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Sample records for hand-reared cheetah cubs

  1. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

    2012-04-01

    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Bilateral carpal valgus deformity in hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Bell, Katherine M; van Zyl, Malan; Ugarte, Claudia E; Hartman, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Four hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) exhibited progressively severe bilateral valgus deformity of the carpi (CV) during the weaning period. Radiographs of the thoracic limbs suggested normal bone ossification, and serum chemistry was unremarkable. All affected cubs developed CV shortly after the onset of gastroenteritis, which was treated medically, and included use of a prescription diet. A sudden decrease in growth rate was associated with gastrointestinal disease. Before gastroenteritis and CV, affected cubs had higher growth rates than unaffected cubs, despite similar mean daily energy intake. Return to normal thoracic limb conformation was consequent to dietary manipulation (including a reduction in energy intake and vitamin and mineral supplementation), as well as decreased growth rates and recovery from gastroenteritis. The cause of the CV is likely to have been multi-factorial with potentially complex physiological interactions involved. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility, and comparison to maternal cheetah milk.

    PubMed

    Bell, Katherine M; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Cottam, Yvette H; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was calculated from the analyses of fecal samples collected from each cub (n = 4 on formula 1, and n = 2 on formula 2). Mean apparent total tract digestibility for both formulas was >90% for all nutrients analyzed (crude protein, amino acids, crude fat (CF), and dry matter). However, the total CF content and the concentration of the essential fatty acids, such as α-linolenic, linolenic, and arachidonic acid, of both formulas was lower than reported for maternal cheetah milk. Additionally, one formula contained a comparatively high amount of carbohydrate, at the expense of protein. Although data were lacking for cheetah maternal milk, comparison with domestic cat milk revealed high concentrations of a number of minerals (K, Fe, Zn, and Cu), while vitamin D(3) was not detected in one formula. Both formulas were low in the majority of essential amino acids compared with domestic cat maternal milk. Despite their apparently high digestibility, neither formula was complete or balanced in terms of nutrient concentrations and ratios when maternal cheetah milk and/or the requirements established for growth in domestic cats were used as estimates of ideal. On this basis, although all cubs in this study were healthy and maintained good body conditions for the duration of the trial, the results of dietary analyses indicate that these milk replacers may not provide optimal nutrition for growth in cheetah cubs when used for extended periods. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Body mass dynamics in hand reared clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) cubs from birth to weaning.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Fernando; Brown, Janine; Wildt, David E; Virolle, Laurie; Kongprom, Urarikha; Revuelta, Luis; Goodrowe-Beck, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To study the dynamics of body mass changes in hand reared clouded leopards, we analyzed 3,697 weight data points during the first 3 months of life in 49 cubs from 24 zoo-born litters from 2003 through 2012. All cubs were fed the same formula mixture after a similar weaning protocol. The hand rearing process was divided into three periods based on feeding protocols: Stage 1: formula only (Days 1-28; Day 0 = day of birth); Stage 2, formula supplemented with protein (e.g., turkey baby food; Days 29-42); Stage 3, formula in decreasing amounts supplemented with meat (chicken and/or beef; Days 43-90). Weights at birth were 11.2% higher (P < 0.001) for males (n = 29) than females (n = 20). Daily weight gain was slowest (P < 0.05) during Stage 1 when cubs were fed straight formula only and fastest during Stage 3 when provided a mixture of formula and meat. Mean growth rate (± SD) during hand rearing differed (P < 0.05) by gender, being 34.6 ± 1.4 g/day for male and 30.0 ± 1.2 g/day for female cubs. Eighteen cubs (37%) exhibited mild to severe diarrhea during the study; however, palliative treatment resulted in similar (P > 0.05) growth and weaning weights compared to healthy counterparts. These are the first data documenting, on a large scale, the growth patterns for zoo born, hand reared clouded leopard cubs. Findings are valuable as an aid in managing this rare species, including for helping identify early onset of medical issues and further determining key factors regulating the first 3 months of development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Idiopathic acute onset myelopathy in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) cubs.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Christian; Url, Angelika; Robert, Nadia; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Nowotny, Norbert; Schmidt, Peter

    2003-03-01

    Numerous cases of ataxia, hind limb paresis, and paralysis have occurred in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) cubs over the past 10 yr within the European Endangered Species Program population, including 12 in mainland Europe, two in the British Isles, one in Namibia, and one in Dubai. The condition is the most important medical factor limiting European cheetah population growth. Eight cubs at the Salzburg Zoo, Austria, were affected. They demonstrated upper motor neuron lesions when alive and bilateral, symmetrical myelin degeneration of the spinal cord on necropsy. Ballooning of myelin sheaths surrounded mostly preserved axons, and no spheroids, characteristic of acute axonal degeneration, were found. Myelin loss markedly exceeded axonal degeneration. The syndrome's etiology is unclear, although viral, bacterial, parasitic, genetic, nutritional-metabolic, toxic, and physical causes have been considered.

  6. Cataracts and strabismus associated with hand rearing using artificial milk formulas in Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris spp tigris) cubs

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Rogério Ribas; Lima, Leandro; Frühvald, Erika; da Silva, Vera Sônia Nunes; de Souza, Aparecida Sônia; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the potential contributing nutritional factors involved in the development of ophthalmic and dermatologic changes in four Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris spp tigris) cubs fed an artificial milk formula. The affected animals were compared with two other tiger cubs that had been nursed by their dam naturally. After the first clinical signs appeared, the tiger cubs underwent ophthalmic evaluation. Severe symmetric generalized alopecia over the trunk, sparing the head and distal portion of the front and rear limbs, bilateral cataracts and strabismus were noticed. Milk and blood from the mother, as well as blood from the healthy and affected cubs were collected in order to evaluate complete blood counts, serum chemistry values, and amino acid levels. The amino acid concentrations in the artificial formula were also evaluated for comparison to the milk from the dam. The concentration of taurine, arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and histidine were very low in the artificial formulas as compared to the dam´s milk. The tiger cubs that received the artificial formula had lower levels of the amino acids listed previously as compared to those that nursed from the dam naturally. Taurine, as well as arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and histidine deficiency appeared to be possible causes of the development of skin problems, cataracts and strabismus in the tiger cubs fed with these particular artificial milk replacers. In the future, special attention should be given in order to make sure that adequate levels of these amino acids are present in artificial milk for tiger cubs. PMID:28210544

  7. Effects of Hand-Rearing on Reproductive Success in Captive Large Cats Panthera tigris altaica, Uncia uncia, Acinonyx jubatus and Neofelis nebulosa.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Maja Coulthard; Schwitzer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Hand-rearing can cause behavioural problems, resulting in decreased copulation and lower breeding success in some species. In this study, studbook data subsets were examined: from 1901 to 2011; and 2000 to 2011. We analysed records from 4273 Siberian tigers, 2045 snow leopards, 3435 cheetahs, and 804 clouded leopards. We assessed the number of offspring produced, litter size, age at first reproduction, longevity, infant mortality and generational rearing of hand-reared versus parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared Siberian tigers (p<0.01; p = 0.0113), snow leopards (p<0.01), male cheetahs (p<0.01) and female clouded leopards (p<0.01) produced fewer offspring than parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared snow leopard breeding pairs had larger litters than parent-reared pairs (p = 0.0404). Hand-reared snow leopard females reproduced later in life (p<0.01). Hand-reared female Siberian tigers lived shorter lives, while hand-reared cheetahs lived longer (p<0.01; p = 0.0107). Infant mortality was higher in hand-reared snow leopards (p<0.01) and male cheetahs (p = 0.0395) in the 1901-2011 dataset and lower in hand-reared female Siberian tiger and male snow leopard cubs (p = 0.0404; p = 0.0349) in the 2000-2011 dataset. The rearing of the mother and subsequent rearing of offspring showed a significant relationship for all species (p<0.01 for Siberian tiger and snow leopard cubs; p<0.001 for cheetah and snow leopard cubs). Taking into account the limited carrying capacity of zoos, the

  8. Effects of Hand-Rearing on Reproductive Success in Captive Large Cats Panthera tigris altaica, Uncia uncia, Acinonyx jubatus and Neofelis nebulosa

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Maja Coulthard; Schwitzer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Hand-rearing can cause behavioural problems, resulting in decreased copulation and lower breeding success in some species. In this study, studbook data subsets were examined: from 1901 to 2011; and 2000 to 2011. We analysed records from 4273 Siberian tigers, 2045 snow leopards, 3435 cheetahs, and 804 clouded leopards. We assessed the number of offspring produced, litter size, age at first reproduction, longevity, infant mortality and generational rearing of hand-reared versus parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared Siberian tigers (p<0.01; p = 0.0113), snow leopards (p<0.01), male cheetahs (p<0.01) and female clouded leopards (p<0.01) produced fewer offspring than parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared snow leopard breeding pairs had larger litters than parent-reared pairs (p = 0.0404). Hand-reared snow leopard females reproduced later in life (p<0.01). Hand-reared female Siberian tigers lived shorter lives, while hand-reared cheetahs lived longer (p<0.01; p = 0.0107). Infant mortality was higher in hand-reared snow leopards (p<0.01) and male cheetahs (p = 0.0395) in the 1901–2011 dataset and lower in hand-reared female Siberian tiger and male snow leopard cubs (p = 0.0404; p = 0.0349) in the 2000–2011 dataset. The rearing of the mother and subsequent rearing of offspring showed a significant relationship for all species (p<0.01 for Siberian tiger and snow leopard cubs; p<0.001 for cheetah and snow leopard cubs). Taking into account the limited carrying capacity of zoos, the

  9. Exposure of growing and adult captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to dietary isoflavones: twenty years later.

    PubMed

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Hendriks, W H

    2010-12-01

    Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided diets, and the isoflavone content of each diet was determined by acid hydrolysis and HPLC quantification. Proximate nutritional composition was also determined. Over half the diets analysed contained detectable concentrations of isoflavones, whereby total isoflavone content ranged from 1.75-183 mg/kg dry matter. The zoo-specific diets were calculated to deliver a median isoflavone dose of 0.07 mg/kg body weight (BW) and a maximum of 1.95 mg/kg BW to captive cheetahs. On a metabolic body weight basis this equates to a maximum of 4.90-5.43 mg/kg(0.75) . Some diets prepared for hand-rearing neonatal cheetahs could expose neonates to doses of up to 4.24 mg/kg BW (or 4.24-6.33 mg/kg(0.75) for cubs under 3 months of age). Only one of six zoo-specific diets was found to deliver isoflavones in doses shown to possess biological activity in other species. Therefore, on average, dietary isoflavones were not found in commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs in concentrations predicted to cause physiological changes. However, a small proportion of these diets, including hand-rearing formulas, contained elevated isoflavones concentrations which may influence cheetah fertility, behaviour or other physiological parameters. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings☆

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

  11. Hand-Rearing Reduces Fear of Humans in European Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing) increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level. PMID:21364770

  12. Hand-rearing and sex determination tool for the Taveta golden weaver (Ploceus castaneiceps).

    PubMed

    Breeding, Shawnlei; Ferrie, Gina M; Schutz, Paul; Leighty, Katherine A; Plassé, Chelle

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in the ability to hand-rear birds in captivity have aided zoological institutions in the sustainable management of these species, and have provided opportunities to examine their physical growth in varying conditions. Monitoring the weight gain and development of chicks is an important aspect of developing a hand-rearing protocol. In this paper we provide the institutional history for a colonial species of passerine, the Taveta golden weaver, at Disney's Animal Kingdom®, in order to demonstrate the methods of establishing a successful breeding program which largely incorporates hand-rearing in management of the population. We also tested if we could accurately predict sex of chicks using weights collected on Day 14 during the hand-rearing process. Using this tool, we were able to correctly determine sex before fledging in more than 83% of chicks. Early sex determination is important in captive species for genetic management and husbandry purposes. While genetic sexing can be expensive, we found that using growth curves to determine sex can be a reliable and cost-effective tool for population management of a colonial passerine. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. MicroCub In Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-18

    The MicroCub, a modified a Bill Hempel 60-percent-scale super cub, approaches for a landing at NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center. This was the first flight of the MicroCub in which the crew validated the airworthiness of the aircraft.

  14. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  15. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    PubMed

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  16. MicroCub Subscale Aircraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-18

    The MicroCub is the newest addition to NASA Armstrong's fleet of subscale research aircraft. The aircraft is a modified a Bill Hempel 60-percent-scale super cub, designed with a 21-foot wingspan, a Piccolo Autopilot guidance system and a JetCat SPT-15 Turboprop.

  17. Fear and Exploration in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): A Comparison of Hand-Reared and Wild-Caught Birds

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Klaus, Kristel; Bateson, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6–8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage) and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration). In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research. PMID:21526000

  18. Epidemiology of clinical feline herpesvirus infection in zoo-housed cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Witte, Carmel L; Lamberski, Nadine; Rideout, Bruce A; Vaida, Florin; Citino, Scott B; Barrie, Michael T; Haefele, Holly J; Junge, Randall E; Murray, Suzan; Hungerford, Laura L

    2017-10-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of and risk factors for clinical feline herpesvirus (FHV) infection in zoo-housed cheetahs and determine whether dam infection was associated with offspring infection. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 144 cheetah cubs born in 6 zoos from 1988 through 2007. PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the health records of cheetahs and their dams to identify incident cases of clinical FHV infection and estimate incidence from birth to 18 months of age. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for correlations among cheetahs with the same dam, were used to identify risk factors for incident FHV infection. RESULTS Cumulative incidence of FHV infection in cheetah cubs was 35% (50/144). No significant association between dam and offspring infection was identified in any model. Factors identified as significant through multivariable analysis varied by age group. For cheetahs up to 3 months of age, the most important predictor of FHV infection was having a dam that had received a preparturition FHV vaccine regimen that included a modified-live virus vaccine versus a dam that had received no preparturition vaccine. Other risk factors included being from a small litter, being born to a primiparous dam, and male sex. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided the first population-level characterization of the incidence of and risk factors for FHV infection in cheetahs, and findings confirmed the importance of this disease. Recognition that clinical FHV infection in the dam was not a significant predictor of disease in cubs and identification of other significant factors have implications for disease management.

  19. Design Report Final - CUB Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Monda, Mark J.; Brunson, Gregory Paul

    CUB (Critical Utility Base), Fig. 1.0, are individual portable energy and utility units utilizing renewable energy technologies integrated with high efficient conventional components to provide electricity, battery storage, heat, potable water, waste water treatment, cooling, liquid fuels, to name some of the primary utilities. Typically, these units were designed to provide power / utilities to any remote location or facility like forward operating bases, disaster relief centers, and Native American communities or to energize African villages. Although some CUB models have already been designed to date, the main unit, the CUB-E (electricity), lacks a critical component included in its design.more » It is the integral portion that automates solar electric panel racking deployment and retraction. This racking system will enable the CUB-E to rapidly deploy its utility within minutes, a feature not available in any form currently on the market.« less

  20. Influence of Hand Rearing and Bird Age on the Fecal Microbiota of the Critically Endangered Kakapo

    PubMed Central

    Waite, David W.; Eason, Daryl K.

    2014-01-01

    The critically endangered New Zealand parrot, the kakapo, is subject to an intensive management regime aiming to maintain bird health and boost population size. Newly hatched kakapo chicks are subjected to human intervention and are frequently placed in captivity throughout their formative months. Hand rearing greatly reduces mortality among juveniles, but the potential long-term impact on the kakapo gut microbiota is uncertain. To track development of the kakapo gut microbiota, fecal samples from healthy, prefledged juvenile kakapos, as well as from unrelated adults, were analyzed by using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Following the original sampling, juvenile kakapos underwent a period of captivity, so further sampling during and after captivity aimed to elucidate the impact of captivity on the juvenile gut microbiota. Variation in the fecal microbiota over a year was also investigated, with resampling of the original juvenile population. Amplicon pyrosequencing revealed a juvenile fecal microbiota enriched with particular lactic acid bacteria compared to the microbiota of adults, although the overall community structure did not differ significantly among kakapos of different ages. The abundance of key operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was correlated with antibiotic treatment and captivity, although the importance of these factors could not be proven unequivocally within the bounds of this study. Finally, the microbial community structure of juvenile and adult kakapos changed over time, reinforcing the need for continual monitoring of the microbiota as part of regular health screening. PMID:24837385

  1. Is It a Cheetah?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolan, Stephanie S.

    This paper uses the metaphor of a cheetah to describe the potential of gifted children. Environmental influences that inhibit or encourage the development of speed and agility in the cheetah are described to encourage schools to provide gifted children with a challenging school environment that provides lively mental prey. It warns that unless…

  2. Cheetah: Starspot modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkowicz, Lucianne; Thomas, Michael; Finkestein, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Cheetah models starspots in photometric data (lightcurves) by calculating the modulation of a light curve due to starspots. The main parameters of the program are the linear and quadratic limb darkening coefficients, stellar inclination, spot locations and sizes, and the intensity ratio of the spots to the stellar photosphere. Cheetah uses uniform spot contrast and the minimum number of spots needed to produce a good fit and ignores bright regions for the sake of simplicity.

  3. The Cheetah Data Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.; Word, G.B.

    1991-03-01

    Cheetah is a data management system based on the C programming language. The premise of Cheetah is that the banks' of FORTRAN based systems should be structures' as defined by the C language. Cheetah is a system to mange these structures, while preserving the use of the C language in its native form. For C structures managed by Cheetah, the user can use Cheetah utilities such as reading and writing, in a machine independent form, both binary and text files to disk or over a network. Files written by Cheetah also contain a dictionary describing in detail the data containedmore » in the file. Such information is intended to be used by interactive programs for presenting the contents of the file. Such information is intended to be used by interactive programs for presenting the contents of file. Cheetah has been ported to many different operating systems with no operating system dependent switches.« less

  4. Relative efficacy of human social interaction and food as reinforcers for domestic dogs and hand-reared wolves.

    PubMed

    Feuerbacher, Erica N; Wynne, Clive D L

    2012-07-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social behavior, we compared the relative efficacy of brief human social interaction to a small piece of food as a reinforcer for an arbitrary response (nose touch). We investigated this in three populations of canids: shelter dogs, owned dogs, and hand-reared wolves. Across all three canid populations, brief social interaction was a relatively ineffective reinforcer compared to food for most canids, producing lower responding and longer latencies than food.

  5. COMBINATION THERAPY WITH FLUOXETINE AND ALPRAZOLAM TO CONTROL ANXIETY IN A HAND-REARED SNOW LEOPARD (UNCIA UNCIA).

    PubMed

    Holman, Holly J

    2016-09-01

    A captive hand-reared adult male snow leopard ( Uncia uncia ) was treated for anxiety associated with taunting from visitors, the presence of large crowds, and introduction to a female for breeding. Behaviors included shaking, chewing on tail, panting, panicking, and bouncing off the viewing glass, pacing, and avoidance of the female. Combination therapy of oral fluoxetine and alprazolam were administered initially to minimize anxious behaviors while the fluoxetine achieved therapeutic levels. The alprazolam was tapered completely and was only used episodically on two occasions. Although a palatability issue with alprazolam initially prevented consistent dosing, anxious behavior was eliminated and successful breeding behavior was achieved for the first time. After 44 mo of therapy, there have been no anxious behaviors requiring additional medications, two additional breeding behaviors observed, and no evidence of adverse side effects with long-term use.

  6. RELATIVE EFFICACY OF HUMAN SOCIAL INTERACTION AND FOOD AS REINFORCERS FOR DOMESTIC DOGS AND HAND-REARED WOLVES

    PubMed Central

    Feuerbacher, Erica N; Wynne, Clive D. L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social behavior, we compared the relative efficacy of brief human social interaction to a small piece of food as a reinforcer for an arbitrary response (nose touch). We investigated this in three populations of canids: shelter dogs, owned dogs, and hand-reared wolves. Across all three canid populations, brief social interaction was a relatively ineffective reinforcer compared to food for most canids, producing lower responding and longer latencies than food. PMID:22851794

  7. Differences in greeting behaviour towards humans with varying levels of familiarity in hand-reared wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Ujfalussy, Dorottya Júlia; Kurys, Anita; Kubinyi, Enikő; Gácsi, Márta; Virányi, Zsófia

    2017-06-01

    Socialized wolves' relationship with humans is a much debated, but important question in light of dog domestication. Earlier findings reported no attachment to the caretaker at four months of age in a Strange Situation Test, while recently attachment to the caretaker was reported at a few weeks of age in a similar paradigm. To explore wolf-human relationship, we analysed behaviours of hand reared, extensively socialized wolves towards four visitor types: foster-parents, close acquaintances, persons met once before, and complete strangers during a greeting episode. As hypothesized, in the greeting context subjects showed more intense and friendly behaviour towards foster-parents, than other visitor types, which may reflect familiarity and affinity. However, differences were more pronounced in the group situation (at six months of age) than in the individual situation (at 12 and 24 months), suggesting that unique status of foster parents may become less distinct as wolves get older, while exploration of novel social agents is expressed more with older age. Fear related behaviour patterns were only found in the individual situation, mainly displayed towards strangers. We showed that, in case of extensively socialized wolves, distinctive affiliation and affinity towards the foster parent prevails into adulthood.

  8. Differences in greeting behaviour towards humans with varying levels of familiarity in hand-reared wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Kurys, Anita; Kubinyi, Enikő; Gácsi, Márta; Virányi, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    Socialized wolves' relationship with humans is a much debated, but important question in light of dog domestication. Earlier findings reported no attachment to the caretaker at four months of age in a Strange Situation Test, while recently attachment to the caretaker was reported at a few weeks of age in a similar paradigm. To explore wolf–human relationship, we analysed behaviours of hand reared, extensively socialized wolves towards four visitor types: foster-parents, close acquaintances, persons met once before, and complete strangers during a greeting episode. As hypothesized, in the greeting context subjects showed more intense and friendly behaviour towards foster-parents, than other visitor types, which may reflect familiarity and affinity. However, differences were more pronounced in the group situation (at six months of age) than in the individual situation (at 12 and 24 months), suggesting that unique status of foster parents may become less distinct as wolves get older, while exploration of novel social agents is expressed more with older age. Fear related behaviour patterns were only found in the individual situation, mainly displayed towards strangers. We showed that, in case of extensively socialized wolves, distinctive affiliation and affinity towards the foster parent prevails into adulthood. PMID:28680658

  9. The Cheetah data management system

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.; Word, G.B.

    1992-09-01

    Cheetah is a data management system based on the C programming language, with support for other languages. Its main goal is to transfer data between memory and I/O steams in a general way. The streams are either associated with disk files or are network data stems. Cheetah provides optional convenience functions to assist in the management of C structures. Cheetah steams are self-describing so that general purpose applications can fully understand an incoming steam. This information can be used to display the data in an incoming steam to the user of an interactive general application, complete with variable names andmore » optional comments.« less

  10. Exploring Children's Perceptions of Cheetahs through Storytelling: Implications for Cheetah Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Namibia's cheetah population has predominantly been threatened by human conflict related to livestock farming and habitat loss. Cheetahs have been indiscriminately persecuted as a mortal threat to livestock, as well as suffered from human-caused land use change. The Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF) in Otjiwarongo, Namibia conducts cheetah research…

  11. Tiger cubs and little flowers.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for

  12. Recent Advances in Modeling Hugoniots with Cheetah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaesemann, K. R.; Fried, L. E.

    2006-07-01

    We describe improvements to the Cheetah thermochemical-kinetics code's equilibrium solver to enable it to find a wider range of thermodynamic states. Cheetah supports a wide range of elements, condensed detonation products, and gas phase reactions. Therefore, Cheetah can be applied to a wide range of shock problems involving both energetic and non-energetic materials. An improve equation of state is also introduced. New experimental validations of Cheetah's equation of state methodology have been performed, including both reacted and unreacted Hugoniots.

  13. Recent Advances in Modeling Hugoniots with Cheetah

    SciTech Connect

    Glaesemann, K R; Fried, L E

    2005-07-26

    We describe improvements to the Cheetah thermochemical-kinetics code's equilibrium solver to enable it to find a wider range of thermodynamic states. Cheetah supports a wide range of elements, condensed detonation products, and gas phase reactions. Therefore, Cheetah can be applied to a wide range of shock problems involving both energetic and non-energetic materials. An improve equation of state is also introduced. New experimental validations of Cheetah's equation of state methodology have been performed, including both reacted and unreacted Hugoniots.

  14. Take a Tip from the Cubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, James

    2016-01-01

    As legendary Cubs manager Joe Maddon did with his players, seeing students as people first works for teachers who hope to build cohesive classes that achieve. Maddon's strength was his emphasis on cultivating positive relationships among his players. Taking a tip from Maddon's strategy, Fornaciari, an Advanced Placement history teacher, shares…

  15. Effect of portal access system and surgery type on surgery times during laparoscopic ovariectomy and salpingectomy in captive African lions and cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Marthinus Jacobus; Monnet, Eric; Kirberger, Robert Murco; Schoeman, Johan Petrus

    2016-03-02

    A prospective randomized study was used to compare surgery times for laparoscopic ovariectomy and salpingectomy in female African lion (Panthera leo) (n = 14) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) (n = 20) and to compare the use of a multiple portal access system (MPAS) and single portal access system (SPAS) between groups. Two different portal techniques were used, namely MPAS (three separate ports) in lions and SPAS (SILS™ port) in cheetahs, using standard straight laparoscopic instruments. Portal access system and first ovary was not randomized. Five different surgery times were compared for the two different procedures as well as evaluating the use and application of MPAS and SPAS. Carbon dioxide volumes for lions were recorded. In adult lionesses operative time (OPT) (P = 0.016) and total surgical time (TST) (P = 0.032) were significantly shorter for salpingectomy compared to ovariectomy. Similarly in cheetahs OPT (P = 0.001) and TST (P = 0.005) were also shorter for salpingectomy compared to ovariectomy. In contrast, in lion cubs no difference was found in surgery times for ovariectomy and salpingectomy. Total unilateral procedure time was shorter than the respective bilateral time for both procedures (P = 0.019 and P = 0.001) respectively and unilateral salpingectomy was also faster than unilateral ovariectomy (P = 0.035) in cheetahs. Port placement time, suturing time and TST were significantly shorter for SPAS compared to MPAS (P = 0.008). There was, however, no difference in OPT between SPAS and MPAS. Instrument cluttering with SPAS was found to be negligible. There was no difference in mean volume CO2 required to complete ovariectomy in lions but the correlation between bodyweight and total volume of CO2 in lions was significant (rs = 0.867; P = 0.002). Laparoscopic salpingectomy was faster than ovariectomy in both adult lions and cheetahs. Using SPAS, both unilateral procedures were faster than bilateral procedures in cheetahs

  16. Improved detonation modeling with CHEETAH

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, A.

    1997-11-01

    A Livermore software program called CHEETAH, an important, even indispensable tool for energetic materials researchers worldwide, was made more powerful in the summer of 1997 with the release of CHEETAH 2.0, an advanced version that simulates a wider variety of detonations. Derived from more than 40 years of experiments on high explosives at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos national laboratories, CHEETAH predicts the results from detonating a mixture of specified reactants. It operates by solving thermodynamic equations to predict detonation products and such properties as temperature, pressure, volume, and total energy released. The code is prized by synthesis chemists andmore » other researchers because it allows them to vary the starting molecules and conditions to optimize the desired performance properties. One of the Laboratory`s most popular computer codes, CHEETAH is used at more than 200 sites worldwide, including ones in England, Canada, Sweden, Switzerland, and France. Most sites are defense-related, although a few users, such as Japanese fireworks researchers, are in the civilian sector.« less

  17. Saffan induced poikilothermia in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Button, C; Meltzer, D G; Mülders, M S

    1981-09-01

    The steroidal anaesthetic agent Saffan (a 1,2% m/v mixture of alphaxalone and alphadolone) induced a state of poikilothermia in cheetahs. On a warm day (maximum temperature 29 degrees C) rectal temperatures rose in 7 of 8 male cheetahs given Saffan. The highest rectal temperature recorded was 41 degrees C. On a cool day (minimum temperature 19,5 degrees C) rectal temperature fell in 6 of 6 male cheetahs. The lowest rectal temperatures recorded was 36,2 degrees C. Saffan at 3 mg/kg intravenously in cheetahs is an excellent and safe hypnotic but should be used with caution on both hot and cold days.

  18. Insufficient Colostrum Ingestion is a Risk Factor for Polyarthritis and/or Phlegmon in Hand-Reared Reticulated Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 Cases (2003–2012)

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; NAGAKURA, Kasumi; ITABASHI, Masanori; ONO, Kaori; DAN, Mayuko; MATSUMOTO, Rei; OMIYA, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0–2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0–6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon. PMID:24758869

  19. Insufficient colostrum ingestion is a risk factor for polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in hand-reared reticulated giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 cases (2003-2012).

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Nagakura, Kasumi; Itabashi, Masanori; Ono, Kaori; Dan, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Rei; Omiya, Tomoko

    2014-08-01

    Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0-2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0-6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon.

  20. Ileocecocolic strictures in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus).

    PubMed

    Travis, Erika K; Duncan, Mary; Weber, Martha; Adkesson, Michael J; Junge, Randall E

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal strictures were diagnosed in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). The cheetahs presented with lethargy, anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss. The first cheetah had a stricture of the ileocecocolic junction diagnosed at necropsy. The second had an ileocecocolic stricture causing obstruction that was diagnosed at surgery. After resection and anastomosis, the cheetah recovered well. The etiology of the strictures remains undetermined. Intestinal stricture, particularly of the ileocecocolic junction, should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cheetahs with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs.

  1. Daily fecal sex steroid hormonal changes and mating success in captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kodzue; Ohazama, M; Ishida, R; Kusunoki, H

    2011-05-01

    Daily fecal estrogen and progestin concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay in five female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) for 4-6 months. The animals were housed under different conditions: (1) a female always housed in a group including one or more males; (2) two females isolated individually for short or long periods; (3) the other two females housed together. These females were separately housed with males for mating around the time of the estrogen peaks. The hormone profiles were similar in all five females regardless of the housing conditions. However, only the female that had been isolated from other cheetahs for over a year mated and reproduce cubs successfully, whereas the remaining four did not (one was isolated for only 6 weeks, another was always housed with males and the other two were housed together). In all females, the estrogen peaks were obtained at regular intervals of approximately 8-15 days. Unlike estrogen, the progestin concentrations were always low in all females except during pregnancy and they did not increase following the estrogen surges. These results showed that female cheetahs are typically reflex ovulators and female receptiveness may not be reflected to her hormonal states. It was also suspected that individual housing and long-term separation are advantageous for breeding this wild cat in captivity, mimicking the ecological/behavioral patterns in the wild, though housing condition might have no effect on the estrous cycle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CHEETAH: A next generation thermochemical code

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, L.; Souers, P.

    1994-11-01

    CHEETAH is an effort to bring the TIGER thermochemical code into the 1990s. A wide variety of improvements have been made in Version 1.0. We have improved the robustness and ease of use of TIGER. All of TIGER`s solvers have been replaced by new algorithms. We find that CHEETAH solves a wider variety of problems with no user intervention (e.g. no guesses for the C-J state) than TIGER did. CHEETAH has been made simpler to use than TIGER; typical use of the code occurs with the new standard run command. CHEETAH will make the use of thermochemical codes more attractivemore » to practical explosive formulators. We have also made an extensive effort to improve over the results of TIGER. CHEETAH`s version of the BKW equation of state (BKWC) is able to accurately reproduce energies from cylinder tests; something that other BKW parameter sets have been unable to do. Calculations performed with BKWC execute very quickly; typical run times are under 10 seconds on a workstation. In the future we plan to improve the underlying science in CHEETAH. More accurate equations of state will be used in the gas and the condensed phase. A kinetics capability will be added to the code that will predict reaction zone thickness. Further ease of use features will eventually be added; an automatic formulator that adjusts concentrations to match desired properties is planned.« less

  3. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes . The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  4. Drowsy cheetah hunting antelopes: a diffusing predator seeking fleeing prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Karen; Bray, Alan J.

    2005-02-01

    We consider a system of three random walkers (a 'cheetah' surrounded by two 'antelopes') diffusing in one dimension. The cheetah and the antelopes diffuse, but the antelopes experience in addition a deterministic relative drift velocity, away from the cheetah, proportional to their distance from the cheetah, such that they tend to move away from the cheetah with increasing time. Using the backward Fokker-Planck equation we calculate, as a function of their initial separations, the probability that the cheetah has caught neither antelope after infinite time.

  5. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  6. CHEETAH: A fast thermochemical code for detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, L.E.

    1993-11-01

    For more than 20 years, TIGER has been the benchmark thermochemical code in the energetic materials community. TIGER has been widely used because it gives good detonation parameters in a very short period of time. Despite its success, TIGER is beginning to show its age. The program`s chemical equilibrium solver frequently crashes, especially when dealing with many chemical species. It often fails to find the C-J point. Finally, there are many inconveniences for the user stemming from the programs roots in pre-modern FORTRAN. These inconveniences often lead to mistakes in preparing input files and thus erroneous results. We are producingmore » a modern version of TIGER, which combines the best features of the old program with new capabilities, better computational algorithms, and improved packaging. The new code, which will evolve out of TIGER in the next few years, will be called ``CHEETAH.`` Many of the capabilities that will be put into CHEETAH are inspired by the thermochemical code CHEQ. The new capabilities of CHEETAH are: calculate trace levels of chemical compounds for environmental analysis; kinetics capability: CHEETAH will predict chemical compositions as a function of time given individual chemical reaction rates. Initial application: carbon condensation; CHEETAH will incorporate partial reactions; CHEETAH will be based on computer-optimized JCZ3 and BKW parameters. These parameters will be fit to over 20 years of data collected at LLNL. We will run CHEETAH thousands of times to determine the best possible parameter sets; CHEETAH will fit C-J data to JWL`s,and also predict full-wall and half-wall cylinder velocities.« less

  7. Discovery of a Metal-Poor Little Cub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    The discovery of an extremely metal-poor star-forming galaxy in our local universe, dubbed Little Cub, is providing astronomers with front-row seats to the quenching of a near-pristine galaxy.SDSS image of NGC 3359 (left) and Little Cub (right), with overlying contours displaying the location of hydrogen gas. Little Cubs (also shown in the inset) stellar mass lies in the blue contour of the right-hand side. The outer white contours show the extended gas of the galaxy, likely dragged out as a tidal tail by Little Cubs interaction with NGC 3359. [Hsyu et al. 2017]The Hunt for Metal-Poor GalaxiesLow-metallicity, star-forming galaxies can show us the conditions under which the first stars formed. The galaxies with the lowest metallicities, however, also tend to be those with the lowest luminosities making them difficult to detect. Though we know that there should be many low-mass, low-luminosity, low-metallicity galaxies in the universe, weve detected very few of them nearby.In an effort to track down more of these metal-poor galaxies, a team of scientists led by Tiffany Hsyu (University of California Santa Cruz) searched through Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, looking for small galaxies with the correct photometric color to qualify a candidate blue compact dwarfs, a type of small, low-luminosity, star-forming galaxy that is often low-metallicity.Hsyu and collaborators identified more than 2,500 candidate blue compact dwarfs, and next set about obtaining follow-up spectroscopy for many of the candidates from the Keck and Lick Observatories. Though this project is still underway, around 100 new blue compact dwarfs have already been identified via the spectroscopy, including one of particular interest: the Little Cub.Little CubThis tiny star-forming galaxy gained its nickname from its location in the constellation Ursa Major. Little Cub is perhaps 50 or 60 million light-years away, and Hsyu and collaborators find it to be one of the lowest-metallicity star

  8. A comparative study of the speeds attained by captive cheetahs during the enrichment practice of the "cheetah run".

    PubMed

    Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth; Davenport, John

    2013-01-01

    The enrichment practice of the "cheetah run" is becoming increasingly popular within zoological institutions as a method to enrich captive cheetahs. A lure moving at speed represents an artificial prey item that the cursorial cheetah can pursue, therefore allowing it to perform an important hunting behavior within a captive setting. This study was conducted in order to highlight how employing different forms of this type of enrichment may influence its efficacy. This is important in relation to the future development of an optimum type of "cheetah run" enrichment which maximizes the potential beneficial effects and therefore positively impacts upon cheetah welfare in captivity. Video recordings were carried out at three separate institutions (Fota Wildlife Park, Ireland; Ann van Dyk Cheetah Centre, South Africa; Cheetah Conservation Fund, Namibia). Randomization tests were carried out to compare the highest speeds attained between males and females, trained and untrained cheetahs and also between the three institutions. Females and trained individuals reached significantly higher speeds compared with males and untrained individuals, respectively. The only significant difference between the three institutions was between the Ann van Dyk Cheetah Centre and the Cheetah Conservation Fund, where cheetahs at the Ann van Dyk center reached significantly higher speeds. The current study represents the first detailed study of any aspect of the "cheetah run" across multiple institutions. It also includes the first quantification of the speed of cheetahs in captivity in relation to differing enrichment practices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A primitive Late Pliocene cheetah, and evolution of the cheetah lineage

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Per; Mazák, Ji H.

    2009-01-01

    The cheetah lineage is a group of large, slender, and long-limbed cats with a distinctive skull and dental morphology, of which only the extant cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is present today. The lineage is characterized by having abbreviated, tall, and domed crania, and a trenchant dentition with a much reduced, posteriorly placed protocone on the upper carnassial. In this article, we report on a new discovery of a Late Pliocene specimen from China with an estimated age of ≈2.2–2.5 million years, making it one of the oldest specimens known to date. A cladistic analysis confirmed that it is the most primitive cheetah known, and it shares a number of unambiguous derived cranial traits with the Acinonyx lineage, but has more primitive dentition than previously known cheetahs, demonstrating that the many unusual skull and dental characters hitherto considered characteristic of cheetahs evolved in a gradual fashion. Isolated teeth of primitive cheetahs may not be recognizable as such, but can be confused with, for instance, those of leopards or other similar-sized pantherine cats or pumas. The age and morphology of the new specimen supports an Old World origin of the cheetah lineage, not a New World one, as has been suggested. We name the new species Acinonyx kurteni in honor of the late Björn Kurtén. PMID:19114651

  10. A primitive Late Pliocene cheetah, and evolution of the cheetah lineage.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Per; Mazák, Ji H

    2009-01-13

    The cheetah lineage is a group of large, slender, and long-limbed cats with a distinctive skull and dental morphology, of which only the extant cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is present today. The lineage is characterized by having abbreviated, tall, and domed crania, and a trenchant dentition with a much reduced, posteriorly placed protocone on the upper carnassial. In this article, we report on a new discovery of a Late Pliocene specimen from China with an estimated age of approximately 2.2-2.5 million years, making it one of the oldest specimens known to date. A cladistic analysis confirmed that it is the most primitive cheetah known, and it shares a number of unambiguous derived cranial traits with the Acinonyx lineage, but has more primitive dentition than previously known cheetahs, demonstrating that the many unusual skull and dental characters hitherto considered characteristic of cheetahs evolved in a gradual fashion. Isolated teeth of primitive cheetahs may not be recognizable as such, but can be confused with, for instance, those of leopards or other similar-sized pantherine cats or pumas. The age and morphology of the new specimen supports an Old World origin of the cheetah lineage, not a New World one, as has been suggested. We name the new species Acinonyx kurteni in honor of the late Björn Kurtén.

  11. Recent advances in modeling Hugoniots with Cheetah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaesemann, Kurt

    2005-07-01

    The detonation of an energetic material is the result of a complex interaction between kinetic chemical reactions and thermodynamic chemical equilibrium. Unfortunately, little is known concerning the detailed chemical kinetics of reacting energetic materials. Cheetah uses rate laws to treat species with the slowest chemical reactions, while assuming other chemical species are in equilibrium. Cheetah supports a wide range of elements and condensed detonation products and can also be applied to gas phase reactions. Improvements have been made to Cheetah's equilibrium solver, that allow it to find a wider range of thermodynamic states. Many of the difficulties experienced by users in earlier versions of Cheetah have been fixed. New capabilities have also been added. The ultimate result is a code that can be applied to a wide range of shock problems involving both energetic and non-energetic materials. New experimental validations of Cheetah's equation of state methodology have been performed, including both reacted and unreacted Hugoniots. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  12. Radiographic kidney measurements in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Hackendahl, Nicole C; Citino, Scott B

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal disease is substantial among captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The purpose of this study was to determine kidney measurements from radiographs of captive cheetahs (n = 15) with normal renal function. The ratio of kidney length to length of the body of the second lumbar vertebrae has been established for domestic cats with normal renal function. The mean ratio of renal length to length of the second lumbar vertebra was 1.81 +/- 0.14 in cheetahs. This baseline data may allow an objective evaluation of radiographic kidney size in cheetahs. However, evaluation of a small number of cheetahs with confirmed renal failure resulted in a similar ratio.

  13. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat.

  14. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Zoe C.; Alibhai, Sky K.; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN1. It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor2. Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,9053 to 13,5204. The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique5 is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify free

  15. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Zoe C; Alibhai, Sky K; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-05-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN(1). It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor(2). Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,905(3) to 13,520(4). The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique(5) is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify

  16. Movement patterns of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in farmlands in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, T. Y.; Horgan, J.; Shotton, J.; McKenna, R.; Wilson, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas which occasionally results in human-wildlife conflict. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method. Cheetahs had medium-sized home ranges compared to previously studied cheetah in similar farming environments. Results showed that cheetahs actively visited scent marking trees and avoided visiting homesteads. A slight preference for visiting game farms over cattle farms was found, but there was no difference in duration of visits between farm types. We conclude that cheetahs selected for areas that are important for their dietary and social needs and prefer to avoid human-occupied areas. Improved knowledge of how cheetahs use farmlands can allow farmers to make informed decisions when developing management practices and can be an important tool for reducing human-wildlife conflict. PMID:27913453

  17. Movement patterns of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in farmlands in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Van der Weyde, L K; Hubel, T Y; Horgan, J; Shotton, J; McKenna, R; Wilson, A M

    2017-01-15

    Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas which occasionally results in human-wildlife conflict. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method. Cheetahs had medium-sized home ranges compared to previously studied cheetah in similar farming environments. Results showed that cheetahs actively visited scent marking trees and avoided visiting homesteads. A slight preference for visiting game farms over cattle farms was found, but there was no difference in duration of visits between farm types. We conclude that cheetahs selected for areas that are important for their dietary and social needs and prefer to avoid human-occupied areas. Improved knowledge of how cheetahs use farmlands can allow farmers to make informed decisions when developing management practices and can be an important tool for reducing human-wildlife conflict. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Parasitic helminths of black bear cubs (Ursus americanus) from Florida.

    PubMed

    Foster, Garry W; Cunningham, Mark W; Kinsella, John M; Forrester, Donald J

    2004-02-01

    Twenty-two Florida black bear (Ursus americanus floridanus) cubs (< or = 12 mo old) from Florida were examined for endoparasites between 1998 and 2003. Eleven species of helminths were found (8 nematodes, 2 trematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan). The most prevalent helminths were Ancylostoma caninum (64%), Macracanthorhynchus ingens (36%), Strongyloides sp. (27%), Baylisascaris transfuga (23%), and A. tubaeforme (14%). New host records include A. tubaeforme and Brachylaima virginianum. This is the first report of B. transfuga in black bears from Florida.

  19. Modes of Thermal Protection in Polar Bear Cubs - at Birth and upon Emergence from the Den,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    Morphological characteristics potentially relevant to temperature regulation were visually examined. Fat and skeletal muscle (m. psoas and m. latissimus dorsi ... latissimus dorsi ) were excised and processed for electron microscopical examination as described for the newborn cubs. In order to investigate the...circles o 0 ). The weight of the cub as 12.5 kg. 21 Fig. 6 Two micrographs of the latissimus dorsi muscle of a polar bear A and B. cub aged approximately

  20. Systemic candidiasis in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    La Perle, K M; Wack, R; Kaufman, L; Blomme, E A

    1998-12-01

    Systemic candidiasis, with involvement of the spleen, liver, kidneys, and lymph nodes, was diagnosed in a geriatric captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). The animal had a long clinical history of intermittent chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter acinonyx and chronic renal failure, both of which were repeatedly treated with broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. Following euthanasia, a postmortem examination showed numerous microabscesses and granulomas composed of degenerate eosinophils and containing asteroids or Splendore-Hoeppli material throughout the body. Yeast, pseudohyphae, and infrequently branching septate hyphae, demonstrated with special stains, were identified as a Candida sp. by fluorescent antibody testing. Low genetic variation in cheetahs may increase their susceptibility to infectious agents. Additional factors contributing to the overgrowth and dissemination of Candida sp. in this case may have included changes in the bacterial flora of the alimentary tract as a result of repeated antimicrobial therapy and alterations in the topography of the alimentary mucosa caused by chronic gastritis.

  1. Bionic Control of Cheetah Bounding with a Segmented Spine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Shigang

    2016-01-01

    A cheetah model is built to mimic real cheetah and its mechanical and dimensional parameters are derived from the real cheetah. In particular, two joints in spine and four joints in a leg are used to realize the motion of segmented spine and segmented legs which are the key properties of the cheetah bounding. For actuating and stabilizing the bounding gait of cheetah, we present a bioinspired controller based on the state-machine. The controller mainly mimics the function of the cerebellum to plan the locomotion and keep the body balance. The haptic sensor and proprioception system are used to detect the trigger of the phase transition. Besides, the vestibular modulation could perceive the pitching angle of the trunk. At last, the cerebellum acts as the CPU to operate the information from the biological sensors. In addition, the calculated results are transmitted to the low-level controller to actuate and stabilize the cheetah bounding. Moreover, the delay feedback control method is employed to plan the motion of the leg joints to stabilize the pitching motion of trunk with the stability criterion. Finally, the cyclic cheetah bounding with biological properties is realized. Meanwhile, the stability and dynamic properties of the cheetah bounding gait are analyzed elaborately.

  2. Adding kinetics and hydrodynamics to the CHEETAH thermochemical code

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, L.E., Howard, W.M., Souers, P.C.

    1997-01-15

    In FY96 we released CHEETAH 1.40, which made extensive improvements on the stability and user friendliness of the code. CHEETAH now has over 175 users in government, academia, and industry. Efforts have also been focused on adding new advanced features to CHEETAH 2.0, which is scheduled for release in FY97. We have added a new chemical kinetics capability to CHEETAH. In the past, CHEETAH assumed complete thermodynamic equilibrium and independence of time. The addition of a chemical kinetic framework will allow for modeling of time-dependent phenomena, such as partial combustion and detonation in composite explosives with large reaction zones. Wemore » have implemented a Wood-Kirkwood detonation framework in CHEETAH, which allows for the treatment of nonideal detonations and explosive failure. A second major effort in the project this year has been linking CHEETAH to hydrodynamic codes to yield an improved HE product equation of state. We have linked CHEETAH to 1- and 2-D hydrodynamic codes, and have compared the code to experimental data. 15 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.« less

  3. Pathology and Epidemiology of Oxalate Nephrosis in Cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Emily P; Church, Molly E; Nemser, Sarah M; Yakes, Betsy Jean; Evans, Eric R; Reimschuessel, Renate; Lemberger, Karin; Thompson, Peter N; Terio, Karen A

    2017-11-01

    To investigate cases of acute oxalate nephrosis without evidence of ethylene glycol exposure, archived data and tissues from cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus) from North America ( n = 297), southern Africa ( n = 257), and France ( n = 40) were evaluated. Renal and gastrointestinal tract lesions were characterized in a subset of animals with ( n = 100) and without ( n = 165) oxalate crystals at death. Crystals were confirmed as calcium oxalate by Raman spectroscopy in 45 of 47 cheetahs tested. Crystals were present in cheetahs from 3.7 months to 15.9 years old. Cheetahs younger than 1.5 years were less likely to have oxalates than older cheetahs ( P = .034), but young cheetahs with oxalates had more oxalate crystals than older cheetahs ( P < .001). Cheetahs with oxalate crystals were more likely to have renal amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, or colitis and less likely to have glomerular loop thickening or gastritis than those without oxalates. Crystal number was positively associated with renal tubular necrosis ( P ≤ .001), regeneration ( P = .015), and casts ( P ≤ .001) but inversely associated with glomerulosclerosis, renal amyloidosis, and interstitial nephritis. Crystal number was unrelated to the presence or absence of colitis and was lower in southern African than American and European animals ( P = .01). This study found no evidence that coexisting chronic renal disease (amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, or glomerulosclerosis), veno-occlusive disease, gastritis, or enterocolitis contributed significantly to oxalate nephrosis. Oxalate-related renal disease should be considered as a potential cause of acute renal failure, especially in young captive cheetahs. The role of location, diet, stress, and genetic predisposition in the pathogenesis of oxalate nephrosis in cheetahs warrants further study.

  4. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Clancy, Sinead N; Lane, Emily; Wilson, Alan M

    2011-04-01

    The cheetah is capable of a top speed of 29 ms(-1) compared to the maximum speed of 17 ms(-1) achieved by the racing greyhound. In this study of the hindlimb and in the accompanying paper on the forelimb we have quantified the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah and greyhound and compared them to identify any differences that may account for this variation in their locomotor abilities. Specifically, bone length, mass and mid-shaft diameter were measured, along with muscle mass, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms to enable estimates of maximal isometric force, joint torques and joint rotational velocities to be calculated. Surprisingly the cheetahs had a smaller volume of hip extensor musculature than the greyhounds, and we therefore propose that the cheetah powers acceleration using its extensive back musculature. The cheetahs also had an extremely powerful psoas muscle which could help to resist the pitching moments around the hip associated with fast accelerations. The hindlimb bones were proportionally longer and heavier, enabling the cheetah to take longer strides and potentially resist higher peak limb forces. The cheetah therefore possesses several unique adaptations for high-speed locomotion and fast accelerations, when compared to the racing greyhound. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Genomic legacy of the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus.

    PubMed

    Dobrynin, Pavel; Liu, Shiping; Tamazian, Gaik; Xiong, Zijun; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Krasheninnikova, Ksenia; Kliver, Sergey; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Johnson, Warren; Kuderna, Lukas F K; García-Pérez, Raquel; Manuel, Marc de; Godinez, Ricardo; Komissarov, Aleksey; Makunin, Alexey; Brukhin, Vladimir; Qiu, Weilin; Zhou, Long; Li, Fang; Yi, Jian; Driscoll, Carlos; Antunes, Agostinho; Oleksyk, Taras K; Eizirik, Eduardo; Perelman, Polina; Roelke, Melody; Wildt, David; Diekhans, Mark; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Marker, Laurie; Bhak, Jong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2015-12-10

    Patterns of genetic and genomic variance are informative in inferring population history for human, model species and endangered populations. Here the genome sequence of wild-born African cheetahs reveals extreme genomic depletion in SNV incidence, SNV density, SNVs of coding genes, MHC class I and II genes, and mitochondrial DNA SNVs. Cheetah genomes are on average 95 % homozygous compared to the genomes of the outbred domestic cat (24.08 % homozygous), Virunga Mountain Gorilla (78.12 %), inbred Abyssinian cat (62.63 %), Tasmanian devil, domestic dog and other mammalian species. Demographic estimators impute two ancestral population bottlenecks: one >100,000 years ago coincident with cheetah migrations out of the Americas and into Eurasia and Africa, and a second 11,084-12,589 years ago in Africa coincident with late Pleistocene large mammal extinctions. MHC class I gene loss and dramatic reduction in functional diversity of MHC genes would explain why cheetahs ablate skin graft rejection among unrelated individuals. Significant excess of non-synonymous mutations in AKAP4 (p<0.02), a gene mediating spermatozoon development, indicates cheetah fixation of five function-damaging amino acid variants distinct from AKAP4 homologues of other Felidae or mammals; AKAP4 dysfunction may cause the cheetah's extremely high (>80 %) pleiomorphic sperm. The study provides an unprecedented genomic perspective for the rare cheetah, with potential relevance to the species' natural history, physiological adaptations and unique reproductive disposition.

  6. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Clancy, Sinead N; Lane, Emily; Wilson, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    The cheetah is capable of a top speed of 29 ms−1 compared to the maximum speed of 17 ms−1 achieved by the racing greyhound. In this study of the hindlimb and in the accompanying paper on the forelimb we have quantified the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah and greyhound and compared them to identify any differences that may account for this variation in their locomotor abilities. Specifically, bone length, mass and mid-shaft diameter were measured, along with muscle mass, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms to enable estimates of maximal isometric force, joint torques and joint rotational velocities to be calculated. Surprisingly the cheetahs had a smaller volume of hip extensor musculature than the greyhounds, and we therefore propose that the cheetah powers acceleration using its extensive back musculature. The cheetahs also had an extremely powerful psoas muscle which could help to resist the pitching moments around the hip associated with fast accelerations. The hindlimb bones were proportionally longer and heavier, enabling the cheetah to take longer strides and potentially resist higher peak limb forces. The cheetah therefore possesses several unique adaptations for high-speed locomotion and fast accelerations, when compared to the racing greyhound. PMID:21062282

  7. CHEETAH 1.0 user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, L.E.

    1994-06-24

    CHEETAH is an effort to bring the TIGER thermochemical code into the 1990s. A wide variety of improvements have been made in Version 1.0, and a host of others will be implemented in the future. In CHEETAH 1.0 I have improved the robustness and ease of use of TIGER. All of TIGER`s solvers have been replaced by new algorithms. I find that CHEETAH solves a wider variety of problems with no user intervention (e.g. no guesses for the C-J state) than TIGER did. CHEETAH has been made simpler to use than TIGER; typical use of the code occurs with themore » new standard run command. I hope that CHEETAH makes the use of thermochemical codes more attractive to practical explosive formulators. In the future I plan to improve the underlying science in CHEETAH. More accurate equations of state will be used in the gas and the condensed phase. A kinetics capability will be added to the code that will predict reaction zone thickness. CHEETAH is currently a numerical implementation of C-J theory. It will,become an implementation of ZND theory. Further ease of use features will eventually be added; an automatic formulator that adjusts concentrations to match desired properties is planned.« less

  8. The composition of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) milk.

    PubMed

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; de Wit, M

    2006-01-01

    Milk was obtained from two captive bred cheetahs. The nutrient content was 99.6 g protein; 64.8 g fat; and 40.21 g lactose per kg milk. Small amounts of oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose and fucose were noted. The protein fraction respectively consisted of 34.2 g caseins per kg milk and of 65.3 g whey proteins per kg milk. Very little variation in milk composition among the individual cheetahs was noted. Electrophoresis and identification of protein bands showed a similar migrating sequence of proteins as seen in lion's and cat's milk, with small differences in the beta-caseins. The lipid fraction contains 290.4 g saturated and 337.3 g mono-unsaturated fatty acids per kg milk fat respectively. The high content of 279.5 g kg(-1) milk fat of polyunsaturated fatty acids is due to a high content in alpha-linolenic acid. No short chain fatty acids, but substantial levels of uneven carbon chain fatty acids were observed.

  9. Porting Initiation and Failure into Linked CHEETAH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souers, Clark; Vitello, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Linked CHEETAH is a thermo-chemical code coupled to a 2-D hydrocode. Initially, a quadratic-pressure dependent kinetic rate was used, which worked well in modeling prompt detonation of explosives of large size, but does not work on other aspects of explosive behavior. The variable-pressure Tarantula reactive flow rate model was developed with JWL++ in order to also describe failure and initiation, and we have moved this model into Linked CHEETAH. The model works by turning on only above a pressure threshold, where a slow turn-on creates initiation. At a higher pressure, the rate suddenly leaps to a large value over a small pressure range. A slowly failing cylinder will see a rapidly declining rate, which pushes it quickly into failure. At a high pressure, the detonation rate is constant. A sequential validation procedure is used, which includes metal-confined cylinders, rate-sticks, corner-turning, initiation and threshold, gap tests and air gaps. The size (diameter) effect is central to the calibration. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  10. Porting Inition and Failure to Linked Cheetah

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P; Souers, P C

    2007-07-18

    Linked CHEETAH is a thermo-chemical code coupled to a 2-D hydrocode. Initially, a quadratic-pressure dependent kinetic rate was used, which worked well in modeling prompt detonation of explosives of large size, but does not work on other aspects of explosive behavior. The variable-pressure Tarantula reactive flow rate model was developed with JWL++ in order to also describe failure and initiation, and we have moved this model into Linked CHEETAH. The model works by turning on only above a pressure threshold, where a slow turn-on creates initiation. At a higher pressure, the rate suddenly leaps to a large value over amore » small pressure range. A slowly failing cylinder will see a rapidly declining rate, which pushes it quickly into failure. At a high pressure, the detonation rate is constant. A sequential validation procedure is used, which includes metal-confined cylinders, rate-sticks, corner-turning, initiation and threshold, gap tests and air gaps. The size (diameter) effect is central to the calibration.« less

  11. Cheetahs have a stronger constitutive innate immunity than leopards.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Sonja K; Hofer, Heribert; Courtiol, Alexandre; Melzheimer, Jörg; Dehnhard, Martin; Czirják, Gábor Á; Wachter, Bettina

    2017-03-23

    As a textbook case for the importance of genetics in conservation, absence of genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is thought to endanger species viability, since it is considered crucial for pathogen resistance. An alternative view of the immune system inspired by life history theory posits that a strong response should evolve in other components of the immune system if there is little variation in the MHC. In contrast to the leopard (Panthera pardus), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has a relatively low genetic variability at the MHC, yet free-ranging cheetahs are healthy. By comparing the functional competence of the humoral immune system of both species in sympatric populations in Namibia, we demonstrate that cheetahs have a higher constitutive innate but lower induced innate and adaptive immunity than leopards. We conclude (1) immunocompetence of cheetahs is higher than previously thought; (2) studying both innate and adaptive components of immune systems will enrich conservation science.

  12. Cheetahs have a stronger constitutive innate immunity than leopards

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Sonja K.; Hofer, Heribert; Courtiol, Alexandre; Melzheimer, Jörg; Dehnhard, Martin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; Wachter, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    As a textbook case for the importance of genetics in conservation, absence of genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is thought to endanger species viability, since it is considered crucial for pathogen resistance. An alternative view of the immune system inspired by life history theory posits that a strong response should evolve in other components of the immune system if there is little variation in the MHC. In contrast to the leopard (Panthera pardus), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has a relatively low genetic variability at the MHC, yet free-ranging cheetahs are healthy. By comparing the functional competence of the humoral immune system of both species in sympatric populations in Namibia, we demonstrate that cheetahs have a higher constitutive innate but lower induced innate and adaptive immunity than leopards. We conclude (1) immunocompetence of cheetahs is higher than previously thought; (2) studying both innate and adaptive components of immune systems will enrich conservation science. PMID:28333126

  13. Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Christopher; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2007-09-01

    A juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) died with rapidly progressive pyrexia, tachypnea, abdominal effusion, and hepatomegaly. Postmortem examination revealed lesions consistent with acute disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of this organism was confirmed in multiple organs by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, we propose this to be the first reported case of primary acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cheetah.

  14. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) forelimb

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Clancy, Sinead N; Lane, Emily; Wilson, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    Despite the cheetah being the fastest living land mammal, we know remarkably little about how it attains such high top speeds (29 m s−1). Here we aim to describe and quantify the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah forelimb and compare it to the racing greyhound, an animal of similar mass, but which can only attain a top speed of 17 m s−1. Measurements were made of muscle mass, fascicle length and moment arms, enabling calculations of muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and estimates of joint torques and rotational velocities. Bone lengths, masses and mid-shaft cross-sectional areas were also measured. Several species differences were observed and have been discussed, such as the long fibred serratus ventralis muscle in the cheetah, which we theorise may translate the scapula along the rib cage (as has been observed in domestic cats), thereby increasing the cheetah's effective limb length. The cheetah's proximal limb contained many large PCSA muscles with long moment arms, suggesting that this limb is resisting large ground reaction force joint torques and therefore is not functioning as a simple strut. Its structure may also reflect a need for control and stabilisation during the high-speed manoeuvring in hunting. The large digital flexors and extensors observed in the cheetah forelimb may be used to dig the digits into the ground, aiding with traction when galloping and manoeuvring. PMID:21332715

  15. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) forelimb.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Clancy, Sinead N; Lane, Emily; Wilson, Alan M

    2011-04-01

    Despite the cheetah being the fastest living land mammal, we know remarkably little about how it attains such high top speeds (29 m s(-1)). Here we aim to describe and quantify the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah forelimb and compare it to the racing greyhound, an animal of similar mass, but which can only attain a top speed of 17 m s(-1). Measurements were made of muscle mass, fascicle length and moment arms, enabling calculations of muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and estimates of joint torques and rotational velocities. Bone lengths, masses and mid-shaft cross-sectional areas were also measured. Several species differences were observed and have been discussed, such as the long fibred serratus ventralis muscle in the cheetah, which we theorise may translate the scapula along the rib cage (as has been observed in domestic cats), thereby increasing the cheetah's effective limb length. The cheetah's proximal limb contained many large PCSA muscles with long moment arms, suggesting that this limb is resisting large ground reaction force joint torques and therefore is not functioning as a simple strut. Its structure may also reflect a need for control and stabilisation during the high-speed manoeuvring in hunting. The large digital flexors and extensors observed in the cheetah forelimb may be used to dig the digits into the ground, aiding with traction when galloping and manoeuvring. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Sterilization of the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Hartman, Marthinus J; Monnet, Eric; Kirberger, Robert M; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Schulman, Martin L; Stander, Jana A; Stegmann, George F; Schoeman, Johan P

    2015-07-01

    To describe laparoscopic ovariectomy and salpingectomy in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) using single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Prospective cohort. Female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) (n = 21). Cheetahs were randomly divided to receive either ovariectomy (n = 11) or salpingectomy (n = 10). The use and complications of a SILS port was evaluated in all of cheetahs. Surgery duration and insufflation volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) were recorded and compared across procedures. Laparoscopic ovariectomy and salpingectomy were performed without complications using a SILS port. The poorly-developed mesosalpinx and ovarian bursa facilitated access to the uterine tube for salpingectomy in the cheetah. The median surgery duration for ovariectomy was 24 minutes (interquartile range 3) and for salpingectomy was 19.5 minutes (interquartile range 3) (P = .005). The median volume of CO2 used for ovariectomy was 11.25 L (interquartile range 3.08) and for salpingectomy was 4.90 L (interquartile range 2.52), (P = .001) CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic ovariectomy and salpingectomy can be performed in the cheetah using SILS without perioperative complications. Salpingectomy is faster than ovariectomy and requires less total CO2 for insufflation. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. NEPHROPATHIES IN THE EUROPEAN CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Url, Angelika; Krutak, Verena; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Chvala-Mannsberger, Sonja; Robert, Nadia; Dinhopl, Nora; Schmidt, Peter; Walzer, Chris

    2016-09-01

    According to previous studies in captive cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) populations, one of the most threatening diseases besides amyloidosis, myelopathy, veno occlusive disease, and gastritis, is renal failure. Contrary to captive cheetahs in North America and South Africa, morphological data concerning renal lesions in the cheetah European Endangered Species Program (EEP) are lacking. This study details the histological characterization as well as immunohistochemical and morphometrical analysis of nephropathies in 35 captive cheetahs from the EEP, which were necropsied between 1985 and 2003. Examination of paraffin- and glycolmethacrylate-methylmethacrylate (GMA-MMA) embedded kidney samples by light microscopy revealed glomerulonephritis in 91%, with a high prevalence for glomerulosclerosis and glomerulonephritis with the histologic pattern of membranous glomerulonephritis (77%). Besides these predominating glomerulopathies, a wide range of other renal lesions, like acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis, calcinosis, and amyloidosis, were present. Pathological expression of collagen type IV, complement C3, fibronectin, and IgG was demonstrated in the glomeruli of the cheetah kidneys with the use of the avidin-biotin complex method. Morphometrical analysis was performed on GMA-MMA embedded kidney samples to obtain glomerulosclerosis index and glomerulosclerosis incidence.

  18. Bilateral vision loss in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Walser-Reinhardt, Ladina; Wernick, Morena B; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Spiess, Bernhard M

    2010-09-01

    The following case report describes a 1-year-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with bilateral blindness and unresponsive pupils. For comparison, a second healthy 2.5-year-old male cheetah without visual deficits was also examined. Clinical examination of both animals included biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, and electroretinography. The young female cheetah showed no menace response, no direct or indirect pupillary light reflex, and no dazzle reflex in either eye. Fundus lesions, as detected by indirect ophthalmoscopy, are described for the female animal. In both eyes, the fundus color was green/turquoise/yellow with multiple hyperpigmented linear lesions in the tapetal area around the optic nerve. The optic nerve head was dark gray and about half the normal size suggesting bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia and retinal dysplasia or differentially optic nerve atrophy and chorioretinal scarring. The ERG had low amplitudes in the right eye but appeared normal in the left eye compared with the male cheetah. Blood levels did not suggest current taurine deficiency. This is addressed to some degree in the discussion. Bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia or optic nerve atrophy is a rare anomaly in cats and has not yet been described in a cheetah.

  19. East African cheetahs: evidence for two population bottlenecks?

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, S J; Wildt, D E; Bush, M; Caro, T M; FitzGibbon, C; Aggundey, I; Leakey, R E

    1987-01-01

    A combined population genetic and reproductive analysis was undertaken to compare free-ranging cheetahs from east Africa (Acinonyx jubatus raineyi) with the genetically impoverished and reproductively impaired south African subspecies (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). Like that of their south African counterparts, the quality of semen specimens from east African cheetahs was poor, with a low concentration of spermatozoa (25.3 X 10(6) per ejaculate) and a high incidence of morphological abnormalities (79%). From an electrophoretic survey of the products of 49 genetic loci in A. jubatus raineyi, two allozyme polymorphisms were detected; one of these, for a nonspecific esterase, shows an allele that is rare (less than 1% incidence) in south African specimens. Estimates of polymorphism (2-4%) and average heterozygosity (0.0004-0.014) affirm the cheetah as the least genetically variable felid species. The genetic distance between south and east African cheetahs was low (0.004), suggesting that the development of genetic uniformity preceded the recent geographic isolation of the subspecies. We propose that at least two population bottlenecks followed by inbreeding produced the modern cheetah species. The first and most extreme was ancient, possibly late Pleistocene (circa 10,000 years ago); the second was more recent (within the last century) and led to the south African populations. PMID:3467370

  20. ACTH stimulation test in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Köster, L S; Schoeman, J P; Meltzer, D G A

    2007-09-01

    Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 microg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot, Novartis, Kempton Park) while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P < 0.001). There was no difference between the median cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group at time-points 120, 150 and 180 min after ACTH stimulation (P = 0.867). Thus it appears appropriate to collect serum 120 to 180 min after tetracosactide administration to assess maximal stimulation of the adrenal in the cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238).

  1. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.

  2. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A.; Fick, Linda G.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Maloney, Shane K.; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  3. Analysis of amyloid fibrils in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Bergström, Joakim; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Une, Yumi; Sun, Xuguo; Misumi, Shogo; Shoji, Shozo; Ando, Yukio

    2006-06-01

    Recently, a high prevalence of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis has been documented among captive cheetahs worldwide. Biochemical analysis of amyloid fibrils extracted from the liver of a Japanese captive cheetah unequivocally showed that protein AA was the main fibril constituent. Further characterization of the AA fibril components by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis revealed three main protein AA bands with approximate molecular weights of 8, 10 and 12 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 12-kDa component observed in SDS-PAGE and Western blotting confirmed the molecular weight of a 12,381-Da peak. Our finding of a 12-kDa protein AA component provides evidence that the cheetah SAA sequence is longer than the previously reported 90 amino acid residues (approximately 10 kDa), and hence SAA is part of the amyloid fibril.

  4. The use of a probiotic in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koeppel, K N; Bertschinger, H; van Vuuren, M; Picard, J; Steiner, J; Williams, D; Cardwell, J

    2006-09-01

    Juvenile captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) often present with diarrhoea that is commonly associated with bacterial infections. A species-specific probiotic containing Lactobacillus Group 2 and Enterococcus faecium was prepared from healthy adult cheetahs. Juvenile cheetahs (n = 27) between 8 and 13 months of age were included in the probiotic trial. The animals were observed prior to and after feeding of the probiotic which was made available for 28 days. Feeding of the probiotic resulted in a significantly increased body weight in the treatment group (P = 0.026), while there was no increase in the control group. A relative improvement in the faecal quality in the probiotic group during the treatment period compared with the pre-treatment (P = 0.0363) and post-treatment (P = 0.004) period was observed. This was accompanied by an absence of blood and mucus in the faeces during the treatment period in the probiotic group.

  5. The Checklist of Unit Behaviours (CUB): Validation within a Canadian outpatient day hospital programme.

    PubMed

    Taube-Schiff, M; El Morr, C; Counsell, A; Mehak, Adrienne; Gollan, J

    2018-05-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The psychometrics of the CUB measure have been tested within an inpatient psychiatric setting. Results show that the CUB has two factors that reflect patients' approach and avoidance of dimensions of the treatment milieu, and that an increase of approach and decrease of avoidance are correlated with discharge. No empirical research has examined the validity of the CUB in a day hospital programme. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study was the first to address the validity of this questionnaire within a psychiatric day hospital setting. This now allows other mental health service providers to use this questionnaire following administration of patient engagement interventions (such as behavioural activation), which are routinely used within this type of a setting. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Our results can enable healthcare providers to employ an effective and psychometrically validated tool in a day hospital setting to measure treatment outcomes and provide reflections of patients' approach behaviours and avoidance behaviours. Introduction We evaluated the Checklist of Unit Behaviours (CUBs) questionnaire in a novel mental health setting: a day hospital within a large acute care general hospital. No empirical evidence exists, as of yet, to look at the validity of this measure in this type of a treatment setting. The CUB measures two factors, avoidance or approach, of the patients' engagement with the treatment milieu within the previous 24 hr. Aim A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to validate the CUB's original two factor structure in an outpatient day programme. Methods Psychiatric outpatients (n = 163) completed the CUB daily while participating in a day hospital programme in Toronto, Canada. Results A CFA was used to confirm the CUB factors but resulted in a poor fitting model for our sample, χ 2 (103) = 278.59, p < .001, CFI = 0.80, RMSEA = 0.10, SRMR = 0.10. Questions

  6. Tetralogy of Fallot and atrial septal defect in a white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid–base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect (a subclass of Pentalogy of Fallot). This report is the first to encompass arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiographs, echocardiography and necropsy findings in a white Bengal Tiger cub diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect. PMID:24594084

  7. Double aortic arch and persistent left vena cava in a white lion cub (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Goldin, J P; Lambrechts, N E

    1999-03-01

    A 4-mo-old female white lion (Panthera leo) cub was presented with a 2-wk history of persistent postprandial regurgitation, mild dyspnea, and poor weight gain. The cub was weak and thin but otherwise alert. Survey and contrast radiography revealed a large dilated esophagus cranial to the heart base, with an esophageal filling defect present at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra. A vascular ring anomaly was tentatively diagnosed. Exploratory thoracotomy revealed a double aortic arch and a persistent left vena cava. The left aortic arch was ligated and divided, and recovery was uneventful. A single episode of regurgitation occurred within the first postoperative month, and the cub gained 5.5 kg in weight during the same time period. Neither double aortic arch nor persistent left vena cava has been reported in a nondomestic felid.

  8. Relative availability of natural prey versus livestock predicts landscape suitability for cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Winterbach, Hanlie E K; Winterbach, Christiaan W; Boast, Lorraine K; Klein, Rebecca; Somers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Prey availability and human-carnivore conflict are strong determinants that govern the spatial distribution and abundance of large carnivore species and determine the suitability of areas for their conservation. For wide-ranging large carnivores such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), additional conservation areas beyond protected area boundaries are crucial to effectively conserve them both inside and outside protected areas. Although cheetahs prefer preying on wild prey, they also cause conflict with people by predating on especially small livestock. We investigated whether the distribution of cheetahs' preferred prey and small livestock biomass could be used to explore the potential suitability of agricultural areas in Botswana for the long-term persistence of its cheetah population. We found it gave a good point of departure for identifying priority areas for land management, the threat to connectivity between cheetah populations, and areas where the reduction and mitigation of human-cheetah conflict is critical. Our analysis showed the existence of a wide prey base for cheetahs across large parts of Botswana's agricultural areas, which provide additional large areas with high conservation potential. Twenty percent of wild prey biomass appears to be the critical point to distinguish between high and low probable levels of human-cheetah conflict. We identified focal areas in the agricultural zones where restoring wild prey numbers in concurrence with effective human-cheetah conflict mitigation efforts are the most immediate conservation strategies needed to maintain Botswana's still large and contiguous cheetah population.

  9. Dietary isoflavone absorption, excretion, and metabolism in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine M; Cave, Nicholas J; Ugarte, Claudia E; Waldron, Lucy A; Prasain, Jeevan K; Arabshahi, Alireza; Barnes, Stephen; Thomas, David G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary isoflavones, capable of influencing reproductive parameters in domestic cats (Felis catus), have been detected in commercial diets fed to captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). However, the absorptive and metabolic capacity of cheetahs towards isoflavones has not yet been studied. Experiments were designed to describe the plasma concentration-time curve, metabolite profile, and urinary and fecal excretion of genistein and daidzein in cheetahs following consumption of isoflavones. Four adult cheetahs were administered a single oral bolus of genistein and daidzein, and five juvenile cheetahs consuming a milk replacer formula found to contain isoflavones were also included. Urine was collected from all animals, and blood and feces were also collected from adult cheetahs following isoflavone exposure. Samples were analyzed for isoflavone metabolite concentration by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple reaction ion monitoring mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Sulfate conjugates were the primary metabolites detected of both genistein and daidzein (60-80% of total isoflavones present) in the plasma and urine of cheetahs. A smaller proportion of daidzein was detected as conjugates in the urine of juvenile cheetahs, compared to adult cheetahs. Other metabolites included unconjugated genistein and daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, and dihydrodaidzein, but not equol. Only 33% of the ingested genistein dose, and 9% of daidzein, was detected in plasma from adult cheetahs. However, of the ingested dose, 67% of genistein and 45% of daidzein were detected in the feces of adults. This study revealed that cheetahs appear efficient in their conjugation of absorbed dietary isoflavones and only a small fraction of ingested dose is absorbed. However, the capacity of the cheetah to conjugate genistein and daidzein with sulfate moieties appears lower than reported in the domestic cat. This may confer greater opportunity for biologic

  10. Serosurvey of viral infections in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Munson, Linda; Marker, Laurie; Dubovi, Edward; Spencer, Jennifer A; Evermann, James F; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity have unusually high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, a trait that could be an outcome of population homogeneity or the immunomodulating effects of chronic stress. Free-ranging Namibian cheetahs share ancestry with captive cheetahs, but their susceptibility to infectious diseases has not been investigated. The largest remaining population of free-ranging cheetahs resides on Namibian farmlands, where they share habitat with domestic dogs and cats known to carry viruses that affect cheetah health. To assess the extent to which free-ranging cheetahs are exposed to feline and canine viruses, sera from 81 free-ranging cheetahs sampled between 1992 and 1998 were evaluated for antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV), feline coronavirus (feline infectious peritonitis virus; FCoV/ FIPV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV1), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) and for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigens. Antibodies against CDV, FCoV/FIPV, FHV1, FPV, and FCV were detected in 24, 29, 12, 48, and 65% of the free-ranging population, respectively, although no evidence of viral disease was present in any animal at the time of sample collection. Neither FIV antibodies nor FeLV antigens were present in any free-ranging cheetah tested. Temporal variation in FCoV/FIPV seroprevalence during the study period suggested that this virus is not endemic in the free-ranging population. Antibodies against CDV were detected in cheetahs of all ages sampled between 1995 and 1998, suggesting the occurrence of an epidemic in Namibia during the time when CDV swept through other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. This evidence in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs of exposure to viruses that cause severe disease in captive cheetahs should direct future guidelines for translocations, including quarantine of seropositive cheetahs and preventing contact between cheetahs and domestic pets.

  11. Estimation of the growth curve and heritability of the growth rate for giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) cubs.

    PubMed

    Che, T D; Wang, C D; Jin, L; Wei, M; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, H M; Li, D S

    2015-03-27

    Giant panda cubs have a low survival rate during the newborn and early growth stages. However, the growth and developmental parameters of giant panda cubs during the early lactation stage (from birth to 6 months) are not well known. We examined the growth and development of giant panda cubs by the Chapman growth curve model and estimated the heritability of the maximum growth rate at the early lactation stage. We found that 83 giant panda cubs reached their maximum growth rate at approximately 75-120 days after birth. The body weight of cubs at 75 days was 4285.99 g. Furthermore, we estimated that the heritability of the maximum growth rate was moderate (h(2) = 0.38). Our study describes the growth and development of giant panda cubs at the early lactation stage and provides valuable growth benchmarks. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for more detailed research on increasing the survival rate of giant panda cubs. Feeding programs for giant panda cubs need further improvement.

  12. SURGICAL CORRECTION OF BILATERAL PATELLAR LUXATION IN AN AMERICAN BLACK BEAR CUB (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Katarina R; Desmarchelier, Marion R; Bailey, Trina R

    2015-06-01

    A wild orphaned male American black bear cub ( Ursus americanus ) presented with hind limb gait abnormalities and was found to have bilateral grade 3 laterally luxating patellas. There were no other significant abnormalities detected on neurologic, radiographic, or hematologic examinations. The trochlear grooves were deepened with a chondroplasty, and the redundant soft tissues imbricated. There was a marked improvement in the bear's gait postoperatively, with an apparent full return to function. To the authors' knowledge, patellar luxation has not been reported in the Ursidae family, and the success in this case suggests that this technique may be used in large wild or captive carnivore cubs.

  13. Naturally acquired anthrax antibodies in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Good, Kyle M; Houser, Annmarie; Arntzen, Lorraine; Turnbull, Peter C B

    2008-07-01

    An outbreak of anthrax in the Jwana Game Reserve in Jwaneng, Botswana, was first observed when three cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) died of the disease in November 2004. In the aftermath of this event, banked serum samples collected from 23 wild-caught cheetahs were examined, by the inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), for antibodies to the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. Of the 23 cheetahs, 16 regularly accessed the reserve. Antibodies to PA were detected in one cheetah collected in May 2004, indicating the disease was occurring well before it was first noticed. This appears to be the first demonstration of naturally acquired anthrax antibodies in cheetahs. The finding of one antibody-positive animal amongst at least 16 potentially exposed individuals is consistent with existing reports that it is uncommon for cheetahs to develop natural immunity to anthrax.

  14. Detection of feline coronavirus in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) feces by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction in cheetahs with variable frequency of viral shedding.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Patricia M; Kennedy, Melissa; Terio, Karen; Gardner, Ian; Lothamer, Chad; Coleman, Kathleen; Munson, Linda

    2012-12-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are a highly threatened species because of habitat loss, human conflict, and high prevalence of disease in captivity. An epidemic of feline infectious peritonitis and concern for spread of infectious disease resulted in decreased movement of cheetahs between U.S. zoological facilities for managed captive breeding. Identifying the true feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection status of cheetahs is challenging because of inconsistent correlation between seropositivity and fecal viral shedding. Because the pattern of fecal shedding of FCoV is unknown in cheetahs, this study aimed to assess the frequency of detectable fecal viral shedding in a 30-day period and to determine the most efficient fecal sampling strategy to identify cheetahs shedding FCoV. Fecal samples were collected from 16 cheetahs housed at seven zoological facilities for 30 to 46 consecutive days; the samples were evaluated for the presence of FCoV by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR). Forty-four percent (7/16) of cheetahs had detectable FCoV in feces, and the proportion of positive samples for individual animals ranged from 13 to 93%. Cheetahs shed virus persistently, intermittently, or rarely over 30-46 days. Fecal RT-nPCR results were used to calculate the probability of correctly identifying a cheetah known to shed virus given multiple hypothetical fecal collection schedules. The most efficient hypothetical fecal sample collection schedule was evaluation of five individual consecutive fecal samples, resulting in a 90% probability of identifying a known shedder. Demographic and management risk factors were not significantly associated (P < or = 0.05) with fecal viral shedding. Because some cheetahs shed virus intermittently to rarely, fecal sampling schedules meant to identify all known shedders would be impractical with current tests and eradication of virus from the population unreasonable. Managing the captive population as endemically

  15. Relative availability of natural prey versus livestock predicts landscape suitability for cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Winterbach, Christiaan W.; Boast, Lorraine K.; Klein, Rebecca; Somers, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Prey availability and human-carnivore conflict are strong determinants that govern the spatial distribution and abundance of large carnivore species and determine the suitability of areas for their conservation. For wide-ranging large carnivores such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), additional conservation areas beyond protected area boundaries are crucial to effectively conserve them both inside and outside protected areas. Although cheetahs prefer preying on wild prey, they also cause conflict with people by predating on especially small livestock. We investigated whether the distribution of cheetahs’ preferred prey and small livestock biomass could be used to explore the potential suitability of agricultural areas in Botswana for the long-term persistence of its cheetah population. We found it gave a good point of departure for identifying priority areas for land management, the threat to connectivity between cheetah populations, and areas where the reduction and mitigation of human-cheetah conflict is critical. Our analysis showed the existence of a wide prey base for cheetahs across large parts of Botswana’s agricultural areas, which provide additional large areas with high conservation potential. Twenty percent of wild prey biomass appears to be the critical point to distinguish between high and low probable levels of human-cheetah conflict. We identified focal areas in the agricultural zones where restoring wild prey numbers in concurrence with effective human-cheetah conflict mitigation efforts are the most immediate conservation strategies needed to maintain Botswana’s still large and contiguous cheetah population. PMID:26213646

  16. Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos include Engle turning propeller while his son sits in the cockpit (34323); both Engle and son examine propeller (34324); Engle works on engine while his son sits in cockpit (34325).

  17. Factors influencing breeding success, ovarian cyclicity, and cub survival in zoo-managed tigers (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Saunders, Sarah P; Harris, Tara; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Beck, Karen Goodrowe

    2014-01-10

    Understanding factors that influence reproduction and offspring survival in zoo populations is critical for management of threatened and endangered species. Examination of long-term data (1989-2011) compiled from the Association of Zoos and Aquarium's zoo-managed tiger breeding program provides the basis for a more thorough understanding of reproduction and scientifically based decisions for effective population management in this endangered felid. Biological and management-related factors that could influence tiger breeding success and cub survival were evaluated using logistic mixed models. Breeding success improved with female age until approximately age five, then declined thereafter. Experienced female breeders had greater breeding success than inexperienced females. Litter size was most predictive of cub survival, with average-sized litters (3-4 cubs) experiencing the highest proportional survival. Management-related factors, such as whether the breeding institution had a recent tiger litter and whether both animals were already located at the same institution, also influenced breeding success and cub survival. These results highlight the importance of institutional husbandry experience and the need to retain knowledge through staff turnovers to achieve optimal reproductive success. Using fecal estrogen data, frequency of ovarian cyclicity and mean cycle length did not differ by female age or parity; thus, lack of cyclicity and/or increased cycle duration are not likely explanations for declining breeding success with age. These results provide valuable reproductive information that should improve scientific management of zoo-based tiger populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substances in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels from 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Hamers, Timo; Swart, Kees; Aars, Jon; Lie, Elisabeth; Nilsen, Else Mari Espseth; Wiig, Oystein; Derocher, Andrew E; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-11-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are protein-binding blood-accumulating contaminants that may have detrimental toxicological effects on the early phases of mammalian development. To enable an evaluation of the potential health risks of PFAS exposure for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), an exposure assessment was made by examining plasma levels of PFASs in polar bear mothers in relation to their suckling cubs-of-the-year (~4 months old). Samples were collected at Svalbard in 1998 and 2008, and we investigated the between-year differences in levels of PFASs. Seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑₇PFCAs: PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (∑₂PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) were detected in the majority of the mothers and cubs from both years. In mothers and cubs, most PFCAs were detected in higher concentrations in 2008 than in 1998. On the contrary, levels of PFOS were lower in 2008 than in 1998, while levels of PFHxS did not differ between the two sampling years. PFOS was the dominating compound in mothers and cubs both in 1998 and in 2008. Concentration of PFHpA did not differ between mothers and cubs, while concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA, PFHxS, and PFOS were higher in mothers than in their cubs. Except from PFHpA, all compounds correlated significantly between mothers and their cubs. The mean cub to mother ratios ranged from 0.15 for PFNA to 1.69 for PFHpA. On average (mean±standard error of mean), the levels of ∑₇PFCAs and ∑₂PFSAs in cubs were 0.24±0.01 and 0.22±0.01 times the levels in their mothers, respectively. Although maternal transfer appears to be a substantial source of exposure for the cubs, the low cub to mother ratios indicate that maternal transfer of PFASs in polar bears is relatively low in comparison with hydrophobic contaminants (e.g. PCBs). Because the level of several PFASs in mothers and cubs from both sampling years exceeded the levels associated

  19. Focal palatine erosion in captive and free-living cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and other felid species.

    PubMed

    Zordan, Martýn; Deem, Sharon L; Sanchez, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    We examined 1,092 skulls of captive and free-living individuals, representing 33 felid species, to determine the prevalence of focal palatine erosion (FPE). FPE was detected in 3.2% of cats evaluated, including cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and 14 other felid species. The prevalence of FPE between cheetah (9.4%; n = 64) and non-cheetah species (2.8%; n = 1,028) (χ(2) test; P = 0.004) and between captive (5.7%; n = 246) and free-living (2.4%; n = 824) individuals (χ(2) test; P = 0.010) were significantly different, with prevalence between captive (19%; n = 21) and free-living (2.9%; n = 34) cheetahs approaching significance (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.064). FPE was diagnosed with equal prevalence in skulls from individuals in which the lower molars did not meet the palatine bone (60.6%) and individuals in which it did (39.4%; n = 33) (χ(2) test; P = 0.139). In cheetahs with FPE, one was a captive animal in Germany, one a free-living cheetah from Mali, one captive cheetah from Kenya, and three captive cheetahs of unknown origin. Additionally, we evaluated the medical records of 49 captive cheetahs in Namibia. Of these cheetahs, 48 (98.0%) had clinical signs consistent with FPE, although only 16 of these 48 (39.6%) had perforation of the palatine bone. Based on physical examinations, FPE was diagnosed in two caracals (Caracal caracal) and one fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) from a North American Zoo. Results from this study confirm FPE in cheetahs outside of Namibia, in a minimum of 15 felid species, and a higher FPE prevalence in captive individuals than free-living ones. Clinical implications of these findings and recommendations for future studies are provided. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Seroprevalences to Viral Pathogens in Free-Ranging and Captive Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) on Namibian Farmland▿

    PubMed Central

    Thalwitzer, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Robert, Nadia; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas; Lonzer, Johann; Meli, Marina L.; Bay, Gert; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Cheetah populations are diminishing rapidly in their natural habitat. One reason for their decline is thought to be a high susceptibility to (infectious) diseases because cheetahs in zoos suffer from high disease-induced mortality. Data on the health status of free-ranging cheetahs are scarce, and little is known about their exposure and susceptibility to infectious diseases. We determined seroprevalences to nine key viruses (feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV], puma lentivirus, feline leukemia virus, and rabies virus) in 68 free-ranging cheetahs on east-central Namibian farmland, 24 nonvaccinated Namibian captive cheetahs, and several other wild carnivore species and conducted necropsies of cheetahs and other wild carnivores. Eight of 11 other wild carnivores were seropositive for at least one of the viruses, including the first record of an FIV-like infection in a wild felid west of the Kalahari, the caracal (Felis caracal). Seroprevalences of the free-ranging cheetahs were below 5% for all nine viruses, which is significantly lower than seroprevalences in nonvaccinated captive cheetahs and those for five of seven viruses in previously studied free-ranging cheetahs from north-central Namibia (L. Munson, L. Marker, E. Dubovi, J. A. Spencer, J. F. Evermann, and S. J. O'Brien, J. Wildl. Dis. 40:23-31, 2004). There was no clinical or pathological evidence of infectious diseases in living or dead cheetahs. The results suggest that while free-ranging wild carnivores may be a source of pathogens, the distribution of seroprevalences across studies mirrored local human population density and factors associated with human habitation, probably reflecting contact opportunities with (nonvaccinated) domestic and feral cats and dogs. They also suggest that Namibian cheetahs respond effectively to viral challenges, encouraging consistent and sustainable conservation efforts

  1. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus.

    PubMed

    Hudson-Lamb, Gavin C; Schoeman, Johan P; Hooijberg, Emma H; Heinrich, Sonja K; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-02-26

    Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L - 166 mmol/L), potassium (3.9 mmol/L - 5.2 mmol/L), magnesium (0.8 mmol/L - 1.2 mmol/L), chloride (97 mmol/L - 130 mmol/L), urea (8.2 mmol/L - 25.1 mmol/L) and creatinine (88 µmol/L - 288 µmol/L). Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  2. Seroprevalences to viral pathogens in free-ranging and captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) on Namibian Farmland.

    PubMed

    Thalwitzer, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Robert, Nadia; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas; Lonzer, Johann; Meli, Marina L; Bay, Gert; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans

    2010-02-01

    Cheetah populations are diminishing rapidly in their natural habitat. One reason for their decline is thought to be a high susceptibility to (infectious) diseases because cheetahs in zoos suffer from high disease-induced mortality. Data on the health status of free-ranging cheetahs are scarce, and little is known about their exposure and susceptibility to infectious diseases. We determined seroprevalences to nine key viruses (feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV], puma lentivirus, feline leukemia virus, and rabies virus) in 68 free-ranging cheetahs on east-central Namibian farmland, 24 nonvaccinated Namibian captive cheetahs, and several other wild carnivore species and conducted necropsies of cheetahs and other wild carnivores. Eight of 11 other wild carnivores were seropositive for at least one of the viruses, including the first record of an FIV-like infection in a wild felid west of the Kalahari, the caracal (Felis caracal). Seroprevalences of the free-ranging cheetahs were below 5% for all nine viruses, which is significantly lower than seroprevalences in nonvaccinated captive cheetahs and those for five of seven viruses in previously studied free-ranging cheetahs from north-central Namibia (L. Munson, L. Marker, E. Dubovi, J. A. Spencer, J. F. Evermann, and S. J. O'Brien, J. Wildl. Dis. 40:23-31, 2004). There was no clinical or pathological evidence of infectious diseases in living or dead cheetahs. The results suggest that while free-ranging wild carnivores may be a source of pathogens, the distribution of seroprevalences across studies mirrored local human population density and factors associated with human habitation, probably reflecting contact opportunities with (nonvaccinated) domestic and feral cats and dogs. They also suggest that Namibian cheetahs respond effectively to viral challenges, encouraging consistent and sustainable conservation efforts.

  3. Cheetah Reunion - The Challenge of Finding Your Friends Again.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Shotton, Justine; Wilshin, Simon D; Horgan, Jane; Klein, Rebecca; McKenna, Rick; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    Animals navigate their environment using a variety of senses and strategies. This multiplicity enables them to respond to different navigational requirements resulting from habitat, scale and purpose. One of the challenges social animals face is how to reunite after periods of separation. We explore a variety of possible mechanisms used to reunite the members of a cheetah coalition dispersed within a large area after prolonged separation. Using GPS data from three cheetahs reuniting after weeks of separation, we determined that 1) the likelihood of purely coincidental reunion is miniscule 2) the reunion occurred in an area not normally frequented 3) with very little time spent in the region in advance of the reunion. We therefore propose that timely encounter of scent markings where paths cross is the most likely mechanism used to aid the reunion.

  4. Conservation Genetics of the Cheetah: Lessons Learned and New Opportunities.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Driscoll, Carlos A; Dobrynin, Pavel; Marker, Laurie

    2017-09-01

    The dwindling wildlife species of our planet have become a cause célèbre for conservation groups, governments, and concerned citizens throughout the world. The application of powerful new genetic technologies to surviving populations of threatened mammals has revolutionized our ability to recognize hidden perils that afflict them. We have learned new lessons of survival, adaptation, and evolution from viewing the natural history of genomes in hundreds of detailed studies. A single case history of one species, the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is here reviewed to reveal a long-term story of conservation challenges and action informed by genetic discoveries and insights. A synthesis of 3 decades of data, interpretation, and controversy, capped by whole genome sequence analysis of cheetahs, provides a compelling tale of conservation relevance and action to protect this species and other threatened wildlife. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Oral, Maxillofacial and Dental Diseases in Captive Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, G; Boy, S C; van Staden, P J; Bester, M N

    2018-01-01

    Descriptions of several oral, maxillofacial and dental conditions/diseases exist for a variety of captive large felids, but little is reported on the pathology of free roaming large felids. Apart from focal palatine erosions (FPEs) as initially described by Fitch and Fagan (1982) and some reference to absent incisor teeth, few data exist on diseases affecting the oral, maxillofacial and dental structures of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), regardless of their captivity status. This study reports 18 different conditions affecting the teeth, bone and oral cavity soft tissue of cheetahs, based on initial assessment of 256 animals over 11 years (2002-2012) in South Africa and Namibia. This report excludes oral tumours or FPEs, but includes several acquired and developmental conditions never described before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cheetah Reunion – The Challenge of Finding Your Friends Again

    PubMed Central

    Shotton, Justine; Wilshin, Simon D.; Horgan, Jane; Klein, Rebecca; McKenna, Rick; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Animals navigate their environment using a variety of senses and strategies. This multiplicity enables them to respond to different navigational requirements resulting from habitat, scale and purpose. One of the challenges social animals face is how to reunite after periods of separation. We explore a variety of possible mechanisms used to reunite the members of a cheetah coalition dispersed within a large area after prolonged separation. Using GPS data from three cheetahs reuniting after weeks of separation, we determined that 1) the likelihood of purely coincidental reunion is miniscule 2) the reunion occurred in an area not normally frequented 3) with very little time spent in the region in advance of the reunion. We therefore propose that timely encounter of scent markings where paths cross is the most likely mechanism used to aid the reunion. PMID:27926915

  7. INDUCTION OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS AND VALIDATION OF FELINE-SPECIFIC CYTOKINE ASSAYS FOR ANALYSIS OF CHEETAH SERUM.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Ashley D; Crosier, Adrienne E; Vansandt, Lindsey M; Mattson, Elliot; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the whole blood of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus ; n=3) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 for establishment of cross-reactivity between these cheetah cytokines and feline-specific cytokine antibodies provided in commercially available Feline DuoSet® ELISA kits (R&D Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413, USA). This study found that feline-specific cytokine antibodies bind specifically to cheetah proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from cell culture supernatants. The assays also revealed that cheetah PBMCs produce a measurable, cell concentration-dependent increase in proinflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation. To enable the use of these kits, which are designed for cell culture supernatants for analyzing cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum, percent recovery and parallelism of feline cytokine standards in cheetah serum were also evaluated. Cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum were approximated based on the use of domestic cat standards in the absence of cheetah standard material. In all cases (for cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), percent recovery increased as the serum sample dilution increased, though percent recovery varied between cytokines at a given dilution factor. A 1:2 dilution of serum resulted in approximately 45, 82, and 7% recovery of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 standards, respectively. Adequate parallelism was observed across a large range of cytokine concentrations for TNF-α and IL-1β; however, a significant departure from parallelism was observed between the IL-6 standard and the serum samples (P=0.004). Therefore, based on our results, the Feline DuoSet ELISA (R&D Systems, Inc.) kits are valid assays for the measurement of TNF-α and IL-1β in cheetah serum but should not be used for accurate measurement of IL-6.

  8. Elemental sulfur identified in urine of cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus.

    PubMed

    Burger, Ben V; Visser, Runine; Moses, Alvira; Le Roux, Maritha

    2006-06-01

    The urine of the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is almost odorless, and probably for this reason, it has not attracted much attention from scientists. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified 27 and 37 constituents in the headspace vapor of the urine of male and female cheetah, respectively. These constituents, composed of hydrocarbons, short-chain ethers, aldehydes, saturated and unsaturated cyclic and acyclic ketones, 2-acetylfuran, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfone, phenol, myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid), urea, and elemental sulfur, are all present in the headspace vapor in very small quantities; dimethyl disulfide is present in such a low concentration that it cannot be detected by the human nose. This is only the second example of elemental sulfur being secreted or excreted by an animal. It is hypothesized that the conversion of sulfur-containing compounds in the cheetah's diet to elemental sulfur and to practically odorless dimethyl sulfone enables this carnivore to operate as if "invisible" to the olfactory world of its predators as well as its prey, which would increase its chances of survival.

  9. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-08-15

    During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    PubMed Central

    Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. PMID:27412267

  11. Fecal transmission of AA amyloidosis in the cheetah contributes to high incidence of disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Beiru; Une, Yumi; Fu, Xiaoying; Yan, Jingmin; Ge, FengXia; Yao, Junjie; Sawashita, Jinko; Mori, Masayuki; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Kametani, Fuyuki; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    AA amyloidosis is one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), which are in danger of extinction, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Given the transmissible characteristics of AA amyloidosis, transmission between captive cheetahs may be a possible mechanism involved in the high incidence of AA amyloidosis. In this study of animals with AA amyloidosis, we found that cheetah feces contained AA amyloid fibrils that were different from those of the liver with regard to molecular weight and shape and had greater transmissibility. The infectious activity of fecal AA amyloid fibrils was reduced or abolished by the protein denaturants 6 M guanidine·HCl and formic acid or by AA immunodepletion. Thus, we propose that feces are a vehicle of transmission that may accelerate AA amyloidosis in captive cheetah populations. These results provide a pathogenesis for AA amyloidosis and suggest possible measures for rescuing cheetahs from extinction. PMID:18474855

  12. Diagnosis-based treatment of helminths in captive and wild cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Mény, Marie; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie L

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to identify endoparasites in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) living in a seminatural captive environment in north-central Namibia. Results were used to assess the need for anthelmintic treatment and for the selection of an appropriate drug. The study assessed fecal parasite excretion qualitatively and quantitatively using a fecal flotation method during the winter of 2009. Four different species of parasites (two nematodes and two coccidias) were identified. Parasite excretion rates were found to be significantly lower than that of wild cheetahs living in the same area. Samples of the wild cheetahs were obtained at the time of anesthesia or were attributed to the wild individuals using genetic profiling. Captive cheetahs were dewormed with fenbendazole, whereas wild cheetahs were treated using ivermectin. Efficacy of these treatments was demonstrated at the end of the study.

  13. Cheetah paradigm revisited: MHC diversity in the world's largest free-ranging population.

    PubMed

    Castro-Prieto, Aines; Wachter, Bettina; Sommer, Simone

    2011-04-01

    For more than two decades, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been considered a paradigm of disease vulnerability associated with low genetic diversity, particularly at the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Cheetahs have been used as a classic example in numerous conservation genetics textbooks as well as in many related scientific publications. However, earlier studies used methods with low resolution to quantify MHC diversity and/or small sample sizes. Furthermore, high disease susceptibility was reported only for captive cheetahs, whereas free-ranging cheetahs show no signs of infectious diseases and a good general health status. We examined whether the diversity at MHC class I and class II-DRB loci in 149 Namibian cheetahs was higher than previously reported using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, cloning, and sequencing. MHC genes were examined at the genomic and transcriptomic levels. We detected ten MHC class I and four class II-DRB alleles, of which nine MHC class I and all class II-DRB alleles were expressed. Phylogenetic analyses and individual genotypes suggested that the alleles belong to four MHC class I and three class II-DRB putative loci. Evidence of positive selection was detected in both MHC loci. Our study indicated that the low number of MHC class I alleles previously observed in cheetahs was due to a smaller sample size examined. On the other hand, the low number of MHC class II-DRB alleles previously observed in cheetahs was further confirmed. Compared with other mammalian species including felids, cheetahs showed low levels of MHC diversity, but this does not seem to influence the immunocompetence of free-ranging cheetahs in Namibia and contradicts the previous conclusion that the cheetah is a paradigm species of disease vulnerability.

  14. Efficacy and long-term outcome of gastritis therapy in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Citino, Scott B; Munson, Linda

    2005-09-01

    A prospective clinical trial evaluating efficacy and long-term outcome of treatments for lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) was conducted. The study evaluated efficacy of 11 different antibiotic and antiinflammatory treatment protocols in 32 cheetahs (19 male, 13 female) for reducing gastric inflammation and Helicobacter colonization and monitored the course of disease through histologic grading of gastric biopsies. All cheetahs were biopsied up to I wk before treatment and then rebiopsied within 1 mo after treatment. Most animals were reassigned to a second treatment regimen within 6 mo. Each animal received from one to three treatments during the study period. After the trial, gastric biopsies were obtained from each cheetah annually until death or transfer from the facility to assess disease progression. The trial and follow-up period spanned 10 yr. At onset of the trial, all 32 cheetahs had some degree of gastritis, and 26 cheetahs (81%) were colonized with Helicobacter. Inflammatory lesions worsened regardless of treatment or the presence of Helicobacter. No treatment had a significant effect on inflammatory changes except the lansoprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin treatment group, which produced a short-term decrease in inflammation when compared to controls. Prednisone had no effect on gastric inflammation. Overall, 65% of colonized cheetahs were initially cleared of histologic evidence of Helicobacter by treatment, with short-term eradication occurring in 100% of the animals treated with omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin or tetracycline/metronidazole/Pepto-Bismol for 28 days. Long-term follow-up of treated animals in this study clearly demonstrated that these treatments had little effect on life-long progression of gastritis or on Helicobacter burden in individual cheetahs, although some treatments provided short-term reduction in gastritis and Helicobacter. These results provide evidence that Helicobacter alone is not the cause

  15. Prevalence and implications of feline coronavirus infections of captive and free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed Central

    Heeney, J L; Evermann, J F; McKeirnan, A J; Marker-Kraus, L; Roelke, M E; Bush, M; Wildt, D E; Meltzer, D G; Colly, L; Lukas, J

    1990-01-01

    The extent and progression of exposure to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus in the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, was monitored by a world-wide serological survey with indirect fluorescent antibody titers to coronavirus. The indirect fluorescent antibody assay was validated by Western blots, which showed that all indirect fluorescent antibody-positive cheetah sera detected both domestic cat and cheetah coronavirus structural proteins. There was a poor correlation between indirect fluorescent antibody results and the presence of coronaviruslike particles in cheetah feces, suggesting that electron microscopic detection of shed particles may not be an easily interpreted diagnostic parameter for FIP disease. Low, but verifiable (by Western blots [immunoblots]) antibody titers against coronavirus were detected in eight free-ranging cheetahs from east Africa as well as from captive cheetahs throughout the world. Of 20 North American cheetah facilities screened, 9 had cheetahs with measurable antibodies to feline coronavirus. Five facilities showed patterns of an ongoing epizootic. Retrospective FIP virus titers of an FIP outbreak in a cheetah-breeding facility in Oregon were monitored over a 5-year period and are interpreted here in terms of clinical disease progression. During that outbreak the morbidity was over 90% and the mortality was 60%, far greater than any previously reported epizootic of FIP in any cat species. Age of infection was a significant risk factor in this epizootic, with infants (less than 3 months old) displaying significantly higher risk for mortality than subadults or adults. Based upon these observations, empirical generalizations are drawn which address epidemiologic concerns for cheetahs in the context of this lethal infectious agent. Images PMID:2157864

  16. A new perspective on the pathogenesis of chronic renal disease in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Prozesky, Leon; Lawrence, John

    2018-01-01

    The sustainability of captive cheetah populations is limited by high mortality due to chronic renal disease. This necropsy study, conducted on 243 captive cheetahs from one institution, investigated the relationships between focal palatine erosions, gastritis, enterocolitis, glomerulosclerosis, chronic renal infarcts, renal cortical and medullary fibrosis, and renal medullary amyloidosis at death. Associations between the individual renal lesions and death due to chronic renal disease and comparisons of lesion prevalence between captive bred and wild born and between normal and king coated cheetahs were also assessed. All lesions were significantly positively correlated with age at death. Renal medullary fibrosis was the only lesion associated with the likelihood of death being due to chronic renal disease, and cheetahs with this lesion were younger, on average, than cheetahs with other renal lesions. Alimentary tract lesions were not associated with amyloidosis. All lesions, except for palatine erosions, were more common in wild born than in captive bred cheetahs; the former were older at death than the latter. Having a king coat had no clear effect on disease prevalence. These results suggest that age and renal medullary fibrosis are the primary factors influencing the pathogenesis of chronic renal disease in captive cheetahs. Apart from amyloidosis, these findings are analogous to those described in chronic renal disease in domestic cats, which is postulated to result primarily from repetitive hypoxic injury of renal tubules, mediated by age and stress. Cheetahs may be particularly susceptible to acute renal tubular injury due to their propensity for stress and their extended life span in captivity, as well as their adaptation for fecundity (rather than longevity) and adrenaline-mediated high speed prey chases. The presence of chronic renal disease in subadult cheetahs suggests that prevention, identification and mitigation of stress are critical to the

  17. A new perspective on the pathogenesis of chronic renal disease in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Emily P; Prozesky, Leon; Lawrence, John

    2018-01-01

    The sustainability of captive cheetah populations is limited by high mortality due to chronic renal disease. This necropsy study, conducted on 243 captive cheetahs from one institution, investigated the relationships between focal palatine erosions, gastritis, enterocolitis, glomerulosclerosis, chronic renal infarcts, renal cortical and medullary fibrosis, and renal medullary amyloidosis at death. Associations between the individual renal lesions and death due to chronic renal disease and comparisons of lesion prevalence between captive bred and wild born and between normal and king coated cheetahs were also assessed. All lesions were significantly positively correlated with age at death. Renal medullary fibrosis was the only lesion associated with the likelihood of death being due to chronic renal disease, and cheetahs with this lesion were younger, on average, than cheetahs with other renal lesions. Alimentary tract lesions were not associated with amyloidosis. All lesions, except for palatine erosions, were more common in wild born than in captive bred cheetahs; the former were older at death than the latter. Having a king coat had no clear effect on disease prevalence. These results suggest that age and renal medullary fibrosis are the primary factors influencing the pathogenesis of chronic renal disease in captive cheetahs. Apart from amyloidosis, these findings are analogous to those described in chronic renal disease in domestic cats, which is postulated to result primarily from repetitive hypoxic injury of renal tubules, mediated by age and stress. Cheetahs may be particularly susceptible to acute renal tubular injury due to their propensity for stress and their extended life span in captivity, as well as their adaptation for fecundity (rather than longevity) and adrenaline-mediated high speed prey chases. The presence of chronic renal disease in subadult cheetahs suggests that prevention, identification and mitigation of stress are critical to the

  18. Prevalence of Bartonella infection in wild African lions (Panthera leo) and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Molia, S; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Leutenegger, C M; Steele, B R; Marker, L; Martenson, J S; Keet, D F; Bengis, R G; Peterson, R P; Munson, L; O'Brien, S J

    2004-05-20

    Bartonella species are emerging pathogens that have been isolated worldwide from humans and other mammals. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo) and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Blood and/or serum samples were collected from a convenience sample of 113 lions and 74 cheetahs captured in Africa between 1982 and 2002. Whole blood samples available from 58 of the lions and 17 of the cheetahs were cultured for evidence of Bartonella spp., and whole blood from 54 of the 58 lions and 73 of the 74 cheetahs tested for the presence of Bartonella DNA by TaqMan PCR. Serum samples from the 113 lions and 74 cheetahs were tested for the presence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae using an immunofluorescence assay. Three (5.2%) of the 58 lions and one (5.9%) of the 17 cheetahs were bacteremic. Two lions were infected with B. henselae, based on PCR/RFLP of the citrate synthase gene. The third lion and the cheetah were infected with previously unidentified Bartonella strains. Twenty-three percent of the 73 cheetahs and 3.7% of the 54 lions tested by TaqMan PCR were positive for Bartonella spp. B. henselae antibody prevalence was 17% (19/113) for the lions and 31% (23/74) for the cheetahs. The prevalence of seropositivity, bacteremia, and positive TaqMan PCR was not significantly different between sexes and age categories (juvenile versus adult) for both lions and cheetahs. Domestic cats are thus no longer the only known carriers of Bartonella spp. in Africa. Translocation of B. henselae seronegative and TaqMan PCR negative wild felids might be effective in limiting the spread of Bartonella infection.

  19. High speed galloping in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris): spatio-temporal and kinetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Wilson, Alan M

    2012-07-15

    The cheetah and racing greyhound are of a similar size and gross morphology and yet the cheetah is able to achieve a far higher top speed. We compared the kinematics and kinetics of galloping in the cheetah and greyhound to investigate how the cheetah can attain such remarkable maximum speeds. This also presented an opportunity to investigate some of the potential limits to maximum running speed in quadrupeds, which remain poorly understood. By combining force plate and high speed video data of galloping cheetahs and greyhounds, we show how the cheetah uses a lower stride frequency/longer stride length than the greyhound at any given speed. In some trials, the cheetahs used swing times as low as those of the greyhounds (0.2 s) so the cheetah has scope to use higher stride frequencies (up to 4.0 Hz), which may contribute to it having a higher top speed that the greyhound. Weight distribution between the animal's limbs varied with increasing speed. At high speed, the hindlimbs support the majority of the animal's body weight, with the cheetah supporting 70% of its body weight on its hindlimbs at 18 m s(-1); however, the greyhound hindlimbs support just 62% of its body weight. Supporting a greater proportion of body weight on a particular limb is likely to reduce the risk of slipping during propulsive efforts. Our results demonstrate several features of galloping and highlight differences between the cheetah and greyhound that may account for the cheetah's faster maximum speeds.

  20. Suspected adverse reactions to oral administration of a praziquantel-pyrantel combination in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine M; Smith, Liesl; Budd, Jane A; Lloyd, Christopher G

    2017-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To characterize adverse reactions to oral administration of a combination of praziquantel and pyrantel embonate or pyrantel pamoate, with or without oxantel embonate, in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). DESIGN Retrospective case series and case-control study. ANIMALS 16 captive cheetahs with signs of adverse reaction to oral administration of praziquantel and pyrantel, with or without oxantel embonate (affected group), and 27 cheetahs without such reactions (unaffected group), all from 3 independent facilities. PROCEDURES Medical records and postmortem findings for affected cheetahs were reviewed and compared with those of unaffected animals. Anthelmintic doses administered, age, and sex of cheetahs were compared between groups. RESULTS 3 reactions in affected cheetahs were fatal, whereas the remainder ranged from mild to severe. Postmortem examination failed to reveal any disease processes or conditions to explain the deaths. No differences in anthelmintic dose were identified between affected and unaffected cheetahs for all facilities combined, and no correlation existed between dose and reaction severity. No association with sex was detected, but affected cheetahs were significantly younger than unaffected cheetahs. This difference was not significant after controlling for facility. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cheetahs were concluded to have had an adverse reaction to the praziquantel-pyrantel combination because of temporal proximity of onset of clinical signs to dose administration, similarity of signs to those reported for toxicosis in other species for these drugs, and a lack of other disease process or environmental explanatory factors. A highly cautious approach to the use of this drug combination is recommended for cheetahs.

  1. Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos includes Jon Engle sitting on side door frame working on portion of wing. Joe Engle is behind him working on a wing strut (34329); Joe Engle works on tightening bolt (34330); Jon Engle works on portion of wing which connects to the cockpit. Joe Engle works on connecting strut to wing (34331).

  2. Rickets in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: some new insights.

    PubMed

    Chesney, Russell W; Hedberg, Gail

    2009-05-01

    In 1889, when Dr John Bland-Sutton, a prominent surgeon in London, England, was consulted concerning fatal rickets in more than 20 successive litters of lion cubs at the London Zoo, he evaluated the role of diet relative to the development of rickets. He prescribed goat meat and bones and cod-liver oil to be added to the lean horse-meat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets reversed, the cubs survived, and litters were reared successfully. In classic controlled studies conducted in puppies and young rats 3 decades later, the crucial role of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D in both prevention and therapy of rickets was elucidated. Later studies led to the identification of the structural features of vitamin D. Although the Bland-Sutton interventional diet obviously provides calcium and phosphate from bones and vitamin D from cod-liver oil, other benefits of this diet were not initially recognized. Chewing bones promotes tooth and gum health and removes bacteria-laden tartar. Cod-liver oil also contains vitamin A, which is essential for the prevention of infection and for epithelial cell health. Taurine-conjugated bile salts are also necessary for the intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including A and D. Moreover, unlike dogs and rats, all feline species are unable to synthesize taurine yet can only conjugate bile acids with taurine. This sulfur-containing beta-amino acid must be provided in the carnivorous diet of a large cat. Taurine-conjugated bile salts were provided in the oil cold-pressed from cod liver. The now famous Bland-Sutton "experiment of nature," namely, fatal rickets in lion cubs, was cured by the addition of minerals and vitamin D. However, gum health and the presence of taurine-conjugated bile salts undoubtedly permitted absorption of vitamin A and D, the latter promoting the cure of rickets.

  3. Transthyretin-binding activity of contaminants in blood from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; Simon, Eszter; Leonards, Pim E G; Lamoree, Marja; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Oystein; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Hamers, Timo

    2013-05-07

    We determined the transthyretin (TTR)-binding activity of blood-accumulating contaminants in blood plasma samples of approximately 4-months-old polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs from Svalbard sampled in 1998 and 2008. The TTR-binding activity was measured as thyroxine (T4)-like equivalents (T4-EQMeas). Our findings show that the TTR-binding activity related to contaminant levels was significantly lower (45%) in 2008 than in 1998 (mean ± standard error of mean: 1998, 2265 ± 231 nM; 2008, 1258 ± 170 nM). Although we cannot exclude a potential influence of between-year differences in capture location and cub body mass, our findings most likely reflect reductions of TTR-binding contaminants or their precursors in the arctic environment (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). The measured TTR-binding activity correlated positively with the cubs' plasma levels of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs). No such association was found between TTR-binding activity and the plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The OH-PCBs explained 60 ± 7% and 54 ± 4% of the TTR-binding activity in 1998 and 2008, respectively, and PFASs explained ≤1.2% both years. Still, almost half the TTR-binding activity could not be explained by the contaminants we examined. The considerable levels of TTR-binding contaminants warrant further effect directed analysis (EDA) to identify the contaminants responsible for the unexplained part of the observed TTR-binding activity.

  4. Does taurine deficiency cause metabolic bone disease and rickets in polar bear cubs raised in captivity?

    PubMed

    Chesney, Russell W; Hedberg, Gail E; Rogers, Quinton R; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Hollis, Bruce E; Derocher, Andrew; Andersen, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Rickets and fractures have been reported in captive polar bears. Taurine (TAU) is key for the conjugation of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a bile acid unique to bears. Since TAU-conjugated UDCA optimizes fat and fat-soluble vitamin absorption, we asked if TAU deficiency could cause vitamin D malabsorption and lead to metabolic bone disease in captive polar bears. We measured TAU levels in plasma (P) and whole blood (WB) from captive and free-ranging cubs and adults, and vitamin D3 and TAU concentrations in milk samples from lactating sows. Plasma and WB TAU levels were significantly higher in cubs vs captive and free-ranging adult bears. Vitamin D in polar bear milk was 649.2 +/- 569.2 IU/L, similar to that found in formula. The amount of TAU in polar bear milk is 3166.4 +/- 771 nmol/ml, 26-fold higher than in formula. Levels of vitamin D in bear milk and formula as well as in plasma do not indicate classical nutritional vitamin D deficiency. Higher dietary intake of TAU by free-ranging cubs may influence bile acid conjugation and improve vitamin D absorption.

  5. An investigation into the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory behavior in the wild is fundamentally linked to an animal's survival and natural life history. The ability to gather information about their environment, establish territories, assert dominance, communicate information regarding reproductive status and locate mates are closely associated with a range of exploratory behaviors. Understanding how these behaviors are performed within the captive setting is crucial in order to create a captive environment in which these behaviors can be expressed, and their function conserved. The objective of this research was to highlight the factors of captive husbandry and management that influence the occurrence of exploratory behaviour of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity. One hundred and twelve cheetahs in 88 enclosures across nine zoological institutions in five countries were the subjects of this study. The presence of raised areas, number of movements between enclosures, group composition, sex and an interaction between group composition and the ability to view cheetahs in adjacent enclosures, all significantly influenced the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. The presence of raised areas and an increasing number of movements between enclosures significantly increased the probability of observing exploratory behaviour, while this probability was significantly decreased for female cheetahs, when cheetahs were able to view conspecifics in adjacent enclosures, and were maintained in groups. A number of recommendations are discussed in relation to promoting exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cheetahs have 4 serum amyloid a genes evolved through repeated duplication events.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Une, Yumi; Higuchi, Keiichi; Mori, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a leading cause of mortality in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). We performed genome walking and PCR cloning and revealed that cheetahs have 4 SAA genes (provisionally named SAA1A, SAA1B, SAA3A, and SAA3B). In addition, we identified multiple nucleotide polymorphisms in the 4 SAA genes by screening 51 cheetahs. The polymorphisms defined 4, 7, 6, and 4 alleles for SAA1A, SAA3A, SAA1B, and SAA3B, respectively. Pedigree analysis of the inheritance of genotypes for the SAA genes revealed that specific combinations of alleles for the 4 SAA genes cosegregated as a unit (haplotype) in pedigrees, indicating that the 4 genes were linked on the same chromosome. Notably, cheetah SAA1A and SAA1B were highly homologous in their nucleotide sequences. Likewise, SAA3A and SAA3B genes were homologous. These observations suggested a model for the evolution of the 4 SAA genes in cheetahs in which duplication of an ancestral SAA gene first gave rise to SAA1 and SAA3. Subsequently, each gene duplicated one more time, uniquely making 4 genes in the cheetah genome. The monomorphism of the cheetah SAA1A protein might be one of the factors responsible for the high incidence of AA amyloidosis in this species.

  7. The stress response to environmental change in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Wells, Amy; Terio, Karen A; Ziccardi, Michael H; Munson, Linda

    2004-03-01

    The captive North American cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population is not self-sustaining because of high prevalences of unusual diseases and poor reproductive success. Cheetahs are commonly moved between zoos for breeding purposes to maintain genetic diversity within the captive population, and movement may exacerbate infertility and disease. Fecal corticoids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay to measure the stress response of cheetahs to movement between facilities. Fecal samples were collected from 15 cheetahs for 14 days before movement and for at least 30 days after movement. For each cheetah, premovement fecal corticoid concentrations were used to determine baseline and then compared with trends in postmovement concentrations. In general, postmovement corticoid concentrations either increased (n = 8), did not change (n = 2), or decreased (n = 5). Although individual animal differences occurred, corticoid concentrations increased for most animals moved on-exhibit and decreased in animals moved off-exhibit. Animals moving on-exhibit had an 18-times greater risk of having corticoids elevated more than two standard deviations above baseline for 30 days after movement compared with animals that moved off-exhibit. In addition, greater day-to-day variation in corticoids occurred in animals moved on-exhibit. In general, animals with initially low baseline corticoid concentrations had a greater postmovement corticoid response than cheetahs with initially high baseline levels. These results indicate that some cheetahs have a prolonged stress response when moved between facilities, and the magnitude and character of this response is influenced by the exhibit environment.

  8. Ulnar metaphyseal osteochondrosis in seven captive bred cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Allan, Graeme; Portas, Timothy; Bryant, Benn; Howlett, Rolfe; Blyde, David

    2008-01-01

    Distal ulna metaphyseal osteochondrosis was identified in seven captive bred cheetahs raised in Australia between 1984 and 2005. The disorder was characterized by bilateral carpal valgus conformation. In the metaphyseal region of the distal ulnae, an osteolucent defect that appeared as a proximal extension of the lucent physis was identified radiographically between 6 and 10 months of age. Ulna ostectomy was done to correct the angular limb deformity. Histologically, changes were identified in the osteolucent lesion that resembled osteochondrosis. We propose that the condition is probably familial and/or dietary in origin.

  9. The Dynamics of Cuba Anticyclones (CubANs) and Interaction With the Loop Current/Florida Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, Vassiliki; Androulidakis, Yannis; Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Kang, HeeSook

    2017-10-01

    Mesoscale anticyclonic eddies along the northern Cuban coast (CubANs) have been identified in the Straits of Florida, associated with the northward shift of the Florida Current (FC) and the anticyclonic curvature of the Loop Current (LC) at the western entrance of the Straits. The dynamics of CubAN eddies and their interaction with the LC/FC system are described for the first time using satellite, drifter and buoy data, and a high-resolution model. It is shown that the evolution of CubANs to the south of the FC front complements the evolution of cyclonic eddies to the north of the FC, advancing previous studies on synergy between FC meandering and eddy activity. Two types of CubAN eddies are characterized: (a) a main anticyclonic cell (type "A") within the core of the LC during retracted phase conditions, associated with the process of LC Eddy (LCE) shedding from an extended LC, and (b) an individual, distinct anticyclonic eddy that is released from the main LC core and is advected eastward, along the northern Cuban coast (type "B"). There are also mixed cases, when the process of LCE shedding has started, so a type "A" CubAN is being formed, in the presence of one or more eastward progressing type "B" eddies. CubAN evolution is associated with an increased mixed layer and weaker stratification of the upper ocean along the eddy's track. The cyclonic activity along the Cuban coast and wind-induced upwelling events also contribute to the evolution and fate of the CubAN eddies.

  10. Comparison of Helicobacter spp. in Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with and without Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Terio, K. A.; Munson, L.; Marker, L.; Aldridge, B. M.; Solnick, J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic gastritis causes significant morbidity and mortality in captive cheetahs but is rare in wild cheetahs despite colonization by abundant spiral bacteria. This research aimed to identify the Helicobacter species that were associated with gastritis in captive cheetahs but are apparently commensal in wild cheetahs. Helicobacter species were characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA, urease, and cagA genes and by transmission electron microscopy of frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric samples from 33 cheetahs infected with Helicobacter organisms (10 wild without gastritis and 23 captive with gastritis). Samples were screened for mixed infections by denaturant gel gradient electrophoresis of the 16S rRNA gene and by transmission electron microscopy. There was no association between Helicobacter infection and the presence or severity of gastritis. Eight cheetahs had 16S rRNA sequences that were most similar (98 to 99%) to H. pylori. Twenty-five cheetahs had sequences that were most similar (97 to 99%) to “H. heilmannii” or H. felis. No cheetahs had mixed infections. The ultrastructural morphology of all bacteria was most consistent with “H. heilmannii,” even when 16S rRNA sequences were H. pylori-like. The urease gene from H. pylori-like bacteria could not be amplified with primers for either “H. heilmannii” or H. pylori urease, suggesting that this bacteria is neither H. pylori nor “H. heilmannii.” The cagA gene was not identified in any case. These findings question a direct role for Helicobacter infection in the pathogenesis of gastritis and support the premise that host factors account for the differences in disease between captive and wild cheetah populations. PMID:15634976

  11. Seasonal recurrence of cowpox virus outbreaks in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Stagegaard, Julia; Kurth, Andreas; Stern, Daniel; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojciech; Pocknell, Ann; Nitsche, Andreas; Schrick, Livia

    2017-01-01

    Cowpox virus infections in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with high morbidity and mortality have already been reported in the UK and Russia in the 1970s. However, most of the reported cases have been singular events. Here, we report a total of five cowpox virus outbreaks in cheetahs in the same safari park in Denmark between 2010 and 2014. Nine cheetahs showed varying severity of clinical disease; two of them died (22%). All episodes occurred between August and October of the respective year. No other carnivores kept at the same institution nor the keepers taking care of the animals were clinically affected. The clinical picture of cowpox was confirmed by extensive laboratory investigations including histopathological and molecular analyses as well as cell culture isolation of a cowpox virus. High anti-orthopoxvirus antibody titers were detected in all 9 diseased cheetahs compared to seven contact cheetahs without clinical signs and 13 cheetahs not in direct contact. Additionally, whole genome sequencing from one sample of each cluster with subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses from different outbreaks have individual sequences but clearly form a clade distinct from other cowpox viruses. However, the intra-clade distances are still larger than those usually observed within clades of one event. These findings indicate multiple and separate introductions of cowpox virus, probably from wild rodent populations, where the virus keeps circulating naturally and is only sporadically introduced into the cheetahs. Sero-positivity of voles (Arvicola amphibious) caught in zoo grounds strengthens this hypothesis. As a consequence, recommendations are given for medical and physical management of diseased cheetahs, for hygienic measures as well as for pre-shipment isolation before cheetah export from zoo grounds.

  12. Seasonal recurrence of cowpox virus outbreaks in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Stagegaard, Julia; Kurth, Andreas; Stern, Daniel; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojciech; Pocknell, Ann; Schrick, Livia

    2017-01-01

    Cowpox virus infections in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with high morbidity and mortality have already been reported in the UK and Russia in the 1970s. However, most of the reported cases have been singular events. Here, we report a total of five cowpox virus outbreaks in cheetahs in the same safari park in Denmark between 2010 and 2014. Nine cheetahs showed varying severity of clinical disease; two of them died (22%). All episodes occurred between August and October of the respective year. No other carnivores kept at the same institution nor the keepers taking care of the animals were clinically affected. The clinical picture of cowpox was confirmed by extensive laboratory investigations including histopathological and molecular analyses as well as cell culture isolation of a cowpox virus. High anti-orthopoxvirus antibody titers were detected in all 9 diseased cheetahs compared to seven contact cheetahs without clinical signs and 13 cheetahs not in direct contact. Additionally, whole genome sequencing from one sample of each cluster with subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses from different outbreaks have individual sequences but clearly form a clade distinct from other cowpox viruses. However, the intra-clade distances are still larger than those usually observed within clades of one event. These findings indicate multiple and separate introductions of cowpox virus, probably from wild rodent populations, where the virus keeps circulating naturally and is only sporadically introduced into the cheetahs. Sero-positivity of voles (Arvicola amphibious) caught in zoo grounds strengthens this hypothesis. As a consequence, recommendations are given for medical and physical management of diseased cheetahs, for hygienic measures as well as for pre-shipment isolation before cheetah export from zoo grounds. PMID:29121668

  13. Characterization of the gastric immune response in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with Helicobacter-associated gastritis.

    PubMed

    Terio, K A; Munson, L; Moore, P F

    2012-09-01

    Captive cheetahs have an unusually severe progressive gastritis that is not present in wild cheetahs infected with the same strains of Helicobacter. This gastritis, when severe, has florid lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltrates in the epithelium and lamina propria with gland destruction, parietal cell loss, and, in some cases, lymphoid follicles. The local gastric immune response was characterized by immunohistochemistry in 21 cheetahs with varying degrees of gastritis. The character of the response was similar among types of gastritis except that cheetahs with severe gastritis had increased numbers (up to 70%) of lamina proprial CD79a+CD21- B cells. CD3+CD4+ T cells were present in the lamina propria, and CD3+CD8α+ T cells were within the glandular epithelium. Lymphoid aggregates had follicular differentiation with a central core of CD79a+/CD45R+ B cells and with an outer zone of CD3+ T cells that expressed both CD4 and CD8 antigens. MHC II antigens were diffusely expressed throughout the glandular and superficial epithelium. No cheetah had evidence of autoantibodies against the gastric mucosa when gastric samples from 30 cheetahs with different degrees of gastritis were incubated with autologous and heterologous serum. These findings indicate that T-cell distribution in cheetahs is qualitatively similar to that in other species infected with Helicobacter but that large numbers of lamina propria activated B cells and plasma cells did distinguish cheetahs with severe gastritis. Further research is needed to determine whether alterations in the Th1:Th2 balance are the cause of this more plasmacytic response in some cheetahs.

  14. Gammaretrovirus-specific antibodies in free-ranging and captive Namibian cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Krengel, Annika; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina L; Wachter, Bettina; Böni, Jürg; Bisset, Leslie R; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Jago, Mark; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The cheetah population in Namibia is the largest free-ranging population in the world and a key population for research regarding the health status of this species. We used serological methods and quantitative real-time PCR to test free-ranging and captive Namibian cheetahs for the presence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a gammaretrovirus that can be highly aggressive in populations with low genetic diversity, such as cheetahs. We also assessed the presence of antibodies to other gammaretroviruses and the responses to a FeLV vaccine developed for domestic cats. Up to 19% of the free-ranging cheetahs, 27% of the captive nonvaccinated cheetahs, and 86% of the captive vaccinated cheetahs tested positive for FeLV antibodies. FeLV-antibody-positive free-ranging cheetahs also tested positive for Rauscher murine leukemia virus antibodies. Nevertheless, FeLV was not detectable by quantitative real-time PCR and no reverse transcriptase activity was detectable by product-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay in the plasma of cheetahs or the supernatants from cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The presence of antibodies to gammaretroviruses in clinically healthy specimens may be caused either by infection with a low-pathogenic retrovirus or by the expression of endogenous retroviral sequences. The strong humoral immune responses to FeLV vaccination demonstrate that cheetahs can respond to the vaccine and that vaccination against FeLV infection may be beneficial should FeLV infection ever become a threat, as was seen in Iberian lynx and Florida panthers. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Comparison of Helicobacter spp. in Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with and without gastritis.

    PubMed

    Terio, K A; Munson, L; Marker, L; Aldridge, B M; Solnick, J V

    2005-01-01

    Chronic gastritis causes significant morbidity and mortality in captive cheetahs but is rare in wild cheetahs despite colonization by abundant spiral bacteria. This research aimed to identify the Helicobacter species that were associated with gastritis in captive cheetahs but are apparently commensal in wild cheetahs. Helicobacter species were characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA, urease, and cagA genes and by transmission electron microscopy of frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric samples from 33 cheetahs infected with Helicobacter organisms (10 wild without gastritis and 23 captive with gastritis). Samples were screened for mixed infections by denaturant gel gradient electrophoresis of the 16S rRNA gene and by transmission electron microscopy. There was no association between Helicobacter infection and the presence or severity of gastritis. Eight cheetahs had 16S rRNA sequences that were most similar (98 to 99%) to H. pylori. Twenty-five cheetahs had sequences that were most similar (97 to 99%) to "H. heilmannii" or H. felis. No cheetahs had mixed infections. The ultrastructural morphology of all bacteria was most consistent with "H. heilmannii," even when 16S rRNA sequences were H. pylori-like. The urease gene from H. pylori-like bacteria could not be amplified with primers for either "H. heilmannii" or H. pylori urease, suggesting that this bacteria is neither H. pylori nor "H. heilmannii." The cagA gene was not identified in any case. These findings question a direct role for Helicobacter infection in the pathogenesis of gastritis and support the premise that host factors account for the differences in disease between captive and wild cheetah populations.

  16. Body temperature, activity patterns, and hunting in free-living cheetah: biologging reveals new insights.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

    2018-05-31

    As one of the few felids that is predominantly diurnal, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus Von Schreber, 1775) can be exposed to high heat loads in their natural habitat. Little is known about long-term patterns of body temperature and activity (including hunting) in cheetahs because long-term concurrent measurements of body temperature and activity never have been reported for cheetahs, or indeed for any free-living felid. We report here body temperature and locomotor activity measured with implanted data loggers over seven months in five free-living cheetahs in Namibia. Air temperature ranged from a maximum of 39ºC in summer to -2ºC in winter. Cheetahs had higher (∼0.4 ºC) maximum 24h body temperatures, later acrophase (∼1 h), with larger fluctuations in the range of the 24h body temperature rhythm (∼0.4 ºC) during a hot-dry period than during a cool-dry period, but maintained homeothermy irrespective of the climatic conditions. As ambient temperatures increased, the cheetahs shifted from a diurnal to a crepuscular activity pattern, with reduced activity between 9:00 and 15:00 and increased nocturnal activity. The timing of hunts followed the general pattern of activity; the cheetahs hunted when they were on the move. Cheetahs hunted if an opportunity presented itself, on occasion they hunted in the midday heat or in total darkness (new moon). Biologging revealed insights into cheetah biology that are not accessible by traditional observer-based techniques. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Gammaretrovirus-Specific Antibodies in Free-Ranging and Captive Namibian Cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Krengel, Annika; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina L.; Wachter, Bettina; Böni, Jürg; Bisset, Leslie R.; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Jago, Mark; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hofer, Heribert

    2015-01-01

    The cheetah population in Namibia is the largest free-ranging population in the world and a key population for research regarding the health status of this species. We used serological methods and quantitative real-time PCR to test free-ranging and captive Namibian cheetahs for the presence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a gammaretrovirus that can be highly aggressive in populations with low genetic diversity, such as cheetahs. We also assessed the presence of antibodies to other gammaretroviruses and the responses to a FeLV vaccine developed for domestic cats. Up to 19% of the free-ranging cheetahs, 27% of the captive nonvaccinated cheetahs, and 86% of the captive vaccinated cheetahs tested positive for FeLV antibodies. FeLV-antibody-positive free-ranging cheetahs also tested positive for Rauscher murine leukemia virus antibodies. Nevertheless, FeLV was not detectable by quantitative real-time PCR and no reverse transcriptase activity was detectable by product-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay in the plasma of cheetahs or the supernatants from cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The presence of antibodies to gammaretroviruses in clinically healthy specimens may be caused either by infection with a low-pathogenic retrovirus or by the expression of endogenous retroviral sequences. The strong humoral immune responses to FeLV vaccination demonstrate that cheetahs can respond to the vaccine and that vaccination against FeLV infection may be beneficial should FeLV infection ever become a threat, as was seen in Iberian lynx and Florida panthers. PMID:25809630

  18. Lion (Panthera leo) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) IFN-gamma sequences.

    PubMed

    Maas, Miriam; Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Allsopp, Maria T E P; Rutten, Victor P M G

    2010-04-15

    Cloning and sequencing of the full length lion and cheetah interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) transcript will enable the expression of the recombinant cytokine, to be used for production of monoclonal antibodies and to set up lion and cheetah-specific IFN-gamma ELISAs. These are relevant in blood-based diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis, an important threat to lions in the Kruger National Park. Alignment of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of lion and cheetah and that of domestic cats showed homologies of 97-100%. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modes of thermal protection in polar bear cubs--at birth and on emergence from the den.

    PubMed

    Blix, A S; Lentfer, J W

    1979-01-01

    At birth in late December the polar bear is small (700 g), uninsulated, and helpless. It probably has a modest capacity for metabolic heat production and depends on the female and a snow den in which it is born for thermal protection. The microclimate of an artificial polar bear den was investigated at Point Barrow, AK, and the temperature therein found to stay around 0 degrees C provided a heat source (200 W) equivalent to an adult polar bear was introduced. When the bears desert the den in early April the cub has grown to about 10 kg and has a well-developed fur insulation, but almost no subcutaneous fat. The cub has a high resting metabolic rate (4.6 W.kg-1), which is supported by the fat polar bear milk. Its lower critical temperature is about -30 degrees C, and an ambient temperature of -45 degrees C results in only a 33% increase in metabolism. The cub can tolerate a wind chill of 2.3 kW.m2 without apparent stress of drop in rectal temperature. If the cub is immersed in ice water rectal temperature drops 11 degrees C in 30 min. It is concluded that the cub can tolerate extremely low temperatures in air due to fur insulation and high metabolic heat production, but is unable to cope with the chill of ice water for any prolonged period of time.

  20. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  1. The CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir; Shih, Albert Y.; Warren, Harry; DeForest, Craig; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Schwartz, Richard A.; Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Palo, Scott; Steslicki, Marek; Sylwester, Janusz; Gburek, Szymon; Mrozek, Tomasz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Torre, Gabriele; Crowley, Geoffrey; Schattenburg, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Solar soft X-ray (SXR) observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating, during solar flares and quiescent times. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding the dynamics, origins, and evolution of these energetic processes, providing probes both into the temperature distributions and elemental compositions of hot plasmas; spatially-resolved measurements are critical for understanding energy transport and mass flow. A better understanding of the thermal plasma improves our understanding of the relationships between particle acceleration, plasma heating, and the underlying release of magnetic energy during reconnection. We introduce a new proposed small satellite mission, the CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS), to measure spectrally- and spatially-resolved SXRs from the quiescent and flaring Sun from a 6U CubeSat platform in low-Earth orbit during a nominal 1-year mission. CubIXSS includes the Amptek X123-FastSDD silicon drift detector, a low-noise, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) instrument enabling solar SXR spectroscopy from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution with low power, mass, and volume requirements. Multiple detectors and tailored apertures provide sensitivity to a wide range of solar conditions, optimized for a launch during solar minimum. The precise spectra from these instruments will provide detailed measurements of the coronal temperature distribution and elemental abundances from the quiet Sun to active regions and flares. CubIXSS also includes a novel spectro-spatial imager -- the first ever solar imager on a CubeSat -- utilizing a custom pinhole camera and Chandra-heritage X-ray transmission diffraction grating to provide spatially- resolved, full-Sun imaging spectroscopy from ~0.1 to ~10 keV, with ~25 arcsec and ~0.1 Å FWHM spatial and spectral resolutions, respectively. MOXSI’s unique capabilities enable SXR spectroscopy and temperature diagnostics of individual

  2. Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Schulman, M L; Kirberger, R M; Tordiffe, A S W; Marker, L L; Schmidt-Küntzel, A; Hartman, M J

    2015-12-01

    The study uniquely described the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography for monitoring features characterizing the estrous cycle in female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The reproductive tracts of 21 female, nulliparous, and relatively aged (median: 11 and interquartile range: 9.25-14 years) captive cheetahs resident on two sites in Namibia were assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Subsequently, the ovarian findings on ultrasound were compared with direct visualization while performing laparoscopic sterilization. A combination of these observations supported by concurrent sampling for vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations defined the estrous status of individual animals. At one site, six cheetahs had been implanted with the GnRH agonist, deslorelin as a contraceptive at least once within the preceding 11 years. On ultrasound, 31 uterine horns and 35 ovaries with discernible structures on 28 (86%) were visualized in the 21 cheetahs. The uterine body was difficult to visualize because of its intrapelvic location. Eleven of 19 uteri (58%) visualized showed endometrial edema suggestive of estrogenization. The uteri of four cheetahs (19%) showed evidence of mild cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Paraovarian cysts were seen on ultrasound (n = 21) and laparoscopy (n = 26) in 16 (76.2%) and 18 (85.7%) cheetahs, respectively. Ovarian volumes obtained from ultrasonographically determined dimensions predicted cyclic activity. Laparoscopy showed that 19 ovaries had discernible follicular structures. In the study population, 10 (47.6%) cheetahs were in proestrus or estrus; none in the luteal phase; and 11 (52.4%) in anestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound, in combination with serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology, was used with acceptable accuracy to assess cyclic ovarian activity in captive cheetahs. A considerable proportion of this aged population showed ovarian activity and the prevalence of paraovarian cysts was notable. A

  3. The Conflict between Cheetahs and Humans on Namibian Farmland Elucidated by Stable Isotope Diet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Christian C.; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Blanc, Anne-Sophie; Jago, Mark; Wachter, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Large areas of Namibia are covered by farmland, which is also used by game and predator species. Because it can cause conflicts with farmers when predators, such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), hunt livestock, we assessed whether livestock constitutes a significant part of the cheetah diet by analysing the stable isotope composition of blood and tissue samples of cheetahs and their potential prey species. According to isotopic similarities, we defined three isotopic categories of potential prey: members of a C4 food web with high δ15N values (gemsbok, cattle, springhare and guinea fowl) and those with low δ15N values (hartebeest, warthog), and members of a C3 food web, namely browsers (eland, kudu, springbok, steenbok and scrub hare). We quantified the trophic discrimination of heavy isotopes in cheetah muscle in 9 captive individuals and measured an enrichment for 15N (3.2‰) but not for 13C in relation to food. We captured 53 free-ranging cheetahs of which 23 were members of groups. Cheetahs of the same group were isotopically distinct from members of other groups, indicating that group members shared their prey. Solitary males (n = 21) and males in a bachelor groups (n = 11) fed mostly on hartebeest and warthogs, followed by browsers in case of solitary males, and by grazers with high δ15N values in case of bachelor groups. Female cheetahs (n = 9) predominantly fed on browsers and used also hartebeest and warthogs. Mixing models suggested that the isotopic prey category that included cattle was only important, if at all, for males living in bachelor groups. Stable isotope analysis of fur, muscle, red blood cells and blood plasma in 9 free-ranging cheetahs identified most individuals as isotopic specialists, focussing on isotopically distinct prey categories as their food. PMID:25162403

  4. The conflict between cheetahs and humans on Namibian farmland elucidated by stable isotope diet analysis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Blanc, Anne-Sophie; Jago, Mark; Wachter, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Large areas of Namibia are covered by farmland, which is also used by game and predator species. Because it can cause conflicts with farmers when predators, such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), hunt livestock, we assessed whether livestock constitutes a significant part of the cheetah diet by analysing the stable isotope composition of blood and tissue samples of cheetahs and their potential prey species. According to isotopic similarities, we defined three isotopic categories of potential prey: members of a C4 food web with high δ15N values (gemsbok, cattle, springhare and guinea fowl) and those with low δ15N values (hartebeest, warthog), and members of a C3 food web, namely browsers (eland, kudu, springbok, steenbok and scrub hare). We quantified the trophic discrimination of heavy isotopes in cheetah muscle in 9 captive individuals and measured an enrichment for 15N (3.2‰) but not for 13C in relation to food. We captured 53 free-ranging cheetahs of which 23 were members of groups. Cheetahs of the same group were isotopically distinct from members of other groups, indicating that group members shared their prey. Solitary males (n = 21) and males in a bachelor groups (n = 11) fed mostly on hartebeest and warthogs, followed by browsers in case of solitary males, and by grazers with high δ15N values in case of bachelor groups. Female cheetahs (n = 9) predominantly fed on browsers and used also hartebeest and warthogs. Mixing models suggested that the isotopic prey category that included cattle was only important, if at all, for males living in bachelor groups. Stable isotope analysis of fur, muscle, red blood cells and blood plasma in 9 free-ranging cheetahs identified most individuals as isotopic specialists, focussing on isotopically distinct prey categories as their food.

  5. Dietary estrogens--a probable cause of infertility and liver disease in captive cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Setchell, K D; Gosselin, S J; Welsh, M B; Johnston, J O; Balistreri, W F; Kramer, L W; Dresser, B L; Tarr, M J

    1987-08-01

    The cheetah in the wild is "racing towards extinction" mostly due to habitat destruction. Its survival will probably depend on accelerated captive breeding. At this time, however, reproductive failure and liver disease threaten the future of the captive cheetah population. Histopathological evaluation of more than 100 cheetah livers identified venocclusive disease as the main hepatic lesion responsible for liver disease in this species. Analysis of the commercial feline diet by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed large amounts of two phytoestrogens identified as daidzein and genistein. These compounds were found to be derived from a soybean product that was a component of the cheetah diet, and their concentrations both ranged from 18 to 35 micrograms/g diet. The adult cheetah consequently consumes approximately 50 mg/day of these weak estrogens. When extracts of the diet were tested for estrogenicity using a bioassay, a dose-related increase in uterine weight was observed. In 4 cheetahs studied, withdrawal of this feline diet by substitution with a chicken diet resulted in an improvement in conventional liver function tests and a normalization in the appearance of hepatic mitochondria. We conclude that the relatively high concentrations of phytoestrogens from soybean protein present in the commercial diet fed to captive cheetahs in North American zoos may be one of the major factors in the decline of fertility and in the etiology of liver disease in this species. The survival of the captive cheetah population could depend upon a simple change of diet by excluding exogenous estrogen.

  6. Anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-medetomidine in cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Deem, S L; Ko, J C; Citino, S B

    1998-10-01

    To evaluate anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of an intramuscular injection of a tiletamine-zolazepam-medetomidine combination in cheetahs. Prospective study. 17 adult captive cheetahs. The anesthetic combination was administered intramuscularly via a dart. Induction quality, duration of lateral recumbency, duration of recovery, and quality of anesthetic reversal with atipamezole were assessed. Cardiorespiratory variables (arterial blood gas partial pressures, arterial blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, end-tidal CO2, oxygen saturation, and rectal temperature) were measured during anesthesia. Sedation and lateral recumbency developed within 1.9 +/- 1.0 (mean +/- SD) and 4.3 +/- 2.0 minutes of drug administration, respectively. Clinically acceptable cardiorespiratory and blood gas values were recorded for at least 87 minutes after drug administration in all but 1 cheetah. Hypoxemia and arrhythmias developed in 1 cheetah breathing room air but resolved after treatment with oxygen. Hypertension developed in all cheetahs. Significant differences in heart and respiratory rates, mean arterial blood pressure, arterial pH, partial pressure of oxygen, and hemoglobin saturation were found between cheetahs that did and did not receive oxygen supplementation. After administration of atipamezole, sternal recumbency and mobility returned within 6.9 +/- 5.8 and 47.5 +/- 102.2 minutes, respectively. Postreversal sedation, which lasted approximately 4 hours, developed in 4 cheetahs. Tiletamine-zolazepam-medetomidine delivered via a dart provided an alternative method for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in cheetahs. Atipamezole at the dose used was effective for reversal of this combination in the initial phase of anesthesia.

  7. Molecular genetic insights on cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) ecology and conservation in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Marker, Laurie L; Pearks Wilkerson, Alison J; Sarno, Ronald J; Martenson, Janice; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christian; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2008-01-01

    The extent and geographic patterns of molecular genetic diversity of the largest remaining free-ranging cheetah population were described in a survey of 313 individuals from throughout Namibia. Levels of relatedness, including paternity/maternity (parentage), were assessed across all individuals using 19 polymorphic microsatellite loci, and unrelated cheetahs (n = 89) from 7 regions were genotyped at 38 loci to document broad geographical patterns. There was limited differentiation among regions, evidence that this is a generally panmictic population. Measures of genetic variation were similar among all regions and were comparable with Eastern African cheetah populations. Parentage analyses confirmed several observations based on field studies, including 21 of 23 previously hypothesized family groups, 40 probable parent/offspring pairs, and 8 sibling groups. These results also verified the successful integration and reproduction of several cheetahs following natural dispersal or translocation. Animals within social groups (family groups, male coalitions, or sibling groups) were generally related. Within the main study area, radio-collared female cheetahs were more closely interrelated than similarly compared males, a pattern consistent with greater male dispersal. The long-term maintenance of current patterns of genetic variation in Namibia depends on retaining habitat characteristics that promote natural dispersal and gene flow of cheetahs.

  8. Group management influences reproductive function of the male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koester, Diana C; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Wildt, David E; Terrell, Kimberly A; Franklin, Ashley D; Meeks, Karen; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-03-01

    Although the free-ranging cheetah is generally socially solitary, as many as 60% of males live in same-sex (usually sibling) coalitions. Under ex situ conditions, the cheetah experiences low reproductive success with only ~18% of males having ever produced young. Most male cheetahs (85%) are managed in captivity in coalitions, but with no data on the influence of social grouping on reproductive parameters. We examined the influence of singleton versus coalition management on various male cheetah physiological traits, including ejaculate quality and gonadal and adrenal hormone metabolite concentrations. We also assessed behaviour within coalitions for evidence of social hierarchy through initiation of interactions with group mates and relatedness to physiological traits. Ejaculate quality (including total motile and structurally normal spermatozoa per ejaculate) and androgen concentration profiles were higher (P<0.05) in coalition compared with singleton males. These results support the conclusion that testis function in the cheetah, specifically related to the development of normal, motile spermatozoa and androgen production, is influenced by management with same-sex conspecifics. The findings have implications for ex situ conservation breeding programs by suggesting that reproductive quality can be enhanced through group maintenance of cheetah males.

  9. Captive-housed male cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) form naturalistic coalitions: measuring associations and calculating chance encounters.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Carly L; Rees, Paul A; Stevens-Wood, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Cheetahs are known to reproduce poorly in captivity and research suggests that the reasons for this are behavioral, rather than physiological. In the wild, male cheetahs remain in stable groups, or coalitions, throughout their lifetime. Appropriate social group housing is important in enhancing welfare and reproductive success in captivity and this study examined the effect of changes in social group composition on the behavior of four male cheetahs: two siblings and two half siblings. During the study, the cheetahs were housed both in pairs and as a group of four, before one male was relocated. The remaining cheetahs were then housed in a trio. Affiliative behaviors were frequently shown within pairs and overt aggression was seldom observed. Association indices were calculated for each cheetah pair and corrected for chance encounters based on data generated from a Monte Carlo simulation. The indices showed that two coalitions existed before the relocated male departed. Following the relocation of one of the half siblings, the remaining cheetahs appeared to form a coalition of three, as the indices of association between the unrelated male and the siblings increased and allogrooming between unrelated individuals was observed. The findings of this study indicate that natural social groupings of male cheetahs can be successfully replicated in captivity, which could potentially improve the chances of reproductive success when they are introduced to female cheetahs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Extrinsic factors significantly affect patterns of disease in free-ranging and captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) populations.

    PubMed

    Munson, Linda; Terio, Karen A; Worley, Michael; Jago, Mark; Bagot-Smith, Arthur; Marker, Laurie

    2005-07-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been considered a paradigm for disease vulnerability due to loss of genetic diversity. This species monomorphism has been suspected to be the basis for their general poor health and dwindling populations in captivity. North American and South African captive populations have high prevalences of hepatic veno-occlusive disease, glomerulosclerosis, gastritis, and systemic amyloidosis, diseases that are rare in other species. Unusually severe inflammatory reactions to common infectious agents have also been documented in captive cheetahs. The current study compared disease prevalences in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs with those in two captive populations of similar ages. The occurrence of diseases in the free-ranging population was determined from 49 necropsies and 27 gastric biopsies obtained between 1986 and 2003 and compared with prevalences in 147 North American and 80 South African captive cheetahs. Except for two cheetahs, the free-ranging population was in robust health with only mild lesions present, in contrast with significantly higher prevalences in the captive populations. Despite widespread heavy Helicobacter colonization in wild cheetahs, only 3% of the free-ranging population had moderate to severe gastritis, in contrast with 64% of captive cheetahs. No severe inflammatory reactions to viral infections were detected in the free-ranging animals. Because free-ranging Namibian cheetahs are as genetically impoverished as captive cheetahs, these findings caution against attributing loss of fitness solely to genetic factors and attest to the fundamental importance of extrinsic factors in wildlife health.

  11. Evaluation of rules to distinguish unique female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Cherry, S.; Keating, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service uses counts of unduplicated female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) with cubs-of-the-year to establish limits of sustainable mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Sightings are dustered into observations of unique bears based on an empirically derived rule set. The method has never been tested or verified. To evaluate the rule set, we used data from radiocollared females obtained during 1975-2004 to simulate populations under varying densities, distributions, and sighting frequencies. We tested individual rules and rule-set performance, using custom software to apply the rule-set and duster sightings. Results indicated most rules were violated to some degree, and rule-based dustering consistently underestimated the minimum number of females and total population size derived from a nonparametric estimator (Chao2). We conclude that the current rule set returns conservative estimates, but with minor improvements, counts of unduplicated females-with-cubs can serve as a reasonable index of population size useful for establishing annual mortality limits. For the Yellowstone population, the index is more practical and cost-effective than capture-mark-recapture using either DNA hair snagging or aerial surveys with radiomarked bears. The method has useful application in other ecosystems, but we recommend rules used to distinguish unique females be adapted to local conditions and tested.

  12. LAFD: TA-55 RLUOB/CUB Facility Familiarization Tour, OJT #55265

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, Victor Stephen

    2017-09-14

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducts familiarization tours for personnel of the Los Alamos County Fire Department (LAFD) at the RLUOB/CUB, technical area (TA)-55, 400/440, facility, Radiological Laboratory Utility Office Building (RLUOB)/Central Utility Building (CUB). These familiarization tours are official LANL business; the purpose of these tours is to orient LAFD firefighters to the facility so that they can respond efficiently and quickly to a variety of emergency situations. This orientation includes, among other topics, the ingress and egress of the area and buildings, layout and organization of the facility, evacuation procedures and assembly points, and areas of concern withinmore » the various buildings at the facility. LAFD firefighters have the skills and abilities to perform firefighting operations and other emergency response tasks that cannot be provided by other LANL personnel who have the required clearance level. This handout provides details of the information, along with maps and diagrams, to be presented during the familiarization tours. The handout is distributed to the trainees at the time of the tour; a corresponding checklist is also used as guidance during the familiarization tours to ensure that all required information is presented to LAFD personnel.« less

  13. Wildlife forensic entomology: determining time of death in two illegally killed black bear cubs.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G S

    1999-07-01

    Forensic entomology is now commonly used to determine time of death in human death investigations. However, it can be equally applicable to wildlife crimes. This paper describes the use of entomology to determine time of death in the illegal killing of two young bear cubs in Manitoba, Canada. Two cubs were found shot, disemboweled, with their gall bladders removed. Natural Resource officers (Conservation Officers) and a Royal Canadian Mounted Police (R.C.M.P.) officer examined the remains, and the R.C.M.P. officer collected insect evidence. The only insects on the remains were adult blow flies coming to lay eggs and the blow fly eggs themselves (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The time of hatch was recorded and the insects were reared to adulthood. Time of hatch, together with species identification, macro and micro climate and lab developmental data were used to determine the time of death. The time was consistent with the time that the defendants were seen at the scene and was used in their conviction. This case illustrates that insect evidence can be equally as valuable in poaching cases as in homicide cases. However, in most cases Conservation Officers are unaware of this science. It is therefore, extremely important for more Conservation Officers to be educated about this field.

  14. Detonation product EOS studies: Using ISLS to refine CHEETAH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaug, Joseph; Fried, Larry; Hansen, Donald

    2001-06-01

    Knowledge of an effective interatomic potential function underlies any effort to predict or rationalize the properties of solids and liquids. The experiments we undertake are directed towards determination of equilibrium and dynamic properties of simple fluids at densities sufficiently high that traditional computational methods and semi-empirical forms successful at ambient conditions may require reconsideration. In this paper we present high-pressure and temperature experimental sound speed data on a suite of non-ideal simple fluids and fluid mixtures. Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering conducted in the diamond-anvil cell offers an experimental approach to determine cross-pair potential interactions through equation of state determinations. In addition the kinetics of structural relaxation in fluids can be studied. We compare our experimental results with our thermochemical computational model CHEETAH. Computational models are systematically improved with each addition of experimental data. Experimentally grounded computational models provide a good basis to confidently understand the chemical nature of reactions at extreme conditions.

  15. Detonation Product EOS Studies: Using ISLS to Refine Cheetah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaug, J. M.; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.; Hansen, D. W.

    2002-07-01

    Knowledge of an effective interatomic potential function underlies any effort to predict or rationalize the properties of solids and liquids. The experiments we undertake are directed towards determination of equilibrium and dynamic properties of simple fluids at densities sufficiently high that traditional computational methods and semi-empirical forms successful at ambient conditions may require reconsideration. In this paper we present high-pressure and temperature experimental sound speed data on a simple fluid, methanol. Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering (ISLS) conducted on diamond-anvil cell (DAC) encapsulated samples offers an experimental approach to determine cross-pair potential interactions through equation of state determinations. In addition the kinetics of structural relaxation in fluids can be studied. We compare our experimental results with our thermochemical computational model Cheetah. Experimentally grounded computational models provide a good basis to confidently understand the chemical nature of reactions at extreme conditions.

  16. Detonation Product EOS Studies: Using ISLS to Refine Cheetah

    SciTech Connect

    Zaug, J M; Howard, W M; Fried, L E

    2001-08-08

    Knowledge of an effective interatomic potential function underlies any effort to predict or rationalize the properties of solids and liquids. The experiments we undertake are directed towards determination of equilibrium and dynamic properties of simple fluids at densities sufficiently high that traditional computational methods and semi-empirical forms successful at ambient conditions may require reconsideration. In this paper we present high-pressure and temperature experimental sound speed data on a simple fluid, methanol. Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering (ISLS) conducted on diamond-anvil cell (DAC) encapsulated samples offers an experimental approach to determine cross-pair potential interactions through equation of state determinations. In addition themore » kinetics of structural relaxation in fluids can be studied. We compare our experimental results with our thermochemical computational model Cheetah. Computational models are systematically improved with each addition of experimental data.« less

  17. BACTERIAL PROFILE OF NECROTIC PULPS IN CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) CANINE TEETH.

    PubMed

    Almansa Ruiz, José C; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Steenkamp, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    The role of microbes and their antimicrobial susceptibilities in both acute and chronic infections of the dental pulp in humans has been well studied. Presently, no data are available on endodontic pathogens in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the bacteria found in the canine teeth of cheetahs, where the pulp was necrotic and exposed due to a complicated crown fracture. Thirty-six microbiologic samples were taken from root canals (RCs) of the canine teeth of 19 cheetahs: one pulp sample was taken from 10 cheetahs, four samples from 2 cheetahs, two samples from 3 cheetahs, and three samples from 4 cheetahs. Exposed pulps were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria; an additional screening with a 16S rRNA-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the last six samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined by use of the Kirby-Bauer diffusion test. In total, 59 cultivable isolates belonging to 19 microbial species and 13 genera were recovered from the 36 RCs sampled. Only two samples yielded no cultivable bacteria. Thirty-two (54.49%) of the cultivable isolates were Gram positive and 27 (45.71%) were Gram negative. The maximum number of isolates cultivated from an individual RC was six. Facultative anaerobes (62.72%) were the most common bacteria of the RCs that yielded cultivable bacteria. Of the isolates, 28.81% were aerobic and 8.47% were strict anaerobes. The antimicrobials that showed the greatest efficacy in vitro against the different bacteria isolates were amikacin and gentamicin. The more common bacterial species isolated by PCR were anaerobes (60.8%), facultative anaerobes (30.2%), and aerobes (8.6%).

  18. Ejaculate traits in the Namibian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): influence of age, season and captivity.

    PubMed

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Marker, Laurie; Howard, JoGayle; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Henghali, Josephine N; Wildt, David E

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to examine the influence of animal age, season and captivity status on seminal quality in wild-born cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia, Africa. Animals were divided into three age categories: juvenile (14-24 months; n = 16 males, 23 ejaculates); adult (25-120 months; n = 76 males, 172 ejaculates); and aged (>120 months; n = 5 males, 5 ejaculates). Seasons were categorised into hot-wet (January-April), cold-dry (May-August) and hot-dry (September-December). A comparison between freshly wild-caught (n = 29 males, 41 ejaculates) and captive-held cheetahs (n = 68 males, 159 ejaculates) was also conducted. Raw ejaculates contained 69.0 +/- 1.1% motile spermatozoa (mean +/- s.e.m.) with 73.6 +/- 1.5% of these cells containing an intact acrosome. Overall, 18.4 +/- 0.9% of spermatozoa were morphologically normal, with midpiece anomalies being the most prevalent (approximately 39%) defect. Juvenile cheetahs produced ejaculates with poorer sperm motility, forward progressive status, lower seminal volume and fewer total motile spermatozoa than adult and aged animals. Spermatogenesis continued unabated throughout the year and was minimally influenced by season. Proportions of sperm malformations were also not affected by season. Ejaculates from captive cheetahs had increased volume and intact acrosomes, but lower sperm density than wild-caught counterparts. In summary, Namibian cheetahs produce an extraordinarily high proportion of pleiomorphic spermatozoa regardless of age, season or living (captive versus free-ranging) status. Young males less than 2 years of age produce poorer ejaculate quality than adult and aged males. Because (1) all study animals were wild born and (2) there was little difference between freshly caught males and those maintained in captivity for protracted periods, our results affirm that teratospermia in the cheetah is mostly genetically derived. It also appears that an ex situ environment for the Namibian cheetah can ensure sperm

  19. Monitoring Rarity: The Critically Endangered Saharan Cheetah as a Flagship Species for a Threatened Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Belbachir, Farid; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Wacher, Tim; Belbachir-Bazi, Amel; Durant, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Deserts are particularly vulnerable to human impacts and have already suffered a substantial loss of biodiversity. In harsh and variable desert environments, large herbivores typically occur at low densities, and their large carnivore predators occur at even lower densities. The continued survival of large carnivores is key to healthy functioning desert ecosystems, and the ability to gather reliable information on these rare low density species, including presence, abundance and density, is critical to their monitoring and management. Here we test camera trap methodologies as a monitoring tool for an extremely rare wide-ranging large felid, the critically endangered Saharan cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus hecki). Two camera trapping surveys were carried out over 2–3 months across a 2,551km2 grid in the Ti-n-hağğen region in the Ahaggar Cultural Park, south central Algeria. A total of 32 records of Saharan cheetah were obtained. We show the behaviour and ecology of the Saharan cheetah is severely constrained by the harsh desert environment, leading them to be more nocturnal, be more wide-ranging, and occur at lower densities relative to cheetah in savannah environments. Density estimates ranged from 0.21–0.55/1,000km2, some of the lowest large carnivore densities ever recorded in Africa, and average home range size over 2–3 months was estimated at 1,583km2. We use our results to predict that, in order to detect presence of cheetah with p>0.95 a survey effort of at least 1,000 camera trap days is required. Our study identifies the Ahaggar Cultural Park as a key area for the conservation of the Saharan cheetah. The Saharan cheetah meets the requirements for a charismatic flagship species that can be used to “market” the Saharan landscape at a sufficiently large scale to help reverse the historical neglect of threatened Saharan ecosystems. PMID:25629400

  20. Monitoring rarity: the critically endangered Saharan cheetah as a flagship species for a threatened ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Belbachir, Farid; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Wacher, Tim; Belbachir-Bazi, Amel; Durant, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    Deserts are particularly vulnerable to human impacts and have already suffered a substantial loss of biodiversity. In harsh and variable desert environments, large herbivores typically occur at low densities, and their large carnivore predators occur at even lower densities. The continued survival of large carnivores is key to healthy functioning desert ecosystems, and the ability to gather reliable information on these rare low density species, including presence, abundance and density, is critical to their monitoring and management. Here we test camera trap methodologies as a monitoring tool for an extremely rare wide-ranging large felid, the critically endangered Saharan cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus hecki). Two camera trapping surveys were carried out over 2-3 months across a 2,551 km2 grid in the Ti-n-hağğen region in the Ahaggar Cultural Park, south central Algeria. A total of 32 records of Saharan cheetah were obtained. We show the behaviour and ecology of the Saharan cheetah is severely constrained by the harsh desert environment, leading them to be more nocturnal, be more wide-ranging, and occur at lower densities relative to cheetah in savannah environments. Density estimates ranged from 0.21-0.55/1,000 km2, some of the lowest large carnivore densities ever recorded in Africa, and average home range size over 2-3 months was estimated at 1,583 km2. We use our results to predict that, in order to detect presence of cheetah with p>0.95 a survey effort of at least 1,000 camera trap days is required. Our study identifies the Ahaggar Cultural Park as a key area for the conservation of the Saharan cheetah. The Saharan cheetah meets the requirements for a charismatic flagship species that can be used to "market" the Saharan landscape at a sufficiently large scale to help reverse the historical neglect of threatened Saharan ecosystems.

  1. Cheetahs and wild dogs show contrasting patterns of suppression by lions.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Alexandra; Caro, Tim; Davies-Mostert, Harriet; Mills, Michael G L; Macdonald, David W; Borner, Markus; Masenga, Emmanuel; Packer, Craig

    2014-11-01

    Top predators can dramatically suppress populations of smaller predators, with cascading effects throughout communities, and this pressure is often unquestioningly accepted as a constraint on mesopredator populations. In this study, we reassess whether African lions suppress populations of cheetahs and African wild dogs and examine possible mechanisms for coexistence between these species. Using long-term records from Serengeti National Park, we tested 30 years of population data for evidence of mesopredator suppression, and we examined six years of concurrent radio-telemetry data for evidence of large-scale spatial displacement. The Serengeti lion population nearly tripled between 1966 and 1998; during this time, wild dogs declined but cheetah numbers remained largely unchanged. Prior to their local extinction, wild dogs primarily occupied low lion density areas and apparently abandoned the long-term study area as the lion population 'saturated' the region. In contrast, cheetahs mostly utilized areas of high lion density, and the stability of the cheetah population indicates that neither high levels of lion-inflicted mortality nor behavioural avoidance inflict sufficient demographic consequences to translate into population-level effects. Population data from fenced reserves in southern Africa revealed a similar contrast between wild dogs and cheetahs in their ability to coexist with lions. These findings demonstrate differential responses of subordinate species within the same guild and challenge a widespread perception that lions undermine cheetah conservation efforts. Paired with several recent studies that document fine-scale lion-avoidance by cheetahs, this study further highlights fine-scale spatial avoidance as a possible mechanism for mitigating mesopredator suppression. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  2. The Little Cub: Discovery of an Extremely Metal-poor Star-forming Galaxy in the Local Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hsyu, Tiffany; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Bolte, Michael

    We report the discovery of the Little Cub, an extremely metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the local universe, found in the constellation Ursa Major (a.k.a. the Great Bear). We first identified the Little Cub as a candidate metal-poor galaxy based on its Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric colors, combined with spectroscopy using the Kast spectrograph on the Shane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory. In this Letter, we present high-quality spectroscopic data taken with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at Keck Observatory, which confirm the extremely metal-poor nature of this galaxy. Based on the weak [O iii] λ 4363 Å emissionmore » line, we estimate a direct oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.13 ± 0.08, making the Little Cub one of the lowest-metallicity star-forming galaxies currently known in the local universe. The Little Cub appears to be a companion of the spiral galaxy NGC 3359 and shows evidence of gas stripping. We may therefore be witnessing the quenching of a near-pristine galaxy as it makes its first passage about a Milky Way–like galaxy.« less

  3. The Little Cub: Discovery of an Extremely Metal-poor Star-forming Galaxy in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsyu, Tiffany; Cooke, Ryan J.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Bolte, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We report the discovery of the Little Cub, an extremely metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the local universe, found in the constellation Ursa Major (a.k.a. the Great Bear). We first identified the Little Cub as a candidate metal-poor galaxy based on its Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric colors, combined with spectroscopy using the Kast spectrograph on the Shane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory. In this Letter, we present high-quality spectroscopic data taken with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at Keck Observatory, which confirm the extremely metal-poor nature of this galaxy. Based on the weak [O III] λ4363 Å emission line, we estimate a direct oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.13 ± 0.08, making the Little Cub one of the lowest-metallicity star-forming galaxies currently known in the local universe. The Little Cub appears to be a companion of the spiral galaxy NGC 3359 and shows evidence of gas stripping. We may therefore be witnessing the quenching of a near-pristine galaxy as it makes its first passage about a Milky Way-like galaxy.

  4. Isolation of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella koehlerae subsp. koehlerae, Bartonella koehlerae subsp. bothieri and a new subspecies of B. koehlerae from free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) from South Africa, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) from Namibia and captive cheetahs from California.

    PubMed

    Molia, S; Kasten, R W; Stuckey, M J; Boulouis, H J; Allen, J; Borgo, G M; Koehler, J E; Chang, C C; Chomel, B B

    2016-11-01

    Bartonellae are blood- and vector-borne Gram-negative bacteria, recognized as emerging pathogens. Whole-blood samples were collected from 58 free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in South Africa and 17 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) from Namibia. Blood samples were also collected from 11 cheetahs (more than once for some of them) at the San Diego Wildlife Safari Park. Bacteria were isolated from the blood of three (5%) lions, one (6%) Namibian cheetah and eight (73%) cheetahs from California. The lion Bartonella isolates were identified as B. henselae (two isolates) and B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The Namibian cheetah strain was close but distinct from isolates from North American wild felids and clustered between B. henselae and B. koehlerae. It should be considered as a new subspecies of B. koehlerae. All the Californian semi-captive cheetah isolates were different from B. henselae or B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae and from the Namibian cheetah isolate. They were also distinct from the strains isolated from Californian mountain lions (Felis concolor) and clustered with strains of B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri isolated from free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) in California. Therefore, it is likely that these captive cheetahs became infected by an indigenous strain for which bobcats are the natural reservoir.

  5. The distribution and numbers of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Andrew P.; Schoonover, Rebecca F.; Groom, Rosemary J.; Horgan, Jane; Keeping, Derek; Klein, Rebecca; Marnewick, Kelly; Maude, Glyn; Melzheimer, Jörg; Mills, Gus; van der Merwe, Vincent; van der Meer, Esther; van Vuuren, Rudie J.; Wachter, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the numbers and distribution of threatened species is a central challenge in conservation, often made difficult because the species of concern are rare and elusive. For some predators, this may be compounded by their being sparsely distributed over large areas. Such is the case with the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus. The IUCN Red List process solicits comments, is democratic, transparent, widely-used, and has recently assessed the species. Here, we present additional methods to that process and provide quantitative approaches that may afford greater detail and a benchmark against which to compare future assessments. The cheetah poses challenges, but also affords unique opportunities. It is photogenic, allowing the compilation of thousands of crowd-sourced data. It is also persecuted for killing livestock, enabling estimation of local population densities from the numbers persecuted. Documented instances of persecution in areas with known human and livestock density mean that these data can provide an estimate of where the species may or may not occur in areas without observational data. Compilations of extensive telemetry data coupled with nearly 20,000 additional observations from 39 sources show that free-ranging cheetahs were present across approximately 789,700 km2 of Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe (56%, 22%, 12% and 10% respectively) from 2010 to 2016, with an estimated adult population of 3,577 animals. We identified a further 742,800 km2 of potential cheetah habitat within the study region with low human and livestock densities, where another ∼3,250 cheetahs may occur. Unlike many previous estimates, we make the data available and provide explicit information on exactly where cheetahs occur, or are unlikely to occur. We stress the value of gathering data from public sources though these data were mostly from well-visited protected areas. There is a contiguous, transboundary population of cheetah in southern Africa, known to be the

  6. The distribution and numbers of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Weise, Florian J; Vijay, Varsha; Jacobson, Andrew P; Schoonover, Rebecca F; Groom, Rosemary J; Horgan, Jane; Keeping, Derek; Klein, Rebecca; Marnewick, Kelly; Maude, Glyn; Melzheimer, Jörg; Mills, Gus; van der Merwe, Vincent; van der Meer, Esther; van Vuuren, Rudie J; Wachter, Bettina; Pimm, Stuart L

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the numbers and distribution of threatened species is a central challenge in conservation, often made difficult because the species of concern are rare and elusive. For some predators, this may be compounded by their being sparsely distributed over large areas. Such is the case with the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus. The IUCN Red List process solicits comments, is democratic, transparent, widely-used, and has recently assessed the species. Here, we present additional methods to that process and provide quantitative approaches that may afford greater detail and a benchmark against which to compare future assessments. The cheetah poses challenges, but also affords unique opportunities. It is photogenic, allowing the compilation of thousands of crowd-sourced data. It is also persecuted for killing livestock, enabling estimation of local population densities from the numbers persecuted. Documented instances of persecution in areas with known human and livestock density mean that these data can provide an estimate of where the species may or may not occur in areas without observational data. Compilations of extensive telemetry data coupled with nearly 20,000 additional observations from 39 sources show that free-ranging cheetahs were present across approximately 789,700 km 2 of Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, and Zimbabwe (56%, 22%, 12% and 10% respectively) from 2010 to 2016, with an estimated adult population of 3,577 animals. We identified a further 742,800 km 2 of potential cheetah habitat within the study region with low human and livestock densities, where another ∼3,250 cheetahs may occur. Unlike many previous estimates, we make the data available and provide explicit information on exactly where cheetahs occur, or are unlikely to occur. We stress the value of gathering data from public sources though these data were mostly from well-visited protected areas. There is a contiguous, transboundary population of cheetah in southern Africa, known to be the

  7. Evidence for chronic stress in captive but not free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) based on adrenal morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie; Munson, Linda

    2004-04-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is highly endangered because of loss of habitat in the wild and failure to thrive in captivity. Cheetahs in zoos reproduce poorly and have high prevalences of unusual diseases that cause morbidity and mortality. These diseases are rarely observed in free-ranging cheetahs but have been documented in cheetahs that have been captured and held in captive settings either temporarily or permanently. Because captivity may be stressful for this species and stress is suspected as contributing to poor health and reproduction, this study aimed to measure chronic stress by comparing baseline concentrations of fecal corticoid metabolites and adrenal gland morphology between captive and free-ranging cheetahs. Additionally, concentrations of estradiol and testosterone metabolites were quantified to determine whether concentrations of gonadal steroids correlated with corticoid concentration and to assure that corticosteroids in the free-ranging samples were not altered by environmental conditions. Concetntrations of fecal corticoids, estradiol, and testosterone were quantified by radioimmunoassay in 20 free-ranging and 20 captive cheetahs from samples collected between 1994 and 1999. Concentrations of baseline fecal corticoids were significantly higher (p = 0.005) in captive cheetahs (196.08 +/- 36.20 ng/g dry feces) than free-ranging cheetahs (71.40 +/- 14.35 ng/g dry feces). Testosterone concentrations were lower in captive male cheetahs (9.09 +/- 2.84 ng/g dry feces) than in free-ranging cheetahs (34.52 +/- 12.11 ng/g dry feces), which suggests suppression by elevated corticoids in the captive males. Evidence for similar sulppression of estradiol concentrations in females was not present. Adrenal corticomedullary ratios were determined on midsagittal sections of adrenal glands from 13 free-ranging and 13 captive cheetahs obtained between 1991 and 2002. The degree of vacuolation of cortical cells in the zona fasciculata was graded for each animal

  8. Event-driven visual attention for the humanoid robot iCub

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio; Bartolozzi, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Fast reaction to sudden and potentially interesting stimuli is a crucial feature for safe and reliable interaction with the environment. Here we present a biologically inspired attention system developed for the humanoid robot iCub. It is based on input from unconventional event-driven vision sensors and an efficient computational method. The resulting system shows low-latency and fast determination of the location of the focus of attention. The performance is benchmarked against an instance of the state of the art in robotics artificial attention system used in robotics. Results show that the proposed system is two orders of magnitude faster that the benchmark in selecting a new stimulus to attend. PMID:24379753

  9. Comparative Serum Fatty Acid Profiles of Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Bettina; Heinrich, Sonja K.; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk J.

    2016-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes. To develop a better understanding of lipid metabolism in cheetahs, we compared the total serum fatty acid profiles of 35 captive cheetahs to those of 43 free-ranging individuals in Namibia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The unsaturated fatty acid concentrations differed most remarkably between the groups, with all of the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, except arachidonic acid and hypogeic acid, detected at significantly lower concentrations in the serum of the free-ranging animals. The influence of age and sex on the individual fatty acid concentrations was less notable. This study represents the first evaluation of the serum fatty acids of free-ranging cheetahs, providing critical information on the normal fatty acid profiles of free-living, healthy individuals of this species. The results raise several important questions about the potential impact of dietary fatty acid composition on the health of cheetahs in captivity. PMID:27992457

  10. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiles of urinary organic acids in healthy captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Tordiffe, Adrian Stephen Wolferstan; van Reenen, Mari; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk Jacobus

    2017-04-01

    In captivity, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) frequently suffer from several unusual chronic diseases that rarely occur in their free-ranging counterparts. In order to develop a better understanding of their metabolism and health we documented the urine organic acids of 41 apparently healthy captive cheetahs, in an untargeted metabolomic study, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 339 organic acids were detected and annotated. Phenolic compounds, thought to be produced by the anaerobic fermentation of aromatic amino acids in the distal colon, as well as their corresponding glycine conjugates, were present in high concentrations. The most abundant organic acids in the cheetahs' urine were an as yet unidentified compound and a novel cadaverine metabolite, tentatively identified as N 1 ,N 5 -dimethylpentane-1,5-diamine. Pantothenic acid and citramalic acid concentrations correlated negatively with age, while glutaric acid concentrations correlated positively with age, suggesting possible dysregulation of coenzyme A metabolism in older cheetahs. This study provides a baseline of urine organic acid reference values in captive cheetahs and suggests important avenues for future research in this species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Myosin heavy chain composition of tiger (Panthera tigris) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K; Roy, Roland R; Rugg, Stuart; Talmadge, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Felids have a wide range of locomotor activity patterns and maximal running speeds, including the very fast cheetah (Acinonyx jubatas), the roaming tiger (Panthera tigris), and the relatively sedentary domestic cat (Felis catus). As previous studies have suggested a relationship between the amount and type of activity and the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition of a muscle, we assessed the MHC isoform composition of selected hindlimb muscles from these three felid species with differing activity regimens. Using gel electrophoresis, western blotting, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry with MHC isoform-specific antibodies, we compared the MHC composition in the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius (MG), plantaris (Plt), and soleus muscles of the tiger, cheetah, and domestic cat. The soleus muscle was absent in the cheetah. At least one slow (type I) and three fast (types IIa, IIx, and IIb) MHC isoforms were present in the muscles of each felid. The tiger had a high combined percentage of the characteristically slower isoforms (MHCs I and IIa) in the MG (62%) and the Plt (86%), whereas these percentages were relatively low in the MG (44%) and Plt (55%) of the cheetah. In general, the MHC isoform characteristics of the hindlimb muscles matched the daily activity patterns of these felids: the tiger has daily demands for covering long distances, whereas the cheetah has requirements for speed and power. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Comparative Serum Fatty Acid Profiles of Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Wachter, Bettina; Heinrich, Sonja K; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk J

    2016-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes. To develop a better understanding of lipid metabolism in cheetahs, we compared the total serum fatty acid profiles of 35 captive cheetahs to those of 43 free-ranging individuals in Namibia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The unsaturated fatty acid concentrations differed most remarkably between the groups, with all of the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, except arachidonic acid and hypogeic acid, detected at significantly lower concentrations in the serum of the free-ranging animals. The influence of age and sex on the individual fatty acid concentrations was less notable. This study represents the first evaluation of the serum fatty acids of free-ranging cheetahs, providing critical information on the normal fatty acid profiles of free-living, healthy individuals of this species. The results raise several important questions about the potential impact of dietary fatty acid composition on the health of cheetahs in captivity.

  13. Beta amyloid deposition and neurofibrillary tangles spontaneously occur in the brains of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Serizawa, S; Chambers, J K; Une, Y

    2012-03-01

    Alzheimer disease is a dementing disorder characterized pathologically by Aβ deposition, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss. Although aged animals of many species spontaneously develop Aβ deposits, only 2 species (chimpanzee and wolverine) have been reported to develop Aβ deposits and neurofibrillary tangles in the same individual. Here, the authors demonstrate the spontaneous occurrence of Aβ deposits and neurofibrillary tangles in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Among 22 cheetahs examined in this study, Aβ deposits were observed in 13. Immunostaining (AT8) revealed abnormal intracellular tau immunoreactivity in 10 of the cheetahs with Aβ deposits, and they were mainly distributed in the parahippocampal cortex and CA1 in a fashion similar to that in human patients with Alzheimer disease. Ultrastructurally, bundles of straight filaments filled the neuronal somata and axons, consistent with tangles. Interestingly, 2 of the cheetahs with the most severe abnormal tau immunoreactivity showed clinical cognitive dysfunction. The authors conclude that cheetahs spontaneously develop age-related neurodegenerative disease with pathologic changes similar to Alzheimer disease.

  14. Relationship of climatic conditions to fecal corticosterone levels of captive cheetahs reared in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji; Une, Yumi; Ito, Shu; Yamabe, Marino; Toyoda, Hideto; Tanaka, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    To assess the stress level of cheetahs reared in Japan and to identify the prime components of the climatic conditions that affect their thermal stress, fecal corticosterone was monitored for 8 months from May to the following January. A total of 203 fecal samples were gathered in the morning from seven adult cheetahs that were kept at a zoological garden in Wakayama, Japan. Cheetahs were on exhibit singly or together with a harmonious conspecific during the day, but housed singly at night. Although the monthly fluctuation in corticosterone concentrations was not significant, the concentrations were relatively low during the summer season. Individual differences among cheetahs and the interaction effect between individual and month on the corticosterone concentrations were significant. Whereas the corticosterone concentrations negatively correlated with air temperature, they were positively correlated with the amount of rainfall. The highest air temperature and the amount of rainfall were extracted as the prime factors affecting corticosterone concentrations. These results suggest that cheetahs reared in Japan are somewhat subjected to thermal stress, particularly on cooler and/or rainy days. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Possible Case of Maternal Transmission of Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Captive Cheetah

    PubMed Central

    Bencsik, Anna; Debeer, Sabine; Petit, Thierry; Baron, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is considered to be related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and has been reported in domestic cats as well as in captive wild cats including cheetahs, first in the United Kingdom (UK) and then in other European countries. In France, several cases were described in cheetahs either imported from UK or born in France. Here we report details of two other FSE cases in captive cheetah including a 2nd case of FSE in a cheetah born in France, most likely due to maternal transmission. Complete prion protein immunohistochemical study on both brains and peripheral organs showed the close likeness between the two cases. In addition, transmission studies to the TgOvPrP4 mouse line were also performed, for comparison with the transmission of cattle BSE. The TgOvPrP4 mouse brains infected with cattle BSE and cheetah FSE revealed similar vacuolar lesion profiles, PrPd brain mapping with occurrence of typical florid plaques. Collectively, these data indicate that they harbor the same strain of agent as the cattle BSE agent. This new observation may have some impact on our knowledge of vertical transmission of BSE agent-linked TSEs such as in housecat FSE, or vCJD. PMID:19738899

  16. Recent inner ear specialization for high-speed hunting in cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Grohé, Camille; Lee, Beatrice; Flynn, John J

    2018-02-02

    The cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is the fastest living land mammal. Because of its specialized hunting strategy, this species evolved a series of specialized morphological and functional body features to increase its exceptional predatory performance during high-speed hunting. Using high-resolution X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT), we provide the first analyses of the size and shape of the vestibular system of the inner ear in cats, an organ essential for maintaining body balance and adapting head posture and gaze direction during movement in most vertebrates. We demonstrate that the vestibular system of modern cheetahs is extremely different in shape and proportions relative to other cats analysed (12 modern and two fossil felid species), including a closely-related fossil cheetah species. These distinctive attributes (i.e., one of the greatest volumes of the vestibular system, dorsal extension of the anterior and posterior semicircular canals) correlate with a greater afferent sensitivity of the inner ear to head motions, facilitating postural and visual stability during high-speed prey pursuit and capture. These features are not present in the fossil cheetah A. pardinensis, that went extinct about 126,000 years ago, demonstrating that the unique and highly specialized inner ear of the sole living species of cheetah likely evolved extremely recently, possibly later than the middle Pleistocene.

  17. First evidence of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Krengel, Annika; Meli, Marina L; Cattori, Valentino; Wachter, Bettina; Willi, Barbara; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2013-03-23

    Infections with feline hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) have been documented in domestic cats and free-ranging feline species with high prevalences in Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus), Eurasian lynxes (Lynx lynx), European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), African lions (Panthera leo) in Tanzania and domestic cats in South Africa. The prevalence of hemoplasmas has not yet been investigated in free-ranging felids in southern Africa. In this study we screened 73 blood samples from 61 cheetahs in central Namibia for the presence of hemoplasmas using quantitative real-time PCR. One of the cheetahs tested PCR-positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and RNAse P genes revealed that the isolate belongs to the Mycoplasma haemofelis/haemocanis group. This is the first molecular evidence of a hemoplasma infection in a free-ranging cheetah. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HERPESVIRAL DERMATITIS IN A CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) IN NAMIBIA.

    PubMed

    Flacke, Gabriella L; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    A 9-yr-old male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) housed at the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia developed cutaneous lesions consisting of alopecia, erythema, ulceration, and crusting on the left fore and hind limbs. Histopathology of skin biopsies in conjunction with indirect fluorescent antibody and polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed a diagnosis of feline herpesvirus-1 dermatitis; microbial culture indicated secondary bacterial infection. Therapy included targeted systemic antimicrobial and antiviral treatment, topical medications, and repeated cryotherapy. Lesions exhibited varying degrees of clinical improvement but, overall, progressed in extent, size, and severity during the subsequent 2.5 yr of intense treatment. The cheetah was ultimately euthanized due to a guarded prognosis and concerns about poor quality of life. Potential factors initiating or contributing (or both) to the severity and nonhealing nature of the cutaneous lesions include chronic unidentified stress, altered immune system function, and other environmental influences.

  19. Mammalian energetics. Flexible energetics of cheetah hunting strategies provide resistance against kleptoparasitism.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, David M; Mills, Michael G L; Wilson, Rory P; Wilson, John W; Mills, Margaret E J; Durant, Sarah M; Bennett, Nigel C; Bradford, Peter; Marks, Nikki J; Speakman, John R

    2014-10-03

    Population viability is driven by individual survival, which in turn depends on individuals balancing energy budgets. As carnivores may function close to maximum sustained power outputs, decreased food availability or increased activity may render some populations energetically vulnerable. Prey theft may compromise energetic budgets of mesopredators, such as cheetahs and wild dogs, which are susceptible to competition from larger carnivores. We show that daily energy expenditure (DEE) of cheetahs was similar to size-based predictions and positively related to distance traveled. Theft at 25% only requires cheetahs to hunt for an extra 1.1 hour per day, increasing DEE by just 12%. Therefore, not all mesopredators are energetically constrained by direct competition. Other factors that increase DEE, such as those that increase travel, may be more important for population viability. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs.

  1. Immunohistochemical screening for viral agents in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Shibly, S; Schmidt, P; Robert, N; Walzer, C; Url, A

    2006-10-21

    Numerous cases of acute-onset progressive ataxia, hindlimb paresis and paralysis of unknown aetiology occurred during 1993 to 2003 in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) within the European Endangered Species Programme (eep). This study describes the immunohistochemical investigation of a possible viral aetiology of the "cheetah myelopathy". Antibodies to feline herpesvirus type 1, canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and Borna disease virus were applied to formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain and spinal cord sections from 25 affected cheetahs aged between three-and-a-half months and 13 years. Using the avidin-biotin complex technique, none of the antibodies gave positive immunosignals in either the brain or the spinal cord tissue.

  2. The difference between trivial and scientific names: There were never any true cheetahs in North America.

    PubMed

    Faurby, S; Werdelin, L; Svenning, J C

    2016-05-05

    Dobrynin et al. (Genome Biol 16:277, 2015) recently published the complete genome of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and provided an exhaustive set of analyses supporting the famously low genetic variation in the species, known for several decades. Their genetic analyses represent state-of-the-art and we do not criticize them. However, their interpretation of the results is inconsistent with current knowledge of cheetah evolution. Dobrynin et al. suggest that the causes of the two inferred bottlenecks at ∼ 100,000 and 10,000 years ago were immigration by cheetahs from North America and end-Pleistocene megafauna extinction, respectively, but the first explanation is impossible and the second implausible.

  3. Characterization of an outbreak of astroviral diarrhea in a group of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Atkins, Adrienne; Wellehan, James F X; Childress, April L; Archer, Linda L; Fraser, William A; Citino, Scott B

    2009-04-14

    A Mamastrovirus was identified in an outbreak of diarrhea in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Five young adult and two adult cheetahs presented with lethargy, anorexia, watery diarrhea and regurgitation over an 11-day period. Fecal samples were submitted for electron microscopy and culture. Electron microscopy results revealed particles morphologically consistent with an astrovirus, and no other viral pathogens or significant bacterial pathogens were identified. The astrovirus was confirmed and sequenced using consensus astroviral PCR, resulting in a 367 base pair partial RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) product and a 628 base pair partial capsid product. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were performed on both the RdRp and the capsid protein segments. All animals were monitored and treated with bismuth subsalicylate tablets (524mg PO BID for 5 days), and recovered without additional intervention. This is the first report we are aware of documenting an astrovirus outbreak in cheetah.

  4. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  5. In the absence of a "landscape of fear": How lions, hyenas, and cheetahs coexist.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Alexandra; Arnold, Todd; Kosmala, Margaret; Forester, James; Packer, Craig

    2016-12-01

    Aggression by top predators can create a "landscape of fear" in which subordinate predators restrict their activity to low-risk areas or times of day. At large spatial or temporal scales, this can result in the costly loss of access to resources. However, fine-scale reactive avoidance may minimize the risk of aggressive encounters for subordinate predators while maintaining access to resources, thereby providing a mechanism for coexistence. We investigated fine-scale spatiotemporal avoidance in a guild of African predators characterized by intense interference competition. Vulnerable to food stealing and direct killing, cheetahs are expected to avoid both larger predators; hyenas are expected to avoid lions. We deployed a grid of 225 camera traps across 1,125 km 2 in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, to evaluate concurrent patterns of habitat use by lions, hyenas, cheetahs, and their primary prey. We used hurdle models to evaluate whether smaller species avoided areas preferred by larger species, and we used time-to-event models to evaluate fine-scale temporal avoidance in the hours immediately surrounding top predator activity. We found no evidence of long-term displacement of subordinate species, even at fine spatial scales. Instead, hyenas and cheetahs were positively associated with lions except in areas with exceptionally high lion use. Hyenas and lions appeared to actively track each, while cheetahs appear to maintain long-term access to sites with high lion use by actively avoiding those areas just in the hours immediately following lion activity. Our results suggest that cheetahs are able to use patches of preferred habitat by avoiding lions on a moment-to-moment basis. Such fine-scale temporal avoidance is likely to be less costly than long-term avoidance of preferred areas: This may help explain why cheetahs are able to coexist with lions despite high rates of lion-inflicted mortality, and highlights reactive avoidance as a general mechanism for

  6. Counting Cats: Spatially Explicit Population Estimates of Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Using Unstructured Sampling Data

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuis, Femke; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.

    2016-01-01

    Many ecological theories and species conservation programmes rely on accurate estimates of population density. Accurate density estimation, especially for species facing rapid declines, requires the application of rigorous field and analytical methods. However, obtaining accurate density estimates of carnivores can be challenging as carnivores naturally exist at relatively low densities and are often elusive and wide-ranging. In this study, we employ an unstructured spatial sampling field design along with a Bayesian sex-specific spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis, to provide the first rigorous population density estimates of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. We estimate adult cheetah density to be between 1.28 ± 0.315 and 1.34 ± 0.337 individuals/100km2 across four candidate models specified in our analysis. Our spatially explicit approach revealed ‘hotspots’ of cheetah density, highlighting that cheetah are distributed heterogeneously across the landscape. The SECR models incorporated a movement range parameter which indicated that male cheetah moved four times as much as females, possibly because female movement was restricted by their reproductive status and/or the spatial distribution of prey. We show that SECR can be used for spatially unstructured data to successfully characterise the spatial distribution of a low density species and also estimate population density when sample size is small. Our sampling and modelling framework will help determine spatial and temporal variation in cheetah densities, providing a foundation for their conservation and management. Based on our results we encourage other researchers to adopt a similar approach in estimating densities of individually recognisable species. PMID:27135614

  7. Counting Cats: Spatially Explicit Population Estimates of Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Using Unstructured Sampling Data.

    PubMed

    Broekhuis, Femke; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M

    2016-01-01

    Many ecological theories and species conservation programmes rely on accurate estimates of population density. Accurate density estimation, especially for species facing rapid declines, requires the application of rigorous field and analytical methods. However, obtaining accurate density estimates of carnivores can be challenging as carnivores naturally exist at relatively low densities and are often elusive and wide-ranging. In this study, we employ an unstructured spatial sampling field design along with a Bayesian sex-specific spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis, to provide the first rigorous population density estimates of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. We estimate adult cheetah density to be between 1.28 ± 0.315 and 1.34 ± 0.337 individuals/100km2 across four candidate models specified in our analysis. Our spatially explicit approach revealed 'hotspots' of cheetah density, highlighting that cheetah are distributed heterogeneously across the landscape. The SECR models incorporated a movement range parameter which indicated that male cheetah moved four times as much as females, possibly because female movement was restricted by their reproductive status and/or the spatial distribution of prey. We show that SECR can be used for spatially unstructured data to successfully characterise the spatial distribution of a low density species and also estimate population density when sample size is small. Our sampling and modelling framework will help determine spatial and temporal variation in cheetah densities, providing a foundation for their conservation and management. Based on our results we encourage other researchers to adopt a similar approach in estimating densities of individually recognisable species.

  8. Effect of diet on the incidence of and mortality owing to gastritis and renal disease in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, E P; Miller, S; Lobetti, R; Caldwell, P; Bertschinger, H J; Burroughs, R; Kotze, A; van Dyk, A

    2012-01-01

    Seventy-two adult cheetahs were evaluated for the degree of gastritis by endoscopic biopsy and for renal disease by serum creatinine. Cheetahs free of Grade 3 gastritis and renal disease were placed on Trial A; remaining cheetahs were placed on Trial B, which ran concurrently. All cheetahs were monitored for 4 years. Cheetahs exited Trial A and entered Trial B if they developed Grade 3 gastritis or renal disease. Cheetahs exited Trial B if they developed clinical gastritis or renal disease that required a dietary change or aggressive medical therapy or died owing to either disease. Cheetahs on Trial A were fed either a supplemented meat diet (N = 26) or commercial cat food (N = 22). Cheetahs on Trial B were fed either the same meat diet (N = 28) or a commercial dry cat food formulated for renal disease (N = 16). Cheetahs fed meat on Trial A had a daily hazard of developing Grade 3 gastritis 2.21 times higher (95% CI 0.95-5.15) than cheetahs fed commercial cat food. This hazard was not statistically significant (P = 0.07). Mean gastritis scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Cheetahs fed commercial cat food in both Trials had lower serum urea levels and higher creatinine levels than those fed meat. Evidence for the effect of diet in cheetahs with gastritis and/or renal disease (Trial B) was inconclusive. The number of cheetahs dying of gastritis or renal disease at the facility has dropped markedly since the study began. These results indicate that diet may play an important role in the incidence of Grade 3 gastritis and that dietary and/or therapeutic management of gastritis may reduce mortality owing to gastritis and renal disease in captive cheetahs. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multicentric T-cell lymphoma associated with feline leukemia virus infection in a captive namibian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Marker, Laurie; Munson, Linda; Basson, Peter A; Quackenbush, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    This case report describes a multicentric lymphoma in a 4 yr old female wildborn captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia after being housed in an enclosure adjacent to a feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infected cheetah that had previously been in contact with domestic cats. The year prior to the onset of clinical signs, the wild-born cheetah was FeLV antigen negative. The cheetah subsequently developed lymphoma, was found to be infected with FeLV, and then rapidly deteriorated and died. At necropsy, the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and multiple other organs were extensively infiltrated with neoplastic T-lymphocytes. Feline leukemia virus DNA was identified in neoplastic lymphocytes from multiple organs by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. Although the outcome of infection in this cheetah resembles that of FeLV infections in domestic cats, the transmission across an enclosure fence was unusual and may indicate a heightened susceptibility to infection in cheetahs. Caution should be exercised in holding and translocating cheetahs where contact could be made with FeLV-infected domestic, feral, or wild felids.

  10. Evaluating estimators for numbers of females with cubs-of-the-year in the Yellowstone grizzly bear population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, S.; White, G.C.; Keating, K.A.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2007-01-01

    Current management of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Yellowstone National Park and surrounding areas requires annual estimation of the number of adult female bears with cubs-of-the-year. We examined the performance of nine estimators of population size via simulation. Data were simulated using two methods for different combinations of population size, sample size, and coefficient of variation of individual sighting probabilities. We show that the coefficient of variation does not, by itself, adequately describe the effects of capture heterogeneity, because two different distributions of capture probabilities can have the same coefficient of variation. All estimators produced biased estimates of population size with bias decreasing as effort increased. Based on the simulation results we recommend the Chao estimator for model M h be used to estimate the number of female bears with cubs of the year; however, the estimator of Chao and Shen may also be useful depending on the goals of the research.

  11. Multiple human exposures to a rabid bear cub at a petting zoo and barnwarming--Iowa, August 1999.

    PubMed

    1999-09-03

    On August 27, 1999, a black bear cub, approximately 5-6 months old, died after several hours of acute central nervous system symptoms; preliminary test results available on August 28 indicated the bear had rabies. The bear was part of the Swenson's Wild Midwest Exotic Petting Zoo in Clermont, Iowa (northeastern Iowa). At the petting zoo, visitors fed, wrestled, and may have been nipped by the bear. The bear also was taken to an August 14 barnwarming at the Tharp barn in Holy Cross, Iowa (eastern Iowa), where it reportedly nipped people. An estimated 400 people from 10 states (Arizona, California, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin) and Australia had contact with the bear cub at either the petting zoo or the barnwarming during the 28 days before its death, during which the bear may have transmitted rabies virus.

  12. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population.

    PubMed

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle; Hesta, Myriam; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Budd, Jane; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert P J

    2014-09-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type. Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations within reference ranges for healthy domestic cats. In contrast, unhealthy cheetahs had higher (P < 0.001) serum amyloid A, alpha2-globulin, and haptoglobin concentrations compared with the healthy subgroup. Moreover, serum amyloid A (P = 0.020), alpha2-globulin (P < 0.001) and haptoglobin (P = 0.001) concentrations in cheetahs suffering from chronic kidney disease were significantly greater compared to the reportedly healthy cheetahs. Our study indicates that serum proteins in the cheetah can be analyzed by routine capillary electrophoresis, whereas acute-phase proteins can be measured using available immunoassays or non-species-specific techniques, which are also likely to be applicable in other exotic felids. Moreover, results suggest that serum amyloid A and haptoglobin are important acute-phase proteins in the diseased cheetah and highlight the need to evaluate their role as early-onset markers for disease.

  13. Flexibility in the duration of parental care: Female leopards prioritise cub survival over reproductive output.

    PubMed

    Balme, Guy A; Robinson, Hugh S; Pitman, Ross T; Hunter, Luke T B

    2017-09-01

    Deciding when to terminate care of offspring is a key consideration for parents. Prolonging care may increase fitness of current offspring, but it can also reduce opportunities for future reproduction. Despite its evolutionary importance, few studies have explored the optimal duration of parental care, particularly among large carnivores. We used a 40-year dataset to assess the trade-offs associated with the length of maternal care in leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa. We compared the costs imposed by care on the survival and residual reproductive value of leopard mothers against the benefits derived from maternal care in terms of increased offspring survival, recruitment and reproduction. We also examined the demographic and ecological factors affecting the duration of care in the light of five explanatory hypotheses: litter size, sex allocation, resource limitation, timing of independence and terminal investment. Duration of care exhibited by female leopards varied markedly, from 9 to 35 months. Mothers did not appear to suffer any short- or long-term survival costs from caring for cubs, but extending care reduced the number of litters that mothers could produce during their lifetimes. Interestingly, the duration of care did not appear to affect the post-independence survival or reproductive success of offspring (although it may have indirectly affected offspring survival by influencing dispersal distance). However, results from generalised linear mixed models showed that mothers prolonged care during periods of prey scarcity, supporting the resource limitation hypothesis. Female leopards also cared for sons longer than daughters, in line with the sex-allocation hypothesis. Cub survival is an important determinant of the lifetime reproductive success in leopards. By buffering offspring against environmental perturbation without jeopardising their own survivorship, female leopards apparently "hedge their bets" with current offspring rather than

  14. Roles of CUB and LDL receptor class A domain repeats of a transmembrane serine protease matriptase in its zymogen activation

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Kuniyo; Tomoishi, Marie; Yasumoto, Makoto; Miyake, Yuka; Kojima, Kenji; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease containing two complement proteases C1r/C1s–urchin embryonic growth factor–bone morphogenetic protein domains (CUB repeat) and four low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domains (LDLRA repeat). The single-chain zymogen of matriptase has been found to exhibit substantial protease activity, possibly causing its own activation (i.e. conversion to a disulfide-linked two-chain fully active form), although the activation seems to be mediated predominantly by two-chain molecules. Our aim was to assess the roles of CUB and LDLRA repeats in zymogen activation. Transient expression studies of soluble truncated constructs of recombinant matriptase in COS-1 cells showed that the CUB repeat had an inhibitory effect on zymogen activation, possibly because it facilitated the interaction of two-chain molecules with a matriptase inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type-1. By contrast, the LDLRA repeat had a promoting effect on zymogen activation. The effect of the LDLRA repeat seems to reflect its ability to increase zymogen activity. The proteolytic activities were higher in pseudozymogen forms of recombinant matriptase containing the LDLRA repeat than in a pseudozymogen without the repeat. Our findings provide new insights into the roles of these non-catalytic domains in the generation of active matriptase. PMID:23038671

  15. Sucking behaviour of hand-reared newborn dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Stafford, K J; Mellor, D J; Corner, R

    2005-08-01

    To determine the feeding ability of calves during the first 4 days after birth. The sucking behaviour of 171 dairy calves, fed from individual bottles during the first 4 days after birth, was evaluated by quantifying the volume of colostrum consumed, the duration of feeding, and speed of drinking. Calves had been separated from their mothers and brought into a rearing shed in the morning, when < 24 h of age, and were offered 2 L colostrum from a bottle in the afternoon of the same day, and twice daily thereafter. Newborn calves became efficient suckers from bottles within 24 h of removal from their dams (collection). On the day after birth, 95% of calves drank the 2 L of colostrum offered during the afternoon feed, and by Day 4 virtually all calves (99%) drank this amount. Calves that had inadequate colostrum from their dam were more likely to drink all 2 L offered after collection, but a small number of calves that had not had colostrum from their dams and drank < 500 ml at the afternoon feed following collection were likely not to drink 2 L on the following days. However, calves that did not drink all 2 L on Day 1 were not disadvantaged in comparison to those that did, in that they were equally likely to drink 2 L on Day 4. The majority of calves became efficient drinkers within 48 hours of birth, but a small number of slow feeders may need individual feeding at least up to 4 days after birth.

  16. Cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, balance turn capacity with pace when chasing prey

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John W.; Mills, Michael G. L.; Wilson, Rory P.; Peters, Gerrit; Mills, Margaret E. J.; Speakman, John R.; Durant, Sarah M.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Marks, Nikki J.; Scantlebury, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Predator–prey interactions are fundamental in the evolution and structure of ecological communities. Our understanding, however, of the strategies used in pursuit and evasion remains limited. Here, we report on the hunting dynamics of the world's fastest land animal, the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus. Using miniaturized data loggers, we recorded fine-scale movement, speed and acceleration of free-ranging cheetahs to measure how hunting dynamics relate to chasing different sized prey. Cheetahs attained hunting speeds of up to 18.94 m s−1 and accelerated up to 7.5 m s−2 with greatest angular velocities achieved during the terminal phase of the hunt. The interplay between forward and lateral acceleration during chases showed that the total forces involved in speed changes and turning were approximately constant over time but varied with prey type. Thus, rather than a simple maximum speed chase, cheetahs first accelerate to decrease the distance to their prey, before reducing speed 5–8 s from the end of the hunt, so as to facilitate rapid turns to match prey escape tactics, varying the precise strategy according to prey species. Predator and prey thus pit a fine balance of speed against manoeuvring capability in a race for survival. PMID:24004493

  17. Acoustic Structure and Contextual Use of Calls by Captive Male and Female Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Darya S.; Demina, Tatyana S.; Volodina, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    The vocal repertoire of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and the specific role of meow vocalizations in communication of this species attract research interest about two dozen years. Here, we expand this research focus for the contextual use of call types, sex differences and individual differences at short and long terms. During 457 trials of acoustic recordings, we collected calls (n = 8120) and data on their contextual use for 13 adult cheetahs (6 males and 7 females) in four Russian zoos. The cheetah vocal repertoire comprised 7 call types produced in 8 behavioural contexts. Context-specific call types (chirr, growl, howl and hiss) were related to courting behaviour (chirr) or to aggressive behaviour (growl, howl and hiss). Other call types (chirp, purr and meow) were not context-specific. The values of acoustic variables differed between call types. The meow was the most often call type. Discriminant function analysis revealed a high potential of meows to encode individual identity and sex at short terms, however, the vocal individuality was unstable over years. We discuss the contextual use and acoustic variables of call types, the ratios of individual and sex differences in calls and the pathways of vocal ontogeny in the cheetah with relevant data on vocalization of other animals. PMID:27362643

  18. Acoustic Structure and Contextual Use of Calls by Captive Male and Female Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Darya S; Volodin, Ilya A; Demina, Tatyana S; Volodina, Elena V

    2016-01-01

    The vocal repertoire of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and the specific role of meow vocalizations in communication of this species attract research interest about two dozen years. Here, we expand this research focus for the contextual use of call types, sex differences and individual differences at short and long terms. During 457 trials of acoustic recordings, we collected calls (n = 8120) and data on their contextual use for 13 adult cheetahs (6 males and 7 females) in four Russian zoos. The cheetah vocal repertoire comprised 7 call types produced in 8 behavioural contexts. Context-specific call types (chirr, growl, howl and hiss) were related to courting behaviour (chirr) or to aggressive behaviour (growl, howl and hiss). Other call types (chirp, purr and meow) were not context-specific. The values of acoustic variables differed between call types. The meow was the most often call type. Discriminant function analysis revealed a high potential of meows to encode individual identity and sex at short terms, however, the vocal individuality was unstable over years. We discuss the contextual use and acoustic variables of call types, the ratios of individual and sex differences in calls and the pathways of vocal ontogeny in the cheetah with relevant data on vocalization of other animals.

  19. Cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, balance turn capacity with pace when chasing prey.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John W; Mills, Michael G L; Wilson, Rory P; Peters, Gerrit; Mills, Margaret E J; Speakman, John R; Durant, Sarah M; Bennett, Nigel C; Marks, Nikki J; Scantlebury, Michael

    2013-10-23

    Predator-prey interactions are fundamental in the evolution and structure of ecological communities. Our understanding, however, of the strategies used in pursuit and evasion remains limited. Here, we report on the hunting dynamics of the world's fastest land animal, the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus. Using miniaturized data loggers, we recorded fine-scale movement, speed and acceleration of free-ranging cheetahs to measure how hunting dynamics relate to chasing different sized prey. Cheetahs attained hunting speeds of up to 18.94 m s(-1) and accelerated up to 7.5 m s(-2) with greatest angular velocities achieved during the terminal phase of the hunt. The interplay between forward and lateral acceleration during chases showed that the total forces involved in speed changes and turning were approximately constant over time but varied with prey type. Thus, rather than a simple maximum speed chase, cheetahs first accelerate to decrease the distance to their prey, before reducing speed 5-8 s from the end of the hunt, so as to facilitate rapid turns to match prey escape tactics, varying the precise strategy according to prey species. Predator and prey thus pit a fine balance of speed against manoeuvring capability in a race for survival.

  20. Immunogenetic Variation and Differential Pathogen Exposure in Free-Ranging Cheetahs across Namibian Farmlands

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Prieto, Aines; Wachter, Bettina; Melzheimer, Joerg; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Hofer, Heribert; Sommer, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Background Genes under selection provide ecologically important information useful for conservation issues. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II genes are essential for the immune defence against pathogens from intracellular (e.g. viruses) and extracellular (e.g. helminths) origins, respectively. Serosurvey studies in Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx juabuts) revealed higher exposure to viral pathogens in individuals from north-central than east-central regions. Here we examined whether the observed differences in exposure to viruses influence the patterns of genetic variation and differentiation at MHC loci in 88 free-ranging Namibian cheetahs. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic variation at MHC I and II loci was assessed through single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing. While the overall allelic diversity did not differ, we observed a high genetic differentiation at MHC class I loci between cheetahs from north-central and east-central Namibia. No such differentiation in MHC class II and neutral markers were found. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that MHC class I variation mirrors the variation in selection pressure imposed by viruses in free-ranging cheetahs across Namibian farmland. This is of high significance for future management and conservation programs of this species. PMID:23145096

  1. Immunogenetic variation and differential pathogen exposure in free-ranging cheetahs across Namibian farmlands.

    PubMed

    Castro-Prieto, Aines; Wachter, Bettina; Melzheimer, Joerg; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Hofer, Heribert; Sommer, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Genes under selection provide ecologically important information useful for conservation issues. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II genes are essential for the immune defence against pathogens from intracellular (e.g. viruses) and extracellular (e.g. helminths) origins, respectively. Serosurvey studies in Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx juabuts) revealed higher exposure to viral pathogens in individuals from north-central than east-central regions. Here we examined whether the observed differences in exposure to viruses influence the patterns of genetic variation and differentiation at MHC loci in 88 free-ranging Namibian cheetahs. Genetic variation at MHC I and II loci was assessed through single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing. While the overall allelic diversity did not differ, we observed a high genetic differentiation at MHC class I loci between cheetahs from north-central and east-central Namibia. No such differentiation in MHC class II and neutral markers were found. Our results suggest that MHC class I variation mirrors the variation in selection pressure imposed by viruses in free-ranging cheetahs across Namibian farmland. This is of high significance for future management and conservation programs of this species.

  2. Fecal progestagens to detect and monitor pregnancy in captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Adachi, Itsuki; Kusuda, Satoshi; Kawai, Hitomi; Ohazama, Megumi; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Kondo, Natsuko; Yoshihara, Masato; Okuda, Ryuta; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kanda, Iwai; Doi, Osamu

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish a noninvasive monitoring assay of fecal progestagen measurement to detect pregnancy and to identify the components of fecal progestagens in early, middle and late pregnancy in cheetahs. Feces were collected from 7 female cheetahs and analyzed from 30 days before the last copulation to parturition in 9 pregnancies. Blood was collected from one cheetah. Fecal progestagen and serum progesterone concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The profiles of the fecal progestagen concentrations were similar to the serum progesterone profile. Fecal progestagen and serum progesterone concentrations remained at the baseline until copulation. In the mean fecal progestagen profile during pregnancy (92.8 ± 0.4 days; from the last copulation to parturition), the concentrations increased 3-4 days after the last copulation and remained high until parturition. To investigate changes in the components of progestagen metabolites in the tripartite periods of gestation, fecal progestagens were analyzed by HPLC-EIA. Marked immunoreactive peaks consistent with 5α-pregnan-3α/β-ol-20-one and 5α-pregnan-3,20-dione and small peaks consistent with 5β-pregnan-3α/β-ol-20-one were detected. There were no distinct difference in the components of progestagens among the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The hormone assay, as an indicator of fecal 5α-reduced pregnanes, is useful for detecting pregnancy and monitoring pregnant luteal activity in cheetahs.

  3. Estimating numbers of females with cubs-of-the-year in the Yellowstone grizzly bear population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keating, K.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Moody, D.

    2001-01-01

    For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), minimum population size and allowable numbers of human-caused mortalities have been calculated as a function of the number of unique females with cubs-of-the-year (FCUB) seen during a 3- year period. This approach underestimates the total number of FCUB, thereby biasing estimates of population size and sustainable mortality. Also, it does not permit calculation of valid confidence bounds. Many statistical methods can resolve or mitigate these problems, but there is no universal best method. Instead, relative performances of different methods can vary with population size, sample size, and degree of heterogeneity among sighting probabilities for individual animals. We compared 7 nonparametric estimators, using Monte Carlo techniques to assess performances over the range of sampling conditions deemed plausible for the Yellowstone population. Our goal was to estimate the number of FCUB present in the population each year. Our evaluation differed from previous comparisons of such estimators by including sample coverage methods and by treating individual sightings, rather than sample periods, as the sample unit. Consequently, our conclusions also differ from earlier studies. Recommendations regarding estimators and necessary sample sizes are presented, together with estimates of annual numbers of FCUB in the Yellowstone population with bootstrap confidence bounds.

  4. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline.

    PubMed

    Rode, Karyn D; Amstrup, Steven C; Regehr, Eric V

    2010-04-01

    Rates of reproduction and survival are dependent upon adequate body size and condition of individuals. Declines in size and condition have provided early indicators of population decline in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) near the southern extreme of their range. We tested whether patterns in body size, condition, and cub recruitment of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska were related to the availability of preferred sea ice habitats and whether these measures and habitat availability exhibited trends over time, between 1982 and 2006. The mean skull size and body length of all polar bears over three years of age declined over time, corresponding with long-term declines in the spatial and temporal availability of sea ice habitat. Body size of young, growing bears declined over time and was smaller after years when sea ice availability was reduced. Reduced litter mass and numbers of yearlings per female following years with lower availability of optimal sea ice habitat, suggest reduced reproductive output and juvenile survival. These results, based on analysis of a long-term data set, suggest that declining sea ice is associated with nutritional limitations that reduced body size and reproduction in this population.

  5. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rode, Karyn D.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of reproduction and survival are dependent upon adequate body size and condition of individuals. Declines in size and condition have provided early indicators of population decline in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) near the southern extreme of their range. We tested whether patterns in body size, condition, and cub recruitment of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska were related to the availability of preferred sea ice habitats and whether these measures and habitat availability exhibited trends over time, between 1982 and 2006. The mean skull size and body length of all polar bears over three years of age declined over time, corresponding with long‐term declines in the spatial and temporal availability of sea ice habitat. Body size of young, growing bears declined over time and was smaller after years when sea ice availability was reduced. Reduced litter mass and numbers of yearlings per female following years with lower availability of optimal sea ice habitat, suggest reduced reproductive output and juvenile survival. These results, based on analysis of a long‐term data set, suggest that declining sea ice is associated with nutritional limitations that reduced body size and reproduction in this population.

  6. Cardiopulmonary effects of anaesthesia maintained by propofol infusion versus isoflurane inhalation in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Buck, Roxanne K; Tordiffe, Adrian Sw; Zeiler, Gareth E

    2017-11-01

    To compare the cardiopulmonary effects of propofol total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with isoflurane in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to evaluate feasibility for field use. Prospective clinical study. A group of 24 adult cheetahs, 12 per group. Cheetahs were immobilized with zolazepam/tiletamine (1.2 mg kg -1 ) and medetomidine [40 μg kg -1 , both intramuscular (IM)] by darting. A maintenance protocol of propofol TIVA (group P) or isoflurane inhalation (group I) was assigned randomly to each cheetah. Anaesthesia was maintained for at least 60 minutes. Cheetahs breathed spontaneously throughout; oxygen was supplemented at 3 L minute -1 . Cardiopulmonary parameters were recorded at 5 minute intervals and three arterial blood gas samples were analysed. Following maintenance, atipamezole was administered IM (200 μg kg -1 ) and recovery was observed. Data are reported as mean±standard deviation; variables over time were compared using a linear mixed model (fixed: time, treatment; random: cheetah). Lack of response to manipulations was maintained in all cases (end-tidal isoflurane percentage 1.1±0.1%, propofol rate maintained at 0.1 mg kg -1  minute -1 ). The heart and respiratory rates were acceptable throughout maintenance. The end-tidal carbon dioxide tension increased slowly [44.0±5.0 mmHg (5.87±0.67 kPa)] with no differences between groups. All cheetahs were initially markedly hypertensive [mean arterial blood pressure (MAP): (163±17 mmHg)]. The MAP normalized for group I (125±30 mmHg) but remained high for group P (161±17 mmHg) (p < 0.001). Arterial carbon dioxide tension [48.9±14.6 mmHg (6.52±1.95 kPa)] never differed between groups. Initial arterial oxygen tension indicated borderline hypoxaemia, but improved with oxygen supplementation. Recovery time was 10.8±5.0 and 51.9±23.5 minutes for group I and group P, respectively. Both protocols provided acceptable cardiopulmonary values. Propofol may be an alternative to isoflurane

  7. Vaccine-induced protection against anthrax in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    PubMed

    Turnbull, P C B; Tindall, B W; Coetzee, J D; Conradie, C M; Bull, R L; Lindeque, P M; Huebschle, O J B

    2004-09-03

    Institution of a policy of vaccination in endangered species with a vaccine not previously administered to it cannot be undertaken lightly. This applies even more in the case of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with their unusually monomorphic gene pool and the potential restrictions this places on their immune responses. However, the recently observed mortalities from anthrax in these animals in the Etosha National Park, Namibia, made it imperative to evaluate vaccination. Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), another endangered species in the park, have been vaccinated for over three decades but the effectiveness of this has never been evaluated. Passive protection tests in A/J mice using sera from 12 cheetahs together with enzyme immunoassay indicated that cheetah are able to mount seemingly normal primary and secondary humoral immune responses to the Sterne 34F2 live spore livestock vaccine. Overall protection rates in mice injected with the sera rose and fell in concert with rises and declines in antibody titres, although fine analysis showed that the correlation between titre and protection was complex. Once a high level of protection (96% of mice 1 month after a second booster in the cheetahs) had been achieved, the duration of substantial protection appeared good (60% of the mice 5 months after the second booster). Protection conferred on mice by sera from three of four vaccinated rhino was almost complete, but, obscurely, none of the mice receiving serum from the fourth rhino were protected. Sera from three park lions with naturally acquired high antibody titres, included as controls, also conferred high levels of protection. For the purposes of wildlife management, the conclusions were that vaccination of cheetah with the standard animal anthrax vaccine causes no observable ill effect in the animals and does appear to confer protective immunity. At least one well-separated booster does appear to be desirable. Vaccination of rhino also appears to be justified

  8. Power output of skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    West, T.G.; Toepfer, Christopher N.; Woledge, Roger C.; Curtin, N.A.; Rowlerson, Anthea; Kalakoutis, Michaeljohn; Hudson, Penny; Wilson, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Muscle samples were taken from the gluteus, semitendinosus and longissimus muscles of a captive cheetah immediately after euthanasia. Fibres were “skinned” to remove all membranes leaving the contractile filament array intact and functional. Segments of skinned fibres from these cheetah muscles and from rabbit psoas muscle were activated at 20°C by a temperature jump protocol. Step and ramp length changes were imposed after active stress had developed. The stiffness of the non-contractile ends of the fibres (series elastic component) was measured at two different stress values in each fibre; stiffness was strongly dependent on stress. Using these stiffness values, the speed of shortening of the contractile component was evaluated, and hence the power it was producing. Fibres were analysed for myosin heavy chain content using gel electrophoresis, and identified as either slow (Type I) or fast (Type II). The power output of cheetah Type II fibre segments was 92.5 ± 4.3 W kg−1 (mean ±s.e., 14 fibres) during shortening at relative stress 0.15 (=stress during shortening/isometric stress). For rabbit psoas fibre segments (presumably Type IIX) the corresponding value was significantly higher (P<0.001), 119.7 ± 6.2 W kg−1 (mean ±s.e.,7 fibres). These values are our best estimates of the maximum power output under the conditions used here. Thus the contractile filament power from cheetah was less than that of rabbit when maximally activated at 20°C, and does not account for the superior locomotor performance of the cheetah. PMID:23580727

  9. Power output of skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    West, Timothy G; Toepfer, Christopher N; Woledge, Roger C; Curtin, Nancy A; Rowlerson, Anthea; Kalakoutis, Michaeljohn; Hudson, Penny; Wilson, Alan M

    2013-08-01

    Muscle samples were taken from the gluteus, semitendinosus and longissimus muscles of a captive cheetah immediately after euthanasia. Fibres were 'skinned' to remove all membranes, leaving the contractile filament array intact and functional. Segments of skinned fibres from these cheetah muscles and from rabbit psoas muscle were activated at 20°C by a temperature-jump protocol. Step and ramp length changes were imposed after active stress had developed. The stiffness of the non-contractile ends of the fibres (series elastic component) was measured at two different stress values in each fibre; stiffness was strongly dependent on stress. Using these stiffness values, the speed of shortening of the contractile component was evaluated, and hence the power it was producing. Fibres were analysed for myosin heavy chain content using gel electrophoresis, and identified as either slow (type I) or fast (type II). The power output of cheetah type II fibre segments was 92.5±4.3 W kg(-1) (mean ± s.e., 14 fibres) during shortening at relative stress 0.15 (the stress during shortening/isometric stress). For rabbit psoas fibre segments (presumably type IIX) the corresponding value was significantly higher (P<0.001), 119.7±6.2 W kg(-1) (mean ± s.e., 7 fibres). These values are our best estimates of the maximum power output under the conditions used here. Thus, the contractile filament power from cheetah was less than that of rabbit when maximally activated at 20°C, and does not account for the superior locomotor performance of the cheetah.

  10. The morphological characteristics of the antebrachiocarpal joint of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Ohale, L O C; Groenewald, H B

    2003-03-01

    A morphological study of the structures of the antebrachiocarpal (AC) joint of the cheetah was carded out by dissection of eight forelimbs obtained from four adult cheetahs culled from the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. The aim was to evaluate the deviations of this joint from the normal feline pattern and to consider their possible relationship to the cheetah's adaptation to speed. Although published data on the AC joint of the other felids show general resemblance to that of the cheetah, there are nevertheless slight, but significant variations and modifications which tend to suggest adaptation to speed. The shafts of the radius and ulna of the cheetah are relatively straight and slender, with poorly developed distal ends. The ulnar notch is reduced to a very shallow concavity while the corresponding ulnar facet is a barely noticeable convexity, separated from the distal ulnar articular facet by an ill-defined groove. The movement of the distal radio-ulnar joint is highly restricted by the presence of a fibro-cartilaginous structure and a strong interrosseous membrane, limiting pronation and supination normally achieved by the rotation of the radius around the ulna. The extensor grooves at the distal extremity of the radius are deep and narrow and are guarded by prominent ridges. A thick extensor retinaculum anchors the strong extensor tendons in these grooves. The distal articular surface of the radius is concave in all directions except at the point where it moves into its stylold process. At this point it is convex in the dorsopalmar direction, with a surface that is rather deep and narrow. The proximal row of carpal bones presents a strongly convex surface, which is more pronounced in the dorsopalmar direction with the greatest convexity on the lateral aspect. Medially, there is a ridge-like concavity across the base of the tubercle, which rocks on the flexor surface of the radius, limiting excessive flexion as well as restricting lateral

  11. Analysis of the mitochondrial genome of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Burger, Pamela A; Steinborn, Ralf; Walzer, Christian; Petit, Thierry; Mueller, Mathias; Schwarzenberger, Franz

    2004-08-18

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Acinonyx jubatus was sequenced and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions were screened for polymorphisms as candidates for the cause of a neurodegenerative demyelinating disease affecting captive cheetahs. The mtDNA reference sequences were established on the basis of the complete sequences of two diseased and two nondiseased animals as well as partial sequences of 26 further individuals. The A. jubatus mitochondrial genome is 17,047-bp long and shows a high sequence similarity (91%) to the domestic cat. Based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the control region (CR) and pedigree information, the 18 myelopathic and 12 non-myelopathic cheetahs included in this study were classified into haplotypes I, II and III. In view of the phenotypic comparability of the neurodegenerative disease observed in cheetahs and human mtDNA-associated diseases, specific coding regions including the tRNAs leucine UUR, lysine, serine UCN, and partial complex I and V sequences were screened. We identified a heteroplasmic and a homoplasmic SNP at codon 507 in the subunit 5 (MTND5) of complex I. The heteroplasmic haplotype I-specific valine to methionine substitution represents a nonconservative amino acid change and was found in 11 myelopathic and eight non-myelopathic cheetahs with levels ranging from 29% to 79%. The homoplasmic conservative amino acid substitution valine to alanine was identified in two myelopathic animals of haplotype II. In addition, a synonymous SNP in the codon 76 of the MTND4L gene was found in the single haplotype III animal. The amino acid exchanges in the MTND5 gene were not associated with the occurrence of neurodegenerative disease in captive cheetahs.

  12. EVALUATION OF SYMMETRIC DIMETHYLARGININE AS AN EARLY BIOMARKER OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN CAPTIVE CHEETAHS (ACINONYX JUBATUS).

    PubMed

    Lamglait, Benjamin; Vandenbunder-Beltrame, Marielle

    2017-09-01

    Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been shown to be a valuable biomarker for early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in canine and feline patients. Recognition of early (subclinical) kidney disease would be of value in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) as prevalence of CKD is relatively high in this species in captivity. Fifty-eight banked serum and plasma samples from seven adult cheetahs that died of CKD were analyzed for creatinine, urea, and SDMA. A marked increase in SDMA was noted on five of the tested cheetahs earlier than the rise of serum creatinine and urea (estimated 8-35 mo; mean 21.4 mo; median 22 mo). SDMA appears as an early biomarker to evaluate renal function for the diagnosis of CKD in cheetahs regardless of the cause of this disease.

  13. Phylogeography, genetic structure and population divergence time of cheetahs in Africa and Asia: evidence for long-term geographic isolates

    PubMed Central

    Charruau, P; Fernandes, C; Orozco-terWengel, P; Peters, J; Hunter, L; Ziaie, H; Jourabchian, A; Jowkar, H; Schaller, G; Ostrowski, S; Vercammen, P; Grange, T; Schlötterer, C; Kotze, A; Geigl, E-M; Walzer, C; Burger, P A

    2011-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been described as a species with low levels of genetic variation. This has been suggested to be the consequence of a demographic bottleneck 10 000–12 000 years ago (ya) and also led to the assumption that only small genetic differences exist between the described subspecies. However, analysing mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites in cheetah samples from most of the historic range of the species we found relatively deep phylogeographic breaks between some of the investigated populations, and most of the methods assessed divergence time estimates predating the postulated bottleneck. Mitochondrial DNA monophyly and overall levels of genetic differentiation support the distinctiveness of Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii). Moreover, combining archaeozoological and contemporary samples, we show that Asiatic cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) are unambiguously separated from African subspecies. Divergence time estimates from mitochondrial and nuclear data place the split between Asiatic and Southern African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) at 32 000–67 000 ya using an average mammalian microsatellite mutation rate and at 4700–44 000 ya employing human microsatellite mutation rates. Cheetahs are vulnerable to extinction globally and critically endangered in their Asiatic range, where the last 70–110 individuals survive only in Iran. We demonstrate that these extant Iranian cheetahs are an autochthonous monophyletic population and the last representatives of the Asiatic subspecies A. j. venaticus. We advocate that conservation strategies should consider the uncovered independent evolutionary histories of Asiatic and African cheetahs, as well as among some African subspecies. This would facilitate the dual conservation priorities of maintaining locally adapted ecotypes and genetic diversity. PMID:21214655

  14. Development of a case definition for clinical feline herpesvirus infection in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) housed in zoos.

    PubMed

    Witte, Carmel L; Lamberski, Nadine; Rideout, Bruce A; Fields, Victoria; Teare, Cyd Shields; Barrie, Michael; Haefele, Holly; Junge, Randall; Murray, Suzan; Hungerford, Laura L

    2013-09-01

    The identification of feline herpesvirus (FHV) infected cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and characterization of shedding episodes is difficult due to nonspecific clinical signs and limitations of diagnostic tests. The goals of this study were to develop a case definition for clinical FHV and describe the distribution of signs. Medical records from six different zoologic institutions were reviewed to identify cheetahs with diagnostic test results confirming FHV. Published literature, expert opinion, and results of a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) were used to develop a clinical case definition based on 69 episodes in FHV laboratory confirmed (LC) cheetahs. Four groups of signs were identified in the MCA: general ocular signs, serious ocular lesions, respiratory disease, and cutaneous lesions. Ocular disease occurred with respiratory signs alone, with skin lesions alone, and with both respiratory signs and skin lesions. Groups that did not occur together were respiratory signs and skin lesions. The resulting case definition included 1) LC cheetahs; and 2) clinically compatible (CC) cheetahs that exhibited a minimum of 7 day's duration of the clinical sign groupings identified in the MCA or the presence of corneal ulcers or keratitis that occurred alone or in concert with other ocular signs and skin lesions. Exclusion criteria were applied. Application of the case definition to the study population identified an additional 78 clinical episodes, which represented 58 CC cheetahs. In total, 28.8% (93/322) of the population was identified as LC or CC. The distribution of identified clinical signs was similar across LC and CC cheetahs. Corneal ulcers and/or keratitis, and skin lesions were more frequently reported in severe episodes; in mild episodes, there were significantly more cheetahs with ocular-only or respiratory-only disease. Our results provide a better understanding of the clinical presentation of FHV, while presenting a standardized case definition that can

  15. Phylogeography, genetic structure and population divergence time of cheetahs in Africa and Asia: evidence for long-term geographic isolates.

    PubMed

    Charruau, P; Fernandes, C; Orozco-Terwengel, P; Peters, J; Hunter, L; Ziaie, H; Jourabchian, A; Jowkar, H; Schaller, G; Ostrowski, S; Vercammen, P; Grange, T; Schlötterer, C; Kotze, A; Geigl, E-M; Walzer, C; Burger, P A

    2011-02-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been described as a species with low levels of genetic variation. This has been suggested to be the consequence of a demographic bottleneck 10 000-12 000 years ago (ya) and also led to the assumption that only small genetic differences exist between the described subspecies. However, analysing mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites in cheetah samples from most of the historic range of the species we found relatively deep phylogeographic breaks between some of the investigated populations, and most of the methods assessed divergence time estimates predating the postulated bottleneck. Mitochondrial DNA monophyly and overall levels of genetic differentiation support the distinctiveness of Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii). Moreover, combining archaeozoological and contemporary samples, we show that Asiatic cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) are unambiguously separated from African subspecies. Divergence time estimates from mitochondrial and nuclear data place the split between Asiatic and Southern African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) at 32 000-67 000 ya using an average mammalian microsatellite mutation rate and at 4700-44 000 ya employing human microsatellite mutation rates. Cheetahs are vulnerable to extinction globally and critically endangered in their Asiatic range, where the last 70-110 individuals survive only in Iran. We demonstrate that these extant Iranian cheetahs are an autochthonous monophyletic population and the last representatives of the Asiatic subspecies A. j. venaticus. We advocate that conservation strategies should consider the uncovered independent evolutionary histories of Asiatic and African cheetahs, as well as among some African subspecies. This would facilitate the dual conservation priorities of maintaining locally adapted ecotypes and genetic diversity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Analysis of genetic mutations in the 7a7b open reading frame of coronavirus of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Melissa A; Moore, Emily; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Citino, Scott B; Kania, Stephen A

    2006-04-01

    To analyze the 7a7b genes of the feline coronavirus (FCoV) of cheetahs, which are believed to play a role in virulence of this virus. Biologic samples collected during a 4-year period from 5 cheetahs at the same institution and at 1 time point from 4 cheetahs at different institutions. Samples were first screened for FCoV via a reverse transcription-PCR procedure involving primers that encompassed the 3'-untranslated region. Samples that yielded positive assay results were analyzed by use of primers that targeted the 7a7b open reading frames. The nucleotide sequences of the 7a7b amplification products were determined and analyzed. In most isolates, substantial deletional mutations in the 7a gene were detected that would result in aberrant or no expression of the 7a product because of altered reading frames. Although the 7b gene was also found to contain mutations, these were primarily point mutations resulting in minor amino acid changes. The coronavirus associated with 1 cheetah with feline infectious peritonitis had intact 7a and 7b genes. The data suggest that mutations arise readily in the 7a region and may remain stable in FCoV of cheetahs. In contrast, an intact 7b gene may be necessary for in vivo virus infection and replication. Persistent infection with FCoV in a cheetah population results in continued virus circulation and may lead to a quasispecies of virus variants.

  17. Blood vitamins and trace elements in Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) in captivity in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Katie M; O'Donovan, Declan; McKeown, Sean; Wernery, Ulli; Basu, Puja; Bailey, Tom A

    2013-09-01

    There are few published data regarding the endangered Northern-East African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii), held in captivity in the Middle East and Europe. Studies have demonstrated a high incidence of disease in captive cheetahs, in which vitamin and trace element imbalances have often been implicated. Blood vitamin and trace element reference values in cheetahs merit further investigation. In this study, blood samples were opportunistically collected from apparently healthy A. j. soemmeringii from two collections (A and B) with successful breeding programs in the United Arab Emirates. The cheetahs were fed whole prey of mixed species (and, in Collection B, goat muscle and bone as well) dusted with vitamin and mineral supplements. Mean serum vitamin and trace element values (for cheetahs > 4 mo in age) were as follows: vitamin A (retinol), 2.20 microM/L (n = 27); vitamin B1, 0.0818 microM/L (n = 45); vitamin C, 28.6 microM/L (n=10); vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), 35.6 microM/L (n = 27); copper (Cu), 12.53 microM/L (n = 27); selenium (Se), 3.10 microM/L (n = 27); and zinc (Zn), 10.87 microM/L (n = 27). Mean values of vitamin A, vitamin E, Cu, and Zn fell within ranges of published cheetah mean values, and mean Se was lower than range values for cheetahs presented in one previous study; blood vitamin B1 and vitamin C values of cheetahs have not previously been published. The values were taken to indicate that the cheetahs' nutritional status was adequate with regard to those nutrients analyzed. Serum vitamin E was particularly high in cheetahs fed fresh whole prey, and on this basis vitamin E supplementation of fresh whole prey appeared to have been unnecessary. There were differences (P < 0.05) between collections in serum vitamin B1, vitamin E, Cu, and 10 other hematologic and biochemical parameters. Nine hematologic and blood biochemical parameters differed among age categories.

  18. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) running the gauntlet: an evaluation of translocations into free-range environments in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Weise, Florian J; Lemeris, Joseph R; Munro, Stuart J; Bowden, Andrew; Venter, Cicelia; van Vuuren, Marlice; van Vuuren, Rudie J

    2015-01-01

    Following dramatic range and population declines, the cheetah is Africa's most endangered large felid. In Namibia, private land managers still trap cheetahs but increasingly consider moving animals instead of killing them. Across Africa, managers have translocated perceived conflict carnivores for decades, but rarely evaluated their actions. We analyse the outcomes of 15 cheetah translocations (for 23 adults and 10 dependent offspring) into free-range environments in Namibia. We released cheetahs at an average distance of 419.6 km ± 216.1 km SD (range: 71-816 km) after captive periods ranging from 1-1,184 days (350.6 days ± 439.0 days SD). An individual's ability to survive the first year predominantly determined the overall translocation success of 40%. Post-release conflict and homing had less impact on success. Cheetah survival was lowest in the first three months after release. Human persecution (50% of deaths) and spotted hyaenas (29% of deaths) had the highest effect on survival. The degree of habituation to humans acquired during captivity significantly influenced chances of survival. Cheetahs surviving the initial post-release period (∼90 days) often settled into ranges and females reproduced successfully. However, all individuals exhibited extensive movements, frequently roaming >4,000 km(2) in the first six months after release (with a maximum of 19,743 km(2) in 112 days), resulting in low release site fidelity. Soft release and larger recipient area size did not improve site fidelity. Based on these outcomes, we evaluated which unfenced conservation areas in Namibia could potentially receive cheetahs. We found that there are currently few public and/or private reserves large enough to contain the movement profiles we observed in this study. This suggests that most translocations will result in cheetahs re-entering farmlands where they face a high risk of persecution. In conclusion, translocations into unconfined areas can successfully conserve

  19. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) running the gauntlet: an evaluation of translocations into free-range environments in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Lemeris, Joseph R.; Munro, Stuart J.; Bowden, Andrew; Venter, Cicelia; van Vuuren, Marlice; van Vuuren, Rudie J.

    2015-01-01

    Following dramatic range and population declines, the cheetah is Africa’s most endangered large felid. In Namibia, private land managers still trap cheetahs but increasingly consider moving animals instead of killing them. Across Africa, managers have translocated perceived conflict carnivores for decades, but rarely evaluated their actions. We analyse the outcomes of 15 cheetah translocations (for 23 adults and 10 dependent offspring) into free-range environments in Namibia. We released cheetahs at an average distance of 419.6 km ± 216.1 km SD (range: 71–816 km) after captive periods ranging from 1–1,184 days (350.6 days ± 439.0 days SD). An individual’s ability to survive the first year predominantly determined the overall translocation success of 40%. Post-release conflict and homing had less impact on success. Cheetah survival was lowest in the first three months after release. Human persecution (50% of deaths) and spotted hyaenas (29% of deaths) had the highest effect on survival. The degree of habituation to humans acquired during captivity significantly influenced chances of survival. Cheetahs surviving the initial post-release period (∼90 days) often settled into ranges and females reproduced successfully. However, all individuals exhibited extensive movements, frequently roaming >4,000 km2 in the first six months after release (with a maximum of 19,743 km2 in 112 days), resulting in low release site fidelity. Soft release and larger recipient area size did not improve site fidelity. Based on these outcomes, we evaluated which unfenced conservation areas in Namibia could potentially receive cheetahs. We found that there are currently few public and/or private reserves large enough to contain the movement profiles we observed in this study. This suggests that most translocations will result in cheetahs re-entering farmlands where they face a high risk of persecution. In conclusion, translocations into unconfined areas can successfully conserve

  20. Inoculation of female American black bears (Ursus americanus) with partially purified porcine zona pellucidae limits cub production.

    PubMed

    Lane, V M; Liu, I K M; Casey, K; vanLeeuwen, E M G; Flanagan, D R; Murata, K; Munro, C

    2007-01-01

    The present 2-year study investigated the feasibility of using porcine zona pellucidae (pZP) as antigen for immunocontraception in American black bears. Sows, 3-6 years of age, were administered either two doses of 250 microg pZP with Freund's adjuvant (n = 10) or adjuvant alone (n = 5), one in April and one in May, and were kept away from the boars until June. Serum samples were collected before injections and before denning (November). The presence of sows with cubs at side was observed during premature emergence from denning. First-year results indicated that anti-pZP antibody titres in vaccinated sows were 2.5-9.0-fold (range) higher compared with non-vaccinated sows and that the vaccinated sows were threefold less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.167). Control and vaccinated bears produced 1.6 and 0.2 cubs per sow, respectively (P = 0.06). The second-year study investigated the feasibility of using pZP sequestered in a controlled-release pellet and a water-soluble adjuvant (QS-21) to avoid regulatory problems associated with Freund's adjuvant. Sows in the treatment group (n = 22) were administered a single dose of an emulsion of 250 microg pZP and 150 microg QS-21 plus a pellet containing 70-90 microg pZP for delayed release as booster dose. Control sows (n = 5) received the QS-21 adjuvant in pellet alone. Serum samples were collected before inoculations (April) and before denning (November). Seven cubs were born to the five control sows, but none was born to the 22 vaccinated sows (P < 0.001). Anti-pZP antibody mean absorbance ratios in control sows remained at background levels, whereas vaccinated sows had ratios fourfold higher than controls. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemical localisation confirmed immunoreactivity of sera from inoculated bears. We conclude that cub production in the American black bear can be effectively limited with either two injections of 250 microg pZP or a single inoculation of partially

  1. Biomechanics of predator-prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Alan M.; Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Wilshin, Simon D.; Lowe, John C.; Lorenc, Maja; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L. A.; Diack, Rebecca; Bennitt, Emily; Golabek, Krystyna A.; Woledge, Roger C.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Curtin, Nancy A.; West, Timothy G.

    2018-02-01

    The fastest and most manoeuvrable terrestrial animals are found in savannah habitats, where predators chase and capture running prey. Hunt outcome and success rate are critical to survival, so both predator and prey should evolve to be faster and/or more manoeuvrable. Here we compare locomotor characteristics in two pursuit predator-prey pairs, lion-zebra and cheetah-impala, in their natural savannah habitat in Botswana. We show that although cheetahs and impalas were universally more athletic than lions and zebras in terms of speed, acceleration and turning, within each predator-prey pair, the predators had 20% higher muscle fibre power than prey, 37% greater acceleration and 72% greater deceleration capacity than their prey. We simulated hunt dynamics with these data and showed that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival, and that the predator needs to be more athletic than its prey to sustain a viable success rate.

  2. Biomechanics of predator-prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alan M; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilshin, Simon D; Lowe, John C; Lorenc, Maja; Dewhirst, Oliver P; Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Diack, Rebecca; Bennitt, Emily; Golabek, Krystyna A; Woledge, Roger C; McNutt, J Weldon; Curtin, Nancy A; West, Timothy G

    2018-02-08

    The fastest and most manoeuvrable terrestrial animals are found in savannah habitats, where predators chase and capture running prey. Hunt outcome and success rate are critical to survival, so both predator and prey should evolve to be faster and/or more manoeuvrable. Here we compare locomotor characteristics in two pursuit predator-prey pairs, lion-zebra and cheetah-impala, in their natural savannah habitat in Botswana. We show that although cheetahs and impalas were universally more athletic than lions and zebras in terms of speed, acceleration and turning, within each predator-prey pair, the predators had 20% higher muscle fibre power than prey, 37% greater acceleration and 72% greater deceleration capacity than their prey. We simulated hunt dynamics with these data and showed that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival, and that the predator needs to be more athletic than its prey to sustain a viable success rate.

  3. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  4. Ultrasonographic adrenal gland findings in healthy semi-captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Kirberger, Robert M; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-05-01

    Cheetahs in captivity are believed to suffer from stress predisposing them to poor health. To date fecal glucocorticoids have been used as a non-invasive indicator of chronic stress. This study examines, the feasibility of transabdominal adrenal gland ultrasonography in cheetahs and determined normal adrenal measurements that can potentially be used as a more reliable indicator of chronic stress and/or adrenal function. Thirty-three adult cheetahs, aged between 2 and 13 years, accommodated in large off-display camps were examined over 9 days under general anesthesia. The adrenals were readily identified, with the right adrenal being more difficult to find and measure than the left, and were smaller than those expected in similar sized dogs. The left adrenal was shorter and slightly more oval shaped than the right with a length and cranial pole width at a 95% prediction interval of 16.3-22.4 and 4.1-8.7 mm. The same measurements for the right adrenal were 16.8-26.2 and 3.4-10.8 mm, respectively. Corticomedullary ratios were larger for the left adrenal. When corrected for body size, females had significantly longer and greater left adrenal corticomedullary ratios than males. Adrenal measurements did not correlate with left renal length, body size measurements, or enclosure size. Measurements that increased with age included the cortical and total adrenal widths. Adrenal ultrasonography offers potential benefits in assessment of individual cheetah adrenal pathology or the evaluation of stress induced adrenomegally especially in combination with other evaluations such as non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid analyses. Zoo Biol. 35:260-268, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wildt, David E.; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify ‘biomarkers’ and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population. PMID:29236714

  6. Blood values of adult captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented beef or whole rabbit carcasses.

    PubMed

    Depauw, Sarah; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Stagegaard, J; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated nutrient intake and relevant blood parameters of 14 captive cheetahs, randomly assigned to a meat-only diet (supplemented beef, SB) or a whole prey diet (whole rabbit, WR) for 4 weeks each. Despite a higher food intake, daily metabolizable energy intake was lower when fed WR (308 kJ BW(-1) ) compared with SB (347 kJ BW(-1) ) (P = 0.002). The ratio of protein to fat was markedly lower for WR (2.3:1) compared with SB (8.8:1), which was reflected in higher serum urea levels when fed SB (P = 0.033), and a tendency for elevated cholesterol levels when fed WR (P = 0.055). Taurine intake of cheetahs fed WR was low (0.06% on DM basis); however, analytical error during taurine analysis cannot be ruled out. Feeding WR resulted in a well-balanced mineral intake, in contrast to SB. The latter provided a low calcium:phosphorus ratio (1:2.3), thereby increasing the risk of metabolic bone disease. The high zinc content of SB (200 mg/kg DM), compared with WR (94 mg/kg DM), was reflected in higher serum zinc concentrations (P = 0.011). Feeding WR resulted in an increase in serum vitamin A (P = 0.011). Therefore, the risk of hypervitaminosis A in captive cheetahs when fed WR exclusively on a long-term basis should be evaluated. Our findings suggest that neither diet is likely to provide appropriate nutrition to captive cheetahs when fed exclusively. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dietary Factors Associated with Faecal Consistency and Other Indicators of Gastrointestinal Health in the Captive Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine M.; Lefebvre, Sandra L.; Janssens, Geert P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal diseases pose significant risks to captive cheetah survival and welfare. Multiple factors are thought to be associated with these diseases, but to date a comprehensive epidemiological survey of disease risk factors has not been conducted. A survey of diet and health parameters was completed for 184 captive cheetahs in 86 international facilities. Comparisons were made among dietary factors with respect to disease status and observed faecal consistency, incidence of vomiting and diarrhoea in the past 4 weeks. Extremely dry faeces were most common in cheetahs fed carcasses, but was still of low incidence (15%). Contrastingly, cheetahs fed commercially prepared diets had the highest prevalence of liquid faeces “always” or “often” (9%). Cheetahs fed raw meat diets had the highest prevalence of soft faeces with no shape (22%), as well as of firm and dry faeces (40%). No broad category of diet exerted any influence on the health parameters investigated. However, feeding of ribs at least once per week reduced the odds of diarrhoea (P = 0.020) and feeding of long bones (limbs) at least once per week was associated with a lower odds of vomiting (P = 0.008). Cheetahs fed muscle meat at least once per week had reduced odds of suffering from chronic gastritis (P = 0.005) or non-specific gastrointestinal disease (P < 0.001). The only factor identified as increasing the odds of chronic gastritis was feeding of horse “often” or “always” (P = 0.023). The findings of the current study build on existing empirical research to support a recommendation towards a greater inclusion of skeletal components. Current husbandry guidelines advocating the use of supplemented raw meat diets are likewise supported, but the use of horse meat, as well as commercially prepared diets for captive cheetahs, warrants caution until further research is conducted. PMID:25830636

  8. Dietary factors associated with faecal consistency and other indicators of gastrointestinal health in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine M; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Janssens, Geert P J

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal diseases pose significant risks to captive cheetah survival and welfare. Multiple factors are thought to be associated with these diseases, but to date a comprehensive epidemiological survey of disease risk factors has not been conducted. A survey of diet and health parameters was completed for 184 captive cheetahs in 86 international facilities. Comparisons were made among dietary factors with respect to disease status and observed faecal consistency, incidence of vomiting and diarrhoea in the past 4 weeks. Extremely dry faeces were most common in cheetahs fed carcasses, but was still of low incidence (15%). Contrastingly, cheetahs fed commercially prepared diets had the highest prevalence of liquid faeces "always" or "often" (9%). Cheetahs fed raw meat diets had the highest prevalence of soft faeces with no shape (22%), as well as of firm and dry faeces (40%). No broad category of diet exerted any influence on the health parameters investigated. However, feeding of ribs at least once per week reduced the odds of diarrhoea (P = 0.020) and feeding of long bones (limbs) at least once per week was associated with a lower odds of vomiting (P = 0.008). Cheetahs fed muscle meat at least once per week had reduced odds of suffering from chronic gastritis (P = 0.005) or non-specific gastrointestinal disease (P < 0.001). The only factor identified as increasing the odds of chronic gastritis was feeding of horse "often" or "always" (P = 0.023). The findings of the current study build on existing empirical research to support a recommendation towards a greater inclusion of skeletal components. Current husbandry guidelines advocating the use of supplemented raw meat diets are likewise supported, but the use of horse meat, as well as commercially prepared diets for captive cheetahs, warrants caution until further research is conducted.

  9. PCBs and OH-PCBs in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels in 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Øystein; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma concentrations and prevalence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxylated PCB-metabolites (OH-PCBs) in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) mothers (n=26) and their 4 months old cubs-of-the-year (n=38) from Svalbard to gain insight into the mother-cub transfer, biotransformation and to evaluate the health risk associated with the exposure to these contaminants. As samplings were performed in 1997/1998 and 2008, we further investigated the differences in levels and pattern of PCBs between the two sampling years. The plasma concentrations of Σ(21)PCBs (1997/1998: 5710 ± 3090 ng/g lipid weight [lw], 2008: 2560 ± 1500 ng/g lw) and Σ(6)OH-PCBs (1997/1998: 228 ± 60 ng/g wet weight [ww], 2008: 80 ± 38 ng/g ww) in mothers were significantly lower in 2008 compared to in 1997/1998. In cubs, the plasma concentrations of Σ(21)PCBs (1997/1998: 14680 ± 5350 ng/g lw, 2008: 6070 ± 2590 ng/g lw) and Σ(6)OH-PCBs (1997/1998: 98 ± 23 ng/g ww, 2008: 49 ± 21 ng/g ww) were also significantly lower in 2008 than in 1997/1998. Σ(21)PCBs in cubs was 2.7 ± 0.7 times higher than in their mothers. This is due to a significant maternal transfer of these contaminants. In contrast, Σ(6)OH-PCBs in cubs were approximately 0.53 ± 0.16 times the concentration in their mothers. This indicates a lower maternal transfer of OH-PCBs compared to PCBs. The majority of the metabolite/precursor-ratios were lower in cubs compared to mothers. This may indicate that cubs have a lower endogenous capacity to biotransform PCBs to OH-PCBs than polar bear mothers. Exposure to PCBs and OH-PCBs is a potential health risk for polar bears, and the levels of PCBs and OH-PCBs in cubs from 2008 were still above levels associated with health effects in humans and wildlife. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Circumventing the natural, frequent oestrogen waves of the female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) using oral progestin (Altrenogest).

    PubMed

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Comizzoli, Pierre; Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E

    2017-08-01

    Cheetah are induced ovulators, experiencing short, variable oestrogen waves year-round. Exogenous gonadotrophin administration induces ovulation, but success is variable and often improves if ovaries are quiescent. After affirming the presence of short-term oestrogenic waves, we examined the effect of the timing of administration of exogenous equine and human chorionic gonadotrophins (eCG-hCG) within the oestrogen concentration pattern on subsequent follicle development and oocyte and corpus luteum quality. We also investigated ovarian suppression using an oral progestin (Altrenogest, 7 days) and assessed whether Altrenogest moderated adrenal activity by reducing glucocorticoid metabolites. All cheetahs exhibited short (every ~7-10 days), sporadic, year-round increases in faecal oestradiol punctuated by unpredictable periods (4-10 weeks) of baseline oestradiol (anoestrous). Gonadotrophin (eCG-hCG) efficacy was not affected by oestradiol 'wave' pattern if administered ≥3 days after an oestrogen peak. Such cheetahs produced normative faecal progestagen patterns and higher numbers (P<0.06) of mature oocytes than females given gonadotrophins ≤2 days after an oestradiol peak. Altrenogest supplementation expanded the interval between oestradiol peaks to 12.9 days compared with 7.3 days without progestin pretreatment. Altrenogest-fed females excreted less (P<0.05) glucocorticoid metabolites than non-supplemented counterparts. Results show that Altrenogest is effective for suppressing follicular activity, may contribute to reduced glucocorticoid production and may result in more effective ovulation induction via gonadotrophin therapy.

  11. MULTICENTRIC T-CELL LYMPHOMA AND CUTANEOUS HEMANGIOSARCOMA IN A CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS).

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Dana M; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Gonzalez, Estehela; Hallman, Mackenzie; Hause, Ben M

    2015-12-01

    A 13-yr-old intact male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) presented for evaluation after a 4-mo history of intermittent lethargy and increased expiratory effort. The clinical signs were initially noted after the diagnosis and death of its 13-yr-old male sibling with solitary hepatic T-cell lymphoma. Physical examination findings included thin body condition, harsh lung sounds, peripheral lymphadenopathy, and a cutaneous mass on the right medial tarsus and scrotum. Excisional biopsies diagnosed well-differentiated cutaneous hemangiosarcomas. Thoracic radiographs revealed a cranial mediastinal mass. Complete blood count and serum biochemical analyses showed a leukocytosis with persistent lymphocytosis, progressive azotemia, and markedly elevated alkaline phosphatase. Because of the cheetah's declining quality of life, euthanasia was elected. Postmortem examination, histopathology, and immunohistochemical staining revealed multicentric T-cell lymphoma. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, FeLV polymerase chain reaction (whole blood), and viral metagenomic analysis were negative. This is the first case of cutaneous hemangiosarcoma and multicentric T-cell lymphoma reported in a FeLV-negative cheetah.

  12. CHEETAH: circuit-switched high-speed end-to-end transport architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Zheng, Xuan; Lee, Hyuk; Gardner, M.; Feng, Wuchun

    2003-10-01

    Leveraging the dominance of Ethernet in LANs and SONET/SDH in MANs and WANs, we propose a service called CHEETAH (Circuit-switched High-speed End-to-End Transport ArcHitecture). The service concept is to provide end hosts with high-speed, end-to-end circuit connectivity on a call-by-call shared basis, where a "circuit" consists of Ethernet segments at the ends that are mapped into Ethernet-over-SONET long-distance circuits. This paper focuses on the file-transfer application for such circuits. For this application, the CHEETAH service is proposed as an add-on to the primary Internet access service already in place for enterprise hosts. This allows an end host that is sending a file to first attempt setting up an end-to-end Ethernet/EoS circuit, and if rejected, fall back to the TCP/IP path. If the circuit setup is successful, the end host will enjoy a much shorter file-transfer delay than on the TCP/IP path. To determine the conditions under which an end host with access to the CHEETAH service should attempt circuit setup, we analyze mean file-transfer delays as a function of call blocking probability in the circuit-switched network, probability of packet loss in the IP network, round-trip times, link rates, and so on.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of faecal microbiota from captive cheetahs reveals underrepresentation of Bacteroidetes and Bifidobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Becker, Anne A M J; Hesta, Myriam; Hollants, Joke; Janssens, Geert P J; Huys, Geert

    2014-02-18

    Imbalanced feeding regimes may initiate gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases in endangered felids kept in captivity such as cheetahs. Given the crucial role of the host's intestinal microbiota in feed fermentation and health maintenance, a better understanding of the cheetah's intestinal ecosystem is essential for improvement of current feeding strategies. We determined the phylogenetic diversity of the faecal microbiota of the only two cheetahs housed in an EAZA associated zoo in Flanders, Belgium, to gain first insights in the relative distribution, identity and potential role of the major community members. Taxonomic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (702 clones) revealed a microbiota dominated by Firmicutes (94.7%), followed by a minority of Actinobacteria (4.3%), Proteobacteria (0.4%) and Fusobacteria (0.6%). In the Firmicutes, the majority of the phylotypes within the Clostridiales were assigned to Clostridium clusters XIVa (43%), XI (38%) and I (13%). Members of the Bacteroidetes phylum and Bifidobacteriaceae, two groups that can positively contribute in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, were absent in the clone libraries and detected in only marginal to low levels in real-time PCR analyses. This marked underrepresentation is in contrast to data previously reported in domestic cats where Bacteroidetes and Bifidobacteriaceae are common residents of the faecal microbiota. Next to methodological differences, these findings may also reflect the apparent differences in dietary habits of both felid species. Thus, our results question the role of the domestic cat as the best available model for nutritional intervention studies in endangered exotic felids.

  14. Serum Amyloid A Protein Concentration in Blood is Influenced by Genetic Differences in the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among captive cheetahs. The self-aggregating AA protein responsible for this disease is a byproduct of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein degradation. Transcriptional induction of the SAA1 gene is dependent on both C/EBPβ and NF-κB cis-acting elements within the promoter region. In cheetahs, 2 alleles exist for a single guanine nucleotide deletion in the putative NF-κB binding site. In this study, a novel genotyping assay was developed to screen for the alleles. The results show that the SAA1A−97delG allele is associated with decreased SAA protein concentrations in the serum of captive cheetahs (n = 58), suggesting genetic differences at this locus may be affecting AA amyloidosis prevalence. However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the SAA1A−97delG allele between individuals confirmed AA amyloidosis positive versus AA amyloidosis negative at the time of necropsy (n = 48). Thus, even though there is evidence that having more copies of the SAA1A−97delG allele results in a potentially protective decrease in serum concentrations of SAA protein in captive cheetahs, genotype is not associated with this disease within the North American population. These results suggest that other factors are playing a more significant role in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis among captive cheetahs. PMID:26585380

  15. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marnewick, Kelly; Page-Nicholson, Samantha; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust's Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes.

  16. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marnewick, Kelly; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. New information This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes. PMID:28325981

  17. ‘Neanderthal bone flutes’: simply products of Ice Age spotted hyena scavenging activities on cave bear cubs in European cave bear dens

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2015-01-01

    Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as ‘Palaeolithic bone flutes’ and the ‘oldest Neanderthal instruments’. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. Late Middle to Late Pleistocene (Mousterian to Gravettian) Ice Age spotted hyenas of Europe occupied mainly cave entrances as dens (communal/cub raising den types), but went deeper for scavenging into cave bear dens, or used in a few cases branches/diagonal shafts (i.e. prey storage den type). In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. Hyenas produced round–oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. All stages of femur puncturing to crushing are demonstrated herein, especially on a large cave bear population from a German cave bear den. PMID:26064624

  18. Sarcoptic mange and cheetah conservation in Masai Mara (Kenya): epidemiological study in a wildlife/livestock system.

    PubMed

    Gakuya, Francis; Ombui, Jackson; Maingi, Ndichu; Muchemi, Gerald; Ogara, William; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer

    2012-10-01

    The sanitary control of threatened wild animals is of pivotal interest for their conservation. This task, however, is highly complex in wildlife/livestock systems. In this paper we report findings from a 2-year cross-sectional study of the epidemiology and attempted control of a Sarcoptes mite infestation in the threatened cheetah population in Masai Mara (Kenya), and discuss its interaction with sympatric wild (lion, wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle) and domestic (dog, cattle and sheep) animals. Sarcoptes scabiei was isolated from cheetahs, Thomson's gazelles, wildebeests, lions, cattle, goats and dogs; Psoroptes ovis, on the other hand, was only isolated from sheep. The prevalence study revealed 12·77% infection rates in cheetahs, 4·7% in dogs, 0·8% in Thomson's gazelles, 0·8% in sheep, 0·09% in cattle, and 0·09% in goats, while it opportunistically affected lions and wildebeest. Our study revealed that prevalence of Sarcoptes mite in cheetah population was not associated with the studied geographical blocks, animal sex or the presence of affected domestic animals. Cheetah infection with S. scabiei was associated with the climatic conditions (dry more than wet season) and the balancing between the total number of Thomson's gazelles and the prevalence of infected individuals. Apparently the high prevalence of mangy gazelles has a negative effect on cheetah; this negative effect was reduced when the number of healthy gazelles was increased. Treatment with injectable ivermectin of the clinically affected wild and domestic animals during the first year of this study was associated with much lower incidence of sarcoptic mange during the second year.

  19. Grounding Action Words in the Sensorimotor Interaction with the World: Experiments with a Simulated iCub Humanoid Robot

    PubMed Central

    Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo; Fischer, Kerstin; Belpaeme, Tony

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive robotics model for the study of the embodied representation of action words. The present research will present how an iCub humanoid robot can learn the meaning of action words (i.e. words that represent dynamical events that happen in time) by physically interacting with the environment and linking the effects of its own actions with the behavior observed on the objects before and after the action. The control system of the robot is an artificial neural network trained to manipulate an object through a Back-Propagation-Through-Time algorithm. We will show that in the presented model the grounding of action words relies directly to the way in which an agent interacts with the environment and manipulates it. PMID:20725503

  20. Intrinsic factors, adrenal gland morphology, and disease burden in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gillis-Germitsch, Nina; Vybiral, Pamela-Rose; Codron, Daryl; Clauss, Marcus; Kotze, Antoinette; Mitchell, Emily P

    2017-01-01

    Adrenal gland weight (AW) and corticomedullary ratio (ACMR) are used as indicators of stress in animals. Captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) have higher ACMRs than free-ranging ones and stress has been linked to gastritis, amyloidosis, glomerulosclerosis, and myocardial fibrosis. We reviewed age, sex, body weight (BW), kidney weight (KW), and left AW and ACMR with necropsy findings in 51 South African captive cheetahs. Eleven common histopathologic lesions were counted for each animal as measure of its disease burden. Adrenal corticomedullary hyperplasia was significantly correlated with left AW and ACMR. Males had significantly higher AWs than females; other parameters showed no difference between the sexes. Disease burden, gastritis, and myocardial fibrosis were moderately correlated with adrenal morphology supporting prior evidence that gastritis and myocardial fibrosis are linked to stress. Glomerulosclerosis was not correlated with adrenal morphology and neither kidney nor liver amyloidosis contributed significantly to variation in AW or ACMR on multivariate analyses. Interstitial nephritis showed much stronger correlations with kidney and liver amyloidosis than gastritis. All three adrenal parameters were correlated with age; age was the only significant variable affecting ACMR on the multivariate analyses; and disease burden as well as systemic amyloidosis and kidney disease (except for fibrosis) showed moderate correlations with age. Age may, therefore, be important in the pathogenesis of disease in captive cheetahs, particularly of amyloidosis and kidney disease. None of the intrinsic measurements or adrenal parameters were sufficiently closely linked to disease to be used as ante-mortem proxies for disease burden or specific diseases. Zoo Biol. 36:40-49, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Animal fibre: the forgotten nutrient in strict carnivores? First insights in the cheetah.

    PubMed

    Depauw, S; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Vanhaecke, L; Verbrugghe, A; Janssens, G P J

    2013-02-01

    As wild felids are obligate carnivores, it is likely that poorly enzymatically digestible animal tissues determine hindgut fermentation, instead of plant fibre. Therefore, faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, including branched-chain fatty acids, BCFA), indole and phenol were evaluated in 14 captive cheetahs, fed two different diets differing in proportion of poorly enzymatically digestible animal tissue. Using a cross-over design, the cheetahs were fed exclusively whole rabbit or supplemented beef for 1 month each. Feeding whole rabbit decreased faecal propionic (p < 0.001) and butyric (p = 0.013) acid concentrations, yet total SCFA was unaltered (p = 0.146). Also, a remarkably higher acetic acid to propionic acid ratio (p = 0.013) was present when fed whole rabbit. Total BCFA (p = 0.011) and putrefactive indole (p = 0.004) and phenol (p = 0.002) were lower when fed whole rabbit. Additionally, serum indoxyl sulphate, a toxic metabolite of indole, was analysed and showed a quadratic decrease (p = 0.050) when fed whole rabbit. The divergent SCFA ratios and the decrease in putrefaction when fed whole rabbit could be caused by the presence of undigested tissue, such as skin, bone and cartilage, that might have fibre-like functions. The concept of animal fibre is an unexplored area of interest relevant to gastrointestinal health of captive cheetahs and likely other felids. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Chylous ascites in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with venoocclusive liver disease.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Scott P; Fontenot, Deidre K; Miller, Michele A; Weber, Martha A

    2003-12-01

    An 11-yr-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) was diagnosed clinically with hepatic and renal disease and euthanatized after an extended illness. Postmortem examination revealed 8-10 L of milky white fluid in the abdominal cavity and markedly dilated lymphatic vessels within the intestinal mesentery. The abdominal fluid was a chylous effusion based on the cytologic predominance of lymphocytes and macrophages and comparison of cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the fluid and in serum. Gross and histopathologic lesions in the liver were consistent with a diagnosis of venoocclusive liver disease. Chylous ascites is uncommon with human chronic liver disease and is rarely identified in animals.

  3. Reactive Flow Modeling of Liquid Explosives via ALE3D/Cheetah Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, I W; Bastea, S; Fried, L E

    2010-03-10

    We carried out reactive flow simulations of liquid explosives such as nitromethane using the hydrodynamic code ALE3D coupled with equations of state and reaction kinetics modeled by the thermochemical code Cheetah. The simulation set-up was chosen to mimic cylinder experiments. For pure unconfined nitromethane we find that the failure diameter and detonation velocity dependence on charge diameter are in agreement with available experimental results. Such simulations are likely to be useful for determining detonability and failure behavior for a wide range of experimental conditions and explosive compounds.

  4. Tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine, and xylazine anesthesia of captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Albert H; Bonar, Christopher J; Evans, Sara E

    2002-12-01

    Thirty-two anesthetic episodes used a combination of tiletamine-zolezepam (50 mg/ml each), ketamine (80 mg/ml), and xylazine (20 mg/ml) at various dosages for routine diagnostic and minor surgical procedures in 13 captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The mean dosage (0.023 +/- 0.003 ml/kg) provided rapid induction with a single i.m. injection along with safe predictable working time, good muscle relaxation, and analgesia. Yohimbine administration subsequently accelerated smooth and rapid recovery.

  5. Improved quality of cryopreserved cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) spermatozoa after centrifugation through Accudenz.

    PubMed

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Henghali, Josephine N; Howard, Jogayle; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Terrell, Kimberly A; Marker, Laurie L; Wildt, David E

    2009-01-01

    Sperm cryopreservation, in combination with assisted reproductive techniques, is a valuable tool for the genetic management of endangered felids. However, the acrosome of the cheetah spermatozoon is especially sensitive to cryopreservation, with approximately 40% of spermatozoa experiencing acrosomal damage immediately after thawing and then another approximately 15% loss during the next 4 hours in vitro. Additionally, thawing causes a reduction in sperm motility by approximately 20% with another decrease of approximately 12% during subsequent incubation in vitro. We hypothesized that slow removal of glycerol from cryopreserved cheetah spermatozoa using an Accudenz gradient would improve acrosomal integrity, sperm motility longevity, and structural morphology. Accudenz was compared with traditional cheetah sperm processing methods for glycerol removal that involves washing, multistep resuspension, and swim-up processing. Electroejaculates (n = 21 total from 8 males) were washed in Ham F10 medium, and sperm pellets were resuspended in TEST-yolk buffer with 0% glycerol. Samples were cryopreserved in straws in 4% final glycerol, thawed, and assessed for percent intact acrosomes (% IA), percent motility (% M), and forward progressive status (FPS; scale, 0-5). Sperm motility index (SMI) was calculated as (% M + [FPS x 20]) / 2. In study 1, glycerol removal by centrifugation through an Accudenz gradient (4%, 10%) was compared with traditional sperm washing (control) and multistep resuspension protocols. At each time after centrifugation (hourly for 4 hours), % IA was improved (P < .05) for Accudenz (range, 36%-39%) compared with control (30%-33%) and multistep (29%-33%) treatments. In study 2, a modified Accudenz protocol was compared with traditional washing and was found to improve (P < .05) SMI (range, 52-64) compared with controls (range, 41-52) at each time postthaw after centrifugation. In study 3, swim-up processed sperm were compared with those treated by

  6. All roads lead to Iran: Predicting landscape connectivity of the last stronghold for the critically endangered Asiatic cheetah

    Treesearch

    E. M. Moqanaki; Samuel Cushman

    2016-01-01

    Effective conservation solutions for small and isolated wildlife populations depend on identifying and preserving critical biological corridors and dispersal routes. With a worldwide population of ≤70 individuals, the critically endangered Asiatic cheetah Acinonyx jubatus venaticus persists in several fragmented nuclei in Iran. Connectivity between nuclei is...

  7. Diet composition and blood values of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented meat or commercial food preparations.

    PubMed

    Bechert, Ursula; Mortenson, Jack; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Cheeke, Peter; Keller, Mark; Holick, Michael; Chen, Tai C; Rogers, Quinton

    2002-03-01

    Nutrition most certainly affects health and may play a role in the etiology of growth and reproductive problems in captive cheetah (Acinonyxjubatus) populations. The objective of our research was to examine nutritional differences between two dietary regimens and quantify their physiologic effects on cheetahs held in captivity. Twelve cheetahs were randomly assigned to either a commercial diet (COM) or a supplemented meat diet (SMD) group. These cats were physically examined and had blood samples taken three times over the course of a year. Representative samples of COM and four separate components of the SMD treatment were analyzed over the same time frame for proximate nutrient composition, digestibility, and concentrations of taurine, fat-soluble vitamins, and selected minerals. Concentrations of fat, vitamins A and E, Se, Fe, Cu, Na, and Mn were significantly higher in COM compared with those in SMD samples, with the exception of fat content in turkey. Mg content was lower in COM than in SMD; other nutrients did not differ. Mean concentrations of vitamins A and E in COM were markedly higher than in SMD samples (408,140 vs. 29,696 IU/kg dry matter [DM] and 431 vs. 48 IU/kg DM, respectively) and varied dramatically between sampling periods. Percent crude protein and protein-to-fat ratios were high for SMD compared with either whole prey-based or commercial food preparations. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were above normal reference means for domestic cats. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E were significantly higher in COM-fed than in SMD-fed cheetahs. Both plasma retinol and tocopherol levels were almost three times higher in COM-fed cats (1.26 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.03 microg/ml and 17.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.02 microg/ml, respectively) and exceeded the normal ranges expected for domestic felids. Significant differences between male and female cheetahs were found for plasma concentrations of vitamin E, Se, and Fe after allowing for

  8. Motions of the running horse and cheetah revisited: fundamental mechanics of the transverse and rotary gallop

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, John E.A.; Gutmann, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Mammals use two distinct gallops referred to as the transverse (where landing and take-off are contralateral) and rotary (where landing and take-off are ipsilateral). These two gallops are used by a variety of mammals, but the transverse gallop is epitomized by the horse and the rotary gallop by the cheetah. In this paper, we argue that the fundamental difference between these gaits is determined by which set of limbs, fore or hind, initiates the transition of the centre of mass from a downward–forward to upward–forward trajectory that occurs between the main ballistic (non-contact) portions of the stride when the animal makes contact with the ground. The impulse-mediated directional transition is a key feature of locomotion on limbs and is one of the major sources of momentum and kinetic energy loss, and a main reason why active work must be added to maintain speed in locomotion. Our analysis shows that the equine gallop transition is initiated by a hindlimb contact and occurs in a manner in some ways analogous to the skipping of a stone on a water surface. By contrast, the cheetah gallop transition is initiated by a forelimb contact, and the mechanics appear to have much in common with the human bipedal run. Many mammals use both types of gallop, and the transition strategies that we describe form points on a continuum linked even to functionally symmetrical running gaits such as the tölt and amble. PMID:18854295

  9. Impact of mimicking natural dispersion on breeding success of captive North American Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Gillman, Sierra J; Ziegler-Meeks, Karen; Eager, Carol; Tenhundfeld, Thomas A; Shaffstall, Wendy; Stearns, Mary Jo; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of transfer away from natal facility and littermate presence on cheetah breeding success in the AZA Species Survival Plan (SSP) population. Transfer and breeding history data for captive males and females were gathered from seven and four AZA SSP breeding facilities, respectively, to identify factors influencing breeding success. The results indicate that transfer history (p = 0.032), age at transfer (p = 0.013), and female littermate presence/absence (p = 0.04) was associated with breeding success, with females transferred away from their natal facility before sexual maturity and without littermates present accounting for the highest breeding success. Keeping males at their natal facility and/or removing them from their coalitions did not negatively affect their breeding success. Males appeared to demonstrate the same fecundity regardless of transfer history or coalition status, indicating that dispersal away from natal environment was not as critical for the breeding success of males compared with female cheetahs. These results highlight the significance of moving females away from their natal environment, as would occur in the wild, and separating them from their female littermates for optimization of breeding success in the ex situ population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The global decline of cheetah Acinonyx jubatus and what it means for conservation.

    PubMed

    Durant, Sarah M; Mitchell, Nicholas; Groom, Rosemary; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Ipavec, Audrey; Jacobson, Andrew P; Woodroffe, Rosie; Böhm, Monika; Hunter, Luke T B; Becker, Matthew S; Broekhuis, Femke; Bashir, Sultana; Andresen, Leah; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Beddiaf, Mohammed; Belbachir, Farid; Belbachir-Bazi, Amel; Berbash, Ali; Brandao de Matos Machado, Iracelma; Breitenmoser, Christine; Chege, Monica; Cilliers, Deon; Davies-Mostert, Harriet; Dickman, Amy J; Ezekiel, Fabiano; Farhadinia, Mohammad S; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Horgan, Jane; de Iongh, Hans H; Jowkar, Houman; Klein, Rebecca; Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Marker, Laurie; Marnewick, Kelly; Melzheimer, Joerg; Merkle, Johnathan; M'soka, Jassiel; Msuha, Maurus; O'Neill, Helen; Parker, Megan; Purchase, Gianetta; Sahailou, Samaila; Saidu, Yohanna; Samna, Abdoulkarim; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Selebatso, Eda; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Soultan, Alaaeldin; Stone, Emma; van der Meer, Esther; van Vuuren, Rudie; Wykstra, Mary; Young-Overton, Kim

    2017-01-17

    Establishing and maintaining protected areas (PAs) are key tools for biodiversity conservation. However, this approach is insufficient for many species, particularly those that are wide-ranging and sparse. The cheetah Acinonyx jubatus exemplifies such a species and faces extreme challenges to its survival. Here, we show that the global population is estimated at ∼7,100 individuals and confined to 9% of its historical distributional range. However, the majority of current range (77%) occurs outside of PAs, where the species faces multiple threats. Scenario modeling shows that, where growth rates are suppressed outside PAs, extinction rates increase rapidly as the proportion of population protected declines. Sensitivity analysis shows that growth rates within PAs have to be high if they are to compensate for declines outside. Susceptibility of cheetah to rapid decline is evidenced by recent rapid contraction in range, supporting an uplisting of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List threat assessment to endangered. Our results are applicable to other protection-reliant species, which may be subject to systematic underestimation of threat when there is insufficient information outside PAs. Ultimately, conserving many of these species necessitates a paradigm shift in conservation toward a holistic approach that incentivizes protection and promotes sustainable human-wildlife coexistence across large multiple-use landscapes.

  11. [Cyptococcus gattii isolated from a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the National Zoo of Cuba].

    PubMed

    Polo Leal, Jorge Luis; Fernández Andreu, Carlos Manuel; Martínez Machín, Gerardo; Illnait Zaragozi, María Teresa; Perurena Lancha, Mayda Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Cryptoccosis--systemic mycosis caused by Cryptococcus species--has considerably raised its incidence in the last years, mainly associated with the human immunodeficiency virus infection. It has also been described in animals, but rare cases. a case of a female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) kept in the Nacional Zoo of Havana was presented. The animal came from South Africa. She began losing weight, and suffering asthenia, anorexia and breathing problems with abundant nasal secretion. mycological testing of these secretions disclosed the presence of serotype B Cryptococcus gattii. Because of the origin and captive condition of the animal, it was believed that the infection had been latent for 16 months at least. up to the present, in Cuba, all clinical Cryptococcus isolates were C. neoformans var. grubii, so it is considered that the infection was caught in the country of origin of the female cheetah. This is the first C. gattii isolate in Cuba from an animal coming from South Africa where this fungus is endemic.

  12. The global decline of cheetah Acinonyx jubatus and what it means for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicholas; Groom, Rosemary; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Ipavec, Audrey; Jacobson, Andrew P.; Woodroffe, Rosie; Böhm, Monika; Becker, Matthew S.; Broekhuis, Femke; Bashir, Sultana; Andresen, Leah; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Beddiaf, Mohammed; Berbash, Ali; Brandao de Matos Machado, Iracelma; Breitenmoser, Christine; Chege, Monica; Cilliers, Deon; Davies-Mostert, Harriet; Dickman, Amy J.; Ezekiel, Fabiano; Farhadinia, Mohammad S.; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Horgan, Jane; de Iongh, Hans H.; Jowkar, Houman; Klein, Rebecca; Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Marker, Laurie; Marnewick, Kelly; Melzheimer, Joerg; Merkle, Johnathan; M'soka, Jassiel; Msuha, Maurus; O'Neill, Helen; Parker, Megan; Purchase, Gianetta; Sahailou, Samaila; Saidu, Yohanna; Samna, Abdoulkarim; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Selebatso, Eda; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Stone, Emma; van der Meer, Esther; van Vuuren, Rudie; Wykstra, Mary; Young-Overton, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Establishing and maintaining protected areas (PAs) are key tools for biodiversity conservation. However, this approach is insufficient for many species, particularly those that are wide-ranging and sparse. The cheetah Acinonyx jubatus exemplifies such a species and faces extreme challenges to its survival. Here, we show that the global population is estimated at ∼7,100 individuals and confined to 9% of its historical distributional range. However, the majority of current range (77%) occurs outside of PAs, where the species faces multiple threats. Scenario modeling shows that, where growth rates are suppressed outside PAs, extinction rates increase rapidly as the proportion of population protected declines. Sensitivity analysis shows that growth rates within PAs have to be high if they are to compensate for declines outside. Susceptibility of cheetah to rapid decline is evidenced by recent rapid contraction in range, supporting an uplisting of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List threat assessment to endangered. Our results are applicable to other protection-reliant species, which may be subject to systematic underestimation of threat when there is insufficient information outside PAs. Ultimately, conserving many of these species necessitates a paradigm shift in conservation toward a holistic approach that incentivizes protection and promotes sustainable human–wildlife coexistence across large multiple-use landscapes. PMID:28028225

  13. Integrated Community Profiling Indicates Long-Term Temporal Stability of the Predominant Faecal Microbiota in Captive Cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anne A. M. J.; Janssens, Geert P. J.; Snauwaert, Cindy; Hesta, Myriam; Huys, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the symbiotic relationship between gut microbes and their animal host requires characterization of the core microbiota across populations and in time. Especially in captive populations of endangered wildlife species such as the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), this knowledge is a key element to enhance feeding strategies and reduce gastrointestinal disorders. In order to investigate the temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota in cheetahs under human care, we conducted a longitudinal study over a 3-year period with bimonthly faecal sampling of 5 cheetahs housed in two European zoos. For this purpose, an integrated 16S rRNA DGGE-clone library approach was used in combination with a series of real-time PCR assays. Our findings disclosed a stable faecal microbiota, beyond intestinal community variations that were detected between zoo sample sets or between animals. The core of this microbiota was dominated by members of Clostridium clusters I, XI and XIVa, with mean concentrations ranging from 7.5-9.2 log10 CFU/g faeces and with significant positive correlations between these clusters (P<0.05), and by Lactobacillaceae. Moving window analysis of DGGE profiles revealed 23.3-25.6% change between consecutive samples for four of the cheetahs. The fifth animal in the study suffered from intermediate episodes of vomiting and diarrhea during the monitoring period and exhibited remarkably more change (39.4%). This observation may reflect the temporary impact of perturbations such as the animal’s compromised health, antibiotic administration or a combination thereof, which temporarily altered the relative proportions of Clostridium clusters I and XIVa. In conclusion, this first long-term monitoring study of the faecal microbiota in feline strict carnivores not only reveals a remarkable compositional stability of this ecosystem, but also shows a qualitative and quantitative similarity in a defined set of faecal bacterial lineages across the five animals under

  14. Serum Amyloid A Protein Concentration in Blood is Influenced by Genetic Differences in the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Franklin, Ashley D; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2016-03-01

    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among captive cheetahs. The self-aggregating AA protein responsible for this disease is a byproduct of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein degradation. Transcriptional induction of the SAA1 gene is dependent on both C/EBPβ and NF-κB cis-acting elements within the promoter region. In cheetahs, 2 alleles exist for a single guanine nucleotide deletion in the putative NF-κB binding site. In this study, a novel genotyping assay was developed to screen for the alleles. The results show that the SAA1A (-97delG) allele is associated with decreased SAA protein concentrations in the serum of captive cheetahs (n = 58), suggesting genetic differences at this locus may be affecting AA amyloidosis prevalence. However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele between individuals confirmed AA amyloidosis positive versus AA amyloidosis negative at the time of necropsy (n = 48). Thus, even though there is evidence that having more copies of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele results in a potentially protective decrease in serum concentrations of SAA protein in captive cheetahs, genotype is not associated with this disease within the North American population. These results suggest that other factors are playing a more significant role in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis among captive cheetahs. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Integrated community profiling indicates long-term temporal stability of the predominant faecal microbiota in captive cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Becker, Anne A M J; Janssens, Geert P J; Snauwaert, Cindy; Hesta, Myriam; Huys, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the symbiotic relationship between gut microbes and their animal host requires characterization of the core microbiota across populations and in time. Especially in captive populations of endangered wildlife species such as the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), this knowledge is a key element to enhance feeding strategies and reduce gastrointestinal disorders. In order to investigate the temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota in cheetahs under human care, we conducted a longitudinal study over a 3-year period with bimonthly faecal sampling of 5 cheetahs housed in two European zoos. For this purpose, an integrated 16S rRNA DGGE-clone library approach was used in combination with a series of real-time PCR assays. Our findings disclosed a stable faecal microbiota, beyond intestinal community variations that were detected between zoo sample sets or between animals. The core of this microbiota was dominated by members of Clostridium clusters I, XI and XIVa, with mean concentrations ranging from 7.5-9.2 log10 CFU/g faeces and with significant positive correlations between these clusters (P<0.05), and by Lactobacillaceae. Moving window analysis of DGGE profiles revealed 23.3-25.6% change between consecutive samples for four of the cheetahs. The fifth animal in the study suffered from intermediate episodes of vomiting and diarrhea during the monitoring period and exhibited remarkably more change (39.4%). This observation may reflect the temporary impact of perturbations such as the animal's compromised health, antibiotic administration or a combination thereof, which temporarily altered the relative proportions of Clostridium clusters I and XIVa. In conclusion, this first long-term monitoring study of the faecal microbiota in feline strict carnivores not only reveals a remarkable compositional stability of this ecosystem, but also shows a qualitative and quantitative similarity in a defined set of faecal bacterial lineages across the five animals under

  16. CARDIORESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE-BUTORPHANOL-MIDAZOLAM (DBM): A FULLY REVERSIBLE ANESTHETIC PROTOCOL IN CAPTIVE AND SEMI-FREE-RANGING CHEETAHS (ACINONYX JUBATUS).

    PubMed

    Woc Colburn, A Margarita; Murray, Suzan; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Marker, Laurie; Sanchez, Carlos R

    2017-03-01

    Multiple anesthesia protocols have been used in the cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ). Twenty healthy, captive cheetahs were immobilized with dexmedetomidine (15.8 ± 1.9 μg/kg), butorphanol (0.22 ± 0.03 mg/kg), and midazolam (0.18 ± 0.03 mg/kg) by intramuscular injection. Induction, recumbency, and recovery times were recorded, and physiologic parameters were monitored. Anesthesia was antagonized with atipamezole (0.125 ± 0.02 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.1 ± 0.014 mg/kg) intramuscularly. All cheetahs were safely anesthetized with this protocol. Cheetahs were laterally recumbent by 8 ± 3.5 min. Cardiorespiratory values were stable throughout the length of anesthesia. Moderate hypertension, with systolic blood pressure ranging from 178 ± 19.8 mm Hg, was initially observed but decreased over time. There was a statistical decreasing trend in temperature; SpO2; and systolic, mean, and diastolic blood pressure, but not in heart rate and end-tidal CO 2 . Recoveries were rapid, with cheetahs standing by 11.3 ± 5.7 min postreversal administration. This is the first report of a dexmedetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam anesthetic combination in cheetahs. Overall, this anesthetic protocol proved to be safe and effective.

  17. Evaluating the status of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus through tourist-based photographic surveys in the Kruger National Park [corrected].

    PubMed

    Marnewick, Kelly; Ferreira, Sam M; Grange, Sophie; Watermeyer, Jessica; Maputla, Nakedi; Davies-Mostert, Harriet T

    2014-01-01

    The Kruger National Park is a stronghold for African wild dog Lycaon pictus and cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in South Africa. Tourist photographic surveys have been used to evaluate the minimum number of wild dogs and cheetahs alive over the last two decades. Photographic-based capture-recapture techniques for open populations were used on data collected during a survey done in 2008/9. Models were run for the park as a whole and per region (northern, central, southern). A total of 412 (329-495; SE 41.95) cheetahs and 151 (144-157; SE 3.21) wild dogs occur in the Kruger National Park. Cheetah capture probabilities were affected by time (number of entries) and sex, whereas wild dog capture probabilities were affected by the region of the park. When plotting the number of new individuals identified against the number of entries received, the addition of new wild dogs to the survey reached an asymptote at 210 entries, but cheetahs did not reach an asymptote. The cheetah population of Kruger appears to be acceptable, while the wild dog population size and density are of concern. The effectiveness of tourist-based surveys for estimating population sizes through capture-recapture analyses is shown.

  18. Evaluating the Status of and African Wild Dogs Lycaon pictus and Cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus through Tourist-based Photographic Surveys in the Kruger National Park

    PubMed Central

    Marnewick, Kelly; Ferreira, Sam M.; Grange, Sophie; Watermeyer, Jessica; Maputla, Nakedi; Davies-Mostert, Harriet T.

    2014-01-01

    The Kruger National Park is a stronghold for African wild dog Lycaon pictus and cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in South Africa. Tourist photographic surveys have been used to evaluate the minimum number of wild dogs and cheetahs alive over the last two decades. Photographic-based capture-recapture techniques for open populations were used on data collected during a survey done in 2008/9. Models were run for the park as a whole and per region (northern, central, southern). A total of 412 (329–495; SE 41.95) cheetahs and 151 (144–157; SE 3.21) wild dogs occur in the Kruger National Park. Cheetah capture probabilities were affected by time (number of entries) and sex, whereas wild dog capture probabilities were affected by the region of the park. When plotting the number of new individuals identified against the number of entries received, the addition of new wild dogs to the survey reached an asymptote at 210 entries, but cheetahs did not reach an asymptote. The cheetah population of Kruger appears to be acceptable, while the wild dog population size and density are of concern. The effectiveness of tourist-based surveys for estimating population sizes through capture-recapture analyses is shown. PMID:24465998

  19. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum.

    PubMed

    Depauw, S; Bosch, G; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Hendriks, W H; Kaandorp, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-08-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P < 0.05), whereas total SCFA production was greatest for collagen (P < 0.05). Collagen induced an acetate production comparable with FOS and a markedly high acetate-to-propionate ratio (8.41:1) compared with all other substrates (1.67:1 to 2.97:1). Chicken cartilage was rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (R(max)) compared with all other substrates (P < 0.05). In general, animal substrates showed an earlier occurrence for maximal gas production rate compared with FOS. Rabbit hair, skin, and bone were poorly fermentable substrates, indicated by the least amount of OMCV and total SCFA among animal substrates (P < 0.05). The greatest amount of ammonia production among animal

  20. Exosomal microRNAs in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) breast milk: potential maternal regulators for the development of newborn cubs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jideng; Wang, Chengdong; Long, Keren; Zhang, Hemin; Zhang, Jinwei; Jin, Long; Tang, Qianzi; Jiang, Anan; Wang, Xun; Tian, Shilin; Chen, Li; He, Dafang; Li, Desheng; Huang, Shan; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Mingzhou

    2017-06-14

    The physiological role of miRNAs is widely understood to include fine-tuning the post-transcriptional regulation of a wide array of biological processes. Extensive studies have indicated that exosomal miRNAs in the bodily fluids of various organisms can be transferred between living cells for the delivery of gene silencing signals. Here, we illustrated the expression characteristics of exosomal miRNAs in giant panda breast milk during distinct lactation periods and highlighted the enrichment of immune- and development-related endogenous miRNAs in colostral and mature giant panda milk. These miRNAs are stable, even under certain harsh conditions, via the protection of extracellular vesicles. These findings indicate that breast milk may facilitate the dietary intake of maternal miRNAs by infants for the regulation of postnatal development. We also detected exogenous plant miRNAs from the primary food source of the giant panda (bamboo) in the exosomes of giant panda breast milk that were associated with regulatory roles in basic metabolism and neuron development. This result suggested that dietary plant miRNAs are absorbed by host cells and subsequently secreted into bodily fluids as potential cross-kingdom regulators. In conclusion, exosomal miRNAs in giant panda breast milk may be crucial maternal regulators for the development of intrinsic 'slink' newborn cubs.

  1. Ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, and urinary tract of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Carstens, Ann; Kirberger, Robert M; Spotswood, Tim; Wagner, Wencke M; Grimbeek, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    Diseases of the abdomen of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) include those affecting the liver, spleen, and urinary tract. The most common diseases of captive-bred cheetah are gastritis, gastric ulceration, glomerulosclerosis, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease, and are the most frequent causes of mortality in these animals. The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic anatomy of the normal liver, spleen, kidney, and urinary bladder of the anesthetized captive-bred cheetah. Twenty-one cheetahs were examined. Eight of the 21 animals had subclinical evidence of either gastritis or chronic renal disease. The ultrasonographic appearances of the liver, gall bladder, common bile duct, and spleen were evaluated and various measurements made. Statistical analyses of the measurements were performed on all the healthy and subclinically ill animals taking sex, age, mass, and anesthetic protocol into account. There were no significant differences in any parameters between the healthy and subclinically ill animals (P > 0.25) and data were combined for statistical analyses. The mean mass was 41.1kg ( +/- 8.8) and the mean age was 5.0 years (+/- 2.2). The mean thickness of the liver medial to the gall bladder was 67.0 mm (+/- 14.8) and the liver was within the left costal arch in 75% of animals, extended caudal to the right costal arch in 50% of animals for an average of 30 mm, and extended caudal to the sternum in 63% of animals for an average of 32.5 mm. The maximum mean hepatic vein diameter at the entrance to the caudal vena cava was 8.6 +/- 2.8 mm; the mean diameters of the portal vein at the hilus and that of the caudal vena cava as it entered the liver were 7.5 +/- 1.6 and 9.9 +/- 4.1 mm, respectively. The mean diameter of the caudal vena cava was significantly affected by the type of anesthetic used (P < 0.10). The mass of the animals was significant in explaining the variance in maximum portal vein diameters (P < 0.10). The mean maximum velocity of the

  2. Evaluation of cheetah and leopard spermatozoa developmental capability after interspecific ICSI with domestic cat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Sestelo, A J; Salamone, D F

    2014-08-01

    The ICSI procedure is potentially of great value for felids, and it has not been extensively studied in these species. The objectives of this work were to determine the best conditions for ICSI in the domestic cat (DC) to generate interspecific embryos by injecting cheetah (Ch) and leopard (Leo) spermatozoa. Firstly, DC oocytes were matured with insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) or without it (MM) and cultured using atmospheric (21%) or low (5%) oxygen tension after ICSI. The group ITS-5%O2 showed the highest blastocyst rate (p < 0.05), 20.9% vs 8.7%, 7% and 6.5%, for MM-21%O2 , MM-5%O2 and ITS-21%O2 , respectively. The best conditions were used to generate the interspecific embryos, together with ionomycin activation (Io) after ICSI. Interspecific embryos resulted in high rates of blastocysts that were not positively affected by Io activation: 32.6% vs 21% for Ch and Ch-Io, 9.8% vs 21% for Leo and Leo-Io, and 20% vs 17.4% for DC and DC-Io. We also evaluated DNA-fragmented nuclei of experiment 1 and 2 blastocysts, using TUNEL assay. The fragmented nucleus proportion was higher in the ITS-5%O2 group, 67.6%. Surprisingly, interspecific blastocysts showed the lowest fragmented nucleus proportion: 27% and 29.9% for Ch and Leo, respectively. We concluded that ITS and 5%O2 improve blastocyst formation in DC, although with a concomitant increase in DNA fragmentation. Most importantly, cheetah and leopard spermatozoa were able to generate blastocysts without artificial activation, which suggests that developmental capacity of wild felid spermatozoa can be evaluated by interspecific ICSI. This technique should be used to assist wild felid reproduction. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Movement activity based classification of animal behaviour with an application to data from cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be 83%-94%, but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail.

  4. Movement Activity Based Classification of Animal Behaviour with an Application to Data from Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be , but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail. PMID:23185301

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of faecal microbiota from captive cheetahs reveals underrepresentation of Bacteroidetes and Bifidobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Imbalanced feeding regimes may initiate gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases in endangered felids kept in captivity such as cheetahs. Given the crucial role of the host’s intestinal microbiota in feed fermentation and health maintenance, a better understanding of the cheetah’s intestinal ecosystem is essential for improvement of current feeding strategies. We determined the phylogenetic diversity of the faecal microbiota of the only two cheetahs housed in an EAZA associated zoo in Flanders, Belgium, to gain first insights in the relative distribution, identity and potential role of the major community members. Results Taxonomic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (702 clones) revealed a microbiota dominated by Firmicutes (94.7%), followed by a minority of Actinobacteria (4.3%), Proteobacteria (0.4%) and Fusobacteria (0.6%). In the Firmicutes, the majority of the phylotypes within the Clostridiales were assigned to Clostridium clusters XIVa (43%), XI (38%) and I (13%). Members of the Bacteroidetes phylum and Bifidobacteriaceae, two groups that can positively contribute in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, were absent in the clone libraries and detected in only marginal to low levels in real-time PCR analyses. Conclusions This marked underrepresentation is in contrast to data previously reported in domestic cats where Bacteroidetes and Bifidobacteriaceae are common residents of the faecal microbiota. Next to methodological differences, these findings may also reflect the apparent differences in dietary habits of both felid species. Thus, our results question the role of the domestic cat as the best available model for nutritional intervention studies in endangered exotic felids. PMID:24548488

  6. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis concurrent with gingival fistula caused by Schizophyllum commune in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Madoka; Kawarai, Shinpei; Torii, Yoshiko; Ota, Kaori; Tasaka, Kiyoshi; Nishimura, Kazuko; Fujii, Chieko; Kanemaki, Nobuyuki

    2017-12-01

    We describe for the first time the diagnosis of Schizophyllum commune infection in a captive cheetah. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis was detected histopathologically in a biopsy specimen. Both a second surgical specimen and drainage fluid from a gingival mass and fistula contained fungal hyphae in giant cells with granulomatous inflammation. Allergic S. commune mycosis was suspected at this point. A monokaryotic isolate was characterized morphologically, and then identified genetically. Treatment with itraconazole and pimaricin was effective.

  7. Prevalence of hematozoans in lions (Panthera leo) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, G A; Bjork, K E; Packer, C; Herbst, L

    1990-07-01

    Lions (Panthera leo) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) from the Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area, Tanzania were examined for the presence of blood protozoans. Twenty-eight percent of the lions were infected with Trypanosoma sp. and the prevalence of trypanosome infection varied significantly between adjacent habitats. All of the animals were infected with Hepatozoon sp. and a Theileria sp.-like piroplasm that was morphologically indistinguishable from Theileria felis.

  8. The use of reference strand-mediated conformational analysis for the study of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) feline leucocyte antigen class II DRB polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Drake, G J C; Kennedy, L J; Auty, H K; Ryvar, R; Ollier, W E R; Kitchener, A C; Freeman, A R; Radford, A D

    2004-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence to suggest the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has limited genetic diversity. However, the extent of this and its significance to the fitness of the cheetah population, both in the wild and captivity, is the subject of some debate. This reflects the difficulty associated with establishing a direct link between low variability at biologically significant loci and deleterious aspects of phenotype in this, and other, species. Attempts to study one such region, the feline leucocyte antigen (FLA), are hampered by a general reliance on cloning and sequencing which is expensive, labour-intensive, subject to PCR artefact and always likely to underestimate true variability. In this study we have applied reference strand-mediated conformational analysis (RSCA) to determine the FLA-DRB phenotypes of 25 cheetahs. This technique was rapid, repeatable and less prone to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-induced sequence artefacts associated with cloning. Individual cheetahs were shown to have up to three FLA-DRB genes. A total of five alleles were identified (DRB*ha14-17 and DRB*gd01) distributed among four genotypes. Fifteen cheetahs were DRB*ha14/ha15/ha16/ha17, three were DRB*ha15/ha16/ha17, six were DRB*ha14/ha16/ha17 and one was DRB*ha14/ha15/ha16/ha17/gd01. Sequence analysis of DRB*gd01 suggested it was a recombinant of DRB*ha16 and DRB*ha17. Generation of new alleles is difficult to document, and the clear demonstration of such an event is unusual. This study confirms further the limited genetic variability of the cheetah at a biologically significant region. RSCA will facilitate large-scale studies that will be needed to correlate genetic diversity at such loci with population fitness in the cheetah and other species.

  9. Characterisation and validation of an enzyme-immunoassay for the non-invasive assessment of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Ludwig, C; Wachter, B; Silinski-Mehr, S; Ganswindt, A; Bertschinger, H; Hofer, H; Dehnhard, M

    2013-01-01

    The non-invasive measurement of adrenocortical function in cheetahs is an important tool to assess stress in captive and free-ranging individuals, because stress has been suggested to be one of the causes of poor reproductive performance of captive cheetahs. We tested four enzyme immunoassays (EIA) in two captive cheetahs in Germany using adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges and identified the corticosterone-3-CMO EIA to be most sensitive to the increase in faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations after the ACTH challenge. This EIA performed also well in five captive cheetahs in South Africa. The fGCM concentrations across all seven cheetahs increased within 24h by 681% compared to the baseline levels prior to ACTH. Storage of faecal samples at 0-4°C did not strongly affect fGCM concentrations within 24h, simplifying sample collection when immediate storage at -20°C is not feasible. The two cheetahs in Germany also received an injection of [(3)H]cortisol to characterise fGCMs in faecal extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) immunograms. HPLC fractions were measured for their radioactivity and immunoreactive fGCM concentrations with the corticosterone-3-CMO EIA, respectively. The results revealed a polar peak of radiolabelled cortisol metabolites co-eluting with the major peak of immunoreactive fGCMs. Thus, our EIA measured substantial amounts of fGCMs corresponding to the radioactive peaks. The peaks were of higher polarity than native cortisol and corticosterone, suggesting that the metabolites were conjugated, which was confirmed by solvolysis of the HPLC fractions. Our results show that the corticosterone-3-CMO EIA is a reliable tool to assess fGCMs in cheetahs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CUB domain-containing protein 1 and the epidermal growth factor receptor cooperate to induce cell detachment.

    PubMed

    Law, Mary E; Ferreira, Renan B; Davis, Bradley J; Higgins, Paul J; Kim, Jae-Sung; Castellano, Ronald K; Chen, Sixue; Luesch, Hendrik; Law, Brian K

    2016-08-05

    While localized malignancies often respond to available therapies, most disseminated cancers are refractory. Novel approaches, therefore, are needed for the treatment of metastatic disease. CUB domain-containing protein1 (CDCP1) plays an important role in metastasis and drug resistance; the mechanism however, is poorly understood. Breast cancer cell lines were engineered to stably express EGFR, CDCP1 or phosphorylation site mutants of CDCP1. These cell lines were used for immunoblot analysis or affinity purification followed by immunoblot analysis to assess protein phosphorylation and/or protein complex formation with CDCP1. Kinase activity was evaluated using phosphorylation site-specific antibodies and immunoblot analysis in in vitro kinase assays. Protein band excision and mass spectrometry was utilized to further identify proteins complexed with CDCP1 or ΔCDCP1, which is a mimetic of the cleaved form of CDCP1. Cell detachment was assessed using cell counting. This paper reports that CDCP1 forms ternary protein complexes with Src and EGFR, facilitating Src activation and Src-dependent EGFR transactivation. Importantly, we have discovered that a class of compounds termed Disulfide bond Disrupting Agents (DDAs) blocks CDCP1/EGFR/Src ternary complex formation and downstream signaling. CDCP1 and EGFR cooperate to induce detachment of breast cancer cells from the substratum and to disrupt adherens junctions. Analysis of CDCP1-containing complexes using proteomics techniques reveals that CDCP1 associates with several proteins involved in cell adhesion, including adherens junction and desmosomal cadherins, and cytoskeletal elements. Together, these results suggest that CDCP1 may facilitate loss of adhesion by promoting activation of EGFR and Src at sites of cell-cell and cell-substratum contact.

  11. Suspected lead poisoning in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) in South Africa, in 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    North, Michelle A; Lane, Emily P; Marnewick, Kelly; Caldwell, Peter; Carlisle, Glen; Hoffman, Louw C

    2015-08-13

    Whilst lead poisoning in raptors, scavenging birds and waterfowl is well studied and common knowledge, there is surprisingly little literature detailing the risk to mammalian scavengers and captive carnivores fed hunted meat. This case report describes the death of two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) following acute onset of nervous symptoms. Clinical signs included hyper-excitability, seizures, arched back, tail held abnormally high and hyper-salivation. Necropsy findings included bullets or a bullet in their stomachs. Kidney and liver lead levels from one cheetah (15.6 ppm and 17 ppm respectively) were consistent with a diagnosis of lead poisoning; liver from the second cheetah was not available for testing. Both animals were routinely fed hunted antelope or game birds. This is the first report of oral lead poisoning in captive large carnivores, although these are unlikely to be the first cases. Without awareness of the risks of feeding hunted game, lead exposure will continue to be an underdiagnosed reality in the rehabilitation of endangered carnivores.

  12. Public exposure and number of conspecifics have no influence on ovarian and adrenal activity in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E; Brown, Janine L; Meeks, Karen; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-03-01

    Cheetahs in managed zoological collections do not reproduce efficiently, a problem that may be related to environmental/management stressors. In this study, we examined 17 adult female cheetahs to determine the influence of two environmental factors, (1) being housed on- or off-exhibit and (2) number of adult conspecifics (males and/or females) in nearby enclosures, on profiles and concentrations of ovarian and adrenal hormones. Secondarily, we assessed a subset of group-housed siblings (n=5 females in groups of 2 or 3) for effects of long-term cohabitation. All of the females demonstrated waves of estrogen excretion (indicative of ovarian activity) as well as occasional periods of no estrogen production (anestrus). Glucocorticoid and estrogen concentrations were correlated within an individual (r s =0.53; P<0.05), and overall there was a higher frequency of days with elevated glucocorticoid concentrations in association with elevated estrogen excretion. However, none of the management factors had an impact (P>0.05) on estrogen or glucocorticoid metabolite excretory patterns. Although we recently reported that public exposure can negatively affect sperm production, ovarian steroidogenesis in females was unaffected. There also was no evidence of hyper-adrenal activity. Thus, different methods of ex situ management appear to have minimal influence on ovarian function or stress susceptibility of female cheetahs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Leukoencephalomyelopathy of mature captive cheetahs and other large felids: a novel neurodegenerative disease that came and went?

    PubMed

    Brower, A I; Munson, L; Radcliffe, R W; Citino, S B; Lackey, L B; Van Winkle, T J; Stalis, I; Terio, K A; Summers, B A; de Lahunta, A

    2014-09-01

    A novel leukoencephalomyelopathy was identified in 73 mature male and female large captive felids between 1994 and 2005. While the majority of identified cases occurred in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), the disease was also found in members of 2 other subfamilies of Felidae: 1 generic tiger (Panthera tigris) and 2 Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi). The median age at time of death was 12 years, and all but 1 cheetah were housed in the United States. Characteristic clinical history included progressive loss of vision leading to blindness, disorientation, and/or difficulty eating. Neurologic deficits progressed at a variable rate over days to years. Mild to severe bilateral degenerative lesions were present in the cerebral white matter and variably and to a lesser degree in the white matter of the brain stem and spinal cord. Astrocytosis and swelling of myelin sheaths progressed to total white matter degeneration and cavitation. Large, bizarre reactive astrocytes are a consistent histopathologic feature of this condition. The cause of the severe white matter degeneration in these captive felids remains unknown; the lesions were not typical of any known neurotoxicoses, direct effects of or reactions to infectious diseases, or nutritional deficiencies. Leukoencephalomyelopathy was identified in 70 cheetahs, 1 tiger, and 2 panthers over an 11-year period, and to our knowledge, cases have ceased without planned intervention. Given what is known about the epidemiology of the disease and morphology of the lesions, an environmental or husbandry-associated source of neurotoxicity is suspected. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Ultrasonographically determined renal values and comparisons to serum biochemistry renal variables in aged semi-captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Kirberger, Robert M; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2017-11-06

    Cheetahs in captivity have a high prevalence of chronic renal diseases. We ultrasonographically evaluated the renal volumes, a variety of renal dimensions, interarcuate artery resistive indices (RI) as well as aortic diameters and the length of the ventral aspect of the 6th lumbar vertebrae in 27 aged semi-captive anesthetized cheetahs. Renal size, dimensions and ratios were compared to urine specific gravity, serum creatinine and urea values. There were minimal differences for all values between left and right kidneys. Mean kidney length was 65.1 mm (range 55.2-76.9) with left kidney length ratios to L6 length being 1.60 (range 1.27-2.06) and to the aortic diameter 7.69 (range 4.54-10.72). Significant correlations between left renal length as well as length:L6 ratio to creatinine values were found ((r - 0.66) and (r - 0.60) respectively). The mean RI values of the different sedation/anesthetic protocols ranged from 0.46-0.55. Left renal length and L6 ventral vertebral body length as well as left kidney RI values should be routinely measured in all cheetah abdominal ultrasound examinations. These measurements, together with serum creatinine, urea and urine specific gravity values may be relatively sensitive indicators of early renal pathology in the absence of gross ultrasonographic changes.

  15. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and endogenous creatinine clearance in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus).

    PubMed

    Holder, Erin Hall; Citino, Scott B; Businga, Nancy; Cartier, Leslie; Brown, Scott A

    2004-06-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), and the endogenous creatinine clearance (CCr) rate were determined in 13 captive cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus jubatus (seven females and six males, 1.5-7.5 yr of age, x = 5.02 yr), during general anesthesia with Telazol and isoflurane by measuring the urinary clearances of inulin, para-aminohipppuric acid, and endogenous creatinine, respectively. Methods to determine GFR, RPF, and endogenous CCr in captive cheetahs were evaluated, and the relationship between GFR and CCr for this species was determined. The GFR and the RPF were stable during the procedure, with mean values of 1.59+/-0.17 ml/min/kg body weight and 5.12+/-1.15 ml/min/kg body weight, respectively. Although the mean value for CCr (1.47+/-0.20 ml/min/kg body weight) was significantly less than the corresponding value for GFR, the mean difference (0.11+/-0.02 ml/min/kg weight) between the two measurements was slight, and the values were highly correlated (R2 = 0.928; P < 0.0001). The measurement of CCr in cheetahs should provide a reliable estimate of GFR, facilitating the early detection of renal disease in this species.

  16. One year daily changes in fecal sexual steroids of two captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Faustini, Massimo; Gabai, Gianfranco; Da Dalt, Laura; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2018-04-01

    The present study evaluated changes of fecal sexual steroids in two female cheetahs (Geijsha and Duchessa) in Northern Italy throughout one year. Wet feces were collected daily from two sibling animals of the same age, housed with conspecific males and managed in the same conditions, and estrogens and progestogens concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Evidence of ovarian activity based on regular fluctuation in estrogen excretion was demonstrated in both females. None of the animals was continuously cycling, as follicular activity was interrupted by anestrous periods, during the spring and early winter. No significant increases of progestogens were recorded after the estrogen peaks, indicating that induced or spontaneous ovulations did not occur during the observation period. The wavelet decomposition evidenced the temporal pattern of ovarian activity in the two females, underlying throughout the year a more pronounced rhythmical ovarian estrogenic activity in Geijsha than in Duchessa. However, this statistical approach had a smoothing effect in depicting the hormonal patterns and the number of follicular phases might be lower than that revealed by the iterative method. In this study, RIA on wet feces performed very well to determine sexual steroid concentrations, and an ovarian activity interrupted by anestrous periods along the year in captive cheetahs co-housed in a small group was demonstrated. More information on estrous behavior of captive cheetahs were obtained in this study, but the effects of husbandry and management conditions on natural reproductive physiology of this species remain to elucidate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Repeated use of the GnRH analogue deslorelin to down-regulate reproduction in male cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, H J; Jago, M; Nöthling, J O; Human, A

    2006-10-01

    The GnRH analogue deslorelin, as a subcutaneous implant, was initially developed in Australia as an ovulation-inducing agent in mares. Its uses, for the suppression of reproduction in the domestic dog and cat and in other species, including humans, have been developed subsequently. Such implants have been used as a contraceptive modality in a variety of wild carnivores, both males and females. This paper describes the use of deslorelin implants as a contraceptive agent for cheetah males maintained in a semi-captive environment and housed in various camps together with females. Annually, male cheetahs were treated for 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 7), 3 (n = 9), 4 (n = 3) or 5 (n = 1) consecutive years with an implant containing 4.7, 5.0 or 6.0 mg of deslorelin. On the first day of treatment and then on an annual basis, blood testosterone concentrations were analysed, testicular measurements were taken, appearance of penile spikes was determined, and semen was collected and evaluated. Pregnancy rates of mated or inseminated females were determined. A dose of 6 mg of deslorelin suppressed reproduction for at least 1 year, whereas with 4.7 and 5 mg of deslorelin, 3 of 17 males had a few non-motile spermatozoa in their ejaculates. All testosterone concentrations were basal at 1 year post-implant and no side effects were observed. We concluded that deslorelin implantation, at a dose of 6 mg, was a safe and reliable method of annual contraception in male cheetahs.

  18. Increasing age influences uterine integrity, but not ovarian function or oocyte quality, in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Comizzoli, Pierre; Baker, Tom; Davidson, Autumn; Munson, Linda; Howard, JoGayle; Marker, Laurie L; Wildt, David E

    2011-08-01

    Although the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) routinely lives for more than 12 yr in ex situ collections, females older than 8 yr reproduce infrequently. We tested the hypothesis that reproduction is compromised in older female cheetahs due to a combination of disrupted gonadal, oocyte, and uterine function/integrity. Specifically, we assessed 1) ovarian response to gonadotropins; 2) oocyte meiotic, fertilization, and developmental competence; and 3) uterine morphology in three age classes of cheetahs (young, 2-5 yr, n = 17; prime, 6-8 yr, n = 8; older, 9-15 yr, n = 9). Ovarian activity was stimulated with a combination of equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and fecal samples were collected for 45 days before gonadotropin treatment and for 30 days after oocyte recovery by laparoscopy. Twenty-six to thirty hours post-hCG, uterine morphology was examined by ultrasound, ovarian follicular size determined by laparoscopy, and aspirated oocytes assessed for nuclear status or inseminated in vitro. Although no influence of age on fecal hormone concentrations or gross uterine morphology was found (P > 0.05), older females produced fewer (P < 0.05) total antral follicles and oocytes compared to younger counterparts. Regardless of donor age, oocytes had equivalent (P > 0.05) nuclear status and ability to reach metaphase II and fertilize in vitro. A histological assessment of voucher specimens revealed an age-related influence on uterine tissue integrity, with more than 87% and more than 56% of older females experiencing endometrial hyperplasia and severe pathologies, respectively. Our collective findings reveal that lower reproductive success in older cheetahs appears to be minimally influenced by ovarian and gamete aging and subsequent dysfunction. Rather, ovaries from older females are responsive to gonadotropins, produce normative estradiol/progestogen concentrations, and develop follicles containing oocytes with the capacity to mature and be

  19. To Kill, Stay or Flee: The Effects of Lions and Landscape Factors on Habitat and Kill Site Selection of Cheetahs in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rostro-García, Susana; Kamler, Jan F.; Hunter, Luke T. B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how animals utilize available space is important for their conservation, as it provides insight into the ecological needs of the species, including those related to habitat, prey and inter and intraspecific interactions. We used 28 months of radio telemetry data and information from 200 kill locations to assess habitat selection at the 3rd order (selection of habitats within home ranges) and 4th order (selection of kill sites within the habitats used) of a reintroduced population of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa. Along with landscape characteristics, we investigated if lion Panthera leo presence affected habitat selection of cheetahs. Our results indicated that cheetah habitat selection was driven by a trade-off between resource acquisition and lion avoidance, and the balance of this trade-off varied with scale: more open habitats with high prey densities were positively selected within home ranges, whereas more closed habitats with low prey densities were positively selected for kill sites. We also showed that habitat selection, feeding ecology, and avoidance of lions differed depending on the sex and reproductive status of cheetahs. The results highlight the importance of scale when investigating a species’ habitat selection. We conclude that the adaptability of cheetahs, together with the habitat heterogeneity found within Phinda, explained their success in this small fenced reserve. The results provide information for the conservation and management of this threatened species, especially with regards to reintroduction efforts in South Africa. PMID:25693067

  20. To kill, stay or flee: the effects of lions and landscape factors on habitat and kill site selection of cheetahs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rostro-García, Susana; Kamler, Jan F; Hunter, Luke T B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how animals utilize available space is important for their conservation, as it provides insight into the ecological needs of the species, including those related to habitat, prey and inter and intraspecific interactions. We used 28 months of radio telemetry data and information from 200 kill locations to assess habitat selection at the 3rd order (selection of habitats within home ranges) and 4th order (selection of kill sites within the habitats used) of a reintroduced population of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa. Along with landscape characteristics, we investigated if lion Panthera leo presence affected habitat selection of cheetahs. Our results indicated that cheetah habitat selection was driven by a trade-off between resource acquisition and lion avoidance, and the balance of this trade-off varied with scale: more open habitats with high prey densities were positively selected within home ranges, whereas more closed habitats with low prey densities were positively selected for kill sites. We also showed that habitat selection, feeding ecology, and avoidance of lions differed depending on the sex and reproductive status of cheetahs. The results highlight the importance of scale when investigating a species' habitat selection. We conclude that the adaptability of cheetahs, together with the habitat heterogeneity found within Phinda, explained their success in this small fenced reserve. The results provide information for the conservation and management of this threatened species, especially with regards to reintroduction efforts in South Africa.

  1. Comparison of noninvasive blood pressure measurement techniques via the coccygeal artery in anesthetized cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan A; Hall, Natalie H; Kass, Philip H; Citino, Scott B

    2013-12-01

    Two indirect blood pressure measurement techniques, Doppler (DOP) sphygmomanometry and oscillometry, applied at the ventral coccygeal artery were compared with simultaneous direct blood pressure measurements at the dorsal pedal artery in 10 anesthetized, captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The DOP method was moderately accurate, with relatively little bias (mean difference 3.8 mmHg) and 88.6% of the DOP systolic arterial pressure measurements being within 10 mmHg of the direct systolic arterial measurement. With the oscillometric (OM) method, 89.2% of the mean arterial pressure measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had the least bias (mean difference 2.3 mmHg), 80.7% of the systolic measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had the second least bias (mean difference 2.3 mmHg), and 59% of the diastolic measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had significant bias (mean difference 7.3 mmHg). However, DOP showed relatively poor precision (SD 11.2 mmHg) compared with OM systolic (SD 8.0 mmHg), diastolic (SD 8.6 mmHg), and mean (SD 5.7 mmHg). Both techniques showed a linear relationship with the direct technique measurements over a wide range of blood pressures. The DOP method tended to underestimate systolic measurements below 160 mmHg and overestimate systolic measurements above 160 mmHg. The OM method tended to underestimate mean pressures below 160 mm Hg, overestimate mean pressures above 160 mmHg, underestimate systolic pressures below 170 mmHg, overestimate systolic pressures above 170 mmHg, and underestimate diastolic pressures throughout the measured blood pressure range. Indirect blood pressure measurement using the ventral coccygeal artery, particularly when using an OM device for mean and systolic arterial pressure, may be useful in the clinical assessment of cheetahs when monitoring trends over time, but caution should be taken when interpreting individual values.

  2. Oxidative phosphorylation is essential for felid sperm function, but is substantially lower in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) compared to domestic cat (Felis catus) ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2011-09-01

    Compared with the normospermic domestic cat, sperm metabolic function is compromised in the teratospermic cat and cheetah, but the pathway(s) involved in this deficiency are unknown. Glycolysis is essential for sperm motility, yet it appears to function normally in spermatozoa of either species regardless of structural morphology. We conducted a comparative study to further understand the mechanisms of energy production in felid spermatozoa, with the hypothesis that oxidative phosphorylation is required for normal sperm function and is impaired in teratospermic ejaculates. Electroejaculates from both species were stained with MitoTracker to quantify mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) or were incubated to assess changes in sperm function (motility, acrosomal integrity, and lactate production) after mitochondrial inhibition with myxothiazol. Sperm midpiece dimensions also were quantified. Sperm mitochondrial fluorescence (directly proportional to MMP) was ~95% lower in the cheetah compared with the normospermic and teratospermic cat, despite the cheetah having a 10% longer midpiece. In both species, MMP was increased 5-fold in spermatozoa with retained cytoplasm compared with structurally normal cells. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation impaired sperm function in both species, but a 100-fold higher inhibitor concentration was required in the cat compared with the cheetah. Collectively, findings revealed that oxidative phosphorylation was required for sperm function in the domestic cat and cheetah. This pathway of energy production appeared markedly less active in the cheetah, indicating a species-specific vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction. The unexpected, cross-species linkage between retained cytoplasmic droplets and elevated MMP may reflect increased concentrations of metabolic enzymes or substrates in these structures.

  3. PREVALENCE OF VALVULAR REGURGITATIONS IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY CAPTIVE LEOPARDS AND CHEETAHS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM THE WILDLIFE CARDIOLOGY (WLC) GROUP (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin; Petit, Thierry; Kohl, Muriel; Bourgeois, Aude; Gouni, Vassiliki; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Misbach, Charlotte; Petit, Amandine; Damoiseaux, Cécile; Garrigou, Audrey; Guepin, Raphaëlle; Pouchelon, Jean Louis; Chetboul, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate transthoracic echocardiograms from clinically healthy large felids for the presence of valvular regurgitations (VR). Physiologic VR commonly occur in normal dogs and cats, but the percentage of large felids with VR has not been previously reported. During a 5-yr study period (2008-2013), 28 healthy animals were evaluated under general anesthesia: 16 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringuii) with a mean age of 1.5±0.8 yr (range 0.7-3.5 yr), 5 Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 snow leopard (Uncia uncia), and 6 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa). For this study, all the leopards were gathered in one so-called "leopards group" with a mean age of 2.8±3.4 yr (range 0.3-10.7 yr). All valves observed in each view were examined for evidence of regurgitant jets and turbulent blood flow using the color-flow Doppler mode. Valves were also examined for structural changes. Mitral valve and aortic cusp abnormalities were considered to be of congenital origin. Mitral valve lesions led to mitral insufficiency in all the felids. Aortic cusp abnormalities led to aortic regurgitation in 94% of the cheetahs and 67% of the leopards. Leopards showed a predominance of early systolic mitral regurgitations, whereas all the mitral regurgitation jets in cheetahs were holosystolic. Tricuspid regurgitation was found in 81% of the cheetahs and in 50% of the leopards, whereas pulmonic regurgitation was detected in 44% of the cheetahs and 33% of the leopards. Interestingly, none of these tricuspid and pulmonic regurgitations were associated with two-dimensional structural valve abnormalities, thus suggesting their physiologic origin, as described in humans, cats, and dogs. In conclusion, subclinical valvular diseases are common in apparently healthy leopards and cheetahs. Longitudinal follow-up of affected animals is therefore required to assess their clinical outcome.

  4. Reactions of female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to urine volatiles from males of varying genetic distance.

    PubMed

    Mossotti, Regina H; Baskir, Eli A; Kozlowski, Corinne P; Franklin, Ashley D; Feldhamer, George A; Asa, Cheryl S

    2018-06-13

    Understanding the factors used by female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to make mate choice decisions could benefit zoo breeding programs, which currently assign mates based primarily on genetic distance. Because transporting animals between institutions is costly and can be stressful, females are often limited in the number of males available for mating. One solution would be to determine if an easily transported substance could be used to gauge interest by a female to a potential mate. Here, we investigate female interest in urine samples from males of different genetic distances. Twelve females at five institutions were offered scents from 17 males of varying genetic relatedness in a pair-wise choice paradigm. Behavioral responses of the females were recorded to determine preference. Results showed that females spent more time sniffing and in proximity to scents from the most distantly related males, but female response was not influenced by male urine testosterone concentration, female parity, age, or estrous cycling. Further research will be necessary to determine whether a female's interest in male urine translates to mate preference and acceptance before this technique can be applied to zoo breeding programs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Uterine prolapse with an interesting vascular anomaly in a cheetah: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nöthling, J O; Knesl, O; Irons, P; Lane, E

    2002-12-01

    A 5-year-old cheetah suffered a complete prolapse of the left uterine horn after the birth of her second litter. Two attempts to reduce the prolapse transvaginally failed. The animal was hospitalized 13 days after the prolapse first occurred, and an ovariohysterectomy was performed to resolve the prolapse. The prolapsed uterine horn had been mutilated: its tip, together with the ipsilateral ovary was absent. Laparotomy revealed no sign of recent or past hemorrhage or adhesions, or any signs of the left ovarian artery or left ovarian vein in the remnants of the left mesovarium. A large vein crossed the uterine body from the left uterine horn to join the right uterine vein, presumably serving as the only route of venous drainage for the prolapsed uterine horn. A possible cause for the prolapse is excessive mobility of the uterus due to prior rupture of its mesial support. The animal died 24 days after surgery due to chronic renal failure, as a result of severe renal amyloidosis.

  6. TIGER CUBS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Larsen, Rick [D-WA-2

    2013-08-01

    House - 08/01/2013 Referred to the Committee on Appropriations, and in addition to the Committee on the Budget, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Different patterns of metabolic cryo-damage in domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2012-04-01

    Felid spermatozoa are sensitive to cryopreservation-induced damage, but functional losses can be mitigated by post-thaw swim-up or density gradient processing methods that selectively recover motile or structurally-normal spermatozoa, respectively. Despite the importance of sperm energy production to achieving fertilization, there is little knowledge about the influence of cryopreservation or post-thaw processing on felid sperm metabolism. We conducted a comparative study of domestic cat and cheetah sperm metabolism after cryopreservation and post-thaw processing. We hypothesized that freezing/thawing impairs sperm metabolism and that swim-up, but not density gradient centrifugation, recovers metabolically-normal spermatozoa. Ejaculates were cryopreserved, thawed, and processed by swim-up, Accudenz gradient centrifugation, or conventional washing (representing the 'control'). Sperm glucose and pyruvate uptake, lactate production, motility, and acrosomal integrity were assessed. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured in cat spermatozoa. In both species, lactate production, motility, and acrosomal integrity were reduced in post-thaw, washed samples compared to freshly-collected ejaculates. Glucose uptake was minimal pre- and post-cryopreservation, whereas pyruvate uptake was similar between treatments due to high coefficients of variation. In the cat, swim-up, but not Accudenz processing, recovered spermatozoa with increased lactate production, pyruvate uptake, and motility compared to controls. Although confounded by differences in non-specific fluorescence among processing methods, MMP values within treatments were positively correlated to sperm motility and acrosomal integrity. Cheetah spermatozoa isolated by either selection method exhibited improved motility and/or acrosomal integrity, but remained metabolically compromised. Collectively, findings revealed a metabolically-robust subpopulation of cryopreserved cat, but not cheetah, spermatozoa

  8. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from wild-born Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and influence of glycerol on cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Henghali, Josephine N; Howard, Jogayle; Dickman, Amy J; Marker, Laurie; Wildt, David E

    2006-04-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is a valuable tool for the genetic management of ex situ populations. This study was conducted to assess: (1) semen characteristics of wild-born cheetahs; and (2) the impact of three types of glycerol influence (duration of exposure, temperature, and method of addition) on sperm cryosensitivity. To evaluate the impact of duration of glycerol exposure, spermatozoa were incubated in Test Yolk Buffer (TYB) with 4% glycerol at ambient temperature (approximately 22 degrees C) for 15 vs. 60 min before cryopreservation. To evaluate the influence of temperature and method of glycerol addition, spermatozoa were resuspended at ambient temperature either in TYB with 0% glycerol followed by addition of 8% glycerol (1:1 v/v; at ambient temperature vs. 5 degrees C) or directly in TYB with 4% glycerol. All samples were cryopreserved in straws over liquid nitrogen vapor and evaluated for sperm motility and acrosomal integrity after thawing. Semen samples (n = 23; n = 13 males) contained a high proportion (78%) of pleiomorphic spermatozoa. Ejaculates also contained a high proportion of acrosome-intact (86%) and motile spermatozoa (78%). Immediately after thawing, a significant proportion of spermatozoa retained intact acrosomes (range, 48-67%) and motility (range, 40-49%). After thawing, incubation in glycerol for 60 min at ambient temperature before freezing decreased (p < 0.05) sperm motility and acrosomal integrity at one time-point each (pre-centrifugation and post-centrifugation, respectively). However, method or temperature of glycerol addition had no (p > 0.05) impact on sperm cryosurvival. In summary, (1) wild-born cheetahs produce high proportions of pleiomorphic spermatozoa but with a high proportion of intact acrosomes; and (2) resuspension in 4% glycerol, followed by exposure for up to 60 min at ambient temperature, had minimal effect on sperm motility and acrosomal integrity after cryopreservation. Results indicate the feasibility of

  9. Reaction of cyanide with cytochrome ba3 from Thermus thermophilus: spectroscopic characterization of the Fe(II)a3-CN.Cu(II)B-CN complex suggests four 14N atoms are coordinated to CuB.

    PubMed Central

    Surerus, K K; Oertling, W A; Fan, C; Gurbiel, R J; Einarsdóttir, O; Antholine, W E; Dyer, R B; Hoffman, B M; Woodruff, W H; Fee, J A

    1992-01-01

    Cytochrome ba3 from Thermus thermophilus reacts slowly with excess HCN at pH 7.4 to create a form of the enzyme in which CuA, cytochrome b, and CuB remain oxidized, while cytochrome a3 is reduced by one electron, presumably with the formation of cyanogen. We have examined this form of the enzyme by UV-visible, resonance Raman, EPR, and electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopies in conjunction with permutations of 13C- and 15N-labeled cyanide. The results support a model in which one CN- binds through the carbon atom to ferrous a3, supporting a low-spin (S = 0) configuration on the Fe; bridging by this cyanide to the CuB is weak or absent. Four 14N atoms, presumably donated by histidine residues of the protein, provide a strong equatorial ligand field about CuB; a second CN- is coordinated through the carbon atom to CuB in an axial position. PMID:1314380

  10. Cheetah interspecific SCNT followed by embryo aggregation improves in vitro development but not pluripotent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Hiriart, M I; Buemo, C; Jarazo, J; Sestelo, A; Veraguas, D; Rodriguez-Alvarez, L; Salamone, D F

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of domestic cat (Dc, Felis silvestris) oocytes to reprogram the nucleus of cheetah (Ch, Acinonyx jubatus) cells by interspecies SCNT (iSCNT), by using embryo aggregation. Dc oocytes were in vitro matured and subjected to zona pellucida free (ZP-free) SCNT or iSCNT, depending on whether the nucleus donor cell was of Dc or Ch respectively. ZP-free reconstructed embryos were then cultured in microwells individually (Dc1X and Ch1X groups) or in couples (Dc2X and Ch2X groups). Embryo aggregation improved in vitro development obtaining 27.4, 47.7, 16.7 and 28.3% of blastocyst rates in the Dc1X, Dc2X, Ch1X and Ch2X groups, respectively (P<0.05). Moreover, aggregation improved the morphological quality of blastocysts from the Dc2X over the Dc1X group. Gene expression analysis revealed that Ch1X and Ch2X blastocysts had significantly lower relative expression of OCT4, CDX2 and NANOG than the Dc1X, Dc2X and IVF control groups. The OCT4, NANOG, SOX2 and CDX2 genes were overexpressed in Dc1X blastocysts, but the relative expression of these four genes decreased in the Dc2X, reaching similar relative levels to those of Dc IVF blastocysts. In conclusion, Ch blastocysts were produced using Dc oocytes, but with lower relative expression of pluripotent and trophoblastic genes, indicating that nuclear reprogramming could be still incomplete. Despite this, embryo aggregation improved the development of Ch and Dc embryos, and normalized Dc gene expression, which suggests that this strategy could improve full-term developmental efficiency of cat and feline iSCNT embryos. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Cryptococcus neoformans granuloma in the lung and spinal cord of a free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). A clinical report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Millward, I R; Williams, M C

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, male, wild-born, free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) was evaluated for acute onset of progressive lameness in the right hind limb. Survey radiographs were unrewarding and myelography indicated an intramedullary compressive mass at the L3-L4 region. A fine needle aspirate of the lesion indicated the presence of Cryptococcus organisms. Necropsy confirmed the presence of granulomas (cryptococcoma) in the lung and the spinal cord (meningomyelitis) caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like organism that is a potential pathogen to many species. Initial infection is thought to be of respiratory origin and then it commonly disseminates systemically from the nasal cavity or lungs to the skin, eyes and central nervous system in particular. The cheetah tested negative for both feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as have all the previously reported cheetah cases. C. neoformans is a non-contagious, opportunistic organism and is the most common systemic mycoses in domestic cats and the cheetah.

  12. Validation of an enzyme-immunoassay for the non-invasive monitoring of faecal testosterone metabolites in male cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Pribbenow, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Ludwig, Carsten; Weigold, Annika; Dehnhard, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In mammals, the sex hormone testosterone is the major endocrine variable to objectify testicular activity and thus reproductive function in males. Testosterone is involved in the development and function of male reproductive physiology and sex-related behaviour. The development of a reliable androgen enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) to monitor faecal testosterone metabolites (fTM) is a powerful tool to non-invasively assess the gonadal status of males. We validated an epiandrosterone EIA for male cheetahs by performing a testosterone radiometabolism study followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses and excluding possible cross-reactivities with androgenic metabolites not derived from testosterone metabolism. The physiological and biological relevance of the epiandrosterone EIA was validated by demonstrating (1) a significant increase in fTM concentrations within one day in response to a testosterone injection, (2) a significant increase in fTM concentrations within one day in response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection, which failed following a placebo injection, and (3) significant differences in fTM concentrations between adult male and adult female cheetahs and between adult and juvenile male cheetahs of a free-ranging population. Finally, we demonstrated stability of fTM concentrations measured in faecal samples exposed to ambient temperatures up to 72h. Our results clearly demonstrate that the epiandrosterone EIA is a reliable non-invasive method to monitor testicular activity in male cheetahs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence for compromised metabolic function and limited glucose uptake in spermatozoa from the teratospermic domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, Stanley P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2010-11-01

    Cheetahs and certain other felids consistently ejaculate high proportions (≥ 60%) of malformed spermatozoa, a condition known as teratospermia, which is prevalent in humans. Even seemingly normal spermatozoa from domestic cat teratospermic ejaculates have reduced fertilizing capacity. To understand the role of sperm metabolism in this phenomenon, we conducted a comparative study in the normospermic domestic cat versus the teratospermic cat and cheetah with the general hypothesis that sperm metabolic function is impaired in males producing predominantly pleiomorphic spermatozoa. Washed ejaculates were incubated in chemically defined medium containing glucose and pyruvate. Uptake of glucose and pyruvate and production of lactate were assessed using enzyme-linked fluorescence assays. Spermatozoa from domestic cats and cheetahs exhibited similar metabolic profiles, with minimal glucose metabolism and approximately equimolar rates of pyruvate uptake and lactate production. Compared to normospermic counterparts, pyruvate and lactate metabolism were reduced in teratospermic cat and cheetah ejaculates, even when controlling for sperm motility. Rates of pyruvate and lactate (but not glucose) metabolism were correlated positively with sperm motility, acrosomal integrity, and normal morphology. Collectively, our findings reveal that pyruvate uptake and lactate production are reliable, quantitative indicators of sperm quality in these two felid species and that metabolic function is impaired in teratospermic ejaculates. Furthermore, patterns of substrate utilization are conserved between these species, including the unexpected lack of exogenous glucose metabolism. Because glycolysis is required to support sperm motility and capacitation in certain other mammals (including dogs), the activity of this pathway in felid spermatozoa is a target for future investigation.

  14. Relationship of the estrogen surge and multiple mates to cub paternity in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): implications for optimal timing of copulation or artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Yingmin; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Yang; Wildt, David E; Hull, Vanessa

    2012-11-01

    The effectiveness of ex situ breeding programs for endangered species can be limited by challenges in mimicking mating competitions that naturally occur among multiple mates in the wild. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of timed natural matings and/or artificial inseminations in the context of the urinary estrogen surge on cub production in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We used a large cohort of giant pandas, including 12 females and 17 males. DNA paternity exclusion was used to pinpoint accurately the interval during the estrogen surge that coincided with the ideal sperm deposition time to produce offspring. Of the 31 cubs (in 19 pregnancies), 22 (71.0%; 15 pregnancies) were produced from matings occurring on the day of or the day after the maximal urinary estrogen peak. Sixteen of the 19 pregnancies (84.2%) produced at least one offspring sired by the first male mating with the dam. There was a preponderance of twins (12 of 19; 63.2%), and dual paternities were discovered in 3 of 12 twin sets (25%). These findings indicate a strong relationship between the excreted estrogen surge and sperm deposition to achieve pregnancy in the giant panda. To ensure the production of the most genetically diverse young, it is imperative that the most appropriate male mate first and on the day of or the day after the highest detected estrogen value. There is no advantage to increasing the number of copulations or mating partners within 1 day of the estrogen peak on the incidence of twinning, although this practice may increase the prevalence of dual paternity in cases of multiple births.

  15. Mutational analysis of Kaposica reveals that bridging of MG2 and CUB domains of target protein is crucial for the cofactor activity of RCA proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Avneesh Kumar; Panse, Yogesh; Ghosh, Payel; Reza, Malik Johid; Mullick, Jayati; Sahu, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has evolved to annul pathogens, but its improper regulation is linked with diseases. Efficient regulation of the system is primarily provided by a family of proteins termed regulators of complement activation (RCA). The knowledge of precise structural determinants of RCA proteins critical for imparting the regulatory activities and the molecular events underlying the regulatory processes, nonetheless, is still limited. Here, we have dissected the structural requirements of RCA proteins that are crucial for one of their two regulatory activities, the cofactor activity (CFA), by using the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus RCA homolog Kaposica as a model protein. We have scanned the entire Kaposica molecule by sequential mutagenesis using swapping and site-directed mutagenesis, which identified residues critical for its interaction with C3b and factor I. Mapping of these residues onto the modeled structure of C3b–Kaposica–factor I complex supported the mutagenesis data. Furthermore, the model suggested that the C3b-interacting residues bridge the CUB (complement C1r-C1s, Uegf, Bmp1) and MG2 (macroglobulin-2) domains of C3b. Thus, it seems that stabilization of the CUB domain with respect to the core of the C3b molecule is central for its CFA. Identification of CFA-critical regions in Kaposica guided experiments in which the equivalent regions of membrane cofactor protein were swapped into decay-accelerating factor. This strategy allowed CFA to be introduced into decay-accelerating factor, suggesting that viral and human regulators use a common mechanism for CFA. PMID:26420870

  16. Model studies of the Cu(B) site of cytochrome c oxidase utilizing a Zn(II) complex containing an imidazole-phenol cross-linked ligand.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Russell P; Pratt, Derek A; Jeffers, Jerry; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2006-07-21

    Cytochrome c oxidase, the enzyme complex responsible for the four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O, contains an unusual histidine-tyrosine cross-link in its bimetallic heme a3-CuB active site. We have synthesised an unhindered, tripodal chelating ligand, BPAIP, containing the unusual ortho-imidazole-phenol linkage, which mimics the coordination environment of the CuB center. The ligand was used to investigate the physicochemical (pKa, oxidation potential) and coordination properties of the imidazole-phenol linkage when bound to a dication. Zn(II) coordination lowers the pKa of the phenol by 0.6 log units, and increases the potential of the phenolate/phenoxyl radical couple by approximately 50 mV. These results are consistent with inductive withdrawal of electron density from the phenolic ring. Spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations (DFT) were used to establish that the cationic complex [Zn(BPAIP)Br]+ has an axially distorted trigonal bipyramidal structure, with three coordinating nitrogen ligands (two pyridine and one imidazole) occupying the equatorial plane and the bromide and the tertiary amine nitrogen of the tripod in the axial positions. Interestingly, the Zn-Namine bonding interaction is weak or absent in [Zn(BPAIP)Br]+ and the complex gains stability in basic solutions, as indicated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. These observations are supported by theoretical calculations (DFT), which suggest that the electron-donating capacity of the equatorial imidazole ligand can be varied by modulation of the protonation and/or redox state of the cross-linked phenol. Deprotonation of the phenol makes the equatorial imidazole a stronger sigma-donor, resulting in an increased Zn-Nimd interaction and thereby leading to distortion of the axial ligand axis toward a more tetrahedral geometry.

  17. Babesia lengau sp. nov., a novel Babesia species in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, Schreber, 1775) populations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Anna-Mari; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Peirce, Michael A; Venter, Estelle H; Penzhorn, Barend L

    2010-08-01

    In a previous paper, we reported on a large number of cheetah blood specimens that gave positive signals only for Babesia and/or Theileria genus-specific probes on the reverse line blot (RLB) assay, indicating the presence of a novel species or variant of an existing species. Some of these specimens were investigated further by microscopic, serological, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. The near-full-length 18S rRNA genes of 13 samples, as well as the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region, were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. A species-specific RLB probe, designed to target the hypervariable V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene for detection of the novel Babesia sp., was used to screen an additional 137 cheetah blood specimens for the presence of the species. The prevalence of infection was 28.5%. Here we describe the morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the novel species, which we have named Babesia lengau sp. nov.

  18. Babesia lengau sp. nov., a Novel Babesia Species in Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, Schreber, 1775) Populations in South Africa ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Anna-Mari; Oosthuizen, Marinda C.; Peirce, Michael A.; Venter, Estelle H.; Penzhorn, Barend L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous paper, we reported on a large number of cheetah blood specimens that gave positive signals only for Babesia and/or Theileria genus-specific probes on the reverse line blot (RLB) assay, indicating the presence of a novel species or variant of an existing species. Some of these specimens were investigated further by microscopic, serological, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. The near-full-length 18S rRNA genes of 13 samples, as well as the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region, were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. A species-specific RLB probe, designed to target the hypervariable V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene for detection of the novel Babesia sp., was used to screen an additional 137 cheetah blood specimens for the presence of the species. The prevalence of infection was 28.5%. Here we describe the morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the novel species, which we have named Babesia lengau sp. nov. PMID:20519464

  19. Age-associated and deslorelin-induced declines in serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations in female cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus.

    PubMed

    Place, Ned J; Crosier, Adrienne E; Comizzoli, Pierre; Nagashima, Jennifer B; Haefele, Holly; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie L

    2017-09-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is widely used in human medicine to non-invasively estimate the size of the ovarian follicle reserve and to predict the ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation in the context of assisted reproductive technologies (e.g., IVF). These applications of AMH testing have recently expanded to non-human mammals, with production animals, such as cows, goats and sheep being the primary focus of AMH research. However, few investigations have involved exotic species, and in particular carnivores. In this study, we measured AMH concentrations (0.078-3.078ng/mL) in archived serum samples that had been collected from 36 adult female cheetahs across their reproductive lifespan (2-15years of age). Similar to other mammals, AMH concentration in cheetahs declined with age, and its variability among females of the same age was considerable. The rates at which AMH declined over time in individual cheetahs were also highly variable. Five cheetahs had been contracepted with the long-acting GnRH agonist deslorelin for 6-18months prior to sample collection, and their AMH concentrations were relatively low compared to untreated females. In this first study of AMH in an exotic carnivore, the findings demonstrate that the age-associated decline in AMH is highly variable and that deslorelin appears to suppress AMH concentration in serum. Owing to the increased use of assisted reproductive technologies in ex situ populations of threatened and endangered species, such as cheetahs, the present study's findings will need to be taken into consideration if AMH is to be used successfully to optimize breeding management decisions in exotic species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Motile Sperm Output by Male Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) Managed Ex Situ Is Influenced by Public Exposure and Number of Care-Givers

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Diana C.; Freeman, Elizabeth W.; Brown, Janine L.; Wildt, David E.; Terrell, Kimberly A.; Franklin, Ashley D.; Crosier, Adrienne E.

    2015-01-01

    The collective cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population in zoological institutions has never been self-sustaining because of challenges in natural reproduction. A retrospective analysis of North American zoo-breeding records has revealed that >90% of litters produced since 2003 occurred in facilities ‘off-display’ from the public. We examined seminal, endocrine, and behavioral traits of 29 adult male cheetahs that were: 1) managed in public exhibit or off-display facilities; 2) maintained by different numbers of cheetah-specific care-givers; and 3) living adjacent to varying numbers of adult conspecifics. Cheetahs housed off-display produced more total motile sperm/ejaculate (P = 0.04) than on-exhibit males. This finding was mirrored in our laboratory’s historical records where two-fold more total motile sperm (P < 0.01) were measured in ejaculates from individuals with no public exposure (n = 43) compared to on-exhibit (n = 116) counterparts. Males at institutions with ≤3 care-givers also produced more total motile sperm/ejaculate (P < 0.03) and spent more time behaviorally active (P < 0.01) than at facilities using >3 care-givers. Exposure to high numbers of conspecifics within the same institution did not impact (P > 0.05) seminal traits, and presence of the public, care-giver number, or animals/facility had no influence (P > 0.05) on androgen or glucocorticoid excretion or other behavioral metrics. Findings indicate that male cheetahs are sensitive to general public exposure and too many care-givers, resulting in compromised motile sperm output/ejaculate with mechanism of action unrelated to altered androgen or glucocorticoid excretion. PMID:26332582

  1. Motile Sperm Output by Male Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) Managed Ex Situ Is Influenced by Public Exposure and Number of Care-Givers.

    PubMed

    Koester, Diana C; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Brown, Janine L; Wildt, David E; Terrell, Kimberly A; Franklin, Ashley D; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2015-01-01

    The collective cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population in zoological institutions has never been self-sustaining because of challenges in natural reproduction. A retrospective analysis of North American zoo-breeding records has revealed that >90% of litters produced since 2003 occurred in facilities 'off-display' from the public. We examined seminal, endocrine, and behavioral traits of 29 adult male cheetahs that were: 1) managed in public exhibit or off-display facilities; 2) maintained by different numbers of cheetah-specific care-givers; and 3) living adjacent to varying numbers of adult conspecifics. Cheetahs housed off-display produced more total motile sperm/ejaculate (P = 0.04) than on-exhibit males. This finding was mirrored in our laboratory's historical records where two-fold more total motile sperm (P < 0.01) were measured in ejaculates from individuals with no public exposure (n = 43) compared to on-exhibit (n = 116) counterparts. Males at institutions with ≤3 care-givers also produced more total motile sperm/ejaculate (P < 0.03) and spent more time behaviorally active (P < 0.01) than at facilities using >3 care-givers. Exposure to high numbers of conspecifics within the same institution did not impact (P > 0.05) seminal traits, and presence of the public, care-giver number, or animals/facility had no influence (P > 0.05) on androgen or glucocorticoid excretion or other behavioral metrics. Findings indicate that male cheetahs are sensitive to general public exposure and too many care-givers, resulting in compromised motile sperm output/ejaculate with mechanism of action unrelated to altered androgen or glucocorticoid excretion.

  2. Hand-rearing, growth, and development of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Meier, Melissa S.; McColl, Laurie E.; Hines, Randy K.; Pichner, Jimmy; Johnson, Laura; Lyon, James E.; Scharold, Kellie Kroc; Meyer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Common loon chicks were reared in captivity in association with studies to evaluate the effects of radiotransmitter implants and to assess the ecological risk of dietary methylmercury. Here we report on hatching and rearing methods used to successfully raise chicks to 105 days of age. We experienced a 91.5% hatch rate, and 89.6% of loon chicks survived to the end of the study at 105 days. Baseline information on observed rates of fish consumption, behavioral development, and growth patterns are provided. Husbandry techniques are provided that should prove valuable to wildlife rehabilitators caring for abandoned or injured loons, and biologists contemplating methods for restoring loons to areas within their former breeding range.

  3. COMPARISON OF HIGH-DEFINITION OSCILLOMETRIC AND DIRECT ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN ANESTHETIZED CHEETAHS (ACINONYX JUBATUS).

    PubMed

    Sant Cassia, Emma V; Boswood, Adrian; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2015-09-01

    Blood pressure measurement reveals important insights into the health of conscious and anesthetized individuals. This is of particular interest in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), which in captivity are known to suffer from chronic diseases that may be associated with hypertension and which often require immobilization for transport or veterinary treatment. Invasive testing methods are considered the gold standard but are not practical in many settings. Consequently, it is important to evaluate the use of noninvasive methods in this species. Measurements for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure obtained using high-definition oscillometry (HDO) at the coccygeal artery were compared to simultaneous direct measurements obtained via catheterization of the femoral or dorsal pedal artery in eight anesthetized captive cheetahs during nine anesthetic events. Overall, HDO and direct measurements agreed most closely for mean arterial pressure, and the poorest agreement was observed for systolic pressure. There was a tendency for low diastolic pressures to be underestimated and for high diastolic pressures to be overestimated. Across all three parameters, HDO measurements from the tail overestimated directly measured pressures in the femoral artery and underestimated those in the dorsal pedal artery. HDO agreed most closely with directly measured dorsal pedal pressures. Mean arterial pressure showed the greatest precision (standard deviation of 10.2 mm Hg) and lowest bias (-1.2 mm Hg), with 75.9% of readings within 10 mm Hg of the direct dorsal pedal pressure. Agreement with systolic pressure was hindered by a high bias (-10.4 mm Hg), but if a correction factor of +10 mm Hg was applied to all systolic measurements, agreement was improved and 65.7% of readings were within 10 mm Hg of the direct pressure. When compared to criteria defined by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine for validation of blood pressure devices, results were favorable, but a

  4. Diversity of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cheetahs (Acinoyx jubatus) at three breeding centres in South Africa and activity patterns of questing ticks.

    PubMed

    Golezardy, Habib; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Penzhorn, Barend L

    2016-07-01

    Ticks were collected from 191 cheetahs at three breeding centres in North West and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa. Haemaphysalis elliptica, a common tick of large felids, was the most abundant species collected, while Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus simus occurred in lower numbers. In addition to these three species, drag-sampling of the vegetation revealed the presence of Amblyomma marmoreum, Rhipicephalus (B.) decoloratus and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. The presence of free-ranging antelopes, murid rodents and tortoises at the breeding centres probably contributed to the availability of immature tick stages on the vegetation. Diurnal and seasonal questing patterns of ixodid ticks were investigated at monthly intervals at the largest cheetah-breeding centre. Questing ticks were most abundant on the vegetation during the warm summer months. Most questing H. elliptica larvae and nymphs were collected from the vegetation in the early morning and late afternoon and fewest during the middle of the day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Insights into the latent multinomial model through mark-resight data on female grizzly bears with cubs-of-the-year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgs, Megan D.; Link, William; White, Gary C.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Mark-resight designs for estimation of population abundance are common and attractive to researchers. However, inference from such designs is very limited when faced with sparse data, either from a low number of marked animals, a low probability of detection, or both. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, yearly mark-resight data are collected for female grizzly bears with cubs-of-the-year (FCOY), and inference suffers from both limitations. To overcome difficulties due to sparseness, we assume homogeneity in sighting probabilities over 16 years of bi-annual aerial surveys. We model counts of marked and unmarked animals as multinomial random variables, using the capture frequencies of marked animals for inference about the latent multinomial frequencies for unmarked animals. We discuss undesirable behavior of the commonly used discrete uniform prior distribution on the population size parameter and provide OpenBUGS code for fitting such models. The application provides valuable insights into subtleties of implementing Bayesian inference for latent multinomial models. We tie the discussion to our application, though the insights are broadly useful for applications of the latent multinomial model.

  6. Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 1 (SCUBE1) levels in patients with overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism: effects of treatment.

    PubMed

    Erem, Cihangir; Civan, Nadim; Coskun, Hulya; Mentese, Ahmet; Suleyman, Akile Karacin; Altay, Diler Us; Akgul, Zeynep; Deger, Orhan

    2016-06-01

    Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 1 (SCUBE1) has been shown to increase in parallel with platelet activation in acute ischaemic and thrombotic diseases. There has been no study evaluating SCUBE1 levels in patients with overt hyperthyroidism (OHyper) and subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper), conditions which are known to show impairment of both endothelial and platelet function. This study sought to evaluate SCUBE1 concentrations in patients with SHyper and OHyper, and assessed the effects of antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy on circulating SCUBE1 levels. Forty-five untreated patients with OHyper, 20 untreated patients with SHyper and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were prospectively included in the study. Biochemical and hormonal parameters were evaluated in all patients before and after treatment. Compared with the control subjects, SCUBE1 levels were significantly increased in patients with SHyper and OHyper (P < 0·0001 and P = 0·002, respectively). SCUBE1 levels were not significantly different in patients with OHyper compared with patients with SHyper. There was no significant correlation between serum thyroid hormones and SCUBE1 levels. Plasma SCUBE1 levels decreased significantly in both OHyper and SHyper after ATD treatment (P < 0·05). Increased SCUBE1 levels in both SHyper and OHyper patients may reflect increased platelet activation and possible endothelial dysfunction, which might augment the risk for atherosclerotic and atherothrombotic complications. SCUBE1 may be used as a reliable marker of endothelial damage in hyperthyroidism, especially in the subclinical period. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Diagnostic value of signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 1 as an early and late biochemical marker in the ovarian torsion rat model.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Özgür; Kaban, Işık; Midi, Ahmet; Uysal, Hande; Boran, Ahmet B; Bacanakgil, Besim H; Tarbaghia, Marwa

    2018-04-02

    Signal peptide-CUB-EGF (epidermal growth factor-like protein) domain-containing protein 1 (SCUBE1) is an experimental marker of ischemia that has been previously studied both in rat models and humans. In this study, we aim to investigate the importance of SCUBE1 levels in ovarian torsion using an ovarian torsion model in rats. A total of 18 Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 6) was the Sham group and was only given a laparotomy procedure. Group 2 (n = 6) underwent bilateral ovarian torsion and ovarian ischemia lasting 8 h. Group 3 (n = 6) was subjected to bilateral ovarian torsion and ischemia lasting 24 h. Blood samples were collected from all three groups after the operations, and SCUBE1 levels were studied. Ovarian samples were collected, and microscopic evaluation was performed. The correlation of SCUBE1 levels and histopathological findings were investigated. The mean SCUBE1 level of group 3 was statistically higher than other groups (P < 0.01). Follicular degeneration and infiltration of inflammatory cells were, respectively, statistically significant in groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.002 and P = 0.045, respectively). SCUBE1 can be useful in diagnosing ovarian torsion during the first 24 h, but more randomized controlled studies are necessary in order to implement it in clinical settings. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. COMPARISON OF TWO α2-ADRENERGIC AGONISTS ON URINE CONTAMINATION OF SEMEN COLLECTED BY ELECTROEJACULATION IN CAPTIVE AND SEMI-FREE-RANGING CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS).

    PubMed

    Marrow, Judilee C; Woc-Colburn, Margarita; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Marker, Laurie; Murray, Suzan

    2015-06-01

    Alpha2-adrenergic agonists are used to immobilize many veterinary species, but use has been infrequently linked to urine contamination of semen collected via electroejaculation. The objective of the study was to compare the α2-agonists medetomidine and dexmedetomidine on urine contamination of semen in anesthetized cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) during electroejaculation procedures. From 2009-2012, a retrospective medical record review revealed 21 anesthesia events in 12 adult male cheetahs. Animals were immobilized with combinations of Telazol® (2.33±0.43 mg/kg) and ketamine (2.38±1 mg/kg); Telazol (1.17±0.14 mg/kg), ketamine (1.17±0.14 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.012±0.0017 mg/kg); or Telazol (1.59±0.1 mg/kg), ketamine (1.59±0.1 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (0.01±0.001 mg/kg). Semen was successfully collected in all animals; four animals anesthetized with medetomidine had urine contamination (P=0.037). Medetomidine may contribute to urine contamination; however, further investigation is needed to determine significance in cheetahs.

  9. The cheetah Acinonyx pardinensis (Croizet et Jobert, 1828) s.l. at the hominin site of Dmanisi (Georgia) - A potential prime meat supplier in Early Pleistocene ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, Helmut; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich; Vekua, Abesalom K.

    2011-09-01

    The fossil site of Dmanisi (southern Georgia) has yielded a significant amount of hominin remains dated to around 1.8 Ma, in addition to a rich contemporaneous faunal record. Based on topographic information combined with an updated list of the vertebrate faunal assemblage, the corresponding palaeo-landscape has been reconstructed. Over a distance of some kilometres the landscape pattern changed from that of a forested valley floor, to tree savannah and open grasslands, thus providing typical habitats for carnivores hunting in open spaces. Morphological analysis of the elements from a nearly complete cat's foreleg reveals the existence of a large and stoutly built cheetah, Acinonyx pardinensis (Croizet et Jobert, 1828) s.l., in the Dmanisi faunal assemblage. Body mass estimations based on the humerus and metacarpals point to a cat of around 100 kg. The amount of pure meat and associated leftovers produced by the cheetah's hunting activity available for other consumers has been estimated. Within Early Pleistocene ecosystems, the cheetah must be considered as a potential fresh prime meat supplier, above that of any other felid.

  10. Glycolytic enzyme activity is essential for domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) sperm motility and viability in a sugar-free medium.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2011-06-01

    We have previously reported a lack of glucose uptake in domestic cat and cheetah spermatozoa, despite observing that these cells produce lactate at rates that correlate positively with sperm function. To elucidate the role of glycolysis in felid sperm energy production, we conducted a comparative study in the domestic cat and cheetah, with the hypothesis that sperm motility and viability are maintained in both species in the absence of glycolytic metabolism and are fueled by endogenous substrates. Washed ejaculates were incubated in chemically defined medium in the presence/absence of glucose and pyruvate. A second set of ejaculates was exposed to a chemical inhibitor of either lactate dehydrogenase (sodium oxamate) or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-chlorohydrin). Sperm function (motility and acrosomal integrity) and lactate production were assessed, and a subset of spermatozoa was assayed for intracellular glycogen. In both the cat and cheetah, sperm function was maintained without exogenous substrates and following lactate dehydrogenase inhibition. Lactate production occurred in the absence of exogenous hexoses, but only if pyruvate was present. Intracellular glycogen was not detected in spermatozoa from either species. Unexpectedly, glycolytic inhibition by alpha-chlorohydrin resulted in an immediate decline in sperm motility, particularly in the domestic cat. Collectively, our findings reveal an essential role of the glycolytic pathway in felid spermatozoa that is unrelated to hexose metabolism or lactate formation. Instead, glycolytic enzyme activity could be required for the metabolism of endogenous lipid-derived glycerol, with fatty acid oxidation providing the primary energy source in felid spermatozoa.

  11. Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (Panthera leo), jaguar (Panthera onca), tiger (Panthera tigris), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus)

    PubMed Central

    Weissengruber, GE; Forstenpointner, G; Peters, G; Kübber-Heiss, A; Fitch, WT

    2002-01-01

    Structures of the hyoid apparatus, the pharynx and their topographical positions in the lion, tiger, jaguar, cheetah and domestic cat were described in order to determine morphological differences between species or subfamilies of the Felidae. In the lion, tiger and jaguar (species of the subfamily Pantherinae) the Epihyoideum is an elastic ligament lying between the lateral pharyngeal muscles and the Musculus (M.) thyroglossus rather than a bony element like in the cheetah or the domestic cat. The M. thyroglossus was only present in the species of the Pantherinae studied. In the lion and the jaguar the Thyrohyoideum and the thyroid cartilage are connected by an elastic ligament, whereas in the tiger there is a synovial articulation. In adult individuals of the lion, tiger and jaguar the ventral end of the tympanohyal cartilage is rotated and therefore the ventral end of the attached Stylohyoideum lies caudal to the Tympanohyoideum and the cranial base. In newborn jaguars the Apparatus hyoideus shows a similar topographical position as in adult cheetahs or domestic cats. In adult Pantherinae, the Basihyoideum and the attached larynx occupy a descended position: they are situated near the cranial thoracic aperture, the pharyngeal wall and the soft palate are caudally elongated accordingly. In the Pantherinae examined the caudal end of the soft palate lies dorsal to the glottis. Differences in these morphological features between the subfamilies of the Felidae have an influence on specific structural characters of their vocalizations. PMID:12363272

  12. Effect of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib on CUB-domain containing protein (CDCP1)-mediated breast cancer cell survival and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, Jeanette; Kunc, Klaudia; Possinger, Kurt

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} CDCP1 downregulation reduces anchorage free survival of breast cancer cells. {yields} Anoikis of CDCP1-positive breast cancer cells is increased after CDCP1 downregulation. {yields} CDCP1 knockdown decreases migration and extensively reduces invasiveness in vitro. {yields} Proliferation rate does not correlate with CDCP1 expression. {yields} Lapatinib does not influence tyrosine kinases of CDCP1 signal transduction. -- Abstract: The surface receptor CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) is highly expressed in several adenocarcinomas and speculated to participate in anchorage-independent cell survival and cell motility. Tyrosine kinase phosphorylation seems to be crucial for intracellular signaling of CDCP1. Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI),more » is approved for treatment of HER-2/neu overexpressing metastatic breast cancer and functions by preventing autophosphorylation following HER-2/neu receptor activation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CDCP1 expression on anchorage-independent growth and cell motility of breast cancer cells. Moreover, studies were performed to examine if lapatinib provided any beneficial effect on HER-2/neu{sup (+)/-}/CDCP1{sup +} breast cancer cell lines. In our studies, we affirmed that CDCP1 prevents cells from undergoing apoptosis when cultured in the absence of cell-substratum anchorage and that migratory and invasive properties of these cells were decreased when CDCP1 was down-regulated. However, only HER-2/neu{sup +}, but not HER-2/neu{sup (+)/-} cells showed decreased proliferation and invasion and an enhanced level of apoptosis towards loss of anchorage when treated with lapatinib. Therefore, we conclude that CDCP1 might be involved in regulating adhesion and motility of breast cancer cells but that lapatinib has no effect on tyrosine kinases regulating CDCP1. Nonetheless, other TKIs might offer therapeutic approaches for CDCP1-targeted breast cancer therapy and should be studied

  13. Discoidin, CUB and LCCL domain-containing protein 2 (DCBLD2) is a novel biomarker of myxofibrosarcoma invasion identified by global protein expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Kazutaka; Kubota, Daisuke; Yoshida, Akihiko; Qiao, Zhiwei; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Chuman, Hirokazu; Kawai, Akira; Kondo, Tadashi

    2017-09-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a mesenchymal malignancy characterized by frequent recurrence even after radical wide resection. To optimize therapy for MFS patients, we aimed to identify candidate tissue biomarkers of MFS invasion potential. Invasion characteristics of MFS were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and protein expression profiling of primary tumor tissues performed using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Protein expression profiles were compared between invasive and non-invasive tumors surgically resected from 11 patients. Among the 3453 protein spots observed, 59 demonstrated statistically significant difference in intensity (≥2-fold) between invasive and non-invasive tumors (p<0.01 by Wilkoxon test), and were identified by mass spectrometry as 47 individual proteins. Among them, we further focused on discoidin, CUB and LCCL domain-containing protein 2 (DCBLD2), a receptor tyrosine kinase with aberrant expression in malignant tumors. Immunohistochemistry analysis of 21 additional MFS cases revealed that higher DCBLD2 expression was significantly associated with invasive properties of tumor cells. DCBLD2 sensitivity and specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for MFS invasion were 69.2%, 87.5%, 90%, and 63.6%, respectively. The expression level of DCBLD2 was consistent in different portions of tumor tissues. Thus, DCBLD2 expression can be a useful biomarker to evaluate invasive properties of MFS. Further validation studies based on multi-institutional collaboration and comprehensive analysis of DCBLD2 biological functions in MFS are required to confirm its prognostic utility for clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SOLITARY T-CELL HEPATIC LYMPHOMA WITH LARGE GRANULAR LYMPHOCYTE MORPHOLOGY IN A CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS).

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Dana M; Carpenter, James W; Almes, Kelli M; Schumacher, Loni; Ryseff, Julia K; Hallman, Mackenzie

    2015-06-01

    A 13-yr-old male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) presented for an acute history of lateral recumbency and anorexia. Upon physical examination under general anesthesia, severe icterus was noted. A serum biochemical profile confirmed markedly elevated total bilirubin and alanine transaminase. Based on ultrasound-guided liver aspirates and cytology, a presumptive diagnosis of large granular lymphocyte hepatic lymphoma was reached. Abdominal and thoracic radiographs did not assist in reaching an antemortem diagnosis. Postmortem examination and histopathology provided a definitive diagnosis of hepatic lymphoma with acute massive hepatocelluar necrosis and hemorrhage, as well as concurrent lesions of gastric ulcers, ulcerative and sclerosing enteritis, myocardial hypertrophy, and splenic myelolipomas. Immunohistochemistry of the liver yielded CD-3 positive and CD-20 negative results, confirming lymphocytes of a T-cell lineage. Due to concern for possible retrovirus-associated disease, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus were performed retrospectively on a banked serum sample and yielded negative results, thus diminishing concern for the male conspecific housed in the same exhibit.

  15. Gut microbiomes of free-ranging and captive Namibian cheetahs: Diversity, putative functions and occurrence of potential pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wasimuddin; Menke, Sebastian; Melzheimer, Jörg; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Heinrich, Sonja; Wachter, Bettina; Sommer, Simone

    2017-10-01

    Although the significance of the gut microbiome for host health is well acknowledged, the impact of host traits and environmental factors on the interindividual variation of gut microbiomes of wildlife species is not well understood. Such information is essential; however, as changes in the composition of these microbial communities beyond the natural range might cause dysbiosis leading to increased susceptibility to infections. We examined the potential influence of sex, age, genetic relatedness, spatial tactics and the environment on the natural range of the gut microbiome diversity in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). We further explored the impact of an altered diet and frequent contact with roaming dogs and cats on the occurrence of potential bacterial pathogens by comparing free-ranging and captive individuals living under the same climatic conditions. Abundance patterns of particular bacterial genera differed between the sexes, and bacterial diversity and richness were higher in older (>3.5 years) than in younger individuals. In contrast, male spatial tactics, which probably influence host exposure to environmental bacteria, had no discernible effect on the gut microbiome. The profound resemblance of the gut microbiome of kin in contrast to nonkin suggests a predominant role of genetics in shaping bacterial community characteristics and functional similarities. We also detected various Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) assigned to potential pathogenic bacteria known to cause diseases in humans and wildlife species, such as Helicobacter spp., and Clostridium perfringens. Captive individuals did not differ in their microbial alpha diversity but exhibited higher abundances of OTUs related to potential pathogenic bacteria and shifts in disease-associated functional pathways. Our study emphasizes the need to integrate ecological, genetic and pathogenic aspects to improve our comprehension of the main drivers of natural variation and shifts in

  16. KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE AND KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE-MIDAZOLAM ANESTHESIA IN CAPTIVE CHEETAHS (ACINONYX JUBATUS)-COMPARISON OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND KIDNEY BLOOD FLOW.

    PubMed

    Stagegaard, Julia; Hørlyck, Arne; Hydeskov, Helle B; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2017-06-01

    Six clinically healthy captive cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) were anesthetized twice using two different drug combinations to investigate if blood pressure and kidney blood flow are affected by medetomidine dosage. Protocol KM (2.0 mg/kg ketamine and 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine) was compared with protocol KMM (2.0 mg/kg ketamine, 0.02 mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.1 mg/kg midazolam). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), body temperature, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (ETCO 2 ), and anesthetic depth were monitored every 10 min. Noninvasive mean (MAP), systolic (SAP), and diastolic (DAP) arterial blood pressure were measured, and Duplex Doppler ultrasonography was performed on the kidneys. The mean arterial resistive index (RI) was determined and the pulse pressure index (PPI) was calculated, as indicators for kidney blood flow. There were no significant differences in induction and recovery times. MAP was significantly higher with KM than KMM at 35 min, and in both protocols decreased significantly after atipamezole administration. DAP was significantly higher at 25 and 35 min in animals anesthetized with KM; it also decreased significantly with both protocols after atipamezole administration. The PPI was significantly lower throughout the procedure with KM, and with both protocols increased significantly after atipamezole administration. Both the higher blood pressure and the reduced PPI with KM were likely a direct effect of the higher medetomidine dosage, and these findings indicate that lower medetomidine dosages might reduce hypertension and lead to a better PPI in cheetah immobilization.

  17. Acinonyx pardinensis (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Early Pleistocene of Pantalla (Italy): predatory behavior and ecological role of the giant Plio-Pleistocene cheetah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherin, Marco; Iurino, Dawid Adam; Sardella, Raffaele; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    The site of Pantalla (central Italy) yielded a rich late Villafranchian (Early Pleistocene) faunal assemblage, which includes some well-preserved large mammal skulls. We describe here two nearly complete crania and a left hemimandible of Acinonyx pardinensis from this locality, representing the most complete cranial material of this species in Europe. These finds allowed us to define more clearly the craniodental morphology of A. pardinensis. Similarly to the forms from North Africa and China, the giant cheetah from Pantalla has a more generalized skull than the living Acinonyx jubatus, showing some primitive, pantherine-like features such as the less domed dorsal outline of the cranium, the more developed sagittal and nuchal crests and the less bowed zygomatic arches. High-resolution CT scans of the specimens were used to obtain the first 3D model of a cranium with articulated mandible of A. pardinensis. Starting from the insertion areas on this model we reconstructed the jaw muscles of the Pantalla felid, confirming its affinities with pantherine felines. In the light of the musculoskeletal skull anatomy and the average body mass (about 80 kg), it is likely that A. pardinensis could kill large prey through a hunting strategy more similar to pantherine cats than to the living cheetah.

  18. Use of brachial plexus blockade and medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Kimeli, Peter; Mogoa, Eddy M; Mwangi, Willy E; Kipyegon, Ambrose N; Kirui, Gilbert; Muasya, Daniel W; Mande, John D; Kariuki, Edward; Mijele, Dominic

    2014-10-10

    Regional anaesthetic techniques have been used in combination with systemic analgesics during small animal surgery to provide multimodal analgesia. Brachial plexus nerves block using local anaesthetics provides analgesia of the thoracic limb through desensitization of the nerves that provide sensory and motor innervation. This has been shown to reduce intra-operative anesthetic requirements and provide postoperative pain relief. Decreasing the doses of general anaesthetics allows more stable cardiopulmonary function during anaesthesia and the development of less side effects. The present case reports a successful use of brachial plexus blockade to supplement medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (acinonyx jubatus). An adult male Cheetah weighing about 65 kg was presented with a history of leg carrying lameness of the left forelimb sustained following a car accident a week earlier. Clinical examination under general anaesthesia revealed slight dehydration and a swelling with a wound on the caudo-medial aspect of the left radio-ulna region. Crepitation was present on manipulation and radiography confirmed a complete transverse radio-ulna fracture of the left forelimb, which required open reduction and internal fixation. Brachial plexus blockade using lignocaine hydrochloride was used to supplement medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for the surgical procedure. Isoflurane anaesthesia was maintained at 0.5 - 2.0% throughout the surgical procedure, which was uneventful. Temperature and cardio-pulmonary parameters remained stable intra-operatively. Limb paralysis extended for 5 hours post-operatively, suggesting prolonged anaesthesia. To the researchers' knowledge, this is the first reported case of the use of brachial plexus blockade to supplement general anaesthesia to facilitate forelimb surgery in an adult cheetah. The use of brachial plexus block with a light plane of general anaesthesia proved to

  19. Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social…

  20. TIGA-CUB - manualised psychoanalytic child psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for children aged 5-11 years with treatment-resistant conduct disorders and their primary carers: study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Edginton, Elizabeth; Walwyn, Rebecca; Burton, Kayleigh; Cicero, Robert; Graham, Liz; Reed, Sadie; Tubeuf, Sandy; Twiddy, Maureen; Wright-Hughes, Alex; Ellis, Lynda; Evans, Dot; Hughes, Tom; Midgley, Nick; Wallis, Paul; Cottrell, David

    2017-09-15

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends evidence-based parenting programmes as a first-line intervention for conduct disorders (CD) in children aged 5-11 years. As these are not effective in 25-33% of cases, NICE has requested research into second-line interventions. Child and Adolescent Psychotherapists (CAPTs) address highly complex problems where first-line treatments have failed and there have been small-scale studies of Psychoanalytic Child Psychotherapy (PCP) for CD. A feasibility trial is needed to determine whether a confirmatory trial of manualised PCP (mPCP) versus Treatment as Usual (TaU) for CD is practicable or needs refinement. The aim of this paper is to publish the abridged protocol of this feasibility trial. TIGA-CUB (Trial on improving Inter-Generational Attachment for Children Undergoing Behaviour problems) is a two-arm, pragmatic, parallel-group, multicentre, individually randomised (1:1) controlled feasibility trial (target n = 60) with blinded outcome assessment (at 4 and 8 months), which aims to develop an optimum practicable protocol for a confirmatory, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial (RCT) (primary outcome: child's behaviour; secondary outcomes: parental reflective functioning and mental health, child and parent quality of life), comparing mPCP and TaU as second-line treatments for children aged 5-11 years with treatment-resistant CD and inter-generational attachment difficulties, and for their primary carers. Child-primary carer dyads will be recruited following a referral to, or re-referral within, National Health Service (NHS) Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) after an unsuccessful first-line parenting intervention. PCP will be delivered by qualified CAPTs working in routine NHS clinical practice, using a trial-specific PCP manual (a brief version of established PCP clinical practice). Outcomes are: (1) feasibility of recruitment methods, (2) uptake and follow-up rates, (3

  1. Use of Levosimendan in Cardiac Surgery: An Update After the LEVO-CTS, CHEETAH, and LICORN Trials in the Light of Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Guarracino, Fabio; Heringlake, Matthias; Cholley, Bernard; Bettex, Dominique; Bouchez, Stefaan; Lomivorotov, Vladimir V; Rajek, Angela; Kivikko, Matti; Pollesello, Piero

    2018-01-01

    Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer and adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channel opener, which exerts sustained hemodynamic, symptomatic, and organ-protective effects. It is registered for the treatment of acute heart failure, and when inotropic support is considered appropriate. In the past 15 years, levosimendan has been widely used in clinical practice and has also been tested in clinical trials to stabilize at-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Recently, 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies (LICORN, CHEETAH, and LEVO-CTS) have been published reporting on the perioperative use of levosimendan in patients with compromised cardiac ventricular function. Taken together, many smaller trials conducted in the past suggested beneficial outcomes with levosimendan in perioperative settings. By contrast, the latest 3 studies were neutral or inconclusive. To understand the reasons for such dissimilarity, a group of experts from Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and Russia, including investigators from the 3 most recent studies, met to discuss the study results in the light of both the previous literature and current clinical practice. Despite the fact that the null hypothesis could not be ruled out in the recent multicenter trials, we conclude that levosimendan can still be viewed as a safe and effective inodilator in cardiac surgery.

  2. Helicobacter acinonychis: genetic and rodent infection studies of a Helicobacter pylori-like gastric pathogen of cheetahs and other big cats.

    PubMed

    Dailidiene, Daiva; Dailide, Giedrius; Ogura, Keiji; Zhang, Maojun; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Eaton, Kathryn A; Cattoli, Giovanni; Kusters, Johannes G; Berg, Douglas E

    2004-01-01

    Insights into bacterium-host interactions and genome evolution can emerge from comparisons among related species. Here we studied Helicobacter acinonychis (formerly H. acinonyx), a species closely related to the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Two groups of strains were identified by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting and gene sequencing: one group from six cheetahs in a U.S. zoo and two lions in a European circus, and the other group from a tiger and a lion-tiger hybrid in the same circus. PCR and DNA sequencing showed that each strain lacked the cag pathogenicity island and contained a degenerate vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) gene. Analyses of nine other genes (glmM, recA, hp519, glr, cysS, ppa, flaB, flaA, and atpA) revealed a approximately 2% base substitution difference, on average, between the two H. acinonychis groups and a approximately 8% difference between these genes and their homologs in H. pylori reference strains such as 26695. H. acinonychis derivatives that could chronically infect mice were selected and were found to be capable of persistent mixed infection with certain H. pylori strains. Several variants, due variously to recombination or new mutation, were found after 2 months of mixed infection. H. acinonychis ' modest genetic distance from H. pylori, its ability to infect mice, and its ability to coexist and recombine with certain H. pylori strains in vivo should be useful in studies of Helicobacter infection and virulence mechanisms and studies of genome evolution.

  3. Cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine or midazolam in combination with ketamine or tiletamine/zolazepam for the immobilisation of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Stegmann, G F; Jago, M

    2006-12-01

    Captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) scheduled for either general health examination or dental surgery were immobilised with combinations of medetomidine-ketamine (K/DET, n = 19), midazolam-ketamine (K/MID, n = 4) or medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam (Z/DET, n = 5). Induction time and arterial blood pressure was not statistically significantly (P > 0.05) different between treatment groups. Transient seizures were observed in the K/DET treated animals during induction. Hypertension was present in all groups during anaesthesia with mean (+/- SD) systolic pressure of 30.7 +/- 5.0 kPa for the K/DET group, 27.7 +/- 2.7 kPa for the K/MID group, and 33.1 +/- 4.6 kPa for the Z/DET group. Heart rate was statistically significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the K/DET group (69 +/- 13.2 beats/min) compared to the K/MID group (97 +/- 22.6 beats/min), and ventilation rate was statistically significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the K/MID group (15 +/- 0.0 breaths/min) compared with the K/DET group (21 +/- 4.6). A metabolic acidosis and hypoxia were observed during anaesthesia when breathing air. Oxygen (O2) administration resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (hypercapnoea), arterial partial pressure of O2, and % oxyhaemoglobin saturation.

  4. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Katrina M.; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A.; Barrs, Vanessa R.; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P < 0.01). The MHC-linked microsatellites along with MHC cloning and sequencing demonstrated moderate MHC diversity in cheetahs (n = 13) and extremely low diversity in Gir lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. PMID:24620003

  5. Transient binding of CO to Cu(B) in cytochrome c oxidase is dynamically linked to structural changes around a carboxyl group: a time-resolved step-scan Fourier transform infrared investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Heitbrink, Dirk; Sigurdson, Håkan; Bolwien, Carsten; Brzezinski, Peter; Heberle, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    The redox-driven proton pump cytochrome c oxidase is that enzymatic machinery of the respiratory chain that transfers electrons from cytochrome c to molecular oxygen and thereby splits molecular oxygen to form water. To investigate the reaction mechanism of cytochrome c oxidase on the single vibrational level, we used time-resolved step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and studied the dynamics of the reduced enzyme after photodissociation of bound carbon monoxide across the mid-infrared range (2300-950 cm(-1)). Difference spectra of the bovine complex were obtained at -20 degrees C with 5 micros time resolution. The data demonstrate a dynamic link between the transient binding of CO to Cu(B) and changes in hydrogen bonding at the functionally important residue E(I-286). Variation of the pH revealed that the pK(a) of E(I-286) is >9.3 in the fully reduced CO-bound oxidase. Difference spectra of cytochrome c oxidase from beef heart are compared with those of the oxidase isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The bacterial enzyme does not show the environmental change in the vicinity of E(I-286) upon CO dissociation. The characteristic band shape appears, however, in redox-induced difference spectra of the bacterial enzyme but is absent in redox-induced difference spectra of mammalian enzyme. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that the dynamics of a large protein complex such as cytochrome c oxidase can be resolved on the single vibrational level with microsecond Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The applied methodology provides the basis for future investigations of the physiological reaction steps of this important enzyme. PMID:11751290

  6. Structural changes that occur upon photolysis of the Fe(II)a3 - CO complex in the cytochrome ba3-oxidase of Thermus thermophilus: A combined X-ray crystallographic and infrared spectral study demonstrates CO binding to CuB

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yang; Sage, J. Timothy; Soltis, S. Michael; Doukov, Tzanko; Chen, Ying; Stout, C. David; Fee, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to provide a crystallographic demonstration of the venerable idea that CO photolyzed from ferrous heme-a3 moves to the nearby cuprous ion in the cytochrome c oxidases. Crystal structures of CO-bound cytochrome ba3-oxidase from Thermus thermophilus, determined at ~ 2.8 – 3.2 Å resolution, reveal a Fe-C distance of ~2.0 Å, a Cu-O distance of 2.4 Å and a Fe-C-O angle of ~126°. Upon photodissociation at 100 K, X-ray structures indicate loss of Fea3-CO and appearance of CuB-CO having a Cu-C distance of ~1.9 Å and an O-Fe distance of ~2.3 Å. Absolute FTIR spectra recorded from single crystals of reduced ba3–CO that had not been exposed to X-ray radiation, showed several peaks around 1975 cm−1; after photolysis at 100 K, the absolute FTIR spectra also showed a significant peak at 2050 cm−1. Analysis of the “light’ minus ‘dark’ difference spectra showed four very sharp CO stretching bands at 1970 cm−1, 1977 cm−1, 1981 cm−1, and 1985 cm−1, previously assigned to the Fea3-CO complex, and a significantly broader CO stretching band centered at ~2050 cm−1, previously assigned to the CO stretching frequency of CuB bound CO. As expected for light propagating along the tetragonal axis of the P43212 space group, the single crystal spectra exhibit negligible dichroism. Absolute FTIR spectrometry of a CO-laden ba3 crystal, exposed to an amount of X-ray radiation required to obtain structural data sets before FTIR characterization, showed a significant signal due to photogenerated CO2 at 2337 cm−1 and one from traces of CO at 2133 cm−1; while bands associated with CO bound to either Fea3 or to CuB in “light” minus “dark” FTIR difference spectra shifted and broadened in response to X-ray exposure. In spite of considerable radiation damage to the crystals, both X-ray analysis at 2.8 and 3.2 Å and FTIR spectra support the long-held position that photolysis of Fea3-CO in cytochrome c oxidases leads to significant

  7. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (<$10,000 in the year before the child was born (OR 3.94, 95%CI 1.22--17.03) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  8. Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer in Asiatic cheetah using nuclei derived from post-mortem frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Moulavi, F; Hosseini, S M; Tanhaie-Vash, N; Ostadhosseini, S; Hosseini, S H; Hajinasrollah, M; Asghari, M H; Gourabi, H; Shahverdi, A; Vosough, A D; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2017-03-01

    Recent accomplishments in the field of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) hold tremendous promise to prevent rapid loss of animal genetic resources using ex situ conservation technology. Most of SCNT studies use viable cells for nuclear transfer into recipient oocytes. However, preparation of live cells in extreme circumstances, in which post-mortem material of endangered/rare animals is improperly retained frozen, is difficult, if not impossible. This study investigated the possibility of interspecies-SCNT (iSCNT) in Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), a critically endangered subspecies, using nuclei derived from frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant at -20 °C and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes. No cells growth was detected in primary culture of skin and tendon pieces or following culture of singled cells prepared by enzymatic digestion. Furthermore, no live cells were detected following differential viable staining and almost all cells had ruptured membrane. Therefore, direct injection of donor nuclei into enucleated cat oocytes matured in vitro was carried out for SCNT experiments. Early signs of nuclear remodeling were observed as early as 2 h post-iSCNT and significantly increased at 4 h post-iSCNT. The percentages of iSCNT reconstructs that cleaved and developed to 4-16 cell and morula stages were 32.3 ± 7.3, 18.2 ± 9.8 and 5.9 ± 4.3%, respectively. However, none of the iSCNT reconstructs developed to the blastocyst stage. When domestic cat somatic and oocytes were used for control SCNT and parthenogenetic activation, the respective percentages of oocytes that cleaved (51.3 ± 13.9 and 77.3 ± 4.0%) and further developed to the blastocyst stage (11.3 ± 3.3 and 16.8 ± 3.8%) were comparable. In summary, this study demonstrated that enucleated cat oocytes can partially remodel and reactivate non-viable nuclei of Asiatic cheetah and support its reprogramming back to the embryonic stage. To our knowledge, this is

  9. Proximate composition of milk of the bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus) in comparison to other African bovids and to hand-rearing formulas.

    PubMed

    Petzinger, Christina; Oftedal, Olav T; Jacobsen, Krista; Murtough, Katie L; Irlbeck, Nancy A; Power, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    African bovids represent a highly diverse group with divergent neonatal care strategies. The extent to which their milks reflect this diversity is poorly understood. We analyzed milk of the bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus) to compare its composition to milks of other African bovids and to evaluate bongo milk replacement formulas. Milk samples from three individuals (0 through 300 days postpartum, n = 28) were assayed for dry matter (total solids), crude fat, crude protein, total sugar, ash, calcium, and phosphorus; gross energy was assayed on a subset of samples and compared to calculated values. Nutrient composition changed very little over the lactation period except for day 0 (colostrum) and the last sample (day 300). Bongo milk (days 6-286) contained (mean ± SEM): 28.1 ± 0.7% dry matter (71.9 ± 0.7% water), 12.3 ± 0.6% fat, 10.6 ± 0.3% crude protein, 3.6 ± 0.1% sugar, 1.05 ± 0.03% ash, 0.26 ± 0.01% calcium, 0.16 ± 0.01% phosphorus, and a GE of 1.88 ± 0.06 kcal/g. The protein content of bongo milk accounts for 33% of energy. High protein energy appears to be typical of Tragelaphines and of African bovids that utilize a "hider" system of postnatal care. The stability of milk composition until day 300 suggests complete weaning may not occur until 9 months rather than at 6 months of age, as commonly assumed. None of the milk replacement formulas previously used for bongos was well matched to bongo milk composition; therefore, a new milk replacement formula is proposed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sarcocystis spp. Infection in two Red Panda Cubs (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Zoll, W M; Needle, D B; French, S J; Lim, A; Bolin, S; Langohr, I; Agnew, D

    2015-01-01

    Two neonatal male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. One animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. Post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. To further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. IHC was negative for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, but was positive for a Sarcocystis spp. TEM of cardiac muscle and lung revealed numerous intracellular apicomplexan protozoa within parasitophorous vacuoles. PCR and nucleic acid sequencing of partial 18S rRNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region confirmed a Sarcocystis spp. that shared 99% sequence homology to Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis dasypi. This represents the first report of sarcocystosis in red pandas. The histopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural findings are supportive of vertical transmission resulting in fatal disseminated disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Ethology: Exchanging Cheetahs for Chevrolets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barash, David P.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the frequency of looking both ways before crossing a street revealed that both males and females tend to look both ways more often when accompanied by juveniles than when alone, and that when males and females are together, males look both ways more often than do females. (Author/MA)

  12. Kinetic modeling of non-ideal explosives with CHEETAH

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, L E; Howard, W M; Souers, P C

    1998-08-06

    We report an implementation of the Wood-Kirkwood kinetic detonation model based on multi-species equations of state and multiple reaction rate laws. Finite rate laws are used for the slowest chemical reactions. Other reactions are given infinite rates and are kept in constant thermodynamic equilibrium. We model a wide range of ideal and non-ideal composite energetic materials. We find that we can replicate experimental detonation velocities to within a few per cent, while obtaining good agreement with estimated reaction zone lengths. The detonation velocity as a function of charge radius is also correctly reproduced.

  13. Cheetah: A Framework for Scalable Hierarchical Collective Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Richard L; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath; Ladd, Joshua S

    2011-01-01

    Collective communication operations, used by many scientific applications, tend to limit overall parallel application performance and scalability. Computer systems are becoming more heterogeneous with increasing node and core-per-node counts. Also, a growing number of data-access mechanisms, of varying characteristics, are supported within a single computer system. We describe a new hierarchical collective communication framework that takes advantage of hardware-specific data-access mechanisms. It is flexible, with run-time hierarchy specification, and sharing of collective communication primitives between collective algorithms. Data buffers are shared between levels in the hierarchy reducing collective communication management overhead. We have implemented several versions of the Message Passingmore » Interface (MPI) collective operations, MPI Barrier() and MPI Bcast(), and run experiments using up to 49, 152 processes on a Cray XT5, and a small InfiniBand based cluster. At 49, 152 processes our barrier implementation outperforms the optimized native implementation by 75%. 32 Byte and one Mega-Byte broadcasts outperform it by 62% and 11%, respectively, with better scalability characteristics. Improvements relative to the default Open MPI implementation are much larger.« less

  14. Cubs in the Litter: Spectroscopy of New Andromodean Dwarfs from PAndAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Geraint; McConnachie, Alan; Irwin, Michael; Rich, R. Michael; Ibata, Rodrigo

    2010-08-01

    We will use Gemini/GMOS to obtain spectroscopy of Red Giant Branch (RGB) stars in four new dwarf galaxies identified within the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS). With these data, we will measure the key physical properties of the dwarfs, namely their radial velocities, internal kinematics and spectroscopic metallicities. Such measurements are essential in determining the dwarfs' fundamental characteristics; namely their internal dynamics, dark matter content, and clues to star formation and evolutionary histories. PAndAS is revolutionizing our view of our nearest cosmic neighbour, the Andromeda Galaxy, revealing a wealth of previously undetected substructure and dwarf galaxies, and these new observations are indispensable in unraveling global properties of M31's population of satellites and their relation to the M31 galaxy and its extended stellar halo. Andromeda is one of the few targets available which can provide direct tests of predictions of the distribution of mass and light in galaxy haloes and satellite galaxies, but a detailed knowledge of the physical properties of such substructure is essential; the excellent capabilities of Gemini/GMOS makes it one of the few facilities which can obtain the required spectroscopic data.

  15. Interactions between wolves and female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2004-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were extirpated from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) by the 1920s through predator control actions (Murie 1940,Young and Goldman 1944, Weaver 1978), then reintroduced into the park from 1995 to 1996 to restore ecological integrity and adhere to legal mandates (Bangs and Fritts 1996, Phillips and Smith 1996, Smith et al. 2000). Prior to reintroduction, the potential effects of wolves on the region’s threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population were evaluated (Servheen and Knight 1993). In areas where wolves and grizzly bears are sympatric, interspecific killing by both species occasionally occurs (Ballard 1980, 1982; Hayes and Baer 1992). Most agonistic interactions between wolves and grizzly bears involve defense of young or competition for carcasses (Murie 1944, 1981; Ballard 1982; Hornbeck and Horejsi 1986; Hayes and Mossop 1987; Kehoe 1995; McNulty et al. 2001). Servheen and Knight (1993) predicted that reintroduced wolves could reduce the frequency of winter-killed and disease-killed ungulates available for bears to scavenge, and that grizzly bears would occasionally usurp wolf-killed ungulate carcasses. Servheen and Knight (1993) hypothesized that interspecific killing and competition for carcasses would have little or no population level effect on either species.

  16. Anterior segment dysgenesis (Peters' anomaly) in two snow leopard (Panthera uncia) cubs.

    PubMed

    Hamoudi, Hassan; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Prause, Jan U; Tauscher, Kerstin; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Heegaard, Steffen

    2013-07-01

    Two sibling snow leopards, a male and a female, with bilateral anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD), are reported. Both snow leopards also had colobomas of both upper eyelids. All eyes exhibited a central corneal opacity associated with a defect in posterior corneal stroma, endothelium and Descemet's membrane. Iris strands were present attached to the termination of Descemet's membrane and to the periphery of the posterior corneal defect. The iris was hypoplastic, and cataract was present in all four eyes. The left eye of the female was microphthalmic, with no trabecular meshwork and with persistent remnant of the hyaloid artery. The male had hydrocephalus and thus some of the features of Peters' plus syndrome (Peters' anomaly in addition to systemic malformations). The histological findings in the eyes of these snow leopard siblings are identical with those described in humans with Peters' anomaly. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. PAndAS' CUBS: Discovery of Two New Dwarf Galaxies in the Surroundings of the Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Mike; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Dubinski, John; Babul, Arif; Chapman, Scott; Fardal, Mark; Lewis, Geraint F.; Navarro, Julio; Rich, R. Michael

    2009-11-01

    We present the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Andromeda XXI and Andromeda XXII, located in the surroundings of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies (M31 and M33). These discoveries stem from the first year data of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey, a photometric survey of the M31/M33 group conducted with the Megaprime/MegaCam Wide-Field Camera mounted on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Both satellites appear as spatial overdensities of stars which, when plotted in a color-magnitude diagram, follow metal-poor, [Fe/H] = -1.8, red giant branches at the distance of M31/M33. Andromeda XXI is a moderately bright dwarf galaxy (MV = -9.9 ± 0.6), albeit with low surface brightness, emphasizing again that many relatively luminous M31 satellites still remain to be discovered. It is also a large satellite, with a half-light radius close to 1 kpc, making it the fourth largest Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy after the recently discovered Andromeda XIX, Andromeda II, and Sagittarius around the Milky Way, and supports the trend that M31 satellites are larger than their Milky Way counterparts. Andromeda XXII is much fainter (MV = -6.5 ± 0.8) and lies a lot closer in projection to M33 than it does to M31 (42 versus 224 kpc), suggesting that it could be the first Triangulum satellite to be discovered. Although this is a very exciting possibility in the context of a past interaction of M33 with M31 and the fate of its satellite system, a confirmation will have to await a good distance estimate to confirm its physical proximity to M33. Along with the dwarf galaxies found in previous surveys of the M31 surroundings, these two new satellites bring the number of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in this region to 20. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  18. Training Cubs for the Celtic Tiger: The Volume Production of Technical Graduates in the Irish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, James; Boucher, Gerard W.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the claim that the Irish educational system was one cause of Ireland's rapid economic growth in the 1990s. For decades Irish economic policy has assumed that economic growth depended on foreign direct investment (FDI). During the 1990s, Irish exports largely comprised high-technology manufacturing products; foreign-owned…

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Youth Character: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study of Cub Scouts and Non-Scout Boys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Ferris, Kaitlyn A; Hershberg, Rachel M; Lerner, Richard M

    2015-12-01

    Youth development programs, such as the Boy Scouts of America, aim to develop positive attributes in youth (e.g., character virtues, prosocial behaviors, and positive civic actions), which are necessary for individuals and societies to flourish. However, few developmental studies have focused on how specific positive attributes develop through participation in programs such as the Boy Scouts of America. As part of the Character and Merit Project, this article examined the developmental trajectories of character and other positive attributes, which are of focal concern of the Boy Scouts of America and the developmental literature. Data were collected from 1398 Scouts (M = 8.59 years, SD = 1.29 years, Range 6.17-11.92 years) and 325 non-Scout boys (M = 9.06 years, SD = 1.43 years, Range 6.20-11.81 years) over five waves of testing across a two-and-half-year period. Latent growth-curve analyses of self-report survey data examined the developmental trajectories of the attributes. Older youth rated themselves lower than younger participants on helpfulness, reverence, thriftiness, and school performance. However, all youth had moderately high self-ratings on all the attributes. Across waves, Scouts' self-ratings increased significantly for cheerfulness, helpfulness, kindness, obedience, trustworthiness, and hopeful future expectations. Non-Scout boys' self-ratings showed no significant change for any attributes except for a significant decrease in religious reverence among non-Scout boys from religious institutions. We discuss implications for positive youth development and for the role of the Boy Scouts of America programming in character development.

  20. Children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS: feasibility and acceptability trial of the Children United with Buddies (CUB) intervention.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Debra A; Marelich, William D; Graham, Jamie; Payne, Diana L

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that young children affected by maternal HIV present with elevated stress/anxiety and negative well-being. This pilot intervention for children aged 7-14 affected by maternal HIV targeted improving positive child-mother communication, improving HIV/AIDS knowledge and reducing anxiety (especially related to transmission), and lessening feelings of stigma. Each of the three child intervention sessions included behavioral skills training and a themed craft exercise; mothers attended an open discussion group while the children attended their sessions. Study participants were 37 child-mother pairs. The study design was a randomized two-group pretest-posttest experimental design. The intervention sessions were audiotaped for transcription. Results showed significant decreases in anxiety and worry for children in the intervention group, and increases in happiness and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS transmission. Intervention group mothers reported greater social support. Qualitative findings for the intervention group children and mothers also support these findings. Early intervention reduces child stress, and may affect longer-term outcomes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. PAndAS' CUBS: DISCOVERY OF TWO NEW DWARF GALAXIES IN THE SURROUNDINGS OF THE ANDROMEDA AND TRIANGULUM GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nicolas F.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Mike

    We present the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Andromeda XXI and Andromeda XXII, located in the surroundings of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies (M31 and M33). These discoveries stem from the first year data of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey, a photometric survey of the M31/M33 group conducted with the Megaprime/MegaCam Wide-Field Camera mounted on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Both satellites appear as spatial overdensities of stars which, when plotted in a color-magnitude diagram, follow metal-poor, [Fe/H] = -1.8, red giant branches at the distance of M31/M33. Andromeda XXI is a moderately bright dwarf galaxy (M{sub V} = -9.9 +- 0.6),more » albeit with low surface brightness, emphasizing again that many relatively luminous M31 satellites still remain to be discovered. It is also a large satellite, with a half-light radius close to 1 kpc, making it the fourth largest Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy after the recently discovered Andromeda XIX, Andromeda II, and Sagittarius around the Milky Way, and supports the trend that M31 satellites are larger than their Milky Way counterparts. Andromeda XXII is much fainter (M{sub V} = -6.5 +- 0.8) and lies a lot closer in projection to M33 than it does to M31 (42 versus 224 kpc), suggesting that it could be the first Triangulum satellite to be discovered. Although this is a very exciting possibility in the context of a past interaction of M33 with M31 and the fate of its satellite system, a confirmation will have to await a good distance estimate to confirm its physical proximity to M33. Along with the dwarf galaxies found in previous surveys of the M31 surroundings, these two new satellites bring the number of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in this region to 20.« less

  2. A 4 U Laser Heterodyne Radiometer for Methane (CH4) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Measurements from an Occultation-Viewing CubSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Emily L.; DiGregorio, A. J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Ammons, Mark S.; Bruner, WIlliam W.; Carter, Darrell; Mao, Jianping; Ramanathan, Anand; Strahan, Susan E.; Oman, Luke D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present a design for a 4 U (20 cm 20 cm 10 cm) occultation-viewing laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) that measures methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor(H2O) in the limb that is designed for deployment on a 6 U CubeSat. The LHR design collects sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas and mixes it with a distributive feedback (DFB) laser centered at 1640 nm that scans across CO2, CH4, and H2O absorption features. Upper troposphere lower stratosphere measurements of these gases provide key inputs to stratospheric circulation models: measuring stratospheric circulation and its variability is essential for projecting how climate change will affect stratospheric ozone.

  3. Enhancing captive breeding in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): maintaining lactation when cubs are rejected, and understanding variation in milk collection and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongping; Zhang, Guiquan; Yin, Feng; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Dingzhen

    2009-07-01

    From 1997 to 2002, a female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was artificially stimulated and lactation was maintained, after her neonates were removed due to the female's inability to provide maternal care. Milk samples were collected and the amount of milk collected was quantified. The lactation curve of this animal was estimated based on the Gamma function: Y(t)=at(b)e(-ct). The amount of milk collected showed significant, positive relationships with the number of days after parturition both in 1999 and in the whole study period from 1998 to 2002. This female's lactation curves fit the type I pattern of a typical mammalian lactation curve. Daily milk collection (g) during the first 30 days after parturition, and from 31 to 60 days after parturition, showed a consistent pattern with one peak at around 8:00 hr. More milk was collected during the latter period than during the former period. The amount of milk (g) collected on mucus excretion days was significantly less than that on days after mucus excretion had ended, yet no significant difference was found between milk collected one day before mucus days and on mucus days, or between milk collected one day before and one day after mucus days. Mucus excretion from the gastrointestinal tract significantly impacted the amount of milk collected. The results from this study may aid the captive propagation and conservation of giant pandas and other endangered and rare captive mammal species.

  4. Cheetah: software for high-throughput reduction and analysis of serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction data

    PubMed Central

    Barty, Anton; Kirian, Richard A.; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Hantke, Max; Yoon, Chun Hong; White, Thomas A.; Chapman, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The emerging technique of serial X-ray diffraction, in which diffraction data are collected from samples flowing across a pulsed X-ray source at repetition rates of 100 Hz or higher, has necessitated the development of new software in order to handle the large data volumes produced. Sorting of data according to different criteria and rapid filtering of events to retain only diffraction patterns of interest results in significant reductions in data volume, thereby simplifying subsequent data analysis and management tasks. Meanwhile the generation of reduced data in the form of virtual powder patterns, radial stacks, histograms and other meta data creates data set summaries for analysis and overall experiment evaluation. Rapid data reduction early in the analysis pipeline is proving to be an essential first step in serial imaging experiments, prompting the authors to make the tool described in this article available to the general community. Originally developed for experiments at X-ray free-electron lasers, the software is based on a modular facility-independent library to promote portability between different experiments and is available under version 3 or later of the GNU General Public License. PMID:24904246

  5. A randomized controlled trial of levosimendan to reduce mortality in high-risk cardiac surgery patients (CHEETAH): Rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Zangrillo, Alberto; Alvaro, Gabriele; Pisano, Antonio; Guarracino, Fabio; Lobreglio, Rosetta; Bradic, Nikola; Lembo, Rosalba; Gianni, Stefano; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Likhvantsev, Valery; Grigoryev, Evgeny; Buscaglia, Giuseppe; Pala, Giovanni; Auci, Elisabetta; Amantea, Bruno; Monaco, Fabrizio; De Vuono, Giovanni; Corcione, Antonio; Galdieri, Nicola; Cariello, Claudia; Bove, Tiziana; Fominskiy, Evgeny; Auriemma, Stefano; Baiocchi, Massimo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Frontini, Mario; Paternoster, Gianluca; Sangalli, Fabio; Wang, Chew-Yin; Zucchetti, Maria Chiara; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Gemma, Marco; Lipinski, Michael J; Lomivorotov, Vladimir V; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are at risk of perioperative low cardiac output syndrome due to postoperative myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial dysfunction in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is a potential indication for the use of levosimendan, a calcium sensitizer with 3 beneficial cardiovascular effects (inotropic, vasodilatory, and anti-inflammatory), which appears effective in improving clinically relevant outcomes. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter randomized trial. Tertiary care hospitals. Cardiac surgery patients (n = 1,000) with postoperative myocardial dysfunction (defined as patients with intraaortic balloon pump and/or high-dose standard inotropic support) will be randomized to receive a continuous infusion of either levosimendan (0.05-0.2 μg/[kg min]) or placebo for 24-48 hours. The primary end point will be 30-day mortality. Secondary end points will be mortality at 1 year, time on mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury, decision to stop the study drug due to adverse events or to start open-label levosimendan, and length of intensive care unit and hospital stay. We will test the hypothesis that levosimendan reduces 30-day mortality in cardiac surgery patients with postoperative myocardial dysfunction. This trial is planned to determine whether levosimendan could improve survival in patients with postoperative low cardiac output syndrome. The results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial may provide important insights into the management of low cardiac output in cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. From cheetahs to chimpanzees: a comparative review of the drivers of human-carnivore conflict and human-primate conflict.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Amy J

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a growing conservation threat, and is increasingly of importance to primate conservationists. Despite this, relatively little work has been done to date on the drivers of human-primate conflict, especially compared to other conflict-causing taxa such as large carnivores. However, the drivers of conflict are often very similar across species, so conflict researchers can learn important lessons from work conducted on other taxa. This paper discusses 8 key factors which are likely to affect how hostile people are towards wildlife and any damage they cause--6 of these are common to both carnivores and primates, while one is much more applicable to carnivores and the other is specific to primates. These conflict drivers involve numerous social and cultural factors, and highlight the importance of truly understanding the local drivers of conflict in order to develop effective mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A comparative approach to the study of Keeper-Animal Relationships in the zoo.

    PubMed

    Carlstead, Kathy

    2009-11-01

    animals, a significant negative correlation between Frequency of Feeding/Early Feedtime and average Affinity to Keeper of their animals, and a positive correlation between Keeper Experience and their animals' Fear of People, indicates that certain zoo keeping styles or habits among experienced keepers might be aversive and increase fear among animals. (3) Keepers who locomote or make unexpected noises when calling their animals elicit increased aggression or apprehension from maned wolves and cheetahs. (4) Wild-born black rhino and parent-reared maned wolf have significantly less affinity to keepers than their captive-born or hand-reared counterparts, but neither differs in Fear of People. (5) Keeper-animal relationships are likely to be reciprocal as evidenced by a negative correlation of Job Satisfaction with animal Fear of People. Future research directions are discussed with respect to assessment of keeper attitudes and behaviors, animal fear, positive measures of welfare, and positive reinforcement training.

  8. 77 FR 12870 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... import biological samples from 3 captive born cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) for the purpose of scientific research on the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis in the cheetahs at the Toronto Zoo, Ontario...

  9. Stifle osteochondritis dissecans in snow leopards (Uncia uncia).

    PubMed

    Herrin, Kimberly Vinette; Allan, Graeme; Black, Anthony; Aliah, Rhonda; Howlett, Cameron Rolfe

    2012-06-01

    Three snow leopard (Uncia uncia) cubs, female and male siblings and an unrelated female, had lameness attributed to osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions noted at 6, 8, and 10 mo of age, respectively. All cubs were diagnosed with OCD via radiographs. The sibling cubs both had lesions of the right lateral femoral condyles, while the unrelated cub had bilateral lesions of the lateral femoral condyles. Subsequently, OCD was confirmed in all three cases during surgical correction of the lateral femoral condyle lesions via lateral stifle arthrotomies, flap removal, and debridement of the defect sites. Histopathology also supported the diagnosis of OCD. Postoperatively, the sibling cubs developed seromas at the incision sites and mild lameness, which resolved within a month. To date, two cubs have been orthopedically sound, while one of the sibling cubs has developed mild osteoarthritis. OCD has rarely been reported in domestic felids, and to the authors' knowledge these are the first reported cases of OCD in nondomestic felids.

  10. Theoretical Prediction of the Heat of Formation, Density, and Relative Sensitivity for 3,7-dinitro-[1,2,4]triazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4] triazin-4-amine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    the procedures used to generate this information, as well as Cheetah calculations using the predicted crystalline density and heat of formation. 15...overlay ...............6 List of Tables Table Cheetah -predicted properties of the 3,7-dinitro-[1,2,4]triazolo[5,1- c][1,2,4]triazin-4-amine molecule...script, initially written for the ARL DSRC. Dr Rice is acknowledged for running the Cheetah calculations. All computations were performed at the ARL

  11. Assessment of DEMN-based IM Formulations for Octol Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    experimentally for performance in this study. The performance was first assessed numerically using the thermochemical equilibrium code Cheetah , v5.0...Fine Grain Octol (FGO). The Cheetah estimates suggest that the proposed formulations will have lower detonation pressure than Octol level performance...Materials Technology Symposium. 3. Fried, L.E., Howard, W.M., Souers, P.C., and Vitello, P.A. Cheetah 5.0, Energetic Materials Center, Lawrence Livermore

  12. Modeling Close-In Airblast from ANFO Cylindrical and Box-Shaped Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Eulerian hydrodynamics code [1]. The Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation of the state (EOS) [2] of the reacted ANFO was computed using the Cheetah ...thermodynamics code [3]. Cheetah first calculates the detonation state from Chapman-Jouget (C-J) theory and then models the adiabatic expansion from...success modeling a large range of ANFO charge sizes using the Cheetah -generated EOS along with the Ignition and Growth (IG) reactive flow model [6

  13. Trapping Elusive Cats: Using Intensive Camera Trapping to Estimate the Density of a Rare African Felid

    PubMed Central

    Brassine, Eléanor; Parker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Camera trapping studies have become increasingly popular to produce population estimates of individually recognisable mammals. Yet, monitoring techniques for rare species which occur at extremely low densities are lacking. Additionally, species which have unpredictable movements may make obtaining reliable population estimates challenging due to low detectability. Our study explores the effectiveness of intensive camera trapping for estimating cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) numbers. Using both a more traditional, systematic grid approach and pre-determined, targeted sites for camera placement, the cheetah population of the Northern Tuli Game Reserve, Botswana was sampled between December 2012 and October 2013. Placement of cameras in a regular grid pattern yielded very few (n = 9) cheetah images and these were insufficient to estimate cheetah density. However, pre-selected cheetah scent-marking posts provided 53 images of seven adult cheetahs (0.61 ± 0.18 cheetahs/100km²). While increasing the length of the camera trapping survey from 90 to 130 days increased the total number of cheetah images obtained (from 53 to 200), no new individuals were recorded and the estimated population density remained stable. Thus, our study demonstrates that targeted camera placement (irrespective of survey duration) is necessary for reliably assessing cheetah densities where populations are naturally very low or dominated by transient individuals. Significantly our approach can easily be applied to other rare predator species. PMID:26698574

  14. Trapping Elusive Cats: Using Intensive Camera Trapping to Estimate the Density of a Rare African Felid.

    PubMed

    Brassine, Eléanor; Parker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Camera trapping studies have become increasingly popular to produce population estimates of individually recognisable mammals. Yet, monitoring techniques for rare species which occur at extremely low densities are lacking. Additionally, species which have unpredictable movements may make obtaining reliable population estimates challenging due to low detectability. Our study explores the effectiveness of intensive camera trapping for estimating cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) numbers. Using both a more traditional, systematic grid approach and pre-determined, targeted sites for camera placement, the cheetah population of the Northern Tuli Game Reserve, Botswana was sampled between December 2012 and October 2013. Placement of cameras in a regular grid pattern yielded very few (n = 9) cheetah images and these were insufficient to estimate cheetah density. However, pre-selected cheetah scent-marking posts provided 53 images of seven adult cheetahs (0.61 ± 0.18 cheetahs/100 km²). While increasing the length of the camera trapping survey from 90 to 130 days increased the total number of cheetah images obtained (from 53 to 200), no new individuals were recorded and the estimated population density remained stable. Thus, our study demonstrates that targeted camera placement (irrespective of survey duration) is necessary for reliably assessing cheetah densities where populations are naturally very low or dominated by transient individuals. Significantly our approach can easily be applied to other rare predator species.

  15. Nutrition and behavior of fennec foxes (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Janet L; Hanna, Sherilyn J; Asa, Cheryl S; Bauman, Karen L

    2009-05-01

    Fennec foxes make popular pets because of their small size, minimal odor, and highly social behaviors. They are kept in zoos for conservation and educational programs. The exotic animal practitioner is most likely to be presented with fennec foxes that are overweight because of inappropriate diets or excessive feeding. Clients attempting to hand-rear fennec foxes need advice about formula selection, amounts to feed, protocols for keeping pups warm, and weaning. This article provides information on social behavior, reproduction, and parental behavior, nutrition, and hand-rearing.

  16. Wave-Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge Advance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    During cruise CU-B UAF UW Airborne expendable Ice Buoy (AXIB) Ahead, at and inside ice edge Surface meteorology T, SLP ~1 year CU-B UW...Balance (IMB) buoys Inside ice edge w/ >50cm thickness Ice mass balance T in snow-ice-ocean, T, SLP at surface ~1 year WHOI CRREL (SeaState DRI

  17. Poetry Workshop & Poster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinan, Bee

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that Judith Nicholls'"Polar Cub" is a good wintery poem to share with students. In it, the poet invites the cub to come out of its cave and explore in the snow, just as teachers invite children to explore words and ideas in poetry. The article explains how to read the poem to students. A poster is included. (SM)

  18. Bishydrazinium and Diammonium Salts of 4,4’,5,5’-Tetranitro-2,2’-biimidazolate (TNBI): Synthesis and Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    detonation were all calculated with CHEETAH 6.0 using the exp 6.3 library. The per- formance values as reported for NTO and RDX are provided for comparison...purposes and were generated using the CHEETAH 6.0 reactant library values for heat of formation and density for these materials. 3.2 Synthetic

  19. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast

  20. Effects of rearing treatment on the behavior of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreger, M.D.; Estevez, I.; Hatfield, J.S.; Gee, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Small founder populations of whooping cranes are managed to maximize egg production for the purpose of reintroducing young to the wild. This results in an excessive number of hatched chicks that cannot be naturally reared by parents. Hand-rearing techniques have been developed to raise the additional hatches. However, hand rearing may affect the behavior of the birds and their chances of survival later in life. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of rearing practices on the behavior of whooping crane chicks. The birds were reared under three commonly used rearing techniques: parent reared (PR), hand reared (HR), and hand reared with exercise (HRE). Fifty-six whooping crane chicks were observed by focal animal sampling from hatch to 20 weeks of age. During these observations, occurrences of comfort behavior, aggression, foraging, nonvigilance, sleep, vigilance, and other types of behavior were collected. Data were analyzed using mixed models repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Behavior was affected by rearing treatment, age, and time of day. PR birds spent more time being vigilant than HR and HRE birds. An inverse correlation was found between percentage of time foraging and vigilant (r = -0.686, P < 0.0001). However, there were no differences in the behavior of birds reared in HR or HRE programs.

  1. Behavioural Differences between Single Scandinavian Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) and Females with Dependent Young When Experimentally Approached by Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sahlén, Veronica; Ordiz, Andrés; Swenson, Jon E.; Støen, Ole Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Carnivore-human encounters that result in human injury present a conservation and management challenge and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions such incidents occur. Females with cubs are often involved when humans are injured by brown bears Ursus arctos. In Scandinavia, this is particularly true for unarmed recreational forest users. Our aim was to document behavioural differences between single bears and females with cubs in order to develop recommendations to minimize the risk of injuries to recreational forest users. We documented the reactions of GPS-collared females with cubs and single brown bears to experimental approaches by humans to 50 m from the bear on 42 and 108 occasions, respectively. The majority of females with cubs (95%) and single bears (89%) left when approached. Bears that left were passed at shorter distances and were in more open areas than those that stayed. Both groups had similar flight initiation distances, which were longer for bears that were active at the time of the disturbance. Females with cubs selected more open habitat than single bears, also for the new site they selected following disturbance. Females with cubs, particularly active females with cubs of the year, moved greater distances and spent more time active following the approach. Females with cubs and single bears were seen or heard in 26% and 14% of the approaches, respectively. None of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour during the approaches. Females with cubs selected more open habitat, perhaps predisposing them to encountering people that are not involved in hunting activities, which might be the primary explanation why females with cubs are most frequently involved when unarmed people are injured by bears in Scandinavia. To mitigate injury risks, one must consider factors that bring bears closer to human activity in the first place. PMID:25830333

  2. Sparse Partial Equilibrium Tables in Chemically Resolved Reactive Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitello, Peter; Fried, Laurence E.; Pudliner, Brian; McAbee, Tom

    2004-07-01

    The detonation of an energetic material is the result of a complex interaction between kinetic chemical reactions and hydrodynamics. Unfortunately, little is known concerning the detailed chemical kinetics of detonations in energetic materials. CHEETAH uses rate laws to treat species with the slowest chemical reactions, while assuming other chemical species are in equilibrium. CHEETAH supports a wide range of elements and condensed detonation products and can also be applied to gas detonations. A sparse hash table of equation of state values is used in CHEETAH to enhance the efficiency of kinetic reaction calculations. For large-scale parallel hydrodynamic calculations, CHEETAH uses parallel communication to updates to the cache. We present here details of the sparse caching model used in the CHEETAH coupled to an ALE hydrocode. To demonstrate the efficiency of modeling using a sparse cache model we consider detonations in energetic materials.

  3. Sparse Partial Equilibrium Tables in Chemically Resolved Reactive Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P; Fried, L E; Pudliner, B

    2003-07-14

    The detonation of an energetic material is the result of a complex interaction between kinetic chemical reactions and hydrodynamics. Unfortunately, little is known concerning the detailed chemical kinetics of detonations in energetic materials. CHEETAH uses rate laws to treat species with the slowest chemical reactions, while assuming other chemical species are in equilibrium. CHEETAH supports a wide range of elements and condensed detonation products and can also be applied to gas detonations. A sparse hash table of equation of state values, called the ''cache'' is used in CHEETAH to enhance the efficiency of kinetic reaction calculations. For large-scale parallel hydrodynamicmore » calculations, CHEETAH uses MPI communication to updates to the cache. We present here details of the sparse caching model used in the CHEETAH. To demonstrate the efficiency of modeling using a sparse cache model we consider detonations in energetic materials.« less

  4. Polar bear mother-offspring interactions in maternity dens in captivity.

    PubMed

    van Gessel, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Two female polar bears at Dierenrijk Zoo in the Netherlands were monitored at their maternity den one day before the birth of their cubs and three days postpartum. Each bear was monitored for 96 hr to document behaviour and vocalisations. The goal was to obtain insight into the differences between the mother that lost her litter and the other that successfully reared her cubs. Six groups of cub vocalisations were identified: Comfort, Discomfort, Distress, Nursing Attempts, Nursing, and No Vocalisation. Maternal vocalisations were split into three groups: Calm, Grooming, and Stress. Maternal behaviours were also split into three groups: Active, Rest, and Stress. The unsuccessful mother produced more stress vocalisations before and during the birth of her cub, whereas the successful mother appeared less stressed. Vocalisations indicate that the cub that died tried to nurse but was unsuccessful. The unsuccessful mother showed less stress as her cub got weaker and vocalised less. From this I suggest that maternal stress was a factor in cub mortality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Codon-Resolution Analysis Reveals a Direct and Context-Dependent Impact of Individual Synonymous Mutations on mRNA Level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Siyu; Li, Ke; Cao, Wenqing; Wang, Jia; Zhao, Tong; Huan, Qing; Yang, Yu-Fei; Wu, Shaohuan; Qian, Wenfeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Codon usage bias (CUB) refers to the observation that synonymous codons are not used equally frequently in a genome. CUB is stronger in more highly expressed genes, a phenomenon commonly explained by stronger natural selection on translational accuracy and/or efficiency among these genes. Nevertheless, this phenomenon could also occur if CUB regulates gene expression at the mRNA level, a hypothesis that has not been tested until recently. Here, we attempt to quantify the impact of synonymous mutations on mRNA level in yeast using 3,556 synonymous variants of a heterologous gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and 523 synonymous variants of an endogenous gene TDH3. We found that mRNA level was positively correlated with CUB among these synonymous variants, demonstrating a direct role of CUB in regulating transcript concentration, likely via regulating mRNA degradation rate, as our additional experiments suggested. More importantly, we quantified the effects of individual synonymous mutations on mRNA level and found them dependent on 1) CUB and 2) mRNA secondary structure, both in proximal sequence contexts. Our study reveals the pleiotropic effects of synonymous codon usage and provides an additional explanation for the well-known correlation between CUB and gene expression level. PMID:28961875

  6. Cucurbitacin B and SCH772984 exhibit synergistic anti-pancreatic cancer activities by suppressing EGFR, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, STAT3 and ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingkai; Zhao, Tiangang; Ma, Linfeng; Liang, Min; Guo, Ying-Jie; Zhao, Li-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB) is a natural tetracyclic triterpene product and displays antitumor activity across a wide array of cancers. In this study, we explored the anti-pancreatic cancer activity of CuB alone and in combination with SCH772984, an ERK inhibitor, in vitro and in vivo. CuB inhibited proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells by arresting them in the G2/M cell cycle phase. This was associated with inhibition of EGFR expression and activity and downstream signaling, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR and STAT3. Interestingly, ERK activity was markedly enhanced by activating AMPK signaling after 12 h of CuB treatment. SCH772984 potentiates the cytotoxic effect of CuB on pancreatic cancer cells through complementary inhibition of EGFR, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, STAT3 and ERK signaling, followed by an increase in the pro-apoptotic protein Bim and a decrease in the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and survivin. Furthermore, combined therapy with CuB and SCH772984 resulted in highly significant growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer xenografts. These results may provide a basis for further development of combining CuB and ERK inhibitors to treat pancreatic cancer. PMID:29262554

  7. An association between feather damaging behavior and corticosterone metabolite excretion in captive African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus)

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Michele; Nucera, Daniele M.; Gasco, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) are kept as pets and are frequently hand-reared. It has been observed that hand-reared African grey parrots may develop behavioral disorders such as feather damaging behavior (FDB). It is well known that chronic stress is involved in behavioral disorders in captive parrots. The main glucocorticoid in birds is corticosterone; its quantification provides information about adrenocortical activity and is considered to be a reliable indicator of stress levels in birds. We analyzed the differences in the excretion of corticosterone metabolites (CM) in the droppings of African grey parrots characterized by: 1. different rearing histories (parent rearing vs. hand rearing); and 2. the presence or absence of FDB in hand-reared parrots. Methods A total of 82 African grey parrots that were kept in captivity were considered. According to breeding methods, three groups of birds were defined: 1. The parent-reared (PR) parrots included birds kept in pairs (n = 30 pairs) with a conspecific partner of the opposite sex. All of these birds were healthy and never showed FDB signs; 2. The healthy hand-reared parrots (H-HR) included pet parrots individually kept, that were hand-reared and did not display any sign of FDB (n = 11, 7 males and 4 females); 3. The FDB hand-reared parrot (FDB-HR) included pet parrots individually kept, that were hand-reared and displayed FDB (n = 11, 7 males and 4 females). Droppings were collected in the morning over three alternating days in autumn 2014 and spring 2015. The CM were determined using a multi-species corticosterone enzyme immunoassay kit. Split-plot repeated-measure ANOVA was used to examine any differences using group, season and group × season as the main factors. Results Different quantities of CM in droppings were found for the three groups. The mean CM value was 587 ng/g in the PR parrots, 494 ng/g in the H-HR parrots and 1,744 ng/g in the FDB-HR parrots, irrespective of the season

  8. The world of tomorrow: Aerospace activities for 8- to 10-year olds. A guide for leaders of children's groups and teachers of the lower grades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During January 1977, NASA helped the Cub Scout Division of the Boy Scouts of America in the conduct of its The World of Tomorrow monthly theme. In this period, 249 Cub Scout packs participated in a nationwide aerospace activities project, a pilot project in which den leaders and Cubmasters conducted local programs for their Cub Scouts and Webelos Scouts. The products of these local programs are presented with the written accounts submitted by adult leaders and written compositions, pictures, and photographs of models submitted by the youngsters.

  9. Validation of a Pressed Pentolite Donor for the Large Scale Gap Test (LGST) at DSTO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    20.5 a based on dent depth measurement and referenced to RT 60/40 3.1.3 Modelling Data The VoD and PCJ were calculated using CHEETAH 4.0...compositions as well as ideal explosives. It should be noted that CHEETAH assumes the charge is of infinite length as it can not model size effects. It can...calculated from CHEETAH 4.0 and Experimental data Donor Origin Density (g.cm-3) Calculated PCJ (GPa) Experimental P (GPa) Calculated VoD (m.s-1

  10. A New Method for the Production of Tetranitroglycoluril From Imidazo-[4,5-d]-Imidazoles With the Loss of Dinitrogen Oxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    reactions over time. ............................................8 List of Tables Table 1. Performance predictions from Cheetah 7.0...making it a highly desirable target (table 1). 3 Table 1. Performance predictions from Cheetah 7.0 (4). Substance ρa ∆Hf (kJ/mol) Pcjd (GPa) Dv e (km...HMXc 1.90 75.02 37.19 9.246 11.00 –21.61 aDensity. bPredicted using the methods of Rice (10–14). c∆Hf and density numbers obtained from Cheetah 7.0

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Mono-, Di-, and Tetranitrated 7,8-Disubstituted Glycolurils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Cheetah 7.0 [7] . All of the compounds 8–13 are predicted to have performance values less than TNT with 15 and 16 approaching the performance of TNT...0.25 1.25 0.25 a) Calculated values in brackets. b) Calculated using Cheetah 7.0. c) Peak decomposition temperature at 10 Kmin1 in a pinhole pan. d) Ex...118, 445–458. [7] S. Bastea, L. E. Fried, K. R. Glaesemann, W. M. Howard, I. W. Kuo, P. C. Souers, P. A. Vitello, Cheetah 7.0 User’s Manual, LLNL-SM

  12. Video Object Segmentation through Spatially Accurate and Temporally Dense Extraction of Primary Object Regions (Open Access)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-03

    fol- low the setup in the literature ([13, 14]), and use 5 (birdfall, cheetah , girl, monkeydog and parachute) of the videos for evaluation (since the...segmentation labeling results of the method, GT is the ground-truth labeling of the video, and F is the (a) Birdfall (b) Cheetah (c) Girl (d) Monkeydog...Video Ours [14] [13] [20] [6] birdfall 155 189 288 252 454 cheetah 633 806 905 1142 1217 girl 1488 1698 1785 1304 1755 monkeydog 365 472 521 563 683

  13. 75 FR 56107 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ..., human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members of the... Hide Away Circle, Cub Run, KY 42729. 70127 Novozymes Biologicals, Inc., 1150 Conn. Ave., NW., Suite...

  14. Induction of thermotropic bicontinuous cubic phases in liquid-crystalline ammonium and phosphonium salts.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Takahiro; Yoshio, Masafumi; Hamasaki, Atsushi; Taguchi, Satomi; Liu, Feng; Zeng, Xiang-bing; Ungar, Goran; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kato, Takashi

    2012-02-08

    Two series of wedge-shaped onium salts, one ammonium and the other phosphonium, having 3,4,5-tris(alkyloxy)benzyl moieties, exhibit thermotropic bicontinuous "gyroid" cubic (Cub(bi)) and hexagonal columnar liquid-crystalline (LC) phases by nanosegregation between ionophilic and ionophobic parts. The alkyl chain lengths on the cationic moieties, anion species, and alkyl chain lengths on the benzyl moieties have crucial effects on their thermotropic phase behavior. For example, triethyl-[3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxy)benzyl]ammonium hexafluorophosphate forms the thermotropic Ia3d Cub(bi) LC phase, whereas an analogous compound with trifluoromethanesulfonate anion shows no LC properties. Synchrotron small-angle diffraction intensities from the Ia3d Cub(bi) LC materials provide electron density maps in the bulk state. The resulting maps show convincingly that the Ia3d Cub(bi) structure is composed of three-dimensionally interconnected ion nanochannel networks surrounded by aliphatic domains. A novel differential mapping technique has been applied successfully. The map of triethyl-[3,4,5-tris(decyloxy)benzyl]ammonium tetrafluoroborate has been subtracted from that of the analogous ammonium salt with hexafluorophosphate anion in the Ia3d Cub(bi) phases. The differential map shows that the counteranions are located in the core of the three-dimensionally interconnected nanochannel networks. Changing from trimethyl- via triethyl- to tripropylammonium cation changes the phase from columnar to Cub(bi) to no mesophase, respectively. This sensitivity to the widened shape for the narrow end of the molecule is explained successfully by the previously proposed semiquantitative geometric model based on the radial distribution of volume in wedge-shaped molecules. The LC onium salts dissolve lithium tetrafluoroborate without losing the Ia3d Cub(bi) LC phase. The Cub(bi) LC materials exhibit efficient ion-transporting behavior as a result of their 3D interconnected ion nanochannel networks

  15. Early Induction of NRF2 Antioxidant Pathway by RHBDF2 Mediates Rapid Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hosur, Vishnu; Burzenski, Lisa M.; Stearns, Timothy M.; Farley, Michelle L.; Sundberg, John P.; Wiles, Michael V.; Shultz, Leonard D.

    2017-01-01

    Rhomboid family protein RHBDF2, an upstream regulator of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling, has been implicated in cutaneous wound healing. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still emerging. In humans, a gain-of-function mutation in the RHBDF2 gene accelerates cutaneous wound healing in an EGFR-dependent manner. Likewise, a gain-of-function mutation in the mouse Rhbdf2 gene (Rhbdf2cub/cub) shows a regenerative phenotype (rapid ear-hole closure) resulting from constitutive activation of the EGFR pathway. Because the RHBDF2-regulated EGFR pathway is relevant to cutaneous wound healing in humans, we used Rhbdf2cub/cub mice to investigate the biological networks and pathways leading to accelerated ear-hole closure, with the goal of identifying therapeutic targets potentially effective in promoting wound healing in humans. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ear pinna tissue from Rhbdf2cub/cub and Rhbdf2+/+ mice at 0h, 15 min, 2h, and 24h post-wounding revealed an early induction of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated anti-oxidative pathway (0h and 15 min), followed by the integrin-receptor aggregation pathway (2h) as early-stage events immediately and shortly after wounding in Rhbdf2cub/cub mice. Additionally, we observed genes enriched for the Fc fragment of the IgG receptor IIIa (FCGR3A)-mediated phagocytosis pathway 24h post-wounding. Although cutaneous wound repair in healthy individuals is generally non-problematic, it can be severely impaired due to aging, diabetes, and chronic inflammation. This study suggests that activation of the NRF2-antioxidant pathway by rhomboid protein RHBDF2 might be beneficial in treating chronic non-healing wounds. PMID:28268192

  16. Comparison of shoulder internal rotation test with the elbow flexion test in the diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Kensuke; Horiuchi, Yukio; Tanabe, Aya; Morita, Kozo; Takeda, Kentaro; Ninomiya, Ken

    2011-05-01

    To compare the shoulder internal rotation test-a new, provocative test-with the elbow flexion test in the diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome (CubTS). Twenty-five patients with CubTS were examined before and after surgery with 10 seconds each of the elbow flexion and shoulder internal rotation tests. Fifty-four asymptomatic individuals and 14 neuropathy patients with a diagnosis other than CubTS were also examined as control cases. For the shoulder internal rotation test, the patient's upper extremity was kept at 90° abduction, maximum internal rotation, and 10° flexion at the shoulder, with 90° elbow flexion and neutral position of the forearm and wrist, with finger extension. Test results were considered positive if any slight symptom attributable to CubTS occurred within 10 seconds. Extraneural pressure inside the cubital tunnel was intraoperatively measured with the positions of both the elbow flexion and shoulder internal rotation tests, in 15 of the CubTS cases. Statistical analyses were performed using Student's t-test with a confidence level of 95%. The preoperative sensitivity in CubTS cases was 80% in the 10-second shoulder internal rotation test and 36% in the 10-second elbow flexion test, and these differences were significant. None of the control cases had positive results in either test. All the CubTS cases improved with surgery; after surgery, neither test provoked symptoms in any surgical patient. The extraneural pressure increased in both provocative positions with no significant difference. Positive results for the 10-second shoulder internal rotation test were more sensitive than that for the elbow flexion test of the same duration and seemed specific to CubTS. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early induction of NRF2 antioxidant pathway by RHBDF2 mediates rapid cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hosur, Vishnu; Burzenski, Lisa M; Stearns, Timothy M; Farley, Michelle L; Sundberg, John P; Wiles, Michael V; Shultz, Leonard D

    2017-04-01

    Rhomboid family protein RHBDF2, an upstream regulator of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling, has been implicated in cutaneous wound healing. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still emerging. In humans, a gain-of-function mutation in the RHBDF2 gene accelerates cutaneous wound healing in an EGFR-dependent manner. Likewise, a gain-of-function mutation in the mouse Rhbdf2 gene (Rhbdf2 cub/cub ) shows a regenerative phenotype (rapid ear-hole closure) resulting from constitutive activation of the EGFR pathway. Because the RHBDF2-regulated EGFR pathway is relevant to cutaneous wound healing in humans, we used Rhbdf2 cub/cub mice to investigate the biological networks and pathways leading to accelerated ear-hole closure, with the goal of identifying therapeutic targets potentially effective in promoting wound healing in humans. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ear pinna tissue from Rhbdf2 cub/cub and Rhbdf2 +/+ mice at 0h, 15min, 2h, and 24h post-wounding revealed an early induction of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated anti-oxidative pathway (0h and 15min), followed by the integrin-receptor aggregation pathway (2h) as early-stage events immediately and shortly after wounding in Rhbdf2 cub/cub mice. Additionally, we observed genes enriched for the Fc fragment of the IgG receptor IIIa (FCGR3A)-mediated phagocytosis pathway 24h post-wounding. Although cutaneous wound repair in healthy individuals is generally non-problematic, it can be severely impaired due to aging, diabetes, and chronic inflammation. This study suggests that activation of the NRF2-antioxidant pathway by rhomboid protein RHBDF2 might be beneficial in treating chronic non-healing wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 26779 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Boidae Genera: Panthera Tragopan Species: snow leopard (Uncia uncia) black-footed cat (Felis nigripes... diana) mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) snow leopard (Uncia uncia) leopard (Panthera pardus) cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) South American tapir (Tapirus...

  19. Behavioral profiles of the captive juvenile whooping crane as an indicator of post-release survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreger, M.D.; Hatfield, J.S.; Estevez, I.; Gee, G.F.; Clugston, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Predation by bobcats (Lynx rufus) is the major cause of mortality in captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) released into the wild to establish a nonmigratory flock in Florida. This study investigated whether rearing methods (parent-rearing, hand-rearing, or hand-rearing with exercise) of cranes, and behaviors observed in birds either before or shortly after release in the wild, are associated with survival after release. Rearing methods did not affect survival first year post-release, which was 55 ? 8% in 2 yr (1999 and 2000). Logistic regression revealed, however, that foraging bouts (+), walking bouts (-), and body weight (-) before release, and nonvigilant bouts (-) after release were significantly associated with survival. These results suggest that post-release survival of whooping cranes might be increased by rearing techniques that promote foraging.

  20. A biotransformation process for the production of cucurbitacin B from its glycoside using a selected Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jianfeng; Li, Sha; Jin, Hang; Tang, Lan; Yi, Yu; Wang, Hong; Ying, Guoqing

    2016-09-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB) and its glycoside, cucurbitacin B 2-o-β-D-glucoside (CuBg), abundantly occur in the pedicels of Cucumis melo. Compared with CuB, CuBg is not efficiently extracted from the pedicels. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of CuBg is lower than that of the aglycone. A process for CuBg biotransformation to CuB was developed for the first time. A strain of Streptomyces species that converts CuBg into CuB was isolated from an enrichment culture of C. melo pedicels. After optimization of conditions for enzyme production and biotransformation, a maximum conversion rate of 92.6 % was obtained at a CuBg concentration of 0.25 g/L. When biotransformation was performed on C. melo pedicel extracts, the CuB concentration in the extracts increased from 1.50 to 3.27 g/L. The conversion rate was almost 100 %. The developed process may be an effective biotransformation method for industrial production CuB from C. melo pedicels for pharmaceuticals.

  1. Curiosity driven reinforcement learning for motion planning on humanoids

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Mikhail; Leitner, Jürgen; Stollenga, Marijn; Förster, Alexander; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Most previous work on artificial curiosity (AC) and intrinsic motivation focuses on basic concepts and theory. Experimental results are generally limited to toy scenarios, such as navigation in a simulated maze, or control of a simple mechanical system with one or two degrees of freedom. To study AC in a more realistic setting, we embody a curious agent in the complex iCub humanoid robot. Our novel reinforcement learning (RL) framework consists of a state-of-the-art, low-level, reactive control layer, which controls the iCub while respecting constraints, and a high-level curious agent, which explores the iCub's state-action space through information gain maximization, learning a world model from experience, controlling the actual iCub hardware in real-time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever embodied, curious agent for real-time motion planning on a humanoid. We demonstrate that it can learn compact Markov models to represent large regions of the iCub's configuration space, and that the iCub explores intelligently, showing interest in its physical constraints as well as in objects it finds in its environment. PMID:24432001

  2. Consequences of Gonadotropin Administration on Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development in the Domestic Cat and the In Vitro Fertilization of Feline Follicular Oocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-12

    days) has been relatively successful for inducing ovulation in the cheetah (Acinonyxjubatus), lion (Panthera leo) and North Chinese leopard...no spermatozoa (Wildt et al., 1987) indicating impaired spermatozoal transport. Although 26 of 30 female cheetahs treated with FSH-P demonstrated...Adult leopard cats were housed individually in wire enclosures 212 em high X 135 em wide X 275 em deep, fed a commercial feline diet (Nebraska Feline

  3. Progress Toward a Multidimensional Representation of the 5.56-mm Interior Ballistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    were performed as a check of all the major species formed at one atmosphere pressure. Cheetah (17) thermodynamics calculations were performed under...in impermeable boundaries that only yield to gas-dynamic flow after a prescribed pressure load is reached act as rigid bodies within the chamber... Cheetah Code, version 4.0; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2005. 18. Williams, A. W.; Brant, A. L.; Kaste, P. J.; Colburn, J. W

  4. Techniques for rearing and releasing nonmigratory cranes: Lessons from the Mississippi Sandhill Crane program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; O'Malley, K.E.; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Hereford, Scott G.; Range, P.; Harper, W.T.; Ingram, R.P.; Smith, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Captive-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) reared at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) have been released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) since 1981. Of 131 birds released through December 1990, 103 were reared by foster parents. The remaining 28 were experimentally hand-reared in 1989 and 1990. After refining release procedures, parent-reared birds have integrated into the wild flock, many have survived, and some have bred. Releases of hand-reared cranes elsewhere in the 1970's were largely unsuccessful, at least in part due to the lack of a lengthy acclimation period. A new hand-rearing protocol holds promise in producing release-worthy birds. The technique employs some features first used in the 1960's (e.g., a costume for the human caretaker and model crane heads used to train chicks to feed). In the mid-1980's, the following features were added: (1) the costumed caretaker was given a visor and feathers, (2) a taxidermic crane head or a hand puppet was held or suspended from the ceiling for use in stimulating chicks to feed, (3) a taxidermic mount of a brooding crane supplied warmth, (4) a full-sized live crane was maintained in an adjacent pen and in visual contact with neonatal young to provide an imprinting model, and (5) a small group of adult (or subadult) cranes was penned adjacent to the outdoor chick pens to provide socialization models. Recent releases of Mississippi sandhill cranes hand-reared according to this protocol and released in Mississippi have had high first-year survival rates. The now-operational technique holds promise for producing large numbers of release-worthy birds.

  5. Captive propagation of bald eagles at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and introductions into the wild, 1976-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1981-01-01

    One to 5 pairs of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were in the captive propagation project at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center during 1976-80. Four pairs produced viable eggs or young by natural mating in one or more years. Pairs laid second clutches 9 of 11 times when their first clutches were collected within 8 days of clutch completion. Sixty-nine percent of fertile artificially incubated eggs hatched; 93% of fertile parent-incubated eggs hatched. Eleven eaglets from artificially incubated eggs were hand reared. Age of birds at the time they were acquired from the wild was not a factor in their reproductive success. Ten hand-reared and 2 parent-reared young were fostered to adult Bald Eagles at active wild nests; 11 were accepted and survived. Eleven parent-reared young were provided to hacking projects. Egg transplants to wild nests were conducted, but discontinued because of poor success. Double clutching of captive pairs has not resulted in substantially increased numbers of eaglets. Additional research is needed in artificial incubation, artificial insemination, and nutrition and care of hand-reared eaglets.

  6. Molecular dynamics study of the diffusivity of a hydrophobic drug Cucurbitacin B in pseudo-poly(ethylene oxide-b-caprolactone) micelle environments.

    PubMed

    Razavilar, Negin; Choi, Phillip

    2014-07-08

    Isobaric-isothermal molecular dynamics simulation was used to study the diffusion of a hydrophobic drug Cucurbitacin B (CuB) in pseudomicelle environments consisting of poly(ethylene oxide-b-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) swollen by various amounts of water. Two PEO-b-PCL configurations, linear and branched, with the same total molecular weight were used. For the branched configuration, the block copolymer contained one linear block of PEO with the same molecular weight as that of the PEO block used in the linear configuration but with one end connecting to three PCL blocks with the same chain length, hereafter denoted PEO-b-3PCL. Regardless of the configuration, the simulation results showed that the diffusivity of CuB was insensitive to the water concentration up to ∼8 wt % while that of water decreased with an increasing water concentration. The diffusivity of CuB (10(-8) cm(2)/s) was 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of water (10(-5) cm(2)/s). This is attributed to the fact that CuB relied on the wiggling motion of the block copolymers to diffuse while water molecules diffused via a hopping mechanism. The rates at which CuB and water diffused into PEO-b-PCL were twice those in PEO-b-3PCL because the chain mobility and the degree of swelling are higher and there are fewer intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the case of PEO-b-PCL. The velocity autocorrelation functions of CuB show that the free volume holes formed by PEO-b-3PCL are more rigid than those formed by PEO-b-PCL, making CuB exhibit higher-frequency collision motion in PEO-b-3PCL than in PEO-b-PCL, and the difference in frequency is insensitive to water concentration.

  7. Milk composition in free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as a model for captive rearing milk formula.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Gail E; Derocher, Andrew E; Andersen, Magnus; Rogers, Quinton R; DePeters, Edward J; Lönnerdal, Bo; Mazzaro, Lisa; Chesney, Russell W; Hollis, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to have an improved understanding of milk composition and to help create a suitable milk formula for cubs raised in captivity. Milk samples were evaluated for fat, fatty acids, carbohydrate, vitamin D(3), 25(OH)D(3), vitamin A (retinol), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), protein, and amino acids. Total lipids in milk did not differ for cubs (mean ± SEM = 26.60 ± 1.88 g/100 ml vs. yearlings 27.80 ± 2.20 g/100 ml). Milk lipids were of 23.6% saturated fatty acid for cubs and 22.4% for yearlings. Milk consumed by cubs and yearlings contained 43.8 and 42.0% mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 23.4 and 21.9% polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Carbohydrate content was higher in milk for cubs (4.60 ± 0.64 g/100 ml) than for yearlings (2.60 ± 0.40 g/100 ml). Vitamin D(3) concentration of milk was 18.40 ± 5.00 ng/ml in early lactation compared with 7.60 ± 2.00 ng/ml for mid-lactation. 25(OH)D(3) was lower in milk consumed by cubs (162.00 ± 6.70 pg/ml) than in milk consumed by yearlings (205.00 ± 45.70 pg/ml). Vitamin A concentrations were 0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.03 ± 0.01 µg/ml for cubs and yearlings, respectively. Vitamin E was higher in milk consumed by cubs (20.16 ± 4.46 µg/ml) than by yearlings (7.30 ± 1.50 µg/ml). Protein content did not differ in milk available to cubs (11.40 ± 0.80 g/100 ml compared with milk for yearlings 11.80 ± 0.40 g/100 ml). Taurine was the most abundant free amino acid at 3,165.90 ± 192.90 nmol/ml (0.04% as fed basis). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Observations of mixed-aged litters in brown bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, J.E.; Haroldson, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on 3 cases of mixed-aged litters (young born in different years) in brown bears (Ursus arctos); in 1 instance the cub-of-the-year (hereafter called cubs) died in the den. Two cases occurred in Sweden after mothers were separated from their young during the breeding season. In one, the mother was separated from the accompanying cub for at least 12.5 hours and possibly up to 3.3 days, and later possibly separated for 4 days. In the other, the mother was separated from her yearling at least 3 times for 1-14, 1-6 and 1-6 days. She was with a male during the first separation. Specific events that produced the mixed-aged litter observed in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem were unknown and our interpretation is based on estimates of ages of accompanying young from photographs. The observation of only 2 mixed-aged litters, after den emergence, from a sample of 406 observed cub litters accompanying radiomarked females confirms the rarity of this phenomenon. The mechanism apparently includes a short separation of mother and young, and, in the case of cubs, the mother must mate while lactating. Better understanding of the physiological mechanisms that allow mixed-age litters would help us in the debate about the occurrence of sexually selected infanticide in bears.

  9. Individual variation in space use by female spotted hyenas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, Erin E.; Kapheim, Karen M.; Szykman, Micaela; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    Large carnivores range more widely than many other terrestrial mammals, and this behavior tends to bring them into frequent conflict with humans. Within any carnivore population, individual variation in patterns of space use should be expected to make some animals more vulnerable than others to risks of mortality from humans and other sources. In this study, our goal was to document variation among individuals in space use by female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). We examined predictions of hypotheses suggesting that space use by female hyenas is affected by reproductive state, social rank, and local prey abundance. Home-range size, distance at which females were found from the current communal den, and distance at which they were found from the nearest territorial boundary all varied significantly with the 3 independent variables. Females with den-dwelling cubs had smaller home ranges, were found closer to the communal den, and were found farther from the territorial boundary than were females with no den-dwelling cubs. Neither social rank nor prey availability significantly influenced the space-use patterns of females with den-dwelling cubs. Among females with no den-dwelling cubs, high-ranking females had smaller home ranges, were closer to the communal den, and were farther from the territorial boundary than were low-ranking females. The females ranging most widely were low-ranking individuals with no den-dwelling cubs when they were observed during periods of prey scarcity.

  10. Systemic calicivirus epidemic in captive exotic felids.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tara M; Sikarskie, James; Kruger, John; Wise, Annabel; Mullaney, Thomas P; Kiupel, Matti; Maes, Roger K

    2007-06-01

    A 5-day-old, mother-raised, Amur tiger cub (Panthera tigris altaica) presented with tongue ulcerations. Identical lesions appeared and progressed to sloughing of the tongue in the three littermates of this cub the following day. The lesions progressed in all cubs to include sloughing of the carpal, tarsal, metacarpal, and metatarsal foot pad epithelium. Oral ulcerations were also noted in adult African lions (Panthera leo) and Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), but not in two adult snow leopards (Panthera uncia) housed in the same building. All adult cats had been previously vaccinated for common feline diseases including feline calicivirus (FCV). Detection of FCV RNA in oral secretions by a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RRT-PCR) confirmed FCV infection in the tiger cubs and one lion. A male lion and a male tiger cub died during the disease outbreak. RRT-PCR confirmed FCV in multiple tissues in both of these animals. A stray cat live-trapped outside the feline building during the epidemic was found to be positive for FCV by virus isolation and was thought to be the source of infection.

  11. Effects of Angiotensin Inhibitor Valsartan on the Expression of the Angiotensin II 1 Receptor, Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 in Human Bladder Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Delin; Huo, Qian; Luan, Ting; Wang, Jiansong; Tang, Zhaoran; Wang, Haifeng

    2016-08-01

    In order to investigate how valsartan-the angiotensin II 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist-affects the expressions of AT1R antigen, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9 in carcinoma of urinary bladder (CUB) cell lines with different invasive abilities. Three cell lines, EJ-M3, EJ, and BIU-87, with different invasive abilities were cultured and treated with valsartan. Cell proliferation states were determined by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. The expressions at protein level and gene level were determined by Western blot and real-time fluorescence reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The invasive abilities and migratory abilities of the three cell lines were determined by Transwell in vitro cell invasion assay and wound healing assay, respectively. MTT results show that valsartan can inhibit the proliferation of CUB cells, and the inhibition effect is enhanced with the increase of concentration. AngII promotes the MMP2 and MMP9 expressions (both protein and gene levels) in CUB cells through AT1R, but their expressions can be effectively inhibited by valsartan, the AngII inhibitor. AngII inhibitor may become a novel drug that can inhibit CUB metastasis and prolong the survival of CUB patients.

  12. Customization and design of directed self-assembly using hybrid prepatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Joy; Doerk, Gregory S.; Rettner, Charles T.; Singh, Gurpreet; Tjio, Melia; Truong, Hoa; Arellano, Noel; Balakrishnan, Srinivasan; Brink, Markus; Tsai, Hsinyu; Liu, Chi-Chun; Guillorn, Michael; Sanders, Daniel P.

    2015-03-01

    Diminishing error tolerance renders the customization of patterns created through directed self-assembly (DSA) extremely challenging at tighter pitch. A self-aligned customization scheme can be achieved using a hybrid prepattern comprising both organic and inorganic regions that serves as a guiding prepattern to direct the self-assembly of the block copolymers as well as a cut mask pattern for the DSA arrays aligned to it. In this paper, chemoepitaxy-based self-aligned customization is demonstrated using two types of organic-inorganic prepatterns. CHEETAH prepattern for "CHemoepitaxy Etch Trim using a self-Aligned Hardmask" of preferential hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ, inorganic resist), non-preferential organic underlayer is fabricated using electron beam lithography. Customized trench or hole arrays can be achieved through co-transfer of DSA-formed arrays and CHEETAH prepattern. Herein, we also introduce a tone-reversed version called reverse-CHEETAH (or rCHEETAH) in which customized line segments can be achieved through co-transfer of DSA-formed arrays formed on a prepattern wherein the inorganic HSQ regions are nonpreferential and the organic regions are PMMA preferential. Examples of two-dimensional self-aligned customization including 25nm pitch fin structures and an 8-bar "IBM" illustrate the versatility of this customization scheme using rCHEETAH.

  13. Spatial and temporal avoidance of risk within a large carnivore guild.

    PubMed

    Dröge, Egil; Creel, Scott; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel

    2017-01-01

    Within a large carnivore guild, subordinate competitors (African wild dog, Lycaon pictus , and cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus ) might reduce the limiting effects of dominant competitors (lion, Panthera leo , and spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta ) by avoiding them in space, in time, or through patterns of prey selection. Understanding how these competitors cope with one other can inform strategies for their conservation. We tested how mechanisms of niche partitioning promote coexistence by quantifying patterns of prey selection and the use of space and time by all members of the large carnivore guild within Liuwa Plain National Park in western Zambia. Lions and hyenas specialized on wildebeest, whereas wild dogs and cheetahs selected broader diets including smaller and less abundant prey. Spatially, cheetahs showed no detectable avoidance of areas heavily used by dominant competitors, but wild dogs avoided areas heavily used by lions. Temporally, the proportion of kills by lions and hyenas did not detectably differ across four time periods (day, crepuscular, early night, and late night), but wild dogs and especially cheetahs concentrated on time windows that avoided nighttime hunting by lions and hyenas. Our results provide new insight into the conditions under which partitioning may not allow for coexistence for one subordinate species, the African wild dog, while it does for cheetah. Because of differences in responses to dominant competitors, African wild dogs may be more prone to competitive exclusion (local extirpation), particularly in open, uniform ecosystems with simple (often wildebeest dominated) prey communities, where spatial avoidance is difficult.

  14. Collective Framework and Performance Optimizations to Open MPI for Cray XT Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, Joshua S; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath; Shamis, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The performance and scalability of collective operations plays a key role in the performance and scalability of many scientific applications. Within the Open MPI code base we have developed a general purpose hierarchical collective operations framework called Cheetah, and applied it at large scale on the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility's Jaguar (OLCF) platform, obtaining better performance and scalability than the native MPI implementation. This paper discuss Cheetah's design and implementation, and optimizations to the framework for Cray XT 5 platforms. Our results show that the Cheetah's Broadcast and Barrier perform better than the native MPI implementation. For medium data,more » the Cheetah's Broadcast outperforms the native MPI implementation by 93% for 49,152 processes problem size. For small and large data, it out performs the native MPI implementation by 10% and 9%, respectively, at 24,576 processes problem size. The Cheetah's Barrier performs 10% better than the native MPI implementation for 12,288 processes problem size.« less

  15. DISP: Optimizations towards Scalable MPI Startup

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Huansong; Pophale, Swaroop S; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of MPI for high performance computing, the startup of MPI programs faces a scalability challenge as both the execution time and memory consumption increase drastically at scale. We have examined this problem using the collective modules of Cheetah and Tuned in Open MPI as representative implementations. Previous improvements for collectives have focused on algorithmic advances and hardware off-load. In this paper, we examine the startup cost of the collective module within a communicator and explore various techniques to improve its efficiency and scalability. Accordingly, we have developed a new scalable startup scheme with three internal techniques, namelymore » Delayed Initialization, Module Sharing and Prediction-based Topology Setup (DISP). Our DISP scheme greatly benefits the collective initialization of the Cheetah module. At the same time, it helps boost the performance of non-collective initialization in the Tuned module. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on Titan supercomputer at ORNL with up to 4096 processes. The results show that our delayed initialization can speed up the startup of Tuned and Cheetah by an average of 32.0% and 29.2%, respectively, our module sharing can reduce the memory consumption of Tuned and Cheetah by up to 24.1% and 83.5%, respectively, and our prediction-based topology setup can speed up the startup of Cheetah by up to 80%.« less

  16. Simultaneous determination of cucurbitacin B and cucurbitacin E in rat plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS: A pharmacokinetics study after oral administration of cucurbitacin tablets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibin; Zhu, Wenbo; Gao, Mingjie; Wu, Chengcui; Yang, Chunjuan; Yang, Jing; Wu, Gaosong; Yang, Bingyou; Kuang, Haixue

    2017-10-15

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB) and cucurbitacin E (CuE) are tetracyclic triterpene compounds from Cucurbitaceae, and the main bioactive compounds of cucurbitacins tablets that used to treatment of chronic hepatitis. Pharmacological research has been very comprehensive, and there are few studies on pharmacokinetics, especially about CuE. An Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method with high selectivity, simplicity and sensitivity has been used for quantitative analysis of Cucurbitacin B (CuB) and cucurbitacin E (CuE). Plasma samples were pretreatment by Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method with dichloromethane. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C 18 column (Agilent Eclipse Plus, 1.8μm, 50×2.1mm) using gradient elution with water - methanol at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min and the column temperature was set at 30°C. The method was validated according to FDA guidelines. Lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1.60ng/mL for CuB and 1.58ng/mL for CuE. Correlation coefficients of CuB and CuE were more than 0.99 in rat plasma. All values of intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD%) were not exceeded 15%, the accuracy (RE%) were within -5.57 to 5.20% for CuB and -3.33 to 7.37% for CuE. The mean extraction recoveries were more than 80%. Pharmacokinetic parameters were also evaluated by UHPLC-MS/MS method. The results suggestion that this method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of CuB and CuE in rat plasma after oral administration cucurbitacin tablets. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Cucurbitacin B inhibits breast cancer metastasis and angiogenesis through VEGF-mediated suppression of FAK/MMP-9 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonam; Khan, Sajid; Shukla, Samriddhi; Lakra, Amar Deep; Kumar, Sudhir; Das, Gunjan; Maurya, Rakesh; Meeran, Syed Musthapa

    2016-08-01

    Available breast cancer therapeutic strategies largely target the primary tumor but are ineffective against tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. In our current study, we determined the effect of Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a plant triterpenoid, on the metastatic and angiogenic potential of breast cancer cells. CuB was found to inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further, CuB-treatment significantly inhibited the migratory and invasive potential of highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells at sub-IC50 concentrations, where no significant apoptosis was observed. CuB was also found to inhibit migratory, invasive and tube-forming capacities of HUVECs in vitro. In addition, inhibition of pre-existing vasculature in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane ex vivo further supports the anti-angiogenic effect of CuB. CuB-mediated anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects were associated with the downregulation of VEGF/FAK/MMP-9 signaling, which has been validated by using FAK-inhibitor (FI-14). CuB-treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of VEGF-induced phosphorylation of FAK and MMP-9 expressions similar to the action of FI-14. CuB was also found to decrease the micro-vessel density as evidenced by the decreased expression of CD31, a marker for neovasculature. Further, CuB-treatment inhibited tumor growth, lung metastasis and angiogenesis in a highly metastatic 4T1-syngeneic mouse mammary cancer. Collectively, our findings suggest that CuB inhibited breast cancer metastasis and angiogenesis, at least in part, through the downregulation of VEGF/FAK/MMP-9 signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Designs that make a difference: the Cardiac Universal Bed model.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jackie; Brown, Katherine Kay; Neal, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Information contained in this article includes some of the findings from a joint research project conducted by Corazon Consulting and Ohio State University Medical Center on national trends in Cardiac Universal Bed (CUB) utilization. This article outlines current findings and "best practice" standards related to the benefits of developing care delivery models to differentiate an organization with a competitive advantage in the highly dynamic marketplace of cardiovascular care. (OSUMC, a Corazon client, is incorporating the CUB into their Ross Heart Hospital slated to open this spring.)

  19. Seroepidemiologic study on the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. infections in black bears (Ursus americanus) in Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; Brown, Justin; Ternent, Mark; Verma, Shiv K; Hill, Dolores E; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Humphreys, Jan G

    2016-10-15

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and the metazoan Trichinella spp. infect virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. Both parasitic infections can cause serious illness in human beings and can be acquired by ingesting under-cooked meat harboring infective stages. Approximately 3500 black bears (Ursus americanus) are legally-harvested each year in Pennsylvania, USA during the November hunting season. Among animals found infected with T. gondii, the prevalence of T. gondii is the highest among black bears in the USA; however, little is currently known of epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host species. Serum samples were collected during the winters of 2015 and 2016 from adult female bears and their nursing cubs or yearlings while they were still in their dens. Additionally, archived sera from bear samples collected throughout the year, including hunter-harvested bears in November and trapped bears in the summer, were serologically tested. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25) and antibodies to Trichinella spp. were assayed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, T. gondii antibodies were found in 87.6% (206/235) of adults, and 44.1% (30/68) of yearlings. In March 2015/2016 sampling, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 94% (30/32) adult female bears while in their den. Antibodies were detected in 5% (3/66) of the nursing cubs in the dens of these sows. One positive cub had a MAT titer of 1:160 and two were positive at the 1:25 dilution but not at 1:50. The adult females of these cubs had MAT titers ranging from 1:400 to 1:3200. Antibodies to Trichinella spp. were found in 3% (6/181) of adults and 3.6% (1/28) of yearlings; these 7 bears were also seropositive for T. gondii. No antibodies to Trichinella spp. were detected in the sera of 44 nursing cubs tested. The finding of T. gondii antibodies in only 3 of 66 cubs, and higher

  20. Multiple ocular colobomas in the snow leopard (Uncia uncia).

    PubMed

    Barnett, K C; Lewis, J C M

    2002-09-01

    Two singleton female snow leopard cubs are reported with bilateral central upper lid colobomas. In addition, one cub had a coloboma of the fundus in one eye extending from the lower optic disc region. Surgical treatment by wedge resection was successful in both cases. Details of ocular colobomas in other snow leopards reported in the literature are described and it is suggested that the exact etiology of the condition in this species may be discovered by further study of similar colobomas in the domestic cat.

  1. Optimizing Blocking and Nonblocking Reduction Operations for Multicore Systems: Hierarchical Design and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath; Shamis, Pavel; Graham, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific simulations, using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model, are sensitive to the performance and scalability of reduction collective operations such as MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce. These operations are the most widely used abstractions to perform mathematical operations over all processes that are part of the simulation. In this work, we propose a hierarchical design to implement the reduction operations on multicore systems. This design aims to improve the efficiency of reductions by 1) tailoring the algorithms and customizing the implementations for various communication mechanisms in the system 2) providing the ability to configure the depth ofmore » hierarchy to match the system architecture, and 3) providing the ability to independently progress each of this hierarchy. Using this design, we implement MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce operations (and its nonblocking variants MPI Iallreduce and MPI Ireduce) for all message sizes, and evaluate on multiple architectures including InfiniBand and Cray XT5. We leverage and enhance our existing infrastructure, Cheetah, which is a framework for implementing hierarchical collective operations to implement these reductions. The experimental results show that the Cheetah reduction operations outperform the production-grade MPI implementations such as Open MPI default, Cray MPI, and MVAPICH2, demonstrating its efficiency, flexibility and portability. On Infini- Band systems, with a microbenchmark, a 512-process Cheetah nonblocking Allreduce and Reduce achieves a speedup of 23x and 10x, respectively, compared to the default Open MPI reductions. The blocking variants of the reduction operations also show similar performance benefits. A 512-process nonblocking Cheetah Allreduce achieves a speedup of 3x, compared to the default MVAPICH2 Allreduce implementation. On a Cray XT5 system, a 6144-process Cheetah Allreduce outperforms the Cray MPI by 145%. The evaluation with an application kernel

  2. Nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics are different among captive exotic felids fed a beef-based raw diet.

    PubMed

    Vester, Brittany M; Burke, Sarah L; Dikeman, Cheryl L; Simmons, Lee G; Swanson, Kelly S

    2008-03-01

    Nutrient digestibility has not been well characterized in exotic felids. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate differences in nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics in five large exotic captive felid species, including bobcats, jaguars, cheetahs, Indochinese tigers, and Siberian tigers. All animals were individually housed and adapted to a beef-based raw diet (Nebraska Brand((R)) Special Beef Feline, North Platte, NE) for 16 d. Total fecal collections were conducted from days 17 to 20. Fecal samples were weighed and scored on collection. Diet and fecal samples were evaluated for dry matter, organic matter, protein, fat, and energy to determine total tract digestibility. Fresh fecal samples were collected to determine fecal pH, ammonia, phenol, indole, short-chain fatty acid, and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations. Fecal scores were greater (P<0.01) in Indochinese tigers when compared with all other species, and cheetahs had greater (P<0.01) fecal scores than jaguars and bobcats. Fat digestibility was greater (P<0.01) in Siberian tigers, Indochinese tigers, and bobcats (96%) compared with cheetahs and jaguars (94%). Digestible energy was greater (P<0.05) in bobcats and Indochinese tigers at 93.5 and 92.9%, respectively, compared with cheetahs and jaguars, 91.6%. Fecal pH was greater (P<0.01) in bobcats compared with all other species evaluated. Indole concentrations were greater (P<0.05) in cheetahs and jaguars compared with bobcats and Indochinese tigers. Fecal ammonia concentrations were increased (P<0.05) in cheetahs compared with all other species. The beef-based raw diet was highly digestible; however, differences in fat and digestible energy suggest that species should be considered when determining caloric needs of exotic felids. Zoo Biol 27:126-136, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. High Influenza A Virus Infection Rates in Mallards Bred for Hunting in the Camargue, South of France

    PubMed Central

    Champagnon, Jocelyn; Guillemain, Matthieu; Crescenzo-Chaigne, Bernadette; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; van der Werf, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, the role of wildlife in emerging pathogen transmission to domestic animals has often been pointed out. Conversely, far less attention has been paid to pathogen transmission from domestic animals to wildlife. Here, we focus on the case of game restocking, which implies the release of millions of animals worldwide each year. We conducted a 2-year study in the Camargue (Southern France) to investigate the influence of hand-reared Mallard releases on avian influenza virus dynamics in surrounding wildlife. We sampled Mallards (cloacal swabs) from several game duck facilities in 2009 and 2010 before their release. A very high (99%) infection rate caused by an H10N7 strain was detected in the game bird facility we sampled in 2009. We did not detect this strain in shot ducks we sampled, neither during the 2008/2009 nor the 2009/2010 hunting seasons. In 2010 infection rates ranged from 0 to 24% in hand-reared ducks. The 2009 H10N7 strain was fully sequenced. It results from multiple reassortment events between Eurasian low pathogenic strains. Interestingly, H10N7 strains had previously caused human infections in Egypt and Australia. The H10 and N7 segments we sequenced were clearly distinct from the Australian ones but they belonged to the same large cluster as the Egyptian ones. We did not observe any mutation linked to increased virulence, transmission to mammals, or antiviral resistance in the H10N7 strain we identified. Our results indicate that the potential role of hand-reared Mallards in influenza virus epizootics must be taken into account given the likely risk of viral exchange between game bird facilities and wild habitats, owing to duck rearing conditions. Measures implemented to limit transmission from wildlife to domestic animals as well as measures to control transmission from domestic animals to wild ones need to be equally reinforced. PMID:22952832

  4. The equation of state of predominant detonation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaug, Joseph; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Bastea, Sorin; Fried, Laurence

    2009-06-01

    The equation of state of detonation products, when incorporated into an experimentally grounded thermochemical reaction algorithm can be used to predict the performance of explosives. Here we report laser based Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering measurements of the speed of sound from a variety of polar and nonpolar detonation product supercritical fluids and mixtures. The speed of sound data are used to improve the exponential-six potentials employed within the Cheetah thermochemical code. We will discuss the improvements made to Cheetah in terms of predictions vs. measured performance data for common polymer blended explosives. Accurately computing the chemistry that occurs from reacted binder materials is one important step forward in our efforts.

  5. Exercise in the Heat is Limited by a Critical Internal Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    various strains of antelope (20), the cheetah (21), dogs (24), and humans (6, 12, 14, 15). There is evidence that limitations in endurance performance in...On receipt, all rats were main- tained on a calorically restricted diet , receiving 60–63% of the diet consumed by rats fed ad libitum, as determined by...occurred when Thyp reached 42.0–42.9°C in exercising goats. Furthermore, cheetahs cease running when their core temperature reaches 40.5°C (21

  6. Comparative Studies of Estrous Synchronization, Ovulation Induction, Luteal Function and Embryo Cryopreservation in Domestic Sheep and Application to Related Nondomestic Ungulate Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-20

    adjacent pens in visual and olfactory proximity to females. All animals were fed a grain concentrate and alfalfa hay diet twice daily and allowed free...M. Bush, J.G. Howard, S.J. O’Brien, D. Meltzer, A. van Dyk, H. Ebedes and D.J. Brand. Unique seminal quality in the South African cheetah and a...hormonal characteristics of the captive male cheetah , tiger,leopard and puma. Bioi. Reprod. 38: 245-255, 1988. Wilkinson, L. SYSTAT: The System for

  7. Dynamic Mobility via Cellular Decompositions of Coordination Spaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    half-bound, canter, and gallop gaits that actively recruit motion by the animal’s spine. It is posited that the increased performance of a cheetah ...machines [3] [1] P.E. Hudson, S.A. Corr, R.C. Payne-Davis, S.N. Clancy, E. Lane, and A.M. Wilson. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (acinonyx jubatus...vertical position of COM, y •angle of body , Front Leg Stance (3 DOF): Upon impact, we assume the toe acts as a unconstrained pin joint with the

  8. Experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.

    PubMed

    Lance, W R; Hibler, C P; DeMartini, J

    1983-07-01

    Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with contagious ecthyma. The limited clinical responses to the virus indicated that contagious ecthyma would not seriously impact free-ranging individuals.

  9. Predictors of postoperative outcomes of cubital tunnel syndrome treatments using multiple logistic regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Taku; Iwamoto, Takuji; Shizu, Kanae; Suzuki, Katsuji; Yamada, Harumoto; Sato, Kazuki

    2017-05-01

    This retrospective study was designed to investigate prognostic factors for postoperative outcomes for cubital tunnel syndrome (CubTS) using multiple logistic regression analysis with a large number of patients. Eighty-three patients with CubTS who underwent surgeries were enrolled. The following potential prognostic factors for disease severity were selected according to previous reports: sex, age, type of surgery, disease duration, body mass index, cervical lesion, presence of diabetes mellitus, Workers' Compensation status, preoperative severity, and preoperative electrodiagnostic testing. Postoperative severity of disease was assessed 2 years after surgery by Messina's criteria which is an outcome measure specifically for CubTS. Bivariate analysis was performed to select candidate prognostic factors for multiple linear regression analyses. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the association between postoperative severity and selected prognostic factors. Both bivariate and multiple linear regression analysis revealed only preoperative severity as an independent risk factor for poor prognosis, while other factors did not show any significant association. Although conflicting results exist regarding prognosis of CubTS, this study supports evidence from previous studies and concludes early surgical intervention portends the most favorable prognosis. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Health disparities among common subcultural identities of young gay men: physical, mental, and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony; Hosking, Warwick

    2014-11-01

    Researchers, policymakers, and health agencies have tended to treat gay men as a relatively homogeneous population, with little attention given to its many subcultural identities. In this study, we focused on young gay men and investigated a range of health-related differences according to common subcultural identities, such as Bear, Cub, and Twink. In a nationwide cross-sectional online survey of 1,034 Australian gay men aged 18-39 years, 44% reported a subcultural identity, the two most common being Cub (9%) and Twink (20%). Logistic and linear regression analyses compared Cub- and Twink-identified men and those without a subcultural identity (Non-identified) on a range of health-related outcomes. After adjusting for differences in age and body mass index (BMI), Twink-identified men had the highest risk profile overall, including significantly higher rates of smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. They were also significantly more likely to report engaging in receptive anal sex. In addition, Cub-identified men were significantly more likely to report being in an ongoing relationship while Non-identified men were significantly less likely to report experiences of discrimination in the past 12 months. Differences on measures of mental health between the three groups were no longer significant after adjusting for age and BMI. In summary, we found numerous health-related differences according to subcultural identity that warrant further investigation by researchers, health agencies, and others concerned with further understanding and addressing health-related challenges of gay men.

  11. The Impact of Assistive Technology on Curriculum Accommodation for a Braille-Reading Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Charles R.; Luckner, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Over 5 months, the authors evaluated the efficacy of electronic assistive technology (the BrailleNote mPower BT-32 notetaker and Tiger Cub Jr. embosser) and associated software components in creating curriculum materials for a middle school Braille-reading student. The authors collected data at the beginning and end of the study from parents,…

  12. 36 CFR 7.63 - Dinosaur National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permittee after his stock are on the range. (vii) No building or other structure shall be erected nor shall... approved by the National Park Service. Any such facilities, structures, or buildings may be removed or... Cub Creek Road section extends from the Chew Ranch Road, 1 mile north of the Green River Bridge, to...

  13. The Inside Story [Learning Packages for Exploratory Career Education--7th and 8th Grades: Teacher and Student Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Louie E., Comp.

    The four learning packages for exploratory career education are designed for use at the seventh and eighth grade levels. Each unit includes coordinated teacher and student editions. The units are: Culinary Cubs, focusing on occupations in the areas of food management, production, and services, with special reference to dietitians; Mini Nursery,…

  14. Publications - GMC 348 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    Territory, Canada: Some aspects of petrogenesis and mineralization at the Arctic Chief, Little Chief, and , Canada: Some aspects of petrogenesis and mineralization at the Arctic Chief, Little Chief, and Black Cub

  15. The fate of mercury in coal utilization byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    William Aljoe; Thomas Feeley; James Murphy

    2005-05-01

    The US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's (DOE/NETL's) research has helped to further scientific understanding of the environmental characteristics of coal-utilization by-products (CUBs) in both disposal and beneficial utilization applications. The following general observations can be drawn from results of the research that has been carried out to date: There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal or utilization applications for CUBs generated using activated carbon injection (ACI) control technologies; There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal and utilization applications for CUBs generated using wetmore » FGD control technologies. The potential release of mercury from wet FGD gypsum during the manufacture of wallboard is still under evaluation; The amount of mercury leached from CUB samples tested by DOE/NETL is significantly lower than the federal drinking water standards and water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life; in many cases, leachate concentrations were below the standard test method detection limits. DOE/NETL will continue to partner with industry and other key stakeholders in carrying out research to better understand the fate of mercury and other trace elements in the byproducts from coal combustion. 16 refs., 6 tabs.« less

  16. Characterization of Uterine Derived Growth Inhibitor (UDGI): A Novel Growth Inhibitor of Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    1988. 23. Rawlings, N. D. and Barrett, A. J. Families of serine peptidases . Methods Enzymol., 244: 19-61, 1994. 24. Bork, P. and Beckmann, G. The CUB...suppression of IGF-1 gene expression and serum level by a somatostatin analogue. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 203:254-259 38. Huynh, H., Tetenes, E

  17. Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2009-05-01

    Upper Pleistocene remains of the Ice Age steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) have been found in the Perick Caves, Sauerland Karst, NW Germany. Bones from many hyenas and their imported prey dating from the Lower to Middle Weichselian have also been recovered from the Perick Cave hyena den. These are commonly cracked or exhibit deep chew marks. The absence of lion cub bones, in contrast to hyena and cave bear cub remains in the Perick Caves, and other caves of northern Germany, excludes the possibility that P. leo spelaea used the cave for raising cubs. Only in the Wilhelms Cave was a single skeleton of a cub found in a hyena den. Evidence of the chewing, nibbling and cracking of lion bones and crania must have resulted from the importation and destruction of lion carcasses (4% of the prey fauna). Similar evidence was preserved at other hyena den caves and open air sites in Germany. The bone material from the Perick and other Central European caves points to antagonistic hyena and lion conflicts, similar to clashes of their modern African relatives.

  18. 32 CFR 212.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (i) No person because of race, color, creed, sex, age, disability, or national origin shall be... that serve as the legal basis for the creation of Boy Scouts organizations (including Boy Scouts, Cub... Boy Scouts or their official affiliates; Boy Scouts activities on DoD installations; or sponsorship of...

  19. 32 CFR 212.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (i) No person because of race, color, creed, sex, age, disability, or national origin shall be... that serve as the legal basis for the creation of Boy Scouts organizations (including Boy Scouts, Cub... Boy Scouts or their official affiliates; Boy Scouts activities on DoD installations; or sponsorship of...

  20. 32 CFR 212.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (i) No person because of race, color, creed, sex, age, disability, or national origin shall be... that serve as the legal basis for the creation of Boy Scouts organizations (including Boy Scouts, Cub... Boy Scouts or their official affiliates; Boy Scouts activities on DoD installations; or sponsorship of...

  1. 32 CFR 212.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (i) No person because of race, color, creed, sex, age, disability, or national origin shall be... that serve as the legal basis for the creation of Boy Scouts organizations (including Boy Scouts, Cub... Boy Scouts or their official affiliates; Boy Scouts activities on DoD installations; or sponsorship of...

  2. 32 CFR 212.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (i) No person because of race, color, creed, sex, age, disability, or national origin shall be... that serve as the legal basis for the creation of Boy Scouts organizations (including Boy Scouts, Cub... Boy Scouts or their official affiliates; Boy Scouts activities on DoD installations; or sponsorship of...

  3. Sexual Maturity and Life Stage Influences Toxic Metal Accumulation in Croatian Brown Bears.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Maja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Orct, Tatjana; Reljić, Slaven; Jurasović, Jasna; Huber, Đuro

    2018-02-01

    The influence of reproductive and (early) life stages on toxic metal levels was investigated in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), the largest mammalian predator species in Croatia. The purpose was to examine critical clusters in a population that might be at a higher risk of adverse health effects caused by metals as environmental contaminants. Levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in muscle, liver and kidney cortex of 325 male and 139 female bears, quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, were analysed according to distinct bear life stages (young: cub, yearling, subadult; mature: adult). Metal levels did not differ among sexes in young animals (< 4 years), except for mercury in muscles (higher in females), and adult females had higher cadmium and mercury. A trend of renal cadmium accumulation with age in immature male animals disappeared once they reached maturity, whereas for females this trend has only slowly declined in mature compared to immature bears. In early life stage (< 1 year), bear cubs had lower cadmium, comparable mercury, and higher lead in the kidneys than the bears of the following age category (yearlings). Due to a higher proportion of renal lead transfer from the mother to the cub compared with cadmium, it may be that the high burden of cadmium found in kidneys of older females has lower toxicological concern for their cubs than the lead content. Sex, reproductive, and life stages of bears were confirmed as important in assessing toxic metal burden.

  4. Codon Usage Patterns of Tyrosinase Genes in Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-An

    2017-04-01

    Codon usage bias (CUB) is a unique property of genomes and has contributed to the better understanding of the molecular features and the evolution processes of particular gene. In this study, genetic indices associated with CUB, including relative synonymous codon usage and effective numbers of codons, as well as the nucleotide composition, were investigated in the Clonorchis sinensis tyrosinase genes and their platyhelminth orthologs, which play an important role in the eggshell formation. The relative synonymous codon usage patterns substantially differed among tyrosinase genes examined. In a neutrality analysis, the correlation between GC 12 and GC 3 was statistically significant, and the regression line had a relatively gradual slope (0.218). NC-plot, i.e., GC 3 vs effective number of codons (ENC), showed that most of the tyrosinase genes were below the expected curve. The codon adaptation index (CAI) values of the platyhelminth tyrosinases had a narrow distribution between 0.685/0.714 and 0.797/0.837, and were negatively correlated with their ENC. Taken together, these results suggested that CUB in the tyrosinase genes seemed to be basically governed by selection pressures rather than mutational bias, although the latter factor provided an additional force in shaping CUB of the C. sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini genes. It was also apparent that the equilibrium point between selection pressure and mutational bias is much more inclined to selection pressure in highly expressed C. sinensis genes, than in poorly expressed genes.

  5. U.S. National Cyberstrategy and Critical Infrastructure: The Protection Mandate and Its Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    revising this thesis, and balancing the coordination needed for: (1) Piano; (2) Soccer /Baseball; (3) Cubmaster Cub Scout Pack-135; (4) Hospitality...disease and pest response; and provides nutritional assistance. Provides the financial infrastructure of the nation. This sector consists of commercial

  6. E2~Ub conjugates regulate the kinase activity of Shigella effector OspG during pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Smith, F. Donelson; Daurie, Angela

    Pathogenic bacteria introduce effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells to promote invasion and colonization. OspG, a Shigella spp. effector kinase, plays a role in this process by helping to suppress the host inflammatory response. OspG has been reported to bind host E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes activated with ubiquitin (E2~Ub), a key enzyme complex in ubiquitin transfer pathways. A cocrystal structure of the OspG/UbcH5c~Ub complex reveals that complex formation has important ramifications for the activity of both OspG and the UbcH5c~Ub conjugate. OspG is a minimal kinase domain containing only essential elements required for catalysis. UbcH5c~Ub binding stabilizes anmore » active conformation of the kinase, greatly enhancing OspG kinase activity. In contrast, interaction with OspG stabilizes an extended, less reactive form of UbcH5c~Ub. Recognizing conserved E2 features, OspG can interact with at least ten distinct human E2s~Ub. Mouse oral infection studies indicate that E2~Ub conjugates act as novel regulators of OspG effector kinase function in eukaryotic host cells.« less

  7. 75 FR 46926 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... interest to a wide range of stakeholders including environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates... 07401 53883 Control Solutions, Inc. 427 Hide Away Circle Cub Run, KY 42729 70127 Novozymes Biologicals... or termination of any minor agricultural use before granting the request, unless: 1. The registrants...

  8. Writing toward Community Engagement in Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    On a late Sunday afternoon in 1934, a park superintendent entered the cage of two black bears that he tended at the park's zoo. His intent was to retrieve a purse dropped by a zoo visitor. The superintendent knew the bears well, having acquired them as cubs and raised them, and he didn't expect any trouble. But trouble was imminent. "ENTERED…

  9. Effects of Weather Conditions on Oxidative Stress, Oxidative Damage, and Antioxidant Capacity in a Wild-Living Mammal, the European Badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Bilham, Kirstin; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D; Noonan, Michael J; Boyd, Amy; Smith, Adrian L; Macdonald, David W

    Wild-living animals are subject to weather variability that may cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress and tissue damage, potentially driving demographic responses. Our 3-yr field study investigated the effects of seasonal weather conditions on biomarkers for oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and antioxidant defense in the European badger (Meles meles). We found age class effects: cubs were more susceptible to oxidative stress and oxidative damage than adults, especially very young cubs in the spring, when they also exhibited lower antioxidant biomarkers than adults. Although previous studies have found that intermediate spring and summer rainfall and warmer temperatures favor cub survival, counterintuitively these conditions were associated with more severe oxidative damage. Oxidative damage was high in cubs even when antioxidant biomarkers were high. In contrast, adult responses accorded with previous survival analyses. Wetter spring and summer conditions were associated with higher oxidative damage, but they were also associated with higher antioxidant biomarkers. Autumnal weather did not vary substantially from normative values, and thus effects were muted. Winter carryover effects were partially evident, with drier and milder conditions associated with greater oxidative damage in the following spring but also with higher antioxidant capacity. Plausibly, warmer conditions promoted more badger activity, with associated metabolic costs at a time of year when food supply is limited. Modeling biomarkers against projected climate change scenarios predicted greater future risks of oxidative damage, although not necessarily exceeding antioxidant capacity. This interdisciplinary approach demonstrates that individual adaptive physiological responses are associated with variation in natural environmental conditions.

  10. Vehicle dynamics control by using a three-dimensional stabilizer pendulum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, A.; Naghibian, M.; Choodan, D.; Khajepour, A.

    2016-12-01

    Active safety systems of a vehicle normally work well on tyre-road interactions, however, these systems deteriorate in performance on low-friction road conditions. To combat this effect, an innovative idea for the yaw moment and roll dynamic control is presented in this paper. This idea was inspired by the chase and run dynamics animals like cheetahs in the nature; cheetahs have the ability to swerve while running at very high speeds. A cheetah controls its dynamics by rotating its long tail. A three-dimensional stabilizer pendulum system (3D-SPS) resembles the rotational motion of the tail of a cheetah to improve the stability and safety of a vehicle. The idea has been developed in a stand-alone 3D stabilizer pendulum system as well as in an integrated control system, which consists of an ordinary differential braking direct yaw control (DYC) and active steering control that is assisted by the 3D-SPS. The performance of the proposed 3D-SPS has been evaluated over a wide range of handling manoeuvres by using a comprehensive numerical simulation. The results show the advantage of 3D-SPS over conventional control approaches, which are ineffective on low-friction road conditions and high lateral acceleration manoeuvres. It should however be noted that the best vehicle dynamics performance is obtained when an integrated 3D-SPS and DYC and AFS is utilised.

  11. National Audubon Society Specials. Teacher's Guide I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WETA - TV, Washington, DC.

    Since no civilization can survive without a healthy environment, people must learn to live in harmony with their natural ecosystems and build for future generations. This guide describes six award-winning programs on the condor, black-footed ferret, panthers and cheetahs, ducks, farming and wildlife, and the Galapagos Islands. Although each…

  12. Mechanical characterization and comparison of energy storage and return prostheses.

    PubMed

    Rigney, Stacey M; Simmons, Anne; Kark, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The suitability of finite element analysis (FEA) for standardizing the mechanical characterization of energy storage and return (ESAR) prostheses was investigated. A methodology consisting of both experimental and numerical analysis was proposed and trialed for the Vari-flex ® Modular TM , Flex-foot Cheetah and Cheetah Xtreme by Össur ® and a 1E90 Sprinter by Ottobock ® . Gait analysis was conducted to determine suitable orientation angles for non-destructive testing (NDT) of the ESAR prostheses followed by a quasi-static inverse FEA procedure within COMSOL Multiphysics ® , where the NDT conditions were replicated to determine the homogenized material properties of the prostheses. The prostheses' loading response under bodyweight for an 80kg person was then simulated, using both Eigenfrequency and time-dependent analysis. The apparent stiffness under bodyweight was determined to be 94.7, 48.6, 57.4 and 65.0Nmm -1 for the Vari-flex ® Modular TM , Flex-foot Cheetah, Cheetah Xtreme and 1E90 Sprinter, respectively. Both the energy stored and returned by the prostheses varied negatively with stiffness, yet the overall efficiency of the prostheses were similar, at 52.7, 52.0, 51.7 and 52.4% for the abovementioned prostheses. The proposed methodology allows the standardized assessment and comparison of ESAR prostheses without the confounding influences of subject-specific gait characteristics. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Induction of contraception in some African wild carnivores by downregulation of LH and FSH secretion using the GnRH analogue deslorelin.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, H J; Trigg, T E; Jöchle, W; Human, A

    2002-01-01

    The GnRH analogue deslorelin, in long-acting biocompatible implants, was used as a contraceptive in 31 cheetahs (13 females and 18 males), 21 African wild dogs (15 females and 6 males), 10 lionesses and four leopards (three females and one male). A dose of 12 or 15 mg deslorelin was administered to lions, whereas 6 mg deslorelin was administered to the other species. Monitoring consisted of observations, measurement of plasma progesterone and testosterone concentrations, vaginal cytology and evaluation of semen and sex organs. Deslorelin induced contraception in lionesses for 12-18 months, and in female cheetahs and leopards for a minimum of 12 months after treatment. Two male cheetahs had no viable spermatozoa or detectable plasma testosterone 21 months after treatment with deslorelin. Female wild dogs responded less consistently and one bitch conceived 4 weeks after implantation. However, in nine bitches, mating could be postponed until the next breeding season. Male dogs responded consistently and the contraception was effective for approximately 12 months. Although lionesses and cheetahs may become attractive to males for a few days after treatment, mating was not observed. No side-effects or behavioural changes were noted, indicating that deslorelin is a safe drug to use for the contraception of the species described. Males remain fertile for the first 6 weeks after the insertion of implants and should be separated from cyclic females during this period.

  14. Tag-based Heart Rate Measurements of Harbor Porpoises During Normal and Noise-exposed Dives to Study Stress Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    mammals face potentially dramatic changes in the environment, as well as continued disturbances of their ocean habitat from shipping, sonar, fisheries... Cheetahs of the deep sea: deep foraging sprints in short-finned pilot whales off Tenerife (Canary Islands). Journal of Animal Ecology 77:936-947.

  15. Operational Art of Maritime Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-29

    13  Operation CHEETAH ...Operational Art Paradigm Shift A strait is a narrow body of water navigationally constricted on two sides and usually connects two larger bodies of...level of risk. Space Space, in the terms of straits, encompasses more than just the body of water. Control of the approaches, shorelines and

  16. Determining the Marker Configuration and Modeling Technique to Optimize the Biomechanical Analysis of Running-Specific Prostheses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    4 Body ...Report requirement. 5 Body The approved Statement of Work proposed the following timeline (Table 1): Table 1. Timeline for approved project...Figure 1) were tested for this project including the 1E90 Sprinter (OttoBock Inc.), Flex-Run (Ossur), Cheetah ® (Ossur) and Nitro Running Foot (Freedom

  17. Agent-Based Models and Optimal Control in Biology: A Discrete Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    different parts of the human body to cure diseases such as hypertension, cancer, or heart disease. And we need to control microbes for the efficient...antelope herd interacts with an aggregated prey agent such as cheetahs or lions, the size of each may expand or contract accordingly). Of course, such

  18. Determining the Marker Configuration and Modeling Technique to Optimize the Biomechanical Analysis of Running-Specific Prostheses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    4 Body ...Final Report requirement. 5  Body The approved Statement of Work proposed the following timeline (Table 1): Table 1. Timeline for...prosthesis designs (Figure 1) were tested for this project including the 1E90 Sprinter (OttoBock Inc.), Flex-Run (Ossur), Cheetah ® (Ossur) and Nitro

  19. FY2014 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-19

    certain cases, are identical. Following passage of these bills by the respective legislative bodies , a conference committee is usually convened to...Department of Defense tries to provide some access at these locations through the Cheetah Program, which uses Humvee mounted satellite units and laptops

  20. Novel Functional Extended Solids at Extreme Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    XeF8 polyhedron with a Xe-F distance 2.3 (±.1) Å - well below the metallization pressure of Xe [2,3] and F2 [4]. These findings signify...for explosives modeling and is expected to be incorporated into the explosive database such as Cheetah, etc., and (v) training graduate students and

  1. 78 FR 44961 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... discretion of the Service Director. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: St. Louis Zoo... jubatus) that live or lived in zoos in Canada from the Toronto Zoo, Scarborough, Canada, for the purpose of scientific research on the occurrence of feline coronavirus in cheetahs in Canadian zoos. This...

  2. 77 FR 34059 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... leopard (Uncia uncia) African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Applicant: M. Knudsen... radiata) salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) black-and-white... (Spheniscus demersus) Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) White-naped crane (Grus vipio) Salmon-crested cockatoo...

  3. 50 CFR 14.252 - What definitions do I need to know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wildlife species means a specimen of any of the following eight species: Lion (Panthera leo), tiger (Panthera tigris), leopard (Panthera pardus), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), and cougar (Puma concolor) or any hybrids resulting...

  4. 75 FR 62139 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ..., FL; PRT-22130A. The applicant requests a permit to import six live captive-bred female cheetahs... conservation education. Applicant: Steve Martin's Working Wildlife, Frazier Park, CA; PRT- 069439. The applicant request the re-issuance of a permit for the re-export and re-import of a female captive-born...

  5. High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 25)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hantke, Max, F.

    2014-11-17

    Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.

  6. Upper respiratory tract disease in captive orangutans (Pongo sp.): prevalence in 20 European zoos and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, N; Pirovino, M; Zingg, R; Clauss, M; Kaup, F J; Heistermann, M; Hatt, J M; Steinmetz, H W

    2011-12-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is a significant cause of morbidity in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus), and the pathogenesis is often unknown.  The prevalence of respiratory disease in captive European orangutans (201 animals; 20 zoos) and possible predisposing factors were investigated. Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus) showed chronic respiratory signs significantly more often (13.8%) than Sumatran (P. abelii; 3.6%), and males (15.8%) were more often afflicted than females (3.9%). Hand-reared animals (21%) developed air sacculitis more often than parent-reared animals (5%). Diseased animals were more often genetically related to animals with respiratory diseases (93%) than to healthy animals (54%). None of the environmental conditions investigated had a significant effect on disease prevalence. Results suggest a higher importance of individual factors for the development of URTD than environmental conditions. Bornean, male and hand-reared orangutans and animals related to diseased animals need increased medical surveillance for early detection of respiratory disease. © 2011 University of Zurich.

  7. First insights into the vocal repertoire of infant and juvenile Southern white rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Linn, Sabrina N; Boeer, Michael; Scheumann, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Describing vocal repertoires represents an essential step towards gaining an overview about the complexity of acoustic communication in a given species. The analysis of infant vocalisations is essential for understanding the development and usage of species-specific vocalisations, but is often underrepresented, especially in species with long inter-birth intervals such as the white rhinoceros. Thus, this study aimed for the first time to characterise the infant and juvenile vocal repertoire of the Southern white rhinoceros and to relate these findings to the adult vocal repertoire. The behaviour of seven mother-reared white rhinoceros calves (two males, five females) and one hand-reared calf (male), ranging from one month to four years, was simultaneously audio and video-taped at three zoos. Normally reared infants and juveniles uttered four discriminable call types (Whine, Snort, Threat, and Pant) that were produced in different behavioural contexts. All call types were also uttered by the hand-reared calf. Call rates of Whines, but not of the other call types, decreased with age. These findings provide the first evidence that infant and juvenile rhinoceros utter specific call types in distinct contexts, even if they grow up with limited social interaction with conspecifics. By comparing our findings with the current literature on vocalisations of adult white rhinoceros and other solitary rhinoceros species, we discuss to which extent differences in the social lifestyle across species affect acoustic communication in mammals.

  8. First insights into the vocal repertoire of infant and juvenile Southern white rhinoceros

    PubMed Central

    Boeer, Michael; Scheumann, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Describing vocal repertoires represents an essential step towards gaining an overview about the complexity of acoustic communication in a given species. The analysis of infant vocalisations is essential for understanding the development and usage of species-specific vocalisations, but is often underrepresented, especially in species with long inter-birth intervals such as the white rhinoceros. Thus, this study aimed for the first time to characterise the infant and juvenile vocal repertoire of the Southern white rhinoceros and to relate these findings to the adult vocal repertoire. The behaviour of seven mother-reared white rhinoceros calves (two males, five females) and one hand-reared calf (male), ranging from one month to four years, was simultaneously audio and video-taped at three zoos. Normally reared infants and juveniles uttered four discriminable call types (Whine, Snort, Threat, and Pant) that were produced in different behavioural contexts. All call types were also uttered by the hand-reared calf. Call rates of Whines, but not of the other call types, decreased with age. These findings provide the first evidence that infant and juvenile rhinoceros utter specific call types in distinct contexts, even if they grow up with limited social interaction with conspecifics. By comparing our findings with the current literature on vocalisations of adult white rhinoceros and other solitary rhinoceros species, we discuss to which extent differences in the social lifestyle across species affect acoustic communication in mammals. PMID:29513670

  9. Song learning and cognitive ability are not consistently related in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rindy C; Searcy, William A; Peters, Susan; Hughes, Melissa; DuBois, Adrienne L; Nowicki, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Learned aspects of song have been hypothesized to signal cognitive ability in songbirds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-reared song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) that were tutored with playback of adult songs during the critical period for song learning. The songs developed by the 19 male subjects were compared to the model songs to produce two measures of song learning: the proportion of notes copied from models and the average spectrogram cross-correlation between copied notes and model notes. Song repertoire size, which reflects song complexity, was also measured. At 1 year of age, subjects were given a battery of five cognitive tests that measured speed of learning in the context of a novel foraging task, color association, color reversal, detour-reaching, and spatial learning. Bivariate correlations between the three song measures and the five cognitive measures revealed no significant associations. As in other studies of avian cognition, different cognitive measures were for the most part not correlated with each other, and this result remained true when 22 hand-reared female song sparrows were added to the analysis. General linear mixed models controlling for effects of neophobia and nest of origin indicated that all three song measures were associated with better performance on color reversal and spatial learning but were associated with worse performance on novel foraging and detour-reaching. Overall, the results do not support the hypothesis that learned aspects of song signal cognitive ability.

  10. Grizzly bear population vital rates and trend in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mace, R.D.; Carney, D.W.; Chilton-Radandt, T.; Courville, S.A.; Haroldson, M.A.; Harris, R.B.; Jonkel, J.; McLellan, B.; Madel, M.; Manley, T.L.; Schwartz, C.C.; Servheen, C.; Stenhouse, G.; Waller, J.S.; Wenum, E.

    2012-01-01

    We estimated grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population vital rates and trend for the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE), Montana, between 2004 and 2009 by following radio-collared females and observing their fate and reproductive performance. Our estimates of dependent cub and yearling survival were 0.612 (95% CI = 0.300–0.818) and 0.682 (95% CI = 0.258–0.898). Our estimates of subadult and adult female survival were 0.852 (95% CI = 0.628–0.951) and 0.952 (95% CI = 0.892–0.980). From visual observations, we estimated a mean litter size of 2.00 cubs/litter. Accounting for cub mortality prior to the first observations of litters in spring, our adjusted mean litter size was 2.27 cubs/litter. We estimated the probabilities of females transitioning from one reproductive state to another between years. Using the stable state probability of 0.322 (95% CI = 0.262–0.382) for females with cub litters, our adjusted fecundity estimate (mx) was 0.367 (95% CI = 0.273–0.461). Using our derived rates, we estimated that the population grew at a mean annual rate of approximately 3% (λ = 1.0306, 95% CI = 0.928–1.102), and 71.5% of 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations produced estimates of λ > 1.0. Our results indicate an increasing population trend of grizzly bears in the NCDE. Coupled with concurrent studies of population size, we estimate that over 1,000 grizzly bears reside in and adjacent to this recovery area. We suggest that monitoring of population trend and other vital rates using radioed females be continued.

  11. Risk avoidance in sympatric large carnivores: reactive or predictive?

    PubMed

    Broekhuis, Femke; Cozzi, Gabriele; Valeix, Marion; McNutt, John W; Macdonald, David W

    2013-09-01

    1. Risks of predation or interference competition are major factors shaping the distribution of species. An animal's response to risk can either be reactive, to an immediate risk, or predictive, based on preceding risk or past experiences. The manner in which animals respond to risk is key in understanding avoidance, and hence coexistence, between interacting species. 2. We investigated whether cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), known to be affected by predation and competition by lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta), respond reactively or predictively to the risks posed by these larger carnivores. 3. We used simultaneous spatial data from Global Positioning System (GPS) radiocollars deployed on all known social groups of cheetahs, lions and spotted hyaenas within a 2700 km(2) study area on the periphery of the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana. The response to risk of encountering lions and spotted hyaenas was explored on three levels: short-term or immediate risk, calculated as the distance to the nearest (contemporaneous) lion or spotted hyaena, long-term risk, calculated as the likelihood of encountering lions and spotted hyaenas based on their cumulative distributions over a 6-month period and habitat-associated risk, quantified by the habitat used by each of the three species. 4. We showed that space and habitat use by cheetahs was similar to that of lions and, to a lesser extent, spotted hyaenas. However, cheetahs avoided immediate risks by positioning themselves further from lions and spotted hyaenas than predicted by a random distribution. 5. Our results suggest that cheetah spatial distribution is a hierarchical process, first driven by resource acquisition and thereafter fine-tuned by predator avoidance; thus suggesting a reactive, rather than a predictive, response to risk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  12. The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, there have been attempts to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, to evaluate the gene flow between isolates of S. scabiei from different hosts and geographic regions. However, to our knowledge, a molecular study has not been carried out to assess the molecular diversity and gene flow of Sarcoptes mite in a predator/prey ecosystem. Results Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest)- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah)-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya), which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey") of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah. Conclusions In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems. PMID:21978557

  13. Reproductive success of farmed blue foxes.

    PubMed

    Ilukha, V A; Harri, M; Rekilä, T

    1997-01-12

    The aim of this study was to provide basic data for the different components of reproductive performance of blue foxes under farm conditions. The foxes were mated naturally and the perinatal mortality of cubs was carefully recorded. This data allowed the evaluation of the effect of females' age and differences between years, and the maternal and paternal components of reproductive success. Generally the results were similar for all four years of the study. Altogether 2047 females (84.8 % of the total) gave birth to 22 941 cubs, of which 5.9% were stillborn and 11.4% died before weaning. Only in a very few cases (1.3%) was it the whole litter that was lost, and more commonly, there were some cub losses in almost one-half of the litters (46.9%). Abnormal birth and abortion of a part of a litter contributed most to reproductive failure of the vixen. Infanticide played a minimal role as a cause of postnatal cub mortality (0.3%). Death of the vixen was extremely rare. One half of all parturitions were dated between May 14 and May 28 and May 8 and May 20, for primiparous and multiparous vixens, respectively. Thus the parturitions peaked 5 days earlier (p < 0.001, median test) for multiparous vixens. The litter size was smaller and cub losses were higher for primiparous vixens than for multiparous ones. With a few exceptions, the age of the father or date of birth did not affect litter size or cub mortality. Postnatal cub mortality (y, %) decreased with age of the cub (x, days) and can be described by a simple equation: y = 15.3 - 11.2 log x, r(2) = 0.933. Fractional cub mortality increased with increasing litter size. Despite being significant, this increase was modest in extent. Low h(2) -values were observed for litter size at birth. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Der Zweck dieser Untersuchung war es, Basisinformation über verschiedene Komponenten der Reproduktion bei farmgezüchteten Blaufüchsen zu gewinnen. Die Fähen wurden naturlich gepaart. Eine besondere Aufmerksamkeit wurde

  14. Male reproductive strategy explains spatiotemporal segregation in brown bears

    PubMed Central

    Steyaert, Sam MJG; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    1. Spatiotemporal segregation is often explained by the risk for offspring predation or by differences in physiology, predation risk vulnerability or competitive abilities related to size dimorphism. 2. Most large carnivores are size dimorphic and offspring predation is often intraspecific and related to nonparental infanticide (NPI). NPI can be a foraging strategy, a strategy to reduce competition, or a male reproductive strategy. Spatiotemporal segregation is widespread among large carnivores, but its nature remains poorly understood. 3. We evaluated three hypotheses to explain spatiotemporal segregation in the brown bear, a size-dimorphic large carnivore in which NPI is common; the ‘NPI – foraging/competition hypothesis', i.e. NPI as a foraging strategy or a strategy to reduce competition, the ‘NPI – sexual selection hypothesis’, i.e. infanticide as a male reproductive strategy and the ‘body size hypothesis’, i.e. body-size-related differences in physiology, predation risk vulnerability or competitive ability causes spatiotemporal segregation. To test these hypotheses, we quantified spatiotemporal segregation among adult males, lone adult females and females with cubs-of-the-year, based on GPS-relocation data (2006–2010) and resource selection functions in a Scandinavian population. 4. We found that spatiotemporal segregation was strongest between females with cubs-of-the-year and adult males during the mating season. During the mating season, females with cubs-of-the-year selected their resources, in contrast to adult males, in less rugged landscapes in relative close proximity to certain human-related variables, and in more open habitat types. After the mating season, females with cubs-of-the-year markedly shifted their resource selection towards a pattern more similar to that of their conspecifics. No strong spatiotemporal segregation was apparent between females with cubs-of-the-year and conspecifics during the mating and the postmating

  15. Density dependence, whitebark pine, and vital rates of grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Manen, Frank T.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Costello, Cecily M.; White, Gary C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing changes in population trajectory is important for effective wildlife management, particularly for populations of conservation concern. Annual population growth of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA has slowed from 4.2–7.6% during 1983–2001 to 0.3–2.2% during 2002–2011. Substantial changes in availability of a key food source and bear population density have occurred. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), the seeds of which are a valuable but variable fall food for grizzly bears, has experienced substantial mortality primarily due to a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak that started in the early 2000s. Positive growth rates of grizzly bears have resulted in populations reaching high densities in some areas and have contributed to continued range expansion. We tested research hypotheses to examine if changes in vital rates detected during the past decade were more associated with whitebark pine decline or, alternatively, increasing grizzly bear density. We focused our assessment on known-fate data to estimate survival of cubs-of-the-year (cubs), yearlings, and independent bears (≥2 yrs), and reproductive transition of females from having no offspring to having cubs. We used spatially and temporally explicit indices for grizzly bear density and whitebark pine mortality as individual covariates. Models indicated moderate support for an increase in survival of independent male bears over 1983–2012, whereas independent female survival did not change. Cub survival, yearling survival, and reproductive transition from no offspring to cubs all changed during the 30-year study period, with lower rates evident during the last 10–15 years. Cub survival and reproductive transition were negatively associated with an index of grizzly bear density, indicating greater declines where bear densities were higher. Our analyses did not support a similar relationship for the

  16. The prevalence, distribution and severity of detectable pathological lesions in badgers naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    JENKINS, H. E.; MORRISON, W. I.; COX, D. R.; DONNELLY, C. A.; JOHNSTON, W. T.; BOURNE, F. J.; CLIFTON-HADLEY, R. S.; GETTINBY, G.; McINERNEY, J. P.; WATKINS, G. H.; WOODROFFE, R.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The Randomized Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) began in 1998 to determine the impact of badger culling in controlling bovine tuberculosis in cattle. A total of 1166 badgers (14% of total) proactively culled during the RBCT were found to be tuberculous, offering a unique opportunity to study the pathology caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a large sample of badgers. Of these, 39% of adults (~6% of all adults culled) had visible lesions (detectable at necropsy) of bovine tuberculosis; cubs had a lower prevalence of infection (9%) but a higher percentage of tuberculous cubs (55·5%) had visible lesions. Only ~1% of adult badgers had extensive, severe pathology. Tuberculous badgers with recorded bite wounds (~5%) had a higher prevalence of visible lesions and a different distribution of lesions, suggesting transmission via bite wounds. However, the predominance of lesions in the respiratory tract indicates that most transmission occurs by the respiratory route. PMID:18047751

  17. Age-associated microbiome shows the giant panda lives on hemicelluloses, not on cellulose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenping; Liu, Wenbin; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Sun, Huaibo; Xie, Junjin; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Lifeng; Yue, Bisong; Huang, He; Wang, Hairui; Shen, Fujun; Zhang, Zhihe

    2018-05-01

    The giant panda feeds almost exclusively on bamboo, a diet highly enriched in lignin and cellulose, but is characterized by a digestive tract similar to carnivores. It is still large unknown if and how the giant panda gut microbiota contributes to lignin and cellulose degradation. Here we show the giant pandas' gut microbiota does not significantly contribute to cellulose and lignin degradation. We found that no operational taxonomic unit had a nearest neighbor identified as a cellulolytic species or strain with a significant higher abundance in juvenile than cubs, a very low abundance of putative lignin and cellulose genes existed in part of analyzing samples but a significant higher abundance of genes involved in starch and hemicellulose degradation in juveniles than cubs. Moreover, a significant lower abundance of putative cellulolytic genes and a significant higher abundance of putative α-amylase and hemicellulase gene families were present in giant pandas than in omnivores or herbivores.

  18. Ovulation induction and artificial insemination of a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus) using fresh semen.

    PubMed

    Curry, Erin; Wyatt, Jeff; Sorel, Lawrence J; MacKinnon, Katherine M; Roth, Terri L

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, polar bears were listed as a species threatened with extinction by the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Unfortunately, reproductive success has been poor despite breeding recommendations for almost every reproductively viable bear by the Species Survival Plan. Assisted reproductive technologies could complement breeding efforts by overcoming the challenges of behavioral incompatibilities and deficiencies, facilitating genetic management and increasing cub production. The goal of this study was to artificially inseminate a female polar bear after inducing ovarian activity and ovulation with exogenous hormones (equine chorionic gonadotropin and porcine luteinizing hormone). Fresh semen collected from an adult male via electroejaculation/urethral catheterization was used for the insemination. Fecal steroid monitoring indicated that the female ovulated following the exogenous hormone treatment. Progestin concentrations increased in late summer, at the time implantation was expected to occur; however, no cubs were produced. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ovulation induction and artificial insemination in a polar bear.

  19. Serosurvey of selected zoonotic agents in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rah, H.; Chomel, B.B.; Follmann, Erich H.; Kasten, R.W.; Hew, C.H.; Farver, T.B.; Garner, G.W.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    Between 1982 and 1999 blood samples were collected from 500 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) captured in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas, to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella species, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella species infections. The bears were classified into four age groups, cubs, yearlings, subadults and adults. Brucella and Toxoplasma antibodies were detected by agglutination (a buffered acidified card antigen and rapid automated presumptive test for brucellosis and a commercial latex agglutination test for toxoplasmosis); an ELISA was used to detect Thichinella antibodies. The overall seroprevalence of Brucella species was 5 per cent, and subadults and yearlings were 2.62 times (95 per cent confidence interval 1-02 to 6-82) more likely to be seropositive for Brucella species than adults and their cubs. The antibody prevalence for Toxoplasma gondii was 6 per cent, and for Trichinella species 55.6 per cent. The prevalence of antibodies to Trichinella species increased with age (P<0.001).

  20. Serengeti real estate: density vs. fitness-based indicators of lion habitat quality.

    PubMed

    Mosser, Anna; Fryxell, John M; Eberly, Lynn; Packer, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Habitat quality is typically inferred by assuming a direct relationship between consumer density and resource abundance, although it has been suggested that consumer fitness may be a more accurate measure of habitat quality. We examined density vs. fitness-based measures of habitat quality for lions in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. A 40-year average of female reproductive success (yearling cubs per female) was best explained by proximity to river confluences, whereas patterns of productivity (yearling cubs per km(2)) and adult female density (individuals per km(2)) were associated with more general measures of habitat quality and areas of shelter in poor habitat. This suggests that density may not accurately distinguish between high-quality 'source' areas and low-quality sites that merely provide refuges for effectively non-reproductive individuals. Our results indicate that density may be a misleading indicator of real estate value, particularly for populations that do not conform to an ideal free distribution.

  1. Direct detection of formate ligation in cytochrome c oxidase by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Masayo; Rich, Peter R

    2004-03-03

    The IR signature of binding of formate to the heme a(3-)Cu(B) binuclear site of bovine cytochrome c oxidase has been obtained by perfusion ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The data show unequivocally that formate binds in its anionic form despite its binding being electroneutral overall. The bound formate can be distinguished from free ligand by the binding-induced sharpening and downshifting of vibrational bands. Formate ligation also causes shifts of vibrational modes of heme a(3) and its substituents and perturbation of histidine residues. The association of the accompanying protonation change with a carboxylate or tyrosine can be ruled out and may involve a histidine metal ligand or, more likely, a simple displacement into the bulk phase of a hydroxide ligand to heme a(3) or CU(B), a reaction which would account for stoichiometric proton uptake and maintenance of net charge within the binuclear center domain.

  2. Denning of grizzly bears in the Yellowstone National Park area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judd, Steven L.; Knight, Richard R.; Blanchard, Bonnie M.

    1986-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to locate 101 grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) dens from 1975 to 1980; 35 dens were examined on the ground. Pregnant females denned in late October, and most other bears denned by mid-November. Duration of denning average 113, 132, and 170 days for males, females, and females with new cubs, respectively. Males emerged from mid-February to late March, followed by single females and females with yearlings and 2-year-olds. Females with new cubs emerged from early mid-April. Den sites were associated with moderate tree cover (26%-75% canopy cover) on 30°-60° slopes. Dens occurred on all aspects, although northerly exposures were most common. Grizzly bears usually dug new dens but occasionally used natural cavities or a den from a previous year. Males usually dug larger dens than females with young. Eight excavated and 2 natural dens of the 35 examined dens were used for more than 1 year.

  3. Science learning through scouting: an understudied context for informal science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarman, Ruth

    2005-04-01

    Worldwide, voluntary youth organizations such as the Scouts and Guides attract a large following. As part of their programme they provide science experiences for children and young people. From a research perspective, however, this context for informal science education has gone largely unexamined. This study explores the field, focusing on the Cub Scouts that cater, in the UK, for children aged between 8 and 10.5 years. The investigation involved an e-mail survey, in-depth interviews with 10 leaders, short interviews with 10 Cub Scouts and an unscripted role-play performed by the children. Documented is a distinctive and engaging out-of-school science provision for participants. The research revealed this learning experience to have features that, in terms of a continuum spanning formal to informal, lay more toward the informal than anticipated in respect of curriculum and assessment, although not pedagogy. The children's responses, affective and cognitive, suggest a fruitful area for further study.

  4. An Empirical Development of Parallelization Guidelines for Time-Driven Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    wives, who though not Cub fans, put on a good show during our trip, to waich some games . I would also like to recognize the help of my professors at...program parallelization. in this research effort a Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) time driven simulation program, developed by DESE Research and...continuously, or continuously with discrete changes superimposed. The distinguishing feature of these simulations is the interaction between discretely

  5. Effects of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) and Selected Communication and Hearing Protection Systems (C&HPSs) on Speech Communication: Talk-Through Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    collection are commonly encountered and in wide use. Under no circumstance, will you experience hazardous listening levels that exceed the limits...voluntary participation, duration, and purpose of the study, the methods and means by which it is to be conducted, and the inconveniences and hazards ...cub cuff cup cud cuss 6 dig dip did dim dill din 7 duck dud dung dub dug dun 8 fill fig fin fizz fib fit 9 hear heath heal heave heat heap 10 kick

  6. Galaxy of Images

    Science.gov Websites

    This site has moved! Please go to our new Image Gallery site! dot header Basic Image Search Options dot header Search Tips Enter a keyword term below: Submit Use this search to find ANY words you Irish Lion Cubs Taxonomic (Scientific) Keyword Search: Submit Many of the images in the Galaxy of Images

  7. Analysis of the breast milk of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the preparation of substitutes

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Zhihe; HOU, Rong; LAN, Jingchao; WANG, Hairui; KUROKAWA, Hiroyuki; TAKATSU, Zenta; KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; KAMATA, Hiroshi; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; WATANABE, Toshi

    2016-01-01

    The first milk substitute for giant panda cubs was developed in 1988 based on limited data about giant panda breast milk and that of certain types of bear. Mixtures of other formulas have also been fed to cubs at some facilities. However, they are not of sufficient nutritional quality for promoting growth in panda cubs. Here, we report analysis of giant panda breast milk and propose new milk substitutes for cubs, which were developed based on the results of our analysis. The Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding obtained breast milk samples from three giant pandas. Up to 30 ml of breast milk were collected from each mother by hand. Then, the milk samples were frozen and sent to Nihon University. The levels of protein, fat, carbohydrates, ash, moisture, vitamins, minerals, total amino acids, fatty acids, lactose and other carbohydrates in the milk were analyzed. The breast milk samples exhibited the following nutritional values: protein: 6.6–8.5%, fat: 6.9–16.4%, carbohydrates: 2.5–9.1%, ash: 0.9–1.0% and moisture: 67–83%. We designed two kinds of milk substitutes based on the data obtained and the nutritional requirements of dogs, cats and rodents. The nutritional composition of the milk substitutes for the first and second stages was as follows: protein: 38 and 26%, fat: 40 and 40%, carbohydrates: 13 and 25%, ash: 6 and 6% and moisture: 3 and 3%, respectively. In addition, the substitutes contained vitamins, minerals, taurine, docosahexaenoic acid, lactoferrin, nucleotides and other nutrients. PMID:26781707

  8. Genome-wide analysis of codon usage bias in four sequenced cotton species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyuan; Xing, Huixian; Yuan, Yanchao; Wang, Xianlin; Saeed, Muhammad; Tao, Jincai; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Guihua; Song, Xianliang; Sun, Xuezhen

    2018-01-01

    Codon usage bias (CUB) is an important evolutionary feature in a genome which provides important information for studying organism evolution, gene function and exogenous gene expression. The CUB and its shaping factors in the nuclear genomes of four sequenced cotton species, G. arboreum (A2), G. raimondii (D5), G. hirsutum (AD1) and G. barbadense (AD2) were analyzed in the present study. The effective number of codons (ENC) analysis showed the CUB was weak in these four species and the four subgenomes of the two tetraploids. Codon composition analysis revealed these four species preferred to use pyrimidine-rich codons more frequently than purine-rich codons. Correlation analysis indicated that the base content at the third position of codons affect the degree of codon preference. PR2-bias plot and ENC-plot analyses revealed that the CUB patterns in these genomes and subgenomes were influenced by combined effects of translational selection, directional mutation and other factors. The translational selection (P2) analysis results, together with the non-significant correlation between GC12 and GC3, further revealed that translational selection played the dominant role over mutation pressure in the codon usage bias. Through relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis, we detected 25 high frequency codons preferred to end with T or A, and 31 low frequency codons inclined to end with C or G in these four species and four subgenomes. Finally, 19 to 26 optimal codons with 19 common ones were determined for each species and subgenomes, which preferred to end with A or T. We concluded that the codon usage bias was weak and the translation selection was the main shaping factor in nuclear genes of these four cotton genomes and four subgenomes.

  9. A 14-gene region of rat chromosome 8 in SHR-derived polydactylous congenic substrain affects muscle-specific insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and visceral adiposity.

    PubMed

    Seda, O; Liska, F; Sedová, L; Kazdová, L; Krenová, D; Kren, V

    2005-01-01

    The SHR and the PD/Cub are two established rodent models of human metabolic syndrome. Introgression of a ca 30 cM region of rat chromosome 8 from PD/Cub onto the genetic background of SHR was previously shown to influence several of the metabolic syndrome-related traits along with causing the PLS in the SHR-Lx congenic strain. In the process of identification of the causative alleles, we have produced several congenic sublines. The differential segment of SHR-Lx PD5 congenic substrain [SHR.PD(D8Rat42-D8Arb23)/Cub] spans approximately 1.4 Mb encompassing only 14 genes. When comparing the metabolic, morphometric and gene expression profiles of the SHR-Lx PD5 vs. SHR, the polydactyly and several distinct metabolic features observed in the original SHR-Lx congenic were still manifested, suggesting that the responsible genes were "trapped" within the relatively short differential segment of PD/Cub origin in SHR-Lx PD5. Particularly, the SHR-Lx PD5 displayed substantial reduction of insulin sensitivity confined to skeletal muscle. Among the candidate genes, the promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger Plzf (Zbtb16) transcription repressor is most likely responsible for the Lx mutation resulting in PLS and could also be involved in the alteration of metabolic pathways. The sequence analysis of the Plzf gene revealed a SNP leading to a threonine to serine substitution in SHR at aminoacid position 208 (T208S). In summary, we have isolated a 1.4 Mb genomic region syntenic to human chromosome 11q23, which, apart from causing polydactyly-luxate syndrome (PLS), affects total body weight, adiposity, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle and related gene expression as shown in the SHR-Lx PD5 congenic substrain.

  10. Toxocara canis in experimentally infected silver and arctic foxes.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Isam; Taira, Kensuke; Kapel, Christian M O

    2005-09-01

    In two experiments, thirty-six farm foxes of two species were inoculated with various doses of infective Toxocara canis eggs or tissue larvae isolated from mice. In experiment I, six adult arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus; 11-month old) were each inoculated with 20,000 eggs and sacrificed 100, 220, or 300 days post infection (dpi), while ten silver fox cubs (Vulpes vulpes; 6-9-week old) were infected with varying doses of eggs (30-3000) and necropsied 120 dpi. In experiment II, two groups of five cubs and two groups of five adult silver foxes received both a primary inoculation and either one or two challenge inoculations: primary inoculation (day 0) with 400 embryonated eggs were administered to five cubs and five adults and another five cubs and five adults received 400 larvae. At 50 dpi, the first challenge inoculation (400 eggs) was inoculated in all animals. At 100 dpi, three animals from each group were necropsied. The remaining two animals in each group were received a second challenge inoculation of 400 tissue larvae on 100 dpi and were subsequently necropsied at 150 dpi. In both experiments, the highest numbers of larvae per gram (lpg) of tissue was found in the kidneys (100-300 dpi). In adult foxes receiving a high dose (20,000 eggs), increasing larval burdens were found in the kidneys over the course of the experiment (up to 300 dpi). The larval migration from the lungs to other tissues appeared to be dose-dependent with the highest larval burdens found in adult foxes. The faecal egg excretion, larval burden and intestinal worm burdens decreased from the first to the second challenge infection.

  11. The Measurement of International Military Commitments for Crisis Early Warning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    34generalized cultural expectations", to use Becker’s phraseology. Foreign policy and strategic analysts are familiar with such expectations (Harkabi, 1966:20...commitment. A third characteristic is the public nature of a commitment. In order to accurately identify a commitment, there must be explicit evidence...PAR YUG TAI CON JAM PER ZAM TUR COP JAP POL USA Cos JOR RHO CUB KEN RUM CYP KON RWA CZE KOS SAU DAH KUd SEN DOM LAO SIE PAGE 11 and American

  12. Robot Faces that Follow Gaze Facilitate Attentional Engagement and Increase Their Likeability.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Cesco; Marchesi, Serena; Wykowska, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Gaze behavior of humanoid robots is an efficient mechanism for cueing our spatial orienting, but less is known about the cognitive-affective consequences of robots responding to human directional cues. Here, we examined how the extent to which a humanoid robot (iCub) avatar directed its gaze to the same objects as our participants affected engagement with the robot, subsequent gaze-cueing, and subjective ratings of the robot's characteristic traits. In a gaze-contingent eyetracking task, participants were asked to indicate a preference for one of two objects with their gaze while an iCub avatar was presented between the object photographs. In one condition, the iCub then shifted its gaze toward the object chosen by a participant in 80% of the trials (joint condition) and in the other condition it looked at the opposite object 80% of the time (disjoint condition). Based on the literature in human-human social cognition, we took the speed with which the participants looked back at the robot as a measure of facilitated reorienting and robot-preference, and found these return saccade onset times to be quicker in the joint condition than in the disjoint condition. As indicated by results from a subsequent gaze-cueing tasks, the gaze-following behavior of the robot had little effect on how our participants responded to gaze cues. Nevertheless, subjective reports suggested that our participants preferred the iCub following participants' gaze to the one with a disjoint attention behavior, rated it as more human-like and as more likeable. Taken together, our findings show a preference for robots who follow our gaze. Importantly, such subtle differences in gaze behavior are sufficient to influence our perception of humanoid agents, which clearly provides hints about the design of behavioral characteristics of humanoid robots in more naturalistic settings.

  13. Robot Faces that Follow Gaze Facilitate Attentional Engagement and Increase Their Likeability

    PubMed Central

    Willemse, Cesco; Marchesi, Serena; Wykowska, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Gaze behavior of humanoid robots is an efficient mechanism for cueing our spatial orienting, but less is known about the cognitive–affective consequences of robots responding to human directional cues. Here, we examined how the extent to which a humanoid robot (iCub) avatar directed its gaze to the same objects as our participants affected engagement with the robot, subsequent gaze-cueing, and subjective ratings of the robot’s characteristic traits. In a gaze-contingent eyetracking task, participants were asked to indicate a preference for one of two objects with their gaze while an iCub avatar was presented between the object photographs. In one condition, the iCub then shifted its gaze toward the object chosen by a participant in 80% of the trials (joint condition) and in the other condition it looked at the opposite object 80% of the time (disjoint condition). Based on the literature in human–human social cognition, we took the speed with which the participants looked back at the robot as a measure of facilitated reorienting and robot-preference, and found these return saccade onset times to be quicker in the joint condition than in the disjoint condition. As indicated by results from a subsequent gaze-cueing tasks, the gaze-following behavior of the robot had little effect on how our participants responded to gaze cues. Nevertheless, subjective reports suggested that our participants preferred the iCub following participants’ gaze to the one with a disjoint attention behavior, rated it as more human-like and as more likeable. Taken together, our findings show a preference for robots who follow our gaze. Importantly, such subtle differences in gaze behavior are sufficient to influence our perception of humanoid agents, which clearly provides hints about the design of behavioral characteristics of humanoid robots in more naturalistic settings. PMID:29459842

  14. Chemistry resolved kinetic flow modeling of TATB based explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitello, Peter; Fried, Laurence E.; William, Howard; Levesque, George; Souers, P. Clark

    2012-03-01

    Detonation waves in insensitive, TATB-based explosives are believed to have multiple time scale regimes. The initial burn rate of such explosives has a sub-microsecond time scale. However, significant late-time slow release in energy is believed to occur due to diffusion limited growth of carbon. In the intermediate time scale concentrations of product species likely change from being in equilibrium to being kinetic rate controlled. We use the thermo-chemical code CHEETAH linked to an ALE hydrodynamics code to model detonations. We term our model chemistry resolved kinetic flow, since CHEETAH tracks the time dependent concentrations of individual species in the detonation wave and calculates EOS values based on the concentrations. We present here two variants of our new rate model and comparison with hot, ambient, and cold experimental data for PBX 9502.

  15. Chemistry Resolved Kinetic Flow Modeling of TATB Based Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P A; Fried, L E; Howard, W M

    2011-07-21

    Detonation waves in insensitive, TATB based explosives are believed to have multi-time scale regimes. The initial burn rate of such explosives has a sub-microsecond time scale. However, significant late-time slow release in energy is believed to occur due to diffusion limited growth of carbon. In the intermediate time scale concentrations of product species likely change from being in equilibrium to being kinetic rate controlled. They use the thermo-chemical code CHEETAH linked to an ALE hydrodynamics code to model detonations. They term their model chemistry resolved kinetic flow as CHEETAH tracks the time dependent concentrations of individual species in the detonationmore » wave and calculates EOS values based on the concentrations. A HE-validation suite of model simulations compared to experiments at ambient, hot, and cold temperatures has been developed. They present here a new rate model and comparison with experimental data.« less

  16. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    SciTech Connect

    White, Thomas A., E-mail: taw@physics.org; Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show thatmore » the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam.« less

  17. Estimating Equivalency of Explosives Through A Thermochemical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-08

    The Cheetah thermochemical computer code provides an accurate method for estimating the TNT equivalency of any explosive, evaluated either with respect to peak pressure or the quasi-static pressure at long time in a confined volume. Cheetah calculates the detonation energy and heat of combustion for virtually any explosive (pure or formulation). Comparing the detonation energy for an explosive with that of TNT allows estimation of the TNT equivalency with respect to peak pressure, while comparison of the heat of combustion allows estimation of TNT equivalency with respect to quasi-static pressure. We discuss the methodology, present results for many explosives, andmore » show comparisons with equivalency data from other sources.« less

  18. Trichinella nelsoni in carnivores from the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; De Meneghi, D; Roelke-Parker, M E; La Rosa, G

    1997-12-01

    A survey of trichinellosis among sylvatic carnivore mammals from the Serengeti ecosystem (Tanzania) demonstrated the presence of Trichinella nelsoni in 5 of 9 species examined. Muscle samples were collected from carcasses of 56 carnivores from 1993 to 1995 and frozen before transport and examination. Following artificial digestion of the samples, collected larvae were analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. Trichinella nelsoni was identified in 1 bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), 1 cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), 1 leopard (Panthera pardus), 3 lions (Panthera leo), and 3 spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). The numbers of bat-eared foxes (6), cheetahs (5), and leopards (3) examined were too small to reveal the roles of these carnivore species in the ecology of T. nelsoni. The numbers of lions and spotted hyenas examined, with a prevalence of 12% and 23%, respectively, suggest that these species may be reservoirs of T. nelsoni in the area under study.

  19. Wolves, dogs, rearing and reinforcement: complex interactions underlying species differences in training and problem-solving performance.

    PubMed

    Frank, Harry

    2011-11-01

    Frank and Frank et al. (1982-1987) administered a series of age-graded training and problem-solving tasks to samples of Eastern timber wolf (C. lupus lycaon) and Alaskan Malamute (C. familiaris) pups to test Frank's (Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 53:389-399, 1980) model of the evolution of information processing under conditions of natural and artificial selection. Results confirmed the model's prediction that wolves should perform better than dogs on problem-solving tasks and that dogs should perform better than wolves on training tasks. Further data collected at the University of Connecticut in 1983 revealed a more complex and refined picture, indicating that species differences can be mediated by a number of factors influencing wolf performance, including socialization regimen (hand-rearing vs. mother-rearing), interactive effects of socialization on the efficacy of both rewards and punishments, and the flexibility to select learning strategies that experimenters might not anticipate.

  20. Growth and energy requirements of captive-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    We measured the energy requirements during postnatal development of six hand-reared Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using continuous feeding trials and doubly labeled water. At fledging, the mean (± SE) body mass of chicks was 3,246 ± 51 g. They reached asymptotic body mass in ≈66 days and had a mean growth rate constant of 0.089 ± 0.002 day−1, which was greater than growth rate constants of other, similar-sized precocial birds. Between hatch and day 66, chicks allocated 16.5% of their metabolizable energy to new tissue, lower than the average for other bird species (20%), which might be expected considering their precocial mode of development. There was a developmental change in the assimilation efficiency of food (metabolizable energy coefficient), with a mean of 0.64 ± 0.03 in chicks aged 21 days, rising to 0.83 ± 0.07 in chicks aged 35 days.

  1. Age determination of mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Johnson, D.H.; Dane, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for distinguishing adult from yearling wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), from late winter through the nesting season, was developed by applying discriminant analysis procedures to selected wing feather characters of 126 yearlings and 76 adults (2-year-olds) hand-reared from wild eggs during 1974, 1975, and 1977. Average values for feather characters generally increased as the birds advanced from yearlings to adults. Black-white surface area of greater secondary covert 2 was the single most reliable aging character identified during the study. The error rate was lowest in females (3%) when discriminant functions were used with measurements of primary 1 weight and black-white area of greater secondary covert 2 and in males (9%) when the functions were used with black-white area of greater secondary coverts 1, 2, and 3. Methodology precludes aging of birds in the field during capture operations.

  2. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  3. First captive breeding of the imperial parrot (Amazona imperialis).

    PubMed

    Reillo, Paul R; Durand, Stephen; Burton, Minchinton

    2011-01-01

    We describe the rearing and development of the first imperial parrot (Amazona imperialis) hatched and raised in captivity. A single egg was hen-incubated for 28 days, and the chick was parent-fed for ∼14 days, after which it was removed for hand-rearing. Similar to wild, parent-reared imperial nestlings, the chick developed fully within 12 weeks, weaning at 540 g body weight. Endangered and endemic to Dominica, the imperial is a vital flagship for oceanic rainforest conservation. Chronicling the neonatal development of A. imperialis helps illuminate the natural history of this enigmatic species, whose secretive nesting habits and low population density have frustrated a detailed understanding of its ecology and reproduction. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Giant Panda Maternal Care: A Test of the Experience Constraint Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Rebecca J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Zhang, Zhihe; Maple, Terry L; Charlton, Benjamin D

    2016-06-07

    The body condition constraint and t