.18:1 in recurrent tumors. Postoperatively, carcinoembryonic antigen was localized in tissues with the avidin-biotin peroxidase staining technique to confirm intraoperative readings. Variations in stain uptake in a patient could be correlated with variations in radiation detector readings in the same patient. Results support our previous work in nude mice, demonstrating the improved sensitivity and specificity of the hand-held gamma detection device over whole-body imaging for intraoperative localization of immunoradiolabeled tumors.

  12. Hand-held optoacoustic probe for three-dimensional imaging of human morphology and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We report on a hand-held imaging probe for real-time optoacoustic visualization of deep tissues in three dimensions. The proposed solution incorporates a two-dimensional array of ultrasonic sensors densely distributed on a spherical surface, whereas illumination is performed coaxially through a cylindrical cavity in the array. Visualization of three-dimensional tomographic data at a frame rate of 10 images per second is enabled by parallel recording of 256 time-resolved signals for each individual laser pulse along with a highly efficient GPUbased real-time reconstruction. A liquid coupling medium (water), enclosed in a transparent membrane, is used to guarantee transmission of the optoacoustically generated waves to the ultrasonic detectors. Excitation at multiple wavelengths further allows imaging spectrally distinctive tissue chromophores such as oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin. The performance is showcased by video-rate tracking of deep tissue vasculature and three-dimensional measurements of blood oxygenenation in a healthy human volunteer. The flexibility provided by the hand-held hardware design, combined with the real-time operation, makes the developed platform highly usable for both small animal research and clinical imaging in multiple indications, including cancer, inflammation, skin and cardiovascular diseases, diagnostics of lymphatic system and breast

  13. Algorithms for a hand-held miniature x-ray fluorescence analytical instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, W.T.; Newman, D.; Ziemba, F.

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this joint program was to provide technical assistance with the development of a Miniature X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analytical Instrument. This new XRF instrument is designed to overcome the weaknesses of spectrometers commercially available at the present time. Currently available XRF spectrometers (for a complete list see reference 1) convert spectral information to sample composition using the influence coefficients technique or the fundamental parameters method. They require either a standard sample with composition relatively close to the unknown or a detailed knowledge of the sample matrix. They also require a highly-trained operator and the results often depend on the capabilities of the operator. In addition, almost all existing field-portable, hand-held instruments use radioactive sources for excitation. Regulatory limits on such sources restrict them such that they can only provide relatively weak excitation. This limits all current hand-held XRF instruments to poor detection limits and/or long data collection times, in addition to the licensing requirements and disposal problems for radioactive sources. The new XRF instrument was developed jointly by Quantrad Sensor, Inc., the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and the Department of Energy (DOE). This report describes the analysis algorithms developed by NRL for the new instrument and the software which embodies them.

  14. Nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide analysis with a novel hand-held device.

    PubMed

    Weschta, Michael; Deutschle, Tom; Riechelmann, Herbert

    2008-03-01

    To assess the performance of a novel hand-held nitric oxide (NO) analyzer in the measurement of nasal fractional exhaled NO (FE(NO)). In ten healthy subjects (controls) and ten patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), oral and nasal FENO were obtained with the NIOX MINO Airway Inflammation Monitor (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden) on two consecutive days, complying with current standards. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of oral FENO was 0.91 and of nasal FE(NO) 0.79. In controls, mean (+/- SD) nasal FENO (40.3 +/- 23.6 ppb) was higher than oral FENO (15.6 +/- 2.7 ppb; p = 0.005). In CRS patients, mean oral FENO (23.9 +/- 12.2 ppb) was higher than in controls (15.6 +/- 2.7 ppb; p = 0.01). CRS patients with nasal polyps had lower nasal FE(NO) levels (19.7 +/- 5.9) than healthy controls (40.3 +/- 23.6 ppb; p = 0.01). The novel hand-held NO analyzer was found suitable for nasal FE(NO) measurements. It may be useful in differentiating hyperplasic eosinophil rhinosinusitis from chronic unspecific rhinosinusitis. Moreover, nasal FE(NO) may be used to monitor the clinical course of CRS with polyps.

  15. Smartphone based hand-held quantitative phase microscope using the transport of intensity equation method.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xin; Huang, Huachuan; Yan, Keding; Tian, Xiaolin; Yu, Wei; Cui, Haoyang; Kong, Yan; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2016-12-20

    In order to realize high contrast imaging with portable devices for potential mobile healthcare, we demonstrate a hand-held smartphone based quantitative phase microscope using the transport of intensity equation method. With a cost-effective illumination source and compact microscope system, multi-focal images of samples can be captured by the smartphone's camera via manual focusing. Phase retrieval is performed using a self-developed Android application, which calculates sample phases from multi-plane intensities via solving the Poisson equation. We test the portable microscope using a random phase plate with known phases, and to further demonstrate its performance, a red blood cell smear, a Pap smear and monocot root and broad bean epidermis sections are also successfully imaged. Considering its advantages as an accurate, high-contrast, cost-effective and field-portable device, the smartphone based hand-held quantitative phase microscope is a promising tool which can be adopted in the future in remote healthcare and medical diagnosis.

  16. Improving dietary self-monitoring and adherence with hand-held computers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Karen; Murphy, Suzanne; Moylan, Joanne; Evensen, Diana; Curb, J David

    2006-01-01

    Innovations in information technology offer new opportunities for creative application of personalized, tailored feedback strategies for improving dietary adherence. We developed and tested a real-time diet-monitoring and feedback system using hand-held computers. The goals were to increase diet self-monitoring, reduce the burden of monitoring food intake, and increase adherence to dietary goals within a clinical trial. Participants were 33 women in the Diet Modification arm of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). After using focus groups to determine system features, women used the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)-based system for 1 month and received immediate and weekly tailored feedback. The process and outcomes were evaluated using real-time food records collected through the PDAs; surveys; and self-reported food frequency questionnaires. Participants significantly increased self-monitoring, improved their attitudes toward self-monitoring, and met their dietary goals more often. Reported total fat intake and percent energy from fat decreased significantly. There was a modest decrease in mean caloric intake. The pilot study findings support the largely untapped potential of hand-held computers for improving diet monitoring and diet adherence, particularly within a clinical trial.

  17. Neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) forward-viewing probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Vuong, Barry; Cusimano, Michael; Brukson, Alexander; Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-02-01

    A prototype neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging probe has been developed to provide micron resolution cross-sectional images of subsurface tissue during open surgery. This new ergonomic hand-held probe has been designed based on our group's previous work on electrostatically driven optical fibers. It has been packaged into a catheter probe in the familiar form factor of the clinically accepted Bayonet shaped neurosurgical non-imaging Doppler ultrasound probes. The optical design was optimized using ZEMAX simulation. Optical properties of the probe were tested to yield an ~20 um spot size, 5 mm working distance and a 3.5 mm field of view. The scan frequency can be increased or decreased by changing the applied voltage. Typically a scan frequency of less than 60Hz is chosen to keep the applied voltage to less than 2000V. The axial resolution of the probe was ~15 um (in air) as determined by the OCT system. A custom-triggering methodology has been developed to provide continuous stable imaging, which is crucial for clinical utility. Feasibility of this probe, in combination with a 1310 nm swept source OCT system was tested and images are presented to highlight the usefulness of such a forward viewing handheld OCT imaging probe. Knowledge gained from this research will lay the foundation for developing new OCT technologies for endovascular management of cerebral aneurysms and transsphenoidal neuroendoscopic treatment of pituitary tumors.

  18. Finger tracking for hand-held device interface using profile-matching stereo vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yung-Ping; Lee, Dah-Jye; Moore, Jason; Desai, Alok; Tippetts, Beau

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people use hand-held devices frequently and control them by touching the screen with their fingers. If this method of operation is being used by people who are driving, the probability of deaths and accidents occurring substantially increases. With a non-contact control interface, people do not need to touch the screen. As a result, people will not need to pay as much attention to their phones and thus drive more safely than they would otherwise. This interface can be achieved with real-time stereovision. A novel Intensity Profile Shape-Matching Algorithm is able to obtain 3-D information from a pair of stereo images in real time. While this algorithm does have a trade-off between accuracy and processing speed, the result of this algorithm proves the accuracy is sufficient for the practical use of recognizing human poses and finger movement tracking. By choosing an interval of disparity, an object at a certain distance range can be segmented. In other words, we detect the object by its distance to the cameras. The advantage of this profile shape-matching algorithm is that detection of correspondences relies on the shape of profile and not on intensity values, which are subjected to lighting variations. Based on the resulting 3-D information, the movement of fingers in space from a specific distance can be determined. Finger location and movement can then be analyzed for non-contact control of hand-held devices.

  19. Fluorescence-enhanced imaging using a novel hand-held based optical imager: phantom studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jiajia; Zhu, Banghe; Regalado, Steven; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2008-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging is an emerging noninvasive modality for breast cancer diagnosis. The currently available optical imaging systems towards tomography studies are limited either by instrument portability, patient comfort, or flexibility to image any given tissue volume. Hence, a novel hand-held probe based gain modulated intensified CCD camera imaging system is developed such that it can possibly overcome some of the above limitations. The unique features of this hand-held probe based optical imaging system are: (i) to perform simultaneous multiple point illumination and detection, thus decreasing the total imaging time and improving overall signal strength; (ii) to adapt to the tissue contours, thus decreasing the light leakage at contact surface; and (iii) to obtain trans-illumination measurements apart from reflectance measurements, thus improving the depth information. Phantom studies are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of performing fluorescence optical imaging under different target depths using cubical phantoms (10×6.5×10 cc). The effect of simultaneous multiple point illumination over sequential single point illumination is demonstrated from experimental phantom studies.

  20. Low-cost hand-held probe for depth-resolved low-coherence interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Paritosh; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Nolan, Ryan M.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development of a low-cost hand-held low-coherence interferometric imaging system based on the principle of linear optical coherence tomography (Linear OCT), a technique which was first proposed in the early 2000s as a simpler alternative to the conventional time-domain and Fourier-domain OCT. A bench-top implementation of the proposed technique is first presented and validated. The axial resolution, SNR, and sensitivity roll-of of the system was estimated to be 5.2 μm and 80 dB, and 3.7 dB over a depth of 0.15 mm, respectively. After validating the bench-top system, two hand-held probe implementations for contact-based imaging and in vivo human tympanic membrane imaging are presented. The performance of the proposed system was compared with a research-grade state-of-the-art Fourier-domain low coherence interferometry (LCI) system by imaging several biological and non-biological samples. The results of this study suggest that the proposed system might be a suitable choice for applications where imaging depth and SNR can be traded for lower cost and simpler optical design. PMID:28101422

  1. Hand-held dual-sensor ALIS and its evaluation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2008-04-01

    Since 2002, our research group at Tohoku University has developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data afterwards, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the image of the buried objects. ALIS evaluation test was conducted in Croatia in October 2007. Then after, we stared a half-year evaluation test of ALIS in QC test in Croatia in December 2007. This test will be conducted in various soil and environmental conditions in Croatia.

  2. Application of computer image enhancement techniques to shuttle hand-held photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of frequent Space Transportation System Shuttle missions, photography from hyperaltitudes stands to become an accessible and convenient resource for scientists and environmental managers. As satellite products (such as LANDSAT) continue to spiral in costs, all but the most affluent consumer is finding Earth imagery from space to be more and more unavailable. Therefore, the potential for Shuttle photography to serve a wide variety of users is increasing. However, despite the popularity of photos from space as public relations tools and report illustrations, little work has been performed to prove their scientific worth beyond that as basic mapping bases. It is the hypothesis of this project that hand-held Earth photography from the Space Shuttle has potentially high scientific merit and that primary data can be extracted. In effect, Shuttle photography should be considered a major remote sensing information resource.

  3. Determination of BTX in air by hand-held gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    David, P.A.; Pauls, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    A hand-held gas chromatograph (Photovac Snapshot GC) has been validated for field determination of low to sub-ppmv concentrations of BTX in air. This instrument carries a Class 1 Division 1, Groups A,B,C,D safety rating and performs a benzene-only analysis in 4 minutes and a benzene, toluene and C8 aromatics (i.e. ethylbenzene, o,m,p-xylenes) analysis in 10 minutes. The detection limit for benzene is 0.1 ppmv and 1.0 ppmv for toluene and C8 aromatics. The Snapshot GC has been successfully utilized by field personnel for several field applications, such as Industrial Hygiene area monitoring, vapor recovery unit carbon bed outlet measurements and remediation system vent measurements.

  4. The Complimentary Role of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile and Hand-Held Gamma Probe in Adamantinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Masha; Korowlay, Nisaar; Ellmann, Prof

    2016-01-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare locally aggressive osteolytic tumor that is found 90% of the time in the diaphysis of the tibia with the remaining lesions found in the fibula and long tubular bones. A case of adamantinoma of the tibia is presented. The added value of nuclear medicine investigations in the workup of this patient is described. A three-phase whole body 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone and a whole body 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile scans were complimentary in the demarcation of viable bone tumor and the assessment of the remainder of the bone and soft tissue to exclude other sites. Intra-operative assistance with a hand-held gamma probe, guided the biopsy of the most metabolically active tumor tissue. Histology revealed a biphasic tumor composed of epithelial and fibrous components, in keeping with an adamantinoma. PMID:26912979

  5. Is it Time to Replace Physical Examination with a Hand-Held Ultrasound Device?

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Attempts at using physical examination (PE) go back centuries, with inspection, palpation, and percussion being the mainstay of this approach until 2 centuries ago when the stethoscope was invented and auscultation became probably the most important element of PE for patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite its several limitations, PE is still used, sometimes as the only means, of evaluating and following patients with CVD. In this paper I shall argue for the substitution of this inaccurate and archaic approach by direct visualization of the heart using a hand-held ultrasound (HHU) device. I am not in any way suggesting the substitution of a comprehensive echocardiographic examination by an expert sonographer/echocardiographer by HHU in patients with significant CVD. Instead, I am arguing for the replacement of PE for evaluation of the heart at the point of care as well as at the bedside, simply because HHU is more accurate and provides more meaningful information.

  6. A hand-held 3D laser scanning with global positioning system of subvoxel precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Néstor; Meneses, Néstor; Meneses, Jaime; Gharbi, Tijani

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a hand-held 3D laser scanner composed of an optical head device to extract 3D local surface information and a stereo vision system with subvoxel precision to measure the position and orientation of the 3D optical head. The optical head is manually scanned over the surface object by the operator. The orientation and position of the 3D optical head is determined by a phase-sensitive method using a 2D regular intensity pattern. This phase reference pattern is rigidly fixed to the optical head and allows their 3D location with subvoxel precision in the observation field of the stereo vision system. The 3D resolution achieved by the stereo vision system is about 33 microns at 1.8 m with an observation field of 60cm x 60cm.

  7. Self-Contained, Hand-held, Optical Waveguide, Chemical Sensor System

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Pollina

    1998-11-01

    A self-contained, hand-held, optical waveguide, chemical detection system has been built to detect and quantify gases and vapors. The system uses a hybrid integrated circuit (IC) containing optical waveguides coated with sensing chemistry as the optical platform. The IC with sensing chemistry is available commercially under the name Sensor-on-a-Chip. This IC is mounted in a small, uniquely designed sample chamber where the measured analyte is identified by the sensing chemistry and biochemistry. Continuous or stop-flow sampling is possible. Sensitivities in the low parts-per-million have been attained for hydrocarbons and alcohol. Analyte coverage is only limited by the sensing chemistries and biochemistries that are available.

  8. Biolistic transfection of neuronal cultures using a hand-held gene gun

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John A; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2009-01-01

    Biolistic transfection is a technique in which subcellular-sized particles coated with DNA are accelerated to high velocity to propel them into cells. This method is applicable to tissues, cells and organelles, and can be used for both in vitro and in vivo transformations; with the right equipment, it is simple, rapid and efficient. Here we provide a detailed protocol for biolistic transfection of plasmids into cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and organotypic brain slices using a hand-held gene gun. There are three major steps: (i) coating microcarriers with DNA, (ii) transferring the microcarriers into a cartridge to make a ‘bullet’, and (iii) firing the DNA-coated microcarriers into cells using a pulse of helium gas. The method can be readily adapted to other cell types and tissues. The protocol can be completed in 1–2 h. PMID:17406333

  9. The Complimentary Role of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile and Hand-Held Gamma Probe in Adamantinoma.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Masha; Korowlay, Nisaar; Ellmann, Prof

    2016-01-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare locally aggressive osteolytic tumor that is found 90% of the time in the diaphysis of the tibia with the remaining lesions found in the fibula and long tubular bones. A case of adamantinoma of the tibia is presented. The added value of nuclear medicine investigations in the workup of this patient is described. A three-phase whole body (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone and a whole body (99m)Tc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile scans were complimentary in the demarcation of viable bone tumor and the assessment of the remainder of the bone and soft tissue to exclude other sites. Intra-operative assistance with a hand-held gamma probe, guided the biopsy of the most metabolically active tumor tissue. Histology revealed a biphasic tumor composed of epithelial and fibrous components, in keeping with an adamantinoma.

  10. Is it Time to Replace Physical Examination with a Hand-Held Ultrasound Device?

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Attempts at using physical examination (PE) go back centuries, with inspection, palpation, and percussion being the mainstay of this approach until 2 centuries ago when the stethoscope was invented and auscultation became probably the most important element of PE for patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite its several limitations, PE is still used, sometimes as the only means, of evaluating and following patients with CVD. In this paper I shall argue for the substitution of this inaccurate and archaic approach by direct visualization of the heart using a hand-held ultrasound (HHU) device. I am not in any way suggesting the substitution of a comprehensive echocardiographic examination by an expert sonographer/echocardiographer by HHU in patients with significant CVD. Instead, I am arguing for the replacement of PE for evaluation of the heart at the point of care as well as at the bedside, simply because HHU is more accurate and provides more meaningful information. PMID:28465916

  11. System stability and calibrations for hand-held electromagnetic frequency domain instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksa, Pauli J.; Sorsa, Joona

    2017-05-01

    There are a few multiple-frequency domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) hand-held rigid boom systems available for shallow geophysical resistivity investigations. They basically measure secondary field real and imaginary components after the system calibrations. One multiple-frequency system, the EMP-400 Profiler from Geophysical Survey Systems Inc., was tested for system calibrations, stability and various effects present in normal measurements like height variation, tilting, signal stacking and time stability. Results indicated that in test conditions, repeatable high-accuracy imaginary component values can be recorded for near-surface frequency soundings. In test conditions, real components are also stable but vary strongly in normal surveying measurements. However, certain calibration issues related to the combination of user influence and measurement system height were recognised as an important factor in reducing for data errors and for further processing like static offset corrections.

  12. Field Test of a Hand-Held Haze Detector- A SAASE Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, David; Cordella, Nick; Bracy, Sue

    2001-03-01

    The Saint Anselm Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (SAASE) is an ongoing project centered around a lidar system that employs a holographic optical telescope and scanner to make atmospheric profiles, a multifilter shadow band radiometer (MFSBR) to passively measure the optical qualities of the atmosphere, and a remote weather station to record the surface conditions. As an outreach project of SAASE, we are conducting an evaluation of a hand-held haze detector (HHHD) that the Globe Program is proposing as an instrument for world wide operation. These detectors, which are enclosed in a video cassette box, use the amplified signal from an LED exposed to sunlight to passively measure the optical thickness of the atmosphere. For validity purposes, the HHHD was built by an eighth grader and the data collected with the instrument is also done by eighth graders in a nearby school. These data are compared to the calibrated data from the SAASE-MFSBR to test the performance of HHHD.

  13. Similar motion of a hand-held object may trigger nonsimilar grip force adjustments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2007-01-01

    The tight coupling between load (L) and grip (G) forces during voluntary manipulation of a hand-held object is well established. The current study is to examine grip-load force coupling when motion of the hand with an object was either self-generated (voluntary) or externally generated. Subjects performed similar cyclic movements of different loads at various frequencies with three types of manipulations: 1) voluntary oscillation, 2) oscillating the right arm via the pulley system by the left leg (self-driven oscillation), and 3) oscillating the arm via the pulley system by another person (other-driven oscillation). During the self-generated movements: 1) the grip forces were larger and 2) grip-load force modulation was more pronounced than in the externally generated movements. The G-L adjustments are not completely determined by the mechanics of object motion; nonmechanical factors related to movement performance, for instance perceptual factors, may affect the G-L coupling.

  14. Application of computer image enhancement techniques to shuttle hand-held photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of frequent Space Transportation System Shuttle missions, photography from hyperaltitudes stands to become an accessible and convenient resource for scientists and environmental managers. As satellite products (such as LANDSAT) continue to spiral in costs, all but the most affluent consumer is finding Earth imagery from space to be more and more unavailable. Therefore, the potential for Shuttle photography to serve a wide variety of users is increasing. However, despite the popularity of photos from space as public relations tools and report illustrations, little work has been performed to prove their scientific worth beyond that as basic mapping bases. It is the hypothesis of this project that hand-held Earth photography from the Space Shuttle has potentially high scientific merit and that primary data can be extracted. In effect, Shuttle photography should be considered a major remote sensing information resource.

  15. Determining risk of heart disease and obesity with a hand-held programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Everett, W D

    1989-10-01

    Two sets of programs are presented which aid the practicing flight surgeon to quickly assess risk of cardiovascular disease or calculate percent body fat. Risk of cardiovascular disease is easily computed using the Framingham Risk Equation and relating it to the average risk and minimal risk of a patient the same age. A "cardiovascular age" is also computed. Body composition determinations can be done quickly using only circumference measurements and recognized military formulas. Confidence intervals about the estimate and U.S. Air Force maximum allowable weights are computed. For males a maximum weight for health is computed. The programs presented were written for a simple, hand-held calculator. The calculator was selected because it is portable, inexpensive, can be used in a small clinic anywhere in the world, and requires no computer expertise, bringing sophisticated research statistical methods to the everyday clinical practice of aerospace medicine.

  16. Cost effective spectral sensor solutions for hand held and field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reetz, Edgar; Correns, Martin; Notni, Gunther

    2015-05-01

    Optical spectroscopy is without doubt one of the most important non-contact measurement principles. It is used in a wide range of applications from bio-medical to industrial fields. One recent trend is to miniaturize spectral sensors to address new areas of application. The most common spectral sensor type is based on diffraction gratings, while other types are based on micro mechanical systems (MEMS) or filter technologies. The authors represent the opinion that there is a potentially wide spread field of applications for spectrometers, but the market limits the range of applications since they cannot keep up with targeted cost requirements for consumer products. The present article explains an alternative approach for miniature multichannel spectrometer to enhance robustness for hand held field applications at a cost efficient price point.

  17. Microtops II Hand-Held Sun Photometer Sun Pointing Error Correction for Sea Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Pietras, C.; Fargion, G. S.

    2001-12-01

    Hand held sun photometers, such as the Microtops II (manufactured by Solar Light, Inc.), provide simple and inexpensive means to measure in situ Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT). Hand held sun photometers require that the user manually points the instrument at the sun. Unstable platforms, such as a ship at sea, can make this difficult, causing pointing errors. A poorly pointed instrument mistakenly records less than the full direct solar radiance, so the computed AOT is much higher than reality, and can be mistaken as cloud contamination or used incorrectly for validation with satellite derived AOT measurements. The relatively low sampling rate (3Hz) of the Microtops II leaves this instrument especially prone to this problem. Two steps were taken to reduce pointing errors. First, the measurement protocol was changed to keep the maximum (rather than average) value of a sequence of measurements. Several sets of these sequences are made for each intended data point. Once on shore, statistics are computed for each group of measurements. If the normalized variance of a group is above a threshold, the highest AOT measurement is discarded as a pointing error. The normalized variance is then recalculated. This is repeated until the normalized variance is reduced below the threshold or the number of points becomes too small to calculate variance. Several versions of this protocol were tested on a recent California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) cruise, and a post processing algorithm was developed to remove pointing errors. These results were compared to concurrent measurements using the old protocol. Finally, a separate post processing algorithm was created for data already gathered with the old protocol, based upon statistics calculated by the instrument at the time of capture.

  18. Haemoassist--a hand-held electronic patient diary for haemophilia home care.

    PubMed

    Mondorf, W; Siegmund, B; Mahnel, R; Richter, H; Westfeld, M; Galler, A; Pollmann, H

    2009-03-01

    On-demand or prophylactic home-treatment is currently the treatment of choice for haemophilia patients. To allow physicians to monitor the amount of factor concentrates administered, the patients document each factor injection in a paper-diary. Nevertheless, because of the fact that most patients visit their physicians only two to four times a year, there could be considerable delay in detecting medication problems. The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether an electronic documentation tool could successfully replace traditional paper-diaries for haemophilia A patients and enable the physician to have a timely overview of the patient's treatment. An electronic, hand-held documentation tool, Haemoassist, was developed. In this study, patients using prophylaxis and on-demand therapies documented their factor consumption both electronically and on paper-diaries. Documentations were compared and descriptively evaluated. Patients also completed a survey to evaluate the feasibility and gather their opinions on the Haemoassist system. Ten patients from two haemophilia treatment centres in Germany submitted a total of 548 records via hand-held device during the observation period, from March 2006 to February 2007. Comparison of electronic and paper-based records showed differing responses among patients with some patients entering more electronic and some others more paper-based documentations. In the questionnaires on feasibility and usefulness of Haemoassist, three patients preferred the electronic tool, two patients wanted to continue using paper-based diaries, and one had no preference. The study shows that an electronic documentation system is feasible for haemophilia patients and provides the physician with the opportunity to more closely monitor patients. However, not all patients seem to be qualified for using an electronic tool, and the tool has to run reliably without major errors for ensuring reliability and acceptability. In the future, Haemoassist might

  19. Detection of Francisella tularensis within infected mouse tissues by using a hand-held PCR thermocycler.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Peter A; Bell, Ryan; Dang, Jessica L; McClanahan, Rebecca; David, John C; Burgess, Robert J; Thompson, Joseph; Collins, Lisa; Hadfield, Ted

    2003-02-01

    The diagnosis of human cases of tularemia often relies upon the demonstration of an antibody response to Francisella tularensis or the direct culturing of the bacteria from the patient. Antibody response is not detectable until 2 weeks or more after infection, and culturing requires special media and suspicion of tularemia. In addition, handling live Francisella poses a risk to laboratory personnel due to the highly infectious nature of this pathogen. In an effort to develop a rapid diagnostic assay for tularemia, we investigated the use of TaqMan 5' hydrolysis fluorogenic PCR to detect the organism in tissues of infected mice. Mice were infected to produce respiratory tularemia. The fopA and tul4 genes of F. tularensis were amplified from infected spleen, lung, liver, and kidney tissues sampled over a 5-day period. The samples were analyzed using the laboratory-based Applied Biosystems International 7900 and the Smiths Detection-Edgewood BioSeeq, a hand-held portable fluorescence thermocycler designed for use in the field. A comparison of culturing and PCR for detection of bacteria in infected tissues shows that culturing was more sensitive than PCR. However, the results for culture take 72 h, whereas PCR results were available within 4 h. PCR was able to detect infection in all the tissues tested. Lung tissue showed the earliest response at 2 days when tested with the ABI 7900 and in 3 days when tested with the BioSeeq. The results were in agreement between the ABI 7900 and the BioSeeq when presented with the same sample. Template preparation may account for the loss of sensitivity compared to culturing techniques. The hand-held BioSeeq thermocycler shows promise as an expedient means of forward diagnosis of infection in the field.

  20. Simplified and quantitative saliva buffer capacity test using a hand-held pH meter.

    PubMed

    Kitasako, Yuichi; Moritsuka, Michiyo; Foxton, Richard M; Ikeda, Masaomi; Tagami, Junji; Nomura, Satoshi

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate and compare saliva buffer capacity using a hand-held pH meter and a commercial buffer strip in patients at risk of caries. To obtain stimulated saliva, 109 patients were given a paraffin wax to chew for 5 minutes. After reading the pH value of 0.5 ml of tested saliva using a portable hand-held pH meter (B-212), 10 microl of 0.1N HCl was titrated into the obtained saliva up to a total titration of 160 microl, and then the pH value read each time. The commercial buffer strip (CRT) was also evaluated. The correlation in ranking results (high, medium, low) between the B-212 pH meter and CRT buffer were statistically analyzed by the Bartlett's test (P < 0.001). At the point of 50 microd of titrated HCl, the individual saliva buffer capacities were ranked into one of the following three categories; high (above pH 5.5), medium (pH from 5.5 to 4.5) and low (below pH 4.5). The percentages of the tested patients for the different ranks (high, medium, low) of buffer capacity were 50%, 17% and 33% respectively for the B-212 pH meter, and 56%, 17% and 27% respectively for the CRT. For the CRT buffer, 23 out of 109 cases showed inconclusive color change under the colorimetric test. There was significant correlation between ranking buffer capacity measured by the B-212 pH meter and the CRT buffer (P < 0.001).

  1. Validation study of nasal nitric oxide measurements using a hand-held electrochemical analyser.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, M; de Laurentiis, G; Weitzberg, E; Lundberg, J O; Sofia, M

    2008-03-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurement is a simple and non-invasive method for monitoring airway inflammation. Similarly, nasal NO has been proposed as a surrogate marker in inflammatory diseases of the upper airways, e.g. allergic rhinitis. A new portable analyser using an electrochemical sensor has been developed for measurements of exhaled NO, and its reproducibility and comparison with other analysers has been tested recently in healthy subjects and in patients with lower airways disease. The application of this hand-held analyser in nasal NO analysis was tested and compared to the gold standard represented by a chemiluminescence analyser. Thirty subjects including 15 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and 15 healthy subjects (HS) were studied. The intraindividual variability, calculated as the difference in nasal NO levels between two measurements from a single nasally exhaled breath manoeuvre, and the comparison between the electrochemical analyser (NIOX MINO, Aerocrine) and a chemiluminescence analyser (NOA, Sievers) were performed. In AR patients mean nasal NO was 59.0 +/- 16.3 p.p.b. with the MINO and 58.3 +/- 15.6 p.p.b. with the NOA. In HS nasal NO was 49.1 +/- 10.8 p.p.b. with the MINO and 49.8 +/- 8.2 p.p.b. with the NOA. The Bland-Altman analysis showed bias values of 0.005 +/- 3.6 with the 95% limits of agreement from -6.97 to 6.98 p.p.b. Measurements of nasal NO levels with a hand-held electrochemical analyser are reproducible and the results are comparable to a stationary chemiluminescence analyser.

  2. Development of a hand-held 3D photoacoustic imaging system for breast cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Aabed, Hazem; Roumeliotis, Michael; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2010-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a non-invasive imaging modality that employs non-ionizing near infrared (NIR) laser light to obtain optical images of tissues with depth penetration and resolution comparable to ultrasound imaging. PA images are created by illuminating tissues with a short laser pulse (~10 ns), which causes optically absorbing structures to heat up slightly, but so rapidly that conditions of thermal and stress confinement are met and the structure emits a pressure wave at ultrasonic frequencies. Detection of the pressure waves at the tissue surface with an ultrasound transducer array provides the data needed to reconstruct the distribution of light-absorbing structures within the tissue. Since it is recognized that cancerous breast lesions absorb light to a greater degree than surrounding normal tissue, PA imaging is a viable candidate for detection of lesions within the intact human breast. Therefore, we have constructed a transportable PA imaging system suitable for breast imaging. The system incorporates a hand-held transducer array with 30 detector elements arranged on a ring. Laser light is delivered coaxially in relation to the ring using a fiber optic light guide. The supporting hardware includes a NIR tuneable laser, transducer cabling, 30 preamplifiers, 30 independent data acquisition channels with onboard memory, and a computer with control and image reconstruction software. Initial tests with the transducer array suggest that it has sufficient sensitivity to detect optically absorbent objects on the order of 1- mm at a depth of 2 cm. It is anticipated that a small hand-held PA imaging unit will be amenable to patient work-up and would complement standard ultrasound imaging.

  3. Manometric evaluation of oral function with a hand-held balloon probe.

    PubMed

    Tsuga, K; Maruyama, M; Yoshikawa, M; Yoshida, M; Akagawa, Y

    2011-09-01

    Tongue pressure measured with a disposable hand-held balloon probe has been used for assessing tongue function; however, no diagnostic standard for assessing other oral functions exists currently. In this study, to develop a method for multifactorial manometric evaluation of oral functions, 20 men and 20 women (21-32 years of age) were instructed to apply 7-s maximal voluntary muscular effort on a hand-held balloon probe placed against the anterior and lateral parts of the palate, buccal surface of the molars on the habitual chewing side and labial surface of the anterior teeth for measuring anterior and posterior tongue, cheek and lip pressures (LPs), respectively. Intra-session reproducibility was determined by three repeated measurements, and associations between the obtained and the conventional data on oral diadochokinesis were tested. The men exhibited higher values of all the pressure types. Further, both genders showed a positive correlation between anterior and posterior tongue pressures (PTPs) (P < 0·05), but only the women exhibited positive correlations between anterior tongue and cheek pressures, cheek and PTPs, anterior tongue and LPs, and cheek and LPs (P < 0·05). No statistically significant correlation was found between the pressures and the number of syllabic articulations, except between LP and the number of /pa/ articulations in the women (r = 0·524, P < 0·05). In conclusion, the balloon probe method enables objective manometric evaluation of oral functions and could be an effective tool for clinical epidemiological studies and evidence-based decision-making in nursing care.

  4. The Icare-Pro Rebound Tonometer Versus the Hand-held Applanation Tonometer in Congenital Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Borrego Sanz, Lara; Morales-Fernandez, Laura; Martínez de-la-Casa, Jose M; Sáenz-Francés, Federico; Fuentes, Manuel; García-Feijóo, Julián

    2016-02-01

    To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained using the new rebound tonometer Icare-Pro and the hand-held version of Goldmann Applanation Tonometer (Perkins tonometer) in children with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) under general anesthesia. Using both tonometers, 3 IOP measurements were prospectively determined in 1 single session. Icare-Pro was always used first, and then Perkins. All measurements were recruited in 50 eyes of 50 patients with PCG under general anesthesia. Central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, and axial length were also measured in each patient. Data were compared by determining interclass correlation coefficient for each tonometer and representing the differences detected as Bland-Altman plots. Good linear correlation was observed between IOP readings obtained using the Perkins and Icare-Pro (r=0.75, P<0.001), although the Icare-Pro readings were slightly higher (mean IOP difference 0.42 ± 3.69 mm Hg, P=0.41). A Bland-Altman plot revealed the 95% limits of agreement between the 2 methods: 7.7 to -6.8 mm Hg (slope=0.109, P=0.32). Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.84) showing good agreement. For both tonometers, no correlation was detected between IOP measurements and central corneal thickness and axial length, but positive relation was found with anterior chamber depth. IOP measurements determined using the new Icare-Pro rebound tonometer showed good correlation with those obtained using the hand-held Perkins applanation tonometer in children with PCG under general anesthesia.

  5. An integrated portable hand-held analyser for real-time isothermal nucleic acid amplification.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew C; Steimle, George; Ivanov, Stan; Holly, Mark; Fries, David P

    2007-08-29

    A compact hand-held heated fluorometric instrument for performing real-time isothermal nucleic acid amplification and detection is described. The optoelectronic instrument combines a Printed Circuit Board/Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (PCB/MEMS) reaction detection/chamber containing an integrated resistive heater with attached miniature LED light source and photo-detector and a disposable glass waveguide capillary to enable a mini-fluorometer. The fluorometer is fabricated and assembled in planar geometry, rolled into a tubular format and packaged with custom control electronics to form the hand-held reactor. Positive or negative results for each reaction are displayed to the user using an LED interface. Reaction data is stored in FLASH memory for retrieval via an in-built USB connection. Operating on one disposable 3 V lithium battery >12, 60 min reactions can be performed. Maximum dimensions of the system are 150 mm (h) x 48 mm (d) x 40 mm (w), the total instrument weight (with battery) is 140 g. The system produces comparable results to laboratory instrumentation when performing a real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction, and also displayed comparable precision, accuracy and resolution to laboratory-based real-time nucleic acid amplification instrumentation. A good linear response (R2 = 0.948) to fluorescein gradients ranging from 0.5 to 10 microM was also obtained from the instrument indicating that it may be utilized for other fluorometric assays. This instrument enables an inexpensive, compact approach to in-field genetic screening, providing results comparable to laboratory equipment with rapid user feedback as to the status of the reaction.

  6. A new hand-held optical reflectometer to measure enamel erosion: correlation with surface hardness and calcium release

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Baumann, Tommy; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the surface reflection intensity (SRI) was measured from enamel with different induced erosion degrees using a hand-held pen-size reflectometer (Hand-Held) and a Table-Top reflectometer. To validate the Hand-Held reflectometer, we correlated its optical signals with the change of surface microhardness (SMH), and amount of calcium released from the enamel samples during erosion. We used 124 tooth enamel specimens that were exposed to an erosive challenge of either 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 minutes. SRI and SMH were measured before and after the erosive challenge and we also measured the amount of calcium released to the citric acid. Relative SRI loss (rSRIloss) and relative SMH loss (rSMHloss) were calculated. rSRIloss from the Hand-Held and the Table-Top reflectometers were similar and significantly correlated to rSMHloss and calcium release. The regression analyses showed a significant association between rSRIloss from both reflectometers and rSMHloss and calcium, showing that both reflectometers can be used to measure erosive demineralization of enamel. The Hand-Held reflectometer is capable of assessing in vitro erosion, correlating to other commonly used methods. It is small, easy to handle and provides fast measurement, being a possible candidate to measure erosion in clinical studies. PMID:27121129

  7. A new hand-held optical reflectometer to measure enamel erosion: correlation with surface hardness and calcium release.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Baumann, Tommy; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-04-28

    In the present study, the surface reflection intensity (SRI) was measured from enamel with different induced erosion degrees using a hand-held pen-size reflectometer (Hand-Held) and a Table-Top reflectometer. To validate the Hand-Held reflectometer, we correlated its optical signals with the change of surface microhardness (SMH), and amount of calcium released from the enamel samples during erosion. We used 124 tooth enamel specimens that were exposed to an erosive challenge of either 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 minutes. SRI and SMH were measured before and after the erosive challenge and we also measured the amount of calcium released to the citric acid. Relative SRI loss (rSRIloss) and relative SMH loss (rSMHloss) were calculated. rSRIloss from the Hand-Held and the Table-Top reflectometers were similar and significantly correlated to rSMHloss and calcium release. The regression analyses showed a significant association between rSRIloss from both reflectometers and rSMHloss and calcium, showing that both reflectometers can be used to measure erosive demineralization of enamel. The Hand-Held reflectometer is capable of assessing in vitro erosion, correlating to other commonly used methods. It is small, easy to handle and provides fast measurement, being a possible candidate to measure erosion in clinical studies.

  8. Comparative assessment of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measured using a hand-held vs. isokinetic dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75-0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2-4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from -0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option.

  9. Comparative assessment of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measured using a hand-held vs. isokinetic dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48−0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75−0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2–4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from −0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option. PMID:27799667

  10. Comparison of central corneal thickness measured by hand-held and desk-mounted ultrasound pachymeters in glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Salim, Sarwat; Du, Haiming; Wan, Jim

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measured by hand-held and desk-mounted ultrasound pachymeter in glaucoma patients under treatment. Prospective study of 65 glaucoma patients. Central corneal thickness was measured by two ultrasound pachymeters: the hand-held, portable PachPen (Accutome, Lynwood, WA), and the desk-mounted PacScan 300 (Sonomed, Lake Success, NY). The mean ± SD central corneal thickness was 526.5 ± 44.8 µm and 530.0 ± 44.7 µm for the hand-held and desk-mounted pachymeters, respectively (p = 0.15). Linear regression analysis revealed a slope of 0.97 with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.96. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of measurements by both pachymeters of 3.22 µm with two standard deviations = 9.51. Both instruments showed high intraobserver correlation: 0.972 for the hand-held pachymeter and 0.993 for the desk-mounted pachymeter. Central corneal thickness measurements were comparable with the use of hand-held and desk-mounted ultrasound units in glaucoma patients with good intraobserver reproducibility.

  11. From usability requirement to technical specifications for hand-held tools and materials: an applied research in the construction field.

    PubMed

    Duca, Gabriella; Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    Literature shows incidence of musculoskeletal disorders in bricklaying workers as well as the relevance of good designed hand-held tools in musculoskeletal disorders prevention. In this framework, it can be supposed that providing usable hand-held tools and material in construction worksites will help to improve bricklayers' working conditions. Here a study is presented aimed at framing a methodology for usability assessment of bricklayers handled objects, in order to provide employers with practical indicators for choosing tools and materials best fitting workers needs, under the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction perspective. On the basis of a task analysis, usability requirements for bricklaying hand-held tools and materials have been detailed and related, quantitative and qualitative, technical specifications have been elicited. Theoretical framework and usability assessment methodology are presented and, finally, findings from a field application are discussed.

  12. Reliability and validity of standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Koji; Yoshio, Masaharu; Takata, Yuichi; Kozuka, Naoki

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of our standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer (the hand-held dynamometer assessment index) in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 60 stroke patients with impaired standing balance. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were evaluated employing the intraclass correlation coefficient. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the HHD assessment index and the functional balance scale. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient values obtained ranged from 0.91 to 0.98, and the correlation coefficient with the FBS was 0.83. [Conclusion] Our findings confirmed the reliability and validity of the hand-held dynamometer assessment index in stroke patients.

  13. Reliability and validity of standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Koji; Yoshio, Masaharu; Takata, Yuichi; Kozuka, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of our standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer (the hand-held dynamometer assessment index) in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 60 stroke patients with impaired standing balance. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were evaluated employing the intraclass correlation coefficient. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between the HHD assessment index and the functional balance scale. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient values obtained ranged from 0.91 to 0.98, and the correlation coefficient with the FBS was 0.83. [Conclusion] Our findings confirmed the reliability and validity of the hand-held dynamometer assessment index in stroke patients. PMID:27942140

  14. Correlation of isokinetic and novel hand-held dynamometry measures of knee flexion and extension strength testing.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Rod; Jacobsen, Phillip; Prior, Simon; Skazalski, Christopher; Otten, Roald; Johnson, Amanda

    2012-09-01

    Describe inter-rater reliability of, and correlations between a novel method of isometric knee extension and flexion and eccentric knee flexion strength using hand-held dynamometry and isokinetic testing for flexion/extension in the knees of athletic participants. Document strength data normalized to the individual's limb muscle mass. Observational and reliability study. Inter-rater reliability for each of the hand-held dynamometry measures was established in both legs of 10 volunteers (6 male). During routine annual screening, 216 male professional football (soccer) players were examined using these same measures in addition to performing an isokinetic evaluation of knee flexion and extension strength. Intra-class correlation coefficients for inter-rater reliability, Pearson r correlations between hand-held dynamometry and isokinetic dynamometry were calculated. Peak torque, peak torque normalized to: body weight; lean body mass; and lean limb mass were documented. Excellent inter-rater reliability was demonstrated with intra-class correlation₂,₁ values of 0.90, 0.91, and 0.96, for the eccentric hamstrings, isometric hamstrings, and isometric quadriceps measures respectively. Medium to high correlations (r=0.322-0.617) which were all significant (p<0.001) were found for the comparisons between the hand-held dynamometry and isokinetic measures. We present 3 novel and reliable methods of examining knee flexion and extension strength using hand-held dynamometry which require less skill and strength on the part of the examiner than previous measures. Correlations between these measures and isokinetic dynamometry are documented. The hand-held dynamometry examinations took less than 4 min per player to conduct and may be useful in clinical practice where isokinetic examination can be difficult to implement. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Test and Evaluation of the MT 75 Rope Tester - A Hand-Held NDT Wire-Rope Inspection Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    CLASSIFICAION or TMIS *iGIR(mh Dae Enteind) Library Card Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory TEST AND EVALUATION OF THlE MT 75 ROPE TESTER - I AND-HELD NDT ...programs. MT 75 ROPE TESTER The NT 75 is a hand-held NDT wire rope inspection device that uses the DC method of detection. The NT 75 is 6 inches long...TN NO: N-1661 TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE MT 75 TITLE: ROPE TESTER - A HAND-HELD NDT WIRE- ROPE INSPECTION DEVICE J: AD A12 h 79 0 AUTHOR: L. D

  16. Training food service supervisors using hand-held computers to conduct nutritional screening of institutionalized elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Orta, J

    1995-01-01

    Six food service supervisors (FSSs) working in skilled nursing facilities were trained to use a hand-held computer, COMPU-CAL/PRO 5.1, to screen institutionalized elderly patients for selected nutritional variables and to record results in the medical record. The study demonstrates that hand-held computer-assisted nutritional screenings: (1) are readily adaptable to on-going efforts, (2) are useful in identifying potential indicators of poor nutritional status in institutionalized elderly patients, (3) can be taught to FSS in a relatively short time, (4) increase nutritionally relevant variables that can be assessed, and (5) improve the quality of documentation in the medical record.

  17. Simple hand-held metal detectors are an effective means of detecting cardiac pacemakers in the deceased prior to cremation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jason Lyle; Williams, John; Fearn, Lesley

    2010-05-01

    The hazard of undetected cardiac pacemakers exploding in crematoria is well described. This short report describes the use of an affordable hand-held metal detector to detect cardiac pacemakers. Over the course of a year, the metal detector located 100% of cardiac pacemakers in a district general hospital mortuary. A simple model using pigskin and fat is also used to demonstrate the effectiveness in vitro. Commercially purchased hand-held metal detectors should be used in all mortuaries responsible for detection and removal of cardiac pacemakers prior to cremation.

  18. Hand-Held Instrument Fights Acne, Tops Over-the-Counter Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tyrell Inc., a Houston-based medical technologies company, was able to access engineering support in redesigning a heating element for a hand-held acne-fighting device through SATOP, NASA's Space Alliance Technology Outreach Program. SATOP put Tyrell in contact with The Boeing Company, which assessed the design and made several major contributions. The product, named Zeno, is now the highest selling over-the-counter medical device for the treatment of acne, and in 2006, Zeno was named the "SATOP Texas, Success Story of the Year." Zeno employs proprietary ClearPoint technology to provide relief of mild to moderate inflammatory acne by delivering a precisely controlled low-level dosage of heat to the blemish, causing the bacteria at the root of more than 90 percent of acne to self-destruct. Within its first year on the market, Zeno was cited by various publications for several awards, including Allure's 2005 "Best of Beauty," Marie Claire's "10 Best Gadgets for Girls," and Popular Science's 2005 "Best of What's New." A variation of the Zeno for use in treating herpetic lesions such as cold sores, by killing the virus that causes them, is currently undergoing FDA trials.

  19. Hand-held health records for individuals with intellectual disability: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M; Lennox, N; Ware, R

    2014-12-01

    Hand-held health records (HHHRs) aim to empower individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and improve the communication between all those involved in their health care. HHHRs can be used to identify additional health needs and contribute to improved treatment for individuals with ID. This review summarises evidence concerning the use of HHHRs with individuals with ID. Systematic searching of electronic databases and email contact with established researchers in the field were used to identify relevant articles related to the use of HHHRs among individuals with ID. Seven articles were identified and included for review. Studies involved the development, evaluation, acceptability and facilitators and barriers of implementation of HHHRs. HHHRs did not lead to improved short-term healthcare activity, but did lead to more discussion about health problems, increased health-related knowledge and awareness of personal health issues. HHHRs are well accepted among users with ID. However, no short-term benefits were found and future research needs to examine the long-term effects of HHHRs. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 3D indoor modeling using a hand-held embedded system with multiple laser range scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Wang, Duhu; Xu, Shike

    2016-10-01

    Accurate three-dimensional perception is a key technology for many engineering applications, including mobile mapping, obstacle detection and virtual reality. In this article, we present a hand-held embedded system designed for constructing 3D representation of structured indoor environments. Different from traditional vehicle-borne mobile mapping methods, the system presented here is capable of efficiently acquiring 3D data while an operator carrying the device traverses through the site. It consists of a simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) module, a 3D attitude estimate module and a point cloud processing module. The SLAM is based on a scan matching approach using a modern LIDAR system, and the 3D attitude estimate is generated by a navigation filter using inertial sensors. The hardware comprises three 2D time-flight laser range finders and an inertial measurement unit(IMU). All the sensors are rigidly mounted on a body frame. The algorithms are developed on the frame of robot operating system(ROS). The 3D model is constructed using the point cloud library(PCL). Multiple datasets have shown robust performance of the presented system in indoor scenarios.

  1. Flexible CMOS low-noise amplifiers for beyond-3G wireless hand-held devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Alvarez, Edwin C.; Sandoval-Ibarra, Federico; de la Rosa, José M.

    2009-05-01

    This paper explores the use of reconfigurable Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) for the implementation of CMOS Radio Frequency (RF) front-ends in the next generation of multi-standard wireless transceivers. Main circuit strategies reported so far for multi-standard LNAs are reviewed and a novel flexible LNA intended for Beyond-3G RF hand-held terminals is presented. The proposed LNA circuit consists of a two-stage topology that combines inductive-source degeneration with PMOS-varactor based tuning network and a programmable load to adapt its performance to different standard specifications without penalizing the circuit noise and with a reduced number of inductors as compared to previous reported reconfigurable LNAs. The circuit has been designed in a 90-nm CMOS technology to cope with the requirements of the GSM, WCDMA, Bluetooth and WLAN (IEEE 802.11b-g) standards. Simulation results, including technology and packaging parasitics, demonstrate correct operation of the circuit for all the standards under study, featuring NF<2.8dB, S21>13.3dB and IIP3>10.9dBm, over a 1.85GHz-2.4GHz band, with an adaptive power consumption between 17mW and 22mW from a 1-V supply voltage. Preliminary experimental measurements are included, showing a correct reconfiguration operation within the operation band.

  2. Hand-held hyperspectral imager for chemical/biological and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Piatek, Bob

    2004-03-01

    A small, hand held, battery operated imaging infrared spectrometer, Sherlock, has been developed by Pacific Advanced Technology and was field tested in early 2003. The Sherlock spectral imaging camera has been designed for remote gas leak detection, however, the architecture of the camera is versatile enough that it can be applied to numerous other applications such as homeland security, chemical/biological agent detection, medical and pharmaceutical applications as well as standard research and development. This paper describes the Sherlock camera, theory of operations, shows current applications and touches on potential future applications for the camera. The Sherlock has an embedded Power PC and performs real-time-image processing function in an embedded FPGA. The camera has a built in LCD display as well as output to a standard monitor, or NTSC display. It has several I/O ports, ethernet, firewire, RS232 and thus can be easily controlled from a remote location. In addition, software upgrades can be performed over the ethernet eliminating the need to send the camera back to the factory for a retrofit. Using the USB port a mouse and key board can be connected and the camera can be used in a laboratory environment as a stand alone imaging spectrometer.

  3. Visualization of vasculature using a hand-held photoacoustic probe: phantom and in vivo validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heres, H. Maarten; Arabul, Mustafa Umit; Rutten, Marcel C. M.; Van de Vosse, Frans N.; Lopata, Richard G. P.

    2017-04-01

    Assessment of microvasculature and tissue perfusion can provide diagnostic information on local or systemic diseases. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has strong clinical potential because of its sensitivity to hemoglobin. We used a hand-held PA probe with integrated diode lasers and examined its feasibility and validity in the detection of increasing blood volume and (sub) dermal vascularization. Blood volume detection was tested in custom-made perfusion phantoms. Results showed that an increase of blood volume in a physiological range of 1.3% to 5.4% could be detected. The results were validated with power Doppler sonography. Using a motorized scanning setup, areas of the skin were imaged at relatively short scanning times (<10 s/cm2) with PA. Three-dimensional visualization of these structures was achieved by combining the consecutively acquired cross-sectional images. Images revealed the epidermis and submillimeter vasculature up to depth of 5 mm. The geometries of imaged vasculature were validated with segmentation of the vasculature in high-frequency ultrasound imaging. This study proves the feasibility of PA imaging in its current implementation for the detection of perfusion-related parameters in skin and subdermal tissue and underlines its potential as a diagnostic tool in vascular or dermal pathologies.

  4. Characterization of wood dust emission from hand-held woodworking machines.

    PubMed

    Keller, F-X; Chata, F

    2017-08-25

    This paper focuses on the prevention of exposure to wood dust when operating electrical hand-held sawing and sanding machines. A laboratory methodology was developed to measure the dust concentration around machines during operating processes. The main objective was to characterize circular saws and sanders, with the aim of classifying the different power tools tested in terms of dust emission (high dust emitter versus low dust emitter). A test set-up was developed and is described and a measurement methodology was determined for each of the two operations studied. The robustness of the experimental results is discussed and shows good tendencies. The impact of air-flow extraction rate was assessed and the pressure loss of the system for each machine established. For the circular saws, 3 machines over the 9 tested could be classified in the low dust emitter group. Their mean concentration values measured are between 0.64 and 0.98 mg/m(3) for the low dust emitter group and from 2.55 and 4.37 mg/m(3) for the high dust emitter group. From concentration measurements, a machine classification is possible - one for sanding machines and one for sawing machines - and a ratio from 1 to 7 is obtained when comparing the results. This classification will be helpful when a choice of high performance power tools, in terms of dust emission, must be made by professionals.

  5. Hand-held percussion machines with low emission of hazardous vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I. J.; Babitsky, V. I.; Halliwell, N. A.

    2007-09-01

    Vibration and impacts are essential features of many domestic and industrial hand-held machines. In many machines vibration cannot be avoided because of the vibro-impact nature of the working process. The only way to minimise an operator's exposure to harmful vibration in this case is to design the machine rationally. In this paper a percussion machine is considered as a multi-body vibro-impact system. The simplest structures have been found and investigated in which a strong vibro-impact process can be obtained with one body (casing/handle) being free of vibration. Computer simulations using Matlab-Simulink software and initial experiments validate the new approach. The main feature of the proposed new design is the use of a mechanism with zero differential stiffness. A hydro-pneumatic unit with zero stiffness was developed and tested. The new engineering solution was applied to a hydraulic breaker. Even a partial modification of the existing design and effective use of existing hydraulic power source demonstrated a significant improvement in performance.

  6. The evaluation test of hand-held dual-sensor ALIS in Croatia and Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2007-04-01

    We are developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data after the data was acquired, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the images of the buried objects. Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted in several test sites. In February 2006, a one-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia, and in October- December 2006, a two-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia. Since the dual-sensor is a new landmine detection sensor, and the conventional evaluation procedure developed for metal detectors cannot directly be applied for the dual sensor. In Croatia, the detection probability was comparable to that by a metal detector operated by local deminers. In addition, we showed that ALIS provides image of buried objects by GPR, which can be used for identification. Therefore, their performances were sufficiently high. Then the test was also conducted in Cambodia. The test was carried out by 2 local deminers independently, which allows studying the influence of different operators and increases the statistical value of the results.

  7. The development of the hand-held dual-sensor ALIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2007-04-01

    Since 2002, we have developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data afterwards, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the image of the buried objects. The new system, we do not need any standard mark on the ground. Also, ALIS uses two different GPOR systems, including VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) based GPR and an Impulse GPR. VNA based GPR can provide better quality GPR images, although the impulse GPR is faster and light weight. ALIS evaluation tests were held in mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan, Croatia, Egypt and Cambodia. In the two-month evaluation test in Cambodia, ALIS worked without any problem. After some demonstrations and evaluation, we got many useful suggestions. Using these advises, we have modified the ALIS and it is now more easy to use. ALIS will be commercialized in 2007.

  8. Three-dimensional multispectral hand-held optoacoustic imaging with microsecond-level delayed laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. L.; Bay, Erwin; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional hand-held optoacoustic imaging comes with important advantages that prompt the clinical translation of this modality, with applications envisioned in cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease, disorders of the lymphatic system, breast cancer, arthritis or inflammation. Of particular importance is the multispectral acquisition of data by exciting the tissue at several wavelengths, which enables functional imaging applications. However, multispectral imaging of entire three-dimensional regions is significantly challenged by motion artefacts in concurrent acquisitions at different wavelengths. A method based on acquisition of volumetric datasets having a microsecond-level delay between pulses at different wavelengths is described in this work. This method can avoid image artefacts imposed by a scanning velocity greater than 2 m/s, thus, does not only facilitate imaging influenced by respiratory, cardiac or other intrinsic fast movements in living tissues, but can achieve artifact-free imaging in the presence of more significant motion, e.g., abrupt displacements during handheld-mode operation in a clinical environment.

  9. Hand-held dynamometry for muscle strength measurement in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Jodi; Galea, Mary P; Phillips, Bev

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of hand-held dynamometry for measuring isometric lower-limb muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-three children (14 males, nine females) with CP (spastic diplegia; Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels I-III) aged 5 years 7 months to 14 years 5 months (mean 9 y 6 mo [SD 2 y 8 mo]) attended two test sessions 1 week apart. A 'make' test, using a gradual build-up of force to a maximum isometric contraction, was employed and peak values were normalized to body weight for analyses. Within-session reliability was high with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 1,1>0.79 for all muscle groups, and there was acceptable between-session reliability ICC>0.70 and measurement errors for hip flexors and extensors (measured in supine), knee flexors and extensors, and ankle dorsiflexors (with stabilization). Within- and between-session reliability was poor (ICC<0.70) for hip extensors (in prone), knee extensors (20 degrees flexion), ankle dorsiflexors (without stabilization), and ankle plantarflexors. Measurement error differed in each test and across limbs, with stabilization producing inconsistent reliability outcomes. Changes in strength measurements in children with CP should take into account measurement error for particular muscle groups. Changes should be determined for separate muscle groups and limbs, and reported relative to body weight. Different testing positions may be required for greater reliability.

  10. InfraCAM (trade mark): A Hand-Held Commercial Infrared Camera Modified for Spaceborne Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manitakos, Daniel; Jones, Jeffrey; Melikian, Simon

    1996-01-01

    In 1994, Inframetrics introduced the InfraCAM(TM), a high resolution hand-held thermal imager. As the world's smallest, lightest and lowest power PtSi based infrared camera, the InfraCAM is ideal for a wise range of industrial, non destructive testing, surveillance and scientific applications. In addition to numerous commercial applications, the light weight and low power consumption of the InfraCAM make it extremely valuable for adaptation to space borne applications. Consequently, the InfraCAM has been selected by NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for use as part of the DARTFire (Diffusive and Radiative Transport in Fires) space borne experiment. In this experiment, a solid fuel is ignited in a low gravity environment. The combustion period is recorded by both visible and infrared cameras. The infrared camera measures the emission from polymethyl methacrylate, (PMMA) and combustion products in six distinct narrow spectral bands. Four cameras successfully completed all qualification tests at Inframetrics and at NASA Lewis. They are presently being used for ground based testing in preparation for space flight in the fall of 1995.

  11. Clinical S-cone ERG recording with a commercial hand-held full-field stimulator.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Michael F; Cabael, Lorella; Shukla, Shefalee; Hwang, John C; Marcus, Mira

    2004-07-01

    Our purpose was to explore S-cone ERG protocols for a commercial full-field hand-held stimulator that contains colored LEDs, and to see whether the test would be useful as a part of routine ERG testing. S-cone responses were elicited by blue flashes over a longer-wavelength background. With the standard stimulator containing blue (461 nm), green (513 nm) and red (652 nm) LEDs, we were unable to obtain satisfactory responses. Reproducible S-cone ERGs were obtained with a stimulator that had been custom-fitted with shorter-wavelength blue (440 nm) LEDs for stimulation, and orange (590 nm) LEDs for background adaptation. S-cone responses took only a few minutes to record, and the typical waveform showed a slow peak at 45-50 ms with amplitude 3-9 microV, but ranging from 0 microV to more than 10 microV. Larger waves appeared in a patient with enhanced S-cone syndrome. S-cone responses could also be obtained with an alternating blue-orange flicker protocol. We added the S-cone response to our regular ERG protocol for a number of months. Although most normal subjects and patients showed recognizable S-cone responses with this stimulator, the amplitudes were small and there was too much variability to make the technique effective for routine clinical testing. In general, the S-cone responses followed the standard cone ERG responses in disease.

  12. Analysis of wrapped or cased object by a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Jun

    2005-07-16

    Metals, alloys, and poisoned food were analyzed with a hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, with a shield (wrapping or casing material) inserted between these objects and the spectrometer, in order to examine the possibility of analyzing the contents of packages. Elements such as Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mo, and As were detected in the objects. The fluorescent intensity of each element in the object decreased exponentially as the thickness of the shield increased, and the degree of decrease depended on both the material of the shield and the energy of fluorescent X-rays. The thickness of the shield can be calculated by using the intensity ratio Fe Kbeta/Kalpha or Pb Lbeta/Lalpha when the object is iron or lead, or by using the intensity of the Compton scattering of incident X-rays. The original peak intensity, i.e. intensity without a shield, of an element in an object can be estimated with the thickness of the shield obtained. Because the original peak intensity is calculated using an exponential function of the thickness of the shield, calculation of the intensity ratio, e.g. Zn Kalpha/Cu Kalpha for brass, is effective for cancelling the estimation error for the thickness of the shield. The composition of brass and steel can be estimated with an error of less than 30% by using the intensity of the Compton scattering.

  13. Real-time image mosaicing with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewke, Kevin; Camarillo, David; Piyawattanametha, Wibool; Breeden, David; Salisbury, Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in using confocal microscopy to observe tissue structure and function for in vivo pathology. Although confocal microscopy can provide image resolution that is comparable to histopathology, it can be limited by a small field-of-view as well as a low signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper we show that image mosaicing can enhance confocal microscopy by stitching multiple images together to widen the field-of-view and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Specifically, we present a real-time image mosaicing system for imaging human skin with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope. Our system allows the user to "paint" an image mosaic in real-time and aids navigation by localizing the current view with respect to the larger image map. We first discuss image calibration, then describe an efficient algorithm for real-time image mosaicing, and finally present experimental results obtained in vivo with a dual-axes confocal microscope.

  14. Initial Usability Testing of a Hand-held Electronic Logbook Prototype for the Human Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Andrea H.; Whitmore, Mihriban

    1996-01-01

    The Apple(R) Newton(TM) MessagePad 110 was flown aboard the KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft for microgravity usability testing. The Newton served as the initial hand-held electronic logbook prototype for the International Space Station (ISS) Human Research Facility (HRF). Subjects performed three different tasks with the Newton: (1) using the stylus to tap on different sections of the screen in order to launch an application and to select options within it; (2) using the stylus to write, and; (3) correcting handwriting recognition errors in a handwriting-intensive application. Subjects rated handwriting in microgravity 'Borderline' and had great difficulties finding a way in which to adequately restrain themselves at the lower body in order to have their hands free for the Newton. Handwriting recognition was rated 'Unacceptable,' but this issue is hardware-related and not unique to the microgravity environment. It is suggested that the restraint and handwriting issues are related and require further joint research with the current Handheld Electronic Logbook prototype: the Norand Pen*key Model #6300.

  15. A test rig for the measurement of vibration in hand-held power tools.

    PubMed

    Hansson, J E; Kihlberg, S

    1983-03-01

    The purpose of the present project was to study the possibility of using a test rig for the measurement of vibration and noise from hand-held power tools. A test rig was designed to give the same effect on tool handle vibration as the human hand/arm system. Work was simulated by feeding the material to be processed against the tool, clamped into the rig, with the aid of a co-ordinate table. It was designed for use in studies of impact drills, chain saws, grinders and similar power tools. The report describes a proposal for testing the vibration properties of impact drills. Drilling with the test rig was compared with manual drilling. The difference in the acceleration level between the two methods was about 1 dB for ISO-weighted values in the critical direction. Both methods showed good reproducibility. The possibility of conducting noise level tests of a power tool in the rig was studied and the results are reported separately.

  16. Microchip separations of protein biotoxins using an integrated hand-held device.

    PubMed

    Fruetel, Julia A; Renzi, Ronald F; Vandernoot, Victoria A; Stamps, James; Horn, Brent A; West, Jay A A; Ferko, Scott; Crocker, Robert; Bailey, Christopher G; Arnold, Don; Wiedenman, Boyd; Choi, Wen-Yee; Yee, Daniel; Shokair, Isaac; Hasselbrink, Ernest; Paul, Philip; Rakestraw, David; Padgen, Debbie

    2005-03-01

    We report the development of a hand-held instrument capable of performing two simultaneous microchip separations (gel and zone electrophoresis), and demonstrate this instrument for the detection of protein biotoxins. Two orthogonal analysis methods are chosen over a single method in order to improve the probability of positive identification of the biotoxin in an unknown mixture. Separations are performed on a single fused-silica wafer containing two separation channels. The chip is housed in a microfluidic manifold that utilizes o-ring sealed fittings to enable facile and reproducible fluidic connection to the chip. Sample is introduced by syringe injection into a septum-sealed port on the device exterior that connects to a sample loop etched onto the chip. Detection of low nanomolar concentrations of fluorescamine-labeled proteins is achieved using a miniaturized laser-induced fluorescence detection module employing two diode lasers, one per separation channel. Independently controlled miniature high-voltage power supplies enable fully programmable electrokinetic sample injection and analysis. As a demonstration of the portability of this instrument, we evaluated its performance in a laboratory field test at the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory with a series of biotoxin variants. The two separation methods cleanly distinguish between members of a biotoxin test set. Analysis of naturally occurring variants of ricin and two closely related staphylococcal enterotoxins indicates the two methods can be used to readily identify ricin in its different forms and can discriminate between two enterotoxin isoforms.

  17. Background adaptive division filtering for hand-held ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Matthew A.; Anderson, Derek T.; Ball, John E.; White, Julie L.

    2016-05-01

    The challenge in detecting explosive hazards is that there are multiple types of targets buried at different depths in a highlycluttered environment. A wide array of target and clutter signatures exist, which makes detection algorithm design difficult. Such explosive hazards are typically deployed in past and present war zones and they pose a grave threat to the safety of civilians and soldiers alike. This paper focuses on a new image enhancement technique for hand-held ground penetrating radar (GPR). Advantages of the proposed technique is it runs in real-time and it does not require the radar to remain at a constant distance from the ground. Herein, we evaluate the performance of the proposed technique using data collected from a U.S. Army test site, which includes targets with varying amounts of metal content, placement depths, clutter and times of day. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve-based results are presented for the detection of shallow, medium and deeply buried targets. Preliminary results are very encouraging and they demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed filtering technique.

  18. Three-dimensional fluorescence tomography of human breast tissues in vivo using a hand-held optical imager

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Sarah J; Martinez, Sergio L; DeCerce, Joseph; Romero, Adrian; Caldera, Lizeth; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse optical imaging using non-ionizing radiation is a non-invasive method that shows promise towards breast cancer diagnosis. Hand-held optical imagers show potential for clinical translation of the technology, yet they have not been used towards 3D tomography. Herein, 3D tomography of human breast tissue in vivo is demonstrated for the first time using a hand-held optical imager with automated coregistration facilities. Simulation studies are performed on breast geometries to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D tomographic imaging using a hand-held imager under perfect (1:0) and imperfect (100:1, 50:1) fluorescence absorption contrast ratios. Experimental studies are performed in vivo using a 1 μM ICG filled phantom target placed non-invasively underneath the flap of the breast tissue. Results show the ability to perform automated tracking and coregistered imaging of human breast tissue (with tracking accuracy on the order of ~1 cm). Three-dimensional tomography results demonstrated the ability to recover a single target placed at a depth of 2.5 cm, from both the simulated (at 1:0, 100:1 and 50:1 contrasts) and experimental cases on actual breast tissues. Ongoing efforts to improve target depth recovery are carried out via implementation of transmittance imaging in the hand-held imager. PMID:23417060

  19. Guiding Brain Tumor Resection Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles and a Hand-Held Raman Scanner

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The current difficulty in visualizing the true extent of malignant brain tumors during surgical resection represents one of the major reasons for the poor prognosis of brain tumor patients. Here, we evaluated the ability of a hand-held Raman scanner, guided by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, to identify the microscopic tumor extent in a genetically engineered RCAS/tv-a glioblastoma mouse model. In a simulated intraoperative scenario, we tested both a static Raman imaging device and a mobile, hand-held Raman scanner. We show that SERS image-guided resection is more accurate than resection using white light visualization alone. Both methods complemented each other, and correlation with histology showed that SERS nanoparticles accurately outlined the extent of the tumors. Importantly, the hand-held Raman probe not only allowed near real-time scanning, but also detected additional microscopic foci of cancer in the resection bed that were not seen on static SERS images and would otherwise have been missed. This technology has a strong potential for clinical translation because it uses inert gold–silica SERS nanoparticles and a hand-held Raman scanner that can guide brain tumor resection in the operating room. PMID:25093240

  20. Corneal epithelial defects following vitrectomy surgery using hand-held, sew-on, and noncontact viewing lenses.

    PubMed

    Virata, S R; Kylstra, J A; Singh, H T

    1999-01-01

    To compare the incidence of corneal epithelial defects following vitrectomy surgery with Charles hand-held infusion lenses, Landers sew-on lenses, and the Oculus BIOM noncontact lens system. We performed a retrospective chart review of 234 patients who underwent initial vitrectomy surgery by one surgeon. We determined the presence and duration of postoperative epithelial defects and identified predisposing factors. There were more corneal epithelial defects noted postoperatively in eyes with hand-held infusion lenses (23.8%) compared with eyes with sew-on lenses (8.6%; P = 0.010) and eyes with noncontact lenses (0%; P < 0.001). There were also more defects in sew-on versus noncontact lenses (P = 0.014). Diabetic patients had more postoperative epithelial defects with hand-held infusion lenses (32.1 %) than with sew-on lenses (8.8%; P = 0.011) or with noncontact lenses (0%; P < 0.001). The average operative time for patients with epithelial defects (169 minutes) was longer than for patients without defects (117 minutes) (P < 0.001). The risk of these defects remained significant after controlling for both length of surgery and diabetes status. Corneal epithelial defects were more common after vitrectomy surgery using hand-held infusion lenses than after surgery using sew-on lenses and did not occur with the noncontact lens system. In addition, reducing the operative time may independently reduce the risk of epithelial defects, regardless of lens type.

  1. Bedside calculation of hemodynamic parameters with a hand-held programmable calculator. Part I.: Choice of hemodynamic formulas.

    PubMed

    Laurent, M

    1980-01-01

    Currently used hemodynamic and oxygen transport formulas are reviewed in order to chose the shortest form compatible with an optimal clinical accuracy. Programming of hand held calculators with these selected equations spares steps available in the program memory. (Acta anaesth. belg., 1980, 31, 45-52).

  2. Guiding brain tumor resection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles and a hand-held Raman scanner.

    PubMed

    Karabeber, Hazem; Huang, Ruimin; Iacono, Pasquale; Samii, Jason M; Pitter, Ken; Holland, Eric C; Kircher, Moritz F

    2014-10-28

    The current difficulty in visualizing the true extent of malignant brain tumors during surgical resection represents one of the major reasons for the poor prognosis of brain tumor patients. Here, we evaluated the ability of a hand-held Raman scanner, guided by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, to identify the microscopic tumor extent in a genetically engineered RCAS/tv-a glioblastoma mouse model. In a simulated intraoperative scenario, we tested both a static Raman imaging device and a mobile, hand-held Raman scanner. We show that SERS image-guided resection is more accurate than resection using white light visualization alone. Both methods complemented each other, and correlation with histology showed that SERS nanoparticles accurately outlined the extent of the tumors. Importantly, the hand-held Raman probe not only allowed near real-time scanning, but also detected additional microscopic foci of cancer in the resection bed that were not seen on static SERS images and would otherwise have been missed. This technology has a strong potential for clinical translation because it uses inert gold-silica SERS nanoparticles and a hand-held Raman scanner that can guide brain tumor resection in the operating room.

  3. Three-dimensional fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography using a hand-held probe based imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jiajia; Zhu, Banghe; Regalado, Steven; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2008-01-01

    Hand-held based optical imaging systems are a recent development towards diagnostic imaging of breast cancer. To date, all the hand-held based optical imagers are used to perform only surface mapping and target localization, but are not capable of demonstrating tomographic imaging. Herein, a novel hand-held probe based optical imager is developed towards three-dimensional (3-D) optical tomography studies. The unique features of this optical imager, which primarily consists of a hand-held probe and an intensified charge coupled device detector, are its ability to; (i) image large tissue areas (5×10 sq. cm) in a single scan, (ii) perform simultaneous multiple point illumination and collection, thus reducing the overall imaging time; and (iii) adapt to varying tissue curvatures, from a flexible probe head design. Experimental studies are performed in the frequency domain on large slab phantoms (∼650 ml) using fluorescence target(s) under perfect uptake (1:0) contrast ratios, and varying target depths (1–2 cm) and X-Y locations. The effect of implementing simultaneous over sequential multiple point illumination towards 3-D tomography is experimentally demonstrated. The feasibility of 3-D optical tomography studies has been demonstrated for the first time using a hand-held based optical imager. Preliminary fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography studies are able to reconstruct 0.45 ml target(s) located at different target depths (1–2 cm). However, the depth recovery was limited as the actual target depth increased, since only reflectance measurements were acquired. Extensive tomography studies are currently carried out to determine the resolution and performance limits of the imager on flat and curved phantoms. PMID:18697559

  4. Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, William H.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned that consumer exposure to asbestos from consumer products may present an unreasonable risk of injury. Recently, CPSC has obtained agreement by industry to cease production and distribution of hair dryers containing asbestos heat insulation. CPSC intends to broaden its investigation by selecting consumer products containing asbestos for “priority attention.” The Commission does not intend to make quantitative estimates of cancer risks posed by exposure to asbestos fibers in making regulatory decisions. This position may lead to a serious waste of resources for the Commission, industry, and society. The Commission should focus its initial attention on those products for which the release of asbestos is significant enough to cause an unreasonable health risk. To make a risk assessment for a particular use of asbestos, CPSC must acquire or request data on asbestos emissions and define “unreasonable risk to health.” In an attempt to give some meaning to the phrase “risk assessment,” the primary goal of this paper is to present a detailed risk assessment of exposure to asbestos from hand-held hair dryers. Several scenarios of use are presented using various assumptions regarding time of operation, mixing of fibers in a small room, rate of fiber emission, and time of exposure. The worst case analysis of the health risk of exposure to hair dryer emissions is based on several conservative assumptions and shows that the increased number of deaths per year due to respiratory cancer is 4 for the entire United States population. A more representative case analysis shows the increased number of deaths to be on the order of 0.15 per year.

  5. Moving a hand-held object: Reconstruction of referent coordinate and apparent stiffness trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Ambike, Satyajit; Zhou, Tao; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    This study used the framework of the referent configuration hypothesis and slow changes in the external conditions during vertical oscillation of a hand-held object to infer the characteristics of hypothetical control variables. The study had two main objectives: (1) to show that hypothetical control variables, namely, referent coordinates and apparent stiffness of vertical hand position and grip force can be measured in an experiment; and (2) to establish relation(s) between these control variables that yield the classic grip-force-load-force coupling. Healthy subjects gripped a handle and performed vertical oscillations between visual targets at one of five metronome-prescribed frequencies. A Hapticmaster robot was used to induce slow changes in the vertical force applied to the handle, while the size of the handle was changed slowly leading to changes in the grip aperture. The subjects were instructed not to react to possible changes in the external forces. A linear, second-order model was used to reconstruct the referent coordinate and apparent stiffness values for each phase of the vertical oscillation cycle using across-cycle regressions. The reconstructed time profiles of the referent coordinates and apparent stiffness showed consistent trends across subjects and movement frequencies. To validate the method, these values were used to predict the vertical force and the grip force applied to the handle for movement cycles that were not utilized in the reconstruction process. Analysis of the coupling between the four variables, two referent coordinates and two apparent stiffness values, revealed a single strong constraint reflecting the coupling between the grip force and vertical force. We view these data as providing experimental support for the idea of controlling natural, multi-muscle actions with shifts in a low-dimensional set of referent coordinates. PMID:25896800

  6. Radioisotope guided surgery with imaging probe, a hand-held high-resolution gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluri, A.; Trotta, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Tofani, A.; D'Alessandria, C.; Pasta, V.; Stella, S.; Massari, R.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1997, our group of Physics together with Nuclear Physicians studies imaging probes (IP), hand-held, high-resolution gamma cameras for radio-guided surgery (RGS). Present work is aimed to verify the usefulness of two updated IP in different surgical operations. Forty patients scheduled for breast cancer sentinel node (SN) biopsy, five patients with nodal recurrence of thyroid cancer, seven patients with parathyroid adenomas, five patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET), were operated under the guide of IP. We used two different IP with field of view of 1 and 4 in. 2, respectively and intrinsic spatial resolution of about 2 mm. Radioisotopes were 99mTc, 123I and 111In. The 1 in. 2 IP detected SN in all the 40 patients and more than one node in 24, whereas anger camera (AC) failed locating SN in four patients and detected true positive second nodes in only nine patients. The 4 in. 2 IP was used for RGS of thyroid, parathyroid and NETs. It detected eight latero-cervical nodes. In the same patients, AC detected five invaded nodes. Parathyroid adenomas detected by IP were 10 in 7 patients, NET five in five patients. One and 4 in. 2 IPs showed usefulness in all operations. Initial studies on SN biopsy were carried out on small series of patients to validate IP and to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of IP alone or against conventional probes. We propose the use of the IP as control method for legal documentation and surgeon strategy guide before and after lesion(s) removal.

  7. Application of hand-held mobility spectrometers as sensors in manufacturing industries

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, Graeme

    1998-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) are small, lightweight, extremely robust devices with low power requirements, no moving parts, no absolute requirement for gases or vacuums, that can be operated at ambient temperatures and pressures, and yet are capable of measuring vapour phase concentrations of organic chemicals at very low levels (sub-μg/l). IMS are capable of analysing complex mixtures and producing a simple spectral output. Volatile components produce measurable negative and positive product ions in the spectrometer through chemical ionization. The spectra produced are essentially the vapour phase fingerprints of the target molecules/mixture. Quantitative data can be obtained provided instrument response is within the linear dynamic range of these instruments, but most practical applications of IMS have used the technology in a qualitative manner in situations which require just an above/below threshold or positive/ negative response. In the manufacturing industry there are many examples where the aroma/odour of raw materials has safety or product quality implications. IMS was not developed to replace traditional methods of analysis, e.g. GC/MS or sensory panels, but rather to provide a rapid, qualitative response complementary to more established methods. This paper reports on the use of a hand-held ion mobility spectrometer to characterize the vapours produced by volatile organic compounds,fresh herbs and retail spice mixtures at ambient temperature and pressure. The results show that by monitoring in both ion acquisition modes, ion mobility spectrometers are capable of discriminating between a wide range of products. PMID:18924815

  8. Validation of a portable hand-held whole-blood ketone meter for use in cats.

    PubMed

    Weingart, Christiane; Lotz, Fabian; Kohn, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    Urinary dipsticks are the most frequent method used for screening of ketones in animals, but this method has many drawbacks. In human medicine, portable meters that measure ketones in whole blood have largely replaced urinary dipsticks. The aim of this prospective study was to validate a portable whole-blood ketone meter for use in cats. Sixty-two cats (11 clinically healthy, 51 with diabetes mellitus) were included in the study. The concentration of β-hydroxybuyrate (β-HB) was measured in venous and capillary blood with a hand-held ketone meter (Precision Xceed; assay range 0-8 mmol/L) and compared with a spectrophotometric method. Precision, accuracy, and the effects of hematocrit and anticoagulants were evaluated. Between-run precision using low- and high-concentration control solutions was 8.1% and 2.6%, respectively; within-run coefficient of variation determined using 12 feline blood samples was 2.8%. In the 62 cats, β-HB concentrations measured with the portable ketone meter ranged from 0-7.4 mmol/L (median 0.9 mmol/L). When β-HB concentrations measured by the portable meter were < 4.0 mmol/L there was good agreement with the reference method, but concentrations > 4.0 mmol/L were lower than those obtained by the reference method in 20 of 24 cats (83%). There was good correlation between capillary and venous measurements. Results were not affected by hematocrits from 0.17 to 0.50 L/L, but EDTA was not a suitable anticoagulant. Measurement of β-HB concentration in peripheral or capillary blood by an easy-to-use portable ketone meter was suitable for detecting ketonemia in cats. Underestimation of β-HB concentration was observed at higher values, but results were sufficiently high to aid in diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Hand-held cardiac ultrasound screening performed by family doctors with remote expert support interpretation.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Arturo; Galuppo, Valentina; Méndez, Judith; Evangelista, Lidia; Arpal, Lidia; Rubio, Carles; Vergara, Montserrat; Liceran, Manuela; López, Francesc; Sales, Carlos; Miralles, Vicens; Galinsoga, Anna; Pérez, Jordi; Arteaga, Mercedes; Salvador, Betlem; López, Carlos; García-Dorado, David

    2016-03-01

    To assess the usefulness of hand-held cardiac ultrasound (HCU) performed by family doctors (FDs) in primary care, with web-based remote expert support interpretation, in a cohort of patient with symptoms or physical examination signs suggestive of cardiovascular disease. This prospective observational study included 1312 consecutive patients, in three remote primary care areas, with symptoms or physical examination signs suggestive of cardiovascular disease. In 859 patients (group A), FDs had indicated conventional echocardiography (CE), and in 453 (Group B) the study was performed to complement the physical examination. HCU was carried out by 14 FDs after a short training period. The scans and preliminary FD reports were uploaded on a web-based program for remote expert support interpretation in <24 h. Experts considered HCU to be inconclusive in 116 (8.8%) patients. FD and expert agreement on diagnosis was moderate (K=0.40-0.70) except in mitral stenosis (K=0.29) and in left atrial dilation (K=0.38). Diagnostic agreement between expert interpretation and CE was good (K=0.66-0.85) except in mitral stenosis (K=0.43). After remote expert interpretation, conventional echocardiograms were finally requested by FDs in only 276 (32.1%) patients, and discharges increased by 10.2%. Furthermore, significant heart diseases were diagnosed in 32 (7%) patients of group B. HCU performed at the point of care by FDs with remote expert support interpretation using a web-based system is feasible, rapid and useful for detecting significant echocardiographic abnormalities and reducing the number of unnecessary echocardiographic studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. An embedded system developed for hand held assay used in water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin; Wang, Jianwei; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Hsueh, Mingkai; Liu, Jonathan; Wu, Qufei; Wu, Chao-Cheng; Cao, Mang; Chang, Chein-I.; Jensen, Janet L.; Jensen, James O.; Knapp, Harlan; Daniel, Robert; Yin, Ray

    2005-11-01

    The US Army Joint Service Agent Water Monitor (JSAWM) program is currently interested in an approach that can implement a hardware- designed device in ticket-based hand-held assay (currently being developed) used for chemical/biological agent detection. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the proof of concept. Three components are envisioned to accomplish the task. One is the ticket development which has been undertaken by the ANP, Inc. Another component is the software development which has been carried out by the Remote Sensing Signal and Image Processing Laboratory (RSSIPL) at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). A third component is an embedded system development which can be used to drive the UMBC-developed software to analyze the ANP-developed HHA tickets on a small pocket-size device like a PDA. The main focus of this paper is to investigate the third component that is viable and is yet to be explored. In order to facilitate to prove the concept, a flatbed scanner is used to replace a ticket reader to serve as an input device. The Stargate processor board is used as the embedded System with Embedded Linux installed. It is connected to an input device such as scanner as well as output devices such as LCD display or laptop etc. It executes the C-Coded processing program developed for this embedded system and outputs its findings on a display device. The embedded system to be developed and investigated in this paper is the core of a future hardware device. Several issues arising in such an embedded system will be addressed. Finally, the proof-of-concept pilot embedded system will be demonstrated.

  11. Continuing Measurements of CO2 Crystals with a Hand-Held 35 GHz Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J.; Chang, A.; Hall, D.; Tait, A.; Wergin, W.; Erbe, E.

    2000-01-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of the Martian polar caps, an improved understanding of the behavior of both frozen H2O and CO2 in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is needed. The thermal microwave part of the spectrum has received relatively little attention compared to the visible and infrared wavelengths. A simple experiment to measure the brightness temperature of frozen CO2 was first performed in the winter of 1998 using a 35 GHz radiometer. in experiments performed during the winter of 1999 and 2000, passive microwave radiation emanating from within layers of manufactured CO2 (dry ice) crystals was again measured with a 35 GHz handheld radiometer. Both large (0.8 cm) and small (0.3 cm) cylindrical-shaped dry ice pellets, at a temperature of 197 K (-76 C), were measured. A 1 sq m plate of aluminum sheet metal was positioned beneath the dry ice so that microwave emissions from the underlying soil layers would be minimized. Non-absorbing foam was positioned around the sides of the plate in order to keep the dry ice in place and to assure that the incremental deposits were level. Thirty-five GHz measurements of this plate were made through the dry ice deposits in the following way. Layers of dry ice were built up and measurements were repeated for the increasing CO2 pack. First, 7 cm of large CO2 pellets were poured onto the sheet metal plate, then an additional 7 cm were added, and finally, 12 cm were added on top of the 14 cm base. Hand-held 35 GHz measurements were made each time the thickness of the deposit was increased. The same process was repeated for the smaller grain pellets. Furthermore, during the past winter, 35 GHz measurements were taken of a 25 kg (27 cm x 27 cm x 27 cm) solid cube Of CO2, which was cut in half and then re-measured. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Reliability of measurements of hip abduction strength obtained with a hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Ieiri, Akira; Tushima, Eiki; Ishida, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Masahiro; Kanno, Taiki; Masuda, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate intrarater and interrater reliability when measuring hip abductor strength in the supine position using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) (Study 1), and to elucidate the relationships between measured values and examiners' physical characteristics (Study 2). Three healthy examiners (1 female, 24 y.o. and 2 males 23 and 27 y.o) and 12 subjects (6 females, 24.5 ± 2.8 years and 6 males, 27.7 ± 3.5 years) participated in Study 1, and 20 healthy examiners (7 females, 22.3 ± 1.3 years and 13 males, 29.4 ± 8.2 years) and 2 subjects (1 female, 24 y.o. and 1 male 27 y.o) participated in Study 2. All healthy examiners were hospital employees. Hip abductor strength was measured by HHD with hand fixation and with belt fixation, and examiner age, sex, height, weight, BMI, and dominant hand grip strength were evaluated. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (1,1), a measure of intrarater reliability, was 0.89-0.95 with hand fixation and 0.96-0.97 with belt fixation. ICC (2,1), a measure of interrater reliability, was 0.76-0.79 and 0.90-0.93, respectively. In subjects with high muscle strength (the examiner's hand was moved), the examiner's dominant hand grip strength affected muscle strength values with hand fixation (standardized partial regression coefficient = 0.78, determination coefficient R(2 )= 0.61, p < 0.01). In subjects with low muscle strength (the examiner's hand was not moved), no variables had effect. When the muscle strength of the subject is weak, both methods can be used. When the muscle strength of the subject is strong, it is necessary to adjust the value obtained by the examiner's dominant hand grip strength in the hand fixation method.

  13. Effectiveness of a hand-held fan for breathlessness: a randomised phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breathlessness is common and distressing in advanced disease. This phase II study aimed to determine the use and acceptance of a hand-held fan (HHF) to relieve breathlessness, to test the effectiveness of the HHF and to evaluate the recruitment into the study. Methods RCT embedded within a longitudinal study testing a HHF over time compared to a wristband. Patients were included in the longitudinal study when suffering from breathlessness due to advanced cancer or COPD III/IV and could opt in the RCT. Primary outcome was use of the HHF and the wristband after two months. Secondary outcomes were recruitment into the trial and change of breathlessness severity after two months, measured on the modified Borg scale. Baseline data were collected in a personal interview and follow-up data by monthly postal questionnaires. Results 109 patients were recruited in the longitudinal study of which 70 patients (64%) participated in the RCT. Non-participants had statistically significant less breathlessness (Borg mean 2.6 (SD 1.48) versus 3.7 (SD 1.83); p = 0.003) and a better functional status (Karnofsky status mean 61.9 (SD 11.2) versus 66.7 (SD 11.0); p = 0.03). Attrition due to drop out or death was high in both groups. After two months, about half of the patients used the HHF but only 20% the wristband without a statistical difference (Fisher's exact test p = 0.2). 9/16 patients judged the HHF as helpful after two months and 4/5 patients the wristband. There was no difference in mean breathlessness change scores between the HHF (Borg change score: mean 0.6 (SD 2.10)) and the wristband (mean 0.8 (SD 2.67)) after two months (p = 0.90). Conclusions Symptom burden and low functional status did not restrain patients from participation in the study. Finding a control for a visible intervention is challenging and needs careful consideration to what is acceptable to patients. The preliminary evidence of effectiveness of the HHF could not be proved. Patients often stopped

  14. Analysis of the reliability of the make test in young adults by using a hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Yong Ho

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the make test, a manual muscle testing measurement method, using a hand-held dynamometer in Korean young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 42 university students participated in this study. The make test, a manual muscle testing method, was conducted. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure elbow joint flexion during the make test. [Results] Both intra-rater (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.992) and inter-rater reliabilities (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.949) were excellent, with values over 0.9. [Conclusion] The make test is a useful manual muscle testing method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability.

  15. Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 μg/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 μg/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.

  16. A Novel Hand-Held Optical Imager with Real-Time Co-Registration Facilities Towards Diagnostic Mammography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Topics in Quantum Electronics (in press, 2011). (2) S.J. Erickson, S.L. Martinez, J. Gonzalez, L. Caldera , and A. Godavarty. “Improved detection...78962H-8 (2011). (2) S.J. Erickson, S. Martinez, J. Gonzalez, L. Caldera , and A. Godavarty. “Non-invasive Diagnostic Breast Imaging using a Hand... Caldera , and A. Godavarty, "Improved Detection Limits Using a Hand-Held Optical Imager with Coregistration Capabilities," in Biomedical Optics, OSA

  17. In vivo evaluation of a novel, wrist-mounted arterial pressure sensing device versus the traditional hand-held tonometer.

    PubMed

    Vardoulis, Orestis; Saponas, T Scott; Morris, Dan; Villar, Nicolas; Smith, Greg; Patel, Shwetak; Tan, Desney

    2016-10-01

    Although hemodynamic parameters can be assessed non-invasively, state-of-the-art non-invasive systems generally require an expert operator and are not applicable for ambulatory measurements. These limitations have restricted our understanding of the continuous behavior of hemodynamic parameters. In this manuscript, we introduce a novel wrist-mounted device that incorporates an array of pressure sensors which can be used to extract arterial waveforms and relevant pulse wave analysis biomarkers. In vivo evaluation is performed with Bland-Altman analysis to compare the novel sensor to a gold-standard hand-held tonometer by assessing their reproducibility and agreement in peripheral augmentation index (AIx) estimation at the radial artery. Arterial waves from 28 randomly selected participants were recorded in a controlled environment. Initially we assess the reproducibility of AIx results for both devices. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and mean difference ± SD were [0.913, 0.033±0.048] and [0.859, 0.039±0.076] for the hand-held and the wrist-mounted tonometer respectively. We then show that the AIx values derived from the novel tonometer have good agreement, accuracy, and precision when compared against the AIx values derived from the reference hand-held tonometer (ICC 0.927, mean difference 0.026±0.049). In conclusion, we have presented evidence that the new wrist-mounted arterial pressure sensor records arterial waveforms that can be processed to yield AIx values that are in good agreement with its traditional hand-held counterpart.

  18. Simultaneous hand-held contact color fundus and SD-OCT imaging for pediatric retinal diseases (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Marco; Hernandez, Victor; De Freitas, Carolina; Relhan, Nidhi; Silgado, Juan; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-01

    Hand-held wide-field contact color fundus photography is currently the standard method to acquire diagnostic images of children during examination under anesthesia and in the neonatal intensive care unit. The recent development of portable non-contact hand-held OCT retinal imaging systems has proved that OCT is of tremendous help to complement fundus photography in the management of pediatric patients. Currently, there is no commercial or research system that combines color wide-field digital fundus and OCT imaging in a contact-fashion. The contact of the probe with the cornea has the advantages of reducing motion experienced by the photographer during the imaging and providing fundus and OCT images with wider field of view that includes the periphery of the retina. In this study we produce proof of concept for a contact-type hand-held unit for simultaneous color fundus and OCT live view of the retina of pediatric patients. The front piece of the hand-held unit consists of a contact ophthalmoscopy lens integrating a circular light guide that was recovered from a digital fundus camera for pediatric imaging. The custom-made rear piece consists of the optics to: 1) fold the visible aerial image of the fundus generated by the ophthalmoscopy lens on a miniaturized level board digital color camera; 2) conjugate the eye pupil to the galvanometric scanning mirrors of an OCT delivery system. Wide-field color fundus and OCT images were simultaneously obtained in an eye model and sequentially obtained on the eye of a conscious 25 year-old human subject with healthy retina.

  19. Real-time neutron source localization and identification with a hand-held, volumetrically-sensitive, moderating-type neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshor, C. B.; Myers, E. R.; Oakes, T. M.; Young, S. M.; Currie, J. E.; Scott, P. R.; Miller, W. H.; Bellinger, S. L.; McGregor, D. S.; Caruso, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Measuring source-dependent properties of free neutrons over a large neutron energy range, with hand-portable instrumentation, continues to push the frontier of neutron detection instrumentation design and analysis techniques. Building on prior work - C.B. Hoshor, et al., A portable and wide energy range semiconductor-based neutron spectrometer, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 803 (2015) 68-81 - which focused on demonstrating one-dimensional-based energy-dependent neutron measurement and analysis with a new class of solid-state moderating-type spectrometer, this work introduces two ;core; algorithmic methodologies that expand the analysis of neutron thermalization measurements to three spatial dimensions to determine the location and identity of neutron radiation sources in real time. Two extensions of these core methodologies are then proposed to further improve both the accuracy and reliability of source location and identity determinations with this new class of hand-held instrumentation. In 432 preliminary simulation tests, these method extensions are shown to decrease the average source location error by 64% and provide correct identity determinations in all test cases.

  20. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2017-05-12

    Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16-24, 25-59, ≥60 years), sexes, races (White, African American, or other), ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban), and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Data from the 2008-2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states' cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, <0.0001) and regions (p-value, 0.0003). Compared to states without universal hand-held cell phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55) for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38) for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72) in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66) in the South. The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  1. Rapid prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using a hand-held mid-infrared field instrument.

    PubMed

    Webster, Grant T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirk, Joel; Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stewart, Richard J

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript reports on the performance of a hand-held diffuse reflectance (mid)-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometer for the prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in three different diesel-contaminated soils. These soils include: a carbonate dominated clay, a kaolinite dominated clay and a loam from Padova Italy, north Western Australia and southern Nigeria, respectively. Soils were analysed for TPH concentration using a standard laboratory methods and scanned in DRIFT mode with the hand-held spectrometer to determine TPH calibration models. Successful partial least square regression (PLSR) predictions, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ~0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) <200mg/kg, were obtained for the low range TPH concentrations of 0 to ~3,000mg/kg. These predictions were carried out using a set of independent samples for each soil type. Prediction models were also tested for the full concentration range (0-60,000mg/kg) for each soil type model with R(2) and RMSE values of ~0.99 and <1,255mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, a number of intermediate concentration range models were also generated for each soil type with similar R(2) values of ~0.99 and RMSE values <800mg/kg. This study shows the capability of using a portable mid-infrared (MIR) DRIFT spectrometer for predicting TPH in a variety of soil types and the potential for being a rapid in-field screening method for TPH concentration levels at common regulatory thresholds. A novel hand-held mid-infrared instrument can accurately detect TPH across different soil types and concentrations, which paves the way for a variety of applications in the field.

  2. Hand-held personal digital assistant program for the HEMOCHRON RxDx heparin and protamine dosing system.

    PubMed

    El Rouby, Soumaya; Rinehart, Kristin; Zucker, Marcia L; LaDuca, Frank M

    2003-09-01

    The use of in vitro dosing assays for heparin and protamine during cardiac surgery has significantly improved overall postoperative patient outcome. The HEMOCHRON RxDx system (International Technidyne Corp, Edison, NJ) is widely used for anticoagulation management. Based on a series of consecutive in vitro tests, the RxDx system is used to quantify the patient's heparin requirement (heparin response test, HRT), measure the activated clotting time (ACT), calculate the blood heparin concentration and the required protamine dose (protamine response test, PRT), as well as determine the efficacy of heparin reversal (protamine dose assay, PDA-O). A hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA) program has been developed that performs the RxDx calculations used for anticoagulation management during cardiac surgery. The Palm m505 hand-held device (Palm, Inc., Santa Clara, CA) is used in concert with any standard Hemochron blood coagulation system. The Palm m505 device has been programmed to perform all the calculations required for the RxDx test system. Patient's body weight, height, and gender are entered into the program using the onscreen keypad and the template provided in the Hemochron program. The calculator automatically provides the patient's blood volume and the recommended heparin dose upon entering the baseline ACT and HRT values and a target ACT. At the end of the case, the optimal protamine dose is determined, and the total heparin level is calculated and displayed upon entry of ACT and PRT clotting times. Following protamine administration, the program calculates any additional protamine required to neutralize residual heparin using the data from a PDA-O test. The RxDx hand-held PDA is accurate, quick, simple, and easy to use, patient data are saved and can be retrieved. The inclusion of this rapid computing technology into the Hemochron RxDx system serves to expand the applications of the Hemochron RxDx system during cardiac interventions.

  3. Promising Properties and System Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign Yellow Smoke Formulation for Hand-Held Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-18

    approximately 800 feet in the air. At this apex, the yellow smoke candle begins to burn, producing a highly visible stream of yellow smoke for 9−18 s.15−17...addition, candles derived from formulation A may not have sufficient mechanical strength to sustain the force exerted upon launch from the rocket motor. Thus...integrity when packed into the hand-held signal form factor. This is important to ensure the full-sized candles can sustain the impulse subjected to

  4. Catalog of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Hand-Held Photography: Space Transportation System (STS) 41-6 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowakowski, Barbara S.; Palmer, Wesley F.

    1985-01-01

    This document catalogs Space Shuttle hand-held Earth observations photography which was collected on the Space Transportation System (STS) 41-G mission of October 1984. The catalog includes the following data for each of 2480 frames: geographical name, feature description, latitude and longitude, percentage of cloud cover, look direction and tilt, lens focal length, exposure evaluation, stereopairs, and orbit number. The catalog is a product of the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project, Solar System Exploration Division, Space and Life Sciences Directorate, of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

  5. Comparison of a semiautomated hand-held device to test minimal erythema dose before narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy with the conventional method using matched doses.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M; Carroll, F; Kavanagh, A; Honari, B; Collins, P

    2014-12-01

    A semiautomated hand-held device has been introduced in some phototherapy centres to establish the minimal erythema dose (MED) before treatment with narrowband ultraviolet (NBUV) B. To compare the semiautomated hand-held device with the conventional method of MED testing (a UV-opaque template and a panel of UVB fluorescent tubes), using the same series of incremented doses. Twenty-four patients referred for treatment with NBUVB phototherapy were included. Each patient had MED testing with the conventional method and the semiautomated hand-held device at the same level of the left and right back. The results were read by four investigators each time. The semiautomated hand-held device was a significant estimator of the MED using the conventional panel method (P < 0.001; r = 0.97). The average ratio of the hand-held MED to the conventional MED was 67%. The mean difference between the methods was 165 mJ/cm(2) . The interobserver test showed very high agreement for both methods of MED testing (Cronbach α coefficient 0.97 for the hand-held MED tester vs. 0.93 for the conventional method). The semiautomated hand-held device MED results were lower than that of the conventional panel method and may prolong the treatment course by 2-3 treatments. The hand-held tester is a fast and reproducible method, and may allow more phototherapy units, limited by staff and time, to do MED testing. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Visual Search and Target Cueing: A Comparison of Head-Mounted Versus Hand-Held Displays on the Allocation of Visual Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Cueing: A Comparison of Head-Mounted Versus Hand-Held Displays on the Allocation of Visual Attention Michelle Yeh and Christopher D. Wickens Technical...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...Comparison of Head-Mounted Versus Hand-Held Displays on the Allocation of Visual Attention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  7. Analysis of Accuracy in Pointing with Redundant Hand-held Tools: A Geometric Approach to the Uncontrolled Manifold Method

    PubMed Central

    Campolo, Domenico; Widjaja, Ferdinan; Xu, Hong; Ang, Wei Tech; Burdet, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a coordinate-independent method to analyse movement variability of tasks performed with hand-held tools, such as a pen or a surgical scalpel. We extend the classical uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach by exploiting the geometry of rigid body motions, used to describe tool configurations. In particular, we analyse variability during a static pointing task with a hand-held tool, where subjects are asked to keep the tool tip in steady contact with another object. In this case the tool is redundant with respect to the task, as subjects control position/orientation of the tool, i.e. 6 degrees-of-freedom (dof), to maintain the tool tip position (3dof) steady. To test the new method, subjects performed a pointing task with and without arm support. The additional dof introduced in the unsupported condition, injecting more variability into the system, represented a resource to minimise variability in the task space via coordinated motion. The results show that all of the seven subjects channeled more variability along directions not directly affecting the task (UCM), consistent with previous literature but now shown in a coordinate-independent way. Variability in the unsupported condition was only slightly larger at the endpoint but much larger in the UCM. PMID:23592956

  8. A new hand-held microfluidic cytometer for evaluating irradiation damage by analysis of the damaged cells distribution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junsheng; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yile; Song, Younan; Chu, Hui; Song, Wendong; Song, Yongxin; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2016-01-01

    Space radiation brings uneven damages to cells. The detection of the distribution of cell damage plays a very important role in radiation medicine and the related research. In this paper, a new hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer was developed to evaluate the degree of radiation damage of cells. The device we propose overcomes the shortcomings (e.g., large volume and high cost) of commercial flow cytometers and can evaluate the radiation damage of cells accurately and quickly with potential for onsite applications. The distribution of radiation-damaged cells is analyzed by a simultaneous detection of immunofluorescence intensity of γ-H2AX and resistance pulse sensor (RPS) signal. The γ-H2AX fluorescence intensity provides information of the degree of radiation damage in cells. The ratio of the number of cells with γ-H2AX fluorescence signals to the total numbers of cells detected by RPS indicates the percentage of the cells that are damaged by radiation. The comparison experiment between the developed hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer and a commercial confocal microscope indicates a consistent and comparable detection performance. PMID:26983800

  9. Potential air contamination during CO2 angiography using a hand-held syringe: theoretical considerations and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, David R; Cho, Kyung J; Hawkins, Irvin F

    2006-01-01

    To assess air contamination in the hand-held syringes currently used for CO2 delivery and to determine whether there is an association between their position and the rate of air contamination. Assessment of air contamination in the syringe (20 ml) included theoretical modeling, mathematical calculation, and gas chromatography (GC). The model was used with Fick's first law to calculate the diffusion of CO2 and the amount of air contamination. For GC studies, the syringes were placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions and gas samples were obtained after 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. All trials with each position for each sampling time were performed five times. The amounts of air contamination with time calculated mathematically were 5-10% less than those of GC. With the diffusivity of air-CO2 at 0.1599 cm2/sec (9.594 cm2/min), air contamination was calculated to be 60% at 60 min. With GC air contamination was 13% at 5 min, 31% at 20 min, 43% at 30 min, and 68% at 60 min. There was no difference in air contamination between the different syringe positions. Air contamination occurs in hand-held syringes filled with CO2 when they are open to the ambient air. The amounts of air contamination over time are similar among syringes placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions.

  10. Intraoperative gamma hand-held probe navigation in resection of osteoid osteoma tumor--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cengić, Tomislav; Corluka, Stipe; Petrović, Tadija; Baranović, Senka; Kovacić, Ksenija; Kolundzić, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Two cases of osteoid osteoma tumor (OO) are presented and our early experience with intraoperative gamma probing to localize OO during surgery is reported. The concept of radioguided surgery was developed 60 years ago and the gamma detection probe technology for radioguided biopsy and/or resection of bone lesions has been applied since the early 1980s. Bone scintigraphy is very important for initial diagnosis of OO with almost 100% sensitivity. The bone scan finding is specific, with so called double density appearance, very intense accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in the nidus and therefore great difference between the nidus and the surrounding healthy bone, thus making possible to treat this lesion with probe guided surgery. Three phase bone scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography were conducted in our patients for initial diagnosis of OO. A second bone scintigraphy was performed before surgery. The surgery followed 12-15 hours later by intraoperative nidus detection with a hand-held gamma probe. Gamma hand-held probe is a system that detects gamma photons. The count rate in the nidus area on the day of surgery was 3 to 4 times higher than in the healthy bone area. Drilling was performed until the counts decreased to the level of the surrounding bone counts, thereby confirming complete excision. This is the method of choice for minimizing bone resection, the risk of pathologic fracture, the need of bone grafting, and reducing the period of convalescence. Evidence for the treatment efficiency is pain disappearance after the surgery.

  11. Development and characterization of a round hand-held silicon photomultiplier based gamma camera for intraoperative imaging

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Kosta; McKisson, Jack E.; Kross, Brian; Lee, Seungjoon; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Proffitt, James; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Williams, Mark B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a hand-held gamma camera for intraoperative surgical guidance that is based on silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) technology. The camera incorporates a cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) plate scintillator, an array of 80 SiPM photodetectors and a two-layer parallel-hole collimator. The field of view is circular with a 60 mm diameter. The disk-shaped camera housing is 75 mm in diameter, approximately 40.5 mm thick and has a mass of only 1.4 kg, permitting either hand-held or arm-mounted use. All camera components are integrated on a mobile cart that allows easy transport. The camera was developed for use in surgical procedures including determination of the location and extent of primary carcinomas, detection of secondary lesions and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Here we describe the camera design and its principal operating characteristics, including spatial resolution, energy resolution, sensitivity uniformity, and geometric linearity. The gamma camera has an intrinsic spatial resolution of 4.2 mm FWHM, an energy resolution of 21.1 % FWHM at 140 keV, and a sensitivity of 481 and 73 cps/MBq when using the single- and double-layer collimators, respectively. PMID:28286345

  12. Development and Characterization of a Round Hand-Held Silicon Photomultiplier Based Gamma Camera for Intraoperative Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Kosta; McKisson, Jack E.; Kross, Brian; Lee, Seungjoon; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Proffitt, James; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Williams, Mark B.

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a hand-held gamma camera for intraoperative surgical guidance that is based on silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) technology. The camera incorporates a cerium doped lanthanum bromide ( LaBr3:Ce) plate scintillator, an array of 80 SiPM photodetectors and a two-layer parallel-hole collimator. The field of view is circular with a 60 mm diameter. The disk-shaped camera housing is 75 mm in diameter, approximately 40.5 mm thick and has a mass of only 1.4 kg, permitting either hand-held or arm-mounted use. All camera components are integrated on a mobile cart that allows easy transport. The camera was developed for use in surgical procedures, including determination of the location and extent of primary carcinomas, detection of secondary lesions, and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Here, we describe the camera design and its principal operating characteristics, including spatial resolution, energy resolution, sensitivity uniformity, and geometric linearity. The gamma camera has an intrinsic spatial resolution of 4.2 mm FWHM, an energy resolution of 21.1% FWHM at 140 keV, and a sensitivity of 481 and 73 cps/MBq when using the single- and double-layer collimators, respectively.

  13. CO2 laser myringotomy with a hand-held otoscope and fiber optic delivery system: animal experimentation and preclinical trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Dov; Finkelstein, Y.; Katzir, Abraham

    1993-07-01

    CO2 laser myringotomy has previously been proven effective in patients with serous otitis media for short term aeration of the middle ear. However, the system based on a microscope and a coaxially aligned laser is cumbersome and expensive. Also, conventional optical fibers do not transmit CO2 laser energy ((lambda) equals 10.6 micrometers ). We have developed a silver halide optical fiber of diameter 0.9 mm and lengths of several meters, with high transmission at 10.6 micrometers . Using a hand held otoscope coupled to a fiberoptic delivery system CO2 laser myringotomies were performed first in guinea pigs and then in humans. In the animal model the feasibility of the procedure was proven. Different irradiation parameters were studied and a `dose dependent' relationship was found between the total energy used and the duration of a patent myringotomy. This system was used to perform CO2 laser myringotomies under local anesthesia in five patients with serous otitis media and conductive hearing loss. None of the patients complained of discomfort and no scarring was noted. All patients had subjective and audiometric documentation of hearing improvement. The average duration of a patent myringotomy was 21 days. In two patients the effusion recurred. CO2 laser myringotomy utilizing a hand held otoscope coupled to an optical fiber capable of transmitting CO2 laser energy may prove simple and effective in the treatment of serous otitis media.

  14. Development and characterization of a round hand-held silicon photomultiplier based gamma camera for intraoperative imaging.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Kosta; McKisson, Jack E; Kross, Brian; Lee, Seungjoon; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew G; Proffitt, James; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Williams, Mark B

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a hand-held gamma camera for intraoperative surgical guidance that is based on silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) technology. The camera incorporates a cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) plate scintillator, an array of 80 SiPM photodetectors and a two-layer parallel-hole collimator. The field of view is circular with a 60 mm diameter. The disk-shaped camera housing is 75 mm in diameter, approximately 40.5 mm thick and has a mass of only 1.4 kg, permitting either hand-held or arm-mounted use. All camera components are integrated on a mobile cart that allows easy transport. The camera was developed for use in surgical procedures including determination of the location and extent of primary carcinomas, detection of secondary lesions and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Here we describe the camera design and its principal operating characteristics, including spatial resolution, energy resolution, sensitivity uniformity, and geometric linearity. The gamma camera has an intrinsic spatial resolution of 4.2 mm FWHM, an energy resolution of 21.1 % FWHM at 140 keV, and a sensitivity of 481 and 73 cps/MBq when using the single- and double-layer collimators, respectively.

  15. Influence of lever arm and stabilization on measures of hip abduction and adduction torque obtained by hand-held dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Krause, David A; Schlagel, Susan J; Stember, Beth M; Zoetewey, Janice E; Hollman, John H

    2007-01-01

    To examine the reliability of clinical techniques for testing hip abductor and adductor muscle performance. Repeated measures. Academic laboratory. A sample of 21 healthy subjects (12 men, 9 women) between 22 and 31 years of age. Not applicable. Reliability of repeated measures was estimated by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients. Torque production capability was calculated by multiplying force output obtained with a hand-held dynamometer by the length of the resistance lever arm. The reliability of abduction testing was greatest in the long-lever condition. Adduction test reliability was greatest in the long-lever condition with bench stabilization. The maximal hip abduction torque tested in the long-lever position was significantly greater (t(20)=9.21, P<.001) than that in the short-lever position. The maximal hip adduction torque occurred using a long lever for resistance application and a bench to stabilize the nontest leg (F(1,20)=15.64, P=.001). Muscle performance testing of hip abductors and adductors with a hand-held dynamometer can be performed with good to excellent intratester and intertester reliability. Hip abduction testing is best performed with a long lever. Hip adduction is best performed with a long lever and a bench to stabilize the nontest extremity.

  16. Intraoperative detection of radiolabeled compounds using a hand held gamma probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, Marcel

    2001-02-01

    Scintillation cameras in Nuclear Medicine allow external detection of cancerous lesions after administration of a specific radiopharmaceutical to the patient. In some particular cases the affinity of the tracer is sufficient to consider the use of an intraoperative probe which enables the surgeon to identify radioactive tissues. A radiopharmaceutical consists of a radioisotope bound to a carrier molecule. The radioactive emissions must represent certain criteria in terms of half-life and energy to be detected during an operation. In the field of intraoperative detection radionuclides like 99mTc, 111In, 125I and 131I fall into this category. Their energy, which ranges from some 10 to 364 keV, cannot be properly detected by a single type of detector. Two technologies have been developed to yield detectors which are handy and sufficiently sensitive: semiconductor CdTe or CdZnTe to detect low energies and scintillator CsI(Tl) for higher energies. Today the intraoperative detection has been evaluated in the case of several pathologies such as osteoid osteoma, colorectal cancer, neuroblastoma, reoperation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and localization of sentinel node in breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma. Obviously, the results obtained are not comparable from one indication to the other. Nevertheless, the surgeons have noted a considerable advantage in using the intraoperative probe in the case of neuroblastoma and thyroid surgery, especially when the reoperation is difficult or the localizations are ectopic or unusual. As regards the sentinel node, this concept represents a major new opportunity in the field of intraoperative detection and the results actually reported in the literature demonstrate that, when it is detected, elective node excision renders the staging of the disease more accurate. In conclusion, intraoperative detection supplies the surgeon with additional knowledge to be used in correlation with the patient's medical history.

  17. Drift from the Use of Hand-Held Knapsack Pesticide Sprayers in Boyacá (Colombian Andes).

    PubMed

    García-Santos, Glenda; Feola, Giuseppe; Nuyttens, David; Diaz, Jaime

    2016-05-25

    Offsite pesticide losses in tropical mountainous regions have been little studied. One example is measuring pesticide drift soil deposition, which can support pesticide risk assessment for surface water, soil, bystanders, and off-target plants and fauna. This is considered a serious gap, given the evidence of pesticide-related poisoning in those regions. Empirical data of drift deposition of a pesticide surrogate, Uranine tracer, within one of the highest potato-producing regions in Colombia, characterized by small plots and mountain orography, is presented. High drift values encountered in this study reflect the actual spray conditions using hand-held knapsack sprayers. Comparison between measured and predicted drift values using three existing empirical equations showed important underestimation. However, after their optimization based on measured drift information, the equations showed a strong predictive power for this study area and the study conditions. The most suitable curve to assess mean relative drift was the IMAG calculator after optimization.

  18. US-ROK Action Sheet 34: Safeguards Application of a Hand-held Mechanically Cooled Germanium Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, J.; Burks, M.; Ham, Y.; Kwak, S.

    2015-10-20

    This report summarizes results of Action Sheet 34 - for the cooperative efforts on the field testing and evaluation of a high-resolution, hand-held, gamma-ray spectrometer, known as SPG (Spectroscopic Planar Germanium), for safeguards application such as short notice inspections, UF6 analysis, enrichment determination, and other potential applications. The Spectroscopic Planar Germanium (SPG) has been demonstrated IAEA Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) in South Korea. This field test was a success and the feedback provided by KINAC, IAEA, and national laboratory staff was used to direct efforts to improve the instrument this year. Key points in this report include measurement results from PIV, analysis of spectra with commercially available Ortec U235 and PC-FRAM, and completion of tripod and tungsten collimator and integration of user feedback.

  19. Global distribution of hand-held photographs of ocean and coastal regions taken during space shuttle missions - 1981-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, Steven G.; Pitts, David E.

    1992-01-01

    During the first 10 years of the US Space Shuttle program, 26,736 high-quality, hand-held photographs have been acquired of the earth's ocean and coastal areas from orbit by astronauts during 40 missions. The photographs are cataloged and stored in the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project (SSEOP) database. While the majority of photographs are of tropical and subtropical coastal areas, many open-ocean and high-latitude areas have also been photographed. The majority of space shuttle missions have permitted photographing northern hemisphere areas in daylight. As a result, the latitudinal distribution of photographs is biased toward the northern hemisphere, particularly in high latitudes. Coastal areas and islands are most frequently photographed, while photographs of central ocean areas are either infrequent or nonexistent.

  20. The GSFC Mark-2 three band hand-held radiometer. [thematic mapper for ground truth data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Jones, W. H.; Kley, W. A.; Sundstrom, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    A self-contained, portable, hand-radiometer designed for field usage was constructed and tested. The device, consisting of a hand-held probe containing three sensors and a strap supported electronic module, weighs 4 1/2 kilograms. It is powered by flashlight and transistor radio batteries, utilizes two silicon and one lead sulfide detectors, has three liquid crystal displays, sample and hold radiometric sampling, and its spectral configuration corresponds to LANDSAT-D's thematic mapper bands. The device was designed to support thematic mapper ground-truth data collection efforts and to facilitate 'in situ' ground-based remote sensing studies of natural materials. Prototype instruments were extensively tested under laboratory and field conditions with excellent results.

  1. SHIELDING AND DETECTOR RESPONSE CALCULATIONS PERTAINING TO CATEGORY 1 QUANTITIES OF PLUTONIUM AND HAND-HELD PLASTIC SCINTILLATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, A.

    2013-06-07

    Nuclear facilities sometimes use hand-held plastic scintillator detectors to detect attempts to divert special nuclear material in situations where portal monitors are impractical. MCNP calculations have been performed to determine the neutron and gamma radiation field arising from a Category I quantity of weapons-grade plutonium in various shielding configurations. The shields considered were composed of combinations of lead and high-density polyethylene such that the mass of the plutonium plus shield was 22.7 kilograms. Monte-Carlo techniques were also used to determine the detector response to each of the shielding configurations. The detector response calculations were verified using field measurements of high-, medium-, and low- energy gamma-ray sources as well as a Cf-252 neutron source.

  2. Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Based on High-Efficiency Frisch-Ring Cdznte Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Y.; Bolotnikov, A; Camarda, G; Hossain, A; James, R; DeGeronimo, G; Fried, J; O'Connor, P; Kargar, A; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated both good energy resolution, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency in detecting gamma rays, highlighting the strong potential of CdZnTe materials for such applications. We are designing a hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8 times 8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so greatly improving detection efficiency. By using the front-end application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy-resolution. It includes a signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuits, a high-voltage module, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. In this paper, we detail the system's structure and report the results of our tests with it.

  3. Multi-projection fluorescence optical tomography using a hand-held probe-based optical imager: Phantom studies

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jiajia; Erickson, Sarah J; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    A hand-held probe based optical optical imager has recently been developed towards three-dimensional tomography. In this study, the improvement of target depth recovery was demonstrated using a multi-projection technique on large slab phantoms using 0.45 cc fluorescing target(s) (with 1:0 contrast ratio) of 1.5 to 2.5 cm deep. Tomographic results using single- and multi (here dual) projection measurements (with and without a priori information of target location) were compared. In all experimental cases, the use of multi-projection measurements along with a priori information recovered target depth and location closer to its true values, demonstrating its applicability for clinical translation. PMID:20697435

  4. HAND-HELD GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER BASED ON HIGH-EFFICIENCY FRISCH-RING CdZnTe DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI,Y.

    2007-05-01

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution, el% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. This technique facilitates the application of CdZnTe materials for high efficiency gamma-ray detection. A hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8x8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so that detection efficiency is significantly improved. By using the front-end ASICs developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy resolution. The spectrometer includes signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuit, high-voltage module, and USB interface. In this paper, we introduce the details of the system structure and report our test results with it.

  5. Computation of decompression schedules for single inert gas-oxygen dives using a hand-held programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Ranade, A; Peterson, R E

    1980-08-01

    An algorithm for on-site computation with a hand-held programmable calculator (TI-59, Texas Instruments) of single inert-gas decompression schedules is described. This program is based on Workman's 'M-value' method. It can compute decompression schedules with changes in the oxygen content of the breathing mixture and extension of stay at any decompression stop. The features of the program that enable calculation of atypical dive profiles, along with the portability of small calculators, would make such an algorithm suitable for on-site applications. However, since dive profiles generated by the program have not yet been tested, divers are warned not to generate schedules until their safety has been established by field tests.

  6. 3D Scan of Ornamental Column (huabiao) Using Terrestrial LiDAR and Hand-held Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Wang, C.; Xi, X.

    2015-08-01

    In ancient China, Huabiao was a type of ornamental column used to decorate important buildings. We carried out 3D scan of a Huabiao located in Peking University, China. This Huabiao was built no later than 1742. It is carved by white marble, 8 meters in height. Clouds and various postures of dragons are carved on its body. Two instruments were used to acquire the point cloud of this Huabiao, a terrestrial LiDAR (Riegl VZ-1000) and a hand-held imager (Mantis Vision F5). In this paper, the details of the experiment were described, including the differences between these two instruments, such as working principle, spatial resolution, accuracy, instrument dimension and working flow. The point clouds obtained respectively by these two instruments were compared, and the registered point cloud of Huabiao was also presented. These should be of interest and helpful for the research communities of archaeology and heritage.

  7. Real-time hand-held ultrasound medical-imaging device based on a new digital quadrature demodulation processor.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Philippe; Sawan, Mohamad

    2009-08-01

    A fully hardware-based real-time digital wideband quadrature demodulation processor based on the Hilbert transform is proposed to process ultrasound radio frequency signals. The presented architecture combines 2 finite impulse response (FIR) filters to process in-phase and quadrature signals and includes a piecewise linear approximation architecture that performs the required square root operations. The proposed implementation enables flexibility to support different transducers with its ability to load on-the-fly different FIR filter coefficient sets. The complexity and accuracy of the demodulator processor are analyzed with simulated RF data; a normalized residual sum-of-squares cost function is used for comparison with the Matlab Hilbert function. Three implementations are integrated into a hand-held ultrasound system for experimental accuracy and performance evaluation. Real-time images were acquired from a reference phantom, demonstrating the feasibility of using the presented architecture to perform real-time digital quadrature demodulation of ultrasonic signal echoes. Experimental results show that the implementation, using only 2942 slices and 3 dedicated digital multipliers of a low-cost and low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is accurate relative to a comparable software- based system; axial and lateral resolution of 1 mm and 2 mm, respectively, were obtained with a 12-mm piezoelectric transducer without postprocessing. Because the processing and sampling rates are the same, high-frequency ultrasound signals can be processed as well. For a 15-frame-per-second display, the hand-held ultrasonic imaging-processing core (FPGA, memory) requires only 45 mW (dynamic) when using a 5-MHz single-element piezoelectric transducer.

  8. Automatic detection of a hand-held needle in ultrasound via phased-based analysis of the tremor motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Parmida; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Rohling, Robert; Ng, Gary C.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic localization method for a standard hand-held needle in ultrasound based on temporal motion analysis of spatially decomposed data. Subtle displacement arising from tremor motion has a periodic pattern which is usually imperceptible in the intensity image but may convey information in the phase image. Our method aims to detect such periodic motion of a hand-held needle and distinguish it from intrinsic tissue motion, using a technique inspired by video magnification. Complex steerable pyramids allow specific design of the wavelets' orientations according to the insertion angle as well as the measurement of the local phase. We therefore use steerable pairs of even and odd Gabor wavelets to decompose the ultrasound B-mode sequence into various spatial frequency bands. Variations of the local phase measurements in the spatially decomposed input data is then temporally analyzed using a finite impulse response bandpass filter to detect regions with a tremor motion pattern. Results obtained from different pyramid levels are then combined and thresholded to generate the binary mask input for the Hough transform, which determines an estimate of the direction angle and discards some of the outliers. Polynomial fitting is used at the final stage to remove any remaining outliers and improve the trajectory detection. The detected needle is finally added back to the input sequence as an overlay of a cloud of points. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach to detect the needle using subtle tremor motion in an agar phantom and in-vivo porcine cases where intrinsic motion is also present. The localization accuracy was calculated by comparing to expert manual segmentation, and presented in (mean, standard deviation and root-mean-square error) of (0.93°, 1.26° and 0.87°) and (1.53 mm, 1.02 mm and 1.82 mm) for the trajectory and the tip, respectively.

  9. Assessment of Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Power Using Hand-Held and Fixed Dynamometry: A Reliability and Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    Perraton, Luke G.; Bower, Kelly J.; Adair, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Williams, Gavin P.; McGaw, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hand-held dynamometry (HHD) has never previously been used to examine isometric muscle power. Rate of force development (RFD) is often used for muscle power assessment, however no consensus currently exists on the most appropriate method of calculation. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of different algorithms for RFD calculation and to examine the intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability of HHD as well as the concurrent validity of HHD for the assessment of isometric lower limb muscle strength and power. Methods 30 healthy young adults (age: 23±5yrs, male: 15) were assessed on two sessions. Isometric muscle strength and power were measured using peak force and RFD respectively using two HHDs (Lafayette Model-01165 and Hoggan microFET2) and a criterion-reference KinCom dynamometer. Statistical analysis of reliability and validity comprised intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Pearson correlations, concordance correlations, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change. Results Comparison of RFD methods revealed that a peak 200ms moving window algorithm provided optimal reliability results. Intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability analysis of peak force and RFD revealed mostly good to excellent reliability (coefficients ≥ 0.70) for all muscle groups. Concurrent validity analysis showed moderate to excellent relationships between HHD and fixed dynamometry for the hip and knee (ICCs ≥ 0.70) for both peak force and RFD, with mostly poor to good results shown for the ankle muscles (ICCs = 0.31–0.79). Conclusions Hand-held dynamometry has good to excellent reliability and validity for most measures of isometric lower limb strength and power in a healthy population, particularly for proximal muscle groups. To aid implementation we have created freely available software to extract these variables from data stored on the Lafayette device. Future research should examine the reliability

  10. A new miniature hand-held solar-blind reagentless standoff chemical, biological, and explosives (CBE) sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, W. F.; Reid, R. D.; Bhartia, R.; Lane, A. L.

    2008-04-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs), vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs), and suicide bombers are a major threat to many countries and their citizenry. The ability to detect trace levels of these threats with a miniature, hand-held, reagentless, standoff sensor represents a major improvement in the state of the art of CBE surface sensors. Photon Systems, Inc., in collaboration with Jet Propulsion Laboratory, recently demonstrated a new technology hand-held sensor for reagentless, close-range, standoff detection and identification of trace levels CBE materials on surfaces. This targeted ultraviolet CBE (TUCBE) sensor is the result of an Army Phase I STTR program. The resulting 5lb, 5W, flashlight-sized sensor can discriminate CBE from background materials using a combination of deep UV excited resonance Raman (RR) and laser induced native fluorescence (LINF) emissions resulting from excitation by a new technology deep UV laser. Detection and identification is accomplished in less than 1ms. Standoff excitation of suspicious packages, vehicles, persons, and other objects that may contain hazardous materials is accomplished using wavelengths below 250nm where Raman and native fluorescence emissions occupy distinctly different wavelength regions. This enables simultaneous detection of RR and LINF emissions with no interferences. The sensor employs fused RR/LINF chemometric methods to extract the identity of targeted materials from background clutter. Photon Systems has demonstrated detection and identification of 100ng/cm2 of explosives materials at a distance of 1 meter using a sensor with 3.8 cm optical aperture. Expansion of the optical aperture to 38 cm in a lantern-sized sensor will enable similar detection and identification of CBE materials at standoff distances of 10 meters. As a result of excitation and detection in the deep UV and the use of a gated detection system, the sensor is solar blind and can operate in full daylight conditions.

  11. Differences in aerosol output and airways responsiveness between the DeVilbiss 40 and 45 hand held nebulisers.

    PubMed

    Hartley-Sharpe, C J; Booth, H; Johns, D P; Walters, E H

    1995-06-01

    The DeVilbiss 40 glass hand held nebulisers have been widely used for airways responsiveness testing in epidemiological surveys of asthma. These nebulisers have been superseded in some recent studies by the DeVilbiss 45 plastic hand held nebulisers with the assumption that they are interchangeable. This study compared the aerosol outputs of the DeVilbiss 40 and DeVilbiss 45 nebulisers and investigated whether there was any difference in the in vivo measurements of airways responsiveness when using the two nebuliser types. The aerosol output of six DeVilbiss 40 and six DeVilbiss 45 nebulisers was calculated by weight loss per actuation, the usual method of calibrating nebuliser output, and compared with the true amount of aerosol obtained measured by a flouride tracer technique. Airways responsiveness was measured twice in 13 asthmatic patients under identical conditions by the Yan protocol using DeVilbiss 40 and 45 nebulisers in random order. Weight loss overestimated the true aerosol output of both types of nebulisers. Weight loss was similar for the DeVilbiss 40 and 45 nebulisers but the true aerosol output of the DeVilbiss 45 was nearly twice that of the DeVilbiss 40 nebuliser. The geometric mean PD20 values with the DeVilbiss 40 nebuliser was a mean 1.7 doubling doses of histamine higher than that obtained with the DeVilbiss 45 nebuliser. The DeVilbiss 40 and 45 nebulisers should not be used interchangeably for airways responsiveness testing merely because their outputs based on weight loss are similar. Artefactual differences in the prevalence rates of airways responsiveness could occur in longitudinal studies if a change was inadvertently made from using DeVilbiss 40 to DeVilbiss 45 nebulisers.

  12. Differences in aerosol output and airways responsiveness between the DeVilbiss 40 and 45 hand held nebulisers.

    PubMed Central

    Hartley-Sharpe, C. J.; Booth, H.; Johns, D. P.; Walters, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The DeVilbiss 40 glass hand held nebulisers have been widely used for airways responsiveness testing in epidemiological surveys of asthma. These nebulisers have been superseded in some recent studies by the DeVilbiss 45 plastic hand held nebulisers with the assumption that they are interchangeable. This study compared the aerosol outputs of the DeVilbiss 40 and DeVilbiss 45 nebulisers and investigated whether there was any difference in the in vivo measurements of airways responsiveness when using the two nebuliser types. METHODS--The aerosol output of six DeVilbiss 40 and six DeVilbiss 45 nebulisers was calculated by weight loss per actuation, the usual method of calibrating nebuliser output, and compared with the true amount of aerosol obtained measured by a flouride tracer technique. Airways responsiveness was measured twice in 13 asthmatic patients under identical conditions by the Yan protocol using DeVilbiss 40 and 45 nebulisers in random order. RESULTS--Weight loss overestimated the true aerosol output of both types of nebulisers. Weight loss was similar for the DeVilbiss 40 and 45 nebulisers but the true aerosol output of the DeVilbiss 45 was nearly twice that of the DeVilbiss 40 nebuliser. The geometric mean PD20 values with the DeVilbiss 40 nebuliser was a mean 1.7 doubling doses of histamine higher than that obtained with the DeVilbiss 45 nebuliser. CONCLUSIONS--The DeVilbiss 40 and 45 nebulisers should not be used interchangeably for airways responsiveness testing merely because their outputs based on weight loss are similar. Artefactual differences in the prevalence rates of airways responsiveness could occur in longitudinal studies if a change was inadvertently made from using DeVilbiss 40 to DeVilbiss 45 nebulisers. PMID:7638805

  13. Assessment of Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Power Using Hand-Held and Fixed Dynamometry: A Reliability and Validity Study.

    PubMed

    Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Perraton, Luke G; Bower, Kelly J; Adair, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Williams, Gavin P; McGaw, Rebekah; Clark, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    Hand-held dynamometry (HHD) has never previously been used to examine isometric muscle power. Rate of force development (RFD) is often used for muscle power assessment, however no consensus currently exists on the most appropriate method of calculation. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of different algorithms for RFD calculation and to examine the intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability of HHD as well as the concurrent validity of HHD for the assessment of isometric lower limb muscle strength and power. 30 healthy young adults (age: 23±5 yrs, male: 15) were assessed on two sessions. Isometric muscle strength and power were measured using peak force and RFD respectively using two HHDs (Lafayette Model-01165 and Hoggan microFET2) and a criterion-reference KinCom dynamometer. Statistical analysis of reliability and validity comprised intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Pearson correlations, concordance correlations, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change. Comparison of RFD methods revealed that a peak 200 ms moving window algorithm provided optimal reliability results. Intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability analysis of peak force and RFD revealed mostly good to excellent reliability (coefficients ≥ 0.70) for all muscle groups. Concurrent validity analysis showed moderate to excellent relationships between HHD and fixed dynamometry for the hip and knee (ICCs ≥ 0.70) for both peak force and RFD, with mostly poor to good results shown for the ankle muscles (ICCs = 0.31-0.79). Hand-held dynamometry has good to excellent reliability and validity for most measures of isometric lower limb strength and power in a healthy population, particularly for proximal muscle groups. To aid implementation we have created freely available software to extract these variables from data stored on the Lafayette device. Future research should examine the reliability and validity of these variables in clinical

  14. Cellphone-Based Hand-Held Microplate Reader for Point-of-Care Testing of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays.

    PubMed

    Berg, Brandon; Cortazar, Bingen; Tseng, Derek; Ozkan, Haydar; Feng, Steve; Wei, Qingshan; Chan, Raymond Yan-Lok; Burbano, Jordi; Farooqui, Qamar; Lewinski, Michael; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-08-25

    Standard microplate based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are widely utilized for various nanomedicine, molecular sensing, and disease screening applications, and this multiwell plate batched analysis dramatically reduces diagnosis costs per patient compared to nonbatched or nonstandard tests. However, their use in resource-limited and field-settings is inhibited by the necessity for relatively large and expensive readout instruments. To mitigate this problem, we created a hand-held and cost-effective cellphone-based colorimetric microplate reader, which uses a 3D-printed opto-mechanical attachment to hold and illuminate a 96-well plate using a light-emitting-diode (LED) array. This LED light is transmitted through each well, and is then collected via 96 individual optical fibers. Captured images of this fiber-bundle are transmitted to our servers through a custom-designed app for processing using a machine learning algorithm, yielding diagnostic results, which are delivered to the user within ∼1 min per 96-well plate, and are visualized using the same app. We successfully tested this mobile platform in a clinical microbiology laboratory using FDA-approved mumps IgG, measles IgG, and herpes simplex virus IgG (HSV-1 and HSV-2) ELISA tests using a total of 567 and 571 patient samples for training and blind testing, respectively, and achieved an accuracy of 99.6%, 98.6%, 99.4%, and 99.4% for mumps, measles, HSV-1, and HSV-2 tests, respectively. This cost-effective and hand-held platform could assist health-care professionals to perform high-throughput disease screening or tracking of vaccination campaigns at the point-of-care, even in resource-poor and field-settings. Also, its intrinsic wireless connectivity can serve epidemiological studies, generating spatiotemporal maps of disease prevalence and immunity.

  15. Hand-held tidal breathing nasal nitric oxide measurement--a promising targeted case-finding tool for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum

    2013-01-01

    Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurement is an established first line test in the work-up for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Tidal breathing nNO (TB-nNO) measurements require minimal cooperation and are potentially useful even in young children. Hand-held NO devices are becoming increasingly widespread for asthma management. Therefore, we chose to assess whether hand-held TB-nNO measurements reliably discriminate between PCD, and Healthy Subjects (HS) and included Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients as a disease control group known to have intermediate nNO levels. In this cross sectional, single centre, single occasion, proof-of-concept study in children and adults with PCD and CF, and in HS we compared feasibility, success rates, discriminatory capacity, repeatability and agreement between a hand-held electrochemical device equipped with a nNO software application sampling at flow rates 2 ml/s or 5 ml/s, and two stationary chemiluminescence devices, applying both tidal breathing and velum closure techniques. Measurements were done in 16 PCD patients, 21 patients with CF and 20 HS aged between 3.8 and 60.9 years. Hand-held TB-nNO showed high success rate (96.5-100%) vs. velum closure nNO techniques (70.2-89.5%). Hand-held TB-nNO sampling at flow rate 5 ml/s showed equally high discriminative power (PCD vs. HS [p<0.0001] and PCD vs. CF [p<0.0001]) and reaching close to 100% sensitivity and specificity, superior repeatability (CV% = 10%) and equal limits of agreement compared to TB-nNO by stationary devices and even compared to velum closure sampling. Hand-held TB-nNO discriminates significantly between PCD, CF and HS and shows promising potential as a widespread targeted case-finding tool for PCD, although further studies are warranted before implementation.

  16. Hand-held photoionization instruments for quantitative detection of sarin vapor and for rapid qualitative screening of contaminated objects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip A; Lepage, Carmela Jackson; Harrer, Kristin L; Brochu, Paul J

    2007-10-01

    Suitable detectors are needed to support survey needs of incident responders and health care personnel who may receive patients from an incident with exposures to hazardous chemicals. In the health care setting, such a detector would avoid cross-contamination to workers, patients, and to the treatment facility and associated equipment. An ideal survey detector would be sensitive, hand-held, capable of extended battery operation, and would provide a nearly immediate detector response on exposure to a broad range of high-concern chemicals. For responders, important capabilities would include quantitative measurement of gas/vapor contamination, and for both response and health care settings, qualitative detection of contaminated people and objects. In this study, the operating characteristics of photoionization detector (PID) instruments were examined using O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin) in a laboratory setting. Instrument response factors were calculated for quantitation of airborne sarin, and speed of detector response and recovery were examined with point-contaminated cloth material. By sampling a range of sarin-contaminated air, calculated isobutylene unit response factors for high-and moderate-sensitivity commercial PID instrument types were 11.3 and 14.0 (dry air) and 20.1 and 44.4 (50% relative humidity), respectively. Response of the PID systems was highly correlated to concentration sampled, with R(2) values greater than or equal to 0.997 for all combinations of PID detector type and humidity. While not sensitive enough to warn the unprotected public against a chemical with an extremely low "safe" exposure concentration, quantitation with available PID instruments could be useful to quickly prioritize corrective measures for a PID-detectable chemical. Qualitative survey characteristics were examined for the more sensitive PID tested using a piece of cloth material contaminated by a 1.0 micro L droplet of liquid sarin. Rapid response and

  17. Validation of a new hand-held electronic data capture method for continuous monitoring of subjective appetite sensations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When large scale trials are investigating the effects of interventions on appetite, it is paramount to efficiently monitor large amounts of human data. The original hand-held Electronic Appetite Ratings System (EARS) was designed to facilitate the administering and data management of visual analogue scales (VAS) of subjective appetite sensations. The purpose of this study was to validate a novel hand-held method (EARS II (HP® iPAQ)) against the standard Pen and Paper (P&P) method and the previously validated EARS. Methods Twelve participants (5 male, 7 female, aged 18-40) were involved in a fully repeated measures design. Participants were randomly assigned in a crossover design, to either high fat (>48% fat) or low fat (<28% fat) meal days, one week apart and completed ratings using the three data capture methods ordered according to Latin Square. The first set of appetite sensations was completed in a fasted state, immediately before a fixed breakfast. Thereafter, appetite sensations were completed every thirty minutes for 4h. An ad libitum lunch was provided immediately before completing a final set of appetite sensations. Results Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted for ratings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. There were no significant differences between P&P compared with either EARS or EARS II (p > 0.05). Correlation coefficients between P&P and EARS II, controlling for age and gender, were performed on Area Under the Curve ratings. R2 for Hunger (0.89), Fullness (0.96) and Desire to Eat (0.95) were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions EARS II was sensitive to the impact of a meal and recovery of appetite during the postprandial period and is therefore an effective device for monitoring appetite sensations. This study provides evidence and support for further validation of the novel EARS II method for monitoring appetite sensations during large scale studies. The added versatility means that future uses of the system provides

  18. Hand-held dynamometry in patients with haematological malignancies: Measurement error in the clinical assessment of knee extension strength

    PubMed Central

    Knols, Ruud H; Aufdemkampe, Geert; de Bruin, Eling D; Uebelhart, Daniel; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    Background Hand-held dynamometry is a portable and inexpensive method to quantify muscle strength. To determine if muscle strength has changed, an examiner must know what part of the difference between a patient's pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements is attributable to real change, and what part is due to measurement error. This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of intra and inter-observer strength measurements with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). Methods Two observers performed maximum voluntary peak torque measurements (MVPT) for isometric knee extension in 24 patients with haematological malignancies. For each patient, the measurements were carried out on the same day. The main outcome measures were the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ± 95%CI), the standard error of measurement (SEM), the smallest detectable difference (SDD), the relative values as % of the grand mean of the SEM and SDD, and the limits of agreement for the intra- and inter-observer '3 repetition average' and the 'highest value of 3 MVPT' knee extension strength measures. Results The intra-observer ICCs were 0.94 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.86–0.97) and 0.86 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.71–0.94). The ICCs for the inter-observer measurements were 0.89 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.75–0.95) and 0.77 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.54–0.90). The SEMs for the intra-observer measurements were 6.22 Nm (3.98% of the grand mean (GM) and 9.83 Nm (5.88% of GM). For the inter-observer measurements, the SEMs were 9.65 Nm (6.65% of GM) and 11.41 Nm (6.73% of GM). The SDDs for the generated parameters varied from 17.23 Nm (11.04% of GM) to 27.26 Nm (17.09% of GM) for intra-observer measurements, and 26.76 Nm (16.77% of GM) to 31.62 Nm (18.66% of GM) for inter-observer measurements, with similar results for the limits of agreement. Conclusion The results indicate that there is acceptable relative reliability for

  19. A low cost, colour coded, hand held spring scale accurately categorises birth weight in low resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, L C; Darmstadt, G L; Coffey, P; Khatry, S K; LeClerq, S C; Tielsch, J M

    2006-01-01

    Aims To determine the accuracy of a low cost, spring calibrated, hand held scale in classifying newborns into three weight categories (⩾2500 g, 2000–2499 g, <2000 g). Methods The test device was compared to a gold standard digital baby scale with precision to 2 g. In Sarlahi district, Nepal, 1890 newborns were eligible for the study. Measurements were collected for both the test device and the digital scale from 1820 (96.3%) newborns. Results The overall low birth weight (LBW) prevalence rate for the gold standard digital scale was 28.1% (511/1820). Sensitivity (93.7%) and specificity (97.6%) of the test device was high compared to LBW classifications based on digital weight measurements. Classification of infants into the <2000 g category was 5.0% and 4.7% for the gold standard and test device, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of the test device in identifying infants <2000 g was 87.8% and 99.6%, respectively. Positive predictive values were high (>91%) for both weight categories Conclusions This low cost, simple‐to‐use device classified infants into weight categories with a high degree of consistency and accuracy that exceeds that of surrogate measures. This new device is useful for identifying and targeting life saving interventions for LBW, high risk infants in settings where infants are born in the home and conventional weighing scales are unavailable. PMID:16464960

  20. Characterization of a high performance ultra-thin heat pipe cooling module for mobile hand held electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, Mohammad Shahed; Saito, Yuji; Mashiko, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masataka

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, heat pipes have been widely used in various hand held mobile electronic devices such as smart phones, tablet PCs, digital cameras. With the development of technology these devices have different user friendly features and applications; which require very high clock speeds of the processor. In general, a high clock speed generates a lot of heat, which needs to be spreaded or removed to eliminate the hot spot on the processor surface. However, it is a challenging task to achieve proper cooling of such electronic devices mentioned above because of their confined spaces and concentrated heat sources. Regarding this challenge, we introduced an ultra-thin heat pipe; this heat pipe consists of a special fiber wick structure named as "Center Fiber Wick" which can provide sufficient vapor space on the both sides of the wick structure. We also developed a cooling module that uses this kind of ultra-thin heat pipe to eliminate the hot spot issue. This cooling module consists of an ultra-thin heat pipe and a metal plate. By changing the width, the flattened thickness and the effective length of the ultra-thin heat pipe, several experiments have been conducted to characterize the thermal properties of the developed cooling module. In addition, other experiments were also conducted to determine the effects of changes in the number of heat pipes in a single module. Characterization and comparison of the module have also been conducted both experimentally and theoretically.

  1. Comparison of maximal voluntary isometric contraction and Drachman's hand-held dynamometry in evaluating patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Beck, M; Giess, R; Würffel, W; Magnus, T; Ochs, G; Toyka, K V

    1999-09-01

    Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) is a standard tool for assessment of muscle strength in treatment trials for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). There is need for more practical bedside techniques especially for severely disabled patients. Hand-held dynamometry (HH-Dyn) is an inexpensive and easy-to-handle device. MVIC was measured in five proximal muscle groups bilaterally and compared with HH-Dyn in 43 ALS patients. After a training period we found good intrarater correlation for HH-Dyn (r = 0.99), with a low coefficient of variation. Measurements tended to become more accurate after repeated testing due to practice effects in examiners and patients. Overall correlation between HH-Dyn and MVIC was good [r = 0.85 (P < 0.01)]. Strength-range-specific analysis showed a significant linear correlation up to 20 kg (44 lbs.) [r = 0.57 (P < 0.01)]. However, we found a tendency to underestimate muscle strength above 10 kg by HH-Dyn as compared with MVIC, but this became meaningful only above a force of 20 kg. HH-Dyn provides a strength estimate with a precision close to MVIC in weak muscle groups (MRC grade 4). With standardization and appropriate training, HH-Dyn is a useful bedside test, providing an alternative to MVIC for follow-up assessment in ALS. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. ECG boy: low-cost medical instrumentation using mass-produced, hand-held entertainment computers. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Rohde, M M; Bement, S L; Lupa, R S

    1998-01-01

    A prototype low-cost, portable ECG monitor, the "ECG Boy," is described. A mass produced hand-held video game platform is the basis for a complete three-lead, driven right-leg electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG circuitry is planned to fit in a standard modular cartridge that is inserted in a production Nintendo "Gameboy." The combination is slightly smaller than a paperback book and weighs less than 500 g. The unit contains essential safety features such as optical isolation and is powered by 9-V and AA batteries. Functionally, the ECG Boy permits viewing ECG recordings in real time on the integrated screen. The user can select both the lead displayed on the screen and the time scale used. A 1-mV reference allows for calibration. Other ECG enhancements such as data transmission via telephone can be easily and inexpensively added to this system. The ECG Boy is intended as a proof of concept for a new class of low-cost biomedical instruments. Rising health care costs coupled with tightened funding have created an acute demand for low-cost medical equipment that satisfies safety and quality standards. A mass-produced microprocessor-based platform designed for the entertainment market can keep costs low while providing a functional basis for a biomedical instrument.

  3. A hand held two-channel vibro-tactile speech communication aid for the deaf: characteristics and results.

    PubMed

    Spens, K E; Huss, C; Dahlqvist, M; Agelfors, E

    1997-01-01

    The OSCAR-project (Optimal Speech Communication Assistance for Residual Abilities) within the TIDE frame is aiming at processing the speech signal in such a way so that it can be more effectively aurally perceived than with an ordinary hearing aid in case of a very small residual hearing. In case of total deafness the code will be tactile and in some cases a multi modal approach will be tried. One of the sub-results of the OSCAR-project is a hand held vibro-tactile speech communication aid for profoundly hard of hearing and deaf persons. The main idea of the aid is that it should not be a general tactile hearing aid, but rather give optimum tactile support to lip-reading in a close communication situation. It should be used when speech communication is necessary and other methods of communication i.e. sign language, lip-reading, reading and writing etc. does not work. The aid conveys two types of information via its two vibro-tactile transducers; the syllabic rhythm and frication. This paper describes some characteristics of the aid and some results.

  4. Test-retest reliabilities of hand-held dynamometer for lower-limb muscle strength in intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Wang, Min-Hung; Lin, Hsiu-Ching

    2013-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliabilities of hand-held dynamometer (HDD) for measuring lower-limb muscle strength in intellectual disabilities (ID). The other purposes were to: (1) compare the lower-limb muscle strength between children with and without ID; (2) probe the relationship between the muscle forces and agility performance in ID; and (3) explore the factors associated with muscle strength in ID. Sixty-one participants (30 boys and 31 girls; mean age=14.1 ± 3.3 year) were assessed by the HDD using a "make" test. The comparative group consisted of 63 typically developing children (33 boys and 30 girls; mean age=14.9 ± 2.1 year). The ID group demonstrated lower muscle groups than in typically developing group. Except for the ankle plantarflexors (ICC=0.69, SEM=0.72), test-retest analysis showed good intrarater reliability with ICC ranging from 0.81 to 0.96, and intrarater SEM values ranged from 0.40 to 0.57. The HDD has the potential to be a reliable tool for strength measurement in ID. Muscle strength was positively related to agility performance. Regression analysis indicated that height, weight, BMI, and activity level were significant predictors of muscle strength in ID.

  5. Reliability of measurements of knee extensor muscle strength using a pull-type hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Terumi

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliabilities of measurements of knee extensor muscle strength using a pull-type hand-held dynamometer (HHD). [Subjects] Fifty-four healthy adults (35 males; average age, 23 years) participated in this study. [Methods] Knee extensor muscle strength of each leg was measured three times using the HHD. To examine the intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities, measurements were performed by two examiners, a physical therapist and a physical therapy student. [Results] The intra-examiner reliabilities, ICC (1, 1) and ICC (1, 3) ranged from 0.94-0.99. The inter-examiner reliabilities, ICC (2, 1) and ICC (3, 1) ranged from 0.90-0.92 for the right leg, and 0.88-0.90 for the left leg. Neither constant nor proportional errors were found by Bland-Altman analysis. [Conclusion] Intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliabilities were acceptable, indicating that muscle strength can be measured with the pull-type HHD without dependence on skill of measurement. Pain was not caused by measurements with the pull-type HHD.

  6. Measurement of vibrations and evaluation of protective gloves for work with hand-held power tools in industrial settings.

    PubMed

    Milosevic, Matija; McConville, Kristiina M V

    2007-01-01

    This study considers the use of hand-held power tools and the exposure of a large number of employees to hand-arm vibrations in work settings as well as the harmful effects that such exposure has on health and safety. The major objective of the project was the development of a diagnostic device for the detection and monitoring of the vibrations produced during work activities in a natural working environment and to analyze the impact of the vibrations on workers during different work operations. The developed device for vibration monitoring is based on the latest generation MEMS tri-axis accelerometer with a wireless link with the PC station. This study demonstrates the use of the device in evaluating the level of protection that gloves provide concerning the level of vibrations during work operations. The initial evaluation shows that the proposed solution provides an effective multifunctional, low-cost diagnostic device for vibration measurement in natural work settings. Preliminary results indicate that the developed device could be used for health and safety studies, evaluation of protective equipment, and ongoing monitoring in a natural working environment, and in this way may lead to more effective prevention and management of the risks associated with exposure to workplace vibrations.

  7. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    SciTech Connect

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís

    2014-10-27

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  8. a Comparison of Biodynamic Models of the Human HAND-ARM System for Applications to Hand-Held Power Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RAKHEJA, S.; WU, J. Z.; DONG, R. G.; SCHOPPER, A. W.; BOILEAU, P.-É.

    2002-01-01

    The biodynamic response characteristics of various mechanical models of the human hand and arm system, reported in the literature, are evaluated in terms of their driving-point mechanical impedance modulus and phase responses. The suitability of the reported models for applications in realizing a mechanical simulator and assessment of vibration behavior of hand-held power tools is examined using three different criteria. These include the ability of the model to characterize the driving-point mechanical impedance of the human hand-arm system within the range of idealized values presented in ISO-10068 (1998); the magnitude of model deflection under a static feed force; and the vibration properties of the human hand and arm evaluated in terms of natural frequencies and damping ratios. From the relative evaluations of 12 different models, it is concluded that a vast majority of these models cannot be applied for the development of a mechanical hand-arm simulator or the assessment of dynamic behavior of the coupled hand-tool system. The higher order models, with three and four degrees of freedom, in general, yield impedance characteristics within the range of idealized values, but exhibit excessive static deflections. Moreover, these models involve very light masses (in the 1·2-4·8 g range), and exhibit either one or two vibration modes at frequencies below 10 Hz. The majority of the lower order models yield reasonable magnitudes of static deflections but relatively poor agreement with idealized values of driving-point mechanical impedance.

  9. Hand-held Sunphotometry in Support of the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plana-Fattori, A.; Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Martins, J. V.; Kleidman, R. G.; Levy, R.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.

    2002-05-01

    Daily information about the atmospheric aerosol has been obtained from measurements performed with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite. The aerosol optical thickness at selected visible and near-infrared wavelengths (and other aerosol properties) has been monitored over the oceans globally and over a portion of the continents, at the spatial resolution of 10 X 10 km at nadir. In support of the CLAMS experiment, six hand-held MICROTOPS sunphotometers were operated near the NASA Wallops Flight Facility and at the Lighthouse located near the mouth of the Cheasapeake Bay. These instruments were ordered with different wavelength passbands (340, 440, 675, 870, and 936nm; or 380, 500, 675, 870, and 1640nm; or 440, 870, 936, 1640, and 2100nm). Their simultaneous operation at up to four different locations near Wallops as the Terra satellite orbited overhead may assess the aerosol optical thickness variability at the spatial scale of MODIS aerosol retrievals. On the other hand, the availability of MICROTOPS measurements at 1640 and 2100nm may contribute to the validation of MODIS aerosol optical thickness estimates at wavelengths which are usually absent in solar radiometer networks (AERONET, MFRSR, etc). This paper discusses the consistency of MICROTOPS measurements, including comparisons with the NASA Ames 14-channel Automated Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) onboard the University of Washington CV-580 research aircraft. Case studies are shown.

  10. Target detection and quantification using a hybrid hand-held diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography system

    PubMed Central

    Kumavor, Patrick D.; Xu, Chen; Aguirre, Andres; Gamelin, John; Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Zanganeh, Saeid; Alqasemi, Umar; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Quing

    2011-01-01

    We present a photoacoustic tomography-guided diffuse optical tomography approach using a hand-held probe for detection and characterization of deeply-seated targets embedded in a turbid medium. Diffuse optical tomography guided by coregistered ultrasound, MRI, and x ray has demonstrated a great clinical potential to overcome lesion location uncertainty and to improve light quantification accuracy. However, due to the different contrast mechanisms, some lesions may not be detectable by a nonoptical modality but yet have high optical contrast. Photoacoustic tomography utilizes a short-pulsed laser beam to diffusively penetrate into tissue. Upon absorption of the light by the target, photoacoustic waves are generated and used to reconstruct, at ultrasound resolution, the optical absorption distribution that reveals optical contrast. However, the robustness of optical property quantification of targets by photoacoustic tomography is complicated because of the wide range of ultrasound transducer sensitivity, the orientation and shape of the targets relative to the ultrasound array, and the uniformity of the laser beam. We show in this paper that the relative optical absorption map provided by photoacoustic tomography can potentially guide the diffuse optical tomography to accurately reconstruct target absorption maps. PMID:21529079

  11. Intrarater reliability of hand held dynamometry in measuring lower extremity isometric strength using a portable stabilization device.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Steven M; Cheng, M Samuel; Smith, A Russell; Kolber, Morey J

    2017-02-01

    Hand held dynamometry (HHD) is a more objective way to quantify muscle force production (MP) compared to traditional manual muscle testing. HHD reliability can be negatively impacted by both the strength of the tester and the subject particularly in the lower extremities due to larger muscle groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to assess intrarater reliability of HHD with use of a portable stabilization device for lower extremity MP in an athletic population. Isometric lower extremity strength was measured for bilateral lower extremities including hip abductors, external rotators, adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors was measured in a sample of healthy recreational runners (8 male, 7 females, = 30 limbs) training for a marathon. These measurements were assessed using an intrasession intrarater reliability design. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated using 3,1 model based on the single rater design. The standard error of measurement (SEM) for each muscle group was also calculated. ICC were excellent ranging from ICC (3,1) = 0.93-0.98 with standard error of measurements ranging from 0.58 to 17.2 N. This study establishes the use of a HHD with a portable stabilization device as demonstrating good reliability within testers for measuring lower extremity muscle performance in an active healthy population.

  12. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique.

    PubMed

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss.

  13. The usefulness and limitations of hand-held refractometers in veterinary laboratory medicine: an historical and technical review.

    PubMed

    George, Jeanne W.

    2001-01-01

    Medical hand-held refractometers have been used in veterinary practice since their development in the 1960s. They have become ubiquitous for the measurement of protein and urine solute concentrations because of their rapidity of analysis, ease of use, and relatively low cost. Refraction of light offers advantages for the determination of solute concentrations because the measurement requires no chemical alteration of the specimen. Numerous authors have reported that the results of protein estimation by refractometry for domestic mammals correlate well with those obtained by the biuret method, although others have reported both higher and lower refractometric results compared with biuret results. Major discrepancies between biuret and refractometric results have been reported for avian samples. Some of the variation in reported results may be due to differences in design by refractometer manufacturers. Another possible source may be variation in the biuret reagent mixture and assay conditions. Refractometers also can be used to calculate serum water concentration. A table that converts index of refraction to serum water concentration can be used to convert electrolyte concentration from mmol/L of serum to mmol/L of serum water, a more accurate indicator of effective electrolyte concentration. Refractometers are especially useful for determining urine specific gravity on veterinary samples because they require relatively small sample volumes. Specific gravity continues to be the most common unit for reporting total solids concentration. Some solutes, such as acetone, may cause false increases in specific gravity by refractometry, as they increase refraction but are less dense than water.

  14. Task difficulty and inertial properties of hand-held tools: An assessment of their concurrent effects on precision aiming.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula L; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Figueiredo, Priscilla Rezende Pereira; Avelar, Bruna Silva; de Andrade, André Gustavo Pereira; Fonseca, Sérgio T; Mancini, Marisa Cotta

    2016-08-01

    Aiming hand-held tools at targets in space entails adjustments in the dynamical organization of aiming patterns according to the required precision. We asked whether and how these adjustments are modified by the tool's mass distribution. Twelve participants performed reciprocal aiming movements with a 50-cm long wooden probe. Kinematic patterns of probe movements were used as a window into the behavioral dynamic underlying performance of a reciprocal aiming task. We crossed three levels of task difficulty (IDs 2.8, 4.5 and 6.1) with two types of probe varying in their mass distribution (proximal vs distal loading). Movement duration was affected by task difficulty and probe loading (shorter for larger targets and proximal probe loading). Progressive deviations from a sinusoidal movement pattern were observed as task difficulty increased. Such deviations were more pronounced with proximal probe loading. Results point to a higher degree of non-linearity in aiming dynamics when the probe was loaded proximally, which might reflect employment of additional perceptual-motor processes to control the position of its less stable tip at the vicinity of the targets. More generally, the effects of probe loading on aiming pattern and dynamics suggest that perceptual-motor processes responding to task level constraints are sensitive to, and not independent from, biomechanical, end-effector constraints.

  15. Comparison of a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine urine specific gravity.

    PubMed

    Paris, J K; Bennett, A D; Dodkin, S J; Gunn-Moore, D A

    2012-05-05

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is used clinically as a measure of urine concentration, and is routinely assessed by refractometry. A comparison between optical analogue and digital refractometers for evaluation of canine urine has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine USG, and to assess correlation with urine osmolality. Prospective study. Free-catch urine samples were collected from 285 hospitalised adult dogs, and paired USG readings were obtained with a digital and an optical analogue refractometer. In 50 dogs, urine osmolality was also measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. There was a small but statistically significant difference between the two refractometers (P<0.001), with the optical analogue refractometer reading higher than the digital refractometer (mean difference 0.0006, sd 0.0012). Paired refractometer measurements varied by <0.002 in 91.5 per cent of cases. The optical analogue and digital refractometer readings showed excellent correlation with osmolality (r=0.980 and r=0.977, respectively, P<0.001 in both cases). Despite statistical significance, the difference between the two refractometers is unlikely to be clinically significant. Both instruments provide an accurate assessment of USG in dogs.

  16. Beyond Textbook Illustrations: Hand-Held Models of Ordered DNA and Protein Structures as 3D Supplements to Enhance Student Learning of Helical Biopolymers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2010-01-01

    Textbook illustrations of 3D biopolymers on printed paper, regardless of how detailed and colorful, suffer from its two-dimensionality. For beginners, computer screen display of skeletal models of biopolymers and their animation usually does not provide the at-a-glance 3D perception and details, which can be done by good hand-held models. Here, we…

  17. Beyond Textbook Illustrations: Hand-Held Models of Ordered DNA and Protein Structures as 3D Supplements to Enhance Student Learning of Helical Biopolymers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2010-01-01

    Textbook illustrations of 3D biopolymers on printed paper, regardless of how detailed and colorful, suffer from its two-dimensionality. For beginners, computer screen display of skeletal models of biopolymers and their animation usually does not provide the at-a-glance 3D perception and details, which can be done by good hand-held models. Here, we…

  18. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  19. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  20. Rapid and automatic chemical identification of the medicinal flower buds of Lonicera plants by the benchtop and hand-held Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianbo; Guo, Baolin; Yan, Rui; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun

    2017-07-01

    With the utilization of the hand-held equipment, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a promising analytical technique to minimize the time cost for the chemical identification of herbal materials. This research examines the feasibility of the hand-held FT-IR spectrometer for the on-site testing of herbal materials, using Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF) and Lonicerae Flos (LF) as examples. Correlation-based linear discriminant models for LJF and LF are established based on the benchtop and hand-held FT-IR instruments. The benchtop FT-IR models can exactly recognize all articles of LJF and LF. Although a few LF articles are misjudged at the sub-class level, the hand-held FT-IR models are able to exactly discriminate LJF and LF. As a direct and label-free analytical technique, FT-IR spectroscopy has great potential in the rapid and automatic chemical identification of herbal materials either in laboratories or in fields. This is helpful to prevent the spread and use of adulterated herbal materials in time.

  1. Field-calibration of a hand-held TDR for determining soil moisture in an irrigated and a rainfed biofuel feedstock production system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural soil emissions of temperature-forcing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are tightly coupled to soil moisture status. To determine the suitability of a rapid measurement method for soil volumetric water content (VWC; m3 m-3), a hand-held time-domain ref...

  2. Validation of a hand-held X-ray absorptiometer caliper against computerized tomography for in vivo soft tissue composition analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To develop and validate a hand-held caliper which uses a dual-energy radioactive source to monitor regional changes in mid-thigh muscle mass and % fat. Methods: Optimum photon energies were determined by minimization of uncertainties in fat content measurements due to photon count statist...

  3. Determination of soluble solids content and titratable acidity of intact fruit and juice of Satsuma mandarin using a hand-held NIR instrument in transmittance mode

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determination of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) of intact fruit and juice of Satsuma mandarin was investigated using a hand-held NIR instrument “NIR-Gun” in transmittance mode. The resulting calibration equation measured SSC of intact fruit and juice with a standard error o...

  4. An Examination of Hand-Held Computer-Assisted Instruction on Subtraction Skills for Second Grade Students with Learning and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordness, Philip D.; Haverkost, Ann; Volberding, Annette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a mathematic flashcard application on a hand-held computing device was examined across three individual second grade students with learning and behavioral disabilities. All of the students improved their subtraction scores by an average of 17% as measured by the district-created, curriculum-based assessment. The results of this study…

  5. The Status of Hand Held Calculators in Secondary Mathematics: An Examination of Issues and Uses in the Classroom throughout the Mid-Hudson Valley Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostapczuk, Edward D.

    In light of research findings on how calculators can enhance mathematics learning, this study investigated the uses of hand held, non-programmable, scientific calculators in secondary mathematics education throughout the Mid-Hudson Valley (New York). The study gathered data from 18 high school principals and 25 mathematics teachers in 32 school…

  6. Maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for dental personnel operating portable hand-held x-ray equipment.

    PubMed

    McGiff, Thomas J; Danforth, Robert A; Herschaft, Edward E

    2012-08-01

    Clinical experience indicates that newly available portable hand-held x-ray units provide advantages compared to traditional fixed properly installed and operated x-ray units in dental radiography. However, concern that hand-held x-ray units produce higher operator doses than fixed x-ray units has caused regulatory agencies to mandate requirements for use of hand-held units that go beyond those recommended by the manufacturer and can discourage the use of this technology. To assess the need for additional requirements, a hand-held x-ray unit and a pair of manikins were used to measure the dose to a simulated operator under two conditions: exposures made according to the manufacturer's recommendations and exposures made according to manufacturer's recommendation except for the removal of the x-ray unit's protective backscatter shield. Dose to the simulated operator was determined using an array of personal dosimeters and a pair of pressurized ion chambers. The results indicate that the dose to an operator of this equipment will be less than 0.6 mSv y⁻¹ if the device is used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. This suggests that doses to properly trained operators of well-designed, hand-held dental x-ray units will be below 1.0 mSv y⁻¹ (2% of the annual occupational dose limit) even if additional no additional operational requirements are established by regulatory agencies. This level of annual dose is similar to those reported as typical dental personnel using fixed x-ray units and appears to satisfy the ALARA principal for this class of occupational exposures.

  7. Limitations of Condensed Teaching Strategies to Develop Hand-Held Cardiac Ultrasonography Skills in Internal Medicine Residents.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Jeffrey S; Barake, Walid; Smith, Chris; Thakrar, Amar; Johri, Amer M

    2016-08-01

    Advances in ultrasonographic technology have allowed for hand-held cardiac ultrasonography (HHCU) units that fit into a physician's laboratory coat. Recently, studies to educate internal medicine residents have shown promise. The optimal duration and methodology for teaching HHCU skills has not been established. Over a 1-year period, internal medicine residents were recruited during their cardiology ward rotation into a single-centre nonblinded randomized trial. The 2 condensed teaching strategies were (1) a conventional ward-based program and (2) a technology-driven simulation-based strategy. Outcomes were evaluated by (1) an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to evaluate interpretation ability (assessing both type I and type II error rates) and (2) demonstration of HHCU skills graded by 2 level III echocardiographers. Twenty-four internal medicine residents were randomized. After teaching, the conventional teaching group had a significant absolute increase in the ability to make a singular correct diagnosis (20%; P < 0.001). In the technology arm, making a singular correct diagnosis increased 24% from baseline (P = 0.001). Interpretation skill was not significantly different between groups. The false-positive rate increased by an absolute 14% and 17% in the conventional and technology groups, respectively (P = 0.079 and P = 0.008). Our findings suggest that HHCU interpretation skills improve after either a conventional ward-based or a technology-driven approach. However, our study emphasizes the important limitations of both teaching programs, because we detected a trend toward an increase in the false-positive rate after both approaches. This suggests that a short duration of training may not be sufficient for HHCU to be performed in a safe manner. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a low-cost hand-held system for optical coherence tomography imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Paritosh; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Nolan, Ryan M.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a low-cost hand-held optical coherence imaging system. The proposed system is based on the principle of linear optical coherence tomography (Linear OCT), a technique which was proposed in the early 2000s as a simpler alternative to the conventional time-domain and Fourier-domain OCT. In our design, as in the traditional Michaelson interferometer, light from a broadband source is split into sample and reference beams. Unlike in a Michaelson interferometer though, upon return, a tilt is introduced to the reference beam before it is combined with the sample beam to illuminate a detector array. The resulting fringe pattern encodes information about the relative time-of-flight of photons between the sample and reference arms, which can be decoded by standard signal processing techniques to obtain depth resolved reflectivity profiles of the sample. The axial resolution and the SNR of our system was measured to be approximately 5.2 μm and 80 dB, respectively. The performance of the proposed system was compared with a standard state-of-the-art Fourier-domain low coherence interferometry (LCI) system by imaging several biological and non-biological samples. The results of this study indicate that the proposed low-cost system might be a suitable choice for applications where the imaging depth and SNR can be traded for lower cost and simpler optical design. Two potentially useful applications of the proposed imaging system could be for imaging the human tympanic membrane (TM) for diagnosing middle ear pathologies, and to visualize the sub-surface features of materials for non-destructive evaluation and quality inspection.

  9. The Fluostick, a real hand-held system for near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorval, Paul; Mangeret, Norman; Guillermet, Stephanie; Righini, Christian Adrien; Barabino, Gabriele; Rizo, Philippe; Poulet, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery, FIGS, has lately shown a huge potential in oncologic and lymphatic related surgeries. In some indications such as liver or heart surgery, fluorescence-reachable anatomic structures are limited by the access to the surgical field. Nevertheless, most of the systems available on the market are too large to image the sides of cavities. Small devices are clearly required to improve workability of fluorescence imaging systems. The current work describes the development of an instrument and the results of its evaluation. In order to image narrow area, we developed a small size device consisting of an optical head connected to a control box. The whole system, optical head, control box and software, receives a CE mark for clinical procedures. Building on existing technologies, we simplified the fluorescence imaging system. It consists of a custom charged-coupled device camera, a high color rendering index visible LED illumination and a Class1 Laser fluorophore excitation. With a curved shape of 25x35x150mm, the optical head was designed as a true hand-held probe. The field of view varies from 5x3.75cm to 2x1.5cm. The device is able to collect and display the signal of 5pmol of IndoCyanine Green (ICG) with a spatial resolution down to 70μm at 25 frames per second. The system has been evaluated in pre-clinical and clinical procedures. The preclinical studies confirmed the ability of the system to visualize tumors in mice models. Clinical evaluations includes lymphedema investigations and surgical resections of tumors in colorectal cancer.

  10. Eccentric and isometric shoulder rotator cuff strength testing using a hand-held dynamometer: reference values for overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Cools, Ann M J; Vanderstukken, Fran; Vereecken, Frédéric; Duprez, Mattias; Heyman, Karel; Goethals, Nick; Johansson, Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    In order to provide science-based guidelines for injury prevention or return to play, regular measurement of isometric and eccentric internal (IR) and external (ER) rotator strength is warranted in overhead athletes. However, up to date, no normative database exists regarding these values, when measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to provide a normative database on isometric and eccentric rotator cuff (RC) strength values in a sample of overhead athletes, and to discuss gender, age and sports differences. A HHD was used to measure RC strength in 201 overhead athletes between 18 and 50 years old from three different sports disciplines: tennis, volleyball and handball. Isometric as well as eccentric strength was measured in different shoulder positions. Outcome variables of interest were isometric ER and IR strength, eccentric ER strength, and intermuscular strength ratios ER/IR. Our results show significant side, gender and sports discipline differences in the isometric and eccentric RC strength. However, when normalized to body weight, gender differences often are absent. In general, strength differences are in favour of the dominant side, the male athletes and handball. Intermuscular ER/IR ratios showed gender, sports, and side differences. This normative database is necessary to help the clinician in the evaluation of RC strength in healthy and injured overhead athletes. In view of the preventive screening and return-to-play decisions in overhead athletes, normalization to body weight and calculating intermuscular ratios are key points in this evaluation. Diagnostic study, Level III.

  11. Development of a hand-held personal digital assistant-based food diary with food photographs for Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Fukuo, Wataru; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Ken; Togashi, Hitomi; Sekine, Rie; Kikuchi, Hiroe; Sakamoto, Noriyuki; Inada, Shuji; Sato, Fumiyo; Kadowaki, Takashi; Akabayashi, Akira

    2009-07-01

    Hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA)-based food diaries have been developed for self-monitoring of dietary intake, but the accuracy of these diaries is unclear for patients with diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and feasibility of use of a new PDA-based food diary, including food photographs. The study included 44 Japanese participants without diabetes (mean age 23 years) and 16 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 53 years). The PDA-based food diary was used for 7 consecutive days. Information about all dietary intake on the 7th day of PDA self-monitoring was collected by a 24-hour recall interview on the 8th day. The PDA-based data for dietary intake on the 7th day were then compared to the 24-hour recall data for the same period. Feasibility was assessed based on the frequency and timeliness of self-monitoring. There was no significant difference in daily totals for energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat between the two methods in each group. Pearson's correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients showed strong significant relationships for all variables between the two methods in both groups. Bland-Altman plots did not indicate any bias in estimated daily caloric intake. Participants recorded 98% of their meals in the PDA, with 75% of entries recorded within 6 hours after the meal starting time. The findings suggest that the PDA-based food diary is a potential clinical method to estimate dietary intake and may be a beneficial tool for self-monitoring of dietary intake.

  12. Segmentation of Environmental Time Lapse Image Sequences for the Determination of Shore Lines Captured by Hand-Held Smartphone Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröhnert, M.; Meichsner, R.

    2017-09-01

    The relevance of globally environmental issues gains importance since the last years with still rising trends. Especially disastrous floods may cause in serious damage within very short times. Although conventional gauging stations provide reliable information about prevailing water levels, they are highly cost-intensive and thus just sparsely installed. Smartphones with inbuilt cameras, powerful processing units and low-cost positioning systems seem to be very suitable wide-spread measurement devices that could be used for geo-crowdsourcing purposes. Thus, we aim for the development of a versatile mobile water level measurement system to establish a densified hydrological network of water levels with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper addresses a key issue of the entire system: the detection of running water shore lines in smartphone images. Flowing water never appears equally in close-range images even if the extrinsics remain unchanged. Its non-rigid behavior impedes the use of good practices for image segmentation as a prerequisite for water line detection. Consequently, we use a hand-held time lapse image sequence instead of a single image that provides the time component to determine a spatio-temporal texture image. Using a region growing concept, the texture is analyzed for immutable shore and dynamic water areas. Finally, the prevalent shore line is examined by the resultant shapes. For method validation, various study areas are observed from several distances covering urban and rural flowing waters with different characteristics. Future work provides a transformation of the water line into object space by image-to-geometry intersection.

  13. Is Hand-Held Optical Coherence Tomography Reliable in Infants and Young Children with and without Nystagmus?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Helena; Proudlock, Frank; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the reliability of the spectral domain hand-held OCT (HH-OCT) in assessing foveal morphology in children with and without nystagmus. Methods Forty-nine subjects with nystagmus (mean age 43.83 months; range 1-82 months) and 48 controls (mean age 43.02 months; range 0 to 83 months were recruited and scanned using HH-OCT (Bioptigen). A minimum of 2 separate volumetric scans on the same examination day of the fovea were obtained. The images were imported into ImageJ software where manual retinal layer segmentation of the central foveal B-scan was performed. Agreement between scans was assessed by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland–Altman plots. Results Both the nystagmus and controls groups showed an excellent degree of reproducibility between two examinations with ICCs greater than 0.96 for central macular thickness (CMT) and greater than 0.8 for the outer nuclear layer and outer segment of the photoreceptors. The nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, outer plexiform layer, inner segment of the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium were less reliable with ICCs of less than 0.7. There was no difference in the reliability of scans obtained in children with nystagmus as compared to controls and both groups had good inter-eye agreement with ICCs greater than 0.94 for CMT. Conclusion We have shown for the first time that the HH-OCT provides reliable measurements in children with and without nystagmus. This is important as the HH-OCT will have a greater diagnostic and prognostic role in young children with nystagmus and other eye diseases in the future. PMID:24222299

  14. Hand-held spectroscopic device for in vivo and intraoperative tumor detection: contrast enhancement, detection sensitivity, and tissue penetration.

    PubMed

    Mohs, Aaron M; Mancini, Michael C; Singhal, Sunil; Provenzale, James M; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Wang, May D; Nie, Shuming

    2010-11-01

    Surgery is one of the most effective and widely used procedures in treating human cancers, but a major problem is that the surgeon often fails to remove the entire tumor, leaving behind tumor-positive margins, metastatic lymph nodes, and/or satellite tumor nodules. Here we report the use of a hand-held spectroscopic pen device (termed SpectroPen) and near-infrared contrast agents for intraoperative detection of malignant tumors, based on wavelength-resolved measurements of fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. The SpectroPen utilizes a near-infrared diode laser (emitting at 785 nm) coupled to a compact head unit for light excitation and collection. This pen-shaped device effectively removes silica Raman peaks from the fiber optics and attenuates the reflected excitation light, allowing sensitive analysis of both fluorescence and Raman signals. Its overall performance has been evaluated by using a fluorescent contrast agent (indocyanine green, or ICG) as well as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) contrast agent (pegylated colloidal gold). Under in vitro conditions, the detection limits are approximately 2-5 × 10(-11) M for the indocyanine dye and 0.5-1 × 10(-13) M for the SERS contrast agent. Ex vivo tissue penetration data show attenuated but resolvable fluorescence and Raman signals when the contrast agents are buried 5-10 mm deep in fresh animal tissues. In vivo studies using mice bearing bioluminescent 4T1 breast tumors further demonstrate that the tumor borders can be precisely detected preoperatively and intraoperatively, and that the contrast signals are strongly correlated with tumor bioluminescence. After surgery, the SpectroPen device permits further evaluation of both positive and negative tumor margins around the surgical cavity, raising new possibilities for real-time tumor detection and image-guided surgery.

  15. Hand-Held Tidal Breathing Nasal Nitric Oxide Measurement – A Promising Targeted Case-Finding Tool for the Diagnosis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum

    2013-01-01

    Background Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurement is an established first line test in the work-up for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Tidal breathing nNO (TB-nNO) measurements require minimal cooperation and are potentially useful even in young children. Hand-held NO devices are becoming increasingly widespread for asthma management. Therefore, we chose to assess whether hand-held TB-nNO measurements reliably discriminate between PCD, and Healthy Subjects (HS) and included Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients as a disease control group known to have intermediate nNO levels. Methods In this cross sectional, single centre, single occasion, proof-of-concept study in children and adults with PCD and CF, and in HS we compared feasibility, success rates, discriminatory capacity, repeatability and agreement between a hand-held electrochemical device equipped with a nNO software application sampling at flow rates 2 ml/s or 5 ml/s, and two stationary chemiluminescence devices, applying both tidal breathing and velum closure techniques. Results Measurements were done in 16 PCD patients, 21 patients with CF and 20 HS aged between 3.8 and 60.9 years. Hand-held TB-nNO showed high success rate (96.5–100%) vs. velum closure nNO techniques (70.2–89.5%). Hand-held TB-nNO sampling at flow rate 5 ml/s showed equally high discriminative power (PCD vs. HS [p<0.0001] and PCD vs. CF [p<0.0001]) and reaching close to 100% sensitivity and specificity, superior repeatability (CV% = 10%) and equal limits of agreement compared to TB-nNO by stationary devices and even compared to velum closure sampling. Conclusion Hand-held TB-nNO discriminates significantly between PCD, CF and HS and shows promising potential as a widespread targeted case-finding tool for PCD, although further studies are warranted before implementation. PMID:23437356

  16. Improving the accuracy of hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometers as a tool for monitoring brominated flame retardants in waste polymers.

    PubMed

    Guzzonato, A; Puype, F; Harrad, S J

    2016-09-01

    An optimised method for Br quantification as a metric of brominated flame retardant (BFR) concentrations present in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) polymers is proposed as an alternative to the sophisticated, yet time consuming GC-MS methods currently preferred. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer was validated with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Customized standard materials of specific BFRs in a styrenic polymer were used to perform an external calibration for hand-held XRF ranging from 0.08 to 12 wt% of Br, and cross-checking with LA-ICP-MS having similar LODs (0.0004 wt% for LA-ICP-MS and 0.0011 wt% for XRF). The "thickness calibration" developed here for hand-held XRF and the resulting correction, was applied to 28 real samples and showed excellent (R(2) = 0.9926) accordance with measurements obtained via LA-ICP-MS. This confirms the validity of hand-held XRF as an accurate technique for the determination of Br in WEEE plastics. This is the first use of solid standards to develop a thickness-corrected quantitative XRF measurement of Br in polymers using LA-ICP-MS for method evaluation. Thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to confirm the presence of specific BFRs in WEEE polymer samples. We propose that expressing limit values for BFRs in waste materials in terms of Br rather than BFR concentration (based on a conservative assumption about the BFR present), presents a practical solution to the need for an accurate, yet rapid and inexpensive technique capable of monitoring compliance with limit values in situ.

  17. Development and Performance of the W/Sb2O3/KIO4/Lubricant Pyrotechnic Delay in the US Army Hand-Held Signal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    were obtained from Sigma Aldrich. Stearic acid (19–5010) was obtained from Hummel Croton. A Malvern Morphologi G3S optical micros- copy particle size...35 – 40 Full Paper J. C. Poret, A. P. Shaw, C. M. Csernica, K. D. Oyler, D. P. Estes equipped with a secondary electron imaging ( SEI ) detector. The...an ongoing area of research in our laboratories. Symbols and Abbreviations HHS Hand-held signal SEM Scanning electron microscopy SEI Secondary

  18. Enamel thickness measurement with a high frequency ultrasonic transducer-based hand-held probe for potential application in the dental veneer placing procedure.

    PubMed

    Ślak, Bartosz; Ambroziak, Andrzej; Strumban, Emil; Maev, Roman Gr

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a novel approach to measure the enamel thickness potentially applicable to the veneer placing procedure. All experiments have been carried out on the extracted human teeth, using a high frequency ultrasonic transducer (50 MHz, Sonix, Springfield, VA, USA). The enamel thickness measurement results obtained with high positional accuracy by a scanning acoustic microscope (Tessonics AM1103, Windsor, ON, Canada) were compared with the measurements conducted in a hand-held mode by using the same transducer placed in a custom fixture. Finally, to validate the ultrasonic measuring results, the samples were cut down the long axis to expose the cross-section. The enamel thickness was measured in several points along the selected part of the exposed cross-section by using an optical microscope (Stemi SV 11, Carl Zeiss AG, Jena, Germany). The values of the enamel thickness received by using the hand-held probe vs. the acoustic microscope were in close proximity (~10% difference) and were also satisfactory close to the enamel thickness results obtained from the direct cross-sectional measurements (~12% difference). The authors suggested a measuring procedure that allows avoiding errors related to the ultrasonic beam localization on the tooth surface. The high feasibility of the ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements in a hand-held mode was demonstrated.

  19. A validation study: assessing the reliability of the hand held StatStripXPress lactate meter to test lactate in amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Hall, Beverley; Wong, Diana D; Rawlinson, William D; Tracy, Mark B; Tracy, Sally K

    2014-12-19

    The level of lactate in amniotic fluid may provide useful clinical information when assessing whether a woman in labour is experiencing labour dystocia. If so, a rapid, reliable method to assess the concentration of amniotic fluid lactate at the bedside will be required in order to be clinically relevant. To assess efficacy, we compared the hand held StatStripXPreass lactate meter (Nova Biomedical) to the reference laboratory analyser ABX Pentra 400 (Horiba) in a controlled environment. Baseline biological lactate concentration was measured in triplicate and samples of a known quantity of thawed amniotic fluid spiked with lactate substrate (62 mmol/L) from the LDH12 kit (Roche, SUI) to yield a predetermined lactate concentration above baseline then measured in triplicate. Deming Regression was used to determine the linear agreement and a Bland Altman plot used to determine the paired agreement across the range of values. The mean difference with Bland-Altman plot between hand held meter and lab instrument was -1.0 mmol/L (SD 3.0 mmol/L) with 95% CI limits of agreement between -6.9 mmol/L to 4.9 mmol/L. The Deming regression co-efficient or slope of agreement was 0.91 (SD of 0.21). The measurement of amniotic fluid lactate using the StatStripXPress hand held meter was reliable compared to reference laboratory methods for measuring lactate levels in amniotic fluid.

  20. Between-day reliability of a hand-held dynamometer and surface electromyography recordings during isometric submaximal contractions in different shoulder positions.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kathrine S; Christensen, Birgitte H; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Functional shoulder assessments require the use of objective and reliable standardized outcome measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the between-day reliability of a hand-held dynamometer when measuring muscle strength during flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation as well as surface electromyography (EMG) when measuring muscle activity from m. trapezius superior and deltoideus anterior. Twenty-four healthy subjects participated and performed four isometric contractions measured with a hand-held dynamometer and EMG. Both relative and absolute reliability were calculated based on the mean of the last three of the four repetitions. EMG amplitude was assessed calculating both absolute and normalized root-mean-square (RMS) values. The reliability of the hand-held dynamometer was high (LOA=3.2-7.6% and ICC=0.89-0.98). The absolute reliability for EMG showed similar results for absolute RMS values (LOA=20.0-68.4%) and normalized RMS values (LOA=42.4-66.5%). However, the results concerning the relative reliability showed higher ICC for absolute RMS values (ICC=0.82-0.92) compared with normalized values (ICC=0.57-0.72).The outcome measurements of this study with healthy subjects were found reliable and, therefore, have the potential to detect changes in muscle strength and muscle activity.

  1. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of isometric shoulder extensor and internal rotator strength measurements performed using a hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Awatani, Takenori; Morikita, Ikuhiro; Shinohara, Junji; Mori, Seigo; Nariai, Miki; Tatsumi, Yasutaka; Nagata, Akinori; Koshiba, Hiroya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to establish the intra- and inter-rater reliability of measurement of extensor strength in the maximum shoulder abducted position and internal rotator strength in the 90° abducted and the 90° external rotated position using a hand-held dynamometer. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy volunteers (12 male; mean ± SD: age 19.0 ± 1.1 years) participated in the study. The examiners were two students who had nonclinical experience with a hand-held dynamometer measurement. The examiners and participants were blinded to measurement results by the recorder. Participants in the prone position were instructed to hold the contraction against the ground reaction force, and peak isometric force was recorded using the hand-held dynamometer on the floor. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients. [Results] The intra- and inter-rater reliability data were found to be "almost perfect". [Conclusion] This study investigated intra- and inter-rater reliability and reveald high reliability. Thus, the measurement method used in the present study can evaluate muscle strength by a simple measurement technique.

  2. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of lower extremity muscle strength assessment of healthy adults using a hand held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lee, Yun-Seob

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of lower extremity muscle strength assessment of healthy adults using hand held dynamometer. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 55 students (19 males and 36 females) in Y University in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea participated in this study. Lower extremity muscle strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer (Commander Muscle Tester, JTech, USA). Flexion and extension strengths of the hip joint, the knee joint, and the ankle joint were measured. [Results] The intra-rater reliabilities were excellent (above 0.9) for the flexion and extension strengths of the ankle, knee, and hip joints. The inter-rater reliabilities were also excellent (above 0.8) for the flexion and extension strengths of the ankle, knee, and hip joint. [Conclusion] Lower extremity muscle strength assessment using a hand-held dynamometer provided consistent results when conducted by different examiners and when measured several times. Therefore, this method is a useful way of deriving objective and quantitative measurement values.

  3. Systematic review of clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers versus other hand held inhaler devices for delivering corticosteroids in asthma.

    PubMed

    Brocklebank, D; Wright, J; Cates, C

    2001-10-20

    To determine the clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers (with or without spacer) compared with other hand held inhaler devices for the delivery of corticosteroids in stable asthma. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Airways Group trials database (Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled clinical trials register, and hand searching of 18 relevant journals), pharmaceutical companies, and bibliographies of included trials. All trials in children or adults with stable asthma that compared a pressurised metered dose inhaler with any other hand held inhaler device delivering the same inhaled corticosteroid. 24 randomised controlled trials were included. Significant differences were found for forced expiratory volume in one second, morning peak expiratory flow rate, and use of drugs for additional relief with dry powder inhalers. However, either these were within clinically equivalent limits or the differences were not apparent once baseline characteristics had been taken into account. No significant differences were found between pressurised metered dose inhalers and any other hand held inhaler device for the following outcomes: lung function, symptoms, bronchial hyper-reactivity, systemic bioavailability, and use of additional relief bronchodilators. No evidence was found that alternative inhaler devices (dry powder inhalers, breath actuated pressurised metered dose inhalers, or hydrofluoroalkane pressurised metered dose inhalers) are more effective than the pressurised metered dose inhalers for delivery of inhaled corticosteroids. Pressurised metered dose inhalers remain the most cost effective first line delivery devices.

  4. RELIABILITY, COMPARABILITY, AND VALIDITY OF FOOT INVERSION AND EVERSION STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS USING A HAND-HELD DYNAMOMETER.

    PubMed

    Alfuth, Martin; Hahm, Magali Murielle

    2016-02-01

    There are conflicting results with respect to the validity and reliability of lower extremity strength measurements using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) in the healthy population. Previous studies exploring foot inversion and eversion strength using a HHD were carried out with predominantly clinically affected participants in different positions. The question arises whether HHD measurements of isometric foot inversion and eversion strength performed with participants in different positions are valid, reliable and comparable and can be used alternatively. The aims of this study were to investigate: a) the intra- and inter-tester reliability of measurements of foot inversion and eversion strength in different participant positions using a belt-stabilized HHD; b) the comparability of results obtained in different positions; and c) the concurrent validity of the aforementioned measurements using an isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty adults (12 females and 18 males; mean age 22.5 ± 3.9 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Maximal isometric foot inversion and eversion torques (Nm) were measured with participants lying supine, sitting with knees extended and lying on their side using a belt-stabilized HHD. Measurements were performed independently by two physiotherapists over two days and were repeated using an isokinetic dynamometer. Validity and intra- and inter-tester reliability were determined using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). A two-way ANOVA (p < 0.05) and post-hoc tests with Bonferroni correction were used to compare data from different positions. Bland-Altman plots were used to demonstrate the range of error and difference between HHD and isokinetic measurements. Intra-tester reliability for inversion and eversion torques was fair to excellent in all positions (ICC = 0.598-0.828). Excellent inter-tester reliability was found for eversion torques in all positions (ICC = 0.773-0.860). For inversion torques, inter

  5. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  6. Efficacy and learning curve of a hand-held echocardiography device in an oncology outpatient clinic: Expanding the use of echoscopic heart examination beyond cardiology.

    PubMed

    PéREZ DE Isla, Leopoldo Pérez; Moreno, Fernando; Garcia Saez, Jose Angel Garcia; Clavero, Matias; Moreno, Nuno; Aguado DE LA Rosa, Carlos Aguado; DE Agustin, Jose Alberto; Gomez DE Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Cobos, Miguel Angel; Saltijeral, Adriana; Macaya, Carlos; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel

    2015-07-01

    Certain chemotherapy drugs for breast cancer may induce cardiotoxicity and these patients should be echocardiographically monitored. The performance of a focused echocardiographic evaluation (echoscopy) at the patient's location by a non-cardiologist appears to be feasible. The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of echoscopy performed by medical oncologists in an outpatient clinic using hand-held echocardiography devices. The study cohort comprised consecutive unselected patients who attended an oncology outpatient clinic. Two medical oncologists attended a one-week training period, which included theoretical and practical teaching by an expert cardiologist. Every subject underwent two echo examinations. The first examination was performed by an oncologist using a hand-held echo device and the second was performed by a cardiologist using a 'premium' device. Out of the 101 enrolled patients, 32 were men (31.7%) and the mean age was 56.03±16.88 years. There was a good global agreement [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC): 0.65 for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)]. When the results were analyzed depending on the period of time when the echo studies were performed, a clear and short learning curve was observed: LVEF started at ICC=0.58 and increased to 0.66 and 0.77 in the second and third period, respectively. There were extremely few clinically significant differences and a learning curve was also evident. In conclusion, cardiac echoscopy performed by an oncologist with a hand-held device may lead to a similar clinical management as a study performed by an expert cardiologist with a 'premium' system in patients under chemotherapy following a short training period.

  7. Whole Breast Ultrasound: Comparison of the Visibility of Suspicious Lesions with Automated Breast Volumetric Scanning Versus Hand-Held Breast Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Ko, Eun Y; Tuttle, Laura A; Steed, Doreen; Zeng, Donglin; Yoon, Sora C

    2015-07-01

    To assess how well radiologists visualize relevant features of lesions seen with automated breast volumetric scanning (ABVS) in comparison to hand-held breast ultrasound in women going to breast biopsy. Twenty-five subjects were recruited from women who were scheduled to undergo a breast biopsy for at least one Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System four or five lesion identified in a diagnostic setting. In this institutional review board-approved study, the subjects underwent imaging of the breast(s) of concern using a dedicated system that allowed both hand-held breast ultrasound and ABVS. Five experienced breast radiologists reviewed the 30 lesions in 25 subjects in a reader study. Each reader was asked to specify the lesion type, size, imaging features, Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System, and suspicion of malignancy and to compare the lesion characteristics of shape and margins between the two modalities. Seven (23.3%) masses were malignant and 23 (76.4%) were benign. Across all lesions regardless of size or final pathology, there was no significant difference in sensitivity or specificity (P > .15) between the two modalities. For malignant lesions, the reader visualization confidence scores between the two ultrasound modalities were not significantly different (P > .1). However, analysis for nonmalignant cases showed a statistically significant increase in reader visualization confidence in lesion shape and margins (P < .001). Radiologists showed increased confidence in visualization of benign masses and equal confidence in suspicious masses with ABVS imaging. This information could help decrease the need for additional hand-held imaging after automated whole breast ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Systematic review of clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers versus other hand held inhaler devices for delivering beta (2 )agonists bronchodilators in asthma.

    PubMed

    Ram, F S; Wright, J; Brocklebank, D; White, J E

    2001-10-20

    To determine the clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers compared with other hand held inhaler devices for delivering short acting beta(2) agonists in stable asthma. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Airways Group specialised trials database (which includes hand searching of 20 relevant journals), Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled clinical trials register, pharmaceutical companies, and bibliographies of included trials. All trials in children or adults with stable asthma that compared the pressurised metered dose inhaler (with or without a spacer device) against any other hand held inhaler device containing the same beta(2) agonist. 84 randomised controlled trials were included. No differences were found between the pressurised metered dose inhaler and any other hand held inhaler device for lung function, blood pressure, symptoms, bronchial hyperreactivity, systemic bioavailability, inhaled steroid requirement, serum potassium concentration, and use of additional relief bronchodilators. In adults, pulse rate was lower in those using the pressurised metered dose inhaler compared with those using Turbohaler (standardised mean difference 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.84); patients preferred the pressurised metered dose inhaler to the Rotahaler (relative risk 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.78); hydrofluoroalkane pressurised metered dose inhalers reduced the requirement for rescue short course oral steroids (relative risk 0.67, 0.49 to 0.91). No evidence was found to show that alternative inhaler devices are more effective than standard pressurised metered dose inhalers for delivering acting beta(2 )agonist bronchodilators in asthma. Pressurised metered dose inhalers remain the most cost effective delivery devices.

  9. Portable computing for taking part of the lab to the sample types of applications. From hand held personal digital assistants to smart phones for mobile spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weagant, Scott; Karanassios, Vassili

    2015-06-01

    The use of portable hand held computing devices for the acquisition of spectrochemical data is briefly discussed using examples from the author's laboratory. Several network topologies are evaluated. At present, one topology that involves a portable computing device for data acquisition and spectrometer control and that has wireless access to the internet at one end and communicates with a smart phone at the other end appears to be better suited for "taking part of the lab to the sample" types of applications. Thus, spectrometric data can be accessed from anywhere in the world.

  10. (abstract) Applications of Long-wavelength 256x256 GaAs/Al&subx;Ga&sub1-x;As Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Hand-held Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Sundaram, M.; Hong, W.; Shott, C. A.; Hoelter, T.; Laband, S.; James, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    A 9 (micro)m 256x256 hand-held quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) camera has been demonstrated. Excellent imagery, with a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE(gamma)) of 26 mK has been achieved. In this presentation, we discuss the development of this very sensitive long wavelength infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array, its performance in quantum efficience, NA(gamma), minimum resolvable temperature (MRTD), uniformity, operability, and its applications.

  11. (abstract) Applications of Long-wavelength 256x256 GaAs/Al&subx;Ga&sub1-x;As Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Hand-held Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Sundaram, M.; Hong, W.; Shott, C. A.; Hoelter, T.; Laband, S.; James, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    A 9 (micro)m 256x256 hand-held quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) camera has been demonstrated. Excellent imagery, with a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE(gamma)) of 26 mK has been achieved. In this presentation, we discuss the development of this very sensitive long wavelength infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array, its performance in quantum efficience, NA(gamma), minimum resolvable temperature (MRTD), uniformity, operability, and its applications.

  12. Hand-Held Femtogram Detection of Hazardous Picric Acid with Hydrophobic Ag Nanopillar SERS Substrates and Mechanism of Elasto-Capillarity.

    PubMed

    Hakonen, Aron; Wang, FengChao; Andersson, Per Ola; Wingfors, Håkan; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Soma, Venugopal Rao; Xu, Shicai; Li, YingQi; Boisen, Anja; Wu, HengAn

    2017-02-24

    Picric acid (PA) is a severe environmental and security risk due to its unstable, toxic, and explosive properties. It is also challenging to detect in trace amounts and in situ because of its highly acidic and anionic character. Here, we assess sensing of PA under nonlaboratory conditions using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) silver nanopillar substrates and hand-held Raman spectroscopy equipment. The advancing elasto-capillarity effects are explained by molecular dynamics simulations. We obtain a SERS PA detection limit on the order of 20 ppt, corresponding attomole amounts, which together with the simple analysis methodology demonstrates that the presented approach is highly competitive for ultrasensitive analysis in the field.

  13. Into the Wild: Neuroergonomic Differentiation of Hand-Held and Augmented Reality Wearable Displays during Outdoor Navigation with Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McKendrick, Ryan; Parasuraman, Raja; Murtza, Rabia; Formwalt, Alice; Baccus, Wendy; Paczynski, Martin; Ayaz, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Highly mobile computing devices promise to improve quality of life, productivity, and performance. Increased situation awareness and reduced mental workload are two potential means by which this can be accomplished. However, it is difficult to measure these concepts in the "wild". We employed ultra-portable battery operated and wireless functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to non-invasively measure hemodynamic changes in the brain's Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Measurements were taken during navigation of a college campus with either a hand-held display, or an Augmented reality wearable display (ARWD). Hemodynamic measures were also paired with secondary tasks of visual perception and auditory working memory to provide behavioral assessment of situation awareness and mental workload. Navigating with an augmented reality wearable display produced the least workload during the auditory working memory task, and a trend for improved situation awareness in our measures of prefrontal hemodynamics. The hemodynamics associated with errors were also different between the two devices. Errors with an augmented reality wearable display were associated with increased prefrontal activity and the opposite was observed for the hand-held display. This suggests that the cognitive mechanisms underlying errors between the two devices differ. These findings show fNIRS is a valuable tool for assessing new technology in ecologically valid settings and that ARWDs offer benefits with regards to mental workload while navigating, and potentially superior situation awareness with improved display design.

  14. Motion-compensated hand-held common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography probe for image-guided intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Song, Cheol; Liu, Xuan; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    A motion-compensated hand-held common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography imaging probe has been developed for image guided intervention during microsurgery. A hand-held prototype instrument was designed and fabricated by integrating an imaging fiber probe inside a stainless steel needle which is attached to the ceramic shaft of a piezoelectric motor housed in an aluminum handle. The fiber probe obtains A-scan images. The distance information was extracted from the A-scans to track the sample surface distance and a fixed distance was maintained by a feedback motor control which effectively compensated hand tremor and target movements in the axial direction. Graphical user interface, real-time data processing, and visualization based on a CPU-GPU hybrid programming architecture were developed and used in the implantation of this system. To validate the system, free-hand optical coherence tomography images using various samples were obtained. The system can be easily integrated into microsurgical tools and robotics for a wide range of clinical applications. Such tools could offer physicians the freedom to easily image sites of interest with reduced risk and higher image quality.

  15. Hand-held Raman sensor head for in-situ characterization of meat quality applying a microsystem 671 nm diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Heinar; Sowoidnich, Kay; Maiwald, Martin; Sumpf, Bernd; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2009-05-01

    A hand-held Raman sensor head was developed for the in-situ characterization of meat quality. As light source, a microsystem based external cavity diode laser module (ECDL) emitting at 671 nm was integrated in the sensor head and attached to a miniaturized optical bench which contains lens optics for excitation and signal collection as well as a Raman filter stage for Rayleigh rejection. The signal is transported with an optical fiber to the detection unit which was in the initial phase a laboratory spectrometer with CCD detector. All elements of the ECDL are aligned on a micro optical bench with 13 x 4 mm2 footprint. The wavelength stability is provided by a reflection Bragg grating and the laser has an optical power of up to 200 mW. However, for the Raman measurements of meat only 35 mW are needed to obtain Raman spectra within 1 - 5 seconds. Short measuring times are essential for the hand-held device. The laser and the sensor head are characterized in terms of stability and performance for in-situ Raman investigations. The function is demonstrated in a series of measurements with raw and packaged pork meat as samples. The suitability of the Raman sensor head for the quality control of meat and other products will be discussed.

  16. Development of a high-speed VCSEL OCT system for real-time imaging of conscious patients larynx using a hand-held probe (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangarajan, Swathi; Chou, Li-Dek; Coughlan, Carolyn; Sharma, Giriraj; Wong, Brian J. F.; Ramalingam, Tirunelveli S.

    2016-02-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that has previously been used to image the human larynx. However, differences in anatomical geometry and short imaging range of conventional OCT limits its application in a clinical setting. In order to address this issue, we have developed a gradient-index (GRIN) lens rod-based hand-held probe in conjunction with a long imaging range 200 kHz Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system for high speed real-time imaging of the human larynx in an office setting. This hand-held probe is designed to have a long and dynamically tunable working distance to accommodate the differences in anatomical geometry of human test subjects. A nominal working distance (~6 cm) of the probe is selected to have a lateral resolution <100 um within a depth of focus of 6.4 mm, which covers more than half of the 12 mm imaging range of the VCSEL laser. The maximum lateral scanning range of the probe at 6 cm working distance is approximately 8.4 mm, and imaging an area of 8.5 mm by 8.5 mm is accomplished within a second. Using the above system, we will demonstrate real-time cross-sectional OCT imaging of larynx during phonation in vivo in human and ex-vivo in pig vocal folds.

  17. Hand-held high-resolution fluorescence imaging system for fluorescence-guided surgery of patient and cell-line pancreatic tumors growing orthotopically in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Maawy, Ali; Sato, Sho; Murakami, Takashi; Uehara, Fuminari; Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Momiyama, Masashi; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the advantages of fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) in mice of a portable hand-sized imaging system compared with a large fluorescence imaging system or a long-working-distance fluorescence microscope. Mouse models of human pancreatic cancer for FGS included the following: (1) MiaPaCa-2-expressing green fluorescent protein, (2) BxPC3 labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-conjucated anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody, and (3) patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated anti-carbohydrate antigen 19-9 antibody. Each device could clearly detect the primary MiaPaCa-2-green fluorescent protein tumor and any residual tumor after FGS. In the BxPC3 model labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated anti-CEA, each device could detect the primary tumor, but the MVX10 could not clearly detect the residual tumor remaining after FGS whereas the other devices could. In the PDOX model labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated anti-carbohydrate antigen 19-9, only the portable hand-held device could distinguish the residual tumor from the background, and complete resection of the residual tumor was achieved under fluorescence navigation. The results described in the present report suggest that the hand-held mobile imaging system can be applied to the clinic for FGS because of its convenient size and high sensitivity which should help make FGS widely used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Into the Wild: Neuroergonomic Differentiation of Hand-Held and Augmented Reality Wearable Displays during Outdoor Navigation with Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    McKendrick, Ryan; Parasuraman, Raja; Murtza, Rabia; Formwalt, Alice; Baccus, Wendy; Paczynski, Martin; Ayaz, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Highly mobile computing devices promise to improve quality of life, productivity, and performance. Increased situation awareness and reduced mental workload are two potential means by which this can be accomplished. However, it is difficult to measure these concepts in the “wild”. We employed ultra-portable battery operated and wireless functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to non-invasively measure hemodynamic changes in the brain’s Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Measurements were taken during navigation of a college campus with either a hand-held display, or an Augmented reality wearable display (ARWD). Hemodynamic measures were also paired with secondary tasks of visual perception and auditory working memory to provide behavioral assessment of situation awareness and mental workload. Navigating with an augmented reality wearable display produced the least workload during the auditory working memory task, and a trend for improved situation awareness in our measures of prefrontal hemodynamics. The hemodynamics associated with errors were also different between the two devices. Errors with an augmented reality wearable display were associated with increased prefrontal activity and the opposite was observed for the hand-held display. This suggests that the cognitive mechanisms underlying errors between the two devices differ. These findings show fNIRS is a valuable tool for assessing new technology in ecologically valid settings and that ARWDs offer benefits with regards to mental workload while navigating, and potentially superior situation awareness with improved display design. PMID:27242480

  19. Thresholds of whole-blood β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose concentrations measured with an electronic hand-held device to identify ovine hyperketonemia.

    PubMed

    Pichler, M; Damberger, A; Schwendenwein, I; Gasteiner, J; Drillich, M; Iwersen, M

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic disorders, especially hyperketonemia, are very common in dairy sheep. The whole-blood concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose can be determined by commercially available electronic hand-held devices, which are used in human medicine and for the detection of ketosis in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the hand-held device Precision Xceed (PX; Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., Abbott Park, IL) to detect hyperketonemia in ewes. An additional objective of this study was to evaluate the agreement between samples obtained by minimal invasive venipuncture of an ear vein and measurements of whole-blood samples from the jugular vein (vena jugularis, v. jug.). Blood samples taken from the v. jug. were collected from 358 ewes on 4 different farms. These samples and a blood drop obtained from an ear vein were analyzed simultaneously on farm with the PX. For method comparison, the samples obtained from the v. jug. were also analyzed by standard methods, which served as the gold standard at the Central Laboratory of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria. The correlation coefficients between the serum BHBA concentration and the concentrations measured with the hand-held meter in the whole blood from an ear vein and the v. jug. were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. The correlation coefficients of plasma and whole-blood glucose concentration were 0.68 for the v. jug. and 0.47 for the ear vein. The mean glucose concentration was significantly lower in animals classified as hyperketonemic (BHBA ≥ 1.6 mmol/L) compared with healthy ewes. Whole-blood concentrations of BHBA and glucose measured with the PX from v. jug. showed a constant negative bias of 0.15 mmol/L and 8.4 mg/dL, respectively. Hence, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine thresholds for the PX to detect hyperketonemia in ewes. This resulted in thresholds for moderate ketosis of BHBA concentrations of 0.7 mmol/L in blood

  20. Assessment of net knee moment-angle characteristics by instrumented hand-held dynamometry in children with spastic cerebral palsy and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Maas, Huub; Harlaar, Jaap; Newsum, Irene E; Becher, Jules G; Buizer, Annemieke I; Jaspers, Richard T

    2015-08-15

    The limited range of motion during walking in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) may be the result of altered mechanical characteristics of muscles and connective tissues around the knee joint. Measurement of static net knee moment-angle relation will provide insights into these alterations, for which instrumented hand-held dynamometry may be applied. The aims of this study were: (1) to test the measurement error of the estimated net knee moment-angle characteristics, (2) to determine the correlation between knee extension angle measurement at a standardized knee moment and popliteal angle from common physical examination and (3) to compare net knee moment-angle characteristics in SCP versus typically developing children. With the child lying in sideward position, the knee was extended by moving the lower leg by a hand-held force transducer on a low friction cart. Force data were collected for a range of knee angles. Data were excluded when activity (EMG) levels of knee extensor and flexor muscles exceeded the EMG level during rest by more than two standard deviations. The net knee flexion moments were calculated from recorded force data and measured moment arm. Reliability for knee angles corresponding with 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 Nm knee net flexion moments was assessed by standard error of measurements (SEM) and smallest detectable difference (SDD). For between day comparison, SEMs were about 5° and SDDs were below 14° for knee angles at 1-4 Nm net knee flexion moments. In SCP children, the knee angle measured at 4 Nm knee flexion moment was not related to the popliteal angle (r = 0.52). The slope at 4 Nm of the knee moment-angle curve in SCP children was significantly higher than that in typically developing children. The presented knee hand-held dynamometry allows assessment of net knee flexion moment-knee angle characteristics in typically developing and SCP children and can be used to identify clinically relevant changes as a result of treatment

  1. Systematic review of clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers versus other hand held inhaler devices for delivering β2 agonists bronchodilators in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Felix S F; Wright, John; Brocklebank, David; White, John E S

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To determine the clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers compared with other hand held inhaler devices for delivering short acting β2 agonists in stable asthma. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Cochrane Airways Group specialised trials database (which includes hand searching of 20 relevant journals), Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled clinical trials register, pharmaceutical companies, and bibliographies of included trials. Trials All trials in children or adults with stable asthma that compared the pressurised metered dose inhaler (with or without a spacer device) against any other hand held inhaler device containing the same β2 agonist. Results 84 randomised controlled trials were included. No differences were found between the pressurised metered dose inhaler and any other hand held inhaler device for lung function, blood pressure, symptoms, bronchial hyperreactivity, systemic bioavailability, inhaled steroid requirement, serum potassium concentration, and use of additional relief bronchodilators. In adults, pulse rate was lower in those using the pressurised metered dose inhaler compared with those using Turbohaler (standardised mean difference 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.84); patients preferred the pressurised metered dose inhaler to the Rotahaler (relative risk 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.78); hydrofluoroalkane pressurised metered dose inhalers reduced the requirement for rescue short course oral steroids (relative risk 0.67, 0.49 to 0.91). Conclusions No evidence was found to show that alternative inhaler devices are more effective than standard pressurised metered dose inhalers for delivering acting β2 agonist bronchodilators in asthma. Pressurised metered dose inhalers remain the most cost effective delivery devices. What is already known on this topicMany different inhaler devices are available for administration of short acting β2 agonists in asthma

  2. In situ monitoring of collagen fibers in human skin using a photonic-crystal-fiber-coupled, hand-held, second-harmonic-generation microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atsuta, K.; Ogura, Y.; Hase, E.; Minamikawa, T.; Yasui, T.

    2017-02-01

    Second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for in situ monitoring of collagen fibers in human skin. However, its practical use is still limited in the dermatological field due to the bulky and complicated setup. In this paper, we constructed a photonic-crystal-fiber-coupled, hand-held SHG microscope for in situ monitoring of collagen fibers in human skin. Fiber delivery of femtosecond pulse light was achieved by a large-mode-area photonic-crystal-fiber whereas the compact SHG microscopy setup was enclosed into a lens tube system. The combination of PCF with the lens tube system largely enhances the flexibility of measurement sites in the human skin.

  3. The delivery of particulate vaccines and drugs to human skin with a practical, hand-held shock tube-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, M. A. F.

    A unique form of powdered vaccine and drug delivery has been developed. The principle behind the concept is to accelerate vaccine and drug particles, using a gas flow, so that they attain sufficient velocities to enter the skin and achieve a pharmaceutical effect. This paper presents the Contoured Shock Tube (CST), configured to deliver particles to the skin with a narrow and controlled velocity distribution and uniform spatial distribution. The gas and particle flows of a prototype CST are explored experimentally and compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations. Some key steps in converting the prototype into a practical hand-held vaccine and drug delivery system are discussed. The ability of this system to deliver particles to the skin is illustrated by sample penetration data into excised human tissue.

  4. A common-path optical coherence tomography distance-sensor based surface tracking and motion compensation hand-held microsurgical tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kang; Gehlbach, Peter; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-03-01

    Microsurgery requires constant attention to the involuntary motion due to physiological tremors. In this work, we demonstrated a simple and compact hand-held microsurgical tool capable of surface tracking and motion compensation based on common-path optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) distance-sensor to improve the accuracy and safety of microsurgery. This tool is miniaturized into a 15mm-diameter plastic syringe and capable of surface tracking at less than 5 micrometer resolution. A phantom made with Intralipid layers is used to simulate a real tissue surface and a single-fiber integrated micro-dissector works as a surgical tip to perform tracking and accurate incision on the phantom surface. The micro-incision depth is evaluated after each operation through a fast 3D scanning by the Fourier domain OCT system. The results using the surface tracking and motion compensation tool show significant improvement compared to the results by free-hand.

  5. A non-resonant, frequency up-converted electromagnetic energy harvester from human-body-induced vibration for hand-held smart system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Miah A.; Park, Jae Y.

    2014-03-01

    We present a non-resonant, frequency up-converted electromagnetic energy harvester that generates significant power from human-body-induced vibration, e.g., hand-shaking. Upon excitation, a freely movable non-magnetic ball within a cylinder periodically hits two magnets suspended on two helical compression springs located at either ends of the cylinder, allowing those to vibrate with higher frequencies. The device parameters have been designed based on the characteristics of human hand-shaking vibration. A prototype has been developed and tested both by vibration exciter (for non-resonance test) and by manual hand-shaking. The fabricated device generated 110 μW average power with 15.4 μW cm-3 average power density, while the energy harvester was mounted on a smart phone and was hand-shaken, indicating its ability in powering portable hand-held smart devices from low frequency (<5 Hz) vibrations.

  6. Suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cows by using 3 different electronic hand-held devices.

    PubMed

    Kanz, P; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Mair, B; Borchardt, S; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in 49 prepartum and 191 postpartum Holstein-Friesian cows using 3 different electronic hand-held devices [FreeStyle Precision (FSP, Abbott), GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX, A. Menarini), NovaVet (NOV, Nova Biomedical)]. The β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration in serum harvested from coccygeal blood samples was analyzed in a laboratory and used as a reference value. Capillary samples were obtained from the skin of the exterior vulva by using 1 of 3 different lancets. In all samples, the concentration of BHBA was immediately analyzed with all 3 hand-held devices used in random order. All lancets used in the study were eligible for capillary blood collection but differed in the total number of incisions needed. Spearman correlation coefficients between the BHBA concentrations in capillary blood and the reference test were highly significant with 83% for the FSP, 73% for the NOV, and 63% for the GLX. Using capillary blood, the FSP overestimated the mean BHBA concentration compared with the reference test (+0.08 mmol/L), whereas the GLX and NOV underestimated the mean concentration (-0.07 and -0.01 mmol/L). When a BHBA concentration of 1.2 mmol/L in serum was used to define subclinical ketosis, the corresponding analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized thresholds for capillary blood of 1.1 mmol/L for the NOV and GLX devices, and of 1.0 mmol/L for the FSP. Based on these thresholds, sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were 89 and 84% for the NOV, 80 and 89% for the GLX, and 100 and 76% for the FSP. Based on a serum BHBA concentration of 1.4 mmol/L, analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized cut-offs of 1.4 mmol/L for the FSP (Se 100%, Sp 92%), 1.3 mmol/L for the NOV (Se 80%, Sp 95%), and 1.1 mmol/L (Se 90%, Sp 85%) for the GLX. Using these optimized thresholds

  7. The importance of the feasibility study: Lessons from a study of the hand-held fan used to relieve dyspnea in people who are breathless at rest.

    PubMed

    Booth, Sara; Galbraith, Sarah; Ryan, Richella; Parker, Richard A; Johnson, Miriam

    2016-05-01

    The dyspnea accompanying advanced cardiorespiratory disease is often refractory to palliation. It is disabling, distressing and associated with the diseases most common everywhere in the world. The hand-held fan, used to generate a draught across the face, is a simple, cost-effective, safe, and universally applicable palliative breathlessness intervention, consistently described as valuable in qualitative research. A previous crossover trial confirmed its benefit in patients breathless at rest, but the washout period was uncertain. To determine the washout period after use of the hand-held fan to inform accurate randomized controlled trial design. An observational methodological study. Breathlessness intensity was measured using 100 mm visual analog scale and numerical rating scale, and "relief of breathlessness" was measured on a 5-point scale. Those benefitting from the fan provided visual analog scale/numerical rating scale scores until (1) scores returned to baseline values or (2) until response had plateaued. The primary outcome measure was the time (in minutes) to reach either component of the primary study endpoint. Four in-/out-patient hospice/hospital units; participants had chronic refractory breathlessness using the fan. Overall, 31 patients participated (mean age: 74.8 years; range: 49-98 years, standard deviation = 11.5 years); 64% were males. Approximately, half of the sample experienced benefit of moderate effect size. The relative reduction in breathlessness relative to the mean baseline score for the sample was 27% for the visual analog scale and 19% for the numerical rating scale. Feasibility work is essential, even for simple widely employed interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Development of a Minimum Performance Standard for Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers as a Replacement for Halon 1211 on Civilian Transport Category Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Harry

    2002-08-01

    One or more Halon 1211 hand-held fire extinguishers are specified in Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 25.851 as a requirement on transport category aircraft with 31 or more seats. Halon 1211 has been linked to the destruction of the ozone layer and production of new Halon 1211 has been halted per the Montreal Protocol in 1993. The phase out of Halon 1211, as the hand-held firefighting agent of choice, for civilian transport category aircraft has necessitated the development of a Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) to evaluate replacement agents. The purpose of the MPS is to insure that there is no reduction in safety, both in terms of effectiveness in fighting onboard fires and toxicity to the passengers and crew. The MPS specifies two new tests that replacement agents must pass in addition to requiring national certifications such as provided by Underwriters Laboratories. The first test evaluates the "flooding" characteristics of the agent against a hidden in-flight fire. This test determines the ability of a streaming agent to function as a flooding agent. The second test evaluates the performance of the agent in fighting a terrorist fire scenario and the associated toxicity hazard. This test measures the agent's ability to extinguish a triple-seat fire in an aircraft cabin under in-flight conditions and the toxicity characteristics of both the neat agent and the products of decomposition. This MPS will insure that the replacement agents will meet or exceed the performance of Halon 1211 both in fighting fires and maintaining a safe breathing environment in aircraft cabins.

  9. Hand-held dynamometer testing of the internal and external rotator musculature based on selected positions to establish normative data and unilateral ratios.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Bryan L; Davies, George J; Ludwig, Lauren; Gardenhour, Helen

    2010-12-01

    Objective documentation is needed of shoulder internal and external rotator strength using hand-held dynamometry in selected positions commonly used in a clinic. We compared strength measures and unilateral ratios between gender, limbs (dominant, nondominant), and 3 testing positions. We hypothesized that men would be stronger than women, the dominant shoulder would be stronger than the nondominant shoulder, and the seated neutral (0° adduction) and seated 30° abduction, 30° scaption, 30° diagonal (30°-30°-30°) positions would be stronger than the prone at 90°-90° position. Three positions (prone at 90°, seated at neutral, and seated at 30°-30°-30°) were evaluated in 181 individuals using hand-held dynamometry. Three separate 3-factor (limb by position by gender) analyses of variance were conducted on internal rotation, external rotation, and unilateral ratios. Although the dominant limb was significantly stronger (P < .001) than the nondominant for internal rotation, there was no difference for external rotation. The external rotators demonstrated significantly greater strength in the prone at 90° position compared with the seated at neutral (P = .001) and seated at 30°-30°-30° (P = .002) positions. The internal rotators demonstrated significantly greater (P = .036) strength in the neutral position than in the prone at 90° position for the women. The unilateral ratio of external rotators/internal rotators ranged from 86% to 99%. For the women, the prone at 90° ratio was significantly greater than seated at neutral (P = .001) and seated at 30°-30°-30° (P = .001) positions. Moderate strength relationships (r = 0.506 to 0.572) were revealed between body mass and all strength measures. The results of this study provide evidence to interpret normative data, bilateral comparisons and unilateral ratios of the internal/external rotators in the 3 selected positions. Because there are no differences between the seated at neutral and 30°-30°-30

  10. Hand-held UXO Discriminator

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, E.; Smith, J.T.; Kappler, K.N.; Ratti, A.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.

    2010-04-01

    With prior funding (UX-1225, MM-0437, and MM-0838), we have successfully designed and built a cart-mounted Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) and demonstrated its performance at various test sites (e.g., Gasperikova et al., 2007, 2009). It is a multi-transmitter multi-receiver active electromagnetic system that is able to discriminate UXO from scrap at a single measurement position, hence eliminates equirement of a very accurate sensor location. The cart-mounted system comprises of three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers (Smith et al., 2007). Receiver coils are located on ymmetry lines through the center of the system and see identical fields during the on-time of the pulse in all of the transmitter coils. They can then be wired in opposition to produce zero output during the n-ime of the pulses in three orthogonal transmitters. Moreover, this configuration dramatically reduces noise in the measurements by canceling the background electromagnetic fields (these fields are uniform ver the scale of the receiver array and are consequently nulled by the differencing operation), and by canceling the noise contributed by the tilt of the receivers in the Earth's magnetic field, and therefore reatly enhances receivers sensitivity to the gradients of the target.

  11. Hand-held survey probe

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kevin L [Idaho Falls, ID; Hungate, Kevin E [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A system for providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include an optical sensor to generate data corresponding to a position of the detection probe with respect to a surface; a microprocessor to receive the data; a software medium having code to process the data with the microprocessor and pre-programmed parameters, and making a comparison of the data to the parameters; and an indicator device to indicate results of the comparison. A method of providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include generating output data with an optical sensor corresponding to the relative position with respect to a surface; processing the output data, including comparing the output data to pre-programmed parameters; and indicating results of the comparison.

  12. Hand-Held UXO Discriminator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    studies also included various capacitors , resistors, damping factors and coupling in both the S and T-termination modes. The accuracy of the model...be used as follows: (1) teflon, (2) polypropylene , (3) polystyrene, (4) polyethylene (foam is better than solid). 2.4 Fabrication and assembly...shields several different ways as well. These included floating ground, grounded to the data acquisition board, grounded to 24 V capacitor , with

  13. What is the most cost-effective strategy to screen for left ventricular systolic dysfunction: natriuretic peptides, the electrocardiogram, hand-held echocardiography, traditional echocardiography, or their combination?

    PubMed

    Galasko, Gavin I W; Barnes, Sophie C; Collinson, Paul; Lahiri, Avijit; Senior, Roxy

    2006-01-01

    To assess the screening characteristics and cost-effectiveness of screening for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in community subjects. A total of 1392 members of the general public and 928 higher risk subjects were randomly selected from seven community practices. Attending subjects underwent an ECG, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) serum levels, and traditional echocardiography (TE). A total of 533 consecutive subjects underwent hand-held echocardiography (HE). The screening characteristics and cost-effectiveness (cost per case of LVSD diagnosed) of eight strategies to predict LVSD (LVSD <45% on TE) were compared. A total of 1205 subjects attended. Ninety six per cent of subjects with LVSD in the general population had identifiable risk factors. All screening strategies gave excellent negative predictive value. Screening high-risk subjects was most cost-effective, screening low-risk subjects least cost-effective. TE screening was the least cost-effective strategy. NTproBNP screening gave similar cost savings to ECG screening; HE screening greater cost-savings, and HE screening following NTproBNP or ECG pre-screening the greatest cost-savings, costing approximately 650 Euros per case of LVSD diagnosed in high-risk subjects (63% cost-savings vs.TE). Thus several different modalities allow cost-effective community-based screening for LVSD, especially in high-risk subjects. Such programmes would be cost-effective and miss few cases of LVSD in the community.

  14. Same-session and between-day intra-rater reliability of hand-held dynamometer measurements of isometric shoulder extensor strength.

    PubMed

    Awatani, Takenori; Mori, Seigo; Shinohara, Junji; Koshiba, Hiroya; Nariai, Miki; Tatsumi, Yasutaka; Nagata, Akinori; Morikita, Ikuhiro

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study was to establish the same-session and between-day intra-rater reliability of measurements of extensor strength in the maximum abducted position (MABP) using hand-held dynamometer (HHD). [Subjects] Thirteen healthy volunteers (10 male, 3 female; mean ± SD: age 19.8 ± 0.8 y) participated in the study. [Methods] Participants in the prone position with maximum abduction of shoulder were instructed to hold the contraction against the ground reaction force, and peak isometric force was recorded using the HHD on the floor. Participants performed maximum isometric contractions lasting 3 s, with 3 trials in one session. Between-day measurements were performed in 2 sessions separated by a 1-week interval. Intra-rater reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Systematic errors were assessed using Bland-Altman analysis for between-day data. [Results] ICC values for same-session data and between-day data were found to be "almost perfect". Systematic errors not existed and only random error existed. [Conclusion] The measurement method used in this study can easily control for experimental conditions and allow precise measurement because the lack of stabilization and the impact of tester strength are removed. Thus, extensor strength in MABP measurement is beneficial for muscle strength assessment.

  15. Lactate study using umbilical cord blood: agreement between Lactate Pro hand-held devices with blood gas analyser and evaluation of lactate stability over time.

    PubMed

    Su, Tina Y; Reece, Mifanwy; Chua, Seng C

    2013-08-01

    Lactate measurements have become increasingly preferred over pH analysis in the evaluation of fetal acidaemia in labour. In a busy labour ward, often the umbilical cord may be sampled late and as a result yield unreliable lactate values. To investigate the agreement of hand-held device Lactate Pro with a reference method blood gas analyser and evaluate the stability of umbilical cord lactate values over time. Prospective study carried out at elective caesarean section. Sixteen umbilical cords were double clamped immediately after delivery with paired arterial and venous blood samples collected by an independent researcher, at varying time intervals, and processed by two Lactate Pro devices and a reference method blood gas analyser. A significant difference of -0.41 to 0.10 mmol/L was found when different groups of Lactate Pro devices were compared with blood gas analyser at lactate values up to 5.70 mmol/L, with average lactate value of 2.45 mmol/L. Over time, there is progressive rise in lactate samples obtained from the umbilical cord. Lactate Pro devices have a significant difference, but when used in clinical practice on cord blood after delivery, this is unlikely to be meaningful. In intrapartum fetal surveillance, a systematic overestimation might lead to unnecessary intervention. It is possible to retrospectively predict the likely level of lactate at birth in delayed cord samples. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. A compact and hand-held infection-screening system for use in rapid medical inspection at airport quarantine stations: system design and preliminary validation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Miyata, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Ayumu; Zhao, Zijun; Iwakami, Sayuri; Kim, Seokjin; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-04-01

    To conduct mass screening and thereby reduce the spread of infection, a compact (13.5 cm × 8.5 cm × 2.5 cm), highly-mobile and hand-held infection-screening system was developed for rapid medical inspection in mass gathering places such as airports. The system is capable of non-contact vital-sign monitoring using two integrated sensors: a 24-GHz microwave radar for measuring heart and respiration rates and a thermopile array for capturing facial temperature. Subsequently, the system detects infected individuals using a linear discriminant function (LDA) from the derived vital-signs data. The system was tested on 10 subjects under two conditions (resting as normal and exercising as pseudo-infected, i.e. a 10-min bicycle ergometer at 100 W exercise); the normal and pseudo-infected conditions were classified successfully via LDA for all subjects (p < 0.01; classification error rate < 5%). The proposed non-contact system can be applied for preventing secondary exposure of medical doctors at the outbreak of highly pathogenic infectious diseases such as the Ebola virus.

  17. Not in my backyard: effectiveness of outdoor residual spraying from hand-held sprayers against the mosquito Aedes albopictus in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Manica, Mattia; Cobre, Pietro; Rosà, Roberto; Caputo, Beniamino

    2017-01-01

    WHO guidelines state that adulticide interventions are recommended only in case of disease outbreak. However, peridomestic sprayings are carried out routinely to reduce Aedes albopictus (Skuse) nuisance, at least in Italy. Failing to keep low adult abundance over time triggers the need for further applications. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a common control strategy routinely performed by citizens in highly infested urban sites inside the metropolitan city of Rome using a freely purchasable pyrethroid and a hand-held sprayer. Moreover, the effectiveness evaluated in three field experiments was compared with that achieved by blending the pyrethroid with a new carbon-based liquid additive. An 86% post-treatment reduction in Ae. albopictus abundance was observed in gravid and host-seeking females, while the population recovery time was 10 days. Blending the insecticide with the additive lengthened mosquito recovery time to over 14 days. Peridomestic sprayings largely reduce mosquito populations immediately after treatment but fail to keep low mosquito abundance for a longer period, partially explaining the uncontrolled repetitions of treatments. An optimal control application could benefit from research in the field of additives to improve mosquito abatement and the performance of pyrethroids over time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurements made by a hand-held dynamometer and a belt: a comparison of two types of device.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Munenori

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of 2 hand-held dynamometers (HHD-1, 2) with different designs, by performing isometric knee muscle extension measurements two times each. [Subjects] The subjects were 40 young healthy adults. [Methods] The reliability of the measurements was examined using Bland-Altman analysis. [Results] Bland-Altman analysis found a fixed bias in measurements made by HHD-1 with an average limits of agreement (LOA) value of -2.1 kgf. For HHD-2, only random errors were detected, and the minimal detectable change (MDC) was 11.4 kgf. Fixed biases were observed between the two devices with an average LOA value of 2.2 kgf. When the bodyweight ratio was used, fixed biases were observed in measurements made by both devices, and the average value of LOA was -0.03 kgf/kg. The comparison of the two devices revealed only random errors, and MDC was 0.22 kgf/kg. [Conclusion] For HHD measurements using these two devices, the appropriate number of measurements is two times, and comparison of measurement values between the two devices should be avoided.

  19. Reliability of Isometric Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements of Healthy Elderly Subjects Made with a Hand-held Dynamometer and a Belt.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Munenori; Isozaki, Koji

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of three isometric knee extension strength measurements (IKE) made with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and a belt of healthy elderly living in the community as subjects. [Subjects] The subject cohort consisted of 186 healthy elderly people, aged 65 to 79 years, living in local communities. [Methods] IKE of the leg subjects used to kick a ball was measured. IKE of each subject was measured three times using an HHD-belt at intervals of 30 seconds. The reliability of the larger of the first two measurements (LV2) as well as the third measurement (3V) was investigated. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (1, 1)] for LV2 and 3V were 0.955. Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, and the limits of agreement ranged from -5.6 to 4.6. [Conclusion] The ICC results show that the test-retest reproducibility of IKE measurements of healthy elderly subjects using an HHD-belt is high. However, Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, suggesting the need for three measurements.

  20. The use of hand-held 35 mm color infrared imagery for estimates of suspended solids - A progress report. [in water pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Whisler, F. D.; Robinette, H. R.; Finnie, D.; Cannon, T.

    1975-01-01

    A cost-effective aerial surveillance technique is proposed for detection and identification of suspended solids which would be operational for both governmental monitoring organizations and private individuals operating catfish farms. Sixteen catfish ponds were flown daily for seven days using two hand-held 35 mm cameras with both Kodachrome X and Ektachrome infrared film. Hue, value, and chroma designations were recorded for each pond on each date by three interpreters, and the accepted color was that recorded by at least two of the interpreters, or if there was a three hue range, the median was accepted. Relations between suspended solids and color designations were analyzed graphically, and chroma was discarded due to an apparent lack of correlation. The data obtained were then analyzed by multiple regression. Significant correlations were revealed between hue and value and total and inorganic suspended solids. If perfected, this technique could be developed to sufficent accuracy for large-scale reconnaissance surveys to monitor the quality of rivers and streams.

  1. Predicting meat quality traits of ovine m. semimembranosus, both fresh and following freezing and thawing, using a hand held Raman spectroscopic device.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Schmidt, Heinar; van de Ven, Remy; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2015-10-01

    Complementary studies were conducted to determine the potential for a Raman spectroscopic hand held device to predict meat quality traits of fresh lamb m. semimembranosus (topside) after ageing and freezing/thawing. Spectra were collected from 80 fresh muscles at 24h and 5d PM, another 80 muscles were measured at 24h, 5d and following freezing/thawing. Shear force, cooking loss, sarcomere length, colour, particle size, collagen content, pH24, pHu, purge and thaw loss were also measured. Results indicated a potential to predict pHu (R(2)cv=0.59), pH24 (R(2)cv=0.48) and purge (R(2)cv=0.42) using spectra collected 24h PM. L* could be predicted using spectra collected 24h (R(2)cv=0.33) or 5d PM (R(2)cv=0.33). This suggests that Raman spectroscopy is suited to identifying carcases which deviate from the normal metabolic processes and related meat quality traits.

  2. Diagnostic performance of automated breast ultrasound as a replacement for a hand-held second-look ultrasound for breast lesions detected initially on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chae, Eun Young; Shin, Hee Jung; Kim, Hyun Ji; Yoo, Hyunkyung; Baek, Seunghee; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) after breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a replacement for hand-held second-look ultrasound (HH-SLUS), we evaluated 58 consecutive patients with breast cancer who had additional suspicious lesions on breast MRI. All patients underwent HH-SLUS and ABUS. Three breast radiologists evaluated the detectability, location, characteristics and conspicuity of lesions on ABUS. We also evaluated inter-observer variability and compared the results with HH-SLUS results. Eighty additional suspicious lesions were identified on breast MRI. Fifteen of the 80 lesions (19%) were not detected on HH-SLUS. Eight of the 15 lesions (53%) were detected on ABUS, whereas the remaining 7 were not detected on ABUS. Among the 65 lesions detected on HH-SLUS, only 3 lesions were not detected on ABUS. The intra-class correlation coefficients for lesion location and size all exceeded 0.70, indicating high reliability. Moderate to fair agreement was found for mass shape, orientation, margin and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment. Therefore, ABUS can reliably detect additional suspicious lesions identified on breast MRI and may help in the decision on biopsy guidance method (US vs. MRI) as a replacement tool for HH-SLUS. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Combination of Hand-held Models and Computer Imaging Programs Helps Students Answer Oral Questions about Molecular Structure and Function: A Controlled Investigation of Student Learning

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Ronald F.; Colton, Shannon; Morris, Jennifer; Chaibub Neto, Elias; Kallio, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a controlled investigation to examine whether a combination of computer imagery and tactile tools helps introductory cell biology laboratory undergraduate students better learn about protein structure/function relationships as compared with computer imagery alone. In all five laboratory sections, students used the molecular imaging program, Protein Explorer (PE). In the three experimental sections, three-dimensional physical models were made available to the students, in addition to PE. Student learning was assessed via oral and written research summaries and videotaped interviews. Differences between the experimental and control group students were not found in our typical course assessments such as research papers, but rather were revealed during one-on-one interviews with students at the end of the semester. A subset of students in the experimental group produced superior answers to some higher-order interview questions as compared with students in the control group. During the interview, students in both groups preferred to use either the hand-held models alone or in combination with the PE imaging program. Students typically did not use any tools when answering knowledge (lower-level thinking) questions, but when challenged with higher-level thinking questions, students in both the control and experimental groups elected to use the models. PMID:19255134

  4. Inter-tester reliability and precision of manual muscle testing and hand-held dynamometry in lower limb muscles of children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical therapists and a student physical therapist. Inter-tester reliability [ICC(2,1)] for HHD varied from 0.76 to 0.83, indicating excellent reliability for the three muscle groups. Inter-tester reliability for MMT was 0.75 for the hip abductor muscle group, indicating good reliability, and 0.37 to 0.40 for the remaining muscle groups. The minimum detectable change was 15N for HHD and 1 scale unit of a 0 to 5 MMT scale. The results suggest a situation-specific solution to the question of which method to use. To detect small strength changes over time in children with spina bifida, MMT should be used when the child has insufficient strength to move the limb against gravity; otherwise, HHD should be used.

  5. Universal Hand-held Three-dimensional Optoacoustic Imaging Probe for Deep Tissue Human Angiography and Functional Preclinical Studies in Real Time

    PubMed Central

    Deán-Ben, Xosé; Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The exclusive combination of high optical contrast and excellent spatial resolution makes optoacoustics (photoacoustics) ideal for simultaneously attaining anatomical, functional and molecular contrast in deep optically opaque tissues. While enormous potential has been recently demonstrated in the application of optoacoustics for small animal research, vast efforts have also been undertaken in translating this imaging technology into clinical practice. We present here a newly developed optoacoustic tomography approach capable of delivering high resolution and spectrally enriched volumetric images of tissue morphology and function in real time. A detailed description of the experimental protocol for operating with the imaging system in both hand-held and stationary modes is provided and showcased for different potential scenarios involving functional and molecular studies in murine models and humans. The possibility for real time visualization in three dimensions along with the versatile handheld design of the imaging probe make the newly developed approach unique among the pantheon of imaging modalities used in today’s preclinical research and clinical practice. PMID:25408083

  6. A combination of hand-held models and computer imaging programs helps students answer oral questions about molecular structure and function: a controlled investigation of student learning.

    PubMed

    Harris, Michelle A; Peck, Ronald F; Colton, Shannon; Morris, Jennifer; Chaibub Neto, Elias; Kallio, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a controlled investigation to examine whether a combination of computer imagery and tactile tools helps introductory cell biology laboratory undergraduate students better learn about protein structure/function relationships as compared with computer imagery alone. In all five laboratory sections, students used the molecular imaging program, Protein Explorer (PE). In the three experimental sections, three-dimensional physical models were made available to the students, in addition to PE. Student learning was assessed via oral and written research summaries and videotaped interviews. Differences between the experimental and control group students were not found in our typical course assessments such as research papers, but rather were revealed during one-on-one interviews with students at the end of the semester. A subset of students in the experimental group produced superior answers to some higher-order interview questions as compared with students in the control group. During the interview, students in both groups preferred to use either the hand-held models alone or in combination with the PE imaging program. Students typically did not use any tools when answering knowledge (lower-level thinking) questions, but when challenged with higher-level thinking questions, students in both the control and experimental groups elected to use the models.

  7. 9-{micro}m cutoff 256 x 256 GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As quantum well infrared photodetector hand-held camera

    SciTech Connect

    Gunapala, S.D.; Liu, J.K.; Park, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-{micro}m cutoff 256 x 256 hand-held quantum well infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array and its performance in quantum efficiency, NE{Delta}T, minimum resolvable temperature (MRTD), uniformity, and operability.

  8. Preoperative scintigraphic and intraoperative scintimetric localization of parathyroid adenoma with cationic Tc-99m complexes and a hand-held gamma-probe.

    PubMed

    Gallowitsch, H J; Fellinger, J; Kresnik, E; Mikosch, P; Pipam, W; Lind, P

    1997-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the possibility of intraoperative scintimetric detection of parathyroid adenomas with Tc-99m labelled tracers for its usefulness in dystropic or ectopic adenomas. 12 women with biochemically confirmed hyperparathyroidism were included in our study. After injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m tetrofosmin e.g. sestamibi, preoperative scintigraphy (double phase study and SPECT) was performed and T/NT ratios were evaluated for early, delayed and SPECT images. Surgery was performed using a hand-held gamma-probe after preoperative injection of 555-925 MBq Tc-99m tetrofosmin e.g. sestamibi. Count rates (cts/10 sec) were measured and used for calculating in situ- and ex situ-T/NT ratios. In 9 out of 12 patients, adenoma could be detected on static images. Mean T/NT ratios for Tc-99m tetrofosmin were 1.29 for early and 1.23 for delayed images, respectively 1.39 and 1.23 for early and delayed Tc-99m sestamibi scan. Three cases could only be detected with SPECT reconstruction, 11 of 12 parathyroid adenomas could be confirmed intra-operatively. SPECT with Tc-99m labelled cationic complexes showed advantages in detection, precise localization and contrast over static scintigraphy and should therefore be performed at least in cases with poor or no uptake on static images to avoid failures in detection of deeply sited, dislocated glands or adenomas with low uptake. Intraoperative localization and confirmation of parathyroid adenoma with Tc-99m labelled cationic complexes and a gamma probe is possible an 1 may be useful in case of dys- or ectopic adenoma by influencing surgical approach and operating time.

  9. VALIDATION OF ANSI N42.34 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR HAND-HELD INSTRUMENTS FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF RADIONUCLIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Lorier, T.

    2014-09-03

    SRNL’s validation of ANSI N42.34-D6 for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) was performed utilizing one hand-held instrument (or RID) – the FLIR identiFINDER 2. Each section of the standard was evaluated via a walk-through or test. NOTE: In Table 1, W = walk-through and T = test, as directed by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). For a walk-through, the experiment was either setup or reviewed for setup; for a test, the N42.34-D6 procedures were followed with some exceptions and comments noted. SRNL is not fully able to evaluate a RID against Sections 7 (Environmental), 8 (Electromagnetic), and 9 (Mechanical) of N42.34, so those portions of this validation were done in collaboration with Qualtest, Inc. in Orlando, Florida. The walk-throughs and tests of Sections 7, 8, and 9 were performed in Qualtest, Inc. facilities with SRNL providing radiological sources as necessary. Where applicable, assessment results and findings of the walk-throughs and tests were recorded on datasheets and a validation summary is provided. A general comment pertained to test requirements found in another standard and referenced in N42.34-D6. For example, step 1 of the test method in section 8.1.2 states “RF test set up information can be found in IEC 61000-4-3.” It is recommended that any information from other standards necessary for conducting the tests within N42.34 should be posted in N42.34 for simplicity and to prevent the user from having to peruse other documents. Another general comment, as noted by Qualtest, is that a tolerance reference is not listed for each test in sections 7-9. Overall, the N42.34-D6 was proven to be practicable, but areas for improvement and recommendations were identified for consideration prior to final ballot submittal.

  10. Obtaining accurate glucose measurements from wild animals under field conditions: comparing a hand held glucometer with a standard laboratory technique in grey seals.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kimberley A; Turner, Lucy M; Millward, Sebastian; Moss, Simon E W; Hall, Ailsa J

    2017-01-01

    Glucose is an important metabolic fuel and circulating levels are tightly regulated in most mammals, but can drop when body fuel reserves become critically low. Glucose is mobilized rapidly from liver and muscle during stress in response to increased circulating cortisol. Blood glucose levels can thus be of value in conservation as an indicator of nutritional status and may be a useful, rapid assessment marker for acute or chronic stress. However, seals show unusual glucose regulation: circulating levels are high and insulin sensitivity is limited. Accurate blood glucose measurement is therefore vital to enable meaningful health and physiological assessments in captive, wild or rehabilitated seals and to explore its utility as a marker of conservation relevance in these animals. Point-of-care devices are simple, portable, relatively cheap and use less blood compared with traditional sampling approaches, making them useful in conservation-related monitoring. We investigated the accuracy of a hand-held glucometer for 'instant' field measurement of blood glucose, compared with blood drawing followed by laboratory testing, in wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), a species used as an indicator for Good Environmental Status in European waters. The glucometer showed high precision, but low accuracy, relative to laboratory measurements, and was least accurate at extreme values. It did not provide a reliable alternative to plasma analysis. Poor correlation between methods may be due to suboptimal field conditions, greater and more variable haematocrit, faster erythrocyte settling rate and/or lipaemia in seals. Glucometers must therefore be rigorously tested before use in new species and demographic groups. Sampling, processing and glucose determination methods have major implications for conclusions regarding glucose regulation, and health assessment in seals generally, which is important in species of conservation concern and in development of circulating glucose as a

  11. Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, V.; Joyner, K.H.

    1995-05-01

    Electric fields (E-fields) induced within a phantom head from exposure to three different advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) hand-held telephones were measured using an implantable E-Field probe. Measurements were taken in the eye nearest the phone and along a lateral scan through the brain from its center to the side nearest the phone. During measurement, the phones were positioned alongside the phantom head as in typical use and were configured to transmit at maximum power (600 mW nominal). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated from the in situ E-field measurements, which varied significantly between phone models and antenna configuration. The SARs induced in the eye ranged from 0.007 to 0.21 W/kg. Metal-framed spectacles enhanced SAR levels in the eye by 9--29%. In the brain, maximum levels were recorded at the measurement point closest to the phone and ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 W/kg. These SARs are below peak spatial limits recommended in the US and Australian national standards and the IRPA guidelines for safe exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, a detailed thermal analysis of the eye indicated only a 0.022 C maximum steady-state temperature rise in the eye from a uniform SAR loading of 0.21 W/kg. A more approximate thermal analysis in the brain also indicated only a small maximum temperature rise of 0.034 C for a local SAR loading of 0.83 W/kg.

  12. An approach to precise nitrogen management using hand-held crop sensor measurements and winter wheat yield mapping in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Quebrajo, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agüera, Juan

    2015-03-06

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index-NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha(-1) and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm(-1) (field 1) and 3221 ± 531 kg ha(-1) and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm(-1) (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with r(xy) = 0.64 and p < 10(-4) in field 1 and r(xy) = 0.78 and p < 10(-4) in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis.

  13. Comparison of automated breast volume scanning and hand- held ultrasound in the detection of breast cancer: an analysis of 5,566 patient evaluations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Jung; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Kim, Hyunji; Chae, Eun Young; Hong, Min Ji

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy and effectiveness of automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) and hand-held ultrasound (HHUS) in the detection of breast cancer in a large population group with a long-term follow-up, and to investigate whether different ultrasound systems may influence the estimation of cancer detection. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study, and informed consent was waived. From September 2010 to August 2011, a total of 1,866 ABVS and 3,700 HHUS participants, who underwent these procedures at our institute, were included in this study. Cancers occurring during the study and subsequent follow-up were evaluated. The reference standard was a combination of histology and follow-up imaging (≥12 months). The recall rate, cancer detection yield, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated with exact 95% confidence intervals. The recall rate was 2.57 per 1,000 (48/1,866) for ABVS and 3.57 per 1,000 (132/3,700) for HHUS, with ? significant difference (p=0.048). The cancer detection yield was 3.8 per 1,000 for ABVS and 2.7 per 1,000 for HHUS. The diagnostic accuracy was 97.7% for ABVS and 96.5% for HHUS with statistical significance (p=0.018). The specificity of ABVS and HHUS were 97.8%, 96.7%, respectively (p=0.022). ABVS shows a comparable diagnostic performance to HHUS. ABVS is an effective supplemental tool for mammography in breast cancer detection in a large population.

  14. Pocket-size hand-held cardiac ultrasound as an adjunct to clinical examination in the hands of medical students and junior doctors.

    PubMed

    Panoulas, Vasileios F; Daigeler, Anna-Lena; Malaweera, Anura S N; Lota, Amrit S; Baskaran, Dinnish; Rahman, Syed; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2013-04-01

    While patient history taking and physical examination remain the cornerstones of patient evaluation in clinical practice, there has been a decline in the accuracy of the latter. Pocket-size hand-held echocardiographic (PHHE) devices have recently been introduced and could potentially improve the diagnostic accuracy of both medical students and junior doctors. The amount of training required to achieve optimal results remains a matter of debate. We hypothesized that the use of PHHE after limited training in the form of a tutorial can improve the clinical diagnosis even in the hands of medical students and inexperienced physicians. Five final-year medical students and three junior doctors without prior echocardiographic experience participated in a standardized 2 h PHHE bedside tutorial. Subsequently, they assessed 122 cardiology patients using history, physical examination, ECG and PHHE. Their final clinical diagnosis was compared against that of a consultant clinician's and also expert in echocardiography. A total of 122 PHHE were performed of which 64 (53%) by final-year medical students and 58 (47%) by junior doctors. Mean ± SD for diagnostic accuracy after history, physical examination, and ECG interpretation was 0.49 ± 0.22 (maximum = 1), whereas the addition of PHHE increased its value to 0.75 ± 0.28 (Z = -7.761, P<0.001). When assessing left ventricular systolic dysfunction by means of history and physical examination, specificity was 84.9% and sensitivity only 25.9%, whereas after including findings from PHHE, these figures rose to 93.6 and 74.1%, respectively. The use of PHHE after brief bedside training in the form of a tutorial greatly improved the clinical diagnosis of medical students and junior doctors, over and above history, physical examination, and ECG findings.

  15. Evaluation of a hand-held blood gas analyzer for rapid determination of blood gases, electrolytes and metabolites in intensive care setting.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, Antti A M; Lehto, Tiina M; Hedberg, Pirjo S M; Vaskivuo, Tommy E

    2016-04-01

    Intensive care units, operating rooms, emergency departments, and neonatology units need rapid measurements of blood gases, electrolytes, and metabolites. These analyses can be performed in a central laboratory or at the clinic with traditional or compact cassette-type blood gas analyzers such as the epoc blood gas testing system for analyzing whole blood samples at the bedside. In this study, the performance and interchangeability of a hand-held epoc blood gas analyzer was evaluated. The analytical performance of the epoc analyzer was evaluated by determining within-and between-run precisions. The accuracy of the epoc analyzer was assessed by comparing patient results from the device with those obtained with the Siemens Rapidlab 1265 and Rapidpoint RP500 and Siemens Dimension Vista and Sysmex XE-2100 analyzers. The following parameters were measured: pH, pCO2, pO2, Hb (calc), Na+, K+, iCa2+, glucose, and lactate. The CV% of the epoc's between-day imprecision for the various parameters varied from 0.4 to 8.6. The within-run imprecision CV% varied from 0.6 to 5.2. The squared regression coefficient (R2) between the epoc and RL1265 varied from 0.94 to 0.99, with the exception of Na+ and Ca2+ (R2≥0.82). The correlation (R2) of Na+ and K+ between epoc and Dimension Vista was 0.73 and 0.89, respectively. The correlation (R2) of Hb between the epoc and the XE-2100 analyzer was 0.94. With most of the measured blood gas parameters, the epoc analyzer correlated well with reference techniques. The epoc analyzer is suitable for rapid measurement of the blood gases, the electrolytes, and the metabolites in the ICU.

  16. Hip- and knee-strength assessments using a hand-held dynamometer with external belt-fixation are inter-tester reliable.

    PubMed

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per

    2013-03-01

    In football, ice-hockey, and track and field, injuries have been predicted, and hip- and knee-strength deficits quantified using hand-held dynamometry (HHD). However, systematic bias exists when testers of different sex and strength perform the measurements. Belt-fixation of the dynamometer may resolve this. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the inter-tester reliability concerning strength assessments of isometric hip abduction, adduction, flexion, extension and knee-flexion strength, using HHD with external belt-fixation. Twenty-one healthy athletes (6 women), 30 (8.6) (mean (SD)) years of age, were included. Two physiotherapy students (1 female and 1 male) performed all the measurements after careful instruction and procedure training. Isometric hip abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, and knee-flexion strength were tested. The tester-order and hip-action order were randomised. No systematic between-tester differences (bias) were observed for any of the hip or knee actions. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC 2.1) ranged from 0.76 to 0.95. Furthermore, standard errors of measurement in per cent (SEM %) ranged from 5 to 11 %, and minimal detectable change in per cent (MDC %) from 14 to 29 % for the different hip and knee actions. The present study shows that isometric hip- and knee-strength measurements have acceptable inter-tester reliability at the group level, when testing strong individuals, using HHD with belt-fixation. This procedure is therefore perfectly suited for the evaluation and monitoring of strong athletes with hip, groin and hamstring injuries, some of the most common and troublesome injuries in sports. Diagnostic, Level III.

  17. Obtaining accurate glucose measurements from wild animals under field conditions: comparing a hand held glucometer with a standard laboratory technique in grey seals

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lucy M.; Millward, Sebastian; Moss, Simon E. W.; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Glucose is an important metabolic fuel and circulating levels are tightly regulated in most mammals, but can drop when body fuel reserves become critically low. Glucose is mobilized rapidly from liver and muscle during stress in response to increased circulating cortisol. Blood glucose levels can thus be of value in conservation as an indicator of nutritional status and may be a useful, rapid assessment marker for acute or chronic stress. However, seals show unusual glucose regulation: circulating levels are high and insulin sensitivity is limited. Accurate blood glucose measurement is therefore vital to enable meaningful health and physiological assessments in captive, wild or rehabilitated seals and to explore its utility as a marker of conservation relevance in these animals. Point-of-care devices are simple, portable, relatively cheap and use less blood compared with traditional sampling approaches, making them useful in conservation-related monitoring. We investigated the accuracy of a hand-held glucometer for ‘instant’ field measurement of blood glucose, compared with blood drawing followed by laboratory testing, in wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), a species used as an indicator for Good Environmental Status in European waters. The glucometer showed high precision, but low accuracy, relative to laboratory measurements, and was least accurate at extreme values. It did not provide a reliable alternative to plasma analysis. Poor correlation between methods may be due to suboptimal field conditions, greater and more variable haematocrit, faster erythrocyte settling rate and/or lipaemia in seals. Glucometers must therefore be rigorously tested before use in new species and demographic groups. Sampling, processing and glucose determination methods have major implications for conclusions regarding glucose regulation, and health assessment in seals generally, which is important in species of conservation concern and in development of circulating

  18. Detection performance assessment of hand-held mine detection systems in a procurement process: test set-up for MDs and MD/GPRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoolderman, Arnold J.; Roosenboom, Jacques H. J.

    2005-06-01

    The Engineers Centre of Expertise of the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA) has conducted a study on countermine in peace operations. This study, finished in 2002, concluded that the final solution to countermine will depend in the first place on better detection of buried low-metal mines, e.g. by direct detection of the explosive components in mines. Until such detection systems are available, intermediate solutions are necessary in order to assure freedom of movement in peace operations. Because countermine operations consist of a number of different activities (area preparation, detection, clearance, etc) and the suitability of the different types of available equipment depends on the scenario, the toolbox concept for countermine equipment was adopted. In 2003 a procurement process was started in order to fill this toolbox with commercial-off-the-shelf and military-off-the-shelf equipment. The paper gives a concise description of the study on countermine operations and the procurement process, and subsequently focuses on the set-up of the tests that were conducted in the framework of the procurement of hand-held mine detection systems, like metal detectors and dual-sensor mine detectors. Programs of requirements for these systems were drawn up, aiming at systems for general use and special purpose systems. Blind tests to check the compliancy to the detection performance requirements were designed and conducted in the short timeframe that was available in the procurement process. These tests are discussed in this paper, including the set-up of the test lanes, the targets used and their depths, and the role of the operator. The tests of the capability of the detectors to discriminate small targets adjacent to large targets were conducted according the guidelines of the CEN Workshop Agreement on metal detector tests. Although the results of the tests are commercially confidential, conclusions and lessons learned from the execution of these tests are presented.

  19. Hand-held echocardiography in the setting of pre-operative cardiac evaluation of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery: results from a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Mega, Simona; Goffredo, Costanza; Patti, Giuseppe; Chello, Massimo; Di Sciascio, Germano

    2015-06-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography is not a routine test in the pre-operative cardiac evaluation of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery but may be considered in those with known heart failure and valvular heart disease or complaining cardiac symptoms. In this setting, hand-held echocardiography (HHE) could find a potential application as an alternative to standard echocardiography in selected patients; however, its utility in this context has not been investigated. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the conclusiveness of HHE compared to standard echocardiography in this subset of patients. 100 patients scheduled for non-cardiac surgery were randomized to receive a standard exam with a Philips Ie33 or a bedside evaluation with a pocket-size imaging device (Opti-Go, Philips Medical System). The primary endpoint was the percentage of satisfactory diagnosis at the end of the examination referred as conclusiveness. Secondary endpoints were the mean duration time and the mean waiting time to perform the exams. No significant difference in terms of conclusiveness between HHE and standard echo was found (86 vs 96%; P = 0.08). Mean duration time of the examinations was 6.1 ± 1.2 min with HHE and 13.1 ± 2.6 min with standard echocardiography (P < 0.001). HHE resulted in a consistent save of waiting time because it was performed the same day of clinical evaluation whereas patients waited 10.1 ± 6.1 days for a standard echocardiography (P < 0.001). This study suggests the potential role of HHE for pre-operative evaluation of selected patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, since it provided similar information but it was faster and earlier performed compared to standard echocardiography.

  20. An Approach to Precise Nitrogen Management Using Hand-Held Crop Sensor Measurements and Winter Wheat Yield Mapping in a Mediterranean Environment

    PubMed Central

    Quebrajo, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agüera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index—NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha−1 and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm−1 (field 1) and 3221 ± 531 kg ha−1 and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm−1 (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with rxy = 0.64 and p < 10−4 in field 1 and rxy = 0.78 and p < 10−4 in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis. PMID:25756861

  1. In a maternity shared-care environment, what do we know about the paper hand-held and electronic health record: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Glenda; Janamian, Tina; Jackson, Claire; Wilkinson, Shelley A

    2014-01-30

    The paper hand-held record (PHR) has been widely used as a tool to facilitate communication between health care providers and a pregnant woman. Since its inception in the 1950s, it has been described as a successful initiative, evolving to meet the needs of communities and their providers. Increasingly, the electronic health record (EHR) has dominated the healthcare arena and the maternity general practice shared-care arrangement seems to have adopted this initiative. A systematic review was conducted to determine perspectives of the PHR and the EHR with regards to data completeness; experiences of users and integration of care between women and health care providers. A literature search was conducted that included papers from 1985 to 2012. Studies were chosen if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria, reporting on: data completeness; experiences of users and integration of care between women and health care providers. Papers were extracted by one reviewer in consultation with two reviewers with expertise in maternity e-health and independently assessed for quality. A total of 43 papers were identified for the review, from an initial 6,816 potentially relevant publications. No papers were found that reported on data completeness in a maternity PHR or a maternity EHR, in a shared-care setting. Women described the PHR as important to their antenatal care and had a generally positive perception of using an EHR. Hospital clinicians reported generally positive experiences using a PHR, while both positive and negative impressions were found using an EHR. The few papers describing the use of the PHR and EHR by community clinicians were also divergent and inconclusive with regards to their experiences. In a general practice shared-care model, the PHR is a valuable tool for integration between the woman and the health care provider. While the EHR is an ideal initiative in the maternity setting, facilitating referrals and communication, there are issues of fragmentation and

  2. Micro-fluidic (Lab-on the- Chip) PCR Array Cartridge for Biological Screening in a Hand Held Device: FInal Report for CRADA no 264. PNNL-T2-258-RU with CombiMatrix Corp

    SciTech Connect

    Rainina, Evguenia I.

    2010-10-31

    The worldwide emergence of both new and old diseases resulting from human expansion and also human and materials mobility has and will continue to place stress on both medical and clinical diagnostics. The classical approach to bioagents detection involves the use of differential metabolic assays to determine species type in the case of most bacteria, or the use of cell culture and electron microscopy to diagnose viruses and some bacteria that are intracellular parasites. The long-term goal in bioagent detection is to develop a hand-held instrument featuring disposable cartridges which contain all the necessary reagents, reaction chambers, waste chambers, and micro-fluidics to extract, concentrate, amplify, and analyze nucleic acids. This GIPP project began development of a sensory platform using nucleic-acid based probes. Although research was not completed, initial findings indicated that an advanced sensing device could theoretically be built on a DNA/RNA-based technology platform.

  3. The reliability and validity of measurements of human dental casts made by an intra-oral 3D scanner, with conventional hand-held digital callipers as the comparison measure.

    PubMed

    Rajshekar, Mithun; Julian, Roberta; Williams, Anne-Marie; Tennant, Marc; Forrest, Alex; Walsh, Laurence J; Wilson, Gary; Blizzard, Leigh

    2017-09-01

    Intra-oral 3D scanning of dentitions has the potential to provide a fast, accurate and non-invasive method of recording dental information. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of measurements of human dental casts made using a portable intra-oral 3D scanner appropriate for field use. Two examiners each measured 84 tooth and 26 arch features of 50 sets of upper and lower human dental casts using digital hand-held callipers, and secondly using the measuring tool provided with the Zfx IntraScan intraoral 3D scanner applied to the virtual dental casts. The measurements were repeated at least one week later. Reliability and validity were quantified concurrently by calculation of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard errors of measurement (SEM). The measurements of the 110 landmark features of human dental casts made using the intra-oral 3D scanner were virtually indistinguishable from measurements of the same features made using conventional hand-held callipers. The difference of means as a percentage of the average of the measurements by each method ranged between 0.030% and 1.134%. The intermethod SEMs ranged between 0.037% and 0.535%, and the inter-method ICCs ranged between 0.904 and 0.999, for both the upper and the lower arches. The inter-rater SEMs were one-half and the intra-method/rater SEMs were one-third of the inter-method values. This study demonstrates that the Zfx IntraScan intra-oral 3D scanner with its virtual on-screen measuring tool is a reliable and valid method for measuring the key features of dental casts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Semiconductor heterostructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold John (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry MacPherson (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  5. Semiconductor structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold J. (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  6. Using a Hand-Held Electronic Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Roger

    1975-01-01

    The arithmetic needed for complex calculation using an electronic calculator is explained and exemplified. Problems involving square roots, number theory, Fibonacci numbers, and electrical resistances are solved. (SD)

  7. Development of a Hand Held Thromboelastograph

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    11 APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………..11 4 INTRODUCTION Trauma is known to induce hemostatic disorders such as trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC

  8. Development of a Hand Held Thromboelastograph

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Subtask 1d: Robustness of device architecture: 1 meter drop test Subtasks 1a – 1d are complete. The voice coil actuator (VCA) motors will generate a...into the 75 µ gap between the two glass plates. A shear rate of 1000/s was chosen based on the data. A one- meter drop test was conducted in-house...interaction • Technical improvements to handheld device and disposable cartridge were identified based on initial testing, and implementation began

  9. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-07

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  10. Using a Hand-Held Electronic Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Roger

    1975-01-01

    The arithmetic needed for complex calculation using an electronic calculator is explained and exemplified. Problems involving square roots, number theory, Fibonacci numbers, and electrical resistances are solved. (SD)

  11. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, Tommy L.; Powers, Hurshal G.

    1987-01-01

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  12. Measurement of ageing effects on muscle tone and mechanical properties of rectus femoris and biceps brachii in healthy males and females using a novel hand-held myometric device.

    PubMed

    Agyapong-Badu, Sandra; Warner, Martin; Samuel, Dinesh; Stokes, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Age and gender effects on muscle tone and mechanical properties have not been studied using hand-held myometric technology. Monitoring changes in muscle properties with ageing in community settings may provide a valuable assessment tool for detecting those at risk of premature decline and sarcopenia. This study aimed to provide objective data on the effects of ageing and gender on muscle tone and mechanical properties of quadriceps (rectus femoris) and biceps brachii muscles. In a comparative study of 123 healthy males and females (aged 18-90 years; n=61 aged 18-35; n=62 aged 65-90) muscle tone, elasticity and stiffness were measured using the MyotonPRO device. Stiffness was greater and elasticity lower in older adults for BB and RF (p<0.001). Tone was significantly greater in older adults for BB but not for RF when data for males and females were combined (p=0.28). There were no gender differences for BB in either age group. In RF, males had greater stiffness (young males 292 vs females 233 N/m; older males 328 vs females 311 N/m) and tone (young 16.4 vs 13.6 Hz; older 16.7 vs 14.9 Hz). Elasticity in RF was lower in young males than females but did not differ between the older groups (both males and females log decrement 1.6). Stiffness and tone increased with ageing and elasticity decreased. These findings have implications for detecting frailty using a novel biomarker. Age and gender differences are important to consider when assessing effects of pathological conditions on muscle properties in older people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intradevice and Interdevice Agreement Between a Rebound Tonometer, Icare PRO, and the Tonopen XL and Kowa Hand-held Applanation Tonometer When Used in the Sitting and Supine Position.

    PubMed

    Nakakura, Shunsuke; Mori, Etsuko; Yamamoto, Minami; Tsushima, Yuuri; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the agreement between a new portable tonometer, Icare PRO, and the Tonopen XL and Kowa hand-held applanation tonometers (HAT). The right eyes of 127 healthy subjects were enrolled. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in both sitting and supine positions using the Icare PRO, Tonopen XL, and Kowa HAT tonometers. The repeatability of the IOP measurements was evaluated by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients. Between-method agreements of tonometer measurements were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. Intradevice agreement: The intraclass correlation coefficients (sitting, supine) of Icare PRO, Tonopen XL, and Kowa HAT were (0.863, 0.656), (0.845, 0.819), and (0.957, 0.956), respectively.Interdevice agreement: The Bland-Altman analysis revealed that, in the sitting position, the mean differences between Icare PRO and Tonopen XL, and between Icare PRO and Kowa HAT were -0.43 and 0.43 mm Hg, respectively (95% limits of agreement: -6.24 to 5.34 mm Hg, -4.04 to 4.90 mm Hg). In the supine position, the corresponding mean differences were -0.88 and 0.14 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement: -5.66 to 3.91 mm Hg, -4.06 to 4.33 mm Hg). IOP differences between Icare PRO and the other tonometers were unaffected by central corneal thickness. The repeatability of Icare PRO was slightly lower in the supine position than in the sitting position. Although Icare PRO underestimated IOP values in eyes with higher IOP when compared with Tonopen XL and Kowa HAT in both positions, we observed good interdevice agreement between Icare PRO and both Tonopen XL and Kowa HAT.

  14. Do signals of a hand-held TETRA transmitter affect cognitive performance, well-being, mood or somatic complaints in healthy young men? Results of a randomized double-blind cross-over provocation study.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Cornelia; Eggert, Torsten; Dorn, Hans; Schmid, Gernot; Bolz, Thomas; Marasanov, Alexander; Hansen, Marie-Luise; Peter, Anita; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2015-07-01

    TETRA (terrestrial trunked radio) is a digital radio communication standard, which has been implemented in several European countries and is used by public executives, transportation services, and by private companies. Studies on possible impacts on the users' health considering different exposure conditions are missing. To investigate possible acute effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of two different levels of TETRA hand-held transmitter signals on cognitive function and well-being in healthy young males. In the present double-blind cross-over study possible effects of short-term (2.5h) EMF exposure of handset-like signals of TETRA (385 MHz) were studied in 30 healthy male participants (mean±SD: 25.4±2.6 years). Individuals were tested on nine study days, on which they were exposed to three different exposure conditions (Sham, TETRA 1.5 W/kg and TETRA 6.0 W/kg) in a randomly assigned and balanced order. Participants were tested in the afternoon at a fixed timeframe. Attention remained unchanged in two out of three tasks. In the working memory significant changes were observed in two out of four subtasks. Significant results were found in 5 out of 35 tested parameters, four of them led to an improvement in performance. Mood, well-being and subjective somatic complaints were not affected by TETRA exposure. The results of the present study do not indicate a negative impact of a short-term EMF-effect of TETRA on cognitive function and well-being in healthy young men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Better self-management and meaningful activities thanks to tablets? Development of a person-centered program to support people with mild dementia and their carers through use of hand-held touch screen devices.

    PubMed

    Kerkhof, Yvonne J F; Graff, Maud J L; Bergsma, Ad; de Vocht, Hilde H M; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    2016-11-01

    To offer good support to people with dementia and their carers in an aging and Internet society the deployment of hand-held touch screen devices, better known as tablets, and its applications (apps) can be viable and desirable. However, at the moment it is not clear which apps are usable for supporting people with dementia in daily life. Also, little is known about how people with dementia can be coached to learn to use a tablet and its apps. A person-centered program, with tools and training, will be developed that aims to support people with mild dementia and their (in)formal carers in how to use the tablet for self-management and meaningful activities. The program will be developed in accordance with the Medical Research Council's (MRC) framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions and the study will cover the following phases: a preclinical or theoretical (0) phase; a modeling phase (I) and the exploratory trial phase (II). The users (people with dementia and their carers) will be involved intensively during all these phases, by means of individual interviews, workshops, focus groups, and case studies. The iterative process inherent to this framework makes it possible to develop a user-oriented intervention, in this case a person-centered program, for the use of tablets in dementia care. Preparatory work will be done to perform a methodologically sound randomized controlled trial (RCT) in the near future, which aims to investigate the contribution of this person-centered program for tablet use to the quality of life of people with dementia and their carers.

  16. Semiconductor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C. (Inventor); Lagowski, Jacek (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor sensor adapted to detect with a high degree of sensitivity small magnitudes of a mechanical force, presence of traces of a gas or light. The sensor includes a high energy gap (i.e., .about. 1.0 electron volts) semiconductor wafer. Mechanical force is measured by employing a non-centrosymmetric material for the semiconductor. Distortion of the semiconductor by the force creates a contact potential difference (cpd) at the semiconductor surface, and this cpd is determined to give a measure of the force. When such a semiconductor is subjected to illumination with an energy less than the energy gap of the semiconductors, such illumination also creates a cpd at the surface. Detection of this cpd is employed to sense the illumination itself or, in a variation of the system, to detect a gas. When either a gas or light is to be detected and a crystal of a non-centrosymmetric material is employed, the presence of gas or light, in appropriate circumstances, results in a strain within the crystal which distorts the same and the distortion provides a mechanism for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the gas or the light, as the case may be.

  17. Semiconductor photoelectrochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Semiconductor photoelectrochemical reactions are investigated. A model of the charge transport processes in the semiconductor, based on semiconductor device theory, is presented. It incorporates the nonlinear processes characterizing the diffusion and reaction of charge carriers in the semiconductor. The model is used to study conditions limiting useful energy conversion, specifically the saturation of current flow due to high light intensity. Numerical results describing charge distributions in the semiconductor and its effects on the electrolyte are obtained. Experimental results include: an estimate rate at which a semiconductor photoelectrode is capable of converting electromagnetic energy into chemical energy; the effect of cell temperature on the efficiency; a method for determining the point of zero zeta potential for macroscopic semiconductor samples; a technique using platinized titanium dioxide powders and ultraviolet radiation to produce chlorine, bromine, and iodine from solutions containing their respective ions; the photoelectrochemical properties of a class of layered compounds called transition metal thiophosphates; and a technique used to produce high conversion efficiency from laser radiation to chemical energy.

  18. Macroporous Semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Föll, Helmut; Leisner, Malte; Cojocaru, Ala; Carstensen, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Pores in single crystalline semiconductors come in many forms (e.g., pore sizes from 2 nm to > 10 µm; morphologies from perfect pore crystal to fractal) and exhibit many unique properties directly or as nanocompounds if the pores are filled. The various kinds of pores obtained in semiconductors like Ge, Si, III-V, and II-VI compound semiconductors are systematically reviewed, emphasizing macropores. Essentials of pore formation mechanisms will be discussed, focusing on differences and some open questions but in particular on common properties. Possible applications of porous semiconductors, including for example high explosives, high efficiency electrodes for Li ion batteries, drug delivery systems, solar cells, thermoelectric elements and many novel electronic, optical or sensor devices, will be introduced and discussed.

  19. Portable wide-field hand-held NIR scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Young-Jin; Roman, Manuela; Carrasquilla, Jennifer; Erickson, Sarah J.; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2013-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging modality is one of the widely used medical imaging techniques for breast cancer imaging, functional brain mapping, and many other applications. However, conventional NIR imaging systems are bulky and expensive, thereby limiting their accelerated clinical translation. Herein a new compact (6 × 7 × 12 cm3), cost-effective, and wide-field NIR scanner has been developed towards contact as well as no-contact based real-time imaging in both reflectance and transmission mode. The scanner mainly consists of an NIR source light (between 700- 900 nm), an NIR sensitive CCD camera, and a custom-developed image acquisition and processing software to image an area of 12 cm2. Phantom experiments have been conducted to estimate the feasibility of diffuse optical imaging by using Indian-Ink as absorption-based contrast agents. As a result, the developed NIR system measured the light intensity change in absorption-contrasted target up to 4 cm depth under transillumination mode. Preliminary in-vivo studies demonstrated the feasibility of real-time monitoring of blood flow changes. Currently, extensive in-vivo studies are carried out using the ultra-portable NIR scanner in order to assess the potential of the imager towards breast imaging..

  20. Monitoring invasive plants using hand-held GIS technology

    Treesearch

    Theresa M. Mau-Crimmins; Barron J. Orr

    2005-01-01

    Successful control of invasive species requires a clear picture of the spatial extent of infestations. The latest mapping technology involves coupling global position systems and handheld computers running geographic information systems software in the field. A series of workshops applying this technology to mapping weeds was developed and presented to Weed Management...

  1. Hand held sample tube manipulator, system and method

    DOEpatents

    Kenny, Donald V [Liberty Township, OH; Smith, Deborah L [Liberty Township, OH; Severance, Richard A [late of Columbus, OH

    2001-01-01

    A manipulator apparatus, system and method for measuring analytes present in sample tubes. The manipulator apparatus includes a housing having a central bore with an inlet end and outlet end; a plunger mechanism with at least a portion thereof slideably disposed for reciprocal movement within the central bore, the plunger mechanism having a tubular gas channel with an inlet end and an outlet end, the gas channel inlet end disposed in the same direction as said inlet end of the central bore, wherein the inlet end of said plunger mechanism is adapted for movement so as to expel a sample tube inserted in the bore at the outlet end of the housing, the inlet end of the plunger mechanism is adapted for connection to gas supply; a first seal is disposed in the housing for sealing between the central bore and the plunger mechanism; a second seal is disposed at the outlet end of the housing for sealing between the central bore and a sample tube; a holder mounted on the housing for holding the sample tube; and a biasing mechanism for returning the plunger mechanism to a starting position.

  2. Hand-Held Electronic Gap-Measuring Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, F. E.; Thompson, F. W.; Aragon, L. A.; Harrington, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Repetitive measurements simplified by tool based on LVDT operation. With fingers in open position, Gap-measuring tool rests on digital readout instrument. With fingers inserted in gap, separation alters inductance of linear variable-differential transformer in plastic handle. Originally developed for measuring gaps between surface tiles of Space Shuttle orbiter, tool reduces measurement time from 20 minutes per tile to 2 minutes. Also reduces possibility of damage to tiles during measurement. Tool has potential applications in mass production; helps ensure proper gap dimensions in assembly of refrigerator and car doors and also used to measure dimensions of components and to verify positional accuracy of components during progressive assembly operations.

  3. Testing of Hand-Held Mine Detection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-08

    conductivity, magnetic permeability , etc.). b. This type of facility is normally used for prototype concepts. NOTE: Sensor Verification trials or system...lanes (rocks, wood, roots, wash beds, and rodent holes.) f. Man-Made Clutter: examples, such as, nails , nuts, bolts, plastic bottles, aluminum

  4. Real-Time Hand-Held Magnetometer Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    the MicroBlaze™ soft embedded microcontroller that is also programmed in the FPGA . The soft microcontroller is responsible for system management as...automotive applications. Tool chains in FPGA design are Simulink™ from Mathworks™ and System Generator™ and ISE™ from Xilinx™. Figure 79. Model-based...The analog part is functionally converted in the Simulink model delineated by the green box in the Figure 80. The FPGA design is modeled in System

  5. Curriculum Considerations for Use of the Hand-Held Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen topics are discussed that need to be included in the curriculum to make it possible for students to successfully take full advantage of the calculator and its capabilities. These include: underflow, overflow, estimation, scientific notation, powers of ten, rounding, and truncation. (MP)

  6. Hand-Held Video for Clinical Skills Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mark; Jones, Steve; Murphy, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    In health care education a balance needs to be struck between theoretical and practical teaching. Undergraduates typically split their time between clinical placement and university-based teaching blocks. A proportion of the time spent in preparation for clinical practice placements will be spent in the classroom or in simulation suites. The…

  7. Vibration reduction on hand-held grinders by automatic balancing.

    PubMed

    Lindell, H

    1996-02-01

    By automatically balanced hand hold grinders, vibrations are reduced to at least half and thereby reducing the estimated risk for vibration injuries by a factor of four. Simultaneously less grinding disc consumption and better grinding results are obtained. Vibration from grinders originates mainly from unbalance in the grinding wheel. Grinding wheels are low price products. With uneven distribution of mass and coarse tolerances. This gives rise to out-of-balance, which changes as the wheel wears. By fitting an automatic balancer, that consists of steel balls contained in a cylindrical ball race on the shaft of the grinder, unbalances will be compensate for in the machine during grinding. The time it takes for an automatic balancer to stabilize is only a few tenths of a second. When grinding, the balancer is stable, even during substantial changes in speed. The technique is applicable to almost all grinding machines on the market and the first grinders using the technique have just been put on the market.

  8. PRE-PROTOTYPE HAND-HELD FIRE DETECTORS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    about two minutes prior to the flashover, fires can be controlled by the use of hand extinguishers, corresponding to the selfhelp effort. The...water than large urban area fire departments. Criteria are given for the number of selfhelp and brigade teams required to suppress a given number of

  9. Infectious disease guides. For users of hand-held computers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Stewart

    2002-09-01

    The Sanford Guide is an independent, comprehensive authoritative reference on treatment of infectious disease . It can be difficult to navigate, and it costs $25 (US). The ePocrates ID program is smaller but is quicker to use. It also interfaces with a drug database. The ABX POC-IT Guide is well designed and includes antibiotic monographs but currently has the least extensive disease database of the three programs, and furthermore, it lacks pediatric data. All three programs appear to use evidence-based recommendations.

  10. Hand-held instrument should relieve hematoma pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raggio, L. J.; Robertson, T. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable instrument relieves hematomas beneath fingernails and toenails without surgery. This device simplifies the operative procedure with an instant variable heating tip, adjustable depth settings and interchangeable tip sizes for cauterizing small areas and relieving pressurized clots.

  11. Hand-held calculator assists in directional drilling control

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for the use of an HP-41C to correct error terms due to scale factor, bias, temperature, and misalignment errors in the individual magnetic and gravity sensors used in a borehole angle measurement system. Borehole angle sensors as used in a directional measurement system often have errors due to a variety of different sources. Presents figures showing an example coefficient list for a complete sensor; user instructions; a program listing of ''Errors'' for an HP-41C programmable calculator with 2 extra HP-82143A printers; example input and output data; and a bar code listing for those readers with HP optical wands.

  12. Hand-Held Computer Programs for Preliminary Helicopter Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    programmable calculator a series of programs that give acceptable results during the preliminary phases of the helicopter design process. The project consists of three parts. The first part consists of several short programs and their subroutine form. These programs and subroutines compute density altitude, density, disc area, solidity, tip velocity, induced velocity, coefficient of thrust, tip loss factor, equivalent chord, and ground effect. The second part consists of major subroutines. These subroutines compute profile power, induced power, climb power, parasite power,

  13. Hand-Held Calculator Algorithms for Coastal Engineering (Second Series).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    2 78*181 13 22 * 79 RCL 82 23 8 8 t 2’ * 81 PRA ? 5 STO 08 .77d- Roo 9832 PRX 26 "SiL HT7 ? 33 1/8 2? PROMPT 84 QCI 08 4128 ’SIL Hl- 35 * V29 PRA 86 2...NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER CETA 82-4e 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5 . TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED Coastal Fnpineerinp...CUSTOMARY TO METRIC (SI) .... ........ 5 I INTRODUCTION ............ .......................... 7 II PROGRAMS ....................................... 7

  14. Photoelectrosynthesis at semiconductor electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A. J.

    1980-12-01

    The general principles of photoelectrochemistry and photoelectrosynthesis are reviewed and some new developments in photoelectrosynthesis are discussed. Topics include energetics of semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces(band-edge unpinning); hot carrier injection at illuminated semiconductor-electrolyte junctions; derivatized semiconductor electrodes; particulate photoelectrochemical systems; layered compounds and other new materials; and dye sensitization. (WHK)

  15. Semiconductor ohmic contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawrylo, F. Z.; Kressel, H.

    1977-01-01

    Contact formed on p-type surface of semiconductor laser has several advantages: highly conductive degenerate region and narrow band gap provides surface for good metal-to-semiconductor contact; lattice parameter of GaAs is 5.6533 A; improved lattice match eases interface strain which reduces interface cracking of semiconductor material.

  16. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  17. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  18. Coherent spectroscopy of semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Steven T

    2008-03-31

    The coherent optical response of semiconductors has been the subject of substantial research over the last couple of decades. The interest has been motivated by unique aspects of the interaction between light and semiconductors that are revealed by coherent techniques. The ability to probe the dynamics of charge carriers has been a significant driver. This paper presents a review of selected results in coherent optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  19. Semiconductor microcavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, P.L.; Wendt, J.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Warren, M.E.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1994-02-01

    New kinds of semiconductor microcavity lasers are being created by modern semiconductor technologies like molecular beam epitaxy and electron beam lithography. These new microcavities exploit 3-dimensional architectures possible with epitaxial layering and surface patterning. The physical properties of these microcavities are intimately related to the geometry imposed on the semiconductor materials. Among these microcavities are surface-emitting structures which have many useful properties for commercial purposes. This paper reviews the basic physics of these microstructured lasers.

  20. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  1. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  2. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Grimmer, Derrick P.; Paulson, Kenneth R.; Gilbert, James R.

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  3. Molecular Semiconductors: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, John; Halls, Jonathan James Michael

    2005-10-01

    Introducing the fundamental ideas and concepts behind organic semiconductors, this book provides a clear impression of the broad range of research activities currently underway. Aimed specifically at new entrant doctoral students from a wide variety of backgrounds, including chemistry, physics, electrical engineering and materials science, it also represents an ideal companion text to undergraduate courses in organic semiconductors.

  4. Slow Light Semiconductor Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-02

    we demonstrate a semiconductor laser with a spectral linewidth of 18 kHz in the telecom band around 1:55um. The views, opinions and/or findings...we demonstrate a semiconductor laser with a spectral linewidth of 18 kHz in the telecom band around 1:55um. Further, the large intracavity field...hybrid Si/III- V platforms Abstract The semiconductor laser is the principal light source powering the world-wide optical fiber network . Ever

  5. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    2005-03-01

    This volume offers a solid foundation for understanding the most important devices used in the hottest areas of electronic engineering today, from semiconductor fundamentals to state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in the telecommunications and computing industries. Kevin Brennan describes future approaches to computing hardware and RF power amplifiers, and explains how emerging trends and system demands of computing and telecommunications systems influence the choice, design and operation of semiconductor devices. In addition, he covers MODFETs and MOSFETs, short channel effects, and the challenges faced by continuing miniaturization. His book is both an excellent senior/graduate text and a valuable reference for practicing engineers and researchers.

  6. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    2004-11-15

    A review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors is presented. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, can be considered the most important one for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples. Manuel Cardona, the longtime editor-in-chief of Solid State Communications has been and continues to be one of the major contributors to this field of solid state physics and it is a great pleasure to dedicate this review to him.

  7. Semiconductor Solar Superabsorbers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yiling; Huang, Lujun; Cao, Linyou

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the maximal enhancement of solar absorption in semiconductor materials by light trapping promises the development of affordable solar cells. However, the conventional Lambertian limit is only valid for idealized material systems with weak absorption, and cannot hold for the typical semiconductor materials used in solar cells due to the substantial absorption of these materials. Herein we theoretically demonstrate the maximal solar absorption enhancement for semiconductor materials and elucidate the general design principle for light trapping structures to approach the theoretical maximum. By following the principles, we design a practical light trapping structure that can enable an ultrathin layer of semiconductor materials, for instance, 10 nm thick a-Si, absorb > 90% sunlight above the bandgap. The design has active materials with one order of magnitude less volume than any of the existing solar light trapping designs in literature. This work points towards the development of ultimate solar light trapping techniques. PMID:24531211

  8. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    Filling the gap in the literature currently available, this book presents an overview of our knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 18 international research groups cover various aspects of this field, ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in such different devices as organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes. From the contents: * Excitation Dynamics in Organic Semiconductors * Organic Field-Effect Transistors * Spectroscopy of Organic Semiconductors * Interfaces between Organic Semiconductors and Metals * Analysis and Modeling of Devices * Exciton Formation and Energy Transfer in Organic Light Emitting Diodes * Deposition and Characterization

  9. SILICON CARBIDE FOR SEMICONDUCTORS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This state-of-the-art survey on silicon carbide for semiconductors includes a bibliography of the most important references published as of the end...of 1964. The various methods used for growing silicon carbide single crystals are reviewed, as well as their properties and devices fabricated from...them. The fact that the state of-the-art of silicon carbide semiconductors is not further advanced may be attributed to the difficulties of growing

  10. Method of doping a semiconductor

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Chiang Y.; Rapp, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient.

  11. Hydrogen in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1990-06-01

    After an incubation'' period in the 1970's and early 80's, during which the first hydrogen related centers were discovered and characterized in ultra-pure germanium, a sharp increase of research activity occurred after the discovery of shallow acceptor passivation in crystalline silicon. The aim of this review is to convey an insight into the rich, multifaceted physics and materials science which has emerged from the vast variety of experimental and theoretical studies of hydrogen in semiconductors. In order to arrive at the current understanding of hydrogen related phenomena in a logical way, each chapter will start with a brief review of the major experimental and theoretical advances of the past few years. Those who are interested to learn more about this fascinating area of semiconductor research are referred to reviews, to a number of conference proceedings volumes, and to an upcoming book which will contain authoritative chapters on most aspects of hydrogen in crystalline semiconductors. Some of the early art of semiconductor device processing can finally be put on a scientific foundation and new ways of arriving at advanced device structures begin to use what we have learned from the basic studies of hydrogen in semiconductors. 92 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Network connectivity enhancement by exploiting all optical multicast in semiconductor ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siraj, M.; Memon, M. I.; Shoaib, M.; Alshebeili, S.

    2015-03-01

    The use of smart phone and tablet applications will provide the troops for executing, controlling and analyzing sophisticated operations with the commanders providing crucial documents directly to troops wherever and whenever needed. Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is a cutting edge networking technology which is capable of supporting Joint Tactical radio System (JTRS).WMNs are capable of providing the much needed bandwidth for applications like hand held radios and communication for airborne and ground vehicles. Routing management tasks can be efficiently handled through WMNs through a central command control center. As the spectrum space is congested, cognitive radios are a much welcome technology that will provide much needed bandwidth. They can self-configure themselves, can adapt themselves to the user requirement, provide dynamic spectrum access for minimizing interference and also deliver optimal power output. Sometimes in the indoor environment, there are poor signal issues and reduced coverage. In this paper, a solution utilizing (CR WMNs) over optical network is presented by creating nanocells (PCs) inside the indoor environment. The phenomenon of four-wave mixing (FWM) is exploited to generate all-optical multicast using semiconductor ring laser (SRL). As a result same signal is transmitted at different wavelengths. Every PC is assigned a unique wavelength. By using CR technology in conjunction with PC will not only solve network coverage issue but will provide a good bandwidth to the secondary users.

  13. Semiconductor surface protection material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, R. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method and a product for protecting semiconductor surfaces is disclosed. The protective coating material is prepared by heating a suitable protective resin with an organic solvent which is solid at room temperature and converting the resulting solution into sheets by a conventional casting operation. Pieces of such sheets of suitable shape and thickness are placed on the semiconductor areas to be coated and heat and vacuum are then applied to melt the sheet and to drive off the solvent and cure the resin. A uniform adherent coating, free of bubbles and other defects, is thus obtained exactly where it is desired.

  14. New unorthodox semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Board, K.

    1985-12-01

    A range of new semiconductor devices, including a number of structures which rely entirely upon new phenomena, are discussed. Unipolar two-terminal devices, including impurity-controlled barriers and graded composition barriers, are considered, as are new transistor structures, including the hot-electron camel transistor, the planar-doped barrier transistor, the thermionic emission transistor, and the permeable base transistor. Regenerative switching devices are addressed, including the metal-tunnel insulator-semiconductor switch, the polysilicon switch, MIS, and MISIM switching structures, and the triangular-barrier switch. Heterostructure devices are covered, including the heterojunction bipolar transistor, the selectively doped heterojunction transistor, heterojunction lasers, and quantum-well structures.

  15. GUARD RING SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTION

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, F.S.; Hansen, W.L.

    1963-12-01

    A semiconductor diode having a very low noise characteristic when used under reverse bias is described. Surface leakage currents, which in conventional diodes greatly contribute to noise, are prevented from mixing with the desired signal currents. A p-n junction is formed with a thin layer of heavily doped semiconductor material disposed on a lightly doped, physically thick base material. An annular groove cuts through the thin layer and into the base for a short distance, dividing the thin layer into a peripheral guard ring that encircles the central region. Noise signal currents are shunted through the guard ring, leaving the central region free from such currents. (AEC)

  16. Quantum Transport in Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    SRS i 91 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantum Transport in Semiconductors 5. FUNDING NUMBER söMtos-rizk-ooss 6. AUTHOR(S) D. K. Ferry ©fte ELECTE...OF ABSTRACT UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500 O 1 9 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Presented by ANSI Std «9-18 298-102 Final Report Quantum Transport in... Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Devices This final report describes a program of research investigating quantum effects which become important in

  17. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  18. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2004-05-01

    Organic semiconductors are of steadily growing interest as active components in electronics and optoelectronics. Due to their flexibility, low cost and ease-of-production they represent a valid alternative to conventional inorganic semiconductor technology in a number of applications, such as flat panel displays and illumination, plastic integrated circuits or solar energy conversion. Although first commercial applications of this technology are being realized nowadays, there is still the need for a deeper scientific understanding in order to achieve optimum device performance.This special issue of physica status solidi (a) tries to give an overview of our present-day knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 17 international research groups cover various aspects of this field ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in different devices like organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes.Putting together such a special issue one soon realizes that it is simply impossible to fully cover the whole area of organic semiconductors. Nevertheless, we hope that the reader will find the collection of topics in this issue useful for getting an up-to-date review of a field which is still developing very dynamically.

  19. Semiconductor Nanocrystal Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    Hahn, H. Du, and T. D. Krauss, "Photoluminescence enhancement of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a monolithic microcavity," Appl... DBRs ). The colloidal NC suspension was spun-coat into a 95-nm thick layer in the center of the cavity and then the other layers forming the top DBR

  20. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

  1. Chemically Derivatized Semiconductor Photoelectrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrighton, Mark S.

    1983-01-01

    Deliberate modification of semiconductor photoelectrodes to improve durability and enhance rate of desirable interfacial redox processes is discussed for a variety of systems. Modification with molecular-based systems or with metals/metal oxides yields results indicating an important role for surface modification in devices for fundamental study…

  2. Light amplification using semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    During the summer of 1953, John von Neumann discussed his ideas concerning light amplification using semiconductors with Edward Teller. In September of that year, von Neumann sent a manuscript containing his ideas and calculations on this subject to Teller for his comments. To the best of our knowledge, von Neumann did not take time to work further on these ideas, and the manuscript remained unpublished. These previously unpublished writings of John von Neumann on the subject of light amplification in semiconductors are printed as a service to the laser community. While von Neumann's original manuscript and his letter to Teller are available to anyone who visits the Library of Congress, it is much more convenient to have this paper appear in an archival journal.

  3. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Tull, Carolyn R.; Vilkelis, Gintas

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  4. Stretchable Organic Semiconductor Devices.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yan; Zhang, Xinwen; Xie, Linghai; Qi, Dianpeng; Chandran, Bevita K; Chen, Xiaodong; Huang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Stretchable electronics are essential for the development of intensely packed collapsible and portable electronics, wearable electronics, epidermal and bioimplanted electronics, 3D surface compliable devices, bionics, prosthesis, and robotics. However, most stretchable devices are currently based on inorganic electronics, whose high cost of fabrication and limited processing area make it difficult to produce inexpensive, large-area devices. Therefore, organic stretchable electronics are highly attractive due to many advantages over their inorganic counterparts, such as their light weight, flexibility, low cost and large-area solution-processing, the reproducible semiconductor resources, and the easy tuning of their properties via molecular tailoring. Among them, stretchable organic semiconductor devices have become a hot and fast-growing research field, in which great advances have been made in recent years. These fantastic advances are summarized here, focusing on stretchable organic field-effect transistors, light-emitting devices, solar cells, and memory devices.

  5. Thermosize potentials in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabetoglu, S.; Sisman, A.

    2017-09-01

    A thermosize junction consists of two different sized structures made using the same material. Classical and quantum thermosize effects (CTSEs and QTSEs), which are opposite to each other, induce a thermosize potential in a thermosize junction. A semi-analytical method is proposed to calculate thermosize potentials in wide ranges of degeneracy and confinement by considering both CTSEs and QTSEs in thermosize junctions made using semiconductors. Dependencies of thermosize potential on temperature, size, and degeneracy are examined. It is shown that a potential difference in millivolt scale can be induced as a combined effect of CTS and QTS. The highest potential is obtained in nondegenerate limit where the full analytical solution is obtained. The model can be used to design semiconductor thermosize devices for a possible experimental verification of CTSEs and QTSEs, which may lead to new nano energy conversion devices.

  6. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  7. Tunable semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable semiconductor lasers are disclosed requiring minimized coupling regions. Multiple laser embodiments employ ring resonators or ring resonator pairs using only a single coupling region with the gain medium are detailed. Tuning can be performed by changing the phase of the coupling coefficient between the gain medium and a ring resonator of the laser. Another embodiment provides a tunable laser including two Mach-Zehnder interferometers in series and a reflector coupled to a gain medium.

  8. Metal Contacts in Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    surfaces, Pnotoelectron spe troscopy, Auger electron spectro- I scopy, Schottky barriers, ohmic contacts, Defects in semiconductors, Cadmium * telluride...Indium phosphide, Gallium arsenide, Gallium Selenide . j 20. ABSTR ACT (roothat ow rees esh " neceay and td..ity by block -. b*w) SThe application of...angstroms. Also, provided one eliminates the systems where cadmium outdiffusion into high work function metals occurs then good agreement between the

  9. Chemically Derivatized Semiconductor Photoelectrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Journal of Chemical Education . l.i LA. Is. KEY WOROS (Coneinuo onm Few*,@*.oldsI noede eeand identify by block number) semiconductors, photoelectrodes...Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Prepared for publication in the Journal of Chemical Education June 1, 1983 Reproduction...use of metals or metal oxides coated onto the photoelectrode surface. [Prepared for publication in the Journal of Chemical Education .

  10. Semiconductor projectile impact detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shriver, E. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor projectile impact detector is described for use in determining micrometeorite presence, as well as its flux and energy comprising a photovoltaic cell which generates a voltage according to the light and heat emitted by the micrometeorites upon impact. A counter and peak amplitude measuring device were used to indicate the number of particules which strike the surface of the cell as well as the kinetic energy of each of the particles.

  11. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  12. Semiconductor Properties Near Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-31

    electron multi- plication with a scintillation counter. This detECtor , described in the appendix, provides very low background without sacrifice of...k ADA095 858 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES F/G 20/12I SEMICONDUCTOR PROPERTIES NEAR INTERFACES.(U) JUL GO0 DB WITTRY. S Y YIN, F GUO...improvements in the Ion Microprobe Mass Analyzer; in the course of the investioations in improved inn detector was developed and a microcomrnu*e

  13. Semiconductor Diamond Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    hidrogen at the maximum pressure showed only very faint -second order spots. Annealing of thee samples to 1000*C restored the (2x0) configura.-tion...semiconductor contact also provides a suitable vehicle for electrical characterization of the device material. However, it has been observed that the...nature of the plasma activated diamond deposition processes provides a very useful and flexible vehicle for device fabrication sequences. Other workers

  14. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  15. New Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestra, F.

    2008-11-01

    A review of recently emerging semiconductor devices for nanoelectronic applications is given. For the end of the international technology roadmap for semiconductors, very innovative materials, technologies and nanodevice architectures will be needed. Silicon on insulator-based devices seem to be the best candidates for the ultimate integration of integrated circuits on silicon. The flexibility of the silicon on insulator-based structure and the possibility to realize new device architectures allow to obtain optimum electrical properties for low power and high performance circuits. These transistors are also very interesting for high frequency and memory applications. The performance and physical mechanisms are addressed in single- and multi-gate thin film Si, SiGe and Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. The impact of tensile or compressive uniaxial and biaxial strains in the channel, of high k materials and metal gates as well as metallic Schottky source-drain architectures are discussed. Finally, the interest of advanced beyond-CMOS (complementary MOS) nanodevices for long term applications, based on nanowires, carbon electronics or small slope switch structures are presented.

  16. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at 7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at 6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing `only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around 2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  17. New developments in power semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper represents an overview of some recent power semiconductor developments and spotlights new technologies that may have significant impact for aircraft electric secondary power. Primary emphasis will be on NASA-Lewis-supported developments in transistors, diodes, a new family of semiconductors, and solid-state remote power controllers. Several semiconductor companies that are moving into the power arena with devices rated at 400 V and 50 A and above are listed, with a brief look at a few devices.

  18. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-01-01

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode–semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode–semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect. PMID:28346349

  19. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-03-25

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode-semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode-semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect.

  20. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.