Science.gov

Sample records for hand-held semiconductor cdznte-based

  1. Hand-held medical robots.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  2. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  3. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  4. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.M.

    1998-04-28

    The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a high performance hand-held, real time detection gas chromatograph (HHGC) by Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this hand-held gas chromatograph is about five lbs., with a physical size of 8{close_quotes} x 5{close_quotes} x 3{close_quotes} including carrier gas and battery. It consumes about 12 watts of electrical power with a response time on the order of one to two minutes. This HHGC has an average effective theoretical plate of about 40k. Presently, its sensitivity is limited by its thermal sensitive detector at PPM. Like a conventional G.C., this HHGC consists mainly of three major components: (1) the sample injector, (2) the column, and (3) the detector with related electronics. The present HHGC injector is a modified version of the conventional injector. Its separation column is fabricated completely on silicon wafers by means of MEMS technology. This separation column has a circular cross section with a diameter of 100 pm. The detector developed for this hand-held GC is a thermal conductivity detector fabricated on a silicon nitride window by MEMS technology. A normal Wheatstone bridge is used. The signal is fed into a PC and displayed through LabView software.

  5. Hand-held and automated breast ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Kimme-Smith, C.

    1985-01-01

    The book is a guide for physicians and technologists who use US as an adjunct to mammography; it carefully outlines the pros and cons of US of the breast and its role in the diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. After an introduction that discusses the philosophy of breast US, the chapters cover the physics of US and instrumentation (both hand-held transducers as well as automated water path scanners), then proceed to a discussion of the normal breast. Sections on benign disorders, malignant lesions, and pitfalls of diagnosis are followed by quiz cases.

  6. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  10. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  13. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  3. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  6. A hand-held immaterial volumetric display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, Antti; Rakkolainen, Ismo

    2014-03-01

    We have created an ultralight, movable, "immaterial" fogscreen. It is based on the fogscreen mid-air imaging technology. The hand-held unit is roughly the size and weight of an ordinary toaster. If the screen is tracked, it can be swept in the air to create mid-air slices of volumetric objects, or to show augmented reality (AR) content on top of real objects. Interfacing devices and methodologies, such as hand and gesture trackers, camera-based trackers and object recognition, can make the screen interactive. The user can easily interact with any physical object or virtual information, as the screen is permeable. Any real objects can be seen through the screen, instead of e.g., through a video-based augmented reality screen. It creates a mixed reality setup where both the real world object and the augmented reality content can be viewed and interacted with simultaneously. The hand-held mid-air screen can be used e.g., as a novel collaborating or classroom tool for individual students or small groups.

  7. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  8. Digital hand-held temperature monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allin, L. V.; Ferrari, I.

    1980-09-01

    A hand-held non-invasive monitoring instrument has been designed, constructed and tested to allow core temperature measurements to be obtained from human subjects who have swallowed a temperature-sensing radio transmitter (radio pill). This instrument uses a simple AM radio for a receiver, digital circuitry to decode the received signal and a four-digit LED module to display the temperature. The unit, which is battery-powered, can be held in one hand while an antenna probe is swept over the abdomen of the subject until a continuously audible signal is generated by a piezoelectric sound source, indicating reception. The digital display then presents the body core temperature in tenths of a degree Celsius.

  9. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  10. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57.7053 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  14. Hand-held digital line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. D.; Ustun, Teoman E.; Maislin, Gami; Webb, Robert H.

    2004-07-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy is a powerful research tool with specialized but, to date, limited use in ophthalmic clinics due in part to the size, cost, and complexity of instruments. Conversely, low-cost retinal imaging devices have limited capabilities in screening, detection, and diagnosis of diseases. To fill the niche between these two, a low-cost, hand-held, line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO) was designed, constructed, and tested on normal human subjects. The LSLO has only one moving part, multiple imaging modes, and uses low-cost but highly sensitive complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) linear arrays for imaging with a detector dynamic range of 12-bits. The line-scanning approach produces high contrast quasi-confocal images with nearly the same performance as a flying-spot SLO. Imaging modes include simultaneous dual wavelength illumination and live stereoscopic imaging with a split aperture. Image processing and display functions are controlled with two stacked prototype compact printed circuit boards using field-programmable gated arrays (FPGA) and other digital electronic elements. With near shot-noise limited performance, the digital LSLO camera requires low illumination power (~ 100 μW) at near-infrared wavelengths. Wide field fundus images with several imaging modes have been obtained from several human subjects. The LSLO will significantly enhance confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for routine use by ophthalmologist, optometrists, general practitioners and also non-specialized emergency medical personnel and technicians in the field for retinal disease detection and other diverse applications.

  15. Electronic, Hand-Held, Wireless Text-And-Graphics Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed electronic, hand-held, wireless viewer presents written material to reader in way that closely resembles that of paper reading material. Viewer presents text and graphics like those normally found in books, newspapers, and magazines. Its hand-held and wireless features enable it to be used in positions and areas where books and magazines are normally used. Device consists primarily of two parts: the receiver/information store and viewing screen.

  16. Hand held phase-shifting diffraction Moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1994-09-20

    An interferometer is described in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case. 4 figs.

  17. Hand held phase-shifting diffraction moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    An interferometer in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case.

  18. Fabricating a custom earpiece for hand-held radios.

    PubMed

    Potter, James V; Hansen, Nancy A; Schroetlin, Robert G; Jones, John D

    2009-12-01

    This article describes the fabrication of a custom earpiece for use with hand-held radios. The technique can be used to fabricate custom earpieces, as a public service, for law enforcement personnel, firefighters, emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, and others, improving safety and providing a valuable benefit to the community.

  19. Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

    2008-01-01

    A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

  20. Epilepsy Forewarning Using A Hand-Held Device

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, LM

    2005-02-21

    Over the last decade, ORNL has developed and patented a novel approach for forewarning of a large variety of machine and biomedical events. The present implementation uses desktop computers to analyze archival data. This report describes the next logical step in this effort, namely use of a hand-held device for the analysis.

  1. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  4. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  6. Hand-held Calculators: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Max; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations of several publications with regard to the use of hand-held calculators in the mathematics curriculum are presented. Relevant portions of the NACOME and Euclid Conference reports are cited as well as a report to NSF and recommendations from an NIE/NSF conference. Recommendations support expanded use of, and research concerning,…

  7. Hand-held radiometry: A set of notes developed for use at the Workshop of Hand-held radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A set of notes was developed to aid the beginner in hand-held radiometry. The electromagnetic spectrum is reviewed, and pertinent terms are defined. View areas of multiband radiometers are developed to show the areas of coincidence of adjacent bands. The amounts of plant cover seen by radiometers having different fields of view are described. Vegetation indices are derived and discussed. Response functions of several radiometers are shown and applied to spectrometer data taken over 12 wheat plots, to provide a comparison of instruments and bands within and among instruments. The calculation of solar time is reviewed and applied to the calculation of the local time of LANDSAT satellite overpasses for any particular location in the Northern Hemisphere. The use and misuse of hand-held infrared thermometers are discussed, and a procedure for photographic determination of plant cover is described. Some suggestions are offered concerning procedures to be followed when collecting hand-held spectral and thermal data. A list of references pertinent to hand-held radiometry is included.

  8. Engineering issues for hand-held sensing devices, with examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiwald, David A.; Freiwald, Joyce

    1994-03-01

    It is now U.S. defense policy that there will be no new platform starts. The emphasis for platforms will be on O&M cost reduction, life-extension improvements, and force-multiplier- device upgrades. There is also an increasing emphasis on hand-held force-multiplier devices for individuals, which is the focus of this paper. Engineering issues include operations analysis, weight, cube, cost, prime power, ease of use, data storage, reliability, fault tolerance, data communications and human factors. Two examples of hand-held devices are given. Applications include USMC, Army, SOCOM, DEA, FBI, SS, Border Patrol and others. Barriers to adoption of such technology are also discussed.

  9. A First Look at Mobile Hand-Held Device Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Gregor; Schneider, Fabian; Feldmann, Anja

    Although mobile hand-held devices (MHDs) are ubiquitous today, little is know about how they are used - especially at home. In this paper, we cast a first look on mobile hand-held device usage from a network perspective. We base our study on anonymized packet level data representing more than 20,000 residential DSL customers. Our characterization of the traffic shows that MHDs are active on up to 3% of the monitored DSL lines. Mobile devices from Apple (i.e., iPhones and iPods) are, by a huge margin, the most commonly used MHDs and account for most of the traffic. We find that MHD traffic is dominated by multimedia content and downloads of mobile applications.

  10. A Cheap, Semiquantitative Hand-Held Conductivity Tester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacky, Susan K. S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a design for a hand-held conductivity tester powered by a 9V battery that gives semi-quantitative results for aqueous electrolyte solutions of concentrations ranging from 0.001 M to 0.1 M. The tester uses a bar-graph LED driven by an LM3914 integrated circuit to indicate the level of conductivity. A list of parts, procedures, and results…

  11. Hand-held calculators augment optimized drilling programs. Part 9

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, B.

    1982-09-01

    This paper shows how common calculations of drilling and rig parameters can be simplified with the use of a hand-held programmable calculator. It presents a program which is divided into 6 sections: annular velocities, pump output, bottoms up (or bit-to-surface calculations), surface to bit, tripping ton miles, and drilling ton miles. Each section is examined. User instructions, program description, and program listing for the rig utility program are provided.

  12. Vibration and impulsivity analysis of hand held olive beaters.

    PubMed

    Deboli, Roberto; Calvo, Angela; Preti, Christian

    2016-07-01

    To provide more effective evaluations of hand arm vibration syndromes caused by hand held olive beaters, this study focused on two aspects: the acceleration measured at the tool pole and the analysis of the impulsivity, using the crest factor. The signals were frequency weighted using the weighting curve Wh as described in the ISO 5349-1 standard. The same source signals were also filtered by the Wh-bl filter (ISO/TS 15694), because the weighting filter Wh (unlike the Wh-bl filter) could underestimate the effect of high frequency vibration on vibration-induced finger disorders. Ten (experienced) male operators used three beater models (battery powered) in the real olive harvesting condition. High vibration total values were obtained with values never lower than 20 m(-2). Concerning the crest factor, the values ranged from 5 to more than 22. This work demonstrated that the hand held olive beaters produced high impulsive loads comparable to the industry hand held tools.

  13. Distributing Data from Desktop to Hand-Held Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    A system of server and client software formats and redistributes data from commercially available desktop to commercially available hand-held computers via both wired and wireless networks. This software is an inexpensive means of enabling engineers and technicians to gain access to current sensor data while working in locations in which such data would otherwise be inaccessible. The sensor data are first gathered by a data-acquisition server computer, then transmitted via a wired network to a data-distribution computer that executes the server portion of the present software. Data in all sensor channels -- both raw sensor outputs in millivolt units and results of conversion to engineering units -- are made available for distribution. Selected subsets of the data are transmitted to each hand-held computer via the wired and then a wireless network. The selection of the subsets and the choice of the sequences and formats for displaying the data is made by means of a user interface generated by the client portion of the software. The data displayed on the screens of hand-held units can be updated at rates from 1 to

  14. Promoting Physical Activity through Hand-Held Computer Technology

    PubMed Central

    King, Abby C.; Ahn, David K.; Oliveira, Brian M.; Atienza, Audie A.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Efforts to achieve population-wide increases in walking and similar moderate-intensity physical activities potentially can be enhanced through relevant applications of state-of-the-art interactive communication technologies. Yet few systematic efforts to evaluate the efficacy of hand-held computers and similar devices for enhancing physical activity levels have occurred. The purpose of this first-generation study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hand-held computer (i.e., personal digital assistant [PDA]) for increasing moderate intensity or more vigorous (MOD+) physical activity levels over 8 weeks in mid-life and older adults relative to a standard information control arm. Design Randomized, controlled 8-week experiment. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2006-2007. Setting/Participants Community-based study of 37 healthy, initially underactive adults aged 50 years and older who were randomized and completed the 8-week study (intervention=19, control=18). Intervention Participants received an instructional session and a PDA programmed to monitor their physical activity levels twice per day and provide daily and weekly individualized feedback, goal setting, and support. Controls received standard, age-appropriate written physical activity educational materials. Main Outcome Measure Physical activity was assessed via the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire at baseline and 8 weeks. Results Relative to controls, intervention participants reported significantly greater 8-week mean estimated caloric expenditure levels and minutes per week in MOD+ activity (p<0.04). Satisfaction with the PDA was reasonably high in this largely PDA-naive sample. Conclusions Results from this first-generation study indicate that hand-held computers may be effective tools for increasing initial physical activity levels among underactive adults. PMID:18201644

  15. Development of dual sensor hand-held detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    In this paper hand-held dual sensor detector development requirements are considered dedicated to buried object detection. Design characteristics of such a system are categorized and listed. Hardware and software structures, ergonomics, user interface, environmental and EMC/EMI tests to be applied and performance test issues are studied. Main properties of the developed system (SEZER) are presented, which contains Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The realized system has ergonomic structure and can detect both metallic and non-metallic buried objects. Moreover classification of target is possible if it was defined to the signal processing software in learning phase.

  16. A hand-held triangulation sensor for small features measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes progressive generations of hand held triangulation sensors for measuring small features, from edge breaks to corrosion pits. We describe the design considerations, ergonomics, packaging and interface between the device and part, such as the sensor tip and optional fixtures. We then present a customized design to address different types of surface features and defects. Next, we present the calibration concept, and its execution. The paper closes by summarizing system performance evaluation experiments and their results. It was shown that the system is capable of measuring edges down to a radius of 250 microns at a repeatability of 50 microns.

  17. Video indirect ophthalmoscopy using a hand-held video camera.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mahesh P

    2011-01-01

    Fundus photography in adults and cooperative children is possible with a fundus camera or by using a slit lamp-mounted digital camera. Retcam TM or a video indirect ophthalmoscope is necessary for fundus imaging in infants and young children under anesthesia. Herein, a technique of converting and using a digital video camera into a video indirect ophthalmoscope for fundus imaging is described. This device will allow anyone with a hand-held video camera to obtain fundus images. Limitations of this technique involve a learning curve and inability to perform scleral depression.

  18. Hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Deanna Lynn; Coleman, Matthew A; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Albala, Joanna; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2013-04-23

    A hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection includes a microarray reader engineered to be small enough for portable applications. The invention includes a high-powered light-emitting diode that emits excitation light, an excitation filter positioned to receive the excitation light, a slide, a slide holder assembly for positioning the slide to receive the excitation light from the excitation filter, an emission filter positioned to receive the excitation light from the slide, a lens positioned to receive the excitation light from the emission filter, and a CCD camera positioned to receive the excitation light from the lens.

  19. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1120 Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers AGENCY: Consumer Product... this document, the Commission is proposing a rule to determine that any hand-held hair dryer without... requirements for certain household appliances, including hand-held hair dryers. The current...

  20. 75 FR 32803 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a GTX Mobile+ Hand Held Computer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Mobile+ Hand Held Computer AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... Mobile+ hand held computer. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that Canada is the country of origin of the GTX Mobile+ hand held computer for purposes of...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  2. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  4. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  5. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Using a hand-held mobile telephone. 392.82 Section... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone. (a)(1) No driver shall use a hand-held mobile telephone while driving a CMV. (2) No motor...

  6. 77 FR 40637 - Honeywell International, Scanning and Mobility Division, Formerly Known as Hand Held Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Known as Hand Held Products, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, Skaneatelles Falls... Honeywell International, Scanning and Mobility Division, formerly known as Hand Held Products, Inc... workers of Honeywell International, Scanning and Mobility Division, formerly known as Hand Held...

  7. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  10. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  11. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  12. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Using a hand-held mobile telephone. 392.82 Section... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone. (a)(1) No driver shall use a hand-held mobile telephone while driving a CMV. (2) No motor...

  13. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Using a hand-held mobile telephone. 392.82 Section... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone. (a)(1) No driver shall use a hand-held mobile telephone while driving a CMV. (2) No motor...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  15. 16 CFR 1225.2 - Requirements for hand-held infant carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for hand-held infant carriers... ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR HAND-HELD INFANT CARRIERS (Eff. 6-6-14) § 1225.2 Requirements for hand-held infant carriers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  16. 78 FR 27441 - NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices AGENCY: National...) is soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an... soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an evaluation...

  17. Simulation for optimal design of hand-held surgical robots.

    PubMed

    Zahraee, Ali Hassan; Szewczyk, Jerome; Morel, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Hand-held surgical robots are manipulators with dexterous effectors to be used by surgeons in minimally invasive surgery and especially in laparoscopy. Mechanical manipulators for laparoscopy have appeared on the markets in recent years with various interfaces and dexterities. 2 examples are RealHand and Laparo-Angle. The question of which interface and control mode is the best has not been answered yet. Also, the effector kinematics has not been studied much. We have made a simulator to study the robot's interface, control mode and kinematics to design a hand-held surgical robot for laparoscopic surgery. We asked test subjects to use the simulator and try to make sutures in a virtual environment. Users opinion is that a joystick as interface is easier to use, compared to a jointed interface translating hand's orientation to that of the effector. It appears that a 6 DOF effector coupled to the shaft is necessary and dexterous enough to make sutures in different angles.

  18. Hand held data collection and monitoring system for nuclear facilities

    DOEpatents

    Brayton, Darryl D.; Scharold, Paul G.; Thornton, Michael W.; Marquez, Diana L.

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method is disclosed for a data collection and monitoring system that utilizes a pen based hand held computer unit which has contained therein interaction software that allows the user to review maintenance procedures, collect data, compare data with historical trends and safety limits, and input new information at various collection sites. The system has a means to allow automatic transfer of the collected data to a main computer data base for further review, reporting, and distribution purposes and uploading updated collection and maintenance procedures. The hand held computer has a running to-do list so sample collection and other general tasks, such as housekeeping are automatically scheduled for timely completion. A done list helps users to keep track of all completed tasks. The built-in check list assures that work process will meet the applicable processes and procedures. Users can hand write comments or drawings with an electronic pen that allows the users to directly interface information on the screen.

  19. Ultratrace detector for hand-held gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Miller, Fred S.

    1999-01-01

    An ultratrace detector system for hand-held gas chromatography having high sensitivity, for example, to emissions generated during production of weapons, biological compounds, drugs, etc. The detector system is insensitive to water, air, helium, argon, oxygen, and C0.sub.2. The detector system is basically composed of a hand-held capillary gas chromatography (GC), an insulated heated redox-chamber, a detection chamber, and a vapor trap. For example, the detector system may use gas phase redox reactions and spectral absorption of mercury vapor. The gas chromatograph initially separates compounds that percolate through a bed of heated mercuric oxide (HgO) in a silica--or other metal--aerogel material which acts as an insulator. Compounds easily oxidized by HgO liberate atomic mercury that subsequently pass through a detection chamber which includes a detector cell, such as quartz, that is illuminated with a 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) mercury discharge lamp which generates the exact mercury absorption bands that are used to detect the liberated mercury atoms. Atomic mercury strongly absorbs 254 nm energy is therefore a specific signal for reducing compounds eluting from the capillary GC, whereafter the atomic mercury is trapped for example, in a silicon-aerogel trap.

  20. Hand held data collection and monitoring system for nuclear facilities

    DOEpatents

    Brayton, D.D.; Scharold, P.G.; Thornton, M.W.; Marquez, D.L.

    1999-01-26

    Apparatus and method is disclosed for a data collection and monitoring system that utilizes a pen based hand held computer unit which has contained therein interaction software that allows the user to review maintenance procedures, collect data, compare data with historical trends and safety limits, and input new information at various collection sites. The system has a means to allow automatic transfer of the collected data to a main computer data base for further review, reporting, and distribution purposes and uploading updated collection and maintenance procedures. The hand held computer has a running to-do list so sample collection and other general tasks, such as housekeeping are automatically scheduled for timely completion. A done list helps users to keep track of all completed tasks. The built-in check list assures that work process will meet the applicable processes and procedures. Users can hand write comments or drawings with an electronic pen that allows the users to directly interface information on the screen. 15 figs.

  1. A hand-held EPR scanner for transcutaneous oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, Helen; Ahmad, Rizwan; Twig, Ygal; Blank, Aharon; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous (skin) oxygenation is an important prognostic factor for the treatment of chronic wounds, skin cancer, diabetes side effects, and limb amputation. Currently, there are no reliable methods for measuring this parameter. Oximetry, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, is emerging as a potential tool for clinical oximetry, including cutaneous applications. The problem with EPR oximetry, however, is that the conventional EPR design requires the use of a large magnet that can generate homogeneous field across the sample, making it unattractive for clinical practice. We present a novel approach that makes use of a miniature permanent magnet, combined with a small microwave resonator, to enable the acquisition of EPR signals from paramagnetic species placed on the skin. The instrumentation consists of a hand-held, modular, cylindrical probehead with overall dimensions of 36-mm diameter and 24-mm height, with 150-g weight. The probehead includes a Halbach array of 16 pieces (4×4×8 mm3) of Sm-Co permanent magnet and a loop-gap resonator (2.24 GHz). Preliminary measurements using a Hahn-echo pulse sequence (800 echos in 20 ms) showed a signalto- noise ratio of ~70 compared to ~435 in a homogenous magnet under identical settings. Further work is in progress to improve the performance of the probehead and to optimize the hand-held system for clinical use

  2. Hand-Held and Integrated Single-Cell Pipettes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Successful single-cell isolation is a primary step for subsequent chemical and biological analyses of single cells. Conventional single-cell isolation methods often encounter operational complexity, limited efficiency, deterioration of cell viability, incompetence in the isolation of a single-cell into nanoliter liquid, and/or inability to select single adherent cells with specific phenotypes. Here, we develop a hand-held single-cell pipet (hSCP) that is rapid, operationally simple, highly efficient, and inexpensive for unbiased isolation of single viable suspended cells directly from submicroliter cell suspensions into nanoliter droplets without the assistance of any additional equipment. An integrated SCP (iSCP) has also been developed for selective isolation of single suspended and adherent cells according to the fluorescence imaging and morphological features. The isolated single cells can be conveniently transferred into standard 96-/384-well plates, Petri dishes, or vials for cloning, PCR, and other single-cell biochemical assays. PMID:25036187

  3. Occupational risk identification using hand-held or laptop computers.

    PubMed

    Naumanen, Paula; Savolainen, Heikki; Liesivuori, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Work Environment Profile (WEP) program and its use in risk identification by computer. It is installed into a hand-held computer or a laptop to be used in risk identification during work site visits. A 5-category system is used to describe the identified risks in 7 groups, i.e., accidents, biological and physical hazards, ergonomic and psychosocial load, chemicals, and information technology hazards. Each group contains several qualifying factors. These 5 categories are colour-coded at this stage to aid with visualization. Risk identification produces visual summary images the interpretation of which is facilitated by colours. The WEP program is a tool for risk assessment which is easy to learn and to use both by experts and nonprofessionals. It is especially well adapted to be used both in small and in larger enterprises. Considerable time is saved as no paper notes are needed.

  4. A Smart Haptic Hand-Held Device for Neurosurgical Microdissection.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Marcus, Hani J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Microneurosurgery requires dexterity, precision and delicate force application in order to be carried out safely and effectively. Neurosurgeons must apply sufficient force in order to carry out microsurgical procedures effectively but not excessive force such that iatrogenic injury occurs. This paper presents a smart hand-held microsurgical instrument that indicates to the surgeon when a force-threshold has been exceeded by providing vibrotactile feedback. Many existing haptic-feedback systems, particularly master-slave robotic platforms, are large, highly complex, and costly. By comparison, the proposed device is compact, fail-safe and low cost. Two psychophysical user studies were carried out to assess the proposed vibrotactile force-threshold feedback system. A cadaveric pilot study was carried out to evaluate the device in a microdissection task. In all the studies performed, the haptic dissector device has shown to be effective in providing real-time feedback in terms of force application during microsurgical tasks.

  5. Comparative Geometrical Investigations of Hand-Held Scanning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Lindstaedt, M.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Misgaiski-Hass, M.

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of hand-held scanning systems by different manufacturers are becoming available on the market. However, their geometrical performance is little-known to many users. Therefore the Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has carried out geometrical accuracy tests with the following systems in co-operation with the Bochum University of Applied Sciences (Laboratory for Photogrammetry) as well as the Humboldt University in Berlin (Institute for Computer Science): DOTProduct DPI-7, Artec Spider, Mantis Vision F5 SR, Kinect v1 + v2, Structure Sensor and Google's Project Tango. In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data were acquired by measurement with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M). The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  6. Hand Held Device for Wireless Powering and Interrogation of Biomems Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix Antonio (Inventor); Simons, Rainee N (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A compact, hand-held device for wireless powering, interrogation and data retrieval from at least one implanted sensor. The hand-held device includes an antenna for powering an implanted sensor and for receiving data from the implanted sensor to the hand-held device for at least one of storage, display or analysis. The hand-held device establishes electromagnetic coupling with a low radiating radio frequency power inductor in the implanted sensor at a predefined separation and the antenna geometry allows for the antenna to power, interrogate and retrieve data from the implanted sensor without strapping the hand-held device to a human body housing the implanted sensor The hand-held device optionally allows for activation of the implanted sensor only during interrogation and data retrieval.

  7. Stereo vision based hand-held laser scanning system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jinming

    2011-11-01

    Although 3D scanning system is used more and more broadly in many fields, such computer animate, computer aided design, digital museums, and so on, a convenient scanning device is expansive for most people to afford. In another hand, imaging devices are becoming cheaper, a stereo vision system with two video cameras cost little. In this paper, a hand held laser scanning system is design based on stereo vision principle. The two video cameras are fixed tighter, and are all calibrated in advance. The scanned object attached with some coded markers is in front of the stereo system, and can be changed its position and direction freely upon the need of scanning. When scanning, the operator swept a line laser source, and projected it on the object. At the same time, the stereo vision system captured the projected lines, and reconstructed their 3D shapes. The code markers are used to translate the coordinate system between scanned points under different view. Two methods are used to get more accurate results. One is to use NURBS curves to interpolate the sections of the laser lines to obtain accurate central points, and a thin plate spline is used to approximate the central points, and so, an exact laser central line is got, which guards an accurate correspondence between tow cameras. Another way is to incorporate the constraint of laser swept plane on the reconstructed 3D curves by a PCA (Principle Component Analysis) algorithm, and more accurate results are obtained. Some examples are given to verify the system.

  8. Hand-held metal detector identification of ingested foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, A; Carraccio, C; Lichenstein, R

    1994-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine the ability of hand-held metal detectors (HHMDs) to identify the presence of ingested metallic foreign bodies (MFBs). Twenty-three children presenting to the emergency department with a complaint of MFBs ingested were enrolled. Sixteen of 23 patients had radiographically proven foreign bodies. The MFBs comprised coins (n = 11), a button battery (n = 1), a medallion (n = 1), a token (n = 1), a needle (n = 1), and a marble (leaded glass) (n = 1). The HHMD correctly detected 15 of 16 radiographically positive MFBs (93%) and correctly excluded a potential MFB in six of six radiographically negative cases. The only foreign body not detected was an ingested needle. One radiograph was equivocal. Radiographic localization of the ingested objects was as follows: esophagus, n = 4; stomach, n = 9; and intestines, n = 3. The HHMD correctly localized all detected MFBs. The HHMD had a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 86%. HHMDs are effective screening devices for possible ingested MFBs. Positive studies localized to the stomach and lower gastrointestinal tract do not require confirmatory radiographic studies.

  9. Assessment of vibration levels associated with hand-held roadbreakers.

    PubMed

    Tasker, E G

    1986-08-01

    The hand-held roadbreaker plays a vital role in enabling the British gas distribution workforce to install gas supply pipework. Hence, any potential problem which could lead to a restriction of the use of this equipment would present pipework installation departments with serious operational problems. A test program was therefore set up to enable risks to operators to be quantified. The vibration levels measured exceeded proposed limits laid down in current guidelines for vibration exposure. If these limits were realistic, a high prevalence of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) would have been expected. However, a survey of the workforce using the roadbreakers indicated a VWF prevalence of 20 times less than that predicted by the guidelines. It was concluded that a possible explanation could be that the current frequency-weighting factors used in the guidelines are inappropriate for application to this type of equipment with dominant frequencies below 25 Hz. The application of the current weighting factors to the test data produced during the program led to high weighted acceleration values and unrealistic dose-response relationships. It is proposed that the application of the various guidelines to the use of this equipment be reconsidered.

  10. Cordless hand-held optical 3D sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munkelt, Christoph; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Kühmstedt, Peter; Schmidt, Ingo; Notni, Gunther

    2007-07-01

    A new mobile optical 3D measurement system using phase correlation based fringe projection technique will be presented. The sensor consist of a digital projection unit and two cameras in a stereo arrangement, whereby both are battery powered. The data transfer to a base station will be done via WLAN. This gives the possibility to use the system in complicate, remote measurement situations, which are typical in archaeology and architecture. In the measurement procedure the sensor will be hand-held by the user, illuminating the object with a sequence of less than 10 fringe patterns, within a time below 200 ms. This short sequence duration was achieved by a new approach, which combines the epipolar constraint with robust phase correlation utilizing a pre-calibrated sensor head, containing two cameras and a digital fringe projector. Furthermore, the system can be utilized to acquire the all around shape of objects by using the phasogrammetric approach with virtual land marks introduced by the authors 1, 2. This way no matching procedures or markers are necessary for the registration of multiple views, which makes the system very flexible in accomplishing different measurement tasks. The realized measurement field is approx. 100 mm up to 400 mm in diameter. The mobile character makes the measurement system useful for a wide range of applications in arts, architecture, archaeology and criminology, which will be shown in the paper.

  11. A Novel Hand-Held Optical Imager with Real-Time Coregistration Facilities Toward Diagnostic Mammography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    1-0004 TITLE: A Novel Hand-Held Optical Imager with Real-Time Coregistration Facilities toward Diagnostic Mammography PRINCIPAL...Summary 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Jan 2010 – 31 Dec 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Novel Hand-held Optical Imager with Real-Time Coregistration ...translation of a hand-held optical imager with automated coregistration facilities toward 3D tomography. Studies were performed in vivo with healthy female

  12. Electronic imaging system incorporating a hand-held fundus camera for canine ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Hoang, H D; Brant, L M; Jaksetic, M D; Lake, S G; Stuart, B P

    2001-11-01

    An electronic imaging system incorporating a hand-held fundus camera was used to collect images of the canine ocular fundus. The electronic imaging system comprised a hand-held fundus camera, an IBM personal computer (PC 350), Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Adobe Photoshop, and a color printer (Tektronix Phaser 550) and was used to store, edit, and print the images captured by the fundus camera. Hand-held fundus cameras are essential for use in canine ophthalmology. The Nidek NM-100 hand-held fundus camera digitalizes images, enabling their direct transfer into reports and their storage on writeable CDs.

  13. Hand-Held Units for Short-Range Wireless Biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2008-01-01

    Special-purpose hand-held radiotransceiver units have been proposed as means of short-range radio powering and interrogation of surgically implanted microelectromechanical sensors and actuators. These units are based partly on the same principles as those of the units described in "Printed Multi- Turn Loop Antennas for RF Biotelemetry" (LEW-17879-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 48. Like the previously reported units, these units would make it unnecessary to have wire connections between the implanted devices and the external equipment used to activate and interrogate them. Like a unit of the previously reported type, a unit of the type now proposed would include a printed-circuit antenna on a dielectric substrate. The antenna circuitry would include integrated surface-mount inductors for impedance tuning. Circuits for processing the signals transmitted and received by the antenna would be included on the substrate. During operation, the unit would be positioned near (but not in electrical contact with) a human subject, in proximity to a microelectromechanical sensor or actuator that has been surgically implanted in the subject. It has been demonstrated that significant electromagnetic coupling with an implanted device could be established at a distance of as much as 4 in. (.10 cm). During operation in the interrogation mode, the antenna of the unit would receive a radio telemetry signal transmitted by the surgically implanted device. The antenna substrate would have dimensions of approximately 3.25 by 3.75 inches (approximately 8.3 by 9.5 cm). The substrate would have a thickness of the order of 30 mils (of the order of a somewhat less than a millimeter). The substrate would be made of low-radiofrequency- loss dielectric material that could be, for example, fused quartz, alumina, or any of a number of commercially available radio-frequency dielectric composite materials. The antenna conductors would typically be made of copper or a

  14. Portable Hand-Held Electrochemical Sensor for the Transuranics

    SciTech Connect

    Dale D. Russell, William B. Knowlton, Ph.D.; Russel Hertzog, Ph.D

    2005-11-25

    sensitive detector for uranium. Millimeter scale electrodes, operated by a hand-held instrument assembled in this lab and operated in the voltammetric mode, were transported to the DOE-Nevada test site (Las Vegas, NV) where field detection and quantitation of plutonium, uranium, and a mixture of these two elements was also demonstrated. Several probe designs were prepared, built and tested including probes with movable protective windows. A miniature, battery powered potentiostat was designed, built and demonstrated for use in a hand-held field portable instrument. This work was performed largely by undergraduates who gained valuable research experience, and many of them have continued on to graduate schools. In addition, they all gained exposure to and appreciation for national security research, in particular non-proliferation research. Four graduate students participated and one earned the MS degree on this project.

  15. Direction-Sensitive Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2012-10-04

    A novel, light-weight, hand-held gamma-ray detector with directional sensitivity is being designed. The detector uses a set of multiple rings around two cylindrical surfaces, which provides precise location of two interaction points on two concentric cylindrical planes, wherefrom the source location can be traced back by back projection and/or Compton imaging technique. The detectors are 2.0 × 2.0 mm europium-doped strontium iodide (SrI2:Eu2+) crystals, whose light output has been measured to exceed 120,000 photons/MeV, making it one of the brightest scintillators in existence. The crystal’s energy resolution, less than 3% at 662 keV, is also excellent, and the response is highly linear over a wide range of gamma-ray energies. The emission of SrI2:Eu2+ is well matched to both photo-multiplier tubes and blue-enhanced silicon photodiodes. The solid-state photomultipliers used in this design (each 2.0 × 2.0 mm) are arrays of active pixel sensors (avalanche photodiodes driven beyond their breakdown voltage in reverse bias); each pixel acts as a binary photon detector, and their summed output is an analog representation of the total photon energy, while the individual pixel accurately defines the point of interaction. A simple back-projection algorithm involving cone-surface mapping is being modeled. The back projection for an event cone is a conical surface defining the possible location of the source. The cone axis is the straight line passing through the first and second interaction points.

  16. 78 FR 73415 - Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 1112 and 1225 Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers AGENCY: Consumer Product... Commission is issuing a safety standard for hand-held infant carriers in response to the direction under... product category, including: Frame backpack carriers, soft infant and toddler carriers, slings, and...

  17. Hand-Held Color Meters Based on Interference Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Chen, Gang; Yang, Rong Gui

    2004-01-01

    Small, inexpensive, hand-held optoelectronic color-measuring devices based on metal-film/dielectric-film interference filters are undergoing development. These color meters could be suitable for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements to quantify or match colors for aesthetic purposes but there is no need for the high spectral resolution of scientific-grade spectrometers. Such applications typically occur in the paint, printing, and cosmetic industries, for example. The figure schematically depicts a color meter of this type being used to measure the color of a sample in terms of the spectrum of light reflected from the sample. Light from a white source (for example, a white light-emitting diode) passes through a collimating lens to the sample. Another lens collects some of the light reflected from the sample and focuses the light onto the input end of optical fiber. Light emerging from the output end of the optical fiber illuminates an array of photodetectors covered with metal/dielectric-film interference filters like those described in Metal/Dielectric-film Interference Color Filters (NPO-20217), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 70. Typically, these are wide-band-pass filters, as shown at the bottom of the figure. The photodetector array need not be of any particular design: it could be something as simple as an assembly containing several photodiodes or something as elaborate as an active-pixel sensor or other imaging device. What is essential is that each of the photodetectors or each of several groups of photodetectors is covered with a metal/dielectric-film filter of a different color. In most applications, it would be desirable to have at least three different filters, each for a spectral band that contains one of the three primary additive red, green, and blue colors. In some applications, it may be necessary to have more than three different color filters in order to characterize subtle differences in color

  18. Comparing hand-held computers and paper diaries for haemophilia home therapy: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Walker, I; Sigouin, C; Sek, J; Almonte, T; Carruthers, J; Chan, A; Pai, M; Heddle, N

    2004-11-01

    Treatment of severe haemophilia with factor concentrates is by self-infusion in the home. Adherence to record keeping on paper diaries is poor. A randomized-controlled trial compared adherence with record keeping of paper diaries with hand-held computers. Forty-one individuals with severe haemophilia, were randomized to hand-held computers (n = 22) or paper diaries (n = 19) and followed for 6 months. About 86.2% (679 of 788) of infusions by patients in the computer group were in compliance with the data submission schedule compared with only 48.3% (358 of 741) of infusions by patients using paper diaries (P < 0.0001). The time intervals between infusions and the receipt of data were shorter in the computer group (median 0.25 vs. 25 days respectively, P < 0.0001). Reminder phone calls by the clinic were made less frequently to users of hand-held computers than to users of paper diaries (median one vs. five times, P < 0.0001). Accuracy of data was similar for both methods. Compliance with hand-held computers was superior to paper diaries. The clinic received data from hand-held computers mostly on the same day, and nurses could thereby provide clinical advice more effectively. Although hand-held computers did not result in increased accuracy, errors could be detected and corrected more rapidly. Electronic data can more easily be verified, analysed and summarized than that from paper diaries.

  19. Hand-held water fluoride analysis: An accessible caries prevention tool for dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Quock, Ryan L; Yank, Stephanie W; Chan, Jarvis T

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to compare the relative accuracy of a commercially available hand-held water fluoride analysis unit with a standard laboratory bench-top fluoride-specific electrode/millivoltmeter apparatus, with the goal of identifying possible practical applications of the hand-held unit for preventive dentistry. The units analyzed identical gravimetrically prepared fluoride solutions ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 ppm. The average difference between the measurements from the hand-held unit and the nominal values of the fluoride solutions was 0.011 ppm (SD = 0.068), and the average difference between the hand-held unit's measurements and the bench-top unit's measurements was 0.030 ppm (SD = 0.115). T-test analysis demonstrated no statistical difference between measurements from the hand-held unit with either the nominal values of the fluoride solutions or the bench-top unit's measurements. Results indicate that the hand-held water fluoride analysis unit has an appropriate level of accuracy for the measurement of fluoride levels in drinking water samples by dental professionals.

  20. Computer implemented method, and apparatus for controlling a hand-held tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Kenneth William (Inventor); Taylor, James Clayton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The invention described here in is a computer-implemented method and apparatus for controlling a hand-held tool. In particular, the control of a hand held tool is for the purpose of controlling the speed of a fastener interface mechanism and the torque applied to fasteners by the fastener interface mechanism of the hand-held tool and monitoring the operating parameters of the tool. The control is embodied in intool software embedded on a processor within the tool which also communicates with remote software. An operator can run the tool, or through the interaction of both software, operate the tool from a remote location, analyze data from a performance history recorded by the tool, and select various torque and speed parameters for each fastener.

  1. Characterization of the magnetic fields around walk-through and hand-held metal detectors.

    PubMed

    Boivin, W; Coletta, J; Kerr, L

    2003-05-01

    Magnetic field strength measurements were made around eight hand-held and 10 walk-through metal detectors. The method was similar to that used in previous research for Electronic Article Surveillance units except a Cartesian rather than cylindrical coordinate system was used. Special magnetic field probes specifically designed for metal detector measurements were used. A non-metallic positioning apparatus was designed and fabricated. Magnetic field strength measurements were collected on one hand-held metal detector in the laboratory. The remaining data were collected at airport terminals, federal and state government buildings, and a local high school. Walk-through metal detectors had considerably higher magnetic field strengths [up to 299 Am(-1) p-p (3,741 mG)] than hand-held metal detectors [up to 6 Am(-1) p-p (76 mG)]. The frequencies of the magnetic field signal for walk-through detectors were between 0.1 kHz and 3.5 kHz while those for hand-held detectors were between 89 kHz and 133 kHz. Waveforms for all hand-held metal detectors were sinusoidal; those for walk-through metal detectors varied with most being saw-toothed or pulsed. Due to their higher field strengths and the pulsed nature of their magnetic fields, walk-through metal detectors likely pose a higher risk for medical device electromagnetic interference than do hand-held units. Root mean squared magnetic field strengths were calculated from the peak-to-peak values and compared to occupational and general public exposure limits. None of these limits were exceeded. Measurement repeatability was examined for one hand-held and two walk-through metal detectors. For the hand-held metal detector measurements at the location of the maximum magnetic field strength, measurements by three individuals had a repeatability (percent standard deviation) of 5.9%. Limited repeatability data were collected for on-site measurements of walk-through detectors. One unit showed repeatability of 0.1 to 4.5%; a multi

  2. Hand-held radiometer red and photographic infrared spectral measurements of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1978-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared radiance data, collected under a variety of conditions at weekly intervals throughout the growing season using a hand-held radiometer, were used to monitor crop growth and development. The vegetation index transformation was used to effectively compensate for the different irradiational conditions encountered during the study period. These data, plotted against time, compared the different crops measured by comparing their green leaf biomass dynamics. This approach, based entirely upon spectral inputs, closely monitors crop growth and development and indicates the promise of ground-based hand-held radiometer measurements of crops.

  3. Breast cancer imaging and tomography using a hand-held optical imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Roman, Manuela; Gonzalez, Jean; Kiszonas, Richard; Lopez-Penalver, Cristina; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2012-03-01

    Hand-held optical imaging devices are currently developed by several research groups as a noninvasive and non-ionizing method towards clinical imaging of breast cancer. The devices developed to date are typically utilized towards spectroscopic imaging via reflectance-based measurements. Additionally, a couple of devices have been used to perform 3D tomography with the addition of a second modality (e.g. ultrasound). A hand-held optical device that is unique in its ability to perform rapid 2D imaging and 3D tomography (without the use of a second modality) has been developed in our Optical Imaging laboratory. Herein, diffuse optical imaging studies are performed in breast cancer subjects. For these studies, the subject lay in a recliner chair and both breast tissues were imaged with the hand-held optical device which uses 785 nm laser source and an intensified CCD camera-based detector. Preliminary results demonstrate the ability to image invasive ductal carcinoma and lymphatic spread, as compared to the patient's medical records (e.g. xray, ultrasound, MRI). Multiple imaging studies with a subject undergoing chemotherapy demonstrated the potential to monitor response to treatment. Currently, studies are carried out to tomographically determine the 3D location of the tumor(s) in breast cancer subjects using the hand-held optical device.

  4. Close-up view of Hand Held Maneuvering Unit for Gemini 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Close-up view of the Hand Held Maneuvering Unit which will be used by Astronaut David R. Scott during the extravehicular activity on the Gemini 8 space flight. High pressure cold gas released through the unit's nozzles produces the required controlled thrust to maneuver in a zero-gravity environment.

  5. Hand-Held Model of a Sarcomere to Illustrate the Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    From our teaching of the contractile unit of the striated muscle, we have found limitations in using textbook illustrations of sarcomere structure and its related dynamic molecular physiological details. A hand-held model of a striated muscle sarcomere made from common items has thus been made by us to enhance students' understanding of the…

  6. Physician Use of Hand-Held Computers for Drug Information and Prescribing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    variables such as psychomotor skills that may influence behavior intentions and actual usage of hand-held technology. The learning of new technology...handwriting the prescriptions. 0.84 a 3 Perceived ease of use: No human factors limitations with computing devices ( psychomotor skills ) • I have

  7. Surgical procedure logging with use of a hand-held computer

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Sandra; Lapinsky, Stephen E.; Weshler, Jason; Howard, Frazer; Rotstein, Lorne E.; Cohen, Zane; Stewart, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of incorporating hand-held computing technology in a surgical residency program, by means of hand-held devices for surgical procedure logging linked through the Internet to a central database. Setting Division of General Surgery, University of Toronto. Design A survey of general surgery residents. Methods The 69 residents in the general surgery training program received hand-held computers with preinstalled medical programs and a program designed for surgical procedure logging. Procedural data were uploaded via the Internet to a central database. Survey data were collected regarding previous computer use as well as previous procedure logging methods. Main outcome measure Utilization of the procedure logging system. Results After a 5-month pilot period, 38% of surgical residents were using the procedure-logging program successfully and on a regular basis. Program use was higher among more junior trainees. Analysis of the database provided valuable information on individual trainees, hospital programs and supervising surgeons, data that would assist in program development. Conclusions Hand-held devices can be implemented in a large division of general surgery to provide a reference database and a procedure-logging platform. However, user acceptance is not uniform and continued training and support are necessary to increase acceptance. The procedure database provides important information for optimizing trainees’ educational experience. PMID:12387537

  8. Enhancing Mathematical Concepts through Leading Questions and Hand-Held Data Collection Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    Hand-held data collection technology allows for access to real-world data collection--at any other time and almost any place. Is the use of data and its collection desirable to the mathematical learning process? The answer is a resounding yes! Not only can significant mathematical ideas be taught in the process; colleagues are also helped in the…

  9. Online Responses towards Parental Rearing Styles Regarding Hand-Held Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Disney, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This article reviewed the literature on parental rearing styles and used responses from an online discussion forum to investigate people's opinions towards parental rearing styles and strategies when children use hand-held devices. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used as an analysis method via micro, meso and macro multi-level…

  10. Integrating a hand held computer and stethoscope into a fetal monitor.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mitra Ahmad

    2009-02-07

    This article presents procedures for modifying a hand held computer or personal digital assistant (PDA) into a versatile device functioning as an electronic stethoscope for fetal monitoring. Along with functioning as an electronic stethoscope, a PDA can provide a useful information source for a medical trainee. Feedback from medical students, residents and interns suggests the device is well accepted by medical trainees.

  11. Hand-held probe based optical imaging system towards breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jiajia; Jayachandran, Bhavani; Regalado, Steven; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2007-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging is an emerging noninvasive modality for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the currently available optical imaging systems towards tomography studies are limited either by instrument portability, patient comfort, or flexibility to image any given tissue volume. Herein, a hand-held based optical imaging system is developed such that it can possibly overcome some of the above limitations. The unique features of the hand-held optical probe are: (i) to perform simultaneous multiple point illumination and detection, thus decreasing the total imaging time and improving the overall signal strength; (ii) to adapt to the contour of tissue surface, thus decreasing the leakage of excitation and emission signal at contact surface; and (iii) to obtain trans-illumination measurements apart from reflectance measurements, thus improving the depth information. The increased detected signal strength as well as total interrogated tissue volume is demonstrated by simulation studies (i.e. forward model) over a 5×10×10 cc slab phantom. The appropriate number and layout of the source and detection points on the probe head is determined and the hand-held optical probe is developed. A frequency-domain ICCD (intensified charge coupled device) detection system, which allows simultaneous multiple points detection, is developed and coupled to the hand-held probe in order to perform fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging of tissue phantoms. In the future, imaging of homogenous liquid phantoms will be used for the assessment of this hand-held system, followed by extensive imaging studies on different phantoms types under various experimental conditions.

  12. Hand-Held Dynamometer Measurements Obtained in a Home Environment Are Reliable but Not Correlated Strongly with Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohannon, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    This research report describes the reliability and validity of hand-held dynamometer measurements of knee extension force obtained from 13 patients referred for physical therapy. Results found that hand-held dynamometry can be used to obtain reliable measures of muscle strength; however, correlation between strength measures and function was not…

  13. 78 FR 20695 - Walk-Through Metal Detectors and Hand-Held Metal Detectors Test Method Validation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Office of Justice Programs Walk-Through Metal Detectors and Hand-Held Metal Detectors Test Method... has recently developed updated versions of its minimum performance standards for walk-through metal detectors and hand-held metal detectors. In order to ensure that the test methods in the standards...

  14. Use of a hand-held Doppler to avoid abdominal wall vessels in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, M. S.; Laws, S. A.; Wise, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Laparoscopy in general surgery is becoming a wide-spread technique. Substantial anterior abdominal wall haemorrhage is a recognised complication of the laparoscopic technique. Ten patients were examined with an 8 MHz hand-held Doppler and the anterior abdominal wall vessels were marked on the skin. Colour flow duplex was used to confirm the presence of vessels found in this way. All 40 epigastric arteries were marked accurately and confirmed; 75 other intramural arteries were identified, although the majority were too small for duplex confirmation. The preoperative use of hand-held Doppler is a quick and non-invasive way to identify the epigastric and larger intramural arteries. Routine use of this technique to mark abdominal wall vessels in the areas of trocar insertion should reduce this complication of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:7661918

  15. Hand-held transendoscopic robotic manipulators: A transurethral laser prostate surgery case study

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Richard J.; Mitchell, Christopher R.; Herrell, S. Duke; Webster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural orifice endoscopic surgery can enable incisionless approaches, but a major challenge is the lack of small and dexterous instrumentation. Surgical robots have the potential to meet this need yet often disrupt the clinical workflow. Hand-held robots that combine thin manipulators and endoscopes have the potential to address this by integrating seamlessly into the clinical workflow and enhancing dexterity. As a case study illustrating the potential of this approach, we describe a hand-held robotic system that passes two concentric tube manipulators through a 5 mm port in a rigid endoscope for transurethral laser prostate surgery. This system is intended to catalyze the use of a clinically superior, yet rarely attempted, procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia. This paper describes system design and experiments to evaluate the surgeon’s functional workspace and accuracy using the robot. Phantom and cadaver experiments demonstrate successful completion of the target procedure via prostate lobe resection. PMID:27570361

  16. An efficient solid modeling system based on a hand-held 3D laser scan device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The hand-held 3D laser scanner sold in the market is appealing for its port and convenient to use, but price is expensive. To develop such a system based cheap devices using the same principles as the commercial systems is impossible. In this paper, a simple hand-held 3D laser scanner is developed based on a volume reconstruction method using cheap devices. Unlike convenient laser scanner to collect point cloud of an object surface, the proposed method only scan few key profile curves on the surface. Planar section curve network can be generated from these profile curves to construct a volume model of the object. The details of design are presented, and illustrated by the example of a complex shaped object.

  17. Hand-held cow horn: resurgence of an old arm or apotential terrorist weapon

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Lawal; Ahmed, Adamu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A 23 year old man presented with intestinal evisceration from stab injury to the left side of the abdomen with a hand-held cow horn at a local night party. He complained of severe abdominal pain and bleeding at the site of injury. He was hemodynamically stable. At emergency exploration, the eviscerated bowel was viable with no adjacent mesenteric tear. Other intra abdominal organs were normal. The eviscerated bowel was lavaged and reduced into the abdomen through the 7cm anterior abdominal wall laceration. The laceration was repaired and abdomen closed in layers. Post operative recovery was uneventful. The hand-held cow horn can easily be concealed and may pass through security checks undetected. It should be added to the ever increasing list of weapons of small scale terror. PMID:21502787

  18. Hand-held cow horn: resurgence of an old arm or a potential terrorist weapon.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Lawal; Ahmed, Adamu

    2012-01-01

    A 23 year old man presented with intestinal evisceration from stab injury to the left side of the abdomen with a hand-held cow horn at a local night party. He complained of severe abdominal pain and bleeding at the site of injury. He was hemodynamically stable. At emergency exploration, the eviscerated bowel was viable with no adjacent mesenteric tear. Other intra abdominal organs were normal. The eviscerated bowel was lavaged and reduced into the abdomen through the 7 cm anterior abdominal wall laceration. The laceration was repaired and abdomen closed in layers. Post operative recovery was uneventful. The hand-held cow horn can easily be concealed and may pass through security checks undetected. It should be added to the ever increasing list of weapons of small scale terror.

  19. System design of a hand-held mobile robot for craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Kane, Gavin; Eggers, Georg; Boesecke, Robert; Raczkowsky, Jörg; Wörn, Heinz; Marmulla, Rüdiger; Mühling, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This contribution reports the development and initial testing of a Mobile Robot System for Surgical Craniotomy, the Craniostar. A kinematic system based on a unicycle robot is analysed to provide local positioning through two spiked wheels gripping directly onto a patients skull. A control system based on a shared control system between both the Surgeon and Robot is employed in a hand-held design that is tested initially on plastic phantom and swine skulls. Results indicate that the system has substantially lower risk than present robotically assisted craniotomies, and despite being a hand-held mobile robot, the Craniostar is still capable of sub-millimetre accuracy in tracking along a trajectory and thus achieving an accurate transfer of pre-surgical plan to the operating room procedure, without the large impact of current medical robots based on modified industrial robots.

  20. Do hand-held calorimeters provide reliable and accurate estimates of resting metabolic rate?

    PubMed

    Van Loan, Marta D

    2007-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of a new technique for indirect calorimetry and the assessment of resting metabolic rate. Information from the research literature includes findings on the reliability and validity of a new hand-held indirect calorimeter as well as use in clinical and field settings. Research findings to date are of mixed results. The MedGem instrument has provided more consistent results when compared to the Douglas bag method of measuring metabolic rate. The BodyGem instrument has been shown to be less accurate when compared to standard metabolic carts. Furthermore, when the Body Gem has been used with clinical patients or with under nourished individuals the results have not been acceptable. Overall, there is not a large enough body of evidence to definitively support the use of these hand-held devices for assessment of metabolic rate in a wide variety of clinical or research environments.

  1. Early Childhood Vision Screening in Hawai‘i Utilizing a Hand-Held Screener

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Duane A; Ede, Roger C; Chow, Dominic C; Souza, Ryan D; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A; Hanks, Nancy; Nakamoto, Beau K; Mitchell, Brooks; Masutani, Alison T; Fisk, Sam; Dill, Jan E

    2015-01-01

    The goal of early childhood vision screening is to detect subnormal vision and amblyopic risk factors that threaten visual development so that treatment can be initiated early to yield the highest benefit. Hand-held, portable, instrument-based vision screening devices can be used in children as young as 6 months of age. We assessed the feasibility of hand-held photoscreeners to screen for vision disorders in pre-school children in Hawai‘i. A total of 137 preschool children on O‘ahu in the “Tutu and Me”/Partners in Development program were screened at 6 different locations using the Plusoptix S12 hand-held photoscreener. Once technical issues were resolved, screening was fast and well tolerated. Possible vision abnormalities were found in 11 of the 137 children (8%). Poor compliance for follow-up with formal vision examination limited our ability to confirm these abnormalities. We conclude that photoscreening has the potential to facilitate early childhood vision screening in Hawai‘i. The optimal referral criteria for use in Hawai‘i will need to be determined after considering the age of the screening population and the available medical resources in Hawai‘i. Early detection of treatable eye disorders has far-reaching benefits for the visual development and long term health and well-being of children. A comprehensive early childhood vision screening program in Hawai‘i utilizing automated hand-held photoscreeners may have public health value. Such a program should integrate referral to an eye care professional for confirmation and management of vision disorders of at-risk children found on screening. PMID:26468424

  2. Early Childhood Vision Screening in Hawai'i Utilizing a Hand-Held Screener.

    PubMed

    Chang, Duane A; Ede, Roger C; Chow, Dominic C; Souza, Ryan D; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A; Hanks, Nancy; Nakamoto, Beau K; Mitchell, Brooks; Masutani, Alison T; Fisk, Sam; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Dill, Jan E

    2015-09-01

    The goal of early childhood vision screening is to detect subnormal vision and amblyopic risk factors that threaten visual development so that treatment can be initiated early to yield the highest benefit. Hand-held, portable, instrument-based vision screening devices can be used in children as young as 6 months of age. We assessed the feasibility of hand-held photoscreeners to screen for vision disorders in pre-school children in Hawai'i. A total of 137 preschool children on O'ahu in the "Tutu and Me"/Partners in Development program were screened at 6 different locations using the Plusoptix S12 hand-held photoscreener. Once technical issues were resolved, screening was fast and well tolerated. Possible vision abnormalities were found in 11 of the 137 children (8%). Poor compliance for follow-up with formal vision examination limited our ability to confirm these abnormalities. We conclude that photoscreening has the potential to facilitate early childhood vision screening in Hawai'i. The optimal referral criteria for use in Hawai'i will need to be determined after considering the age of the screening population and the available medical resources in Hawai'i. Early detection of treatable eye disorders has far-reaching benefits for the visual development and long term health and well-being of children. A comprehensive early childhood vision screening program in Hawai'i utilizing automated hand-held photoscreeners may have public health value. Such a program should integrate referral to an eye care professional for confirmation and management of vision disorders of at-risk children found on screening.

  3. Area estimation in pharmacokinetic studies using a hand-held programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Bury, R W

    1984-01-01

    A short program for area analysis in pharmacokinetic studies using the Hewlett-Packard HP41C hand-held programmable calculator is described. Area under the concentration-time curve is calculated firstly within defined time limits and then with extrapolation to infinite time using the slope constant of the terminal phase. Input of concentration-time data is simple and there is no limit on the number of time-concentration co-ordinates which can be entered for area calculation.

  4. Hand-held optical imager (Gen-2): improved instrumentation and target detectability.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jean; Decerce, Joseph; Erickson, Sarah J; Martinez, Sergio L; Nunez, Annie; Roman, Manuela; Traub, Barbara; Flores, Cecilia A; Roberts, Seigbeh M; Hernandez, Estrella; Aguirre, Wenceslao; Kiszonas, Richard; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2012-08-01

    Hand-held optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards reflectance-based spectroscopic imaging of breast cancer. Recently, a Gen-1 handheld optical imager was developed with capabilities to perform two-dimensional (2-D) spectroscopic as well as three-dimensional (3-D) tomographic imaging studies. However, the imager was bulky with poor surface contact (~30%) along curved tissues, and limited sensitivity to detect targets consistently. Herein, a Gen-2 hand-held optical imager that overcame the above limitations of the Gen-1 imager has been developed and the instrumentation described. The Gen-2 hand-held imager is less bulky, portable, and has improved surface contact (~86%) on curved tissues. Additionally, the forked probe head design is capable of simultaneous bilateral reflectance imaging of both breast tissues, and also transillumination imaging of a single breast tissue. Experimental studies were performed on tissue phantoms to demonstrate the improved sensitivity in detecting targets using the Gen-2 imager. The improved instrumentation of the Gen-2 imager allowed detection of targets independent of their location with respect to the illumination points, unlike in Gen-1 imager. The developed imager has potential for future clinical breast imaging with enhanced sensitivity, via both reflectance and transillumination imaging.

  5. Gen-2 hand-held optical imager towards cancer imaging: reflectance and transillumination phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jean; Roman, Manuela; Hall, Michael; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Hand-held near-infrared (NIR) optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards non-invasive clinical breast imaging. Unlike these existing imagers that can perform only reflectance imaging, a generation-2 (Gen-2) hand-held optical imager has been recently developed to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging. The unique forked design of the hand-held probe head(s) allows for reflectance imaging (as in ultrasound) and transillumination or compressed imaging (as in X-ray mammography). Phantom studies were performed to demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) target detection via reflectance and transillumination imaging at various target depths (1-5 cm deep) and using simultaneous multiple point illumination approach. It was observed that 0.45 cc targets were detected up to 5 cm deep during transillumination, but limited to 2.5 cm deep during reflectance imaging. Additionally, implementing appropriate data post-processing techniques along with a polynomial fitting approach, to plot 2D surface contours of the detected signal, yields distinct target detectability and localization. The ability of the gen-2 imager to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging allows its direct comparison to ultrasound and X-ray mammography results, respectively, in future clinical breast imaging studies.

  6. Noise reduction techniques in the design of a pneumatic-driven hand held power tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Christian M.

    2005-09-01

    Pneumatic-driven hand-held power tools generate noise in the workplace. Current legislation in Europe and the USA aims at protecting workers against noise exposure. In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that employers create a hearing conservation program if the noise exposure exceeds 85 dB(A). In the European Community under the Directive 2003/10/EC, employers are required to provide hearing protection if the noise exposure within the working environment exceeds 80 dB(A) and must require hearing protection to be worn if the noise exposure exceeds 85 dB(A). This paper examines the sources of noise which contribute to the overall noise from a hand-held power tool. A test plan was developed to identify these individual sources of noise and to determine if structure-borne noise or airborne noise is the dominant source relative to the overall noise level. The measurements were performed per International Standards Organization (ISO) 15744. This paper will describe the methodology used to identify the noise sources and reduce the overall noise of a hand-held power tool.

  7. A hand-held electronic tongue based on fluorometry for taste assessment of tea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuang-Hua; Chen, Richie L C; Hsieh, Bo-Chuan; Chen, Po-Chung; Hsiao, Hsien-Yi; Nieh, Chi-Hua; Cheng, Tzong-Jih

    2010-12-15

    A hand-held electronic tongue was developed for determining taste levels of astringency and umami in tea infusions. The sensing principles are based on quenching the fluorescence of 3-aminophthalate by tannin, and the fluorogenic reaction of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) with amino acids to determine astringency and umami levels, respectively. Both reactions were measured by a single fluorescence sensing system with same excitation and emission wavelengths (340/425 nm). This work describes in detail the design, fabrication, and performance evaluation of a hand-held fluorometer with an ultra-violet light emitted diode (UVLED) and a photo-detector with a filter built-in. The dimension and the weight of proposed electronic tongue prototype are only 120×60×65 mm(3) and 150 g, respectively. The detection limits of this prototype for theanine and tannic acid were 0.2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Correlation coefficients of this prototype compared with a commercial fluorescence instrument are both higher than 0.995 in determinations of tannin acid and theanine. Linear detection ranges of the hand-held fluorometer for tannic acid and theanine are 1-20 μg/ml and 0.2-10 μg/ml (CV<5%, n=3), respectively. A specified taste indicator for tea, defined as ratio of umami to astringency, was adopted here to effectively distinguish flavour quality of partially fermented Oolong teas.

  8. Detector optimization for hand-held CsI(Tl)/HgI{sub 2} gamma-ray scintillation spectrometer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.J.; Patt, B.E.; Iwanczyk, J.S.; Cherry, S.R.; Shao, Y.

    1996-06-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometers using mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) photodetectors (PDs) coupled with CsI(Tl) scintillators have shown excellent energy resolutions and high detection efficiency at room temperature. Additionally HgI{sub 2} semiconductor PDs allow for extreme miniaturization of the detector packaging compared with photomultiplier tube (PMT) based detectors. These advantages make possible the construction of a new generation of hand-held gamma-ray spectrometers. Studies of detector optimization for this application have been undertaken. Several contact materials including hydrogen and semi-transparent metal films have been evaluated and compared for their performances and long term stability. In order to provide higher gamma-ray detection efficiency (i.e., larger scintillator volume), but without causing significant degradation of the excellent response achieved with the matched scintillator/PD interface, the scintillator/PD configuration has been studied. A Monte Carlo simulation model has been developed so that the spectral shape can be predicted for various scintillator shapes and surface treatments.

  9. A hand-held ultrasound machine vs. conventional ultrasound machine in the bedside assessment of post-liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Bruno, Onorina; Angeli, Maria Luigia; Belghiti, Jacques; Chatellier, Gilles; Vilgrain, Valérie

    2009-10-01

    The purpose was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a hand-held Doppler ultrasound (US) machine for the bedside detection of liver and vascular abnormalities after liver transplantation in the intensive care unit. The IRB approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients or the patient's legal representative. Any liver transplant recipient at our institution who needed a bedside Doppler US examination in the intensive care unit was eligible. Patients underwent routine grey-scale, colour, and spectral Doppler US examinations of the liver with a conventional machine, which was taken as the reference method, and with a hand-held machine on the same day. Examinations followed one another and were performed in a blinded fashion by two radiologists. Over a 4-month period, 24 consecutive patients (16 men, median age 54 years old; 16 cadaveric and 8 living related right liver transplantations) underwent 43 examinations with both conventional and hand-held machines. Image quality and overall satisfaction scores of grey-scale were lower with the hand-held than with the conventional machine. The hand-held was similar to the conventional machine for assessing the patency of portal veins, hepatic veins and the IVC in all patients but one. The hand-held machine failed to detect signals in the right branch of the hepatic artery and in the hilum in two and one cases, respectively. There was no abnormal hepatic arterial flow with the conventional machine in any of the patients, and the results were the same with the hand-held machine. Total examination time was significantly longer with the hand-held machine. The hand-held US machine had a high diagnostic accuracy for both parenchymal and vascular analyses compared with a conventional US machine in the bedside assessment of post-liver transplant patients.

  10. Noninvasive Surface Imaging of Breast Cancer in Humans using a Hand-held Optical Imager.

    PubMed

    Erickson-Bhatt, Sarah J; Roman, Manuela; Gonzalez, Jean; Nunez, Annie; Kiszonas, Richard; Lopez-Penalver, Cristina; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2015-12-01

    X-ray mammography, the current gold standard for breast cancer detection, has a 20% false-negative rate (cancer is undetected) and increases in younger women with denser breast tissue. Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a safe (nonionizing), and relatively inexpensive method for noninvasive imaging of breast cancer in human subjects (including dense breast tissues) by providing physiological information (e.g. oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin concentration). At the Optical Imaging Laboratory, a hand-held optical imager has been developed which employs a breast contourable probe head to perform simultaneous illumination and detection of large surfaces towards near real-time imaging of human breast cancer. Gen-1 and gen-2 versions of the handheld optical imager have been developed and previously demonstrated imaging in tissue phantoms and healthy human subjects. Herein, the hand-held optical imagers are applied towards in vivo imaging of breast cancer subjects in an attempt to determine the ability of the imager to detect breast tumors. Five female human subjects (ages 51-74) diagnosed with breast cancer were imaged with the gen-1 optical imager prior to surgical intervention. One of the subjects was also imaged with the gen-2 optical imager. Both imagers use 785 nm laser diode sources and ICCD camera detectors to generate 2D surfaces maps of total hemoglobin absorption. The subjects lay in supine position and images were collected at various locations on both the ipsilateral (tumor-containing) and contralateral (non-tumor containing) breasts. The optical images (2D surface maps of optical absorption due to total hemoglobin concentration) show regions of higher intensity at the tumor location, which is indicative of increased vasculature and higher blood content due to the presence of the tumor. Additionally, a preliminary result indicates the potential to image lymphatic spread. This study demonstrates the potential of the hand-held optical devices to noninvasively image

  11. An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Using Hand-Held Computers for Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-30

    wEt ________ S, r V .. = lrny. ntO i 3, owrl. S.1 Sly96, or ato h b * - - m, Applya Wa dom toy- n E-4 Adoption of BASIC language BASK lagaeue idlfo...These Memtory Modules can quintuple the HP.41C’s memnory. x). ei, 1,y., V a. I/it. r . +. - X. +, LN. H.MS1. CHS. Each module contains an additional 64... R -A28 973 AN EVALUATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF USING HAND-HELD - COMPUTERS FOR TARINING(U) BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABS OH L D FRANCIS ET AL. 30 MAY 82 TDI

  12. Applications of a hand-held GPS receiver in South American rain forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baksh, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A hand-held Global Positioning System receiver was used to determine the precise locations of villages, houses, gardens, and other cultural and environmental features in poorly mapped South American rain forests. The Magellan NAV 1000 unit profides extremely accurate latitude and longitude information, but determination of altitude is problematical. Overall, the receiver effectively allows anthropologists to obtain essential locational data useful for categorizing land uses, mapping tribal boundaries, and other applications in regions where environmental conditions are harsh and/or accessibility is difficult.

  13. Rapid Diagnosis of an Ulnar Fracture with Portable Hand-Held Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Brown, Ross; Diebel, Lawrence N.; Nicolaou, Savvas; Marshburn, Tom; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Orthopedic fractures are a common injury in operational activities, injuries that often occur in isolated or hostile environments. Clinical ultrasound devices have become more user friendly and lighter allowing them to be easily transported with forward medical teams. The bone-soft tissue interface has a very large acoustic impedance, with a high reflectance that can be used to visualize breaks in contour including fractures. Herein reported is a case of an ulnar fracture that was quickly visualized in the early phase of a multi-system trauma resuscitation with a hand-held ultrasound device. The implications for operational medicine are discussed.

  14. Improved detection limits using a hand-held optical imager with coregistration capabilities.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Sarah J; Martinez, Sergio L; Gonzalez, Jean; Caldera, Lizeth; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-07-15

    Optical imaging is emerging as a non-invasive and non-ionizing method for breast cancer diagnosis. A hand-held optical imager has been developed with coregistration facilities towards flexible imaging of different tissue volumes and curvatures in near real-time. Herein, fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging experiments are performed to demonstrate deeper target detection under perfect and imperfect (100:1) uptake conditions in (liquid) tissue phantoms and in vitro. Upon summation of multiple scans (fluorescence intensity images), fluorescent targets are detected at greater depths than from single scan alone.

  15. Application of elastically deformed test samples for measuring stresses using a hand-held X-ray diffractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitkin, S. L.; Rozhnov, A. B.; Matveev, D. B.; Kotelkin, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    To test a mock-up of a hand-held X-ray diffractometer intended for determining the surface stresses in the important parts of rail transport, we propose to use control samples subjected to elastic deformation by three-point bending. The results obtained with hand-held and stationary X-ray diffractometers and the calculated stresses are compared. The stresses to be compared agree well within the limits of an acceptable error.

  16. Stabilized, hand-held, gamma-ray verification instrument for special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Wiig, G.

    1988-01-01

    For many years, Los Alamos has developed intelligent, hand-held, search instruments for use by non-specialists to search for special nuclear materials (SNM). The instruments sense SNM by detecting its emitted radiation with scintillation detectors monitored by digital alarm circuitry. Now, we have developed a new hand-held instrument that can verify the presence or absence of particular radioisotopes by analyzing gamma-ray spectra. The new instrument is similar to recent, microprocessor-based, search instruments, but has LED detector stabilization, three adjustable regions-of-interest, and additional operating programs for spectrum analysis. We call the new instrument an SNM verification instrument. Its spectrum analysis capability can verify the presence or absence of specific plutonium isotopes in containers or verify the presence of uranium and its enrichment. The instrument retains the search capability, light weight, and low-power requirement of its predecessors. Its ready portability, detector stabilization, and simple operation allow individuals with little technical training to verify the contents of SNM containers. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Low-cost hand-held probe for depth-resolved low-coherence interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Paritosh; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Nolan, Ryan M.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development of a low-cost hand-held low-coherence interferometric imaging system based on the principle of linear optical coherence tomography (Linear OCT), a technique which was first proposed in the early 2000s as a simpler alternative to the conventional time-domain and Fourier-domain OCT. A bench-top implementation of the proposed technique is first presented and validated. The axial resolution, SNR, and sensitivity roll-of of the system was estimated to be 5.2 μm and 80 dB, and 3.7 dB over a depth of 0.15 mm, respectively. After validating the bench-top system, two hand-held probe implementations for contact-based imaging and in vivo human tympanic membrane imaging are presented. The performance of the proposed system was compared with a research-grade state-of-the-art Fourier-domain low coherence interferometry (LCI) system by imaging several biological and non-biological samples. The results of this study suggest that the proposed system might be a suitable choice for applications where imaging depth and SNR can be traded for lower cost and simpler optical design. PMID:28101422

  18. Smartphone based hand-held quantitative phase microscope using the transport of intensity equation method.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xin; Huang, Huachuan; Yan, Keding; Tian, Xiaolin; Yu, Wei; Cui, Haoyang; Kong, Yan; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2016-12-20

    In order to realize high contrast imaging with portable devices for potential mobile healthcare, we demonstrate a hand-held smartphone based quantitative phase microscope using the transport of intensity equation method. With a cost-effective illumination source and compact microscope system, multi-focal images of samples can be captured by the smartphone's camera via manual focusing. Phase retrieval is performed using a self-developed Android application, which calculates sample phases from multi-plane intensities via solving the Poisson equation. We test the portable microscope using a random phase plate with known phases, and to further demonstrate its performance, a red blood cell smear, a Pap smear and monocot root and broad bean epidermis sections are also successfully imaged. Considering its advantages as an accurate, high-contrast, cost-effective and field-portable device, the smartphone based hand-held quantitative phase microscope is a promising tool which can be adopted in the future in remote healthcare and medical diagnosis.

  19. Neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) forward-viewing probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Vuong, Barry; Cusimano, Michael; Brukson, Alexander; Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-02-01

    A prototype neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging probe has been developed to provide micron resolution cross-sectional images of subsurface tissue during open surgery. This new ergonomic hand-held probe has been designed based on our group's previous work on electrostatically driven optical fibers. It has been packaged into a catheter probe in the familiar form factor of the clinically accepted Bayonet shaped neurosurgical non-imaging Doppler ultrasound probes. The optical design was optimized using ZEMAX simulation. Optical properties of the probe were tested to yield an ~20 um spot size, 5 mm working distance and a 3.5 mm field of view. The scan frequency can be increased or decreased by changing the applied voltage. Typically a scan frequency of less than 60Hz is chosen to keep the applied voltage to less than 2000V. The axial resolution of the probe was ~15 um (in air) as determined by the OCT system. A custom-triggering methodology has been developed to provide continuous stable imaging, which is crucial for clinical utility. Feasibility of this probe, in combination with a 1310 nm swept source OCT system was tested and images are presented to highlight the usefulness of such a forward viewing handheld OCT imaging probe. Knowledge gained from this research will lay the foundation for developing new OCT technologies for endovascular management of cerebral aneurysms and transsphenoidal neuroendoscopic treatment of pituitary tumors.

  20. Development of a hand-held forensic-lidar for standoff detection of chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Grant; Batchelder, David

    2002-12-01

    The design of a forensic-lidar is reported, enabling a single operator to perform the spectral identification of a labeled object at 5 m distance using a compact, hand-held instrument, low-power excitation (1 mW) and short sampling times (under 2 s) from a sample less than 100-μm thick. The system integrates a modified single-lens-reflex (SLR) telephoto camera with an optical-fiber coupled Raman probe head. Spectral analysis was achieved using an optical-fiber coupled spectrograph employing a volume-phase holographic grating, charge coupled device array detection and visible excitation. Thus, spectra may be acquired from objects encased in transparent packaging or behind glass windows. The use of a modified SLR camera enables accurate sample alignment using the visible spectrum and collection of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattered flux through the SLR camera lens using epi-illumination. A single operator may acquire fingerprint recognition of a material using a single hand-held unit and spectrum-matching software. The instrument design is reported with preliminary performance such as spectrograph resolution and transmission. A preliminary spectrum is presented at a standoff distance of 5 m.

  1. Intraoperative radioimmunodetection of colorectal tumor with a hand-held radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.T.; Hinkle, G.H.; Tuttle, S.; Olsen, J.; Nabi, H.; Houchens, D.; Thurston, M.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    A hand-held gamma detection probe was used intraoperatively to localize primary and recurrent colorectal tumors in 28 patients 48 to 72 hours after they received an intravenous injection of 2.2 mCi of iodine-131 labeled anticarcinoembryonic antigen polyclonal baboon antibody. Preoperative evaluation included determination of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, barium enema, colonoscopy, chest film, computerized axial tomography, liver, spleen, and bone scans, and endoscopy when indicated. Preoperative whole-body imaging correctly localized primary tumors in only 33 percent of the patients, whereas it correctly demonstrated tumor in 64 percent of those with recurrent disease. Intraoperative tumor-to-background ratios derived from the detector probe were elevated in all patients, averaging 3.97:1 in primary lesions and 4.18:1 in recurrent tumors. Postoperatively, carcinoembryonic antigen was localized in tissues with the avidin-biotin peroxidase staining technique to confirm intraoperative readings. Variations in stain uptake in a patient could be correlated with variations in radiation detector readings in the same patient. Results support our previous work in nude mice, demonstrating the improved sensitivity and specificity of the hand-held gamma detection device over whole-body imaging for intraoperative localization of immunoradiolabeled tumors.

  2. Finger tracking for hand-held device interface using profile-matching stereo vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yung-Ping; Lee, Dah-Jye; Moore, Jason; Desai, Alok; Tippetts, Beau

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people use hand-held devices frequently and control them by touching the screen with their fingers. If this method of operation is being used by people who are driving, the probability of deaths and accidents occurring substantially increases. With a non-contact control interface, people do not need to touch the screen. As a result, people will not need to pay as much attention to their phones and thus drive more safely than they would otherwise. This interface can be achieved with real-time stereovision. A novel Intensity Profile Shape-Matching Algorithm is able to obtain 3-D information from a pair of stereo images in real time. While this algorithm does have a trade-off between accuracy and processing speed, the result of this algorithm proves the accuracy is sufficient for the practical use of recognizing human poses and finger movement tracking. By choosing an interval of disparity, an object at a certain distance range can be segmented. In other words, we detect the object by its distance to the cameras. The advantage of this profile shape-matching algorithm is that detection of correspondences relies on the shape of profile and not on intensity values, which are subjected to lighting variations. Based on the resulting 3-D information, the movement of fingers in space from a specific distance can be determined. Finger location and movement can then be analyzed for non-contact control of hand-held devices.

  3. Hand-held optoacoustic probe for three-dimensional imaging of human morphology and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We report on a hand-held imaging probe for real-time optoacoustic visualization of deep tissues in three dimensions. The proposed solution incorporates a two-dimensional array of ultrasonic sensors densely distributed on a spherical surface, whereas illumination is performed coaxially through a cylindrical cavity in the array. Visualization of three-dimensional tomographic data at a frame rate of 10 images per second is enabled by parallel recording of 256 time-resolved signals for each individual laser pulse along with a highly efficient GPUbased real-time reconstruction. A liquid coupling medium (water), enclosed in a transparent membrane, is used to guarantee transmission of the optoacoustically generated waves to the ultrasonic detectors. Excitation at multiple wavelengths further allows imaging spectrally distinctive tissue chromophores such as oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin. The performance is showcased by video-rate tracking of deep tissue vasculature and three-dimensional measurements of blood oxygenenation in a healthy human volunteer. The flexibility provided by the hand-held hardware design, combined with the real-time operation, makes the developed platform highly usable for both small animal research and clinical imaging in multiple indications, including cancer, inflammation, skin and cardiovascular diseases, diagnostics of lymphatic system and breast

  4. Algorithms for a hand-held miniature x-ray fluorescence analytical instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, W.T.; Newman, D.; Ziemba, F.

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this joint program was to provide technical assistance with the development of a Miniature X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analytical Instrument. This new XRF instrument is designed to overcome the weaknesses of spectrometers commercially available at the present time. Currently available XRF spectrometers (for a complete list see reference 1) convert spectral information to sample composition using the influence coefficients technique or the fundamental parameters method. They require either a standard sample with composition relatively close to the unknown or a detailed knowledge of the sample matrix. They also require a highly-trained operator and the results often depend on the capabilities of the operator. In addition, almost all existing field-portable, hand-held instruments use radioactive sources for excitation. Regulatory limits on such sources restrict them such that they can only provide relatively weak excitation. This limits all current hand-held XRF instruments to poor detection limits and/or long data collection times, in addition to the licensing requirements and disposal problems for radioactive sources. The new XRF instrument was developed jointly by Quantrad Sensor, Inc., the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and the Department of Energy (DOE). This report describes the analysis algorithms developed by NRL for the new instrument and the software which embodies them.

  5. Hand-Held Sunphotometers for High School Student Construction and Measuring Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almonor, Linda; Baldwin, C.; Craig, R.; Johnson, L. P.

    2000-01-01

    Science education is taking the teaching of science from a traditional (lecture) approach to a multidimensional sense-making approach which allows teachers to support students by providing exploratory experiences. Using projects is one way of providing students with opportunities to observe and participate in sense-making activity. We created a learning environment that fostered inquiry-based learning. Students were engaged in a variety of Inquiry activities that enabled them to work in cooperative planning teams where respect for each other was encouraged and their ability to grasp, transform and transfer information was enhanced. Summer, 1998: An air pollution workshop was conducted for high school students in the Medgar Evers College/Middle College High School Liberty Partnership Summer Program. Students learned the basics of meteorology: structure and composition of the atmosphere and the processes that cause weather. The highlight of this workshop was the building of hand-held sunphotometers, which measure the intensity of the sunlight striking the Earth. Summer, 1999: high school students conducted a research project which measured the mass and size of ambient particulates and enhanced our ability to observe through land based measurements changes in the optical depth of ambient aerosols over Brooklyn. Students used hand held Sunphotometers to collect data over a two week period and entered it into the NASA GISS database by way of the internet.

  6. Fluorescence-enhanced imaging using a novel hand-held based optical imager: phantom studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jiajia; Zhu, Banghe; Regalado, Steven; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2008-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging is an emerging noninvasive modality for breast cancer diagnosis. The currently available optical imaging systems towards tomography studies are limited either by instrument portability, patient comfort, or flexibility to image any given tissue volume. Hence, a novel hand-held probe based gain modulated intensified CCD camera imaging system is developed such that it can possibly overcome some of the above limitations. The unique features of this hand-held probe based optical imaging system are: (i) to perform simultaneous multiple point illumination and detection, thus decreasing the total imaging time and improving overall signal strength; (ii) to adapt to the tissue contours, thus decreasing the light leakage at contact surface; and (iii) to obtain trans-illumination measurements apart from reflectance measurements, thus improving the depth information. Phantom studies are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of performing fluorescence optical imaging under different target depths using cubical phantoms (10×6.5×10 cc). The effect of simultaneous multiple point illumination over sequential single point illumination is demonstrated from experimental phantom studies.

  7. Similar motion of a hand-held object may trigger nonsimilar grip force adjustments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2007-01-01

    The tight coupling between load (L) and grip (G) forces during voluntary manipulation of a hand-held object is well established. The current study is to examine grip-load force coupling when motion of the hand with an object was either self-generated (voluntary) or externally generated. Subjects performed similar cyclic movements of different loads at various frequencies with three types of manipulations: 1) voluntary oscillation, 2) oscillating the right arm via the pulley system by the left leg (self-driven oscillation), and 3) oscillating the arm via the pulley system by another person (other-driven oscillation). During the self-generated movements: 1) the grip forces were larger and 2) grip-load force modulation was more pronounced than in the externally generated movements. The G-L adjustments are not completely determined by the mechanics of object motion; nonmechanical factors related to movement performance, for instance perceptual factors, may affect the G-L coupling.

  8. Application of computer image enhancement techniques to shuttle hand-held photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of frequent Space Transportation System Shuttle missions, photography from hyperaltitudes stands to become an accessible and convenient resource for scientists and environmental managers. As satellite products (such as LANDSAT) continue to spiral in costs, all but the most affluent consumer is finding Earth imagery from space to be more and more unavailable. Therefore, the potential for Shuttle photography to serve a wide variety of users is increasing. However, despite the popularity of photos from space as public relations tools and report illustrations, little work has been performed to prove their scientific worth beyond that as basic mapping bases. It is the hypothesis of this project that hand-held Earth photography from the Space Shuttle has potentially high scientific merit and that primary data can be extracted. In effect, Shuttle photography should be considered a major remote sensing information resource.

  9. Hand-held dual-sensor ALIS and its evaluation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2008-04-01

    Since 2002, our research group at Tohoku University has developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data afterwards, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the image of the buried objects. ALIS evaluation test was conducted in Croatia in October 2007. Then after, we stared a half-year evaluation test of ALIS in QC test in Croatia in December 2007. This test will be conducted in various soil and environmental conditions in Croatia.

  10. The Complimentary Role of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile and Hand-Held Gamma Probe in Adamantinoma.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Masha; Korowlay, Nisaar; Ellmann, Prof

    2016-01-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare locally aggressive osteolytic tumor that is found 90% of the time in the diaphysis of the tibia with the remaining lesions found in the fibula and long tubular bones. A case of adamantinoma of the tibia is presented. The added value of nuclear medicine investigations in the workup of this patient is described. A three-phase whole body (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone and a whole body (99m)Tc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile scans were complimentary in the demarcation of viable bone tumor and the assessment of the remainder of the bone and soft tissue to exclude other sites. Intra-operative assistance with a hand-held gamma probe, guided the biopsy of the most metabolically active tumor tissue. Histology revealed a biphasic tumor composed of epithelial and fibrous components, in keeping with an adamantinoma.

  11. The Complimentary Role of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile and Hand-Held Gamma Probe in Adamantinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Masha; Korowlay, Nisaar; Ellmann, Prof

    2016-01-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare locally aggressive osteolytic tumor that is found 90% of the time in the diaphysis of the tibia with the remaining lesions found in the fibula and long tubular bones. A case of adamantinoma of the tibia is presented. The added value of nuclear medicine investigations in the workup of this patient is described. A three-phase whole body 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone and a whole body 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile scans were complimentary in the demarcation of viable bone tumor and the assessment of the remainder of the bone and soft tissue to exclude other sites. Intra-operative assistance with a hand-held gamma probe, guided the biopsy of the most metabolically active tumor tissue. Histology revealed a biphasic tumor composed of epithelial and fibrous components, in keeping with an adamantinoma. PMID:26912979

  12. A hand-held 3D laser scanning with global positioning system of subvoxel precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Néstor; Meneses, Néstor; Meneses, Jaime; Gharbi, Tijani

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a hand-held 3D laser scanner composed of an optical head device to extract 3D local surface information and a stereo vision system with subvoxel precision to measure the position and orientation of the 3D optical head. The optical head is manually scanned over the surface object by the operator. The orientation and position of the 3D optical head is determined by a phase-sensitive method using a 2D regular intensity pattern. This phase reference pattern is rigidly fixed to the optical head and allows their 3D location with subvoxel precision in the observation field of the stereo vision system. The 3D resolution achieved by the stereo vision system is about 33 microns at 1.8 m with an observation field of 60cm x 60cm.

  13. Determining risk of heart disease and obesity with a hand-held programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Everett, W D

    1989-10-01

    Two sets of programs are presented which aid the practicing flight surgeon to quickly assess risk of cardiovascular disease or calculate percent body fat. Risk of cardiovascular disease is easily computed using the Framingham Risk Equation and relating it to the average risk and minimal risk of a patient the same age. A "cardiovascular age" is also computed. Body composition determinations can be done quickly using only circumference measurements and recognized military formulas. Confidence intervals about the estimate and U.S. Air Force maximum allowable weights are computed. For males a maximum weight for health is computed. The programs presented were written for a simple, hand-held calculator. The calculator was selected because it is portable, inexpensive, can be used in a small clinic anywhere in the world, and requires no computer expertise, bringing sophisticated research statistical methods to the everyday clinical practice of aerospace medicine.

  14. Cost effective spectral sensor solutions for hand held and field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reetz, Edgar; Correns, Martin; Notni, Gunther

    2015-05-01

    Optical spectroscopy is without doubt one of the most important non-contact measurement principles. It is used in a wide range of applications from bio-medical to industrial fields. One recent trend is to miniaturize spectral sensors to address new areas of application. The most common spectral sensor type is based on diffraction gratings, while other types are based on micro mechanical systems (MEMS) or filter technologies. The authors represent the opinion that there is a potentially wide spread field of applications for spectrometers, but the market limits the range of applications since they cannot keep up with targeted cost requirements for consumer products. The present article explains an alternative approach for miniature multichannel spectrometer to enhance robustness for hand held field applications at a cost efficient price point.

  15. Manometric evaluation of oral function with a hand-held balloon probe.

    PubMed

    Tsuga, K; Maruyama, M; Yoshikawa, M; Yoshida, M; Akagawa, Y

    2011-09-01

    Tongue pressure measured with a disposable hand-held balloon probe has been used for assessing tongue function; however, no diagnostic standard for assessing other oral functions exists currently. In this study, to develop a method for multifactorial manometric evaluation of oral functions, 20 men and 20 women (21-32 years of age) were instructed to apply 7-s maximal voluntary muscular effort on a hand-held balloon probe placed against the anterior and lateral parts of the palate, buccal surface of the molars on the habitual chewing side and labial surface of the anterior teeth for measuring anterior and posterior tongue, cheek and lip pressures (LPs), respectively. Intra-session reproducibility was determined by three repeated measurements, and associations between the obtained and the conventional data on oral diadochokinesis were tested. The men exhibited higher values of all the pressure types. Further, both genders showed a positive correlation between anterior and posterior tongue pressures (PTPs) (P < 0·05), but only the women exhibited positive correlations between anterior tongue and cheek pressures, cheek and PTPs, anterior tongue and LPs, and cheek and LPs (P < 0·05). No statistically significant correlation was found between the pressures and the number of syllabic articulations, except between LP and the number of /pa/ articulations in the women (r = 0·524, P < 0·05). In conclusion, the balloon probe method enables objective manometric evaluation of oral functions and could be an effective tool for clinical epidemiological studies and evidence-based decision-making in nursing care.

  16. An integrated portable hand-held analyser for real-time isothermal nucleic acid amplification.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew C; Steimle, George; Ivanov, Stan; Holly, Mark; Fries, David P

    2007-08-29

    A compact hand-held heated fluorometric instrument for performing real-time isothermal nucleic acid amplification and detection is described. The optoelectronic instrument combines a Printed Circuit Board/Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (PCB/MEMS) reaction detection/chamber containing an integrated resistive heater with attached miniature LED light source and photo-detector and a disposable glass waveguide capillary to enable a mini-fluorometer. The fluorometer is fabricated and assembled in planar geometry, rolled into a tubular format and packaged with custom control electronics to form the hand-held reactor. Positive or negative results for each reaction are displayed to the user using an LED interface. Reaction data is stored in FLASH memory for retrieval via an in-built USB connection. Operating on one disposable 3 V lithium battery >12, 60 min reactions can be performed. Maximum dimensions of the system are 150 mm (h) x 48 mm (d) x 40 mm (w), the total instrument weight (with battery) is 140 g. The system produces comparable results to laboratory instrumentation when performing a real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction, and also displayed comparable precision, accuracy and resolution to laboratory-based real-time nucleic acid amplification instrumentation. A good linear response (R2 = 0.948) to fluorescein gradients ranging from 0.5 to 10 microM was also obtained from the instrument indicating that it may be utilized for other fluorometric assays. This instrument enables an inexpensive, compact approach to in-field genetic screening, providing results comparable to laboratory equipment with rapid user feedback as to the status of the reaction.

  17. Detection of Francisella tularensis within infected mouse tissues by using a hand-held PCR thermocycler.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Peter A; Bell, Ryan; Dang, Jessica L; McClanahan, Rebecca; David, John C; Burgess, Robert J; Thompson, Joseph; Collins, Lisa; Hadfield, Ted

    2003-02-01

    The diagnosis of human cases of tularemia often relies upon the demonstration of an antibody response to Francisella tularensis or the direct culturing of the bacteria from the patient. Antibody response is not detectable until 2 weeks or more after infection, and culturing requires special media and suspicion of tularemia. In addition, handling live Francisella poses a risk to laboratory personnel due to the highly infectious nature of this pathogen. In an effort to develop a rapid diagnostic assay for tularemia, we investigated the use of TaqMan 5' hydrolysis fluorogenic PCR to detect the organism in tissues of infected mice. Mice were infected to produce respiratory tularemia. The fopA and tul4 genes of F. tularensis were amplified from infected spleen, lung, liver, and kidney tissues sampled over a 5-day period. The samples were analyzed using the laboratory-based Applied Biosystems International 7900 and the Smiths Detection-Edgewood BioSeeq, a hand-held portable fluorescence thermocycler designed for use in the field. A comparison of culturing and PCR for detection of bacteria in infected tissues shows that culturing was more sensitive than PCR. However, the results for culture take 72 h, whereas PCR results were available within 4 h. PCR was able to detect infection in all the tissues tested. Lung tissue showed the earliest response at 2 days when tested with the ABI 7900 and in 3 days when tested with the BioSeeq. The results were in agreement between the ABI 7900 and the BioSeeq when presented with the same sample. Template preparation may account for the loss of sensitivity compared to culturing techniques. The hand-held BioSeeq thermocycler shows promise as an expedient means of forward diagnosis of infection in the field.

  18. Haemoassist--a hand-held electronic patient diary for haemophilia home care.

    PubMed

    Mondorf, W; Siegmund, B; Mahnel, R; Richter, H; Westfeld, M; Galler, A; Pollmann, H

    2009-03-01

    On-demand or prophylactic home-treatment is currently the treatment of choice for haemophilia patients. To allow physicians to monitor the amount of factor concentrates administered, the patients document each factor injection in a paper-diary. Nevertheless, because of the fact that most patients visit their physicians only two to four times a year, there could be considerable delay in detecting medication problems. The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether an electronic documentation tool could successfully replace traditional paper-diaries for haemophilia A patients and enable the physician to have a timely overview of the patient's treatment. An electronic, hand-held documentation tool, Haemoassist, was developed. In this study, patients using prophylaxis and on-demand therapies documented their factor consumption both electronically and on paper-diaries. Documentations were compared and descriptively evaluated. Patients also completed a survey to evaluate the feasibility and gather their opinions on the Haemoassist system. Ten patients from two haemophilia treatment centres in Germany submitted a total of 548 records via hand-held device during the observation period, from March 2006 to February 2007. Comparison of electronic and paper-based records showed differing responses among patients with some patients entering more electronic and some others more paper-based documentations. In the questionnaires on feasibility and usefulness of Haemoassist, three patients preferred the electronic tool, two patients wanted to continue using paper-based diaries, and one had no preference. The study shows that an electronic documentation system is feasible for haemophilia patients and provides the physician with the opportunity to more closely monitor patients. However, not all patients seem to be qualified for using an electronic tool, and the tool has to run reliably without major errors for ensuring reliability and acceptability. In the future, Haemoassist might

  19. Microtops II Hand-Held Sun Photometer Sun Pointing Error Correction for Sea Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Pietras, C.; Fargion, G. S.

    2001-12-01

    Hand held sun photometers, such as the Microtops II (manufactured by Solar Light, Inc.), provide simple and inexpensive means to measure in situ Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT). Hand held sun photometers require that the user manually points the instrument at the sun. Unstable platforms, such as a ship at sea, can make this difficult, causing pointing errors. A poorly pointed instrument mistakenly records less than the full direct solar radiance, so the computed AOT is much higher than reality, and can be mistaken as cloud contamination or used incorrectly for validation with satellite derived AOT measurements. The relatively low sampling rate (3Hz) of the Microtops II leaves this instrument especially prone to this problem. Two steps were taken to reduce pointing errors. First, the measurement protocol was changed to keep the maximum (rather than average) value of a sequence of measurements. Several sets of these sequences are made for each intended data point. Once on shore, statistics are computed for each group of measurements. If the normalized variance of a group is above a threshold, the highest AOT measurement is discarded as a pointing error. The normalized variance is then recalculated. This is repeated until the normalized variance is reduced below the threshold or the number of points becomes too small to calculate variance. Several versions of this protocol were tested on a recent California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) cruise, and a post processing algorithm was developed to remove pointing errors. These results were compared to concurrent measurements using the old protocol. Finally, a separate post processing algorithm was created for data already gathered with the old protocol, based upon statistics calculated by the instrument at the time of capture.

  20. Comparative assessment of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measured using a hand-held vs. isokinetic dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48−0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75−0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2–4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from −0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option. PMID:27799667

  1. A new hand-held optical reflectometer to measure enamel erosion: correlation with surface hardness and calcium release.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Baumann, Tommy; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-04-28

    In the present study, the surface reflection intensity (SRI) was measured from enamel with different induced erosion degrees using a hand-held pen-size reflectometer (Hand-Held) and a Table-Top reflectometer. To validate the Hand-Held reflectometer, we correlated its optical signals with the change of surface microhardness (SMH), and amount of calcium released from the enamel samples during erosion. We used 124 tooth enamel specimens that were exposed to an erosive challenge of either 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 minutes. SRI and SMH were measured before and after the erosive challenge and we also measured the amount of calcium released to the citric acid. Relative SRI loss (rSRIloss) and relative SMH loss (rSMHloss) were calculated. rSRIloss from the Hand-Held and the Table-Top reflectometers were similar and significantly correlated to rSMHloss and calcium release. The regression analyses showed a significant association between rSRIloss from both reflectometers and rSMHloss and calcium, showing that both reflectometers can be used to measure erosive demineralization of enamel. The Hand-Held reflectometer is capable of assessing in vitro erosion, correlating to other commonly used methods. It is small, easy to handle and provides fast measurement, being a possible candidate to measure erosion in clinical studies.

  2. Comparative assessment of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measured using a hand-held vs. isokinetic dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75-0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2-4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from -0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option.

  3. A new hand-held optical reflectometer to measure enamel erosion: correlation with surface hardness and calcium release

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Baumann, Tommy; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the surface reflection intensity (SRI) was measured from enamel with different induced erosion degrees using a hand-held pen-size reflectometer (Hand-Held) and a Table-Top reflectometer. To validate the Hand-Held reflectometer, we correlated its optical signals with the change of surface microhardness (SMH), and amount of calcium released from the enamel samples during erosion. We used 124 tooth enamel specimens that were exposed to an erosive challenge of either 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 minutes. SRI and SMH were measured before and after the erosive challenge and we also measured the amount of calcium released to the citric acid. Relative SRI loss (rSRIloss) and relative SMH loss (rSMHloss) were calculated. rSRIloss from the Hand-Held and the Table-Top reflectometers were similar and significantly correlated to rSMHloss and calcium release. The regression analyses showed a significant association between rSRIloss from both reflectometers and rSMHloss and calcium, showing that both reflectometers can be used to measure erosive demineralization of enamel. The Hand-Held reflectometer is capable of assessing in vitro erosion, correlating to other commonly used methods. It is small, easy to handle and provides fast measurement, being a possible candidate to measure erosion in clinical studies. PMID:27121129

  4. Reliability and validity of standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Koji; Yoshio, Masaharu; Takata, Yuichi; Kozuka, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of our standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer (the hand-held dynamometer assessment index) in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 60 stroke patients with impaired standing balance. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were evaluated employing the intraclass correlation coefficient. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between the HHD assessment index and the functional balance scale. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient values obtained ranged from 0.91 to 0.98, and the correlation coefficient with the FBS was 0.83. [Conclusion] Our findings confirmed the reliability and validity of the hand-held dynamometer assessment index in stroke patients. PMID:27942140

  5. From usability requirement to technical specifications for hand-held tools and materials: an applied research in the construction field.

    PubMed

    Duca, Gabriella; Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    Literature shows incidence of musculoskeletal disorders in bricklaying workers as well as the relevance of good designed hand-held tools in musculoskeletal disorders prevention. In this framework, it can be supposed that providing usable hand-held tools and material in construction worksites will help to improve bricklayers' working conditions. Here a study is presented aimed at framing a methodology for usability assessment of bricklayers handled objects, in order to provide employers with practical indicators for choosing tools and materials best fitting workers needs, under the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction perspective. On the basis of a task analysis, usability requirements for bricklaying hand-held tools and materials have been detailed and related, quantitative and qualitative, technical specifications have been elicited. Theoretical framework and usability assessment methodology are presented and, finally, findings from a field application are discussed.

  6. Reliability and validity of standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Koji; Yoshio, Masaharu; Takata, Yuichi; Kozuka, Naoki

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of our standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer (the hand-held dynamometer assessment index) in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 60 stroke patients with impaired standing balance. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were evaluated employing the intraclass correlation coefficient. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the HHD assessment index and the functional balance scale. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient values obtained ranged from 0.91 to 0.98, and the correlation coefficient with the FBS was 0.83. [Conclusion] Our findings confirmed the reliability and validity of the hand-held dynamometer assessment index in stroke patients.

  7. Simple hand-held metal detectors are an effective means of detecting cardiac pacemakers in the deceased prior to cremation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jason Lyle; Williams, John; Fearn, Lesley

    2010-05-01

    The hazard of undetected cardiac pacemakers exploding in crematoria is well described. This short report describes the use of an affordable hand-held metal detector to detect cardiac pacemakers. Over the course of a year, the metal detector located 100% of cardiac pacemakers in a district general hospital mortuary. A simple model using pigskin and fat is also used to demonstrate the effectiveness in vitro. Commercially purchased hand-held metal detectors should be used in all mortuaries responsible for detection and removal of cardiac pacemakers prior to cremation.

  8. Test and Evaluation of the MT 75 Rope Tester - A Hand-Held NDT Wire-Rope Inspection Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    CLASSIFICAION or TMIS *iGIR(mh Dae Enteind) Library Card Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory TEST AND EVALUATION OF THlE MT 75 ROPE TESTER - I AND-HELD NDT ...programs. MT 75 ROPE TESTER The NT 75 is a hand-held NDT wire rope inspection device that uses the DC method of detection. The NT 75 is 6 inches long...TN NO: N-1661 TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE MT 75 TITLE: ROPE TESTER - A HAND-HELD NDT WIRE- ROPE INSPECTION DEVICE J: AD A12 h 79 0 AUTHOR: L. D

  9. Initial Usability Testing of a Hand-held Electronic Logbook Prototype for the Human Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Andrea H.; Whitmore, Mihriban

    1996-01-01

    The Apple(R) Newton(TM) MessagePad 110 was flown aboard the KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft for microgravity usability testing. The Newton served as the initial hand-held electronic logbook prototype for the International Space Station (ISS) Human Research Facility (HRF). Subjects performed three different tasks with the Newton: (1) using the stylus to tap on different sections of the screen in order to launch an application and to select options within it; (2) using the stylus to write, and; (3) correcting handwriting recognition errors in a handwriting-intensive application. Subjects rated handwriting in microgravity 'Borderline' and had great difficulties finding a way in which to adequately restrain themselves at the lower body in order to have their hands free for the Newton. Handwriting recognition was rated 'Unacceptable,' but this issue is hardware-related and not unique to the microgravity environment. It is suggested that the restraint and handwriting issues are related and require further joint research with the current Handheld Electronic Logbook prototype: the Norand Pen*key Model #6300.

  10. InfraCAM (trade mark): A Hand-Held Commercial Infrared Camera Modified for Spaceborne Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manitakos, Daniel; Jones, Jeffrey; Melikian, Simon

    1996-01-01

    In 1994, Inframetrics introduced the InfraCAM(TM), a high resolution hand-held thermal imager. As the world's smallest, lightest and lowest power PtSi based infrared camera, the InfraCAM is ideal for a wise range of industrial, non destructive testing, surveillance and scientific applications. In addition to numerous commercial applications, the light weight and low power consumption of the InfraCAM make it extremely valuable for adaptation to space borne applications. Consequently, the InfraCAM has been selected by NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for use as part of the DARTFire (Diffusive and Radiative Transport in Fires) space borne experiment. In this experiment, a solid fuel is ignited in a low gravity environment. The combustion period is recorded by both visible and infrared cameras. The infrared camera measures the emission from polymethyl methacrylate, (PMMA) and combustion products in six distinct narrow spectral bands. Four cameras successfully completed all qualification tests at Inframetrics and at NASA Lewis. They are presently being used for ground based testing in preparation for space flight in the fall of 1995.

  11. Real-time image mosaicing with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewke, Kevin; Camarillo, David; Piyawattanametha, Wibool; Breeden, David; Salisbury, Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in using confocal microscopy to observe tissue structure and function for in vivo pathology. Although confocal microscopy can provide image resolution that is comparable to histopathology, it can be limited by a small field-of-view as well as a low signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper we show that image mosaicing can enhance confocal microscopy by stitching multiple images together to widen the field-of-view and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Specifically, we present a real-time image mosaicing system for imaging human skin with a hand-held dual-axes confocal microscope. Our system allows the user to "paint" an image mosaic in real-time and aids navigation by localizing the current view with respect to the larger image map. We first discuss image calibration, then describe an efficient algorithm for real-time image mosaicing, and finally present experimental results obtained in vivo with a dual-axes confocal microscope.

  12. The evaluation test of hand-held dual-sensor ALIS in Croatia and Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2007-04-01

    We are developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data after the data was acquired, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the images of the buried objects. Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted in several test sites. In February 2006, a one-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia, and in October- December 2006, a two-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia. Since the dual-sensor is a new landmine detection sensor, and the conventional evaluation procedure developed for metal detectors cannot directly be applied for the dual sensor. In Croatia, the detection probability was comparable to that by a metal detector operated by local deminers. In addition, we showed that ALIS provides image of buried objects by GPR, which can be used for identification. Therefore, their performances were sufficiently high. Then the test was also conducted in Cambodia. The test was carried out by 2 local deminers independently, which allows studying the influence of different operators and increases the statistical value of the results.

  13. The development of the hand-held dual-sensor ALIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2007-04-01

    Since 2002, we have developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data afterwards, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the image of the buried objects. The new system, we do not need any standard mark on the ground. Also, ALIS uses two different GPOR systems, including VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) based GPR and an Impulse GPR. VNA based GPR can provide better quality GPR images, although the impulse GPR is faster and light weight. ALIS evaluation tests were held in mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan, Croatia, Egypt and Cambodia. In the two-month evaluation test in Cambodia, ALIS worked without any problem. After some demonstrations and evaluation, we got many useful suggestions. Using these advises, we have modified the ALIS and it is now more easy to use. ALIS will be commercialized in 2007.

  14. Three-dimensional multispectral hand-held optoacoustic imaging with microsecond-level delayed laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. L.; Bay, Erwin; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional hand-held optoacoustic imaging comes with important advantages that prompt the clinical translation of this modality, with applications envisioned in cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease, disorders of the lymphatic system, breast cancer, arthritis or inflammation. Of particular importance is the multispectral acquisition of data by exciting the tissue at several wavelengths, which enables functional imaging applications. However, multispectral imaging of entire three-dimensional regions is significantly challenged by motion artefacts in concurrent acquisitions at different wavelengths. A method based on acquisition of volumetric datasets having a microsecond-level delay between pulses at different wavelengths is described in this work. This method can avoid image artefacts imposed by a scanning velocity greater than 2 m/s, thus, does not only facilitate imaging influenced by respiratory, cardiac or other intrinsic fast movements in living tissues, but can achieve artifact-free imaging in the presence of more significant motion, e.g., abrupt displacements during handheld-mode operation in a clinical environment.

  15. Clinical S-cone ERG recording with a commercial hand-held full-field stimulator.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Michael F; Cabael, Lorella; Shukla, Shefalee; Hwang, John C; Marcus, Mira

    2004-07-01

    Our purpose was to explore S-cone ERG protocols for a commercial full-field hand-held stimulator that contains colored LEDs, and to see whether the test would be useful as a part of routine ERG testing. S-cone responses were elicited by blue flashes over a longer-wavelength background. With the standard stimulator containing blue (461 nm), green (513 nm) and red (652 nm) LEDs, we were unable to obtain satisfactory responses. Reproducible S-cone ERGs were obtained with a stimulator that had been custom-fitted with shorter-wavelength blue (440 nm) LEDs for stimulation, and orange (590 nm) LEDs for background adaptation. S-cone responses took only a few minutes to record, and the typical waveform showed a slow peak at 45-50 ms with amplitude 3-9 microV, but ranging from 0 microV to more than 10 microV. Larger waves appeared in a patient with enhanced S-cone syndrome. S-cone responses could also be obtained with an alternating blue-orange flicker protocol. We added the S-cone response to our regular ERG protocol for a number of months. Although most normal subjects and patients showed recognizable S-cone responses with this stimulator, the amplitudes were small and there was too much variability to make the technique effective for routine clinical testing. In general, the S-cone responses followed the standard cone ERG responses in disease.

  16. Hand-Held Instrument Fights Acne, Tops Over-the-Counter Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tyrell Inc., a Houston-based medical technologies company, was able to access engineering support in redesigning a heating element for a hand-held acne-fighting device through SATOP, NASA's Space Alliance Technology Outreach Program. SATOP put Tyrell in contact with The Boeing Company, which assessed the design and made several major contributions. The product, named Zeno, is now the highest selling over-the-counter medical device for the treatment of acne, and in 2006, Zeno was named the "SATOP Texas, Success Story of the Year." Zeno employs proprietary ClearPoint technology to provide relief of mild to moderate inflammatory acne by delivering a precisely controlled low-level dosage of heat to the blemish, causing the bacteria at the root of more than 90 percent of acne to self-destruct. Within its first year on the market, Zeno was cited by various publications for several awards, including Allure's 2005 "Best of Beauty," Marie Claire's "10 Best Gadgets for Girls," and Popular Science's 2005 "Best of What's New." A variation of the Zeno for use in treating herpetic lesions such as cold sores, by killing the virus that causes them, is currently undergoing FDA trials.

  17. Background adaptive division filtering for hand-held ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Matthew A.; Anderson, Derek T.; Ball, John E.; White, Julie L.

    2016-05-01

    The challenge in detecting explosive hazards is that there are multiple types of targets buried at different depths in a highlycluttered environment. A wide array of target and clutter signatures exist, which makes detection algorithm design difficult. Such explosive hazards are typically deployed in past and present war zones and they pose a grave threat to the safety of civilians and soldiers alike. This paper focuses on a new image enhancement technique for hand-held ground penetrating radar (GPR). Advantages of the proposed technique is it runs in real-time and it does not require the radar to remain at a constant distance from the ground. Herein, we evaluate the performance of the proposed technique using data collected from a U.S. Army test site, which includes targets with varying amounts of metal content, placement depths, clutter and times of day. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve-based results are presented for the detection of shallow, medium and deeply buried targets. Preliminary results are very encouraging and they demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed filtering technique.

  18. 3D indoor modeling using a hand-held embedded system with multiple laser range scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Wang, Duhu; Xu, Shike

    2016-10-01

    Accurate three-dimensional perception is a key technology for many engineering applications, including mobile mapping, obstacle detection and virtual reality. In this article, we present a hand-held embedded system designed for constructing 3D representation of structured indoor environments. Different from traditional vehicle-borne mobile mapping methods, the system presented here is capable of efficiently acquiring 3D data while an operator carrying the device traverses through the site. It consists of a simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) module, a 3D attitude estimate module and a point cloud processing module. The SLAM is based on a scan matching approach using a modern LIDAR system, and the 3D attitude estimate is generated by a navigation filter using inertial sensors. The hardware comprises three 2D time-flight laser range finders and an inertial measurement unit(IMU). All the sensors are rigidly mounted on a body frame. The algorithms are developed on the frame of robot operating system(ROS). The 3D model is constructed using the point cloud library(PCL). Multiple datasets have shown robust performance of the presented system in indoor scenarios.

  19. Hand-held percussion machines with low emission of hazardous vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I. J.; Babitsky, V. I.; Halliwell, N. A.

    2007-09-01

    Vibration and impacts are essential features of many domestic and industrial hand-held machines. In many machines vibration cannot be avoided because of the vibro-impact nature of the working process. The only way to minimise an operator's exposure to harmful vibration in this case is to design the machine rationally. In this paper a percussion machine is considered as a multi-body vibro-impact system. The simplest structures have been found and investigated in which a strong vibro-impact process can be obtained with one body (casing/handle) being free of vibration. Computer simulations using Matlab-Simulink software and initial experiments validate the new approach. The main feature of the proposed new design is the use of a mechanism with zero differential stiffness. A hydro-pneumatic unit with zero stiffness was developed and tested. The new engineering solution was applied to a hydraulic breaker. Even a partial modification of the existing design and effective use of existing hydraulic power source demonstrated a significant improvement in performance.

  20. A test rig for the measurement of vibration in hand-held power tools.

    PubMed

    Hansson, J E; Kihlberg, S

    1983-03-01

    The purpose of the present project was to study the possibility of using a test rig for the measurement of vibration and noise from hand-held power tools. A test rig was designed to give the same effect on tool handle vibration as the human hand/arm system. Work was simulated by feeding the material to be processed against the tool, clamped into the rig, with the aid of a co-ordinate table. It was designed for use in studies of impact drills, chain saws, grinders and similar power tools. The report describes a proposal for testing the vibration properties of impact drills. Drilling with the test rig was compared with manual drilling. The difference in the acceleration level between the two methods was about 1 dB for ISO-weighted values in the critical direction. Both methods showed good reproducibility. The possibility of conducting noise level tests of a power tool in the rig was studied and the results are reported separately.

  1. Microchip separations of protein biotoxins using an integrated hand-held device.

    PubMed

    Fruetel, Julia A; Renzi, Ronald F; Vandernoot, Victoria A; Stamps, James; Horn, Brent A; West, Jay A A; Ferko, Scott; Crocker, Robert; Bailey, Christopher G; Arnold, Don; Wiedenman, Boyd; Choi, Wen-Yee; Yee, Daniel; Shokair, Isaac; Hasselbrink, Ernest; Paul, Philip; Rakestraw, David; Padgen, Debbie

    2005-03-01

    We report the development of a hand-held instrument capable of performing two simultaneous microchip separations (gel and zone electrophoresis), and demonstrate this instrument for the detection of protein biotoxins. Two orthogonal analysis methods are chosen over a single method in order to improve the probability of positive identification of the biotoxin in an unknown mixture. Separations are performed on a single fused-silica wafer containing two separation channels. The chip is housed in a microfluidic manifold that utilizes o-ring sealed fittings to enable facile and reproducible fluidic connection to the chip. Sample is introduced by syringe injection into a septum-sealed port on the device exterior that connects to a sample loop etched onto the chip. Detection of low nanomolar concentrations of fluorescamine-labeled proteins is achieved using a miniaturized laser-induced fluorescence detection module employing two diode lasers, one per separation channel. Independently controlled miniature high-voltage power supplies enable fully programmable electrokinetic sample injection and analysis. As a demonstration of the portability of this instrument, we evaluated its performance in a laboratory field test at the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory with a series of biotoxin variants. The two separation methods cleanly distinguish between members of a biotoxin test set. Analysis of naturally occurring variants of ricin and two closely related staphylococcal enterotoxins indicates the two methods can be used to readily identify ricin in its different forms and can discriminate between two enterotoxin isoforms.

  2. Guiding brain tumor resection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles and a hand-held Raman scanner.

    PubMed

    Karabeber, Hazem; Huang, Ruimin; Iacono, Pasquale; Samii, Jason M; Pitter, Ken; Holland, Eric C; Kircher, Moritz F

    2014-10-28

    The current difficulty in visualizing the true extent of malignant brain tumors during surgical resection represents one of the major reasons for the poor prognosis of brain tumor patients. Here, we evaluated the ability of a hand-held Raman scanner, guided by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, to identify the microscopic tumor extent in a genetically engineered RCAS/tv-a glioblastoma mouse model. In a simulated intraoperative scenario, we tested both a static Raman imaging device and a mobile, hand-held Raman scanner. We show that SERS image-guided resection is more accurate than resection using white light visualization alone. Both methods complemented each other, and correlation with histology showed that SERS nanoparticles accurately outlined the extent of the tumors. Importantly, the hand-held Raman probe not only allowed near real-time scanning, but also detected additional microscopic foci of cancer in the resection bed that were not seen on static SERS images and would otherwise have been missed. This technology has a strong potential for clinical translation because it uses inert gold-silica SERS nanoparticles and a hand-held Raman scanner that can guide brain tumor resection in the operating room.

  3. Bedside calculation of hemodynamic parameters with a hand-held programmable calculator. Part I.: Choice of hemodynamic formulas.

    PubMed

    Laurent, M

    1980-01-01

    Currently used hemodynamic and oxygen transport formulas are reviewed in order to chose the shortest form compatible with an optimal clinical accuracy. Programming of hand held calculators with these selected equations spares steps available in the program memory. (Acta anaesth. belg., 1980, 31, 45-52).

  4. An embedded system developed for hand held assay used in water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin; Wang, Jianwei; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Hsueh, Mingkai; Liu, Jonathan; Wu, Qufei; Wu, Chao-Cheng; Cao, Mang; Chang, Chein-I.; Jensen, Janet L.; Jensen, James O.; Knapp, Harlan; Daniel, Robert; Yin, Ray

    2005-11-01

    The US Army Joint Service Agent Water Monitor (JSAWM) program is currently interested in an approach that can implement a hardware- designed device in ticket-based hand-held assay (currently being developed) used for chemical/biological agent detection. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the proof of concept. Three components are envisioned to accomplish the task. One is the ticket development which has been undertaken by the ANP, Inc. Another component is the software development which has been carried out by the Remote Sensing Signal and Image Processing Laboratory (RSSIPL) at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). A third component is an embedded system development which can be used to drive the UMBC-developed software to analyze the ANP-developed HHA tickets on a small pocket-size device like a PDA. The main focus of this paper is to investigate the third component that is viable and is yet to be explored. In order to facilitate to prove the concept, a flatbed scanner is used to replace a ticket reader to serve as an input device. The Stargate processor board is used as the embedded System with Embedded Linux installed. It is connected to an input device such as scanner as well as output devices such as LCD display or laptop etc. It executes the C-Coded processing program developed for this embedded system and outputs its findings on a display device. The embedded system to be developed and investigated in this paper is the core of a future hardware device. Several issues arising in such an embedded system will be addressed. Finally, the proof-of-concept pilot embedded system will be demonstrated.

  5. Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, William H.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned that consumer exposure to asbestos from consumer products may present an unreasonable risk of injury. Recently, CPSC has obtained agreement by industry to cease production and distribution of hair dryers containing asbestos heat insulation. CPSC intends to broaden its investigation by selecting consumer products containing asbestos for “priority attention.” The Commission does not intend to make quantitative estimates of cancer risks posed by exposure to asbestos fibers in making regulatory decisions. This position may lead to a serious waste of resources for the Commission, industry, and society. The Commission should focus its initial attention on those products for which the release of asbestos is significant enough to cause an unreasonable health risk. To make a risk assessment for a particular use of asbestos, CPSC must acquire or request data on asbestos emissions and define “unreasonable risk to health.” In an attempt to give some meaning to the phrase “risk assessment,” the primary goal of this paper is to present a detailed risk assessment of exposure to asbestos from hand-held hair dryers. Several scenarios of use are presented using various assumptions regarding time of operation, mixing of fibers in a small room, rate of fiber emission, and time of exposure. The worst case analysis of the health risk of exposure to hair dryer emissions is based on several conservative assumptions and shows that the increased number of deaths per year due to respiratory cancer is 4 for the entire United States population. A more representative case analysis shows the increased number of deaths to be on the order of 0.15 per year.

  6. Radioisotope guided surgery with imaging probe, a hand-held high-resolution gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluri, A.; Trotta, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Tofani, A.; D'Alessandria, C.; Pasta, V.; Stella, S.; Massari, R.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1997, our group of Physics together with Nuclear Physicians studies imaging probes (IP), hand-held, high-resolution gamma cameras for radio-guided surgery (RGS). Present work is aimed to verify the usefulness of two updated IP in different surgical operations. Forty patients scheduled for breast cancer sentinel node (SN) biopsy, five patients with nodal recurrence of thyroid cancer, seven patients with parathyroid adenomas, five patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET), were operated under the guide of IP. We used two different IP with field of view of 1 and 4 in. 2, respectively and intrinsic spatial resolution of about 2 mm. Radioisotopes were 99mTc, 123I and 111In. The 1 in. 2 IP detected SN in all the 40 patients and more than one node in 24, whereas anger camera (AC) failed locating SN in four patients and detected true positive second nodes in only nine patients. The 4 in. 2 IP was used for RGS of thyroid, parathyroid and NETs. It detected eight latero-cervical nodes. In the same patients, AC detected five invaded nodes. Parathyroid adenomas detected by IP were 10 in 7 patients, NET five in five patients. One and 4 in. 2 IPs showed usefulness in all operations. Initial studies on SN biopsy were carried out on small series of patients to validate IP and to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of IP alone or against conventional probes. We propose the use of the IP as control method for legal documentation and surgeon strategy guide before and after lesion(s) removal.

  7. Application of hand-held mobility spectrometers as sensors in manufacturing industries

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, Graeme

    1998-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) are small, lightweight, extremely robust devices with low power requirements, no moving parts, no absolute requirement for gases or vacuums, that can be operated at ambient temperatures and pressures, and yet are capable of measuring vapour phase concentrations of organic chemicals at very low levels (sub-μg/l). IMS are capable of analysing complex mixtures and producing a simple spectral output. Volatile components produce measurable negative and positive product ions in the spectrometer through chemical ionization. The spectra produced are essentially the vapour phase fingerprints of the target molecules/mixture. Quantitative data can be obtained provided instrument response is within the linear dynamic range of these instruments, but most practical applications of IMS have used the technology in a qualitative manner in situations which require just an above/below threshold or positive/ negative response. In the manufacturing industry there are many examples where the aroma/odour of raw materials has safety or product quality implications. IMS was not developed to replace traditional methods of analysis, e.g. GC/MS or sensory panels, but rather to provide a rapid, qualitative response complementary to more established methods. This paper reports on the use of a hand-held ion mobility spectrometer to characterize the vapours produced by volatile organic compounds,fresh herbs and retail spice mixtures at ambient temperature and pressure. The results show that by monitoring in both ion acquisition modes, ion mobility spectrometers are capable of discriminating between a wide range of products. PMID:18924815

  8. Moving a hand-held object: Reconstruction of referent coordinate and apparent stiffness trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Ambike, Satyajit; Zhou, Tao; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    This study used the framework of the referent configuration hypothesis and slow changes in the external conditions during vertical oscillation of a hand-held object to infer the characteristics of hypothetical control variables. The study had two main objectives: (1) to show that hypothetical control variables, namely, referent coordinates and apparent stiffness of vertical hand position and grip force can be measured in an experiment; and (2) to establish relation(s) between these control variables that yield the classic grip-force-load-force coupling. Healthy subjects gripped a handle and performed vertical oscillations between visual targets at one of five metronome-prescribed frequencies. A Hapticmaster robot was used to induce slow changes in the vertical force applied to the handle, while the size of the handle was changed slowly leading to changes in the grip aperture. The subjects were instructed not to react to possible changes in the external forces. A linear, second-order model was used to reconstruct the referent coordinate and apparent stiffness values for each phase of the vertical oscillation cycle using across-cycle regressions. The reconstructed time profiles of the referent coordinates and apparent stiffness showed consistent trends across subjects and movement frequencies. To validate the method, these values were used to predict the vertical force and the grip force applied to the handle for movement cycles that were not utilized in the reconstruction process. Analysis of the coupling between the four variables, two referent coordinates and two apparent stiffness values, revealed a single strong constraint reflecting the coupling between the grip force and vertical force. We view these data as providing experimental support for the idea of controlling natural, multi-muscle actions with shifts in a low-dimensional set of referent coordinates. PMID:25896800

  9. Effectiveness of a hand-held fan for breathlessness: a randomised phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breathlessness is common and distressing in advanced disease. This phase II study aimed to determine the use and acceptance of a hand-held fan (HHF) to relieve breathlessness, to test the effectiveness of the HHF and to evaluate the recruitment into the study. Methods RCT embedded within a longitudinal study testing a HHF over time compared to a wristband. Patients were included in the longitudinal study when suffering from breathlessness due to advanced cancer or COPD III/IV and could opt in the RCT. Primary outcome was use of the HHF and the wristband after two months. Secondary outcomes were recruitment into the trial and change of breathlessness severity after two months, measured on the modified Borg scale. Baseline data were collected in a personal interview and follow-up data by monthly postal questionnaires. Results 109 patients were recruited in the longitudinal study of which 70 patients (64%) participated in the RCT. Non-participants had statistically significant less breathlessness (Borg mean 2.6 (SD 1.48) versus 3.7 (SD 1.83); p = 0.003) and a better functional status (Karnofsky status mean 61.9 (SD 11.2) versus 66.7 (SD 11.0); p = 0.03). Attrition due to drop out or death was high in both groups. After two months, about half of the patients used the HHF but only 20% the wristband without a statistical difference (Fisher's exact test p = 0.2). 9/16 patients judged the HHF as helpful after two months and 4/5 patients the wristband. There was no difference in mean breathlessness change scores between the HHF (Borg change score: mean 0.6 (SD 2.10)) and the wristband (mean 0.8 (SD 2.67)) after two months (p = 0.90). Conclusions Symptom burden and low functional status did not restrain patients from participation in the study. Finding a control for a visible intervention is challenging and needs careful consideration to what is acceptable to patients. The preliminary evidence of effectiveness of the HHF could not be proved. Patients often stopped

  10. Continuing Measurements of CO2 Crystals with a Hand-Held 35 GHz Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J.; Chang, A.; Hall, D.; Tait, A.; Wergin, W.; Erbe, E.

    2000-01-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of the Martian polar caps, an improved understanding of the behavior of both frozen H2O and CO2 in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is needed. The thermal microwave part of the spectrum has received relatively little attention compared to the visible and infrared wavelengths. A simple experiment to measure the brightness temperature of frozen CO2 was first performed in the winter of 1998 using a 35 GHz radiometer. in experiments performed during the winter of 1999 and 2000, passive microwave radiation emanating from within layers of manufactured CO2 (dry ice) crystals was again measured with a 35 GHz handheld radiometer. Both large (0.8 cm) and small (0.3 cm) cylindrical-shaped dry ice pellets, at a temperature of 197 K (-76 C), were measured. A 1 sq m plate of aluminum sheet metal was positioned beneath the dry ice so that microwave emissions from the underlying soil layers would be minimized. Non-absorbing foam was positioned around the sides of the plate in order to keep the dry ice in place and to assure that the incremental deposits were level. Thirty-five GHz measurements of this plate were made through the dry ice deposits in the following way. Layers of dry ice were built up and measurements were repeated for the increasing CO2 pack. First, 7 cm of large CO2 pellets were poured onto the sheet metal plate, then an additional 7 cm were added, and finally, 12 cm were added on top of the 14 cm base. Hand-held 35 GHz measurements were made each time the thickness of the deposit was increased. The same process was repeated for the smaller grain pellets. Furthermore, during the past winter, 35 GHz measurements were taken of a 25 kg (27 cm x 27 cm x 27 cm) solid cube Of CO2, which was cut in half and then re-measured. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Reliability of measurements of hip abduction strength obtained with a hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Ieiri, Akira; Tushima, Eiki; Ishida, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Masahiro; Kanno, Taiki; Masuda, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate intrarater and interrater reliability when measuring hip abductor strength in the supine position using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) (Study 1), and to elucidate the relationships between measured values and examiners' physical characteristics (Study 2). Three healthy examiners (1 female, 24 y.o. and 2 males 23 and 27 y.o) and 12 subjects (6 females, 24.5 ± 2.8 years and 6 males, 27.7 ± 3.5 years) participated in Study 1, and 20 healthy examiners (7 females, 22.3 ± 1.3 years and 13 males, 29.4 ± 8.2 years) and 2 subjects (1 female, 24 y.o. and 1 male 27 y.o) participated in Study 2. All healthy examiners were hospital employees. Hip abductor strength was measured by HHD with hand fixation and with belt fixation, and examiner age, sex, height, weight, BMI, and dominant hand grip strength were evaluated. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (1,1), a measure of intrarater reliability, was 0.89-0.95 with hand fixation and 0.96-0.97 with belt fixation. ICC (2,1), a measure of interrater reliability, was 0.76-0.79 and 0.90-0.93, respectively. In subjects with high muscle strength (the examiner's hand was moved), the examiner's dominant hand grip strength affected muscle strength values with hand fixation (standardized partial regression coefficient = 0.78, determination coefficient R(2 )= 0.61, p < 0.01). In subjects with low muscle strength (the examiner's hand was not moved), no variables had effect. When the muscle strength of the subject is weak, both methods can be used. When the muscle strength of the subject is strong, it is necessary to adjust the value obtained by the examiner's dominant hand grip strength in the hand fixation method.

  12. Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 μg/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 μg/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.

  13. Analysis of the reliability of the make test in young adults by using a hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Yong Ho

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the make test, a manual muscle testing measurement method, using a hand-held dynamometer in Korean young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 42 university students participated in this study. The make test, a manual muscle testing method, was conducted. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure elbow joint flexion during the make test. [Results] Both intra-rater (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.992) and inter-rater reliabilities (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.949) were excellent, with values over 0.9. [Conclusion] The make test is a useful manual muscle testing method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability.

  14. Simultaneous hand-held contact color fundus and SD-OCT imaging for pediatric retinal diseases (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Marco; Hernandez, Victor; De Freitas, Carolina; Relhan, Nidhi; Silgado, Juan; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-01

    Hand-held wide-field contact color fundus photography is currently the standard method to acquire diagnostic images of children during examination under anesthesia and in the neonatal intensive care unit. The recent development of portable non-contact hand-held OCT retinal imaging systems has proved that OCT is of tremendous help to complement fundus photography in the management of pediatric patients. Currently, there is no commercial or research system that combines color wide-field digital fundus and OCT imaging in a contact-fashion. The contact of the probe with the cornea has the advantages of reducing motion experienced by the photographer during the imaging and providing fundus and OCT images with wider field of view that includes the periphery of the retina. In this study we produce proof of concept for a contact-type hand-held unit for simultaneous color fundus and OCT live view of the retina of pediatric patients. The front piece of the hand-held unit consists of a contact ophthalmoscopy lens integrating a circular light guide that was recovered from a digital fundus camera for pediatric imaging. The custom-made rear piece consists of the optics to: 1) fold the visible aerial image of the fundus generated by the ophthalmoscopy lens on a miniaturized level board digital color camera; 2) conjugate the eye pupil to the galvanometric scanning mirrors of an OCT delivery system. Wide-field color fundus and OCT images were simultaneously obtained in an eye model and sequentially obtained on the eye of a conscious 25 year-old human subject with healthy retina.

  15. In vivo evaluation of a novel, wrist-mounted arterial pressure sensing device versus the traditional hand-held tonometer.

    PubMed

    Vardoulis, Orestis; Saponas, T Scott; Morris, Dan; Villar, Nicolas; Smith, Greg; Patel, Shwetak; Tan, Desney

    2016-10-01

    Although hemodynamic parameters can be assessed non-invasively, state-of-the-art non-invasive systems generally require an expert operator and are not applicable for ambulatory measurements. These limitations have restricted our understanding of the continuous behavior of hemodynamic parameters. In this manuscript, we introduce a novel wrist-mounted device that incorporates an array of pressure sensors which can be used to extract arterial waveforms and relevant pulse wave analysis biomarkers. In vivo evaluation is performed with Bland-Altman analysis to compare the novel sensor to a gold-standard hand-held tonometer by assessing their reproducibility and agreement in peripheral augmentation index (AIx) estimation at the radial artery. Arterial waves from 28 randomly selected participants were recorded in a controlled environment. Initially we assess the reproducibility of AIx results for both devices. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and mean difference ± SD were [0.913, 0.033±0.048] and [0.859, 0.039±0.076] for the hand-held and the wrist-mounted tonometer respectively. We then show that the AIx values derived from the novel tonometer have good agreement, accuracy, and precision when compared against the AIx values derived from the reference hand-held tonometer (ICC 0.927, mean difference 0.026±0.049). In conclusion, we have presented evidence that the new wrist-mounted arterial pressure sensor records arterial waveforms that can be processed to yield AIx values that are in good agreement with its traditional hand-held counterpart.

  16. A Novel Hand-Held Optical Imager with Real-Time Co-registration Facilities toward Diagnostic Mammography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    used to simulate a tumor and was placed underneath the flap of the breast tissue (i.e. between breast tissue and chest wall, underneath the tissue...optical imaging. Work Completed to Date: Proposed Task A: Implement a 3D motion tracking device in order to randomly track the movement of the...hand-held probe on the tissue surface. A 3D tracking system was implemented on the probe in order to perform coregistered imaging using MATLAB /LabView

  17. Rapid prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using a hand-held mid-infrared field instrument.

    PubMed

    Webster, Grant T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirk, Joel; Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stewart, Richard J

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript reports on the performance of a hand-held diffuse reflectance (mid)-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometer for the prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in three different diesel-contaminated soils. These soils include: a carbonate dominated clay, a kaolinite dominated clay and a loam from Padova Italy, north Western Australia and southern Nigeria, respectively. Soils were analysed for TPH concentration using a standard laboratory methods and scanned in DRIFT mode with the hand-held spectrometer to determine TPH calibration models. Successful partial least square regression (PLSR) predictions, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ~0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) <200mg/kg, were obtained for the low range TPH concentrations of 0 to ~3,000mg/kg. These predictions were carried out using a set of independent samples for each soil type. Prediction models were also tested for the full concentration range (0-60,000mg/kg) for each soil type model with R(2) and RMSE values of ~0.99 and <1,255mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, a number of intermediate concentration range models were also generated for each soil type with similar R(2) values of ~0.99 and RMSE values <800mg/kg. This study shows the capability of using a portable mid-infrared (MIR) DRIFT spectrometer for predicting TPH in a variety of soil types and the potential for being a rapid in-field screening method for TPH concentration levels at common regulatory thresholds. A novel hand-held mid-infrared instrument can accurately detect TPH across different soil types and concentrations, which paves the way for a variety of applications in the field.

  18. Catalog of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Hand-Held Photography: Space Transportation System (STS) 41-6 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowakowski, Barbara S.; Palmer, Wesley F.

    1985-01-01

    This document catalogs Space Shuttle hand-held Earth observations photography which was collected on the Space Transportation System (STS) 41-G mission of October 1984. The catalog includes the following data for each of 2480 frames: geographical name, feature description, latitude and longitude, percentage of cloud cover, look direction and tilt, lens focal length, exposure evaluation, stereopairs, and orbit number. The catalog is a product of the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project, Solar System Exploration Division, Space and Life Sciences Directorate, of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

  19. CO2 laser myringotomy with a hand-held otoscope and fiber optic delivery system: animal experimentation and preclinical trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Dov; Finkelstein, Y.; Katzir, Abraham

    1993-07-01

    CO2 laser myringotomy has previously been proven effective in patients with serous otitis media for short term aeration of the middle ear. However, the system based on a microscope and a coaxially aligned laser is cumbersome and expensive. Also, conventional optical fibers do not transmit CO2 laser energy ((lambda) equals 10.6 micrometers ). We have developed a silver halide optical fiber of diameter 0.9 mm and lengths of several meters, with high transmission at 10.6 micrometers . Using a hand held otoscope coupled to a fiberoptic delivery system CO2 laser myringotomies were performed first in guinea pigs and then in humans. In the animal model the feasibility of the procedure was proven. Different irradiation parameters were studied and a `dose dependent' relationship was found between the total energy used and the duration of a patent myringotomy. This system was used to perform CO2 laser myringotomies under local anesthesia in five patients with serous otitis media and conductive hearing loss. None of the patients complained of discomfort and no scarring was noted. All patients had subjective and audiometric documentation of hearing improvement. The average duration of a patent myringotomy was 21 days. In two patients the effusion recurred. CO2 laser myringotomy utilizing a hand held otoscope coupled to an optical fiber capable of transmitting CO2 laser energy may prove simple and effective in the treatment of serous otitis media.

  20. Development and characterization of a round hand-held silicon photomultiplier based gamma camera for intraoperative imaging

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Kosta; McKisson, Jack E.; Kross, Brian; Lee, Seungjoon; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Proffitt, James; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Williams, Mark B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a hand-held gamma camera for intraoperative surgical guidance that is based on silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) technology. The camera incorporates a cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) plate scintillator, an array of 80 SiPM photodetectors and a two-layer parallel-hole collimator. The field of view is circular with a 60 mm diameter. The disk-shaped camera housing is 75 mm in diameter, approximately 40.5 mm thick and has a mass of only 1.4 kg, permitting either hand-held or arm-mounted use. All camera components are integrated on a mobile cart that allows easy transport. The camera was developed for use in surgical procedures including determination of the location and extent of primary carcinomas, detection of secondary lesions and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Here we describe the camera design and its principal operating characteristics, including spatial resolution, energy resolution, sensitivity uniformity, and geometric linearity. The gamma camera has an intrinsic spatial resolution of 4.2 mm FWHM, an energy resolution of 21.1 % FWHM at 140 keV, and a sensitivity of 481 and 73 cps/MBq when using the single- and double-layer collimators, respectively. PMID:28286345

  1. Intraoperative gamma hand-held probe navigation in resection of osteoid osteoma tumor--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cengić, Tomislav; Corluka, Stipe; Petrović, Tadija; Baranović, Senka; Kovacić, Ksenija; Kolundzić, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Two cases of osteoid osteoma tumor (OO) are presented and our early experience with intraoperative gamma probing to localize OO during surgery is reported. The concept of radioguided surgery was developed 60 years ago and the gamma detection probe technology for radioguided biopsy and/or resection of bone lesions has been applied since the early 1980s. Bone scintigraphy is very important for initial diagnosis of OO with almost 100% sensitivity. The bone scan finding is specific, with so called double density appearance, very intense accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in the nidus and therefore great difference between the nidus and the surrounding healthy bone, thus making possible to treat this lesion with probe guided surgery. Three phase bone scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography were conducted in our patients for initial diagnosis of OO. A second bone scintigraphy was performed before surgery. The surgery followed 12-15 hours later by intraoperative nidus detection with a hand-held gamma probe. Gamma hand-held probe is a system that detects gamma photons. The count rate in the nidus area on the day of surgery was 3 to 4 times higher than in the healthy bone area. Drilling was performed until the counts decreased to the level of the surrounding bone counts, thereby confirming complete excision. This is the method of choice for minimizing bone resection, the risk of pathologic fracture, the need of bone grafting, and reducing the period of convalescence. Evidence for the treatment efficiency is pain disappearance after the surgery.

  2. Analysis of Accuracy in Pointing with Redundant Hand-held Tools: A Geometric Approach to the Uncontrolled Manifold Method

    PubMed Central

    Campolo, Domenico; Widjaja, Ferdinan; Xu, Hong; Ang, Wei Tech; Burdet, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a coordinate-independent method to analyse movement variability of tasks performed with hand-held tools, such as a pen or a surgical scalpel. We extend the classical uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach by exploiting the geometry of rigid body motions, used to describe tool configurations. In particular, we analyse variability during a static pointing task with a hand-held tool, where subjects are asked to keep the tool tip in steady contact with another object. In this case the tool is redundant with respect to the task, as subjects control position/orientation of the tool, i.e. 6 degrees-of-freedom (dof), to maintain the tool tip position (3dof) steady. To test the new method, subjects performed a pointing task with and without arm support. The additional dof introduced in the unsupported condition, injecting more variability into the system, represented a resource to minimise variability in the task space via coordinated motion. The results show that all of the seven subjects channeled more variability along directions not directly affecting the task (UCM), consistent with previous literature but now shown in a coordinate-independent way. Variability in the unsupported condition was only slightly larger at the endpoint but much larger in the UCM. PMID:23592956

  3. A new hand-held microfluidic cytometer for evaluating irradiation damage by analysis of the damaged cells distribution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junsheng; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yile; Song, Younan; Chu, Hui; Song, Wendong; Song, Yongxin; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2016-01-01

    Space radiation brings uneven damages to cells. The detection of the distribution of cell damage plays a very important role in radiation medicine and the related research. In this paper, a new hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer was developed to evaluate the degree of radiation damage of cells. The device we propose overcomes the shortcomings (e.g., large volume and high cost) of commercial flow cytometers and can evaluate the radiation damage of cells accurately and quickly with potential for onsite applications. The distribution of radiation-damaged cells is analyzed by a simultaneous detection of immunofluorescence intensity of γ-H2AX and resistance pulse sensor (RPS) signal. The γ-H2AX fluorescence intensity provides information of the degree of radiation damage in cells. The ratio of the number of cells with γ-H2AX fluorescence signals to the total numbers of cells detected by RPS indicates the percentage of the cells that are damaged by radiation. The comparison experiment between the developed hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer and a commercial confocal microscope indicates a consistent and comparable detection performance. PMID:26983800

  4. Development and characterization of a round hand-held silicon photomultiplier based gamma camera for intraoperative imaging.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Kosta; McKisson, Jack E; Kross, Brian; Lee, Seungjoon; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew G; Proffitt, James; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Williams, Mark B

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a hand-held gamma camera for intraoperative surgical guidance that is based on silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) technology. The camera incorporates a cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) plate scintillator, an array of 80 SiPM photodetectors and a two-layer parallel-hole collimator. The field of view is circular with a 60 mm diameter. The disk-shaped camera housing is 75 mm in diameter, approximately 40.5 mm thick and has a mass of only 1.4 kg, permitting either hand-held or arm-mounted use. All camera components are integrated on a mobile cart that allows easy transport. The camera was developed for use in surgical procedures including determination of the location and extent of primary carcinomas, detection of secondary lesions and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Here we describe the camera design and its principal operating characteristics, including spatial resolution, energy resolution, sensitivity uniformity, and geometric linearity. The gamma camera has an intrinsic spatial resolution of 4.2 mm FWHM, an energy resolution of 21.1 % FWHM at 140 keV, and a sensitivity of 481 and 73 cps/MBq when using the single- and double-layer collimators, respectively.

  5. Intraoperative detection of radiolabeled compounds using a hand held gamma probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, Marcel

    2001-02-01

    Scintillation cameras in Nuclear Medicine allow external detection of cancerous lesions after administration of a specific radiopharmaceutical to the patient. In some particular cases the affinity of the tracer is sufficient to consider the use of an intraoperative probe which enables the surgeon to identify radioactive tissues. A radiopharmaceutical consists of a radioisotope bound to a carrier molecule. The radioactive emissions must represent certain criteria in terms of half-life and energy to be detected during an operation. In the field of intraoperative detection radionuclides like 99mTc, 111In, 125I and 131I fall into this category. Their energy, which ranges from some 10 to 364 keV, cannot be properly detected by a single type of detector. Two technologies have been developed to yield detectors which are handy and sufficiently sensitive: semiconductor CdTe or CdZnTe to detect low energies and scintillator CsI(Tl) for higher energies. Today the intraoperative detection has been evaluated in the case of several pathologies such as osteoid osteoma, colorectal cancer, neuroblastoma, reoperation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and localization of sentinel node in breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma. Obviously, the results obtained are not comparable from one indication to the other. Nevertheless, the surgeons have noted a considerable advantage in using the intraoperative probe in the case of neuroblastoma and thyroid surgery, especially when the reoperation is difficult or the localizations are ectopic or unusual. As regards the sentinel node, this concept represents a major new opportunity in the field of intraoperative detection and the results actually reported in the literature demonstrate that, when it is detected, elective node excision renders the staging of the disease more accurate. In conclusion, intraoperative detection supplies the surgeon with additional knowledge to be used in correlation with the patient's medical history.

  6. US-ROK Action Sheet 34: Safeguards Application of a Hand-held Mechanically Cooled Germanium Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, J.; Burks, M.; Ham, Y.; Kwak, S.

    2015-10-20

    This report summarizes results of Action Sheet 34 - for the cooperative efforts on the field testing and evaluation of a high-resolution, hand-held, gamma-ray spectrometer, known as SPG (Spectroscopic Planar Germanium), for safeguards application such as short notice inspections, UF6 analysis, enrichment determination, and other potential applications. The Spectroscopic Planar Germanium (SPG) has been demonstrated IAEA Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) in South Korea. This field test was a success and the feedback provided by KINAC, IAEA, and national laboratory staff was used to direct efforts to improve the instrument this year. Key points in this report include measurement results from PIV, analysis of spectra with commercially available Ortec U235 and PC-FRAM, and completion of tripod and tungsten collimator and integration of user feedback.

  7. Drift from the Use of Hand-Held Knapsack Pesticide Sprayers in Boyacá (Colombian Andes).

    PubMed

    García-Santos, Glenda; Feola, Giuseppe; Nuyttens, David; Diaz, Jaime

    2016-05-25

    Offsite pesticide losses in tropical mountainous regions have been little studied. One example is measuring pesticide drift soil deposition, which can support pesticide risk assessment for surface water, soil, bystanders, and off-target plants and fauna. This is considered a serious gap, given the evidence of pesticide-related poisoning in those regions. Empirical data of drift deposition of a pesticide surrogate, Uranine tracer, within one of the highest potato-producing regions in Colombia, characterized by small plots and mountain orography, is presented. High drift values encountered in this study reflect the actual spray conditions using hand-held knapsack sprayers. Comparison between measured and predicted drift values using three existing empirical equations showed important underestimation. However, after their optimization based on measured drift information, the equations showed a strong predictive power for this study area and the study conditions. The most suitable curve to assess mean relative drift was the IMAG calculator after optimization.

  8. The GSFC Mark-2 three band hand-held radiometer. [thematic mapper for ground truth data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Jones, W. H.; Kley, W. A.; Sundstrom, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    A self-contained, portable, hand-radiometer designed for field usage was constructed and tested. The device, consisting of a hand-held probe containing three sensors and a strap supported electronic module, weighs 4 1/2 kilograms. It is powered by flashlight and transistor radio batteries, utilizes two silicon and one lead sulfide detectors, has three liquid crystal displays, sample and hold radiometric sampling, and its spectral configuration corresponds to LANDSAT-D's thematic mapper bands. The device was designed to support thematic mapper ground-truth data collection efforts and to facilitate 'in situ' ground-based remote sensing studies of natural materials. Prototype instruments were extensively tested under laboratory and field conditions with excellent results.

  9. HAND-HELD GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER BASED ON HIGH-EFFICIENCY FRISCH-RING CdZnTe DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI,Y.

    2007-05-01

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution, el% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. This technique facilitates the application of CdZnTe materials for high efficiency gamma-ray detection. A hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8x8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so that detection efficiency is significantly improved. By using the front-end ASICs developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy resolution. The spectrometer includes signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuit, high-voltage module, and USB interface. In this paper, we introduce the details of the system structure and report our test results with it.

  10. Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Based on High-Efficiency Frisch-Ring Cdznte Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Y.; Bolotnikov, A; Camarda, G; Hossain, A; James, R; DeGeronimo, G; Fried, J; O'Connor, P; Kargar, A; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated both good energy resolution, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency in detecting gamma rays, highlighting the strong potential of CdZnTe materials for such applications. We are designing a hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8 times 8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so greatly improving detection efficiency. By using the front-end application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy-resolution. It includes a signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuits, a high-voltage module, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. In this paper, we detail the system's structure and report the results of our tests with it.

  11. Global distribution of hand-held photographs of ocean and coastal regions taken during space shuttle missions - 1981-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackleson, Steven G.; Pitts, David E.

    1992-01-01

    During the first 10 years of the US Space Shuttle program, 26,736 high-quality, hand-held photographs have been acquired of the earth's ocean and coastal areas from orbit by astronauts during 40 missions. The photographs are cataloged and stored in the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project (SSEOP) database. While the majority of photographs are of tropical and subtropical coastal areas, many open-ocean and high-latitude areas have also been photographed. The majority of space shuttle missions have permitted photographing northern hemisphere areas in daylight. As a result, the latitudinal distribution of photographs is biased toward the northern hemisphere, particularly in high latitudes. Coastal areas and islands are most frequently photographed, while photographs of central ocean areas are either infrequent or nonexistent.

  12. SHIELDING AND DETECTOR RESPONSE CALCULATIONS PERTAINING TO CATEGORY 1 QUANTITIES OF PLUTONIUM AND HAND-HELD PLASTIC SCINTILLATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, A.

    2013-06-07

    Nuclear facilities sometimes use hand-held plastic scintillator detectors to detect attempts to divert special nuclear material in situations where portal monitors are impractical. MCNP calculations have been performed to determine the neutron and gamma radiation field arising from a Category I quantity of weapons-grade plutonium in various shielding configurations. The shields considered were composed of combinations of lead and high-density polyethylene such that the mass of the plutonium plus shield was 22.7 kilograms. Monte-Carlo techniques were also used to determine the detector response to each of the shielding configurations. The detector response calculations were verified using field measurements of high-, medium-, and low- energy gamma-ray sources as well as a Cf-252 neutron source.

  13. Computation of decompression schedules for single inert gas-oxygen dives using a hand-held programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Ranade, A; Peterson, R E

    1980-08-01

    An algorithm for on-site computation with a hand-held programmable calculator (TI-59, Texas Instruments) of single inert-gas decompression schedules is described. This program is based on Workman's 'M-value' method. It can compute decompression schedules with changes in the oxygen content of the breathing mixture and extension of stay at any decompression stop. The features of the program that enable calculation of atypical dive profiles, along with the portability of small calculators, would make such an algorithm suitable for on-site applications. However, since dive profiles generated by the program have not yet been tested, divers are warned not to generate schedules until their safety has been established by field tests.

  14. 3D Scan of Ornamental Column (huabiao) Using Terrestrial LiDAR and Hand-held Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Wang, C.; Xi, X.

    2015-08-01

    In ancient China, Huabiao was a type of ornamental column used to decorate important buildings. We carried out 3D scan of a Huabiao located in Peking University, China. This Huabiao was built no later than 1742. It is carved by white marble, 8 meters in height. Clouds and various postures of dragons are carved on its body. Two instruments were used to acquire the point cloud of this Huabiao, a terrestrial LiDAR (Riegl VZ-1000) and a hand-held imager (Mantis Vision F5). In this paper, the details of the experiment were described, including the differences between these two instruments, such as working principle, spatial resolution, accuracy, instrument dimension and working flow. The point clouds obtained respectively by these two instruments were compared, and the registered point cloud of Huabiao was also presented. These should be of interest and helpful for the research communities of archaeology and heritage.

  15. Real-time hand-held ultrasound medical-imaging device based on a new digital quadrature demodulation processor.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Philippe; Sawan, Mohamad

    2009-08-01

    A fully hardware-based real-time digital wideband quadrature demodulation processor based on the Hilbert transform is proposed to process ultrasound radio frequency signals. The presented architecture combines 2 finite impulse response (FIR) filters to process in-phase and quadrature signals and includes a piecewise linear approximation architecture that performs the required square root operations. The proposed implementation enables flexibility to support different transducers with its ability to load on-the-fly different FIR filter coefficient sets. The complexity and accuracy of the demodulator processor are analyzed with simulated RF data; a normalized residual sum-of-squares cost function is used for comparison with the Matlab Hilbert function. Three implementations are integrated into a hand-held ultrasound system for experimental accuracy and performance evaluation. Real-time images were acquired from a reference phantom, demonstrating the feasibility of using the presented architecture to perform real-time digital quadrature demodulation of ultrasonic signal echoes. Experimental results show that the implementation, using only 2942 slices and 3 dedicated digital multipliers of a low-cost and low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is accurate relative to a comparable software- based system; axial and lateral resolution of 1 mm and 2 mm, respectively, were obtained with a 12-mm piezoelectric transducer without postprocessing. Because the processing and sampling rates are the same, high-frequency ultrasound signals can be processed as well. For a 15-frame-per-second display, the hand-held ultrasonic imaging-processing core (FPGA, memory) requires only 45 mW (dynamic) when using a 5-MHz single-element piezoelectric transducer.

  16. Automatic detection of a hand-held needle in ultrasound via phased-based analysis of the tremor motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Parmida; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Rohling, Robert; Ng, Gary C.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic localization method for a standard hand-held needle in ultrasound based on temporal motion analysis of spatially decomposed data. Subtle displacement arising from tremor motion has a periodic pattern which is usually imperceptible in the intensity image but may convey information in the phase image. Our method aims to detect such periodic motion of a hand-held needle and distinguish it from intrinsic tissue motion, using a technique inspired by video magnification. Complex steerable pyramids allow specific design of the wavelets' orientations according to the insertion angle as well as the measurement of the local phase. We therefore use steerable pairs of even and odd Gabor wavelets to decompose the ultrasound B-mode sequence into various spatial frequency bands. Variations of the local phase measurements in the spatially decomposed input data is then temporally analyzed using a finite impulse response bandpass filter to detect regions with a tremor motion pattern. Results obtained from different pyramid levels are then combined and thresholded to generate the binary mask input for the Hough transform, which determines an estimate of the direction angle and discards some of the outliers. Polynomial fitting is used at the final stage to remove any remaining outliers and improve the trajectory detection. The detected needle is finally added back to the input sequence as an overlay of a cloud of points. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach to detect the needle using subtle tremor motion in an agar phantom and in-vivo porcine cases where intrinsic motion is also present. The localization accuracy was calculated by comparing to expert manual segmentation, and presented in (mean, standard deviation and root-mean-square error) of (0.93°, 1.26° and 0.87°) and (1.53 mm, 1.02 mm and 1.82 mm) for the trajectory and the tip, respectively.

  17. A new miniature hand-held solar-blind reagentless standoff chemical, biological, and explosives (CBE) sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, W. F.; Reid, R. D.; Bhartia, R.; Lane, A. L.

    2008-04-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs), vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs), and suicide bombers are a major threat to many countries and their citizenry. The ability to detect trace levels of these threats with a miniature, hand-held, reagentless, standoff sensor represents a major improvement in the state of the art of CBE surface sensors. Photon Systems, Inc., in collaboration with Jet Propulsion Laboratory, recently demonstrated a new technology hand-held sensor for reagentless, close-range, standoff detection and identification of trace levels CBE materials on surfaces. This targeted ultraviolet CBE (TUCBE) sensor is the result of an Army Phase I STTR program. The resulting 5lb, 5W, flashlight-sized sensor can discriminate CBE from background materials using a combination of deep UV excited resonance Raman (RR) and laser induced native fluorescence (LINF) emissions resulting from excitation by a new technology deep UV laser. Detection and identification is accomplished in less than 1ms. Standoff excitation of suspicious packages, vehicles, persons, and other objects that may contain hazardous materials is accomplished using wavelengths below 250nm where Raman and native fluorescence emissions occupy distinctly different wavelength regions. This enables simultaneous detection of RR and LINF emissions with no interferences. The sensor employs fused RR/LINF chemometric methods to extract the identity of targeted materials from background clutter. Photon Systems has demonstrated detection and identification of 100ng/cm2 of explosives materials at a distance of 1 meter using a sensor with 3.8 cm optical aperture. Expansion of the optical aperture to 38 cm in a lantern-sized sensor will enable similar detection and identification of CBE materials at standoff distances of 10 meters. As a result of excitation and detection in the deep UV and the use of a gated detection system, the sensor is solar blind and can operate in full daylight conditions.

  18. Cellphone-Based Hand-Held Microplate Reader for Point-of-Care Testing of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays.

    PubMed

    Berg, Brandon; Cortazar, Bingen; Tseng, Derek; Ozkan, Haydar; Feng, Steve; Wei, Qingshan; Chan, Raymond Yan-Lok; Burbano, Jordi; Farooqui, Qamar; Lewinski, Michael; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-08-25

    Standard microplate based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are widely utilized for various nanomedicine, molecular sensing, and disease screening applications, and this multiwell plate batched analysis dramatically reduces diagnosis costs per patient compared to nonbatched or nonstandard tests. However, their use in resource-limited and field-settings is inhibited by the necessity for relatively large and expensive readout instruments. To mitigate this problem, we created a hand-held and cost-effective cellphone-based colorimetric microplate reader, which uses a 3D-printed opto-mechanical attachment to hold and illuminate a 96-well plate using a light-emitting-diode (LED) array. This LED light is transmitted through each well, and is then collected via 96 individual optical fibers. Captured images of this fiber-bundle are transmitted to our servers through a custom-designed app for processing using a machine learning algorithm, yielding diagnostic results, which are delivered to the user within ∼1 min per 96-well plate, and are visualized using the same app. We successfully tested this mobile platform in a clinical microbiology laboratory using FDA-approved mumps IgG, measles IgG, and herpes simplex virus IgG (HSV-1 and HSV-2) ELISA tests using a total of 567 and 571 patient samples for training and blind testing, respectively, and achieved an accuracy of 99.6%, 98.6%, 99.4%, and 99.4% for mumps, measles, HSV-1, and HSV-2 tests, respectively. This cost-effective and hand-held platform could assist health-care professionals to perform high-throughput disease screening or tracking of vaccination campaigns at the point-of-care, even in resource-poor and field-settings. Also, its intrinsic wireless connectivity can serve epidemiological studies, generating spatiotemporal maps of disease prevalence and immunity.

  19. Validation of a new hand-held electronic data capture method for continuous monitoring of subjective appetite sensations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When large scale trials are investigating the effects of interventions on appetite, it is paramount to efficiently monitor large amounts of human data. The original hand-held Electronic Appetite Ratings System (EARS) was designed to facilitate the administering and data management of visual analogue scales (VAS) of subjective appetite sensations. The purpose of this study was to validate a novel hand-held method (EARS II (HP® iPAQ)) against the standard Pen and Paper (P&P) method and the previously validated EARS. Methods Twelve participants (5 male, 7 female, aged 18-40) were involved in a fully repeated measures design. Participants were randomly assigned in a crossover design, to either high fat (>48% fat) or low fat (<28% fat) meal days, one week apart and completed ratings using the three data capture methods ordered according to Latin Square. The first set of appetite sensations was completed in a fasted state, immediately before a fixed breakfast. Thereafter, appetite sensations were completed every thirty minutes for 4h. An ad libitum lunch was provided immediately before completing a final set of appetite sensations. Results Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted for ratings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. There were no significant differences between P&P compared with either EARS or EARS II (p > 0.05). Correlation coefficients between P&P and EARS II, controlling for age and gender, were performed on Area Under the Curve ratings. R2 for Hunger (0.89), Fullness (0.96) and Desire to Eat (0.95) were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions EARS II was sensitive to the impact of a meal and recovery of appetite during the postprandial period and is therefore an effective device for monitoring appetite sensations. This study provides evidence and support for further validation of the novel EARS II method for monitoring appetite sensations during large scale studies. The added versatility means that future uses of the system provides

  20. Hand-held dynamometry in patients with haematological malignancies: Measurement error in the clinical assessment of knee extension strength

    PubMed Central

    Knols, Ruud H; Aufdemkampe, Geert; de Bruin, Eling D; Uebelhart, Daniel; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    Background Hand-held dynamometry is a portable and inexpensive method to quantify muscle strength. To determine if muscle strength has changed, an examiner must know what part of the difference between a patient's pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements is attributable to real change, and what part is due to measurement error. This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of intra and inter-observer strength measurements with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). Methods Two observers performed maximum voluntary peak torque measurements (MVPT) for isometric knee extension in 24 patients with haematological malignancies. For each patient, the measurements were carried out on the same day. The main outcome measures were the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ± 95%CI), the standard error of measurement (SEM), the smallest detectable difference (SDD), the relative values as % of the grand mean of the SEM and SDD, and the limits of agreement for the intra- and inter-observer '3 repetition average' and the 'highest value of 3 MVPT' knee extension strength measures. Results The intra-observer ICCs were 0.94 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.86–0.97) and 0.86 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.71–0.94). The ICCs for the inter-observer measurements were 0.89 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.75–0.95) and 0.77 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.54–0.90). The SEMs for the intra-observer measurements were 6.22 Nm (3.98% of the grand mean (GM) and 9.83 Nm (5.88% of GM). For the inter-observer measurements, the SEMs were 9.65 Nm (6.65% of GM) and 11.41 Nm (6.73% of GM). The SDDs for the generated parameters varied from 17.23 Nm (11.04% of GM) to 27.26 Nm (17.09% of GM) for intra-observer measurements, and 26.76 Nm (16.77% of GM) to 31.62 Nm (18.66% of GM) for inter-observer measurements, with similar results for the limits of agreement. Conclusion The results indicate that there is acceptable relative reliability for

  1. Intrarater reliability of hand held dynamometry in measuring lower extremity isometric strength using a portable stabilization device.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Steven M; Cheng, M Samuel; Smith, A Russell; Kolber, Morey J

    2017-02-01

    Hand held dynamometry (HHD) is a more objective way to quantify muscle force production (MP) compared to traditional manual muscle testing. HHD reliability can be negatively impacted by both the strength of the tester and the subject particularly in the lower extremities due to larger muscle groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to assess intrarater reliability of HHD with use of a portable stabilization device for lower extremity MP in an athletic population. Isometric lower extremity strength was measured for bilateral lower extremities including hip abductors, external rotators, adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors was measured in a sample of healthy recreational runners (8 male, 7 females, = 30 limbs) training for a marathon. These measurements were assessed using an intrasession intrarater reliability design. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated using 3,1 model based on the single rater design. The standard error of measurement (SEM) for each muscle group was also calculated. ICC were excellent ranging from ICC (3,1) = 0.93-0.98 with standard error of measurements ranging from 0.58 to 17.2 N. This study establishes the use of a HHD with a portable stabilization device as demonstrating good reliability within testers for measuring lower extremity muscle performance in an active healthy population.

  2. Target detection and quantification using a hybrid hand-held diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography system

    PubMed Central

    Kumavor, Patrick D.; Xu, Chen; Aguirre, Andres; Gamelin, John; Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Zanganeh, Saeid; Alqasemi, Umar; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Quing

    2011-01-01

    We present a photoacoustic tomography-guided diffuse optical tomography approach using a hand-held probe for detection and characterization of deeply-seated targets embedded in a turbid medium. Diffuse optical tomography guided by coregistered ultrasound, MRI, and x ray has demonstrated a great clinical potential to overcome lesion location uncertainty and to improve light quantification accuracy. However, due to the different contrast mechanisms, some lesions may not be detectable by a nonoptical modality but yet have high optical contrast. Photoacoustic tomography utilizes a short-pulsed laser beam to diffusively penetrate into tissue. Upon absorption of the light by the target, photoacoustic waves are generated and used to reconstruct, at ultrasound resolution, the optical absorption distribution that reveals optical contrast. However, the robustness of optical property quantification of targets by photoacoustic tomography is complicated because of the wide range of ultrasound transducer sensitivity, the orientation and shape of the targets relative to the ultrasound array, and the uniformity of the laser beam. We show in this paper that the relative optical absorption map provided by photoacoustic tomography can potentially guide the diffuse optical tomography to accurately reconstruct target absorption maps. PMID:21529079

  3. The usefulness and limitations of hand-held refractometers in veterinary laboratory medicine: an historical and technical review.

    PubMed

    George, Jeanne W.

    2001-01-01

    Medical hand-held refractometers have been used in veterinary practice since their development in the 1960s. They have become ubiquitous for the measurement of protein and urine solute concentrations because of their rapidity of analysis, ease of use, and relatively low cost. Refraction of light offers advantages for the determination of solute concentrations because the measurement requires no chemical alteration of the specimen. Numerous authors have reported that the results of protein estimation by refractometry for domestic mammals correlate well with those obtained by the biuret method, although others have reported both higher and lower refractometric results compared with biuret results. Major discrepancies between biuret and refractometric results have been reported for avian samples. Some of the variation in reported results may be due to differences in design by refractometer manufacturers. Another possible source may be variation in the biuret reagent mixture and assay conditions. Refractometers also can be used to calculate serum water concentration. A table that converts index of refraction to serum water concentration can be used to convert electrolyte concentration from mmol/L of serum to mmol/L of serum water, a more accurate indicator of effective electrolyte concentration. Refractometers are especially useful for determining urine specific gravity on veterinary samples because they require relatively small sample volumes. Specific gravity continues to be the most common unit for reporting total solids concentration. Some solutes, such as acetone, may cause false increases in specific gravity by refractometry, as they increase refraction but are less dense than water.

  4. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    SciTech Connect

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís

    2014-10-27

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  5. Measurement of vibrations and evaluation of protective gloves for work with hand-held power tools in industrial settings.

    PubMed

    Milosevic, Matija; McConville, Kristiina M V

    2007-01-01

    This study considers the use of hand-held power tools and the exposure of a large number of employees to hand-arm vibrations in work settings as well as the harmful effects that such exposure has on health and safety. The major objective of the project was the development of a diagnostic device for the detection and monitoring of the vibrations produced during work activities in a natural working environment and to analyze the impact of the vibrations on workers during different work operations. The developed device for vibration monitoring is based on the latest generation MEMS tri-axis accelerometer with a wireless link with the PC station. This study demonstrates the use of the device in evaluating the level of protection that gloves provide concerning the level of vibrations during work operations. The initial evaluation shows that the proposed solution provides an effective multifunctional, low-cost diagnostic device for vibration measurement in natural work settings. Preliminary results indicate that the developed device could be used for health and safety studies, evaluation of protective equipment, and ongoing monitoring in a natural working environment, and in this way may lead to more effective prevention and management of the risks associated with exposure to workplace vibrations.

  6. Test-retest reliabilities of hand-held dynamometer for lower-limb muscle strength in intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Wang, Min-Hung; Lin, Hsiu-Ching

    2013-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliabilities of hand-held dynamometer (HDD) for measuring lower-limb muscle strength in intellectual disabilities (ID). The other purposes were to: (1) compare the lower-limb muscle strength between children with and without ID; (2) probe the relationship between the muscle forces and agility performance in ID; and (3) explore the factors associated with muscle strength in ID. Sixty-one participants (30 boys and 31 girls; mean age=14.1 ± 3.3 year) were assessed by the HDD using a "make" test. The comparative group consisted of 63 typically developing children (33 boys and 30 girls; mean age=14.9 ± 2.1 year). The ID group demonstrated lower muscle groups than in typically developing group. Except for the ankle plantarflexors (ICC=0.69, SEM=0.72), test-retest analysis showed good intrarater reliability with ICC ranging from 0.81 to 0.96, and intrarater SEM values ranged from 0.40 to 0.57. The HDD has the potential to be a reliable tool for strength measurement in ID. Muscle strength was positively related to agility performance. Regression analysis indicated that height, weight, BMI, and activity level were significant predictors of muscle strength in ID.

  7. Reliability of measurements of knee extensor muscle strength using a pull-type hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Terumi

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliabilities of measurements of knee extensor muscle strength using a pull-type hand-held dynamometer (HHD). [Subjects] Fifty-four healthy adults (35 males; average age, 23 years) participated in this study. [Methods] Knee extensor muscle strength of each leg was measured three times using the HHD. To examine the intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities, measurements were performed by two examiners, a physical therapist and a physical therapy student. [Results] The intra-examiner reliabilities, ICC (1, 1) and ICC (1, 3) ranged from 0.94-0.99. The inter-examiner reliabilities, ICC (2, 1) and ICC (3, 1) ranged from 0.90-0.92 for the right leg, and 0.88-0.90 for the left leg. Neither constant nor proportional errors were found by Bland-Altman analysis. [Conclusion] Intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliabilities were acceptable, indicating that muscle strength can be measured with the pull-type HHD without dependence on skill of measurement. Pain was not caused by measurements with the pull-type HHD.

  8. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique.

    PubMed

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss.

  9. Task difficulty and inertial properties of hand-held tools: An assessment of their concurrent effects on precision aiming.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula L; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Figueiredo, Priscilla Rezende Pereira; Avelar, Bruna Silva; de Andrade, André Gustavo Pereira; Fonseca, Sérgio T; Mancini, Marisa Cotta

    2016-08-01

    Aiming hand-held tools at targets in space entails adjustments in the dynamical organization of aiming patterns according to the required precision. We asked whether and how these adjustments are modified by the tool's mass distribution. Twelve participants performed reciprocal aiming movements with a 50-cm long wooden probe. Kinematic patterns of probe movements were used as a window into the behavioral dynamic underlying performance of a reciprocal aiming task. We crossed three levels of task difficulty (IDs 2.8, 4.5 and 6.1) with two types of probe varying in their mass distribution (proximal vs distal loading). Movement duration was affected by task difficulty and probe loading (shorter for larger targets and proximal probe loading). Progressive deviations from a sinusoidal movement pattern were observed as task difficulty increased. Such deviations were more pronounced with proximal probe loading. Results point to a higher degree of non-linearity in aiming dynamics when the probe was loaded proximally, which might reflect employment of additional perceptual-motor processes to control the position of its less stable tip at the vicinity of the targets. More generally, the effects of probe loading on aiming pattern and dynamics suggest that perceptual-motor processes responding to task level constraints are sensitive to, and not independent from, biomechanical, end-effector constraints.

  10. Determination of soluble solids content and titratable acidity of intact fruit and juice of Satsuma mandarin using a hand-held NIR instrument in transmittance mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) of intact fruit and juice of Satsuma mandarin was investigated using a hand-held NIR instrument “NIR-Gun” in transmittance mode. The resulting calibration equation measured SSC of intact fruit and juice with a standard error o...

  11. Field-calibration of a hand-held TDR for determining soil moisture in an irrigated and a rainfed biofuel feedstock production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural soil emissions of temperature-forcing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are tightly coupled to soil moisture status. To determine the suitability of a rapid measurement method for soil volumetric water content (VWC; m3 m-3), a hand-held time-domain ref...

  12. Validation of a hand-held X-ray absorptiometer caliper against computerized tomography for in vivo soft tissue composition analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To develop and validate a hand-held caliper which uses a dual-energy radioactive source to monitor regional changes in mid-thigh muscle mass and % fat. Methods: Optimum photon energies were determined by minimization of uncertainties in fat content measurements due to photon count statist...

  13. An Examination of Hand-Held Computer-Assisted Instruction on Subtraction Skills for Second Grade Students with Learning and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordness, Philip D.; Haverkost, Ann; Volberding, Annette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a mathematic flashcard application on a hand-held computing device was examined across three individual second grade students with learning and behavioral disabilities. All of the students improved their subtraction scores by an average of 17% as measured by the district-created, curriculum-based assessment. The results of this study…

  14. Beyond Textbook Illustrations: Hand-Held Models of Ordered DNA and Protein Structures as 3D Supplements to Enhance Student Learning of Helical Biopolymers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2010-01-01

    Textbook illustrations of 3D biopolymers on printed paper, regardless of how detailed and colorful, suffer from its two-dimensionality. For beginners, computer screen display of skeletal models of biopolymers and their animation usually does not provide the at-a-glance 3D perception and details, which can be done by good hand-held models. Here, we…

  15. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  16. The Status of Hand Held Calculators in Secondary Mathematics: An Examination of Issues and Uses in the Classroom throughout the Mid-Hudson Valley Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostapczuk, Edward D.

    In light of research findings on how calculators can enhance mathematics learning, this study investigated the uses of hand held, non-programmable, scientific calculators in secondary mathematics education throughout the Mid-Hudson Valley (New York). The study gathered data from 18 high school principals and 25 mathematics teachers in 32 school…

  17. Maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for dental personnel operating portable hand-held x-ray equipment.

    PubMed

    McGiff, Thomas J; Danforth, Robert A; Herschaft, Edward E

    2012-08-01

    Clinical experience indicates that newly available portable hand-held x-ray units provide advantages compared to traditional fixed properly installed and operated x-ray units in dental radiography. However, concern that hand-held x-ray units produce higher operator doses than fixed x-ray units has caused regulatory agencies to mandate requirements for use of hand-held units that go beyond those recommended by the manufacturer and can discourage the use of this technology. To assess the need for additional requirements, a hand-held x-ray unit and a pair of manikins were used to measure the dose to a simulated operator under two conditions: exposures made according to the manufacturer's recommendations and exposures made according to manufacturer's recommendation except for the removal of the x-ray unit's protective backscatter shield. Dose to the simulated operator was determined using an array of personal dosimeters and a pair of pressurized ion chambers. The results indicate that the dose to an operator of this equipment will be less than 0.6 mSv y⁻¹ if the device is used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. This suggests that doses to properly trained operators of well-designed, hand-held dental x-ray units will be below 1.0 mSv y⁻¹ (2% of the annual occupational dose limit) even if additional no additional operational requirements are established by regulatory agencies. This level of annual dose is similar to those reported as typical dental personnel using fixed x-ray units and appears to satisfy the ALARA principal for this class of occupational exposures.

  18. Limitations of Condensed Teaching Strategies to Develop Hand-Held Cardiac Ultrasonography Skills in Internal Medicine Residents.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Jeffrey S; Barake, Walid; Smith, Chris; Thakrar, Amar; Johri, Amer M

    2016-08-01

    Advances in ultrasonographic technology have allowed for hand-held cardiac ultrasonography (HHCU) units that fit into a physician's laboratory coat. Recently, studies to educate internal medicine residents have shown promise. The optimal duration and methodology for teaching HHCU skills has not been established. Over a 1-year period, internal medicine residents were recruited during their cardiology ward rotation into a single-centre nonblinded randomized trial. The 2 condensed teaching strategies were (1) a conventional ward-based program and (2) a technology-driven simulation-based strategy. Outcomes were evaluated by (1) an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to evaluate interpretation ability (assessing both type I and type II error rates) and (2) demonstration of HHCU skills graded by 2 level III echocardiographers. Twenty-four internal medicine residents were randomized. After teaching, the conventional teaching group had a significant absolute increase in the ability to make a singular correct diagnosis (20%; P < 0.001). In the technology arm, making a singular correct diagnosis increased 24% from baseline (P = 0.001). Interpretation skill was not significantly different between groups. The false-positive rate increased by an absolute 14% and 17% in the conventional and technology groups, respectively (P = 0.079 and P = 0.008). Our findings suggest that HHCU interpretation skills improve after either a conventional ward-based or a technology-driven approach. However, our study emphasizes the important limitations of both teaching programs, because we detected a trend toward an increase in the false-positive rate after both approaches. This suggests that a short duration of training may not be sufficient for HHCU to be performed in a safe manner.

  19. The Fluostick, a real hand-held system for near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorval, Paul; Mangeret, Norman; Guillermet, Stephanie; Righini, Christian Adrien; Barabino, Gabriele; Rizo, Philippe; Poulet, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery, FIGS, has lately shown a huge potential in oncologic and lymphatic related surgeries. In some indications such as liver or heart surgery, fluorescence-reachable anatomic structures are limited by the access to the surgical field. Nevertheless, most of the systems available on the market are too large to image the sides of cavities. Small devices are clearly required to improve workability of fluorescence imaging systems. The current work describes the development of an instrument and the results of its evaluation. In order to image narrow area, we developed a small size device consisting of an optical head connected to a control box. The whole system, optical head, control box and software, receives a CE mark for clinical procedures. Building on existing technologies, we simplified the fluorescence imaging system. It consists of a custom charged-coupled device camera, a high color rendering index visible LED illumination and a Class1 Laser fluorophore excitation. With a curved shape of 25x35x150mm, the optical head was designed as a true hand-held probe. The field of view varies from 5x3.75cm to 2x1.5cm. The device is able to collect and display the signal of 5pmol of IndoCyanine Green (ICG) with a spatial resolution down to 70μm at 25 frames per second. The system has been evaluated in pre-clinical and clinical procedures. The preclinical studies confirmed the ability of the system to visualize tumors in mice models. Clinical evaluations includes lymphedema investigations and surgical resections of tumors in colorectal cancer.

  20. Hand-held spectroscopic device for in vivo and intraoperative tumor detection: contrast enhancement, detection sensitivity, and tissue penetration.

    PubMed

    Mohs, Aaron M; Mancini, Michael C; Singhal, Sunil; Provenzale, James M; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Wang, May D; Nie, Shuming

    2010-11-01

    Surgery is one of the most effective and widely used procedures in treating human cancers, but a major problem is that the surgeon often fails to remove the entire tumor, leaving behind tumor-positive margins, metastatic lymph nodes, and/or satellite tumor nodules. Here we report the use of a hand-held spectroscopic pen device (termed SpectroPen) and near-infrared contrast agents for intraoperative detection of malignant tumors, based on wavelength-resolved measurements of fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. The SpectroPen utilizes a near-infrared diode laser (emitting at 785 nm) coupled to a compact head unit for light excitation and collection. This pen-shaped device effectively removes silica Raman peaks from the fiber optics and attenuates the reflected excitation light, allowing sensitive analysis of both fluorescence and Raman signals. Its overall performance has been evaluated by using a fluorescent contrast agent (indocyanine green, or ICG) as well as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) contrast agent (pegylated colloidal gold). Under in vitro conditions, the detection limits are approximately 2-5 × 10(-11) M for the indocyanine dye and 0.5-1 × 10(-13) M for the SERS contrast agent. Ex vivo tissue penetration data show attenuated but resolvable fluorescence and Raman signals when the contrast agents are buried 5-10 mm deep in fresh animal tissues. In vivo studies using mice bearing bioluminescent 4T1 breast tumors further demonstrate that the tumor borders can be precisely detected preoperatively and intraoperatively, and that the contrast signals are strongly correlated with tumor bioluminescence. After surgery, the SpectroPen device permits further evaluation of both positive and negative tumor margins around the surgical cavity, raising new possibilities for real-time tumor detection and image-guided surgery.

  1. Development of a low-cost hand-held system for optical coherence tomography imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Paritosh; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Nolan, Ryan M.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a low-cost hand-held optical coherence imaging system. The proposed system is based on the principle of linear optical coherence tomography (Linear OCT), a technique which was proposed in the early 2000s as a simpler alternative to the conventional time-domain and Fourier-domain OCT. In our design, as in the traditional Michaelson interferometer, light from a broadband source is split into sample and reference beams. Unlike in a Michaelson interferometer though, upon return, a tilt is introduced to the reference beam before it is combined with the sample beam to illuminate a detector array. The resulting fringe pattern encodes information about the relative time-of-flight of photons between the sample and reference arms, which can be decoded by standard signal processing techniques to obtain depth resolved reflectivity profiles of the sample. The axial resolution and the SNR of our system was measured to be approximately 5.2 μm and 80 dB, respectively. The performance of the proposed system was compared with a standard state-of-the-art Fourier-domain low coherence interferometry (LCI) system by imaging several biological and non-biological samples. The results of this study indicate that the proposed low-cost system might be a suitable choice for applications where the imaging depth and SNR can be traded for lower cost and simpler optical design. Two potentially useful applications of the proposed imaging system could be for imaging the human tympanic membrane (TM) for diagnosing middle ear pathologies, and to visualize the sub-surface features of materials for non-destructive evaluation and quality inspection.

  2. Is Hand-Held Optical Coherence Tomography Reliable in Infants and Young Children with and without Nystagmus?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Helena; Proudlock, Frank; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the reliability of the spectral domain hand-held OCT (HH-OCT) in assessing foveal morphology in children with and without nystagmus. Methods Forty-nine subjects with nystagmus (mean age 43.83 months; range 1-82 months) and 48 controls (mean age 43.02 months; range 0 to 83 months were recruited and scanned using HH-OCT (Bioptigen). A minimum of 2 separate volumetric scans on the same examination day of the fovea were obtained. The images were imported into ImageJ software where manual retinal layer segmentation of the central foveal B-scan was performed. Agreement between scans was assessed by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland–Altman plots. Results Both the nystagmus and controls groups showed an excellent degree of reproducibility between two examinations with ICCs greater than 0.96 for central macular thickness (CMT) and greater than 0.8 for the outer nuclear layer and outer segment of the photoreceptors. The nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, outer plexiform layer, inner segment of the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium were less reliable with ICCs of less than 0.7. There was no difference in the reliability of scans obtained in children with nystagmus as compared to controls and both groups had good inter-eye agreement with ICCs greater than 0.94 for CMT. Conclusion We have shown for the first time that the HH-OCT provides reliable measurements in children with and without nystagmus. This is important as the HH-OCT will have a greater diagnostic and prognostic role in young children with nystagmus and other eye diseases in the future. PMID:24222299

  3. Improving the accuracy of hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometers as a tool for monitoring brominated flame retardants in waste polymers.

    PubMed

    Guzzonato, A; Puype, F; Harrad, S J

    2016-09-01

    An optimised method for Br quantification as a metric of brominated flame retardant (BFR) concentrations present in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) polymers is proposed as an alternative to the sophisticated, yet time consuming GC-MS methods currently preferred. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer was validated with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Customized standard materials of specific BFRs in a styrenic polymer were used to perform an external calibration for hand-held XRF ranging from 0.08 to 12 wt% of Br, and cross-checking with LA-ICP-MS having similar LODs (0.0004 wt% for LA-ICP-MS and 0.0011 wt% for XRF). The "thickness calibration" developed here for hand-held XRF and the resulting correction, was applied to 28 real samples and showed excellent (R(2) = 0.9926) accordance with measurements obtained via LA-ICP-MS. This confirms the validity of hand-held XRF as an accurate technique for the determination of Br in WEEE plastics. This is the first use of solid standards to develop a thickness-corrected quantitative XRF measurement of Br in polymers using LA-ICP-MS for method evaluation. Thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to confirm the presence of specific BFRs in WEEE polymer samples. We propose that expressing limit values for BFRs in waste materials in terms of Br rather than BFR concentration (based on a conservative assumption about the BFR present), presents a practical solution to the need for an accurate, yet rapid and inexpensive technique capable of monitoring compliance with limit values in situ.

  4. Between-day reliability of a hand-held dynamometer and surface electromyography recordings during isometric submaximal contractions in different shoulder positions.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kathrine S; Christensen, Birgitte H; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Functional shoulder assessments require the use of objective and reliable standardized outcome measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the between-day reliability of a hand-held dynamometer when measuring muscle strength during flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation as well as surface electromyography (EMG) when measuring muscle activity from m. trapezius superior and deltoideus anterior. Twenty-four healthy subjects participated and performed four isometric contractions measured with a hand-held dynamometer and EMG. Both relative and absolute reliability were calculated based on the mean of the last three of the four repetitions. EMG amplitude was assessed calculating both absolute and normalized root-mean-square (RMS) values. The reliability of the hand-held dynamometer was high (LOA=3.2-7.6% and ICC=0.89-0.98). The absolute reliability for EMG showed similar results for absolute RMS values (LOA=20.0-68.4%) and normalized RMS values (LOA=42.4-66.5%). However, the results concerning the relative reliability showed higher ICC for absolute RMS values (ICC=0.82-0.92) compared with normalized values (ICC=0.57-0.72).The outcome measurements of this study with healthy subjects were found reliable and, therefore, have the potential to detect changes in muscle strength and muscle activity.

  5. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of isometric shoulder extensor and internal rotator strength measurements performed using a hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Awatani, Takenori; Morikita, Ikuhiro; Shinohara, Junji; Mori, Seigo; Nariai, Miki; Tatsumi, Yasutaka; Nagata, Akinori; Koshiba, Hiroya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to establish the intra- and inter-rater reliability of measurement of extensor strength in the maximum shoulder abducted position and internal rotator strength in the 90° abducted and the 90° external rotated position using a hand-held dynamometer. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy volunteers (12 male; mean ± SD: age 19.0 ± 1.1 years) participated in the study. The examiners were two students who had nonclinical experience with a hand-held dynamometer measurement. The examiners and participants were blinded to measurement results by the recorder. Participants in the prone position were instructed to hold the contraction against the ground reaction force, and peak isometric force was recorded using the hand-held dynamometer on the floor. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients. [Results] The intra- and inter-rater reliability data were found to be "almost perfect". [Conclusion] This study investigated intra- and inter-rater reliability and reveald high reliability. Thus, the measurement method used in the present study can evaluate muscle strength by a simple measurement technique.

  6. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of lower extremity muscle strength assessment of healthy adults using a hand held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lee, Yun-Seob

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of lower extremity muscle strength assessment of healthy adults using hand held dynamometer. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 55 students (19 males and 36 females) in Y University in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea participated in this study. Lower extremity muscle strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer (Commander Muscle Tester, JTech, USA). Flexion and extension strengths of the hip joint, the knee joint, and the ankle joint were measured. [Results] The intra-rater reliabilities were excellent (above 0.9) for the flexion and extension strengths of the ankle, knee, and hip joints. The inter-rater reliabilities were also excellent (above 0.8) for the flexion and extension strengths of the ankle, knee, and hip joint. [Conclusion] Lower extremity muscle strength assessment using a hand-held dynamometer provided consistent results when conducted by different examiners and when measured several times. Therefore, this method is a useful way of deriving objective and quantitative measurement values.

  7. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  8. Efficacy and learning curve of a hand-held echocardiography device in an oncology outpatient clinic: Expanding the use of echoscopic heart examination beyond cardiology.

    PubMed

    PéREZ DE Isla, Leopoldo Pérez; Moreno, Fernando; Garcia Saez, Jose Angel Garcia; Clavero, Matias; Moreno, Nuno; Aguado DE LA Rosa, Carlos Aguado; DE Agustin, Jose Alberto; Gomez DE Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Cobos, Miguel Angel; Saltijeral, Adriana; Macaya, Carlos; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel

    2015-07-01

    Certain chemotherapy drugs for breast cancer may induce cardiotoxicity and these patients should be echocardiographically monitored. The performance of a focused echocardiographic evaluation (echoscopy) at the patient's location by a non-cardiologist appears to be feasible. The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of echoscopy performed by medical oncologists in an outpatient clinic using hand-held echocardiography devices. The study cohort comprised consecutive unselected patients who attended an oncology outpatient clinic. Two medical oncologists attended a one-week training period, which included theoretical and practical teaching by an expert cardiologist. Every subject underwent two echo examinations. The first examination was performed by an oncologist using a hand-held echo device and the second was performed by a cardiologist using a 'premium' device. Out of the 101 enrolled patients, 32 were men (31.7%) and the mean age was 56.03±16.88 years. There was a good global agreement [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC): 0.65 for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)]. When the results were analyzed depending on the period of time when the echo studies were performed, a clear and short learning curve was observed: LVEF started at ICC=0.58 and increased to 0.66 and 0.77 in the second and third period, respectively. There were extremely few clinically significant differences and a learning curve was also evident. In conclusion, cardiac echoscopy performed by an oncologist with a hand-held device may lead to a similar clinical management as a study performed by an expert cardiologist with a 'premium' system in patients under chemotherapy following a short training period.

  9. Portable computing for taking part of the lab to the sample types of applications. From hand held personal digital assistants to smart phones for mobile spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weagant, Scott; Karanassios, Vassili

    2015-06-01

    The use of portable hand held computing devices for the acquisition of spectrochemical data is briefly discussed using examples from the author's laboratory. Several network topologies are evaluated. At present, one topology that involves a portable computing device for data acquisition and spectrometer control and that has wireless access to the internet at one end and communicates with a smart phone at the other end appears to be better suited for "taking part of the lab to the sample" types of applications. Thus, spectrometric data can be accessed from anywhere in the world.

  10. (abstract) Applications of Long-wavelength 256x256 GaAs/Al&subx;Ga&sub1-x;As Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Hand-held Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Sundaram, M.; Hong, W.; Shott, C. A.; Hoelter, T.; Laband, S.; James, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    A 9 (micro)m 256x256 hand-held quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) camera has been demonstrated. Excellent imagery, with a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE(gamma)) of 26 mK has been achieved. In this presentation, we discuss the development of this very sensitive long wavelength infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array, its performance in quantum efficience, NA(gamma), minimum resolvable temperature (MRTD), uniformity, operability, and its applications.

  11. Development of a high-speed VCSEL OCT system for real-time imaging of conscious patients larynx using a hand-held probe (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangarajan, Swathi; Chou, Li-Dek; Coughlan, Carolyn; Sharma, Giriraj; Wong, Brian J. F.; Ramalingam, Tirunelveli S.

    2016-02-01

    Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that has previously been used to image the human larynx. However, differences in anatomical geometry and short imaging range of conventional OCT limits its application in a clinical setting. In order to address this issue, we have developed a gradient-index (GRIN) lens rod-based hand-held probe in conjunction with a long imaging range 200 kHz Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system for high speed real-time imaging of the human larynx in an office setting. This hand-held probe is designed to have a long and dynamically tunable working distance to accommodate the differences in anatomical geometry of human test subjects. A nominal working distance (~6 cm) of the probe is selected to have a lateral resolution <100 um within a depth of focus of 6.4 mm, which covers more than half of the 12 mm imaging range of the VCSEL laser. The maximum lateral scanning range of the probe at 6 cm working distance is approximately 8.4 mm, and imaging an area of 8.5 mm by 8.5 mm is accomplished within a second. Using the above system, we will demonstrate real-time cross-sectional OCT imaging of larynx during phonation in vivo in human and ex-vivo in pig vocal folds.

  12. Motion-compensated hand-held common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography probe for image-guided intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Song, Cheol; Liu, Xuan; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    A motion-compensated hand-held common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography imaging probe has been developed for image guided intervention during microsurgery. A hand-held prototype instrument was designed and fabricated by integrating an imaging fiber probe inside a stainless steel needle which is attached to the ceramic shaft of a piezoelectric motor housed in an aluminum handle. The fiber probe obtains A-scan images. The distance information was extracted from the A-scans to track the sample surface distance and a fixed distance was maintained by a feedback motor control which effectively compensated hand tremor and target movements in the axial direction. Graphical user interface, real-time data processing, and visualization based on a CPU-GPU hybrid programming architecture were developed and used in the implantation of this system. To validate the system, free-hand optical coherence tomography images using various samples were obtained. The system can be easily integrated into microsurgical tools and robotics for a wide range of clinical applications. Such tools could offer physicians the freedom to easily image sites of interest with reduced risk and higher image quality.

  13. Into the Wild: Neuroergonomic Differentiation of Hand-Held and Augmented Reality Wearable Displays during Outdoor Navigation with Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McKendrick, Ryan; Parasuraman, Raja; Murtza, Rabia; Formwalt, Alice; Baccus, Wendy; Paczynski, Martin; Ayaz, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Highly mobile computing devices promise to improve quality of life, productivity, and performance. Increased situation awareness and reduced mental workload are two potential means by which this can be accomplished. However, it is difficult to measure these concepts in the "wild". We employed ultra-portable battery operated and wireless functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to non-invasively measure hemodynamic changes in the brain's Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Measurements were taken during navigation of a college campus with either a hand-held display, or an Augmented reality wearable display (ARWD). Hemodynamic measures were also paired with secondary tasks of visual perception and auditory working memory to provide behavioral assessment of situation awareness and mental workload. Navigating with an augmented reality wearable display produced the least workload during the auditory working memory task, and a trend for improved situation awareness in our measures of prefrontal hemodynamics. The hemodynamics associated with errors were also different between the two devices. Errors with an augmented reality wearable display were associated with increased prefrontal activity and the opposite was observed for the hand-held display. This suggests that the cognitive mechanisms underlying errors between the two devices differ. These findings show fNIRS is a valuable tool for assessing new technology in ecologically valid settings and that ARWDs offer benefits with regards to mental workload while navigating, and potentially superior situation awareness with improved display design.

  14. Into the Wild: Neuroergonomic Differentiation of Hand-Held and Augmented Reality Wearable Displays during Outdoor Navigation with Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    McKendrick, Ryan; Parasuraman, Raja; Murtza, Rabia; Formwalt, Alice; Baccus, Wendy; Paczynski, Martin; Ayaz, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Highly mobile computing devices promise to improve quality of life, productivity, and performance. Increased situation awareness and reduced mental workload are two potential means by which this can be accomplished. However, it is difficult to measure these concepts in the “wild”. We employed ultra-portable battery operated and wireless functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to non-invasively measure hemodynamic changes in the brain’s Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Measurements were taken during navigation of a college campus with either a hand-held display, or an Augmented reality wearable display (ARWD). Hemodynamic measures were also paired with secondary tasks of visual perception and auditory working memory to provide behavioral assessment of situation awareness and mental workload. Navigating with an augmented reality wearable display produced the least workload during the auditory working memory task, and a trend for improved situation awareness in our measures of prefrontal hemodynamics. The hemodynamics associated with errors were also different between the two devices. Errors with an augmented reality wearable display were associated with increased prefrontal activity and the opposite was observed for the hand-held display. This suggests that the cognitive mechanisms underlying errors between the two devices differ. These findings show fNIRS is a valuable tool for assessing new technology in ecologically valid settings and that ARWDs offer benefits with regards to mental workload while navigating, and potentially superior situation awareness with improved display design. PMID:27242480

  15. Thresholds of whole-blood β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose concentrations measured with an electronic hand-held device to identify ovine hyperketonemia.

    PubMed

    Pichler, M; Damberger, A; Schwendenwein, I; Gasteiner, J; Drillich, M; Iwersen, M

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic disorders, especially hyperketonemia, are very common in dairy sheep. The whole-blood concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose can be determined by commercially available electronic hand-held devices, which are used in human medicine and for the detection of ketosis in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the hand-held device Precision Xceed (PX; Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., Abbott Park, IL) to detect hyperketonemia in ewes. An additional objective of this study was to evaluate the agreement between samples obtained by minimal invasive venipuncture of an ear vein and measurements of whole-blood samples from the jugular vein (vena jugularis, v. jug.). Blood samples taken from the v. jug. were collected from 358 ewes on 4 different farms. These samples and a blood drop obtained from an ear vein were analyzed simultaneously on farm with the PX. For method comparison, the samples obtained from the v. jug. were also analyzed by standard methods, which served as the gold standard at the Central Laboratory of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria. The correlation coefficients between the serum BHBA concentration and the concentrations measured with the hand-held meter in the whole blood from an ear vein and the v. jug. were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. The correlation coefficients of plasma and whole-blood glucose concentration were 0.68 for the v. jug. and 0.47 for the ear vein. The mean glucose concentration was significantly lower in animals classified as hyperketonemic (BHBA ≥ 1.6 mmol/L) compared with healthy ewes. Whole-blood concentrations of BHBA and glucose measured with the PX from v. jug. showed a constant negative bias of 0.15 mmol/L and 8.4 mg/dL, respectively. Hence, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine thresholds for the PX to detect hyperketonemia in ewes. This resulted in thresholds for moderate ketosis of BHBA concentrations of 0.7 mmol/L in blood

  16. Suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cows by using 3 different electronic hand-held devices.

    PubMed

    Kanz, P; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Mair, B; Borchardt, S; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in 49 prepartum and 191 postpartum Holstein-Friesian cows using 3 different electronic hand-held devices [FreeStyle Precision (FSP, Abbott), GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX, A. Menarini), NovaVet (NOV, Nova Biomedical)]. The β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration in serum harvested from coccygeal blood samples was analyzed in a laboratory and used as a reference value. Capillary samples were obtained from the skin of the exterior vulva by using 1 of 3 different lancets. In all samples, the concentration of BHBA was immediately analyzed with all 3 hand-held devices used in random order. All lancets used in the study were eligible for capillary blood collection but differed in the total number of incisions needed. Spearman correlation coefficients between the BHBA concentrations in capillary blood and the reference test were highly significant with 83% for the FSP, 73% for the NOV, and 63% for the GLX. Using capillary blood, the FSP overestimated the mean BHBA concentration compared with the reference test (+0.08 mmol/L), whereas the GLX and NOV underestimated the mean concentration (-0.07 and -0.01 mmol/L). When a BHBA concentration of 1.2 mmol/L in serum was used to define subclinical ketosis, the corresponding analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized thresholds for capillary blood of 1.1 mmol/L for the NOV and GLX devices, and of 1.0 mmol/L for the FSP. Based on these thresholds, sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were 89 and 84% for the NOV, 80 and 89% for the GLX, and 100 and 76% for the FSP. Based on a serum BHBA concentration of 1.4 mmol/L, analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized cut-offs of 1.4 mmol/L for the FSP (Se 100%, Sp 92%), 1.3 mmol/L for the NOV (Se 80%, Sp 95%), and 1.1 mmol/L (Se 90%, Sp 85%) for the GLX. Using these optimized thresholds

  17. A non-resonant, frequency up-converted electromagnetic energy harvester from human-body-induced vibration for hand-held smart system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Miah A.; Park, Jae Y.

    2014-03-01

    We present a non-resonant, frequency up-converted electromagnetic energy harvester that generates significant power from human-body-induced vibration, e.g., hand-shaking. Upon excitation, a freely movable non-magnetic ball within a cylinder periodically hits two magnets suspended on two helical compression springs located at either ends of the cylinder, allowing those to vibrate with higher frequencies. The device parameters have been designed based on the characteristics of human hand-shaking vibration. A prototype has been developed and tested both by vibration exciter (for non-resonance test) and by manual hand-shaking. The fabricated device generated 110 μW average power with 15.4 μW cm-3 average power density, while the energy harvester was mounted on a smart phone and was hand-shaken, indicating its ability in powering portable hand-held smart devices from low frequency (<5 Hz) vibrations.

  18. A common-path optical coherence tomography distance-sensor based surface tracking and motion compensation hand-held microsurgical tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kang; Gehlbach, Peter; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-03-01

    Microsurgery requires constant attention to the involuntary motion due to physiological tremors. In this work, we demonstrated a simple and compact hand-held microsurgical tool capable of surface tracking and motion compensation based on common-path optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) distance-sensor to improve the accuracy and safety of microsurgery. This tool is miniaturized into a 15mm-diameter plastic syringe and capable of surface tracking at less than 5 micrometer resolution. A phantom made with Intralipid layers is used to simulate a real tissue surface and a single-fiber integrated micro-dissector works as a surgical tip to perform tracking and accurate incision on the phantom surface. The micro-incision depth is evaluated after each operation through a fast 3D scanning by the Fourier domain OCT system. The results using the surface tracking and motion compensation tool show significant improvement compared to the results by free-hand.

  19. The delivery of particulate vaccines and drugs to human skin with a practical, hand-held shock tube-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, M. A. F.

    A unique form of powdered vaccine and drug delivery has been developed. The principle behind the concept is to accelerate vaccine and drug particles, using a gas flow, so that they attain sufficient velocities to enter the skin and achieve a pharmaceutical effect. This paper presents the Contoured Shock Tube (CST), configured to deliver particles to the skin with a narrow and controlled velocity distribution and uniform spatial distribution. The gas and particle flows of a prototype CST are explored experimentally and compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations. Some key steps in converting the prototype into a practical hand-held vaccine and drug delivery system are discussed. The ability of this system to deliver particles to the skin is illustrated by sample penetration data into excised human tissue.

  20. Development of a Minimum Performance Standard for Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers as a Replacement for Halon 1211 on Civilian Transport Category Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Harry

    2002-08-01

    One or more Halon 1211 hand-held fire extinguishers are specified in Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 25.851 as a requirement on transport category aircraft with 31 or more seats. Halon 1211 has been linked to the destruction of the ozone layer and production of new Halon 1211 has been halted per the Montreal Protocol in 1993. The phase out of Halon 1211, as the hand-held firefighting agent of choice, for civilian transport category aircraft has necessitated the development of a Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) to evaluate replacement agents. The purpose of the MPS is to insure that there is no reduction in safety, both in terms of effectiveness in fighting onboard fires and toxicity to the passengers and crew. The MPS specifies two new tests that replacement agents must pass in addition to requiring national certifications such as provided by Underwriters Laboratories. The first test evaluates the "flooding" characteristics of the agent against a hidden in-flight fire. This test determines the ability of a streaming agent to function as a flooding agent. The second test evaluates the performance of the agent in fighting a terrorist fire scenario and the associated toxicity hazard. This test measures the agent's ability to extinguish a triple-seat fire in an aircraft cabin under in-flight conditions and the toxicity characteristics of both the neat agent and the products of decomposition. This MPS will insure that the replacement agents will meet or exceed the performance of Halon 1211 both in fighting fires and maintaining a safe breathing environment in aircraft cabins.

  1. Hand-held survey probe

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kevin L [Idaho Falls, ID; Hungate, Kevin E [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A system for providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include an optical sensor to generate data corresponding to a position of the detection probe with respect to a surface; a microprocessor to receive the data; a software medium having code to process the data with the microprocessor and pre-programmed parameters, and making a comparison of the data to the parameters; and an indicator device to indicate results of the comparison. A method of providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include generating output data with an optical sensor corresponding to the relative position with respect to a surface; processing the output data, including comparing the output data to pre-programmed parameters; and indicating results of the comparison.

  2. Hand-held UXO Discriminator

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, E.; Smith, J.T.; Kappler, K.N.; Ratti, A.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.

    2010-04-01

    With prior funding (UX-1225, MM-0437, and MM-0838), we have successfully designed and built a cart-mounted Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) and demonstrated its performance at various test sites (e.g., Gasperikova et al., 2007, 2009). It is a multi-transmitter multi-receiver active electromagnetic system that is able to discriminate UXO from scrap at a single measurement position, hence eliminates equirement of a very accurate sensor location. The cart-mounted system comprises of three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers (Smith et al., 2007). Receiver coils are located on ymmetry lines through the center of the system and see identical fields during the on-time of the pulse in all of the transmitter coils. They can then be wired in opposition to produce zero output during the n-ime of the pulses in three orthogonal transmitters. Moreover, this configuration dramatically reduces noise in the measurements by canceling the background electromagnetic fields (these fields are uniform ver the scale of the receiver array and are consequently nulled by the differencing operation), and by canceling the noise contributed by the tilt of the receivers in the Earth's magnetic field, and therefore reatly enhances receivers sensitivity to the gradients of the target.

  3. Hand-Held UXO Discriminator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    studies also included various capacitors , resistors, damping factors and coupling in both the S and T-termination modes. The accuracy of the model...be used as follows: (1) teflon, (2) polypropylene , (3) polystyrene, (4) polyethylene (foam is better than solid). 2.4 Fabrication and assembly...shields several different ways as well. These included floating ground, grounded to the data acquisition board, grounded to 24 V capacitor , with

  4. The use of hand-held 35 mm color infrared imagery for estimates of suspended solids - A progress report. [in water pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. F.; Whisler, F. D.; Robinette, H. R.; Finnie, D.; Cannon, T.

    1975-01-01

    A cost-effective aerial surveillance technique is proposed for detection and identification of suspended solids which would be operational for both governmental monitoring organizations and private individuals operating catfish farms. Sixteen catfish ponds were flown daily for seven days using two hand-held 35 mm cameras with both Kodachrome X and Ektachrome infrared film. Hue, value, and chroma designations were recorded for each pond on each date by three interpreters, and the accepted color was that recorded by at least two of the interpreters, or if there was a three hue range, the median was accepted. Relations between suspended solids and color designations were analyzed graphically, and chroma was discarded due to an apparent lack of correlation. The data obtained were then analyzed by multiple regression. Significant correlations were revealed between hue and value and total and inorganic suspended solids. If perfected, this technique could be developed to sufficent accuracy for large-scale reconnaissance surveys to monitor the quality of rivers and streams.

  5. Predicting meat quality traits of ovine m. semimembranosus, both fresh and following freezing and thawing, using a hand held Raman spectroscopic device.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Schmidt, Heinar; van de Ven, Remy; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2015-10-01

    Complementary studies were conducted to determine the potential for a Raman spectroscopic hand held device to predict meat quality traits of fresh lamb m. semimembranosus (topside) after ageing and freezing/thawing. Spectra were collected from 80 fresh muscles at 24h and 5d PM, another 80 muscles were measured at 24h, 5d and following freezing/thawing. Shear force, cooking loss, sarcomere length, colour, particle size, collagen content, pH24, pHu, purge and thaw loss were also measured. Results indicated a potential to predict pHu (R(2)cv=0.59), pH24 (R(2)cv=0.48) and purge (R(2)cv=0.42) using spectra collected 24h PM. L* could be predicted using spectra collected 24h (R(2)cv=0.33) or 5d PM (R(2)cv=0.33). This suggests that Raman spectroscopy is suited to identifying carcases which deviate from the normal metabolic processes and related meat quality traits.

  6. Inter-tester reliability and precision of manual muscle testing and hand-held dynamometry in lower limb muscles of children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical therapists and a student physical therapist. Inter-tester reliability [ICC(2,1)] for HHD varied from 0.76 to 0.83, indicating excellent reliability for the three muscle groups. Inter-tester reliability for MMT was 0.75 for the hip abductor muscle group, indicating good reliability, and 0.37 to 0.40 for the remaining muscle groups. The minimum detectable change was 15N for HHD and 1 scale unit of a 0 to 5 MMT scale. The results suggest a situation-specific solution to the question of which method to use. To detect small strength changes over time in children with spina bifida, MMT should be used when the child has insufficient strength to move the limb against gravity; otherwise, HHD should be used.

  7. Same-session and between-day intra-rater reliability of hand-held dynamometer measurements of isometric shoulder extensor strength.

    PubMed

    Awatani, Takenori; Mori, Seigo; Shinohara, Junji; Koshiba, Hiroya; Nariai, Miki; Tatsumi, Yasutaka; Nagata, Akinori; Morikita, Ikuhiro

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study was to establish the same-session and between-day intra-rater reliability of measurements of extensor strength in the maximum abducted position (MABP) using hand-held dynamometer (HHD). [Subjects] Thirteen healthy volunteers (10 male, 3 female; mean ± SD: age 19.8 ± 0.8 y) participated in the study. [Methods] Participants in the prone position with maximum abduction of shoulder were instructed to hold the contraction against the ground reaction force, and peak isometric force was recorded using the HHD on the floor. Participants performed maximum isometric contractions lasting 3 s, with 3 trials in one session. Between-day measurements were performed in 2 sessions separated by a 1-week interval. Intra-rater reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Systematic errors were assessed using Bland-Altman analysis for between-day data. [Results] ICC values for same-session data and between-day data were found to be "almost perfect". Systematic errors not existed and only random error existed. [Conclusion] The measurement method used in this study can easily control for experimental conditions and allow precise measurement because the lack of stabilization and the impact of tester strength are removed. Thus, extensor strength in MABP measurement is beneficial for muscle strength assessment.

  8. Reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurements made by a hand-held dynamometer and a belt: a comparison of two types of device.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Munenori

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of 2 hand-held dynamometers (HHD-1, 2) with different designs, by performing isometric knee muscle extension measurements two times each. [Subjects] The subjects were 40 young healthy adults. [Methods] The reliability of the measurements was examined using Bland-Altman analysis. [Results] Bland-Altman analysis found a fixed bias in measurements made by HHD-1 with an average limits of agreement (LOA) value of -2.1 kgf. For HHD-2, only random errors were detected, and the minimal detectable change (MDC) was 11.4 kgf. Fixed biases were observed between the two devices with an average LOA value of 2.2 kgf. When the bodyweight ratio was used, fixed biases were observed in measurements made by both devices, and the average value of LOA was -0.03 kgf/kg. The comparison of the two devices revealed only random errors, and MDC was 0.22 kgf/kg. [Conclusion] For HHD measurements using these two devices, the appropriate number of measurements is two times, and comparison of measurement values between the two devices should be avoided.

  9. Reliability of Isometric Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements of Healthy Elderly Subjects Made with a Hand-held Dynamometer and a Belt.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Munenori; Isozaki, Koji

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of three isometric knee extension strength measurements (IKE) made with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and a belt of healthy elderly living in the community as subjects. [Subjects] The subject cohort consisted of 186 healthy elderly people, aged 65 to 79 years, living in local communities. [Methods] IKE of the leg subjects used to kick a ball was measured. IKE of each subject was measured three times using an HHD-belt at intervals of 30 seconds. The reliability of the larger of the first two measurements (LV2) as well as the third measurement (3V) was investigated. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (1, 1)] for LV2 and 3V were 0.955. Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, and the limits of agreement ranged from -5.6 to 4.6. [Conclusion] The ICC results show that the test-retest reproducibility of IKE measurements of healthy elderly subjects using an HHD-belt is high. However, Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, suggesting the need for three measurements.

  10. A combination of hand-held models and computer imaging programs helps students answer oral questions about molecular structure and function: a controlled investigation of student learning.

    PubMed

    Harris, Michelle A; Peck, Ronald F; Colton, Shannon; Morris, Jennifer; Chaibub Neto, Elias; Kallio, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a controlled investigation to examine whether a combination of computer imagery and tactile tools helps introductory cell biology laboratory undergraduate students better learn about protein structure/function relationships as compared with computer imagery alone. In all five laboratory sections, students used the molecular imaging program, Protein Explorer (PE). In the three experimental sections, three-dimensional physical models were made available to the students, in addition to PE. Student learning was assessed via oral and written research summaries and videotaped interviews. Differences between the experimental and control group students were not found in our typical course assessments such as research papers, but rather were revealed during one-on-one interviews with students at the end of the semester. A subset of students in the experimental group produced superior answers to some higher-order interview questions as compared with students in the control group. During the interview, students in both groups preferred to use either the hand-held models alone or in combination with the PE imaging program. Students typically did not use any tools when answering knowledge (lower-level thinking) questions, but when challenged with higher-level thinking questions, students in both the control and experimental groups elected to use the models.

  11. A compact and hand-held infection-screening system for use in rapid medical inspection at airport quarantine stations: system design and preliminary validation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Miyata, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Ayumu; Zhao, Zijun; Iwakami, Sayuri; Kim, Seokjin; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-04-01

    To conduct mass screening and thereby reduce the spread of infection, a compact (13.5 cm × 8.5 cm × 2.5 cm), highly-mobile and hand-held infection-screening system was developed for rapid medical inspection in mass gathering places such as airports. The system is capable of non-contact vital-sign monitoring using two integrated sensors: a 24-GHz microwave radar for measuring heart and respiration rates and a thermopile array for capturing facial temperature. Subsequently, the system detects infected individuals using a linear discriminant function (LDA) from the derived vital-signs data. The system was tested on 10 subjects under two conditions (resting as normal and exercising as pseudo-infected, i.e. a 10-min bicycle ergometer at 100 W exercise); the normal and pseudo-infected conditions were classified successfully via LDA for all subjects (p < 0.01; classification error rate < 5%). The proposed non-contact system can be applied for preventing secondary exposure of medical doctors at the outbreak of highly pathogenic infectious diseases such as the Ebola virus.

  12. An approach to precise nitrogen management using hand-held crop sensor measurements and winter wheat yield mapping in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Quebrajo, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agüera, Juan

    2015-03-06

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index-NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha(-1) and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm(-1) (field 1) and 3221 ± 531 kg ha(-1) and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm(-1) (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with r(xy) = 0.64 and p < 10(-4) in field 1 and r(xy) = 0.78 and p < 10(-4) in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis.

  13. Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, V.; Joyner, K.H.

    1995-05-01

    Electric fields (E-fields) induced within a phantom head from exposure to three different advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) hand-held telephones were measured using an implantable E-Field probe. Measurements were taken in the eye nearest the phone and along a lateral scan through the brain from its center to the side nearest the phone. During measurement, the phones were positioned alongside the phantom head as in typical use and were configured to transmit at maximum power (600 mW nominal). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated from the in situ E-field measurements, which varied significantly between phone models and antenna configuration. The SARs induced in the eye ranged from 0.007 to 0.21 W/kg. Metal-framed spectacles enhanced SAR levels in the eye by 9--29%. In the brain, maximum levels were recorded at the measurement point closest to the phone and ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 W/kg. These SARs are below peak spatial limits recommended in the US and Australian national standards and the IRPA guidelines for safe exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, a detailed thermal analysis of the eye indicated only a 0.022 C maximum steady-state temperature rise in the eye from a uniform SAR loading of 0.21 W/kg. A more approximate thermal analysis in the brain also indicated only a small maximum temperature rise of 0.034 C for a local SAR loading of 0.83 W/kg.

  14. VALIDATION OF ANSI N42.34 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR HAND-HELD INSTRUMENTS FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF RADIONUCLIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Lorier, T.

    2014-09-03

    SRNL’s validation of ANSI N42.34-D6 for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) was performed utilizing one hand-held instrument (or RID) – the FLIR identiFINDER 2. Each section of the standard was evaluated via a walk-through or test. NOTE: In Table 1, W = walk-through and T = test, as directed by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). For a walk-through, the experiment was either setup or reviewed for setup; for a test, the N42.34-D6 procedures were followed with some exceptions and comments noted. SRNL is not fully able to evaluate a RID against Sections 7 (Environmental), 8 (Electromagnetic), and 9 (Mechanical) of N42.34, so those portions of this validation were done in collaboration with Qualtest, Inc. in Orlando, Florida. The walk-throughs and tests of Sections 7, 8, and 9 were performed in Qualtest, Inc. facilities with SRNL providing radiological sources as necessary. Where applicable, assessment results and findings of the walk-throughs and tests were recorded on datasheets and a validation summary is provided. A general comment pertained to test requirements found in another standard and referenced in N42.34-D6. For example, step 1 of the test method in section 8.1.2 states “RF test set up information can be found in IEC 61000-4-3.” It is recommended that any information from other standards necessary for conducting the tests within N42.34 should be posted in N42.34 for simplicity and to prevent the user from having to peruse other documents. Another general comment, as noted by Qualtest, is that a tolerance reference is not listed for each test in sections 7-9. Overall, the N42.34-D6 was proven to be practicable, but areas for improvement and recommendations were identified for consideration prior to final ballot submittal.

  15. Hand-held echocardiography in the setting of pre-operative cardiac evaluation of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery: results from a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Mega, Simona; Goffredo, Costanza; Patti, Giuseppe; Chello, Massimo; Di Sciascio, Germano

    2015-06-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography is not a routine test in the pre-operative cardiac evaluation of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery but may be considered in those with known heart failure and valvular heart disease or complaining cardiac symptoms. In this setting, hand-held echocardiography (HHE) could find a potential application as an alternative to standard echocardiography in selected patients; however, its utility in this context has not been investigated. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the conclusiveness of HHE compared to standard echocardiography in this subset of patients. 100 patients scheduled for non-cardiac surgery were randomized to receive a standard exam with a Philips Ie33 or a bedside evaluation with a pocket-size imaging device (Opti-Go, Philips Medical System). The primary endpoint was the percentage of satisfactory diagnosis at the end of the examination referred as conclusiveness. Secondary endpoints were the mean duration time and the mean waiting time to perform the exams. No significant difference in terms of conclusiveness between HHE and standard echo was found (86 vs 96%; P = 0.08). Mean duration time of the examinations was 6.1 ± 1.2 min with HHE and 13.1 ± 2.6 min with standard echocardiography (P < 0.001). HHE resulted in a consistent save of waiting time because it was performed the same day of clinical evaluation whereas patients waited 10.1 ± 6.1 days for a standard echocardiography (P < 0.001). This study suggests the potential role of HHE for pre-operative evaluation of selected patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, since it provided similar information but it was faster and earlier performed compared to standard echocardiography.

  16. Detection performance assessment of hand-held mine detection systems in a procurement process: test set-up for MDs and MD/GPRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoolderman, Arnold J.; Roosenboom, Jacques H. J.

    2005-06-01

    The Engineers Centre of Expertise of the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA) has conducted a study on countermine in peace operations. This study, finished in 2002, concluded that the final solution to countermine will depend in the first place on better detection of buried low-metal mines, e.g. by direct detection of the explosive components in mines. Until such detection systems are available, intermediate solutions are necessary in order to assure freedom of movement in peace operations. Because countermine operations consist of a number of different activities (area preparation, detection, clearance, etc) and the suitability of the different types of available equipment depends on the scenario, the toolbox concept for countermine equipment was adopted. In 2003 a procurement process was started in order to fill this toolbox with commercial-off-the-shelf and military-off-the-shelf equipment. The paper gives a concise description of the study on countermine operations and the procurement process, and subsequently focuses on the set-up of the tests that were conducted in the framework of the procurement of hand-held mine detection systems, like metal detectors and dual-sensor mine detectors. Programs of requirements for these systems were drawn up, aiming at systems for general use and special purpose systems. Blind tests to check the compliancy to the detection performance requirements were designed and conducted in the short timeframe that was available in the procurement process. These tests are discussed in this paper, including the set-up of the test lanes, the targets used and their depths, and the role of the operator. The tests of the capability of the detectors to discriminate small targets adjacent to large targets were conducted according the guidelines of the CEN Workshop Agreement on metal detector tests. Although the results of the tests are commercially confidential, conclusions and lessons learned from the execution of these tests are presented.

  17. An Approach to Precise Nitrogen Management Using Hand-Held Crop Sensor Measurements and Winter Wheat Yield Mapping in a Mediterranean Environment

    PubMed Central

    Quebrajo, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agüera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index—NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha−1 and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm−1 (field 1) and 3221 ± 531 kg ha−1 and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm−1 (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with rxy = 0.64 and p < 10−4 in field 1 and rxy = 0.78 and p < 10−4 in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis. PMID:25756861

  18. Micro-fluidic (Lab-on the- Chip) PCR Array Cartridge for Biological Screening in a Hand Held Device: FInal Report for CRADA no 264. PNNL-T2-258-RU with CombiMatrix Corp

    SciTech Connect

    Rainina, Evguenia I.

    2010-10-31

    The worldwide emergence of both new and old diseases resulting from human expansion and also human and materials mobility has and will continue to place stress on both medical and clinical diagnostics. The classical approach to bioagents detection involves the use of differential metabolic assays to determine species type in the case of most bacteria, or the use of cell culture and electron microscopy to diagnose viruses and some bacteria that are intracellular parasites. The long-term goal in bioagent detection is to develop a hand-held instrument featuring disposable cartridges which contain all the necessary reagents, reaction chambers, waste chambers, and micro-fluidics to extract, concentrate, amplify, and analyze nucleic acids. This GIPP project began development of a sensory platform using nucleic-acid based probes. Although research was not completed, initial findings indicated that an advanced sensing device could theoretically be built on a DNA/RNA-based technology platform.

  19. Semiconductor heterostructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold John (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry MacPherson (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  20. Semiconductor structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold J. (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  1. Development of a Hand Held Thromboelastograph

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    98/79/EC In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices ISO 9001 :2008 Quality management systems- Requirements ISO 13485:2012 Medical Device Quality Management ...in compliance with ISO 13485 and the FDA Quality System Regulation 21CFR Part 820. In addition, the following applicable standards and guidance...Statistical aspects ISO 14971:2012 Application of Risk Management to Medical Devices ISO 15223-1:2012 Medical devices. Symbols to be used with medical

  2. Using a Hand-Held Electronic Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Roger

    1975-01-01

    The arithmetic needed for complex calculation using an electronic calculator is explained and exemplified. Problems involving square roots, number theory, Fibonacci numbers, and electrical resistances are solved. (SD)

  3. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-07

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  4. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, Tommy L.; Powers, Hurshal G.

    1987-01-01

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  5. Development of a Hand Held Thromboelastograph

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Subtask 1d: Robustness of device architecture: 1 meter drop test Subtasks 1a – 1d are complete. The voice coil actuator (VCA) motors will generate a...into the 75 µ gap between the two glass plates. A shear rate of 1000/s was chosen based on the data. A one- meter drop test was conducted in-house...interaction • Technical improvements to handheld device and disposable cartridge were identified based on initial testing, and implementation began

  6. Semiconductor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C. (Inventor); Lagowski, Jacek (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor sensor adapted to detect with a high degree of sensitivity small magnitudes of a mechanical force, presence of traces of a gas or light. The sensor includes a high energy gap (i.e., .about. 1.0 electron volts) semiconductor wafer. Mechanical force is measured by employing a non-centrosymmetric material for the semiconductor. Distortion of the semiconductor by the force creates a contact potential difference (cpd) at the semiconductor surface, and this cpd is determined to give a measure of the force. When such a semiconductor is subjected to illumination with an energy less than the energy gap of the semiconductors, such illumination also creates a cpd at the surface. Detection of this cpd is employed to sense the illumination itself or, in a variation of the system, to detect a gas. When either a gas or light is to be detected and a crystal of a non-centrosymmetric material is employed, the presence of gas or light, in appropriate circumstances, results in a strain within the crystal which distorts the same and the distortion provides a mechanism for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the gas or the light, as the case may be.

  7. Semiconductor photoelectrochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Semiconductor photoelectrochemical reactions are investigated. A model of the charge transport processes in the semiconductor, based on semiconductor device theory, is presented. It incorporates the nonlinear processes characterizing the diffusion and reaction of charge carriers in the semiconductor. The model is used to study conditions limiting useful energy conversion, specifically the saturation of current flow due to high light intensity. Numerical results describing charge distributions in the semiconductor and its effects on the electrolyte are obtained. Experimental results include: an estimate rate at which a semiconductor photoelectrode is capable of converting electromagnetic energy into chemical energy; the effect of cell temperature on the efficiency; a method for determining the point of zero zeta potential for macroscopic semiconductor samples; a technique using platinized titanium dioxide powders and ultraviolet radiation to produce chlorine, bromine, and iodine from solutions containing their respective ions; the photoelectrochemical properties of a class of layered compounds called transition metal thiophosphates; and a technique used to produce high conversion efficiency from laser radiation to chemical energy.

  8. Hand-Held Video for Clinical Skills Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mark; Jones, Steve; Murphy, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    In health care education a balance needs to be struck between theoretical and practical teaching. Undergraduates typically split their time between clinical placement and university-based teaching blocks. A proportion of the time spent in preparation for clinical practice placements will be spent in the classroom or in simulation suites. The…

  9. Hand-held instrument should relieve hematoma pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raggio, L. J.; Robertson, T. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable instrument relieves hematomas beneath fingernails and toenails without surgery. This device simplifies the operative procedure with an instant variable heating tip, adjustable depth settings and interchangeable tip sizes for cauterizing small areas and relieving pressurized clots.

  10. Vibration reduction on hand-held grinders by automatic balancing.

    PubMed

    Lindell, H

    1996-02-01

    By automatically balanced hand hold grinders, vibrations are reduced to at least half and thereby reducing the estimated risk for vibration injuries by a factor of four. Simultaneously less grinding disc consumption and better grinding results are obtained. Vibration from grinders originates mainly from unbalance in the grinding wheel. Grinding wheels are low price products. With uneven distribution of mass and coarse tolerances. This gives rise to out-of-balance, which changes as the wheel wears. By fitting an automatic balancer, that consists of steel balls contained in a cylindrical ball race on the shaft of the grinder, unbalances will be compensate for in the machine during grinding. The time it takes for an automatic balancer to stabilize is only a few tenths of a second. When grinding, the balancer is stable, even during substantial changes in speed. The technique is applicable to almost all grinding machines on the market and the first grinders using the technique have just been put on the market.

  11. Hand-Held Electronic Gap-Measuring Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, F. E.; Thompson, F. W.; Aragon, L. A.; Harrington, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Repetitive measurements simplified by tool based on LVDT operation. With fingers in open position, Gap-measuring tool rests on digital readout instrument. With fingers inserted in gap, separation alters inductance of linear variable-differential transformer in plastic handle. Originally developed for measuring gaps between surface tiles of Space Shuttle orbiter, tool reduces measurement time from 20 minutes per tile to 2 minutes. Also reduces possibility of damage to tiles during measurement. Tool has potential applications in mass production; helps ensure proper gap dimensions in assembly of refrigerator and car doors and also used to measure dimensions of components and to verify positional accuracy of components during progressive assembly operations.

  12. Testing of Hand-Held Mine Detection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-08

    8 January 2015 19 sensors are activated with simulated targets (source of detector stimuli), and displays, lights, and light-emitting diodes...information about the detector and detection performance to the data collector). 4.3.4 System Performance Trials Test Lanes/Area ( Blind Performance and...q. Other target truth data unique to the environment or detector type (temperatures of backgrounds, solar loading on detector components, targets

  13. Portable wide-field hand-held NIR scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Young-Jin; Roman, Manuela; Carrasquilla, Jennifer; Erickson, Sarah J.; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2013-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging modality is one of the widely used medical imaging techniques for breast cancer imaging, functional brain mapping, and many other applications. However, conventional NIR imaging systems are bulky and expensive, thereby limiting their accelerated clinical translation. Herein a new compact (6 × 7 × 12 cm3), cost-effective, and wide-field NIR scanner has been developed towards contact as well as no-contact based real-time imaging in both reflectance and transmission mode. The scanner mainly consists of an NIR source light (between 700- 900 nm), an NIR sensitive CCD camera, and a custom-developed image acquisition and processing software to image an area of 12 cm2. Phantom experiments have been conducted to estimate the feasibility of diffuse optical imaging by using Indian-Ink as absorption-based contrast agents. As a result, the developed NIR system measured the light intensity change in absorption-contrasted target up to 4 cm depth under transillumination mode. Preliminary in-vivo studies demonstrated the feasibility of real-time monitoring of blood flow changes. Currently, extensive in-vivo studies are carried out using the ultra-portable NIR scanner in order to assess the potential of the imager towards breast imaging..

  14. Hand held sample tube manipulator, system and method

    DOEpatents

    Kenny, Donald V [Liberty Township, OH; Smith, Deborah L [Liberty Township, OH; Severance, Richard A [late of Columbus, OH

    2001-01-01

    A manipulator apparatus, system and method for measuring analytes present in sample tubes. The manipulator apparatus includes a housing having a central bore with an inlet end and outlet end; a plunger mechanism with at least a portion thereof slideably disposed for reciprocal movement within the central bore, the plunger mechanism having a tubular gas channel with an inlet end and an outlet end, the gas channel inlet end disposed in the same direction as said inlet end of the central bore, wherein the inlet end of said plunger mechanism is adapted for movement so as to expel a sample tube inserted in the bore at the outlet end of the housing, the inlet end of the plunger mechanism is adapted for connection to gas supply; a first seal is disposed in the housing for sealing between the central bore and the plunger mechanism; a second seal is disposed at the outlet end of the housing for sealing between the central bore and a sample tube; a holder mounted on the housing for holding the sample tube; and a biasing mechanism for returning the plunger mechanism to a starting position.

  15. Hand-held calculator assists in directional drilling control

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for the use of an HP-41C to correct error terms due to scale factor, bias, temperature, and misalignment errors in the individual magnetic and gravity sensors used in a borehole angle measurement system. Borehole angle sensors as used in a directional measurement system often have errors due to a variety of different sources. Presents figures showing an example coefficient list for a complete sensor; user instructions; a program listing of ''Errors'' for an HP-41C programmable calculator with 2 extra HP-82143A printers; example input and output data; and a bar code listing for those readers with HP optical wands.

  16. Hand-Held Computer Programs for Preliminary Helicopter Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    programmable calculator a series of programs that give acceptable results during the preliminary phases of the helicopter design process. The project consists of three parts. The first part consists of several short programs and their subroutine form. These programs and subroutines compute density altitude, density, disc area, solidity, tip velocity, induced velocity, coefficient of thrust, tip loss factor, equivalent chord, and ground effect. The second part consists of major subroutines. These subroutines compute profile power, induced power, climb power, parasite power,

  17. Hand-Held Calculator Algorithms for Coastal Engineering (Second Series).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    2 78*181 13 22 * 79 RCL 82 23 8 8 t 2’ * 81 PRA ? 5 STO 08 .77d- Roo 9832 PRX 26 "SiL HT7 ? 33 1/8 2? PROMPT 84 QCI 08 4128 ’SIL Hl- 35 * V29 PRA 86 2...NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER CETA 82-4e 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5 . TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED Coastal Fnpineerinp...CUSTOMARY TO METRIC (SI) .... ........ 5 I INTRODUCTION ............ .......................... 7 II PROGRAMS ....................................... 7

  18. Photoelectrosynthesis at semiconductor electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A. J.

    1980-12-01

    The general principles of photoelectrochemistry and photoelectrosynthesis are reviewed and some new developments in photoelectrosynthesis are discussed. Topics include energetics of semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces(band-edge unpinning); hot carrier injection at illuminated semiconductor-electrolyte junctions; derivatized semiconductor electrodes; particulate photoelectrochemical systems; layered compounds and other new materials; and dye sensitization. (WHK)

  19. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  20. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  1. Coherent spectroscopy of semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Steven T

    2008-03-31

    The coherent optical response of semiconductors has been the subject of substantial research over the last couple of decades. The interest has been motivated by unique aspects of the interaction between light and semiconductors that are revealed by coherent techniques. The ability to probe the dynamics of charge carriers has been a significant driver. This paper presents a review of selected results in coherent optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  2. Semiconductor microcavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, P.L.; Wendt, J.R.; Vawter, G.A.; Warren, M.E.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1994-02-01

    New kinds of semiconductor microcavity lasers are being created by modern semiconductor technologies like molecular beam epitaxy and electron beam lithography. These new microcavities exploit 3-dimensional architectures possible with epitaxial layering and surface patterning. The physical properties of these microcavities are intimately related to the geometry imposed on the semiconductor materials. Among these microcavities are surface-emitting structures which have many useful properties for commercial purposes. This paper reviews the basic physics of these microstructured lasers.

  3. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  4. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  5. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Grimmer, Derrick P.; Paulson, Kenneth R.; Gilbert, James R.

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  6. Molecular Semiconductors: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, John; Halls, Jonathan James Michael

    2005-10-01

    Introducing the fundamental ideas and concepts behind organic semiconductors, this book provides a clear impression of the broad range of research activities currently underway. Aimed specifically at new entrant doctoral students from a wide variety of backgrounds, including chemistry, physics, electrical engineering and materials science, it also represents an ideal companion text to undergraduate courses in organic semiconductors.

  7. Semiconductor Solar Superabsorbers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yiling; Huang, Lujun; Cao, Linyou

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the maximal enhancement of solar absorption in semiconductor materials by light trapping promises the development of affordable solar cells. However, the conventional Lambertian limit is only valid for idealized material systems with weak absorption, and cannot hold for the typical semiconductor materials used in solar cells due to the substantial absorption of these materials. Herein we theoretically demonstrate the maximal solar absorption enhancement for semiconductor materials and elucidate the general design principle for light trapping structures to approach the theoretical maximum. By following the principles, we design a practical light trapping structure that can enable an ultrathin layer of semiconductor materials, for instance, 10 nm thick a-Si, absorb > 90% sunlight above the bandgap. The design has active materials with one order of magnitude less volume than any of the existing solar light trapping designs in literature. This work points towards the development of ultimate solar light trapping techniques. PMID:24531211

  8. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    2004-11-15

    A review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors is presented. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, can be considered the most important one for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples. Manuel Cardona, the longtime editor-in-chief of Solid State Communications has been and continues to be one of the major contributors to this field of solid state physics and it is a great pleasure to dedicate this review to him.

  9. Semiconductor Nanocrystal Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    D. Krauss, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, " Energy transfer between colloidal semiconductor quantum dots in an optical microcavity," (submitted, 2006...Phys. Lett. 82, 4032 (2003). J. J. Peterson and T. D. Krauss, "Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Single Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots ," Nano Lett. (in press...Guo, Xiaowei Teng, Hong Yang, Todd D. Krauss, Carl B. Poitras, and Michal Lipson, "Enhanced Energy Transfer between Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum

  10. SILICON CARBIDE FOR SEMICONDUCTORS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This state-of-the-art survey on silicon carbide for semiconductors includes a bibliography of the most important references published as of the end...of 1964. The various methods used for growing silicon carbide single crystals are reviewed, as well as their properties and devices fabricated from...them. The fact that the state of-the-art of silicon carbide semiconductors is not further advanced may be attributed to the difficulties of growing

  11. Network connectivity enhancement by exploiting all optical multicast in semiconductor ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siraj, M.; Memon, M. I.; Shoaib, M.; Alshebeili, S.

    2015-03-01

    The use of smart phone and tablet applications will provide the troops for executing, controlling and analyzing sophisticated operations with the commanders providing crucial documents directly to troops wherever and whenever needed. Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is a cutting edge networking technology which is capable of supporting Joint Tactical radio System (JTRS).WMNs are capable of providing the much needed bandwidth for applications like hand held radios and communication for airborne and ground vehicles. Routing management tasks can be efficiently handled through WMNs through a central command control center. As the spectrum space is congested, cognitive radios are a much welcome technology that will provide much needed bandwidth. They can self-configure themselves, can adapt themselves to the user requirement, provide dynamic spectrum access for minimizing interference and also deliver optimal power output. Sometimes in the indoor environment, there are poor signal issues and reduced coverage. In this paper, a solution utilizing (CR WMNs) over optical network is presented by creating nanocells (PCs) inside the indoor environment. The phenomenon of four-wave mixing (FWM) is exploited to generate all-optical multicast using semiconductor ring laser (SRL). As a result same signal is transmitted at different wavelengths. Every PC is assigned a unique wavelength. By using CR technology in conjunction with PC will not only solve network coverage issue but will provide a good bandwidth to the secondary users.

  12. Method of doping a semiconductor

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Chiang Y.; Rapp, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient.

  13. Semiconductor surface protection material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, R. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method and a product for protecting semiconductor surfaces is disclosed. The protective coating material is prepared by heating a suitable protective resin with an organic solvent which is solid at room temperature and converting the resulting solution into sheets by a conventional casting operation. Pieces of such sheets of suitable shape and thickness are placed on the semiconductor areas to be coated and heat and vacuum are then applied to melt the sheet and to drive off the solvent and cure the resin. A uniform adherent coating, free of bubbles and other defects, is thus obtained exactly where it is desired.

  14. Quantum Transport in Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    SRS i 91 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantum Transport in Semiconductors 5. FUNDING NUMBER söMtos-rizk-ooss 6. AUTHOR(S) D. K. Ferry ©fte ELECTE...OF ABSTRACT UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500 O 1 9 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Presented by ANSI Std «9-18 298-102 Final Report Quantum Transport in... Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Devices This final report describes a program of research investigating quantum effects which become important in

  15. GUARD RING SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTION

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, F.S.; Hansen, W.L.

    1963-12-01

    A semiconductor diode having a very low noise characteristic when used under reverse bias is described. Surface leakage currents, which in conventional diodes greatly contribute to noise, are prevented from mixing with the desired signal currents. A p-n junction is formed with a thin layer of heavily doped semiconductor material disposed on a lightly doped, physically thick base material. An annular groove cuts through the thin layer and into the base for a short distance, dividing the thin layer into a peripheral guard ring that encircles the central region. Noise signal currents are shunted through the guard ring, leaving the central region free from such currents. (AEC)

  16. New unorthodox semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Board, K.

    1985-12-01

    A range of new semiconductor devices, including a number of structures which rely entirely upon new phenomena, are discussed. Unipolar two-terminal devices, including impurity-controlled barriers and graded composition barriers, are considered, as are new transistor structures, including the hot-electron camel transistor, the planar-doped barrier transistor, the thermionic emission transistor, and the permeable base transistor. Regenerative switching devices are addressed, including the metal-tunnel insulator-semiconductor switch, the polysilicon switch, MIS, and MISIM switching structures, and the triangular-barrier switch. Heterostructure devices are covered, including the heterojunction bipolar transistor, the selectively doped heterojunction transistor, heterojunction lasers, and quantum-well structures.

  17. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  18. Chemically Derivatized Semiconductor Photoelectrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrighton, Mark S.

    1983-01-01

    Deliberate modification of semiconductor photoelectrodes to improve durability and enhance rate of desirable interfacial redox processes is discussed for a variety of systems. Modification with molecular-based systems or with metals/metal oxides yields results indicating an important role for surface modification in devices for fundamental study…

  19. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2004-05-01

    Organic semiconductors are of steadily growing interest as active components in electronics and optoelectronics. Due to their flexibility, low cost and ease-of-production they represent a valid alternative to conventional inorganic semiconductor technology in a number of applications, such as flat panel displays and illumination, plastic integrated circuits or solar energy conversion. Although first commercial applications of this technology are being realized nowadays, there is still the need for a deeper scientific understanding in order to achieve optimum device performance.This special issue of physica status solidi (a) tries to give an overview of our present-day knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 17 international research groups cover various aspects of this field ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in different devices like organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes.Putting together such a special issue one soon realizes that it is simply impossible to fully cover the whole area of organic semiconductors. Nevertheless, we hope that the reader will find the collection of topics in this issue useful for getting an up-to-date review of a field which is still developing very dynamically.

  20. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Tull, Carolyn R.; Vilkelis, Gintas

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  1. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  2. Stretchable Organic Semiconductor Devices.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yan; Zhang, Xinwen; Xie, Linghai; Qi, Dianpeng; Chandran, Bevita K; Chen, Xiaodong; Huang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Stretchable electronics are essential for the development of intensely packed collapsible and portable electronics, wearable electronics, epidermal and bioimplanted electronics, 3D surface compliable devices, bionics, prosthesis, and robotics. However, most stretchable devices are currently based on inorganic electronics, whose high cost of fabrication and limited processing area make it difficult to produce inexpensive, large-area devices. Therefore, organic stretchable electronics are highly attractive due to many advantages over their inorganic counterparts, such as their light weight, flexibility, low cost and large-area solution-processing, the reproducible semiconductor resources, and the easy tuning of their properties via molecular tailoring. Among them, stretchable organic semiconductor devices have become a hot and fast-growing research field, in which great advances have been made in recent years. These fantastic advances are summarized here, focusing on stretchable organic field-effect transistors, light-emitting devices, solar cells, and memory devices.

  3. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  4. Metal Contacts in Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    surfaces, Pnotoelectron spe troscopy, Auger electron spectro- I scopy, Schottky barriers, ohmic contacts, Defects in semiconductors, Cadmium * telluride...Indium phosphide, Gallium arsenide, Gallium Selenide . j 20. ABSTR ACT (roothat ow rees esh " neceay and td..ity by block -. b*w) SThe application of...angstroms. Also, provided one eliminates the systems where cadmium outdiffusion into high work function metals occurs then good agreement between the

  5. Tunable semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable semiconductor lasers are disclosed requiring minimized coupling regions. Multiple laser embodiments employ ring resonators or ring resonator pairs using only a single coupling region with the gain medium are detailed. Tuning can be performed by changing the phase of the coupling coefficient between the gain medium and a ring resonator of the laser. Another embodiment provides a tunable laser including two Mach-Zehnder interferometers in series and a reflector coupled to a gain medium.

  6. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at 7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at 6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing `only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around 2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  7. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  8. New Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestra, F.

    2008-11-01

    A review of recently emerging semiconductor devices for nanoelectronic applications is given. For the end of the international technology roadmap for semiconductors, very innovative materials, technologies and nanodevice architectures will be needed. Silicon on insulator-based devices seem to be the best candidates for the ultimate integration of integrated circuits on silicon. The flexibility of the silicon on insulator-based structure and the possibility to realize new device architectures allow to obtain optimum electrical properties for low power and high performance circuits. These transistors are also very interesting for high frequency and memory applications. The performance and physical mechanisms are addressed in single- and multi-gate thin film Si, SiGe and Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. The impact of tensile or compressive uniaxial and biaxial strains in the channel, of high k materials and metal gates as well as metallic Schottky source-drain architectures are discussed. Finally, the interest of advanced beyond-CMOS (complementary MOS) nanodevices for long term applications, based on nanowires, carbon electronics or small slope switch structures are presented.

  9. Tunable High Brightness Semiconductor Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2015-0066 TUNABLE HIGH BRIGHTNESS SEMICONDUCTOR SOURCES Robert Bedford, Saima Husaini, Charles Reyner, and Tuoc Dang...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2015 Final 5 November 2010 – 1 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TUNABLE HIGH BRIGHTNESS SEMICONDUCTOR SOURCES 5a...included within the Tunable High Brightness Semiconductor Sources work unit includes several technology advancements. First, theoretical advances in mid

  10. New developments in power semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper represents an overview of some recent power semiconductor developments and spotlights new technologies that may have significant impact for aircraft electric secondary power. Primary emphasis will be on NASA-Lewis-supported developments in transistors, diodes, a new family of semiconductors, and solid-state remote power controllers. Several semiconductor companies that are moving into the power arena with devices rated at 400 V and 50 A and above are listed, with a brief look at a few devices.

  11. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  12. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-03-25

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode-semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode-semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect.

  13. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  14. Nanoscale Semiconductor Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-25

    MONITOR’S REPORT Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 NUMBER(S) AFRL -RV-PS-TR-2014-0202 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release...Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVSE/Jesse Mee 1 cy ... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2014-0202 TR-2014-0202 NANOSCALE SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS Steven R. J. Brueck and Ganesh Balakrishnan University of New

  15. Electrowetting on semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Cesar; Deegan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Applying a voltage difference between a conductor and a sessile droplet sitting on a thin dielectric film separating it from the conductor will cause the drop to spread. When the conductor is a good metal, the change of the drop's contact angle due to the voltage is given by the Young-Lippmann (YL) equation. Here, we report experiments with lightly doped, single crystal silicon as the conductive electrode. We derive a modified YL equation that includes effects due to the semiconductor and contact line pinning. We show that light induces a non-reversible wetting transition, and that our model agrees well with our experimental results.

  16. Semiconductor cooling apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Gaier, James R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Gas derived graphite fibers generated by the decomposition of an organic gas are joined with a suitable binder. This produces a high thermal conductivity composite material which passively conducts heat from a source, such as a semiconductor, to a heat sink. The fibers may be intercalated. The intercalate can be halogen or halide salt, alkaline metal, or any other species which contributes to the electrical conductivity improvement of the graphite fiber. The fibers are bundled and joined with a suitable binder to form a high thermal conductivity composite material device. The heat transfer device may also be made of intercalated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and machined, rather than made of fibers.

  17. Microwave semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitch, J. E.

    1985-03-01

    The state of the art of microwave semiconductor design is reviewed, with emphasis on developments of the past 10-12 years. Consideration is given to: varistor diodes; varactor diodes; and transit time negative diodes. The design principles of bipolar and unipolar transistors are discussed, with reference to power FETs, traveling-wave FETs, and camel or planar-doped barrier transistors. Recent innovations in the field of fabrication technology are also considered, including: crystal growth; doping; and packaging. Several schematic drawings and photographs of the different devices are provided.

  18. Semiconductor Terahertz Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-15

    COVERED (From - To) 15-June-2009 Final Report 12 Apr 07 - 15 Apr 09 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8718-07-C-0030 Semiconductor Terahertz ...and the other for the phononic waveguides. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Quantum cascade laser, gennanium, gennanium-tin, terahertz 16. SECURITY CLASStFICATION OF...7 Figure 7 lllustration of a GaAs-based active region waveguide with either Ga or Au as cladding operating in the Restrahlen band of GaN . 10 Figure 8

  19. Chemically Derivatized Semiconductor Photoelectrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-04

    as Si, Ge, and GaAs derivatized with reagents based on ferrocene such as those represented by I and II. Work with p-type semiconductor photoelectrode...Concerning n-type Si it was found that EtOH/0.1 M En-Bu4N)C104 solutions containing A = ferrocene and A+ = ferri-- cinium result in a constant output of...electrical energy from an illuminated photoelectrochemical device configured as in Scheme II.(20) The ferrocene captures the photogenerated h+ at a rate -4

  20. Power semiconductor controlled drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Gopal K.

    This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.

  1. Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, R.M.; Drummond, T.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-08-31

    A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration. 8 figs.

  2. Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Drummond, Timothy J.; Gourley, Paul L.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration.

  3. Fibre ring cavity semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Duraev, V P; Medvedev, S V

    2013-10-31

    This paper presents a study of semiconductor lasers having a polarisation maintaining fibre ring cavity. We examine the operating principle and report main characteristics of a semiconductor ring laser, in particular in single- and multiple-frequency regimes, and discuss its application areas. (lasers)

  4. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Noufi, Rommel; Chen, Yih-Wen

    1987-01-01

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  5. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  6. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  7. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  8. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sanpietro, M.; Kemmer, J.; Dietl, H.; Holl, P.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements.

  9. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E. E.

    2010-07-15

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  10. Semiconductor nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Wong, Andrew B.; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Yang, Peidong

    2016-06-01

    The discovery and continued development of the laser has revolutionized both science and industry. The advent of miniaturized, semiconductor lasers has made this technology an integral part of everyday life. Exciting research continues with a new focus on nanowire lasers because of their great potential in the field of optoelectronics. In this Review, we explore the latest advancements in the development of nanowire lasers and offer our perspective on future improvements and trends. We discuss fundamental material considerations and the latest, most effective materials for nanowire lasers. A discussion of novel cavity designs and amplification methods is followed by some of the latest work on surface plasmon polariton nanowire lasers. Finally, exciting new reports of electrically pumped nanowire lasers with the potential for integrated optoelectronic applications are described.

  11. Photocatalysis Using Semiconductor Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, T.R.; Wilcoxon,J.P.

    1999-01-21

    We report on experiments using nanosize MoS{sub 2} to photo-oxidize organic pollutants in water using visible light as the energy source. We have demonstrated that we can vary the redox potentials and absorbance characteristics of these small semiconductors by adjusting their size, and our studies of the photooxidation of organic molecules have revealed that the rate of oxidation increases with increasing bandgap (i.e. more positive valence band and more negative conduction band potentials). Because these photocatalysis reactions can be performed with the nanoclusters fully dispersed and stable in solution, liquid chromatography can be used to determine both the intermediate reaction products and the state of the nanoclusters during the reaction. We have demonstrated that the MoS{sub 2} nanoclusters remain unchanged during the photooxidation process by this technique. We also report on studies of MoS{sub 2} nanoclusters deposited on TiO{sub 2} powder.

  12. Semiconductor adiabatic qubits

    DOEpatents

    Carroll, Malcolm S.; Witzel, Wayne; Jacobson, Noah Tobias; Ganti, Anand; Landahl, Andrew J.; Lilly, Michael; Nguyen, Khoi Thi; Bishop, Nathaniel; Carr, Stephen M.; Bussmann, Ezra; Nielsen, Erik; Levy, James Ewers; Blume-Kohout, Robin J.; Rahman, Rajib

    2016-12-27

    A quantum computing device that includes a plurality of semiconductor adiabatic qubits is described herein. The qubits are programmed with local biases and coupling terms between qubits that represent a problem of interest. The qubits are initialized by way of a tuneable parameter, a local tunnel coupling within each qubit, such that the qubits remain in a ground energy state, and that initial state is represented by the qubits being in a superposition of |0> and |1> states. The parameter is altered over time adiabatically or such that relaxation mechanisms maintain a large fraction of ground state occupation through decreasing the tunnel coupling barrier within each qubit with the appropriate schedule. The final state when tunnel coupling is effectively zero represents the solution state to the problem represented in the |0> and |1> basis, which can be accurately read at each qubit location.

  13. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  14. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  15. Semiconductor device PN junction fabrication using optical processing of amorphous semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rangappan, Anikara

    2014-11-25

    Systems and methods for semiconductor device PN junction fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical device having a P-N junction comprises: depositing a layer of amorphous semiconductor material onto a crystalline semiconductor base, wherein the crystalline semiconductor base comprises a crystalline phase of a same semiconductor as the amorphous layer; and growing the layer of amorphous semiconductor material into a layer of crystalline semiconductor material that is epitaxially matched to the lattice structure of the crystalline semiconductor base by applying an optical energy that penetrates at least the amorphous semiconductor material.

  16. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P. ); Gatti, E. )

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Semiconductor technology program. Progress briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reviewed. Activities include: optical linewidth and thermal resistance measurements; device modeling; dopant density profiles; resonance ionization spectroscopy; and deep level measurements. Standardized oxide charge terminology is also described.

  18. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III–V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows. PMID:22163382

  19. Signal processing for semiconductor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1982-02-01

    A balanced perspective is provided on the processing of signals produced by semiconductor detectors. The general problems of pulse shaping to optimize resolution with constraints imposed by noise, counting rate and rise time fluctuations are discussed.

  20. Optical properties of semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Joong-Kon

    Thanks to the difference in energy gap between two semiconductors and to their different indices of refraction, semiconductor heterostructures can confine electrons as well as photons. This property makes it possible to build semiconductor-based optical resonators (microcavities) with a radiation dipole (a quantum well) in its midst to investigate the coupling between the optical modes of the microcavity with the exciton modes of the quantum well. Such an interaction, besides its intrinsic interest, is relevant to vertically-emitting semiconductor lasers, based on the quantum well- microcavity system. In this thesis, we will present experimental evidence of temperature and electric-field dependent exciton-cavity coupling in GaAs-GaAlAs microcavities.

  1. Dye Sensitization of Semiconductor Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hartland, G. V.

    2003-01-13

    In this project electron transfer at semiconductor liquid interfaces was examined by ultrafast time-resolved and steady-state optical techniques. The experiments primarily yielded information about the electron transfer from titanium dioxide semiconductor particles to absorbed molecules. The results show that the rate of electron transfer depends on the structure of the molecule, and the crystalline phase of the particle. These results can be qualitatively explained by Marcus theory for electron transfer.

  2. Semiconductor crystal high resolution imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Craig S. (Inventor); Matteson, James (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A radiation imaging device (10). The radiation image device (10) comprises a subject radiation station (12) producing photon emissions (14), and at least one semiconductor crystal detector (16) arranged in an edge-on orientation with respect to the emitted photons (14) to directly receive the emitted photons (14) and produce a signal. The semiconductor crystal detector (16) comprises at least one anode and at least one cathode that produces the signal in response to the emitted photons (14).

  3. Laser Assisted Semiconductor Device Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-30

    In strongly absorbing semiconductors, the dominant absorption mechanism at frequencies higher than the bandgap frequency is interband transitions. The...current). The solution for miconductors. In strongly absorbing semiconductors, the n(x,t ) is a closed-form expression consisting of complemen- dominant 0...representative profles are shown in Fis. $-12. o -- For Nd: YAG in silicon. E, _0.99hv and the profiks are therefore and-gap recombination dominated

  4. Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

  5. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C. for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal.

  6. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device is disclosed. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500 C to about 700 C for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal. 1 fig.

  7. EDITORIAL: Oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, M.; Makino, T.

    2005-04-01

    Blue or ultraviolet semiconducting light-emitting diodes have the potential to revolutionize illumination systems in the near-future. Such industrial need has propelled the investigation of several wide-gap semiconducting materials in recent years. Commercial applications include blue lasers for DVD memory and laser printers, while military applications are also expected. Most of the material development has so far been focused on GaN (band gap 3.5 eV at 2 K), and ZnSe (2.9 eV) because these two representative direct transition semiconductors are known to be bright emitting sources. GaN and GaN-based alloys are emerging as the winners in this field because ZnSe is subject to defect formation under high current drive. On the other hand, another II-VI compound, ZnO, has also excited substantial interest in the optoelectronics-oriented research communities because it is the brightest emitter of all, owing to the fact that its excitons have a 60 meV binding energy. This is compared with 26 meV for GaN and 20 meV for ZnSe. The stable excitons could lead to laser action based on their recombination even at temperatures well above room temperature. ZnO has additional major properties that are more advantageous than other wide-gap materials: availability of large area substrates, higher energy radiation stability, environmentally-friendly ingredients, and amenability to wet chemical etching. However, ZnO is not new to the semiconductor field as exemplified by several studies made during the 1960s on structural, vibrational, optical and electrical properties (Mollwo E 1982 Landolt-Boernstein New Series vol 17 (Berlin: Springer) p 35). In terms of devices, the luminescence from light-emitting diode structures was demonstrated in which Cu2O was used as the p-type material (Drapak I T 1968 Semiconductors 2 624). The main obstacle to the development of ZnO has been the lack of reproducible p-type ZnO. The possibility of achieving epitaxial p-type layers with the aid of thermal

  8. 75 FR 49526 - Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Tempe, AZ; Freescale Semiconductor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Tempe, AZ; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Woburn, MA; Amended Certification Regarding... Semiconductor, Inc., Technical Information Center, Tempe, Arizona. The notice was published in the...

  9. GOES Satellite Data Validation Via Hand-held 4 LED Sun Photometer at Norfolk State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Arthur, Jr.; Jackson, Tyrone; Reynolds, Kevin; Davidson, Cassy; Coope-Pabis, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Sun photometry is a passive means of measuring a quantity of light radiation. The GIFTS- IOMI/GLOBE Water Vapor/Haze Sun photometer contains four light emitting diodes (LEDs), which are used to convert photocurrent to voltage. The intensity of the incoming and outgoing radiation as detected on the Earth s surface can be affected by aerosols and gases in the atmosphere. The focus of this research is primarily on aerosol and water vapor particles that absorb and reemit energy. Two LEDs in the photometer correspond to light scattered at 530 nm (green spectrum) and 620 nm (red spectrum). They collect data pertaining to aerosols that scatter light. The other two LEDs detect the light scattered by water vapor at wavelengths of 820 nm and 920 nm. The water vapor measurements will be compared to data collected by the Geostationary Observation Environmental Satellite (GOES). Before a comparison can be made, the extraterrestrial constant (ET), which is intrinsic to each sun photometer, must be measured. This paper will present determination of the ET constant, from which the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) can be computed for comparison to the GOES satellite to ascertain the reliability of the sun photometer.

  10. Combustion Tests of Black-Powder Substitutes for the Hand-Held Signal Flare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    candidate powders were not available in the proper granulation for tests in the flare fixtures. The granulation of the Pyrodex RS powder is visibly...The material should be granulated to the appropriate size for testing in the fixtures. The phenolpthalein substitute with the lowest pressure exponent...obtained in these tests deserves testing with probable granulation adjustment. The isopthalic acid mixture as tested in the strand burner produced

  11. Use of hand-held computers to record and analyze intervention data.

    PubMed

    Bluml, B M; Enlow, M

    1993-07-01

    Using the Wizard to document clinical activities has been well received by the clinical staff. What had previously been a dreaded task has become an ongoing part of daily activities. The revised Clinical Activity Log also provided the staff pharmacists with an easier method of documenting their clinical activities. The task of inputing the information from the staff pharmacists' paper logs into the computer is time consuming and is currently being done by the clinical staff. Procurement of additional Wizards for the staff pharmacists to use in the central pharmacy and satellite pharmacies is currently being considered. Using the Wizard has enabled the clinical staff to document clinical activities into the computer database in an ongoing manner throughout the day. Documentation has increased and is now more complete. Productivity is being monitored. Physician responses and patient outcomes are now being documented. Most importantly the computerized system allows for easy retrieval of the documented information for evaluation so that tracking and trending can be done and we can thereby continue to improve the quality of pharmaceutical care being provided.

  12. Monitoring the microcirculation at the bedside using hand-held imaging microscopes: Automatic tracking of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sorelli, M; Bocchi, L; Ince, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the development of portable microscopy devices that enable the noninvasive bedside evaluation of the mucosal microcirculation in critically ill patients has expanded the research on this level of the cardiovascular system. Several semi-quantitative scores have been defined to assess the peripheral perfusion, based on videos of the microcirculation. However, they are cumbersome and time-consuming processes, highlighting the need for the development of automated software techniques, to reduce physicians workload and ensure prompt and objective patient evaluation. We developed a rapid, automatic method for the quantitative assessment of erythrocyte velocities in Incident Dark Field (IDF) illumination videos of capillary flow. The technique, based on Kalman filter object tracking, was tested in 35 IDF videos against space-time diagrams, showing high correlation (r = 0.96) and agreement (bias = 3.3 μm/s) with space-time diagrams (STD), below 200 μm/s.

  13. A comparison of two methods to assess the usage of mobile hand-held communication devices.

    PubMed

    Berolo, Sophia; Steenstra, Ivan; Amick, Benjamin C; Wells, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) examine agreement between self-reported measures of mobile device use and direct measures of use, and 2) understand how respondents thought about their device use when they provided self-reports. Self-reports of six categories of device use were obtained using a previously developed questionnaire, and direct measures of use were collected using a custom logging application (n = 47). Bland-Altman analyses were used to examine agreement between the two measurement approaches. Interviews targeted participants' experiences completing the device use section of the questionnaire. Self-reports of use on a typical day last week overestimated logged use. Overestimates tended to be low at low average usage times, and became more variable as usage time increased. Self-reports of use yesterday also exceeded logged use, however the degree of overestimation was less than for a typical day last week. Six themes were identified from interviews, including the thought process used by participants to arrive at usage and the ease of reporting usage. It is challenging for respondents of this questionnaire to provide accurate self-reports of use. The source of this challenge may be attributed to the intrinsic difficulty of estimating use, partly due to the multiple functions of the devices as well as the variability of use both within a day and a week. Research investigating the relationship between device use and health outcomes should include a logging application to examine exposure simultaneously with self-reports to better understand the sources of hazardous exposures.

  14. Use of Electronic Hand-held Devices for Collection of Savannah River Site Environmental Data - 13329

    SciTech Connect

    Marberry, Hugh; Moore, Winston

    2013-07-01

    Savannah River Nuclear Solutions has begun using Xplore Tablet PC's to collect data in the field for soil samples, groundwater samples, air samples and round sheets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). EPA guidelines for groundwater sampling are incorporated into the application to ensure the sample technician follows the proper protocol. The sample technician is guided through the process for sampling and round sheet data collection by a series of menus and input boxes. Field measurements and well stabilization information are entered into the tablet for uploading into Environmental Restoration Data Management System (ERDMS). The process helps to eliminate input errors and provides data integrity. A soil sample technician has the ability to collect information about location of sample, field parameter, describe the soil sample, print bottle labels, and print chain of custody for the sample that they have collected. An air sample technician has the ability to provide flow, pressure, hours of operation, print bottle labels and chain of custody for samples they collect. Round sheets are collected using the information provided in the various procedures. The data are collected and uploaded into ERDMS. The equipment used is weather proof and hardened for the field use. Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities are integrated into the applications to provide the location where samples were collected and to help sample technicians locate wells that are not visited often. (authors)

  15. Peroperative radioimmunodetection of ovarian carcinoma using a hand-held gamma detection probe.

    PubMed Central

    Ind, T. E.; Granowska, M.; Britton, K. E.; Morris, G.; Lowe, D. G.; Hudson, C. N.; Shepherd, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) can be used in the preoperative localisation of ovarian carcinoma to demonstrate uptake of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies into neoplastic tissue. The tissue uptake of radiotracer was evaluated at laparotomy in 16 patients with suspected ovarian cancer who had preoperative RIS using technetium-99m-labelled monoclonal antibodies SM3 and H17E2. A gamma detection probe (gamma DP) was used to measure uptake in possible tumour deposits at operation and also the uptake in tissues resected for histology. The percentage uptake of the initial injected dose of radiotracer was also measured in resected tissues. Activity was found to be significantly higher in malignant than in non-neoplastic tissue by all three methods of evaluation. The gamma DP used peroperatively yielded a 82% sensitivity with a 72% specificity for an uptake ratio of 1.5:1. When tissue was examined immediately after resection, for a 100% specificity the sensitivity was 64%. In vitro measurements of monoclonal antibody uptake by tissue similarly gave a 65% sensitivity with a 100% specificity. Peroperative and immediate post-operative measurements of tissue radioactivity can be performed quickly and conveniently, and in some cases may be of benefit in the localisation of tumour at laparotomy and in providing extra information when tissue is examined by frozen section. PMID:7981086

  16. Measurement of Visual Reaction Times Using Hand-held Mobile Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Arsintescu, Lucia; Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Modern mobile devices provide a convenient platform for collecting research data in the field. But,because the working of these devices is often cloaked behind multiple layers of proprietary system software, it can bedifficult to assess the accuracy of the data they produce, particularly in the case of timing. We have been collecting datain a simple visual reaction time experiment, as part of a fatigue testing protocol known as the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT). In this protocol, subjects run a 5-minute block consisting of a sequence of trials in which a visual stimulus appears after an unpredictable variable delay. The subject is required to tap the screen as soon as possible after the appearance of the stimulus. In order to validate the reaction times reported by our program, we had subjects perform the task while a high-speed video camera recorded both the display screen, and a side view of the finger (observed in a mirror). Simple image-processing methods were applied to determine the frames in which the stimulus appeared and disappeared, and in which the finger made and broke contact with the screen. The results demonstrate a systematic delay between the initial contact by the finger and the detection of the touch by the software, having a value of 80 +- 20 milliseconds.

  17. Edgewood Biosensors Test Bed Hand-held and Man-Portable Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense (JPEO‐ CBD ) Joint Program Manager (JPM) ‐ Transformational Medical Technologies (now JPM...relevant field environments. The data was analyzed using an adjustable scoring matrix specific to the needs of JPEO‐ CBD . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Biosensors...and Biological Defense (JPEO‐ CBD ) Joint Program Manager (JPM) ‐ Transformational  Medical Technologies (now JPM – Medical Countermeasure Systems) to

  18. Transforming an Introductory Linear Algebra Course with a TI-92 Hand-Held Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesada, Antonio R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the introduction of the TI-92 transformed a traditional first semester linear algebra course into a matrix-oriented course that emphasized conceptual understanding, relevant applications, and numerical issues. Indicates an increase in students' overall performance as they found the calculator very useful, believed it helped them…

  19. Test and Evaluation Report of the Paravant (Trade Name) Ruggedized Hand Held Computer Model RHC-88.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    25082 Naval Aerospace Medical Oklahoma City, OK 73125 Institute Library Building 1953 , Code 03L Commander Pensacola, FL 32508-5600 U.S. Army Academy of...HSOP-SO Dr. Diane Danos Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234-6000 Department of Human Factors ISSM, USC Director of Professional Services Los Angeles, CA 90089

  20. Panasonic HR-1800 Hand-Held Computer Solutions to Composite Materials Formulas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    TR-83-4093 PROGRAM LISTING (Cont’d) I, : E-6 :PE*u3 D RINT 3 =U4---4*U3 gtr -BINf X𔃾)=U5-C4§U3 GS fQ :T SEXT *lJ 3 54A@ ;OSUB 6)i6’S2*U2J ,’-54 PLA... SEXT * 3’E6 ":W=X(ue) E:=E1*A(1i:E2:- * * :628800)E=6. ~.-- (33B4*A~ )2A QPmI 5 39 a@ G$=" T r4EH 310 1APUT p~~4 ~2’ -;C SUB 3800 ŗUCK!:4G (T’...u (?00

  1. Ice patterns and hydrothermal plumes, Lake Baikal, Russia - Insights from Space Shuttle hand-held photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Helfert, Michael R.; Helms, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Earth photography from the Space Shuttle is used to examine the ice cover on Lake Baikal and correlate the patterns of weakened and melting ice with known hydrothermal areas in the Siberian lake. Particular zones of melted and broken ice may be surface expressions of elevated heat flow in Lake Baikal. The possibility is explored that hydrothermal vents can introduce local convective upwelling and disrupt a stable water column to the extent that the melt zones which are observed in the lake's ice cover are produced. A heat flow map and photographs of the lake are overlaid to compare specific areas of thinned or broken ice with the hot spots. The regions of known hydrothermal activity and high heat flow correlate extremely well with circular regions of thinned ice, and zones of broken and recrystallized ice. Local and regional climate data and other sources of warm water, such as river inlets, are considered.

  2. Night vision in Thales Angenieux: custom solutions for hand-held devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollin, Joel; Teszner, Jean Louis

    2005-01-01

    Thales Anenieux has been manufacturing for two decades flexible light intensifier goggles that have been popular over numerous countries: thanks to the advent of uncooled microbolometer arrays, further outlooks are settled. Army Forces can have now at their command a multi-purpose and cost effective set of devices that answer most of the battlefield mission profiles. Thales Angenieux move from light intensifier goggles to low cost infared imagers and this smooth change is sketched out: our erlier experience on compact and user-friendly L.I equipment, especially in the field of the opto-mechanical design, has helped us to push forward the best compromises. Our product line policy is displayed: really, we have made a point of addressing many potential customers demands by singling out a modular approach. Further developments are now going on.

  3. Recent developments in space shuttle remote sensing, using hand-held film cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amsbury, David L.; Bremer, Jeffrey M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors report on the advantages and disadvantages of a number of camera systems which are currently employed for space shuttle remote sensing operations. Systems discussed include the modified Hasselbad, the Rolleiflex 6008, the Linkof 5-inch format system, and the Nikon F3/F4 systems. Film/filter combinations (color positive films, color infrared films, color negative films and polarization filters) are presented.

  4. Telemedicine screening of diabetic retinopathy using a hand-held fundus camera.

    PubMed

    Yogesan, K; Constable, I J; Barry, C J; Eikelboom, R H; McAllister, I L; Tay-Kearney, M L

    2000-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate digital images of the retina from a handheld fundus camera (Nidek NM-100) for suitability in telemedicine screening of diabetic retinopathy. A handheld fundus camera (Nidek) and a standard fundus camera (Zeiss) were used to photograph 49 eyes from 25 consecutive patients attending our diabetic clinic. One patient had cataracts, making it impossible to get a quality image of one of the eyes (retina). The Nidek images were digitized, compressed, and stored in a Fujix DF-10M digitizer supplied with the camera. The digital images and the photographs were presented separately in a random order to three ophthalmologists. The quality of the images was ranked as good, acceptable or unacceptable for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis. The images were also evaluated for the presence of microaneurysms, blot hemorrhages, exudates, fibrous tissue, previous photocoagulation, and new vessel formation. kappa Values were computed for agreement between the photographs and digital images. Overall agreement between the photographs and digital images was poor (kappa < 0.30). On average, only 24% of the digital images were graded as being good quality and 56% as having an acceptable quality. However, 93% of the photographs were graded as good-quality images for diagnosis. The results indicate that the digital images from the handheld fundus camera may not be suitable for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. The images shown on the liquid crystal display (LCD) screen of the camera were of good quality. However, the images produced by the digitizer (Fujix DF-10M) attached to the camera were not as good as the images shown on the LCD screen. A better digitizing system may produce better quality images from the Nidek camera.

  5. Advanced sampling techniques for hand-held FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Weber, Chris; Levy, Dustin

    2013-05-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenging ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, extreme reliability, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the HazMatID™ Elite, a FT-IR instrument designed to balance the portability advantages of a handheld device with the performance challenges associated with miniaturization. In this paper, special focus will be given to the HazMatID Elite's sampling interfaces optimized to collect and interrogate different types of samples: accumulated material using the on-board ATR press, dispersed powders using the ClearSampler™ tool, and the touch-to-sample sensor for direct liquid sampling. The application of the novel sample swipe accessory (ClearSampler) to collect material from surfaces will be discussed in some detail. The accessory was tested and evaluated for the detection of explosive residues before and after detonation. Experimental results derived from these investigations will be described in an effort to outline the advantages of this technology over existing sampling methods.

  6. 47 CFR 15.519 - Technical requirements for hand held UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information to an associated receiver. The UWB intentional radiator shall cease transmission within 10 seconds... received. An acknowledgment of reception must continue to be received by the UWB intentional radiator...

  7. 47 CFR 15.519 - Technical requirements for hand held UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information to an associated receiver. The UWB intentional radiator shall cease transmission within 10 seconds... received. An acknowledgment of reception must continue to be received by the UWB intentional radiator...

  8. 47 CFR 15.519 - Technical requirements for hand held UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information to an associated receiver. The UWB intentional radiator shall cease transmission within 10 seconds... received. An acknowledgment of reception must continue to be received by the UWB intentional radiator...

  9. 47 CFR 15.519 - Technical requirements for hand held UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information to an associated receiver. The UWB intentional radiator shall cease transmission within 10 seconds... received. An acknowledgment of reception must continue to be received by the UWB intentional radiator...

  10. 47 CFR 15.519 - Technical requirements for hand held UWB systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information to an associated receiver. The UWB intentional radiator shall cease transmission within 10 seconds... received. An acknowledgment of reception must continue to be received by the UWB intentional radiator...

  11. Miniaturized hand held microwave interference scanning system for NDE of dielectric armor and armor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Karl F.; Little, Jack R.; Ellingson, William A.; Meitzler, Thomas J.; Green, William

    2011-06-23

    Inspection of ceramic-based armor has advanced through development of a microwave-based, portable, non-contact NDE system. Recently, this system was miniaturized and made wireless for maximum utility in field applications. The electronic components and functionality of the laboratory system are retained, with alternative means of position input for creation of scan images. Validation of the detection capability was recently demonstrated using specially fabricated surrogates and ballistic impact-damaged specimens. The microwave data results have been compared to data from laboratory-based microwave interferometry systems and digital x-ray imaging. The microwave interference scanning has been shown to reliably detect cracks, laminar features and material property variations. The authors present details of the system operation, descriptions of the test samples used and recent results obtained.

  12. [Design of hand-held heart rate variability acquisition and analysis system].

    PubMed

    Li, Kaiyuan; Wang, Buqing; Wang, Weidong

    2012-07-01

    A design of handheld heart rate variability acquisition and analysis system is proposed. The system collects and stores the patient's ECG every five minutes through both hands touching on the electrodes, and then -uploads data to a PC through USB port. The system uses software written in LabVIEW to analyze heart rate variability parameters, The parameters calculated function is programmed and generated to components in Matlab.

  13. Development of hand-held nondestructive detection device for assessing meat freshness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wensong; Peng, Yankun; Qiao, Lu

    2016-05-01

    Meat freshness is directly related to the health of consumers, and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content is an important reference index for evaluating pork freshness. This paper attempted to measure TVB-N content for assessing pork meat freshness using a new self-developed portable and low cost detection device designed by ourselves basing on near infrared technique. The front-end part of this device was an integrated detection component containing a mini probe which was about 5cm in diameter circle. In the signal acquiring component, silicon photodiode detector was embedded in the center of light source in probe and spectral response range was 400-1100nm to receive diffuse light from pork meat surface in mini probe. The main circuits in this device included stabilized current supply circuit which was used to provide a stable power supply for each LED light source in probe and signal processing circuit which was utilized to complete signal amplification and A/D conversion, In addition, another vital function of the signal processing circuit was to analysis detection signals from mini probe in the detection component. For verifying this device performance, 58 pork samples with different freshness attributes and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) mathematical method and ratio data processing algorithm were employed to build pork TVB-N content prediction model, and comparing with results from raw data model, the correlation coefficient of prediction and validation of TVB-N were 0.8027 and 0.7291 respectively, and the accuracy of predicting pork freshness was about 78.6%. This work demonstrates that it has the potential in nondestructive detection of TVB-N content in pork meat using this device, which can simplify related instruments design structure and reduce their development cost in future.

  14. Unusual pattern of injury caused by a pyrotechnic hand held signal flare.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, D W; Ragbir, M; Saxby, P J

    1997-01-01

    The case is reported of a man shot with a distress flare from a range of about 3 m. The flare caused a large cavity deep in the pectoral muscles. There should be a high index of suspicion about the extent of the injury in all types of penetrating trauma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9248919

  15. Movement paths in operating hand-held tools: tests of distal-shift hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Sülzenbrück, Sandra; Heuer, Herbert

    2013-06-01

    Extending the body with a tool could imply that characteristics of hand movements become characteristics of the movement of the effective part of the tool. Recent research suggests that such distal shifts are subject to boundary conditions. Here we propose the existence of three constraints: a strategy constraint, a constraint of movement characteristics, and a constraint of mode of control. We investigate their validity for the curvature of transverse movements aimed at a target while using a sliding first-order lever. Participants moved the tip of the effort arm of a real or virtual lever to control a cursor representing movements of the tip of the load arm of the lever on a monitor. With this tool, straight transverse hand movements are associated with concave curvature of the path of the tip of the tool. With terminal visual feedback and when targets were presented for the hand, hand paths were slightly concave in the absence of the dynamic transformation of the tool and slightly convex in its presence. When targets were presented for the tip of the lever, both the concave and convex curvatures of the hand paths became stronger. Finally, with continuous visual feedback of the tip of the lever, curvature of hand paths became convex and concave curvature of the paths of the tip of the lever was reduced. In addition, the effect of the dynamic transformation on curvature was attenuated. These findings support the notion that distal shifts are subject to at least the three proposed constraints.

  16. 77 FR 73354 - Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... provide additional safety information in the form of warning posters at the point of use. The warning... opening size, coverage of exposed coil springs, small parts, hazardous sharp edges or points, smoothness... warning would change the size, location, wording, and presentation to highlight better the...

  17. Hand-Held and Portable Devices for Oil Assessment: Commercial Technologies for Maintenance Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-05

    contained PFielded for hazmat first responder usage (available as COTS) PHighly intuitive, user-friendly design PNo supplies/consumables PPart of a line of...and action at lowest level PReal-time, no waiting for lab results PNo protracted sampling PEliminates expense on taking, shipping, and testing good oil

  18. Environmentally Sustainable Yellow Smoke Formulations for Use in the M194 Hand Held Signal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-10

    burning of aerial pyrotechnic devices poses a public health risk as chemicals may be released into the water supply from solid fallout and surface...quinoline dye that is currently used in colored smoke grenade production, has been deemed admissible by the U.S. Army Public Health Command (PHC...document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT The burning of aerial pyrotechnic devices poses a public health risk as chemicals may be released into the

  19. Hand-held, mechanically cooled, radiation detection system for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Burks, Morgan Thomas; Eckels, Joel Del

    2010-06-08

    In one embodiment, a radiation detection system is provided including a radiation detector and a first enclosure encapsulating the radiation detector, the first enclosure including a low-emissivity infra-red (IR) reflective coating used to thermally isolate the radiation detector. Additionally, a second enclosure encapsulating the first enclosure is included, the first enclosure being suspension mounted to the second enclosure. Further, a cooler capable of cooling the radiation detector is included. Still yet, a first cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure is included for coupling the cooler and the first enclosure. Furthermore, a second cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure and capable of coupling the first enclosure to a cooler separate from the radiation detection system is included. Other embodiments are also presented.

  20. Capillary - Discharge Based Hand-Held Detector For Chemical Vapor Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang

    2005-05-31

    A handheld/portable detector for chemical vapor monitoring includes a housing and a discharge chamber that is established therein. The plasma discharge has a relatively small volume, e.g., in the micro-liter range. A first electrode and a second electrode are disposed within the discharge chamber and a discharge gap is established therebetween. A sample gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a sample gas to the discharge chamber. Also, a plasma gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a plasma gas thereto. Accordingly, the plasma gas can be used to maintain microplasma discharge between the electrodes and the sample gas can be introduced into the microplasma discharge. A spectrometer optically connected to the handheld/portable detector is used to measure the radiation emitted by the sample gas when subjected to the microplasma discharge.

  1. Using High-Resolution Hand-Held Radiometers To Measure In-Situ Thermal Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Douglas M.; Krintz, Donald F.

    1984-03-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the accuracy of using high-resolution radiometers to determine the in situ thermal resistance of building components having conventional residential construction. Two different types of radiometers were used to determine the thermal resistances of the walls of six test buildings located at the National Bureau of Standards. These radiometer thermal resistance measurements were compared to reference thermal resistance values determined from steady-state series resistance predictions, time-averaged heat-flow-sensor measurements, and guarded-hot-box measurements. When measurements were carried out 5 hours after sunset when the outdoor temperature was relatively steady and the heating plant was operated in a typical cyclic fashion, the following results were obtained: for lightweight wood-frame cavity walls, the radiometer procedures were found to distinguish wall thermal resistance 4.4 h.ft2- °F/Btu (0.77 m2•K/W) systematically higher than corresponding reference values. Such a discrimination will per-mit insulated and uninsulated walls to be distinguished. However, in the case of walls having large heat capacity (e.g., masonry and log), thermal storage effects produced large time lags between the outdoor diurnal temperature variation and the heat-flow response at the inside surface. This phenomenon caused radiometer thermal resistances to deviate substantially from corresponding reference values. This study recommends that the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 101-1981 be modified requiring the heating plant to be operated in a typical cyclic fashion instead of being turned off prior to and during radiometer measurements.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM HAND-HELD TWO-STROKE ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite their extremely high organic and particulate matter emission rates, two-stroke engines remain among the least studied of engine types. Such studies are rare because they are costly to perform. Results reported in this paper were obtained using a facility that shares e...

  3. Preoperative distraction in children: hand-held videogames vs clown therapy.

    PubMed

    Messina, M; Molinaro, F; Meucci, D; Angotti, R; Giuntini, L; Cerchia, E; Bulotta, A L; Brandigi, E

    2014-12-30

    Anxiety in children undergoing surgery is characterized by feelings of tension, apprehension, nervousness and fear which may manifest differently. Postoperative behavioural changes such as nocturnal enuresis, feeding disorders, apathy, and sleep disturbances may stem from postoperative anxiety. Some Authors pointed out that over 60% of children undergoing surgery are prone to developing behavioural alterations 2 weeks after surgery. Variables such as age, temperament and anxiety both in children and parents are considered predictors of such changes.1 Studies were published describing how psycho-behavioural interventions based on play, learning and entertainment in preparing children for surgery, may reduce preoperative anxiety. Clown-therapy is applied in the most important paediatric facilities and has proved to diminish children's emotional distress and sufferance, as well as consumption of both analgesics and sedatives and to facilitate the achievement of therapeutic goals. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of clown-therapy during the child's hospital stay, with a view to optimizing treatment and care, preventing behavioural alterations and enhancing the child's overall life quality.

  4. Design, Build, and Test a Hand-held GPS Interference Detector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    RF jammer) or non-intentional, as would result from channel cohabitance or harmonics from mobile cellular, satellite, TV and FM radio.16 Analyzing...Bucher and D. Misra methodically derive and develop the necessary equations for determining positions of mobile elements on the earth by using the...72 73 74 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 75 LIST OF REFERENCES Agilent Technolgies . "Cell Power, AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise

  5. Hand-held calculator assists in directional drilling control. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.L.

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes the process of calculating borehole sensor outputs using a program which simulates the measurement of magnetic and gravity fields. It presents figures showing the magnetic field projections on the principal axes, user instructions, a program listing of ''Sensors'' for an HP-41C programmable calculator with one extra memory module installed and connected to a printer, and example input and output data. This program can be modified to run on HP-67/HP-97 calculators. It can be stored and run along with the inverse program ''Angles'' for error analysis or other purposes since the program registers are separate.

  6. Hand-held calculator assists in directional drilling control. Part 1 - calculating the driller's angles

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.L.

    1982-07-01

    This article shows how a programmable calculator can be used to achieve accurate borehole angle measurements required for performing a borehole survey for directional control during a steering motor run and for open-hole diplog surveys. Translating sensor outputs (from packages which measure local magnetic and gravity fields) into angles normally used by the driller requires a coordinate transformation from the reference directions of the sensor package to those of the drilling rigs. User instructions, example input data, example printed output, a program listing of ''Angles,'' and a bar code listing (for readers with HP optical wands) for an HP-41C calculator with one extra HP-82106A memory module installed and connected to an HP-82143A printer are presented.

  7. Distributing Data to Hand-Held Devices in a Wireless Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Mark; Simmons, Layne

    2008-01-01

    ADROIT is a developmental computer program for real-time distribution of complex data streams for display on Web-enabled, portable terminals held by members of an operational team of a spacecraft-command-and-control center who may be located away from the center. Examples of such terminals include personal data assistants, laptop computers, and cellular telephones. ADROIT would make it unnecessary to equip each terminal with platform- specific software for access to the data streams or with software that implements the information-sharing protocol used to deliver telemetry data to clients in the center. ADROIT is a combination of middleware plus software specific to the center. (Middleware enables one application program to communicate with another by performing such functions as conversion, translation, consolidation, and/or integration.) ADROIT translates a data stream (voice, video, or alphanumerical data) from the center into Extensible Markup Language, effectuates a subscription process to determine who gets what data when, and presents the data to each user in real time. Thus, ADROIT is expected to enable distribution of operations and to reduce the cost of operations by reducing the number of persons required to be in the center.

  8. The diagnostic efficacy of hand-held devices for emergency radiological consultation

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Rachel J.; Ryan, John T.; McEntee, Mark F.; Evanoff, Michael G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; McNulty, Jonathan P.; Manning, David J.; Thomas, Edel M.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Orthopedic injury and intracranial hemorrhage are commonly encountered in emergency radiology, and accurate and timely diagnosis is important. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the diagnostic accuracy of handheld computing devices is comparable to that of monitors that might be used in emergency teleconsultation. Materials and Methods Two handheld devices, a Dell Axim personal digital assistant (PDA) and an Apple iPod Touch device, were studied. The diagnostic efficacy of each device was tested against that of secondary-class monitors (primary class being clinical workstation display) for each of two image types—posteroanterior wrist radiographs and slices from CT of the brain—yielding four separate observer performance studies. Participants read a bank of 30 wrist or brain images searching for a specific abnormality (distal radial fracture, fresh intracranial bleed) and rated their confidence in their decisions. A total of 168 readings by examining radiologists of the American Board of Radiology were gathered, and the results were subjected to receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results In the PDA - CT brain study, the scores from PDA readings were significantly higher than those from the monitor readings for all observers (p≤0.01) and for radiologists who were not neuroradiology specialists (p≤0.05). No statistically significant differences were noted for the wrist images or in the iPod Touch studies, although some comparisons approached significance. Conclusion Handheld devices show promise in the field of emergency teleconsultation for detection of basic orthopaedic injuries and intracranial haemorrhage, although further investigation is warranted. PMID:20093611

  9. Study of Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers Aboard Civil Aviation Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    the Association of Flight Attendants ( AFA ); and the National Academy of Sciences. The Aircraft Owners and Pilots * Association (AOPA) was surveyed by...organizations such as the Association of Flight Attendants ( AFA ). Additional special reports exist in which specific carrier fire statistics are provided...utilize a replaceable solid AFFF cartridge housed in a special delivery nozzle (Figure 16) attached to a stainless steel tank charged with water. When

  10. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters

  11. Dielectric screening in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Walter A.; Klepeis, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Intra-atomic and interatomic Coulomb interactions are incorporated into bond-orbital theory, based upon universal tight-binding parameters, in order to treat the effects of charge redistribution in semiconductor bonds. The dielectric function ɛ(q) is obtained for wave numbers in a [100] direction. The screening of differences in average hybrid energy across a heterojunction is calculated in detail, indicating that the decay length for the potential depends upon the relative values of Madelung and intra-atomic Coulomb terms. The parameters used here predict an imaginary decay length and thus an oscillating potential near the interface. The same theory is applied to point defects by imbedding a cluster in a matrix lattice, taking charges in that lattice to be consistent with continuum theory. Illustrating the theory with a phosphorus impurity in silicon, it is seen that the impurity and its neighboring atoms have charges on the order of only one-tenth of an electronic charge, alternating in sign from neighbor to neighbor as for planar defects. Although there are shifts in the term values on the order of a volt, the difference in these shifts for neighboring atoms is much smaller so that the effect on the bonds is quite small. This behavior is analogous to the response of a dielectric continuum to a point charge: The medium is locally neutral except at the center of the cluster and there are slowly varying potentials e2/ɛr. Because of this slow variation, free-atom term values should ordinarily suffice for the calculation of bond properties and bond lengths at impurities. Corrections are larger for homovalent substitutions such as carbon in silicon.

  12. Thienoacene-based organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Takimiya, Kazuo; Shinamura, Shoji; Osaka, Itaru; Miyazaki, Eigo

    2011-10-11

    Thienoacenes consist of fused thiophene rings in a ladder-type molecular structure and have been intensively studied as potential organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in the last decade. They are reviewed here. Despite their simple and similar molecular structures, the hitherto reported properties of thienoacene-based OFETs are rather diverse. This Review focuses on four classes of thienoacenes, which are classified in terms of their chemical structures, and elucidates the molecular electronic structure of each class. The packing structures of thienoacenes and the thus-estimated solid-state electronic structures are correlated to their carrier transport properties in OFET devices. With this perspective of the molecular structures of thienoacenes and their carrier transport properties in OFET devices, the structure-property relationships in thienoacene-based organic semiconductors are discussed. The discussion provides insight into new molecular design strategies for the development of superior organic semiconductors.

  13. Diamagnetic excitons in semiconductors (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seisyan, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    Optical properties of semiconductor crystals in the presence of a high magnetic field have been considered. The field turn-on gives rise to oscillations of the optical-absorption edge or, more specifically, the formation of a complex absorption spectrum with a periodic structure, referred to as the spectrum of "diamagnetic excitons." Such spectra appear a source of the most accurate knowledge about the band structure of semiconductors. Moreover, these spectra can be used for simulating the low-dimensional state in semiconductors and possible interpretation of the emission spectra of neutron stars. The proposed analytical review is based on extensive experimental and theoretical data contained mostly in cited original works of the author with colleagues.

  14. Selenium semiconductor core optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, G. W.; Qian, Q. Peng, K. L.; Wen, X.; Zhou, G. X.; Sun, M.; Chen, X. D.; Yang, Z. M.

    2015-02-15

    Phosphate glass-clad optical fibers containing selenium (Se) semiconductor core were fabricated using a molten core method. The cores were found to be amorphous as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and corroborated by Micro-Raman spectrum. Elemental analysis across the core/clad interface suggests that there is some diffusion of about 3 wt % oxygen in the core region. Phosphate glass-clad crystalline selenium core optical fibers were obtained by a postdrawing annealing process. A two-cm-long crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers, electrically contacted to external circuitry through the fiber end facets, exhibit a three times change in conductivity between dark and illuminated states. Such crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers have promising utility in optical switch and photoconductivity of optical fiber array.

  15. Delta-doping of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, E. F.

    2005-08-01

    Part I: 1. Introduction E. F. Schubert; Part II: 2. Electronic structure of delta-doped semiconductors C. R. Proetto; Part III: 3. Recent progress in delta-like confinement of impurities in GaAs K. H. Ploog; 4. Flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME) of III-V semiconductors T. Makimoto and Y. Horikoshi; 5. Gas source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of delta-doped III-V semiconductors D. Ritter; 6. Solid phase epitaxy for delta-doping in silicon I. Eisele; 7. Low temperature MBE of silicon H.-J. Gossmann; Part IV: 8. Secondary ion mass spectrometry of delta-doped semiconductors H. S. Luftmann; 9. Capacitance-voltage profiling E. F. Schubert; 10. Redistribution of impurities in III-V semiconductors E. F. Schubert; 11. Dopant diffusion and segregation in delta-doped silicon films H.-J. Gossmann; 12. Characterisation of silicon and delta-doped structures in GaAs R. C. Newman; 13. The DX-center in silicon delta-doped GaAs and AlxGa1-xAs P. M. Koenraad; Part V: 14. Luminescence and ellipsometry spectroscopy H. Yao and E. F. Schubert; 15. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of single delta-doped III-V semiconductor heterostructures J. Wagner and D. Richards; 16. Electron transport in delta-doped quantum wells W. T. Masselink; 17. Electron mobility in delta-doped layers P. M. Koenraad; 18. Hot electrons in delta-doped GaAs M. Asche; 19. Ordered delta-doping R. L. Headrick, L. C. Feldman and B. E. Weir; Part IV: 20. Delta-doped channel III-V field effect transistors (FETs) W.-P. Hong; 21. Selectively doped heterostructure devices E. F. Schubert; 22. Silicon atomic layer doping FET K. Nakagawa and K. Yamaguchi; 23. Planar doped barrier devices R. J. Malik; 24. Silicon interband and intersubband photodetectors I. Eisele; 25. Doping superlattice devices E. F. Schubert.

  16. Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS " Quantum Transport in Semiconductor Devices" 6. AUTHOR(S) ,DftftLo3-91-6-oo 7 David K. Ferry 7. PERFORMING...OF ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UL NZIN 1540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev 2-89) PrinCrlt>• oy ANSI SIC Z39-18 QUANTUM ... TRANSPORT IN SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Final Report on DAAL03-91-G-0067 (28461-EL) David K. Ferry, Principal Investigator Department of Electrical Engineering

  17. A brief history of ... semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Tudor

    2005-09-01

    The development of studies in semiconductor materials is traced from its beginnings with Michael Faraday in 1833 to the production of the first silicon transistor in 1954, which heralded the age of silicon electronics and microelectronics. Prior to the advent of band theory, work was patchy and driven by needs of technology. However, the arrival of this successful quantum theory of solids, together with a concentration on the growth of pure silicon and germanium and an understanding of their properties, saw an explosion in activity in semiconductor studies that has continued to this day.

  18. 3D Nanostructuring of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, Robert

    2000-03-01

    Modern semiconductor technology allows to machine devices on the nanometer scale. I will discuss the current limits of the fabrication processes, which enable the definition of single electron transistors with dimensions down to 8 nm. In addition to the conventional 2D patterning and structuring of semiconductors, I will demonstrate how to apply 3D nanostructuring techniques to build freely suspended single-crystal beams with lateral dimension down to 20 nm. In transport measurements in the temperature range from 30 mK up to 100 K these nano-crystals are characterized regarding their electronic as well as their mechanical properties. Moreover, I will present possible applications of these devices.

  19. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    DOEpatents

    Arendt, Paul N.; Stan, Liliana; Jia, Quanxi; DePaula, Raymond F.; Usov, Igor O.

    2010-12-14

    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  20. Nonlinear Peltier effect in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan; Shakouri, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Nonlinear Peltier coefficient of a doped InGaAs semiconductor is calculated numerically using the Monte Carlo technique. The Peltier coefficient is also obtained analytically for single parabolic band semiconductors assuming a shifted Fermi-Dirac electronic distribution under an applied bias. Analytical results are in agreement with numerical simulations. Key material parameters affecting the nonlinear behavior are doping concentration, effective mass, and electron-phonon coupling. Current density thresholds at which nonlinear behavior is observable are extracted from numerical data. It is shown that the nonlinear Peltier effect can be used to enhance cooling of thin film microrefrigerator devices especially at low temperatures.

  1. Optical Processing With Photorefractive Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Gheen, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Experimental phase-conjugate four-wave-mixing apparatus used to demonstrate capabilities of GaAs (and potentially of other photorefractive semiconductors like InP and CdTe) for optical processing of information. With modifications, performs any of three basic image-processing functions: transfer to different light beam, enhancement of edges, and autocorrelation. Includes crystal of GaAs of 5 by 9 by 9 mm with cubic crystalline axes. Advantages include high speed and compatibilty with other semiconductor devices.

  2. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOEpatents

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  3. Semiconductor Reliability--Another Field for Physicists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derman, Samuel; Anderson, Wallace T.

    1994-01-01

    Stresses that an important industrial area is product reliability, especially for semiconductors. Suggests that physics students would benefit from training in semiconductors: the many modes of failure, radiation effects, and electrical contact problems. (MVL)

  4. Method and structure for passivating semiconductor material

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1981-01-01

    A structure for passivating semiconductor material comprises a substrate of crystalline semiconductor material, a relatively thin film of carbon disposed on a surface of the crystalline material, and a layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited on the carbon film.

  5. Semiconductor structure and recess formation etch technique

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Sun, Min; Palacios, Tomas Apostol

    2017-02-14

    A semiconductor structure has a first layer that includes a first semiconductor material and a second layer that includes a second semiconductor material. The first semiconductor material is selectively etchable over the second semiconductor material using a first etching process. The first layer is disposed over the second layer. A recess is disposed at least in the first layer. Also described is a method of forming a semiconductor structure that includes a recess. The method includes etching a region in a first layer using a first etching process. The first layer includes a first semiconductor material. The first etching process stops at a second layer beneath the first layer. The second layer includes a second semiconductor material.

  6. Model of coherent transport in metal-insulator-midband gap semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. I.; Danilyuk, A. L.

    1997-08-01

    A kinetic model of coherent transport with self-organized carrier transfer via midband gap semiconductor states in metal-insulator-midband gap semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structure at room temperature is proposed. The coherent transport at room temperature can be a result of continuous oscillations of charge carriers at midband gap semiconductor states.

  7. Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.J.

    1985-02-19

    An electrode is described for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode consists of a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

  8. Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Arthur J.

    1987-01-01

    An electrode is disclosed for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode includes a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

  9. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  10. Semiconductor nanocrystal-based phagokinetic tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A; Parak, Wolfgang J; Le Gros, Mark; Boudreau, Rosanne

    2014-11-18

    Methods for determining metabolic properties of living cells through the uptake of semiconductor nanocrystals by cells. Generally the methods require a layer of neutral or hydrophilic semiconductor nanocrystals and a layer of cells seeded onto a culture surface and changes in the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals are detected. The observed changes made to the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals can be correlated to such metabolic properties as metastatic potential, cell motility or migration.

  11. Semiconductor devices having a recessed electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2015-05-26

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  12. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOEpatents

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2002-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  13. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOEpatents

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2001-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  14. Semiconductor films on flexible iridium substrates

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2005-03-29

    A laminate semiconductor article includes a flexible substrate, an optional biaxially textured oxide buffer system on the flexible substrate, a biaxially textured Ir-based buffer layer on the substrate or the buffer system, and an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor. Ir can serve as a substrate with an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor thereon.

  15. Chemical modification of semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finklea, H. O.

    1981-01-01

    Results of research on the chemical modification of TiO2 powders in the gas phase and the examination of the modified powders by infrared absorption spectroscopy are comprehensively summarized. The range of information obtainable by IR spectroscopy of chemically modified semiconductors, and a definition of the optimum reaction conditions for synthesizing a monolayer of methylsilanes using vapor phase reaction conditions were considered.

  16. Conductive Container for Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    Container for semiconductor components not only protects them against mechanical damage but ensures they are not harmed by electrostatic discharges. Container holds components in fixed positions so they can be serialized and identified from their locations. Suitable for holding components during both storing and shipping. Originally developed for microwave diodes, container concept readily adaptable to transistors and integrated circuits.

  17. Electronic spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A.P.

    1993-12-31

    Semiconductor nanocrystals smaller than the bulk exciton show substantial quantum confinement effects. Recent experiments including Stark effect, resonance Raman, valence band photoemission, and near edge X-ray adsorption will be used to put together a picture of the nanocrystal electronic states.

  18. A Brief History of ... Semiconductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Tudor

    2005-01-01

    The development of studies in semiconductor materials is traced from its beginnings with Michael Faraday in 1833 to the production of the first silicon transistor in 1954, which heralded the age of silicon electronics and microelectronics. Prior to the advent of band theory, work was patchy and driven by needs of technology. However, the arrival…

  19. Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    AD-A130 745 ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES(U) /; UNIVERSIDAD AUfONOMA DE MADRID (SPAIN) DEPT DE FISICA DEL ESTADO SOLIDO F FLORES...J.Sfinchez-Dehesa 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Departamento de Fisica del Estado Solido 6.11.02A

  20. Electron beam pumped semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Electron-beam-pumped semiconductor ultra-violet optical sources (ESUVOSs) are disclosed that use ballistic electron pumped wide bandgap semiconductor materials. The sources may produce incoherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped light emitting triodes (ELETs). The sources may produce coherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped laser triodes (ELTs). The ELTs may take the form of electron-beam-pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (EVCSEL) or edge emitting electron-beam-pumped lasers (EEELs). The semiconductor medium may take the form of an aluminum gallium nitride alloy that has a mole fraction of aluminum selected to give a desired emission wavelength, diamond, or diamond-like carbon (DLC). The sources may be produced from discrete components that are assembled after their individual formation or they may be produced using batch MEMS-type or semiconductor-type processing techniques to build them up in a whole or partial monolithic manner, or combination thereof.

  1. (Magnetic properties of doped semiconductors)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on the transport behavior of doped semiconductors on both sides of the metal-insulator transition, and the approach to the transition from both the insulating and the metallic side. Work is described on magneto resistance of a series of metallic Si:B samples and CdSe. (CBS)

  2. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Lin, P.T.

    1985-03-05

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

  3. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Peter T.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

  4. Semiconductor alloys - Structural property engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M.; Chen, A.-B.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor alloys have been used for years to tune band gaps and average bond lengths to specific applications. Other selection criteria for alloy composition, and a growth technique designed to modify their structural properties, are presently considered. The alloys Zn(1-y)Cd(y)Te and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) are treated as examples.

  5. Hopping conduction in polycrystalline semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. P.; Shukla, A. K.; Kapoor, A. K.; Srivastava, R.; Mathur, P. C.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of dc conductivity (sigma) on polycrystalline semiconductors, viz., InSb, Si, and CdTe, have been reported in the temperature range 77-300 K. The conduction mechanism near liquid-nitrogen temperature has been identified as the hopping of charge carriers from the charged trap centers to empty traps near the Fermi level.

  6. Optical bistability in semiconductor microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Baas, A.; Karr, J.Ph.; Giacobino, E.; Eleuch, H.

    2004-02-01

    We report the observation of polaritonic bistability in semiconductor microcavities in the strong-coupling regime. The origin of bistability is the polariton-polariton interaction, which gives rise to a Kerr-like nonlinearity. The experimental results are in good agreement with a simple model taking transverse effects into account.

  7. Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

  8. Semiconductor technology program: Progress briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, K. F.; Scace, R. I.; Walters, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices, is discussed. Silicon and silicon based devices are emphasized. Highlighted activities include semiinsulating GaAs characterization, an automatic scanning spectroscopic ellipsometer, linewidth measurement and coherence, bandgap narrowing effects in silicon, the evaluation of electrical linewidth uniformity, and arsenicomplanted profiles in silicon.

  9. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  10. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  11. Advanced Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Michael S.; Maki, Paul A.; Kolodzey, James

    2007-06-01

    I. Wide band gap devices. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor devices for automotive applications / M. Sugimoto ... [et al.]. A GaN on SiC HFET device technology for wireless infrastructure applications / B. Green ... [et al.]. Drift velocity limitation in GaN HEMT channels / A. Matulionis. Simulations of field-plated and recessed gate gallium nitride-based heterojunction field-effect transistors / V. O. Turin, M. S. Shur and D. B. Veksler. Low temperature electroluminescence of green and deep green GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / Y. Li ... [et al.]. Spatial spectral analysis in high brightness GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / T. Detchprohm ... [et al.]. Self-induced surface texturing of Al2O3 by means of inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in Cl2 chemistry / P. Batoni ... [et al.]. Field and termionic field transport in aluminium gallium arsenide heterojunction barriers / D. V. Morgan and A. Porch. Electrical characteristics and carrier lifetime measurements in high voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes / P. A. Losee ... [et al.]. Geometry and short channel effects on enhancement-mode n-Channel GaN MOSFETs on p and n- GaN/sapphire substrates / W. Huang, T. Khan and T. P. Chow. 4H-SiC Vertical RESURF Schottky Rectifiers and MOSFETs / Y. Wang, P. A. Losee and T. P. Chow. Present status and future Directions of SiGe HBT technology / M. H. Khater ... [et al.]Optical properties of GaInN/GaN multi-quantum Wells structure and light emitting diode grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy / J. Senawiratne ... [et al.]. Electrical comparison of Ta/Ti/Al/Mo/Au and Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic contacts on undoped GaN HEMTs structure with AlN interlayer / Y. Sun and L. F. Eastman. Above 2 A/mm drain current density of GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire / F. Medjdoub ... [et al.]. Focused thermal beam direct patterning on InGaN during molecular beam epitaxy / X. Chen, W. J. Schaff and L. F. Eastman -- II. Terahertz and millimeter wave devices. Temperature-dependent microwave performance of

  12. Fermi level dependent native defect formation: Consequences for metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semiconductor interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Walukiewicz, W.

    1988-02-01

    The amphoteric native defect model of the Schottky barrier formation is used to analyze the Fermi level pinning at metal/semiconductor interfaces for submonolayer metal coverages. It is assumed that the energy required for defect generation is released in the process of surface back-relaxation. Model calculations for metal/GaAs interfaces show a weak dependence of the Fermi level pinning on the thickness of metal deposited at room temperature. This weak dependence indicates a strong dependence of the defect formation energy on the Fermi level, a unique feature of amphoteric native defects. This result is in very good agreement with experimental data. It is shown that a very distinct asymmetry in the Fermi level pinning on p- and n-type GaAs observed at liquid nitrogen temperatures can be understood in terms of much different recombination rates for amphoteric native defects in those two types of materials. Also, it is demonstrated that the Fermi level stabilization energy, a central concept of the amphoteric defect system, plays a fundamental role in other phenomena in semiconductors such as semiconductor/semiconductor heterointerface intermixing and saturation of free carrier concentration. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Back-side readout semiconductor photomultiplier

    DOEpatents

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2014-05-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to semiconductor photomultipliers. In one aspect, a device includes a p-type semiconductor substrate, the p-type semiconductor substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side of the p-type semiconductor substrate defining a recess, and the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate being doped with n-type ions. A conductive material is disposed in the recess. A p-type epitaxial layer is disposed on the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate. The p-type epitaxial layer includes a first region proximate the p-type semiconductor substrate, the first region being implanted with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the p-type epitaxial layer, and a second region disposed on the first region, the second region being doped with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the first region.

  14. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1992-12-31

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.

  15. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew P.; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5-10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies.

  16. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Matthew P.; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5–10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies. PMID:27577091

  17. Cameras for semiconductor process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, W. A.; Parker, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The application of X-ray topography to semiconductor process control is described, considering the novel features of the high speed camera and the difficulties associated with this technique. The most significant results on the effects of material defects on device performance are presented, including results obtained using wafers processed entirely within this institute. Defects were identified using the X-ray camera and correlations made with probe data. Also included are temperature dependent effects of material defects. Recent applications and improvements of X-ray topographs of silicon-on-sapphire and gallium arsenide are presented with a description of a real time TV system prototype and of the most recent vacuum chuck design. Discussion is included of our promotion of the use of the camera by various semiconductor manufacturers.

  18. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  19. Squeezing of phonoritons in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, N. Q.; Hau, N. N.; Birman, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    If a semiconductor sample is illuminated by hight-intensity electro-magnetic radiation near the resonance, the occupation number of polaritons in the same mode is large and the interaction between polaritons and phonons become very important. This interaction leads to the formation of a new kind of elementary excitation called phonoriton, which actually is a coherent superposition of excitons, photons, and longitudinal acoustic phonons under Brillouin scattering of an intense polariton. The phonoritons have been studied theoretically and experimentally and have been found in Cu2O. In this work we discuss the squeezing of phonoritons inside semiconductors from a theoretical point of view. We found the squeezed states, or so called 'low-noise' states- the states of reduced quantum noise with reducing effect of vacuum fluctuation, for phonoritons. It shows that the phonoritons are intrinsically squeezed. From our results we also have the possibility to tune the squeeze amplitude, what is important both theoretically and experimentally.

  20. Semiconductor metafilms devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brongersma, Mark L.

    2016-09-01

    Many conventional optoelectronic devices consist of thin, stacked films of metals and semiconductors. In this presentation, I will demonstrate how one can improve the performance of such devices by nano-structuring the constituent layers at length scales below the wavelength of light. The resulting metafilms and metasurfaces offer opportunities to dramatically modify the optical transmission, absorption, reflection, and refraction properties of device layers. This is accomplished by encoding the optical response of nanoscale resonant building blocks into the effective properties of the films and surfaces. To illustrate these points, I will show how nanopatterned metal and semiconductor layers may be used to enhance the performance of solar cells, photodetectors, and enable new imaging technologies. I will also demonstrate how the use of active nanoscale building blocks can facilitate the creation of active metafilm devices.

  1. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  2. Etching Of Semiconductor Wafer Edges

    DOEpatents

    Kardauskas, Michael J.; Piwczyk, Bernhard P.

    2003-12-09

    A novel method of etching a plurality of semiconductor wafers is provided which comprises assembling said plurality of wafers in a stack, and subjecting said stack of wafers to dry etching using a relatively high density plasma which is produced at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is focused magnetically and said stack is rotated so as to expose successive edge portions of said wafers to said plasma.

  3. Lasing in subwavelength semiconductor nanopatches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhani, Amit M.; Yu, Kyoungsik; Wu, Ming C.

    2011-01-01

    Subwavelength semiconductor nanopatch lasers were analyzed, fabricated and characterized. Lasing was achieved in cylindrical and rectangular metallodielectric nanopatch geometries. The two smallest moderate quality factor modes of cylindrical cavities, the 'electric-' and 'magnetic-' dipole-like modes, successfully lased with physical volumes as small as 0.75 (λ0/n)3. Polarization control in nanopatch geometries is successfully demonstrated in anisotropic rectangular nanopatch structures.

  4. Cooling and mounting power semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, P.

    1980-04-01

    The article examines the process of heat dissipation from power semiconductors. It is shown that for the relationship between temperature loading and dissipation it is possible to take an 'Ohm's law of heat abduction' to define the thermal impedance. The computation of the optimal size for a heatsink is demonstrated in detail. Discussion covers the types of heat dissipation such as heat radiation, heat conduction, and convection. Finally, some factors to consider during installation are examined.

  5. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  6. Technology Roadmaps for Compound Semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Herbert S.

    2000-01-01

    The roles cited for compound semiconductors in public versions of existing technology roadmaps from the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Inc., Optoelectronics Industry Development Association, Microelectronics Advanced Research Initiative on Optoelectronic Interconnects, and Optoelectronics Industry and Technology Development Association (OITDA) are discussed and compared within the context of trends in the Si CMOS industry. In particular, the extent to which these technology roadmaps treat compound semiconductors at the materials processing and device levels will be presented for specific applications. For example, OITDA’s Optical Communications Technology Roadmap directly connects the information demand of delivering 100 Mbit/s to the home to the requirement of producing 200 GHz heterojunction bipolar transistors with 30 nm bases and InP high electron mobility transistors with 100 nm gates. Some general actions for progress towards the proposed International Technology Roadmap for Compound Semiconductors (ITRCS) and methods for determining the value of an ITRCS will be suggested. But, in the final analysis, the value added by an ITRCS will depend on how industry leaders respond. The technical challenges and economic opportunities of delivering high quality digital video to consumers provide concrete examples of where the above actions and methods could be applied. PMID:27551615

  7. Conductivity in transparent oxide semiconductors.

    PubMed

    King, P D C; Veal, T D

    2011-08-24

    Despite an extensive research effort for over 60 years, an understanding of the origins of conductivity in wide band gap transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors remains elusive. While TCOs have already found widespread use in device applications requiring a transparent contact, there are currently enormous efforts to (i) increase the conductivity of existing materials, (ii) identify suitable alternatives, and (iii) attempt to gain semiconductor-engineering levels of control over their carrier density, essential for the incorporation of TCOs into a new generation of multifunctional transparent electronic devices. These efforts, however, are dependent on a microscopic identification of the defects and impurities leading to the high unintentional carrier densities present in these materials. Here, we review recent developments towards such an understanding. While oxygen vacancies are commonly assumed to be the source of the conductivity, there is increasing evidence that this is not a sufficient mechanism to explain the total measured carrier concentrations. In fact, many studies suggest that oxygen vacancies are deep, rather than shallow, donors, and their abundance in as-grown material is also debated. We discuss other potential contributions to the conductivity in TCOs, including other native defects, their complexes, and in particular hydrogen impurities. Convincing theoretical and experimental evidence is presented for the donor nature of hydrogen across a range of TCO materials, and while its stability and the role of interstitial versus substitutional species are still somewhat open questions, it is one of the leading contenders for yielding unintentional conductivity in TCOs. We also review recent work indicating that the surfaces of TCOs can support very high carrier densities, opposite to the case for conventional semiconductors. In thin-film materials/devices and, in particular, nanostructures, the surface can have a large impact on the total

  8. Stretchable semiconductor elements and stretchable electrical circuits

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A.; Khang, Dahl-Young; Menard, Etienne

    2009-07-07

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  9. Surface Flashover of Semiconductors: A Fundamental Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-16

    mechanisms responsible for inducing surface flashover in semiconductors , par- ticularly silicon. In order to achieve this...of semiconductors . 2.9.2 Our Modelfor the Surface Flashover Mechanism We have developed a model in which the flashover initiation process occurs on...is described in detail in the following pages. 3-1 4. CUMULATIVE LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 1. "A Mechanism for Surface Flashover of Semiconductors ,"

  10. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D [Dover, MA; Cabalu, Jasper S [Cary, NC

    2012-08-07

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  11. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D [Dover, MA; Cabalu, Jasper S [Cary, NC

    2011-10-11

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  12. High performance compound semiconductor SPAD arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Eric S.; Naydenkov, Mikhail; Bowling, Jared

    2016-05-01

    Aggregated compound semiconductor single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays are emerging as a viable alternative to the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Compound semiconductors have the potential to surpass SiPM performance, potentially achieving orders of magnitude lower dark count rates and improved radiation hardness. New planar processing techniques have been developed to enable compound semiconductor SPAD devices to be produced with pixel pitches of 11 - 25 microns, with thousands of SPADs per array.

  13. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Edwin Y.; James, Ralph B.

    2002-01-01

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  14. Transient Transport in Binary and Ternary Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-27

    transport; Semiconductors, Microelectronics, Quantum transport , Boltzmann transport, Drift and diffusion, Gallium arsende, Aluminum gallium arsenide, Indium gallium arsenide, and Transient transport.

  15. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Walter, Martin J.

    1989-06-20

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  16. Toward a national semiconductor strategy, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-02-01

    Updated here are key market data showing trends in the U.S. semiconductor industry's world market position. New information is given on three emerging semiconductor-based technologies: broadband communications, advanced display systems, and intelligent vehicles and highways. These are examples of important, high-volume markets that will consume significant numbers of semiconductor components and that must be addressed in a national semiconductor strategy. New recommendations and a summary of all Committee recommendations to date are given as well as a summary of comments received at a public forum held in Silicon Valley in may 1990.

  17. Sensor Detects Semiconductor Escaping From Ampoule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watring, Dale A.; Johnson, Martin L.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical resistance and temperature change upon exposure to semiconductors. Sensor detects breakage of ampoule containing molten semiconductor. Chemical reaction between hot semiconductor material and wire causes step increase in electrical resistance and temperature of wire. Step increase in temperature and resistance of sensor indicates presence of hot GaAs. Sensor used to shut down furnace automatically if ampoule breaks and prevents further release of molton semiconductor, which could quickly breach surrounding thin wall of cartridge, damage furnace, and/or release toxic vapors into surrounding area.

  18. Semiconductor technology program. Progress briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The current status of NBS work on measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reported. Results of both in-house and contract research are covered. Highlighted activities include modeling of diffusion processes, analysis of model spreading resistance data, and studies of resonance ionization spectroscopy, resistivity-dopant density relationships in p-type silicon, deep level measurements, photoresist sensitometry, random fault measurements, power MOSFET thermal characteristics, power transistor switching characteristics, and gross leak testing. New and selected on-going projects are described. Compilations of recent publications and publications in press are included.

  19. Multivalley engineering in semiconductor microcavities.

    PubMed

    Sun, M; Savenko, I G; Flayac, H; Liew, T C H

    2017-04-03

    We consider exciton-photon coupling in semiconductor microcavities in which separate periodic potentials have been embedded for excitons and photons. We show theoretically that this system supports degenerate ground-states appearing at non-zero inplane momenta, corresponding to multiple valleys in reciprocal space, which are further separated in polarization corresponding to a polarization-valley coupling in the system. Aside forming a basis for valleytronics, the multivalley dispersion is predicted to allow for spontaneous momentum symmetry breaking and two-mode squeezing under non-resonant and resonant excitation, respectively.

  20. Conduction in short semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, J.

    1983-12-01

    Low field mobility in short semiconductor structures decreases as a result of finite sample length. According to Kastalsky and Shur [1] the mobility scales down by a factor 1 - exp ( {-3η}/{2}) where η is the sample length divided by the mean free path. From a solution of Boltzmann equation we show that the scaling factor is more accurately given by {η}/{(η + α)} where α is between {4}/{3} and 2. Mobility decrease can be simply interpreted in terms of a finite contact resistance.

  1. Hot Electron Emission in Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Second Interim Report Hot Electron Emission in Semiconductors Jan. 85 - June 85 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a...KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side Jf necessary and identify by block number) " -novel tunable FIR sources) • hot electron emission in GaAs/GaAlAs...heterostructures)" -,/ " streaming of hot carriers in crossed electric and magnetic fields ABST’AACr C-rrhmus- m .wr. efe it rewo-- .rv d identify by

  2. Processing of insulators and semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Quick, Nathaniel R.; Joshi, Pooran C.; Duty, Chad Edward; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Angelini, Joseph Attilio

    2015-06-16

    A method is disclosed for processing an insulator material or a semiconductor material. The method includes pulsing a plasma lamp onto the material to diffuse a doping substance into the material, to activate the doping substance in the material or to metallize a large area region of the material. The method may further include pulsing a laser onto a selected region of the material to diffuse a doping substance into the material, to activate the doping substance in the material or to metallize a selected region of the material.

  3. Multivalley engineering in semiconductor microcavities

    PubMed Central

    Sun, M.; Savenko, I. G.; Flayac, H.; Liew, T. C. H.

    2017-01-01

    We consider exciton-photon coupling in semiconductor microcavities in which separate periodic potentials have been embedded for excitons and photons. We show theoretically that this system supports degenerate ground-states appearing at non-zero inplane momenta, corresponding to multiple valleys in reciprocal space, which are further separated in polarization corresponding to a polarization-valley coupling in the system. Aside forming a basis for valleytronics, the multivalley dispersion is predicted to allow for spontaneous momentum symmetry breaking and two-mode squeezing under non-resonant and resonant excitation, respectively. PMID:28367953

  4. Recent developments in semiconductor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, M. N.

    1984-01-01

    Recent findings drawn from various laboratories focused toward a new understanding of the nature of crystal growth and how impurities are incorporated or excluded from the lattice were considered. From these findings a heuristic approach is given for improving the uniformity and charge carrier concentration of thin semiconductor films. Such improvement is considered essential to achieve respectable yield on large scale integrated circuits. A tentative conclusion is drawn which indicates that if the host compound crystal reactants are provided to the growing crystal surface in a reasonably stoichiometric manner, it is virtually impossible to include impurities into a growing crystal surface held at a sufficiently low temperature; impurities are incorporated into the crystal by gettering action of crystal defects located one and two monlayers beneath the growing surface. Devices in 3-5 semiconductors based on heterojunctions and two dimensional electron gases are noted and reliability concerns are voiced. Alternatives and novel device structures such as truly single crystal high quality silicon on insulator and beta silicon carbide devices are presented.

  5. Nitride semiconductors for ultraviolet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. F.; Bremser, M. D.; Gruss, K.; Linthicum, K.; Ferry, B.

    1995-06-01

    Continued development and commercialization of optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers produced from 3-5 gallium arsenide-based materials, has also generated interest in the much wider bandgap semiconductor mononitride materials containing aluminum, gallium, and indium. The majority of the studies have been conducted on pure gallium nitride thin films having the wurtzite structure, and this emphasis continues to the present day. The program objectives achieved in this reporting period have been (1) the growth of undoped, high resistivity and n- and p-type doped monocrystalline, GaN thin films on alpha(6H)-SiC(000l) wafers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE), and their characterization via photoluminescence; (2) the growth and cathodoluminescence characterization of Al(x)Ga(1-x)N alloys and abrupt heterojunctions of these alloys; (3) the development and application of a novel NH3 cracker cell for gas source MBE to reduce film damage; and (4) the reactive ion etching of undoped GaN films via use of Cl-containing compounds.

  6. Semiconductor nanostructures for artificial photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peidong

    2012-02-01

    Nanowires, with their unique capability to bridge the nanoscopic and macroscopic worlds, have already been demonstrated as important materials for different energy conversion. One emerging and exciting direction is their application for solar to fuel conversion. The generation of fuels by the direct conversion of solar energy in a fully integrated system is an attractive goal, but no such system has been demonstrated that shows the required efficiency, is sufficiently durable, or can be manufactured at reasonable cost. One of the most critical issues in solar water splitting is the development of a suitable photoanode with high efficiency and long-term durability in an aqueous environment. Semiconductor nanowires represent an important class of nanostructure building block for direct solar-to-fuel application because of their high surface area, tunable bandgap and efficient charge transport and collection. Nanowires can be readily designed and synthesized to deterministically incorporate heterojunctions with improved light absorption, charge separation and vectorial transport. Meanwhile, it is also possible to selectively decorate different oxidation or reduction catalysts onto specific segments of the nanowires to mimic the compartmentalized reactions in natural photosynthesis. In this talk, I will highlight several recent examples in this lab using semiconductor nanowires and their heterostructures for the purpose of direct solar water splitting.

  7. Polaronic trapping in magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raebiger, Hannes

    2012-02-01

    GaN doped with iron is an interesting candidate material for magnetic semiconductors, as p-d coupling between the localized Fe-d and extended N-p hole states is expected to facilitate long-range ferromagnetic alignment of the Fe spins [1]. This picture of extended states in GaN:Fe, however, falls apart due to a polaronic localization of the hole carriers nearby the Fe impurities. To elucidate the carrier localization in GaN:Fe and related iron doped III-V semiconductors, I present a systematic study using self-interaction corrected density-functional calculations [2]. These calculations predict three distinct scenarios. (i) Some systems do sustain extended host-like hole states, (ii) some exhibit polaronic trapping, (iii) and some exhibit carrier trapping at Fe-d orbitals. These behaviors are described in detail to give an insight as to how to distinguish them experimentally. I thank T. Fujita, C. Echeverria-Arrondo, and A. Ayuela for their collaboration.[4pt] [1] T. Dietl et al, Science, 287, 1019 (2000).[0pt] [2] S. Lany and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B, 80, 085202 (2009).

  8. Zener tunneling in semiconductor superlattices.

    PubMed

    Romanova, J Yu; Demidov, E V; Mourokh, L G; Romanov, Yu A

    2011-08-03

    Characteristics of miniband tunneling and Wannier-Stark levels in semiconductor superlattices are studied as regards their dependence on the symmetry of the unit cells and the type of miniband structure. We modify the k ⋅ p method into a k ⋅ v form and on this basis generalize the Zener formula for the inter-band tunneling in homogeneous semiconductors to the case of inter-miniband tunneling in superlattices, account being taken of the inhomogeneity of the electron effective mass. The corresponding sum rule for the effective masses in such structures is obtained. We develop a unified matrix approach for the calculation of the inter-miniband tunneling and Wannier-Stark levels in the case of an arbitrary number of minibands. We study the electric field dependence of the probability of inter-miniband tunneling for an electron transferred through the Brillouin minizone only once. The peculiarities of the inter-miniband transitions for the case where this transfer is repeated are also examined for various unit cells and miniband structures of the superlattice. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and specific features of the resonant Zener tunneling and its manifestations in electron transport.

  9. Charge transport in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Bässler, Heinz; Köhler, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Modern optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors and organic solar cells require well controlled motion of charges for their efficient operation. The understanding of the processes that determine charge transport is therefore of paramount importance for designing materials with improved structure-property relationships. Before discussing different regimes of charge transport in organic semiconductors, we present a brief introduction into the conceptual framework in which we interpret the relevant photophysical processes. That is, we compare a molecular picture of electronic excitations against the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger semiconductor band model. After a brief description of experimental techniques needed to measure charge mobilities, we then elaborate on the parameters controlling charge transport in technologically relevant materials. Thus, we consider the influences of electronic coupling between molecular units, disorder, polaronic effects and space charge. A particular focus is given to the recent progress made in understanding charge transport on short time scales and short length scales. The mechanism for charge injection is briefly addressed towards the end of this chapter.

  10. Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anthony J; Alekseyev, Leonid; Howard, Scott S; Franz, Kale J; Wasserman, Dan; Podolskiy, Viktor A; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Sivco, Deborah L; Gmachl, Claire

    2007-12-01

    An optical metamaterial is a composite in which subwavelength features, rather than the constituent materials, control the macroscopic electromagnetic properties of the material. Recently, properly designed metamaterials have garnered much interest because of their unusual interaction with electromagnetic waves. Whereas nature seems to have limits on the type of materials that exist, newly invented metamaterials are not bound by such constraints. These newly accessible electromagnetic properties make these materials an excellent platform for demonstrating unusual optical phenomena and unique applications such as subwavelength imaging and planar lens design. 'Negative-index materials', as first proposed, required the permittivity, epsilon, and permeability, mu, to be simultaneously less than zero, but such materials face limitations. Here, we demonstrate a comparatively low-loss, three-dimensional, all-semiconductor metamaterial that exhibits negative refraction for all incidence angles in the long-wave infrared region and requires only an anisotropic dielectric function with a single resonance. Using reflection and transmission measurements and a comprehensive model of the material, we demonstrate that our material exhibits negative refraction. This is furthermore confirmed through a straightforward beam optics experiment. This work will influence future metamaterial designs and their incorporation into optical semiconductor devices.

  11. Heterogeneous Integration of Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutanabbir, Oussama; Gösele, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    The ability to tailor compound semiconductors and to integrate them onto foreign substrates can lead to superior or novel functionalities with a potential impact on various areas in electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, biosensing, and photovoltaics. This review provides a brief description of different approaches to achieve this heterogeneous integration, with an emphasis on the ion-cut process, also known commercially as the Smart-Cut™ process. This process combines semiconductor wafer bonding and undercutting using defect engineering by light ion implantation. Bulk-quality heterostructures frequently unattainable by direct epitaxial growth can be produced, provided that a list of technical criteria is fulfilled, thus offering an additional degree of freedom in the design and fabrication of heterogeneous and flexible devices. Ion cutting is a generic process that can be employed to split and transfer fine monocrystalline layers from various crystals. Materials and engineering issues as well as our current understanding of the underlying physics involved in its application to cleaving thin layers from freestanding GaN, InP, and GaAs wafers are presented.

  12. Method for fabricating semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Grunthaner, Frank J. (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Bell, Lloyd D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating gold/gallium arsenide structures, in situ, on molecular beam epitaxially grown gallium arsenide. The resulting interface proves to be Ohmic, an unexpected result which is interpreted in terms of increased electrode interdiffusion. More importantly, the present invention surprisingly permits the fabrication of Ohmic contacts in a III-V semiconductor material at room temperature. Although it may be desireable to heat the Ohmic contact to a temperature of, for example, 200 degrees Centigrade if one wishes to further decrease the resistance of the contact, such low temperature annealing is much less likely to have any deleterious affect on the underlying substrate. The use of the term in situ herein, contemplates continuously maintaining an ultra-high vacuum, that is a vacuum which is at least 10.sup.-8 Torr, until after the metallization has been completed. An alternative embodiment of the present invention comprising an additional step, namely the termination of the gallium arsenide by a two monolayer thickness of epitaxial aluminum arsenide as a diffusion barrier, enables the recovery of Schottky barrier behavior, namely a rectified I-V characteristic. The present invention provides a significant breakthrough in the fabrication of III-V semiconductor devices wherein excellent Ohmic contact and Schottky barrier interfaces to such devices can be achieved simply and inexpensively and without requiring the high temperature processing of the prior art and also without requiring the use of exotic high temperature refractory materials as substitutes for those preferred contact metals such as gold, aluminum and the like.

  13. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Amita

    2004-06-01

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting

  14. Energetics of the Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of semiconductors as electrodes for electrochemistry requires an understanding of both solid-state physics and electrochemistry, since phenomena associated with both disciplines are seen in semiconductor/electrolyte systems. The interfacial energetics of these systems are discussed. (JN)

  15. Photoelectroconversion by Semiconductors: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Qinbai; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment designed to give students some experience with photochemistry, electrochemistry, and basic theories about semiconductors. Uses a liquid-junction solar cell and illustrates some fundamental physical and chemical principles related to light and electricity interconversion as well as the properties of semiconductors. (JRH)

  16. Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Device Fabrication and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-08

    SPACE ADMINISTRATION For Grant NAG 3-782 S- 1 entitled SILICON CARBIDE SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION For the Period 10 February...NUMBERS Silicon Carbide ..Semiconductor Device Fabrication and PR# 335820 Characterization __________________________________________________ APP# 505-62-01...also been demonstrated. _________ 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NuMBER OF PACiES -~- Silicon carbide , Ysemiconductor devices, ion implantation aseeI4i

  17. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  18. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOEpatents

    Pehnt, M.; Schulz, D.L.; Curtis, C.J.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-01-27

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  19. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOEpatents

    Pehnt, Martin; Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  20. Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2001-01-01

    A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.