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Sample records for handheld pcr thermocycler

  1. PCR thermocycler

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.

    2005-05-17

    A sleeve-type silicon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber or thermocycler having improved thermal performance. The silicon sleeve reaction chamber is improved in thermal performance by etched features therein that reduce thermal mass and increase the surface area of the sleeve for cooling. This improved thermal performance of the thermocycler enables an increase in speed and efficiency of the reaction chamber. The improvement is accomplished by providing grooves in the faces of the sleeve and a series of grooves on the interior surfaces that connect with grooves on the faces of the sleeve. The grooves can be anisotropically etched in the silicon sleeve simultaneously with formation of the chamber.

  2. PCR thermocycler

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.

    2003-01-01

    A sleeve-type silicon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber or thermocycler having improved thermal performance. The silicon sleeve reaction chamber is improved in thermal performance by etched features therein that reduce thermal mass and increase the surface area of the sleeve for cooling. This improved thermal performance of the thermocycler enables an increase in speed and efficiency of the reaction chamber. The improvement is accomplished by providing grooves in the faces of the sleeve and a series of grooves on the interior surfaces that connect with grooves on the faces of the sleeve. The grooves can be anisotropically etched in the silicon sleeve simultaneously with formation of the chamber.

  3. Analysis of PCR Thermocycling by Rayleigh-Bénard Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ruchi; Ugaz, Victor

    2004-03-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated a novel device employing the circulatory flow field established by Rayleigh-Bénard convection to perform amplification of a 295 base target region from a human genomic DNA template inside a 35 uL cylindrical cavity using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [Krishnan, Ugaz & Burns, Science, Vol. 298, 2002, p. 793]. This design eliminates the need for dynamic external temperature control required in conventional thermocyclers that repeatedly heat and cool static sample volumes to denaturation, annealing, and extension temperatures. In this paper, we extend these studies by demonstrating the design and operation of a multiwell convective flow device capable of achieving amplification of a 191 base pair fragment associated with membrane channel proteins M1 and M2 of the influenza-A virus in as little as 15 minutes with performance comparable to a conventional thermocycler. We also study the effect of initial template concentration and observe no degradation in performance over four orders of magnitude of initial template loading dilution, consistent with conventional thermocycler results. These results illustrate the ability of convective flow PCR systems to achieve performance equal to or exceeding conventional thermocycling hardware, and demonstrate their suitability for use in rapid biodetection assays.

  4. Automated Forensic Animal Family Identification by Nested PCR and Melt Curve Analysis on an Off-the-Shelf Thermocycler Augmented with a Centrifugal Microfluidic Disk Segment.

    PubMed

    Keller, Mark; Naue, Jana; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Nested PCR remains a labor-intensive and error-prone biomolecular analysis. Laboratory workflow automation by precise control of minute liquid volumes in centrifugal microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip systems holds great potential for such applications. However, the majority of these systems require costly custom-made processing devices. Our idea is to augment a standard laboratory device, here a centrifugal real-time PCR thermocycler, with inbuilt liquid handling capabilities for automation. We have developed a microfluidic disk segment enabling an automated nested real-time PCR assay for identification of common European animal groups adapted to forensic standards. For the first time we utilize a novel combination of fluidic elements, including pre-storage of reagents, to automate the assay at constant rotational frequency of an off-the-shelf thermocycler. It provides a universal duplex pre-amplification of short fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes, animal-group-specific main-amplifications, and melting curve analysis for differentiation. The system was characterized with respect to assay sensitivity, specificity, risk of cross-contamination, and detection of minor components in mixtures. 92.2% of the performed tests were recognized as fluidically failure-free sample handling and used for evaluation. Altogether, augmentation of the standard real-time thermocycler with a self-contained centrifugal microfluidic disk segment resulted in an accelerated and automated analysis reducing hands-on time, and circumventing the risk of contamination associated with regular nested PCR protocols.

  5. Automated Forensic Animal Family Identification by Nested PCR and Melt Curve Analysis on an Off-the-Shelf Thermocycler Augmented with a Centrifugal Microfluidic Disk Segment

    PubMed Central

    Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Nested PCR remains a labor-intensive and error-prone biomolecular analysis. Laboratory workflow automation by precise control of minute liquid volumes in centrifugal microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip systems holds great potential for such applications. However, the majority of these systems require costly custom-made processing devices. Our idea is to augment a standard laboratory device, here a centrifugal real-time PCR thermocycler, with inbuilt liquid handling capabilities for automation. We have developed a microfluidic disk segment enabling an automated nested real-time PCR assay for identification of common European animal groups adapted to forensic standards. For the first time we utilize a novel combination of fluidic elements, including pre-storage of reagents, to automate the assay at constant rotational frequency of an off-the-shelf thermocycler. It provides a universal duplex pre-amplification of short fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes, animal-group-specific main-amplifications, and melting curve analysis for differentiation. The system was characterized with respect to assay sensitivity, specificity, risk of cross-contamination, and detection of minor components in mixtures. 92.2% of the performed tests were recognized as fluidically failure-free sample handling and used for evaluation. Altogether, augmentation of the standard real-time thermocycler with a self-contained centrifugal microfluidic disk segment resulted in an accelerated and automated analysis reducing hands-on time, and circumventing the risk of contamination associated with regular nested PCR protocols. PMID:26147196

  6. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  7. Droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling for simpler and faster PCR assay using wire-guided manipulations.

    PubMed

    You, David J; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    A computer numerical control (CNC) apparatus was used to perform droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling on a single superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater. Droplets were manipulated using "wire-guided" method (a pipette tip was used in this study). This methodology can be easily adapted to existing commercial robotic pipetting system, while demonstrated added capabilities such as vibrational mixing, high-speed centrifuging of droplets, simple DNA extraction utilizing the hydrophobicity difference between the tip and the superhydrophobic surface, and rapid thermocycling with a moving droplet, all with wire-guided droplet manipulations on a superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater (i.e., not on a 96-well plate). Serial dilutions were demonstrated for diluting sample matrix. Centrifuging was demonstrated by rotating a 10 μL droplet at 2300 round per minute, concentrating E. coli by more than 3-fold within 3 min. DNA extraction was demonstrated from E. coli sample utilizing the disposable pipette tip to cleverly attract the extracted DNA from the droplet residing on a superhydrophobic surface, which took less than 10 min. Following extraction, the 1500 bp sequence of Peptidase D from E. coli was amplified using rapid droplet thermocycling, which took 10 min for 30 cycles. The total assay time was 23 min, including droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction and rapid droplet thermocycling. Evaporation from of 10 μL droplets was not significant during these procedures, since the longest time exposure to air and the vibrations was less than 5 min (during DNA extraction). The results of these sequentially executed processes were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Thus, this work demonstrates the adaptability of the system to replace many common laboratory tasks on a single platform (through re-programmability), in rapid succession (using droplets), and with a high level of

  8. Droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling for simpler and faster PCR assay using wire-guided manipulations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A computer numerical control (CNC) apparatus was used to perform droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling on a single superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater. Droplets were manipulated using “wire-guided” method (a pipette tip was used in this study). This methodology can be easily adapted to existing commercial robotic pipetting system, while demonstrated added capabilities such as vibrational mixing, high-speed centrifuging of droplets, simple DNA extraction utilizing the hydrophobicity difference between the tip and the superhydrophobic surface, and rapid thermocycling with a moving droplet, all with wire-guided droplet manipulations on a superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater (i.e., not on a 96-well plate). Serial dilutions were demonstrated for diluting sample matrix. Centrifuging was demonstrated by rotating a 10 μL droplet at 2300 round per minute, concentrating E. coli by more than 3-fold within 3 min. DNA extraction was demonstrated from E. coli sample utilizing the disposable pipette tip to cleverly attract the extracted DNA from the droplet residing on a superhydrophobic surface, which took less than 10 min. Following extraction, the 1500 bp sequence of Peptidase D from E. coli was amplified using rapid droplet thermocycling, which took 10 min for 30 cycles. The total assay time was 23 min, including droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction and rapid droplet thermocycling. Evaporation from of 10 μL droplets was not significant during these procedures, since the longest time exposure to air and the vibrations was less than 5 min (during DNA extraction). The results of these sequentially executed processes were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Thus, this work demonstrates the adaptability of the system to replace many common laboratory tasks on a single platform (through re-programmability), in rapid succession (using droplets), and with a high level of

  9. Miniaturization of hydrolase assays in thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Severino A; Moraes, Caroline S; Costa, Samara G; de Souza, Wanderley; Azambuja, Patrícia; Garcia, Eloi S; Genta, Fernando A

    2013-03-01

    We adapted the protocols of reducing sugar measurements with dinitrosalicylic acid and bicinchoninic acid for thermocyclers and their use in enzymatic assays for hydrolases such as amylase and β-1,3-glucanase. The use of thermocyclers for these enzymatic assays resulted in a 10 times reduction in the amount of reagent and volume of the sample needed when compared with conventional microplate protocols. We standardized absorbance readings from the polymerase chain reaction plates, which allowed us to make direct readings of the techniques above, and a β-glycosidase assay was also established under the same conditions. Standardization of the enzymatic reaction in thermocyclers resulted in less time-consuming temperature calibrations and without loss of volume through leakage or evaporation from the microplate. Kinetic parameters were successfully obtained, and the use of the thermocycler allowed the measurement of enzymatic activities in biological samples from the field with a limited amount of protein. PMID:23123426

  10. A quantitative method of measuring the microleakage of thermocycled or non-thermocycled posterior tooth restorations.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Dos Santos, Alex José Souza; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Lovadino, José Roberto

    2003-01-01

    This study quantified microleakage in restorations made with three packable resin composites-Solitaire, SureFil and P60; one hybrid resin composite-Z250 and an amalgam-Dispersalloy, with or without the thermocycling process. Sixty sound, freshly extracted human molars were sectioned mesiodistally, creating buccal and lingual blocks. One hundred blocks with the flattest surface were selected. Cylindrical cavities with a diameter of 1.85 +/- 0.05 mm and a depth of 1.5 mm were prepared with a special diamond bur. The blocks were randomly assigned to 10 test groups (n = 10): five restorative materials and two thermal stress groups (thermocycled groups at 3,000 cycles at 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with a dwell time of one minute at each temperature, or non-thermocycled). After the thermocycling test, the samples were immersed in 2% methylene blue for 12 hours. The samples were ground and the powder prepared for analysis in an absorbance spectrophotometer. All the results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test. For the non-thermocycled groups, the means (microg/ml) of microleakage were: Amalgam-4.279 (a); Solitaire-4.148 (ab); Z250-3.418 (abc); P60-3.184 (bc); SureFil-2.890 (c). For the thermocycled groups, the means were: Amalgam-7.572 (a); Solitaire-5.471 (a); Z250-4.330 (ab); P60-3.418 (bc) and SureFil-2.779 (c). Thermocycling analysis showed no significant differences between the thermocycled and non-thermocycled groups for each material tested. It was concluded that no test material prevented microleakage. Only SureFil and P60 showed leakage means significantly lower than amalgam, with SureFil showing lower leakage than Solitaire. P60 only showed lower leakage than Solitaire in the thermocycled groups and Z250 showed results similar to the others materials. PMID:14653296

  11. Handheld Searchlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Streamlite Inc. reengineered the NASA searchlight for commercial use. The brightest hand-held light yet produced is result of Xenon-arc lights developed as solar simulators at Johnson Space Center. Intense battery powered searchlight is rated a million candlepower - 50 times brighter than high beam headlights of a car, and weighs only 7 pounds. Lifetime of xenon lamp is at least 200 hours at maximum intensity. Retail cost is under $400.00. Company has introduced smaller unit in shape of a flashlight, produces 20,000 candlepower and costs approximately $60.00.

  12. A power-efficient thermocycler based on induction heating for DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Debjani; Venkataraman, V.; Mohan, K. Naga; Chandra, H. Sharat; Natarajan, Vasant

    2004-09-01

    We have built a thermocycler based on the principles of induction heating for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of target sequences in DNA samples of interest. The cycler has an average heating rate of ˜0.8 °C/s and a cooling rate of ˜0.5 °C/s, and typically takes ˜4 h to complete a 40-cycle PCR protocol. It is power-efficient (˜6 W per reaction tube), micro-processor controlled, and can be adapted for battery operation. Using this instrument, we have successfully amplified a 350 bp segment from a plasmid and SRY, the human sex determining gene, which occurs as a single-copy sequence in genomic DNA of human males. The PCR products from this thermocycler are comparable to those obtained by the use of commercially available machines. Its easy front-end operation, low-power design, portability and low cost makes it suitable for diagnostic field applications of PCR.

  13. Handheld advanced nucleic acid analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul; Hadley, Dean R.; Bodtker, Brian H.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Mariella, Raymond P., Jr.; Koopman, Ronald P.; Belgrader, Philip

    2000-12-01

    There is a growing need for portable, lightweight, battery operated instruments capable of detecting and identifying bio-warfare and bio-terrorism agents in the field. To address this need, we have developed a handheld PCR instrument. LLNLs advanced thermal cycling technology and expertise with portable, field tested biological instrumentation, combined with the development of real-time, fluorescence based PCR assays, has enabled the development of a very portable, versatile, power efficient PCR instrument with a simplified operating system designed for use by first responders. The heart of the instrument is the sample module, which incorporates the advanced silicon thermal cycler developed at LLNL.

  14. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  15. The Viable Alternative: Handhelds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cathleen A.; Soloway, Elliot M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the advantages of the use of handheld computers in schools. Emphasizes cost savings, increased access, and appropriateness. Asserts that handhelds will have more impact on teaching and learning than the Internet. (PKP)

  16. Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube thermocycler for fast DNA amplification and real-time optical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebmeier, Ryan J.; Whitney, Scott E.; Sarkar, Amitabha; Nelson, Michael; Padhye, Nisha V.; Gogos, George; Viljoen, Hendrik J.

    2004-12-01

    An innovative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) thermocycler capable of performing real-time optical detection is described below. This device utilizes the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube in a system to efficiently and rapidly cycle three 20 μL samples between the denaturation, annealing, and elongation temperatures. The reaction progress is displayed real-time by measuring the size of a fluorescent signal emitted by SYBR green/double-stranded DNA complexes. This device can produce significant reaction yields with very small amounts of initial DNA, for example, it can amplify 0.25 fg (˜5 copies) of a 96 bp bacteriophage λ-DNA fragment 2.7×1011-fold by performing 45 cycles in less than 12 min. The optical threshold (150% of the baseline intensity) was passed 8 min into the reaction at cycle 34. Besides direct applications, the speed and sensitivity of this device enables it to be used as a scientific instrument for basic studies such as PCR assembly and polymerase kinetics.

  17. Miniaturized handheld hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huawen; Haibach, Frederick G.; Bergles, Eric; Qian, Jack; Zhang, Charlie; Yang, William

    2014-05-01

    A miniaturized hyperspectral imager is enabled with image sensor integrated with dispersing elements in a very compact form factor, removing the need for expensive, moving, bulky and complex optics that have been used in conventional hyperspectral imagers for decades. The result is a handheld spectral imager that can be installed on miniature UAV drones or conveyor belts in production lines. Eventually, small handhelds can be adapted for use in outpatient medical clinics for point-of-care diagnostics and other in-field applications.

  18. Digital droplet PCR on disk.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Friedrich; Trotter, Martin; Geltman, Marcel; Schwemmer, Frank; Wadle, Simon; Domínguez-Garrido, Elena; López, María; Cervera-Acedo, Cristina; Santibáñez, Paula; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Paust, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Existing systems for digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) either suffer from low integration or are difficult to introduce to mass fabrication. Here we present an integrated system that is compatible to mass fabrication and combines emulsification, PCR, and fluorescence readout in a single chamber within a disposable cartridge (disk). Droplets are generated by injecting the sample into fluorinated oil via centrifugal step emulsification. The resulting emulsion is aligned in the PCR and readout zone by capillary action. During thermocycling, gas bubbles generated by degassing are removed by capillary driven transport through tapered regions in the PCR chamber. Thereby, the positioning of the emulsion within the readout zone of the PCR chamber is ensured at any time and no bubbles are present during readout. Manual handling of the disk solely requires pipetting of oil and PCR mix into the inlet structures, placing the disk into the thermocycler and subsequently into a microarray scanner. The functionality of the ddPCR process chain is demonstrated by quantitative detection of the cystic fibrosis causing mutation p.Phe508del, which is of interest for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). The mutation was detected in a concentration range spanning four orders of magnitude. We envision that this work will lay the base for the development of highly integrated sample-to-digital-answer PCR systems that can be employed in routine clinical diagnosis. PMID:26610263

  19. The Impact of Thermocycling Process on the Dislodgement Force of Different Endodontic Cements

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Gutmann, James L.; Sheibani, Nader

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of thermocycling (500 cycles, 5°C/55°C) on the push-out bond strength of calcium silicate based cements including WMTA, Nano-WMTA, and Bioaggregate to root dentin. Forty-eight dentin slices were prepared and divided into 3 groups (n = 16) and filled with Angelus WMTA, Nano-WMTA, or Bioaggregate. After incubation, half of the samples were thermocycled while the other half remained untreated. Push-out bond strength was calculated, and the modes of the bond failures were determined by SEM. The highest bond strength was seen in nonthermocycled Nano-WMTA samples and the lowest in thermocycled Bioaggregate samples. The significant differences between nonthermocycled and thermocycled samples were only noticed in WMTA and Nano-WMTA groups (P < 0.001). The mode of failure for thermocycled samples of all three cements was mostly cohesive. Thermocycling process can drastically affect the push-out bond strength of calcium silicate based cements. The intrastructural damages occurred due to the thermal stresses, causing cohesive failures in set materials. Sealing property of endodontic cements which have experienced the thermal stresses can be jeopardized due to occlusal forces happening in furcation cites. PMID:24063004

  20. The Special Ways of Handhelds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulchak, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Handheld computers can leverage the power of technology to enable all students to succeed, including children with special education needs. They are cheaper than laptops, are more portable, and have more memory and power capabilities than handhelds possessed just five years ago. In this article, the author cites the various research he conducted…

  1. Handheld THz security imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duling, Irl N.

    2016-05-01

    Terahertz energy, with its ability to penetrate clothing and non-conductive materials, has held much promise in the area of security scanning. Millimeter wave systems (300 GHz and below) have been widely deployed. These systems have used full two-dimensional surface imaging, and have resulted in privacy concerns. Pulsed terahertz imaging, can detect the presence of unwanted objects without the need for two-dimensional photographic imaging. With high-speed waveform acquisition it is possible to create handheld tools that can be used to locate anomalies under clothing or headgear looking exclusively at either single point waveforms or cross-sectional images which do not pose a privacy concern. Identification of the anomaly to classify it as a potential threat or a benign object is also possible.

  2. Handheld Universal Diagnostic Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The rHEALTH technology is designed to shrink an entire hospital testing laboratory onto a handheld device. A physician or healthcare provider performs the test by collecting a fingerstick of blood from a patient. The tiny volume of blood is inserted into the rHEALTH device. Inside the device is a microfluidic chip that contains small channels about the width of a human hair. These channels help move the blood and analyze the blood sample. The rHEALTH sensor uses proprietary reagents called nanostrips, which are nanoscale test strips that enable the clinical assays. The readout is performed by laser-induced fluorescence. Overall, the time from blood collection through analysis is less than a minute.

  3. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  4. Handheld computers in critical care

    PubMed Central

    Lapinsky, Stephen E; Weshler, Jason; Mehta, Sangeeta; Varkul, Mark; Hallett, Dave; Stewart, Thomas E

    2001-01-01

    Background Computing technology has the potential to improve health care management but is often underutilized. Handheld computers are versatile and relatively inexpensive, bringing the benefits of computers to the bedside. We evaluated the role of this technology for managing patient data and accessing medical reference information, in an academic intensive-care unit (ICU). Methods Palm III series handheld devices were given to the ICU team, each installed with medical reference information, schedules, and contact numbers. Users underwent a 1-hour training session introducing the hardware and software. Various patient data management applications were assessed during the study period. Qualitative assessment of the benefits, drawbacks, and suggestions was performed by an independent company, using focus groups. An objective comparison between a paper and electronic handheld textbook was achieved using clinical scenario tests. Results During the 6-month study period, the 20 physicians and 6 paramedical staff who used the handheld devices found them convenient and functional but suggested more comprehensive training and improved search facilities. Comparison of the handheld computer with the conventional paper text revealed equivalence. Access to computerized patient information improved communication, particularly with regard to long-stay patients, but changes to the software and the process were suggested. Conclusions The introduction of this technology was well received despite differences in users' familiarity with the devices. Handheld computers have potential in the ICU, but systems need to be developed specifically for the critical-care environment. PMID:11511337

  5. Pyxis handheld polarimetric imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenault, David B.; Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Vaden, Justin P.

    2016-05-01

    The instrumentation for measuring infrared polarization signatures has seen significant advancement over the last decade. Previous work has shown the value of polarimetric imagery for a variety of target detection scenarios including detection of manmade targets in clutter and detection of ground and maritime targets while recent work has shown improvements in contrast for aircraft detection and biometric markers. These data collection activities have generally used laboratory or prototype systems with limitations on the allowable amount of target motion or the sensor platform and usually require an attached computer for data acquisition and processing. Still, performance and sensitivity have been steadily getting better while size, weight, and power requirements have been getting smaller enabling polarimetric imaging for a greater or real world applications. In this paper, we describe Pyxis®, a microbolometer based imaging polarimeter that produces live polarimetric video of conventional, polarimetric, and fused image products. A polarization microgrid array integrated in the optical system captures all polarization states simultaneously and makes the system immune to motion artifacts of either the sensor or the scene. The system is battery operated, rugged, and weighs about a quarter pound, and can be helmet mounted or handheld. On board processing of polarization and fused image products enable the operator to see polarimetric signatures in real time. Both analog and digital outputs are possible with sensor control available through a tablet interface. A top level description of Pyxis® is given followed by performance characteristics and representative data.

  6. Handheld Diffusion Test Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photo shows the Handheld Diffusion Test Cell (HH-DTC) apparatus flown on the Space Shuttle. Similar cells (inside the plastic box) will be used in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.

  7. Handheld Diffusion Test Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photo shows an individual cell from the Handheld Diffusion Test Cell (HH-DTC) apparatus flown on the Space Shuttle. Similar cells will be used in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.

  8. Effect of Bleaching and Thermocycling on Resin-Enamel Bond Strength

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Horieh; Mohammadipour, Hamideh Sadat; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh; Alizadeh, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bleaching and thermocycling on microshear bond strength of bonded resin composites to enamel. Enamel slices were prepared from ninety-six intact human premolars and resin composite cylinders were bonded by using Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z350 or Filtek silorane adhesive and resin composite. Each essential group was randomly subdivided to two subgroups: control and bleaching. In bleaching group, 35% hydrogen peroxide was applied on samples. Thermocycling procedure was conducted between 5°C and 55°C, for 3.000 cycles on the half of each subgroup specimen. Then microshear bond strength was tested. Methacrylate-based resin composite had higher bond strength than silorane-based one. The meyhacrylate-based group without bleaching along with thermocycling showed the most bond strength, while bleaching with 35% carbamide peroxide on silorane-based group without thermocycling showed the least microshear bond strength. Bleaching caused a significant degradation on shear bond strength of silorane-based resin composites that bonded using self-etch adhesive resin systems. PMID:26839550

  9. Evaluation of hardness and color stability in the soft lining materials after thermocycling and chemical polishing.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Shore A hardness and color stability of two soft lining materials after thermocycling and when chemical polishing was used or omitted. Two acrylic-based soft lining materials were tested: Coe-Soft and Soft Confort, 14 specimens were made for each material. They were distributed in four groups according to the treatment performed. The specimens were thermocycled (1000 cycles) and half of the group submitted to chemical polishing (methyl methacrylate). Shore A hardness was determined and color stability was calculated by means of Commission International de l'Eclairage Lab uniform color scale using a spectrophotometer, the measurements were made immediately after deflasked, chemical polishing and thermocycling. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's tests were performed at p < 0.01. Color changes (deltaE) were observed after thermocycling in both soft lining materials: Soft Confort (10.60) showed significantly higher values than Coe-Soft (4.57). Coe-Soft (26.42) showed higher Shore A hardness values than Soft Confort (19.42). Chemical polishing did not influence in the color stability of both materials; however, influenced in the hardness values of Coe-Soft.

  10. Evaluation of hardness and color stability in the soft lining materials after thermocycling and chemical polishing.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Shore A hardness and color stability of two soft lining materials after thermocycling and when chemical polishing was used or omitted. Two acrylic-based soft lining materials were tested: Coe-Soft and Soft Confort, 14 specimens were made for each material. They were distributed in four groups according to the treatment performed. The specimens were thermocycled (1000 cycles) and half of the group submitted to chemical polishing (methyl methacrylate). Shore A hardness was determined and color stability was calculated by means of Commission International de l'Eclairage Lab uniform color scale using a spectrophotometer, the measurements were made immediately after deflasked, chemical polishing and thermocycling. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's tests were performed at p < 0.01. Color changes (deltaE) were observed after thermocycling in both soft lining materials: Soft Confort (10.60) showed significantly higher values than Coe-Soft (4.57). Coe-Soft (26.42) showed higher Shore A hardness values than Soft Confort (19.42). Chemical polishing did not influence in the color stability of both materials; however, influenced in the hardness values of Coe-Soft. PMID:19601498

  11. Effect of Bleaching and Thermocycling on Resin-Enamel Bond Strength.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Horieh; Mohammadipour, Hamideh Sadat; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh; Alizadeh, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bleaching and thermocycling on microshear bond strength of bonded resin composites to enamel. Enamel slices were prepared from ninety-six intact human premolars and resin composite cylinders were bonded by using Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z350 or Filtek silorane adhesive and resin composite. Each essential group was randomly subdivided to two subgroups: control and bleaching. In bleaching group, 35% hydrogen peroxide was applied on samples. Thermocycling procedure was conducted between 5°C and 55°C, for 3.000 cycles on the half of each subgroup specimen. Then microshear bond strength was tested. Methacrylate-based resin composite had higher bond strength than silorane-based one. The meyhacrylate-based group without bleaching along with thermocycling showed the most bond strength, while bleaching with 35% carbamide peroxide on silorane-based group without thermocycling showed the least microshear bond strength. Bleaching caused a significant degradation on shear bond strength of silorane-based resin composites that bonded using self-etch adhesive resin systems. PMID:26839550

  12. Solvent-free thermocyclization of the unactivated linear gramicidin S precursor and analogues.

    PubMed

    An, Lin-Kun; Li, Run-Lin; Zuo, Ying-Lin; Gu, Lian-Quan

    2011-01-01

    A convenient thermocyclization of the linear gramicidin S precursor and its analogues is demonstrated. With the preorganized β-sheet conformation, the unactivated linear precursors can cyclize into the corresponding head-to-tail cyclic products in high yield after being heated under solvent-free conditions.

  13. Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

    Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

  14. Designing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Primer Multiplexes in the Forensic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Kelly M.

    2011-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common experiment in upper-level undergraduate biochemistry, molecular biology, and forensic laboratory courses as reagents and thermocyclers have become more affordable for institutions. Typically, instructors design PCR primers to amplify the region of interest and the students prepare their samples for…

  15. At Ease in the Handheld World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Eliot; Grohe, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Provides educational decision-makers with an overview of the offerings and issues related to adopting handheld computers. Describes several handheld products available to schools, including: Palm, iPAQ, Mindsurf, Symbol Technologies, Texas Instruments, and Gateway Handspring Visor. Compares handhelds to PCs, in terms of functionality, operating…

  16. Hand-held medical robots.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  17. New Clothing for Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Clothing is influenced by many factors, trends, and social happenings. Much of what is worn today had utilitarian roots in the past. In the activitiy presented in this article, students will have the opportunity to redesign clothing for new trends, in this case, the explosion of handheld electronic devices.

  18. Handheld vibration effects shoulder motion.

    PubMed

    Tripp, B L; Eberman, L E; Dwelly, P M

    2009-12-01

    We explored effects of handheld vibration on glenohumeral motion in competitive overhead-throwing athletes. We used a randomized, blinded pre-test post-test cross-over design. Each arm of each subject experienced 2 conditions (1-control, 1-experimental), each with pre-test and post-test measures; the order of which was randomized. Participants included Division-I baseball and softball players (n=35: age=20+/-2 yr, height=178+/-9 cm, mass=84+/-12 kg, years of sport participation=13+/-4 yrs). During the experimental condition, participants held a vibrating (2.2 mm, 15 Hz, 20 s), 2.55 kg (5.62 lbs) Mini-VibraFlex dumbbell (Orthometric, New York, NY) in neutral glenohumeral rotation. During the control condition, participants held the still dumbbell (0 mm, 0 Hz, 20 s). Participants rested one min after each trial (3). We used a digital protractor to assess range of motion bilaterally, employing a standard technique for measuring maximal internal (IR) and external rotation (ER). Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated that range of dominant IR increased 6.8% ( P=0.001, ES=0.16) after handheld vibration. Handheld vibration did not affect range of dominant ER ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.20), non-dominant IR ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.41), or non-dominant ER ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.05). Short bouts of handheld vibration increased dominant IR in collegiate baseball and softball athletes. These results suggest that handheld vibration may help maintain glenohumeral IR that is vital to the healthy and competitive throwing shoulder.

  19. Effect of thermocycling on flexural strength and weibull statistics of machinable glass-ceramic and composite resin.

    PubMed

    Peampring, Chaimongkon; Sanohkan, Sasiwimol

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the durability of machinable dental restorative materials, this study performed an experiment to evaluate the flexural strength and Weibull statistics of a machinable lithium disilicate glass-ceramic and a machinable composite resin after being thermocycled for certain cycles. A total of 40 bar-shape specimens of were prepared with the dimension of 20 mm × 4 mm × 2 mm, which were divided into four groups of 10 specimens. Ten specimens of machinable lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) and 10 specimens of machinable composite resin (Paradigm MZ 100, 3M ESPE, USA) were subjected to 3-point flexural strength test. Other 10 specimens of each material were thermocycled between water temperature of 5 and 55 °C for 10,000 cycles. After that, they were tested using 3-point flexural strength test. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons. Weibull analysis was performed to evaluate the reliability of the strength. Means of strength and their standard deviation were: thermocycled IPS e.max CAD 389.10 (50.75), non-thermocycled IPS e.max CAD 349.96 (38.34), thermocycled Paradigm MZ 100 157.51 (12.85), non-thermocycled Paradigm MZ 100 153.33 (19.97). Within each material group, there was no significant difference in flexural strength between thermocycled and non-thermocycled specimens. Considering the Weibull analysis, there was no statistical difference of Weibull modulus in all experimental groups. Within the limitation of this study, the results showed that there was no significant effect of themocycling on flexural strength and Weibull modulus of a machinable glass-ceramic and a machinable composite resin.

  20. Handheld ultrasound array imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Juin-Jet; Quistgaard, Jens

    1999-06-01

    A handheld ultrasound imaging device, one that weighs less than five pounds, has been developed for diagnosing trauma in the combat battlefield as well as a variety of commercial mobile diagnostic applications. This handheld device consists of four component ASICs, each is designed using the state of the art microelectronics technologies. These ASICs are integrated with a convex array transducer to allow high quality imaging of soft tissues and blood flow in real time. The device is designed to be battery driven or ac powered with built-in image storage and cineloop playback capability. Design methodologies of a handheld device are fundamentally different to those of a cart-based system. As system architecture, signal and image processing algorithm as well as image control circuit and software in this device is deigned suitably for large-scale integration, the image performance of this device is designed to be adequate to the intent applications. To elongate the battery life, low power design rules and power management circuits are incorporated in the design of each component ASIC. The performance of the prototype device is currently being evaluated for various applications such as a primary image screening tool, fetal imaging in Obstetrics, foreign object detection and wound assessment for emergency care, etc.

  1. A handheld point-of-care genomic diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Myers, Frank B; Henrikson, Richard H; Bone, Jennifer M; Bone, Jennifer; Lee, Luke P

    2013-01-01

    The rapid detection and identification of infectious disease pathogens is a critical need for healthcare in both developed and developing countries. As we gain more insight into the genomic basis of pathogen infectivity and drug resistance, point-of-care nucleic acid testing will likely become an important tool for global health. In this paper, we present an inexpensive, handheld, battery-powered instrument designed to enable pathogen genotyping in the developing world. Our Microfluidic Biomolecular Amplification Reader (µBAR) represents the convergence of molecular biology, microfluidics, optics, and electronics technology. The µBAR is capable of carrying out isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays with real-time fluorescence readout at a fraction of the cost of conventional benchtop thermocyclers. Additionally, the µBAR features cell phone data connectivity and GPS sample geotagging which can enable epidemiological surveying and remote healthcare delivery. The µBAR controls assay temperature through an integrated resistive heater and monitors real-time fluorescence signals from 60 individual reaction chambers using LEDs and phototransistors. Assays are carried out on PDMS disposable microfluidic cartridges which require no external power for sample loading. We characterize the fluorescence detection limits, heater uniformity, and battery life of the instrument. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate the detection of the HIV-1 integrase gene with the µBAR using the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay. Although we focus on the detection of purified DNA here, LAMP has previously been demonstrated with a range of clinical samples, and our eventual goal is to develop a microfluidic device which includes on-chip sample preparation from raw samples. The µBAR is based entirely around open source hardware and software, and in the accompanying online supplement we present a full set of schematics, bill of materials, PCB layouts, CAD drawings

  2. A Handheld Point-of-Care Genomic Diagnostic System

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Frank B.; Henrikson, Richard H.; Bone, Jennifer; Lee, Luke P.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid detection and identification of infectious disease pathogens is a critical need for healthcare in both developed and developing countries. As we gain more insight into the genomic basis of pathogen infectivity and drug resistance, point-of-care nucleic acid testing will likely become an important tool for global health. In this paper, we present an inexpensive, handheld, battery-powered instrument designed to enable pathogen genotyping in the developing world. Our Microfluidic Biomolecular Amplification Reader (µBAR) represents the convergence of molecular biology, microfluidics, optics, and electronics technology. The µBAR is capable of carrying out isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays with real-time fluorescence readout at a fraction of the cost of conventional benchtop thermocyclers. Additionally, the µBAR features cell phone data connectivity and GPS sample geotagging which can enable epidemiological surveying and remote healthcare delivery. The µBAR controls assay temperature through an integrated resistive heater and monitors real-time fluorescence signals from 60 individual reaction chambers using LEDs and phototransistors. Assays are carried out on PDMS disposable microfluidic cartridges which require no external power for sample loading. We characterize the fluorescence detection limits, heater uniformity, and battery life of the instrument. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate the detection of the HIV-1 integrase gene with the µBAR using the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay. Although we focus on the detection of purified DNA here, LAMP has previously been demonstrated with a range of clinical samples, and our eventual goal is to develop a microfluidic device which includes on-chip sample preparation from raw samples. The µBAR is based entirely around open source hardware and software, and in the accompanying online supplement we present a full set of schematics, bill of materials, PCB layouts, CAD drawings

  3. Bond strength of three luting agents to zirconia ceramic - Influence of surface treatment and thermocycling

    PubMed Central

    ATTIA, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Objective This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the influence of different surface treatments, 3 luting agents and thermocycling on microtensile bond strength (µTBS) to zirconia ceramic. Material and Methods A total of 18 blocks (5x5x4 mm) were fabricated from zirconia ceramic (ICE Zirkonia) and duplicated into composite blocks (Alphadent). Ceramic blocks were divided into 3 groups (n=6) according to the following surface treatments: airborne-particle abrasion (AA), silica-coating, (SC) (CoJet) and silica coating followed by silane application (SCSI) (ESPE Sil). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups (n=2) according to the 3 luting agents used. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC, Ketac Cem Plus), self-adhesive resin cement (UN, RelyX Unicem) and adhesive resin cement (ML, MultiLink Automix) were used for bonding composite and zirconia blocks. Each bonding assembly was cut into microbars (10 mm long and 1±0.1 mm2). Seven specimens of each subgroup were stored in water bath at 37ºC for 1 week. The o ther 7 specimens were stored in water bath at 37ºC for 30 days then thermocycled (TC) for 7,500 cycles. µTBS values were recorded for each specimen using a universal testing machine. Statistical analyses were performed using a 3-way ANOVA model followed by serial 1-way ANOVAs. Comparison of means was performed with Tukey's HSD test at (α=0.05). Results µTBS ranged from 16.8 to 31.8 MPa after 1 week and from 7.3 to 16.4 MPa after 30 days of storage in water and thermocycling. Artificial aging significantly decreased µTBS (p<0.05). Considering surface treatment, SCSI significantly increased µTBS (p<0.05) compared to SC and AA. Resin cements (UN and ML) demonstrated significantly higher µTBS (p<0.05) compared to RMGIC cement. Conclusions Silica coating followed by silane application together with adhesive resin cements significantly increased µTBS, while thermocycling significantly decreased µTBS. PMID:21710091

  4. Effect of Food Stimulated Liquids and Thermocycling on the Monomer Elution from a Nanofilled Composite

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Masumeh Hasani; Sadrai, Sima; Bassir, Seyed Hossein; Veisy, Nadia; Dehghan, Somaye

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of food simulating liquids and thermocycling on the elution of monomers from a nanofilled resin composite in different immersion times. Five Specimen discs were made from a nano-hybrid composite (Supreme 3M) for each group (Total = 180) and immersed in distilled water (control), citric acid, lactic acid, and 75% aqueous ethanol solution. The discs were removed after 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 1 wk, 4 wk, and 12 wk. Three groups of samples underwent thermocycling for 1000, 2000 and 3000 cycles. The solutes were analyzed with HPLC for detection of eluted monomers. The results showed that the amount of released TEGDMA was significantly higher than that of Bis-GMA; however, there were not any significant differences between the amount of released Bis-GMA and UDMA. Moreover, the highest amount of monomers was released from samples immersed in ethanol solution; samples immersed in citric acid and lactic acid significantly released more monomers than those immersed in distilled water. Furthermore, the immersion time in aqueous ethanol solution had an increasing effect on the release of monomers. In addition, the higher amounts of monomers were release from samples immersed in ethanol and citric acid which underwent a higher number of thermal cycles. In conclusion, food and drink stimulated liquids used in this study increased the amount of some of the monomers released from composite resin. Thermal shocks and storage time are other factors that increased the release of monomers from the composite resin PMID:23986791

  5. Handheld Computer Software for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey; Murphy, Elizabeth Ann

    2005-01-01

    School nurses used computers in the 1980s, the Internet in the 1990s, and are embracing handheld computers in the first decade of the 21st century to improve their practice. The purpose of this article is to provide information about handheld computers and software applications that school nurses can use in day-to-day, emergency, and disaster…

  6. Wireless Handhelds to Support Clinical Nursing Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Cheng-Chih; Lai, Chin-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports our implementation and evaluation of a wireless handheld learning environment used to support a clinical nursing practicum course. The learning environment was designed so that nursing students could use handhelds for recording information, organizing ideas, assessing patients, and also for interaction and collaboration with…

  7. Envisioning the Handheld-Centric Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cathleen; Soloway, Elliot

    2004-01-01

    While appropriate as an initial focus, it is time that the educational community move beyond an emphasis on 1:1 computing (each child having his/her own personal computer) to a vision of a handheld-centric classroom, where each child not only has his/her own personal, handheld computer, but also has access to networked PCs, probeware, digital…

  8. Choosing a Hand-Held Inventory Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lois; Hughes, Janet; Neff, Verne; Notartomas, Trish

    2008-01-01

    In spring of 2006, a task force was charged to look at the feasibility of acquiring hand-held inventory devices for the Pennsylvania State University Libraries (PSUL). The task force's charge was not to look at the whole concept of doing an inventory, but rather to focus on the feasibility of acquiring hand-held devices to use in an inventory.…

  9. Handheld Computers: A Boon for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazell, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    As I reflect on my many years as an elementary school principal, I realize how much more effective I would have been if I had owned a wireless handheld computer. This relatively new technology can provide considerable assistance to today?s principals and recent advancements have increased its functions and capacity. Handheld computers are…

  10. Handheld erythema and bruise detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Duckworth, Mark G.; Yi, Dingrong; Caspall, Jayme J.; Wang, Jiwu; Zhao, Futing

    2008-03-01

    Visual inspection of intact skin is commonly used when assessing persons for pressure ulcers and bruises. Melanin masks skin discoloration hindering visual inspection in people with darkly pigmented skin. The objective of the project is to develop a point of care technology capable of detecting erythema and bruises in persons with darkly pigmented skin. Two significant hardware components, a color filter array and illumination system have been developed and tested. The color filter array targets four defined wavelengths and has been designed to fit onto a CMOS sensor. The crafting process generates a multilayer film on a glass substrate using vacuum ion beam splitter and lithographic techniques. The illumination system is based upon LEDs and targets these same pre-defined wavelengths. Together, these components are being used to create a small, handheld multispectral imaging device. Compared to other multi spectral technologies (multi prisms, optical-acoustic crystal and others), the design provides simple, low cost instrumentation that has many potential multi spectral imaging applications which require a handheld detector.

  11. Improvement of the heat resistance of carbon steels by thermocycling thermochemical treatment with self-protective pastes based on boron carbide and aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyansky, I.; Sizov, I.; Mishigdorzhiyn, U.; Butukhanov, V.

    2016-02-01

    The positive effect after thermocycling thermochemical treatment on the structure and properties of formation of boroaluminized layer on steel 20 was established. The research results of metallographic analysis, x-ray spectrometry microanalysis and microhardness were given. The modes of thermocycling treatment (temperature, speed of heating and cooling) were carried out.

  12. Impact of Daily Thermocycles on Hatching Rhythms, Larval Performance and Sex Differentiation of Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Villamizar, Natalia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc; Vera, Luisa M.; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    In the wild, water temperature cycles daily: it warms up after sunrise, and cools rapidly after sunset. Surprisingly, the impact of such daily thermocycles during the early development of fish remains neglected. We investigated the influence of constant vs daily thermocycles in zebrafish, from embryo development to sexual differentiation, by applying four temperature regimens: two constant (24°C and 28°C) and two daily thermocycles: 28:24°C, TC (thermophase coinciding with daytime, and cryophase coinciding with night-time) and 24:28°C, CT (opposite to TC) in a 12:12 h light:dark cycle (LD). Embryo development was temperature-dependent but enhanced at 28°C and TC. Hatching rhythms were diurnal (around 4 h after lights on), but temperature- and cycle-sensitive, since hatching occurred sooner at 28°C (48 hours post fertilization; hpf) while it was delayed at 24°C (96 hpf). Under TC, hatching occurred at 72 hpf, while under CT hatching displayed two peaks (at 70 hpf and 94 hpf). In constant light (LL) or darkness (DD), hatching rhythms persisted with tau close to 24 h, suggesting a clock-controlled “gating” mechanism. Under 28°C or TC, larvae showed the best performance (high growth and survival, and low malformations). The sex ratio was strongly influenced by temperature, as the proportion of females was higher in CT and TC (79 and 83% respectively), contrasting with 28°C and 24°C, which led to more males (83 and 76%). Ovarian aromatase (cyp19a) expression in females was highest in TC and CT (6.5 and 4.6 fold higher than at 28°C, respectively); while anti-müllerian hormone (amh) expression in males increased in testis at 24°C (3.6 fold higher compared to TC) and particularly at 28°C (14.3 fold increase). Taken together, these findings highlight the key role of environmental cycles during early development, which shaped the daily rhythms in fish embryo and larvae, and ultimately influenced sex differentiation. PMID:23284912

  13. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Norbert; Niederhaus, Steve; Lam, Hon; Lum, Chris

    2002-08-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in the field for stand-off frisking of suspects, and as supplemental security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an adjustable, audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object has been detected. An aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. A presentation of the detector's capabilities and limitations will be presented along with probability of detection (PD) data obtained using the latest prototype version.

  14. Video Browsing on Handheld Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hürst, Wolfgang

    Recent improvements in processing power, storage space, and video codec development enable users now to playback video on their handheld devices in a reasonable quality. However, given the form factor restrictions of such a mobile device, screen size still remains a natural limit and - as the term "handheld" implies - always will be a critical resource. This is not only true for video but any data that is processed on such devices. For this reason, developers have come up with new and innovative ways to deal with large documents in such limited scenarios. For example, if you look at the iPhone, innovative techniques such as flicking have been introduced to skim large lists of text (e.g. hundreds of entries in your music collection). Automatically adapting the zoom level to, for example, the width of table cells when double tapping on the screen enables reasonable browsing of web pages that have originally been designed for large, desktop PC sized screens. A multi touch interface allows you to easily zoom in and out of large text documents and images using two fingers. In the next section, we will illustrate that advanced techniques to browse large video files have been developed in the past years, as well. However, if you look at state-of-the-art video players on mobile devices, normally just simple, VCR like controls are supported (at least at the time of this writing) that only allow users to just start, stop, and pause video playback. If supported at all, browsing and navigation functionality is often restricted to simple skipping of chapters via two single buttons for backward and forward navigation and a small and thus not very sensitive timeline slider.

  15. Effect of thermocycling on the durability of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives on dentin.

    PubMed

    Sangwichit, Ketkamon; Kingkaew, Ruksaphon; Pongprueksa, Pong; Senawongse, Pisol

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to compare bond strengths of adhesives with/without thermocycling and to analyze the micromorphology of resindentin interfaces. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared and divided into eight groups to bond with four etch-and-rinse adhesives (Optibond FL, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, Optibond Solo Plus, and Single Bond 2) and four self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Adper SE Plus, Clearfil S(3) Bond and Adper Easy Bond). Specimens were further divided into two subgroups subjected for with/without thermocycling and then subjected to both micro-tensile test and resin-dentin interface evaluation. The results revealed that there were significant differences in bond strength between the groups with and without thermocycling for all etch-and-rinse groups and for the Adper Easy Bond self-etch group (p<0.01). Clearfil SE Bond demonstrated highly durable bond strengths. Furthermore, more silver ion uptake was observed at the resin-dentin interfaces for all etch-and-rinse adhesives and Adper SE Plus and Adper Easy Bond after thermocycling. PMID:27251990

  16. The effect of IDS (immediate dentin sealing) on dentin bond strength under various thermocycling periods

    PubMed Central

    Leesungbok, Richard; Lee, Sang-Min; Park, Su-Jung; Lee, Suk-Won; Lee, Do Yun; Im, Byung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) on bond strength of ceramic restoration under various thermocycling periods with DBA (dentin bonding agent system). MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty freshly extracted human mandibular third molars were divided into 5 groups (1 control and 4 experimental groups) of 10 teeth. We removed enamel layer of sound teeth and embedded them which will proceed to be IDS, using All Bond II. A thermocycling was applied to experimental groups for 1, 2, 7, 14 days respectively and was not applied to control group. IPS Empress II for ceramic was acid-etched with ceramic etchant (9.5% HF) and silane was applied. Each ceramic disc was bonded to specimens with Duo-link, dual curable resin cement by means of light curing for 100 seconds. After the cementation procedures, shear bond strength measurement and SEM analysis of the fractured surface were done. The data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison test (α=.05). RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences between 4 experimental groups and control group, however the mean value started to decrease in group 7d, and group 14d showed the lowest mean bond strength in all groups. Also, group 7d and 14d showed distinct exposed dentin and collapsed hybrid layer was observed in SEM analysis. CONCLUSION In the present study, it can be concluded that ceramic restorations like a laminate veneer restoration should be bonded using resin cement within one week after IDS procedure. PMID:26140174

  17. Influence of Light Source, Thermocycling and Silane on the Shear Bond Strength of Metallic Brackets to Ceramic.

    PubMed

    De Abreu Neto, Hugo Franco; Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; Santos, Eduardo Cesar Almada; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Vedovello Filho, Mário

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different light sources, thermocycling and silane on the bond strength of metallic brackets to ceramic. Cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s. Half of the cylinders (Groups 1 to 4) received two layers of silane. Metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT and divided into 8 groups (n=20), according to light source (Radii Plus LED - 40 s; Groups 1, 2, 5 and 6 and XL 2500 halogen light - 40 s; Groups 3, 4, 7 and 8) and experimental conditions with (Groups 2, 4, 6 and 8) without thermocycling (Groups 1, 3, 5 and 7). Shear bond testing was carried out after 24 h of deionized water storage (Groups 1, 3, 5 and 7) and thermocycling (Groups 2, 4, 6 and 8; 7,000 cycles - 5°/55 °C). Date were submitted to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (α=0.05). The Adhesive Remnamt Index (ARI) was evaluated at 8× magnification. The application of silane was effective in increasing the shear bond strength of the brackets to ceramic (p<0.05). Significant difference (p<0.05) on the bond strength was observed between light sources with or without thermocycling. The ARI showed a predominance of scores 0 for all groups, with an increase in scores 1, 2 and 3 for the silane groups. In conclusion, silane improved significantly the shear bond strength of the brackets to ceramic. The thermocycling and light sources influence on the bond strength.

  18. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  19. Handheld interface for miniature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sunny; Samson, Scott A.; Farmer, Andrew; Smith, Matthew C.; Fries, David; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2005-02-01

    Miniaturization of laboratory sensors has been enabled by continued evolution of technology. Field portable systems are often desired, because they reduce sample handling, provide rapid feedback capability, and enhance convenience. Fieldable sensor systems should include a method for initiating the analysis, storing and displaying the results, while consuming minimal power and being compact and portable. Low cost will allow widespread usage of these systems. In this paper, we discuss a reconfigurable Personal Data Assistant (PDA) based control and data collection system for use with miniature sensors. The system is based on the Handspring visor PDA and a custom designed motherboard, which connects directly to the PDA microprocessor. The PDA provides a convenient and low cost graphical user interface, moderate processing capability, and integrated battery power. The low power motherboard provides the voltage levels, data collection, and input/output (I/O) capabilities required by many MEMS and miniature sensors. These capabilities are relayed to connectors, where an application specific daughterboard is attached. In this paper, two applications are demonstrated. First, a handheld nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) detection sensor consisting of a heated and optical fluorescence detection system is discussed. Second, an electrostatically actuated MEMS micro mirror controller is realized.

  20. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Norbert C.; Doft, Frank; Breuner, Dennis; Felber, Franklin S.

    2001-02-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in the field to allow for stand-off frisking of suspects, and to supplement security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object is detected. A high intensity aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. Current efforts are aimed at increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false-alarm rate, and extending the range of detectability out to 20 feet. Plans for accomplishing these tasks will be presented together with data showing the effective range and probability of detection for the present system.

  1. Cross-Platform Evaluation of Commercial Real-Time SYBR Green RT-PCR Kits for Sensitive and Rapid Detection of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Peytavin de Garam, Carine; Schereffer, Jean Luc; Marchal, Clotilde; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of five two-step SYBR Green RT-qPCR kits and five one-step SYBR Green qRT-PCR kits using real-time PCR assays. Two real-time thermocyclers showing different throughput capacities were used. The analysed performance evaluation criteria included the generation of standard curve, reaction efficiency, analytical sensitivity, intra- and interassay repeatability as well as the costs and the practicability of kits, and thermocycling times. We found that the optimised one-step PCR assays had a higher detection sensitivity than the optimised two-step assays regardless of the machine used, while no difference was detected in reaction efficiency, R2 values, and intra- and interreproducibility between the two methods. The limit of detection at the 95% confidence level varied between 15 to 981 copies/µL and 41 to 171 for one-step kits and two-step kits, respectively. Of the ten kits tested, the most efficient kit was the Quantitect SYBR Green qRT-PCR with a limit of detection at 95% of confidence of 20 and 22 copies/µL on the thermocyclers Rotor gene Q MDx and MX3005P, respectively. The study demonstrated the pivotal influence of the thermocycler on PCR performance for the detection of rabies RNA, as well as that of the master mixes. PMID:25785274

  2. Handheld computers in medicine: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Horsley, A; Forster, L

    2005-07-01

    Handheld computers are now a common sight in medicine, but there are scarce data on who actually uses them and what functions are found to be most useful. This is the first study of handheld computer use in a British hospital, and shows that there is already considerable use and acceptance of the technology, with 22 of 55 (40%) physicians possessing and using such a device. Doctors in training grades are more likely to make use of medical software, particularly textbooks, calculators, and formularies. The main barriers to greater use of this technology were cost of software and poor applicability to UK practice. PMID:15998828

  3. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  4. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  5. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  6. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  7. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  8. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  13. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  14. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  2. Handheld Devices: Toward a More Mobile Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Mary A. C.

    2002-01-01

    Offers an overview of the acceptance and use of handheld personal computing devices on campus that connect wirelessly to the campus network. Considers access; present and future software applications; uses in medial education; faculty training needs; and wireless technology issues. (Author/LRW)

  3. Handheld spectrometers: the state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocombe, Richard A.

    2013-05-01

    "Small" spectrometers fall into three broad classes: small versions of laboratory instruments, providing data, subsequently processed on a PC; dedicated analyzers, providing actionable information to an individual operator; and process analyzers, providing quantitative or semi-quantitative information to a process controller. The emphasis of this paper is on handheld dedicated analyzers. Many spectrometers have historically been large, possible fragile, expensive and complicated to use. The challenge over the last dozen years, as instruments have moved into the field, has been to make spectrometers smaller, affordable, rugged, easy-to-use, but most of all capable of delivering actionable results. Actionable results can dramatically improve the efficiency of a testing process and transform the way business is done. There are several keys to this handheld spectrometer revolution. Consumer electronics has given us powerful mobile platforms, compact batteries, clearly visible displays, new user interfaces, etc., while telecomm has revolutionized miniature optics, sources and detectors. While these technologies enable miniature spectrometers themselves, actionable information has demanded the development of rugged algorithms for material confirmation, unknown identification, mixture analysis and detection of suspicious materials in unknown matrices. These algorithms are far more sophisticated than the `correlation' or `dot-product' methods commonly used in benchtop instruments. Finally, continuing consumer electronics advances now enable many more technologies to be incorporated into handheld spectrometers, including Bluetooth, wireless, WiFi, GPS, cameras and bar code readers, and the continued size shrinkage of spectrometer `engines' leads to the prospect of dual technology or `hyphenated' handheld instruments.

  4. A Handheld Computer System for Classroom Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudargas, Richard A.; Bunn, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    A handheld computer observation system was developed using Hewlett-Packard HP71B computers for recording and IBM-PCs for storing and analyzing data. Algorithims used in observing interactions between handicapped children and peers or teachers are described. Also described are behavior definitions, observer training and observation procedures, the…

  5. Trajectories in Operating a Handheld Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuer, Herbert; Sulzenbruck, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    The authors studied the trajectories of the hand and of the tip of a handheld sliding first-order lever in aiming movements. With this kind of tool, straight trajectories of the hand are generally associated with curved trajectories of the tip of the lever and vice versa. Trajectories of the tip of the lever exhibited smaller deviations from…

  6. Native denaturation differential scanning fluorimetry: Determining the effect of urea using a quantitative real-time thermocycler.

    PubMed

    Childers, Christine L; Green, Stuart R; Dawson, Neal J; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-09-01

    The effect of protein stability on kinetic function is monitored with many techniques that often require large amounts of expensive substrates and specialized equipment not universally available. We present differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF), a simple high-throughput assay performed in real-time thermocyclers, as a technique for analysis of protein unfolding. Furthermore, we demonstrate a correlation between the half-maximal rate of protein unfolding (Knd), and protein unfolding by urea (I50). This demonstrates that DSF methods can determine the structural stability of an enzyme's active site and can compare the relative structural stability of homologous enzymes with a high degree of sequence similarity.

  7. Biaxial flexural strength and phase transformation of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 and Y-TZP core materials after thermocycling and mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    Bankoğlu Güngör, Merve; Aydın, Cemal; Karakoca Nemli, Seçil; Turhan Bal, Bilge; Tıraş, Tülay

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and mechanical loading on the biaxial flexural strength and the phase transformation of one Ce-TZP/Al2O3 and two Y-TZP core materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty disc-shaped specimens were obtained from each material. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (control, thermocycled, and mechanically loaded). Thermocycling was subjected in distilled water for 10000 cycles. Mechanical loading was subjected with 200 N loads at a frequency of 2 Hz for 100000 times. The mean biaxial flexural strength and phase transformation of the specimens were tested. The Weibull modulus, characteristic strength, 10%, 5% and 1% probabilities of failure were calculated using the biaxial flexural strength data. RESULTS The characteristic strengths of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 specimens were significantly higher in all groups compared with the other tested materials (P<.001). Statistical results of X-ray diffraction showed that thermocycling and mechanical loading did not affect the monoclinic phase content of the materials. According to Raman spectroscopy results, at the same point and the same material, mechanical loading significantly affected the phase fraction of all materials (P<.05). CONCLUSION It was concluded that thermocycling and mechanical loading did not show negative effect on the mean biaxial strength of the tested materials. PMID:25006387

  8. Cell Micromanipulation with an Active Handheld Micromanipulator

    PubMed Central

    Tabarés, Jaime Cuevas; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Ettensohn, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the use of an active handheld micromanipulator, known as Micron, for micromanipulation of cells. The device enables users to manipulate objects on the order of tens of microns in size, with the natural ease of use of a fully handheld tool. Micron senses its own position using a purpose-built microscale optical tracker, estimates the erroneous or undesired component of hand motion, and actively corrects it by deflecting its own tool tip using piezoelectric actuators. Benchtop experiments in tip positioning show that active compensation can reduce positioning error by up to 51% compared to unaided performance. Preliminary experiments in bisection of sea urchin embryos exhibit an increased success rate when performed with the help of Micron. PMID:21096452

  9. Microfluidic MEMS hand-held flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafton, Meggie M. G.; Maleki, Teimour; Zordan, Michael D.; Reece, Lisa M.; Byrnes, Ron; Jones, Alan; Todd, Paul; Leary, James F.

    2011-02-01

    Due to a number of recent technological advances, a hand-held flow cytometer can be achieved by use of semiconductor illuminators, optical sensors (all battery powered) and sensitive cell markers such as immuno-quantum dot (Qdot) labels. The specific application described is of a handheld blood analyzer that can quickly process a drop of whole, unfractionated human peripheral blood by real-time, on-chip magnetic separation of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) and further fluorescence analysis of Qdot labeled WBC subsets. Various microfluidic patterns were fabricated in PDMS and used to characterize flow of single cells and magnetic deflection of magnetically labeled cells. An LED excitation, avalanche photodiode detection system (SensL Technologies, Ltd., Cork, Ireland) was used for immuno-Qdot detection of WBC subsets. A static optical setup was used to determine the sensitivity of the detection system. In this work we demonstrate: valve-less, on-chip magnetic sorting of immunomagnetically labeled white blood cells, bright Qdot labeling of lymphocytes, and counting of labeled white blood cells. Comparisons of these results with conventional flow cytometric analyses are reported. Sample preparation efficiency was determined by labeling of isolated white blood cells. Appropriate flow rates were determined for optical detection and confirmed with flowing particles. Several enabling technologies required for a truly portable, battery powered, hand-held flow cytometer for use in future point-of-care diagnostic devices have been demonstrated. The combining of these technologies into an integrated handheld instrument is in progress and results on whole blood cell analysis are to be reported in another paper.

  10. Step length estimation using handheld inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Renaudin, Valérie; Susi, Melania; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) is presented. It combines the user's step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor's signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand's motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  11. 76 FR 22918 - In the Matter of Certain Handheld Electronic Computing Devices, Related Software, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Handheld Electronic Computing Devices, Related Software, and Components... States after importation of certain handheld electronic computing devices, related software, and... importation of certain handheld electronic computing devices, related software, and components thereof...

  12. Handheld magnetic sensor for measurement of tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, K.; Rajamani, R.

    2012-04-01

    This letter develops an analytical formulation for measurement of tension in a string using a handheld sensor. By gently pushing the sensor against the string, the tension in the string can be obtained. An experimental sensor prototype is constructed to verify the analytical formulation. The centimeter-sized prototype utilizes three moving pistons and magnetic field based measurements of their positions. Experimental data show that the sensor can accurately measure tension on a bench top rig. The developed sensor could be useful in a variety of orthopedic surgical procedures, including knee replacement, hip replacement, ligament repair, shoulder stabilization, and tendon repair.

  13. Hand-held computer improves line inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, P.

    1998-01-01

    A new computer-based tool for transmission line inspection, maintenance and data management is quickly winning favor in the field with line managers, supervisors, and most importantly, with patrolmen and inspectors. The Transmission Inspection and Maintenance (TIM) system, developed by the Electric Power Research Institute, allows transmission line personnel to create and store detailed data and graphic images of transmission lines, structures and components in a central, office computer program. The system consists of an integrated 486-based microprocessor hand-held computer, digital camera and office PC server. This setup facilitates easy long-term storage, manipulation and assessment of the inspection database in a portable package.

  14. Bond strength of acrylic teeth to denture base resin after various surface conditioning methods before and after thermocycling.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Guilherme; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Leite, Fabiola Pessoa Pereira; Amaral, Regina; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco A; Kimpara, Estevão T

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the durability of adhesion between acrylic teeth and denture base acrylic resin. The base surfaces of 24 acrylic teeth were flatted and submitted to 4 surface treatment methods: SM1 (control): No SM; SM2: application of a methyl methacrylate-based bonding agent (Vitacol); SM3: air abrasion with 30-microm silicone oxide plus silane; SM4: SM3 plus SM2. A heat-polymerized acrylic resin was applied to the teeth. Thereafter, bar specimens were produced for the microtensile test at dry and thermocyled conditions (60 days water storage followed by 12,000 cycles). The results showed that bond strength was significantly affected by the SM (P < .0001) (SM4 = SM2 > SM3 > SM1) and storage regimens (P < .0001) (dry > thermocycled). The methyl methacrylate-based adhesive showed the highest bond strength. PMID:17455445

  15. A Cognitive Style Perspective to Handheld Devices: Customization vs. Personalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chen-Wei; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2016-01-01

    Handheld devices are widely applied to support open and distributed learning, where students are diverse. On the other hand, customization and personalization can be applied to accommodate students' diversities. However, paucity of research compares the effects of customization and personalization in the context of handheld devices. To this end, a…

  16. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  1. Learning Object Design Considerations for Small-Screen Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Daniel; Hedberg, John

    2008-01-01

    The key limitation of handheld technology for the delivery of learning objects is the small screen that is available for effective display. The smallness of the screen not only adversely affects the clarity, but it also negatively impacts on the acceptance and integration of this potentially useful technology in education. Handheld devices are…

  2. Handheld Technology Acceptance in Radiologic Science Education and Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kevin Jay

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention of directors of educational programs in the radiologic sciences to adopt handheld devices to aid in managing student clinical data. Handheld devices were described to participants as a technology representing a class of mobile electronic devices including, but not limited to,…

  3. Evaluation of a Handheld Data Collection Interface for Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Cynthia Sims; Jones, Tricia; Songer, Nancy Butler

    2004-01-01

    Despite a rise in the use of handheld computers in classrooms, meaningful learning with personal digital assistant (PDA) technology remains poorly studied. This article reports results from an evaluation of customized handheld data collection software, the BioKIDS Sequence, which was used during an 8-week biodiversity curriculum unit by 5th and…

  4. Examining Potentialities of Handheld Technology in Students' Academic Attainments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jianjun; Zhang, Yixin

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of K-12 school teachers have been using handheld, or palmtop, computers in the classroom as an integral means of facilitating education due to the flexibility, mobility, interactive learning capability, and comparatively inexpensive cost. This study involved two experiments in handheld computers: (a) a comparison of the…

  5. Introducing handheld computers into home care.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Lloyd; Quinn, Holly; Kerry, June; Brown, Katherine Grant

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 2009, Bayshore Home Health (BHH) provided tablet computers to 75 home care nurses working in Barrie, Ont. The devices were equipped with an embedded evidence-based documentation system and loaded with decision-making supports such as drug reference databases. The technology was designed to facilitate client assessment, care planning and evaluation at the point of care. This article documents the experience of implementing handheld computers in a home care setting and presents the lessons learned from the perspectives of the BHH executive team and front-line nurses. These groups were asked to complete online surveys, developed by the BHH research and evaluation steering committee, to assess the impact of the implementation on the organization, its nurses and its clients. An analysis of the feedback indicated support for the implementation. However, both groups had concerns about the capability of the hardware and software to meet the needs of decentralized home care nurses working in both urban and rural areas. Front-line nurses also identified the impact of handheld computers on the time required for charting and on the nurse-client relationship as areas of concern.

  6. Visual SLAM for Handheld Monocular Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Grasa, Óscar G; Bernal, Ernesto; Casado, Santiago; Gil, Ismael; Montiel, J M M

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) methods provide real-time estimation of 3-D models from the sole input of a handheld camera, routinely in mobile robotics scenarios. Medical endoscopic sequences mimic a robotic scenario in which a handheld camera (monocular endoscope) moves along an unknown trajectory while observing an unknown cavity. However, the feasibility and accuracy of SLAM methods have not been extensively validated with human in vivo image sequences. In this work, we propose a monocular visual SLAM algorithm tailored to deal with medical image sequences in order to provide an up-to-scale 3-D map of the observed cavity and the endoscope trajectory at frame rate. The algorithm is validated over synthetic data and human in vivo sequences corresponding to 15 laparoscopic hernioplasties where accurate ground-truth distances are available. It can be concluded that the proposed procedure is: 1) noninvasive, because only a standard monocular endoscope and a surgical tool are used; 2) convenient, because only a hand-controlled exploratory motion is needed; 3) fast, because the algorithm provides the 3-D map and the trajectory in real time; 4) accurate, because it has been validated with respect to ground-truth; and 5) robust to inter-patient variability, because it has performed successfully over the validation sequences.

  7. Visual SLAM for Handheld Monocular Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Grasa, Óscar G; Bernal, Ernesto; Casado, Santiago; Gil, Ismael; Montiel, J M M

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) methods provide real-time estimation of 3-D models from the sole input of a handheld camera, routinely in mobile robotics scenarios. Medical endoscopic sequences mimic a robotic scenario in which a handheld camera (monocular endoscope) moves along an unknown trajectory while observing an unknown cavity. However, the feasibility and accuracy of SLAM methods have not been extensively validated with human in vivo image sequences. In this work, we propose a monocular visual SLAM algorithm tailored to deal with medical image sequences in order to provide an up-to-scale 3-D map of the observed cavity and the endoscope trajectory at frame rate. The algorithm is validated over synthetic data and human in vivo sequences corresponding to 15 laparoscopic hernioplasties where accurate ground-truth distances are available. It can be concluded that the proposed procedure is: 1) noninvasive, because only a standard monocular endoscope and a surgical tool are used; 2) convenient, because only a hand-controlled exploratory motion is needed; 3) fast, because the algorithm provides the 3-D map and the trajectory in real time; 4) accurate, because it has been validated with respect to ground-truth; and 5) robust to inter-patient variability, because it has performed successfully over the validation sequences. PMID:24107925

  8. Image quality characteristics of handheld display devices for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Asumi; Liu, Peter; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Badano, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Handheld devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers have become widespread with thousands of available software applications. Recently, handhelds are being proposed as part of medical imaging solutions, especially in emergency medicine, where immediate consultation is required. However, handheld devices differ significantly from medical workstation displays in terms of display characteristics. Moreover, the characteristics vary significantly among device types. We investigate the image quality characteristics of various handheld devices with respect to luminance response, spatial resolution, spatial noise, and reflectance. We show that the luminance characteristics of the handheld displays are different from those of workstation displays complying with grayscale standard target response suggesting that luminance calibration might be needed. Our results also demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of handhelds can surpass those of medical workstation displays particularly for recent generation devices. While a 5 mega-pixel monochrome workstation display has horizontal and vertical modulation transfer factors of 0.52 and 0.47 at the Nyquist frequency, the handheld displays released after 2011 can have values higher than 0.63 at the respective Nyquist frequencies. The noise power spectra for workstation displays are higher than 1.2 × 10(-5) mm(2) at 1 mm(-1), while handheld displays have values lower than 3.7 × 10(-6) mm(2). Reflectance measurements on some of the handheld displays are consistent with measurements for workstation displays with, in some cases, low specular and diffuse reflectance coefficients. The variability of the characterization results among devices due to the different technological features indicates that image quality varies greatly among handheld display devices. PMID:24236113

  9. Image Quality Characteristics of Handheld Display Devices for Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Asumi; Liu, Peter; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Badano, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Handheld devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers have become widespread with thousands of available software applications. Recently, handhelds are being proposed as part of medical imaging solutions, especially in emergency medicine, where immediate consultation is required. However, handheld devices differ significantly from medical workstation displays in terms of display characteristics. Moreover, the characteristics vary significantly among device types. We investigate the image quality characteristics of various handheld devices with respect to luminance response, spatial resolution, spatial noise, and reflectance. We show that the luminance characteristics of the handheld displays are different from those of workstation displays complying with grayscale standard target response suggesting that luminance calibration might be needed. Our results also demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of handhelds can surpass those of medical workstation displays particularly for recent generation devices. While a 5 mega-pixel monochrome workstation display has horizontal and vertical modulation transfer factors of 0.52 and 0.47 at the Nyquist frequency, the handheld displays released after 2011 can have values higher than 0.63 at the respective Nyquist frequencies. The noise power spectra for workstation displays are higher than 1.2×10−5 mm2 at 1 mm−1, while handheld displays have values lower than 3.7×10−6 mm2. Reflectance measurements on some of the handheld displays are consistent with measurements for workstation displays with, in some cases, low specular and diffuse reflectance coefficients. The variability of the characterization results among devices due to the different technological features indicates that image quality varies greatly among handheld display devices. PMID:24236113

  10. Do Handheld Devices Facilitate Face-to-Face Collaboration? Handheld Devices with Large Shared Display Groupware to Facilitate Group Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Kao, L.-C.

    2007-01-01

    One-to-one computing environments change and improve classroom dynamics as individual students can bring handheld devices fitted with wireless communication capabilities into the classrooms. However, the screens of handheld devices, being designed for individual-user mobile application, limit promotion of interaction among groups of learners. This…

  11. Digital hand-held temperature monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allin, L. V.; Ferrari, I.

    1980-09-01

    A hand-held non-invasive monitoring instrument has been designed, constructed and tested to allow core temperature measurements to be obtained from human subjects who have swallowed a temperature-sensing radio transmitter (radio pill). This instrument uses a simple AM radio for a receiver, digital circuitry to decode the received signal and a four-digit LED module to display the temperature. The unit, which is battery-powered, can be held in one hand while an antenna probe is swept over the abdomen of the subject until a continuously audible signal is generated by a piezoelectric sound source, indicating reception. The digital display then presents the body core temperature in tenths of a degree Celsius.

  12. Multifunction piezoelectric transducers for handheld electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Richard R.

    2001-06-01

    This paper explains how a piezoelectric bimorph actuator may be used as a multifunction device in a handheld electronics product - replacing traditional buzzers, rotary motors, and voice coil speakers to supply tone alert, vibrating alert and loudspeaker functions in a single device. The first development hurdle was to establish performance metrics which could be used to compare the piezoelectric device to traditional technologies. Subjective user testing was combined with mathematical modeling to create design specifications. The next challenge was to establish design guidelines, since the device performance is integrally tied to the OEM housing design. Finally, new production testing methodologies were developed that would correlate stand-alone component performance with final system performance.

  13. Optical links in handheld multimedia devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geffen, S.; Duis, J.; Miller, R.

    2008-04-01

    Ever emerging applications in handheld multimedia devices such as mobile phones, laptop computers, portable video games and digital cameras requiring increased screen resolutions are driving higher aggregate bitrates between host processor and display(s) enabling services such as mobile video conferencing, video on demand and TV broadcasting. Larger displays and smaller phones require complex mechanical 3D hinge configurations striving to combine maximum functionality with compact building volumes. Conventional galvanic interconnections such as Micro-Coax and FPC carrying parallel digital data between host processor and display module may produce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and bandwidth limitations caused by small cable size and tight cable bends. To reduce the number of signals through a hinge, the mobile phone industry, organized in the MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Interface) alliance, is currently defining an electrical interface transmitting serialized digital data at speeds >1Gbps. This interface allows for electrical or optical interconnects. Above 1Gbps optical links may offer a cost effective alternative because of their flexibility, increased bandwidth and immunity to EMI. This paper describes the development of optical links for handheld communication devices. A cable assembly based on a special Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) selected for its mechanical durability is terminated with a small form factor molded lens assembly which interfaces between an 850nm VCSEL transmitter and a receiving device on the printed circuit board of the display module. A statistical approach based on a Lean Design For Six Sigma (LDFSS) roadmap for new product development tries to find an optimum link definition which will be robust and low cost meeting the power consumption requirements appropriate for battery operated systems.

  14. Evaluating change in user error when using ruggedized handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Angela Brooke; Strawderman, Lesley; Burch, Reuben

    2015-11-01

    The increasing number of handheld mobile devices used today and the increasing dependency on them in the workplace makes understanding how users interact with these devices critical. This study seeks to understand how user error changes based on user age as well as input content type on ruggedized handheld devices. Participants completed data entry tasks of word and character input on two different devices, a physical keypad and touchscreen device. The number of errors and types of error, corrected and permanent were collected for each participant. Based on results on the study, touchscreen devices proved to be the optimal ruggedized handheld device to minimize user error. PMID:26154226

  15. Evaluating change in user error when using ruggedized handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Angela Brooke; Strawderman, Lesley; Burch, Reuben

    2015-11-01

    The increasing number of handheld mobile devices used today and the increasing dependency on them in the workplace makes understanding how users interact with these devices critical. This study seeks to understand how user error changes based on user age as well as input content type on ruggedized handheld devices. Participants completed data entry tasks of word and character input on two different devices, a physical keypad and touchscreen device. The number of errors and types of error, corrected and permanent were collected for each participant. Based on results on the study, touchscreen devices proved to be the optimal ruggedized handheld device to minimize user error.

  16. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated with controls which require constant hand or finger pressure. (b) Circular saws and chain saws...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated with controls which require constant hand or finger pressure. (b) Circular saws and chain saws...

  18. Electronic, Hand-Held, Wireless Text-And-Graphics Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed electronic, hand-held, wireless viewer presents written material to reader in way that closely resembles that of paper reading material. Viewer presents text and graphics like those normally found in books, newspapers, and magazines. Its hand-held and wireless features enable it to be used in positions and areas where books and magazines are normally used. Device consists primarily of two parts: the receiver/information store and viewing screen.

  19. Automated Hand-Held UXO Detection, Classification & Discrimination Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Thomas H.

    2000-06-12

    The research focused on procedures for target discrimination and classification using hand-held EMI sensors. The idea is to have a small, portable sensor that can be operated in a sweep or similar pattern in front of the operator, and that is capable of distinguishing between buried UXO and clutter on the spot. Curing Phase 1, we developed the processing techniques for distinguishing between buried UXO and clutter using the EM61-HH hand-held metal detector.

  20. Evaluation of Thermocyclic Oxidation Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed NiCrFeSiB Coatings on Boiler Tube Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, M. R.; Prakash, S.; Nath, S. K.; Sapra, Pawan Kumar; Krishnamurthy, N.

    2011-09-01

    High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray process has grown into a well-accepted industrial technology for obtaining coatings resistant to significant surface degradation processes. In the present study, HVOF process was used to deposit Ni-based hardfacing NiCrFeSiB alloy powder on kinds of boiler tube steels designated as SA210 grade-A1, SA213-T11, and SA213-T22. The microstructures and several properties of the as-sprayed coatings have been investigated. Thermocyclic oxidation studies were performed in static air at 900 °C. NiCrFeSiB-coated steels showed slow oxidation kinetics and considerably lower weight gains than that of uncoated steels. The superior performance of NiCrFeSiB coatings can be attributed to continuous and protective thin oxide scale of amorphous SiO2 and Cr2O3 formed on the surface of the oxidized coatings. The combined technique of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and electron probe microanalysis are used to characterize reaction products of the oxidized surfaces.

  1. Effect of thermocycling on the bond strength between dual-cured resin cements and zirconium-oxide ceramics.

    PubMed

    D'Amario, Maurizio; Campidoglio, Marco; Morresi, Anna L; Luciani, Ludovica; Marchetti, Enrico; Baldi, Mario

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the durability of bond strength between zirconia and 3 different resin cements. Thirty stabilized tetragonal zirconium-dioxide blocks were duplicated in dual-curing resin core build-up material specimens. Resin blocks were randomly luted to zirconium surfaces using 1) Clearfil Esthetic Cement (CLF), 2) RelyX Unicem Aplicap (RELX), or 3) Multilink Automix (MLA). After 24 h, half of the specimens from each of the 3 groups were loaded in tension until fracture (0.5 mm/min). The remaining half were tested after 6,000 thermal cycles (5 to 55°C). Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). Fractographic analysis was performed using a stereomicroscope. Tensile bond strength values were significantly affected by the luting agent system employed and by thermal aging (P < 0.001). The highest tensile bond strength values in non-thermal-aged groups were observed for specimens from the RELX and CLF groups. In contrast, in the thermal-aged groups, the highest tensile bond strength values were for the MLA and RELX groups. Moreover, while thermocycling significantly affected bond strengths in the RELX and CLF groups, the mean strength of the MLA group did not significantly change after aging. There was little difference in the distribution of failure modes in any group.

  2. Microfluidic gradient PCR (MG-PCR): a new method for microfluidic DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunsun; Xing, Da

    2010-02-01

    This study develops a new microfluidic DNA amplification strategy for executing parallel DNA amplification in the microfluidic gradient polymerase chain reaction (MG-PCR) device. The developed temperature gradient microfluidic system is generated by using an innovative fin design. The device mainly consists of modular thermally conductive copper flake which is attached onto a finned aluminum heat sink with a small fan. In our microfluidic temperature gradient prototype, a non-linear temperature gradient is produced along the gradient direction. On the copper flake of length 45 mm, width 40 mm and thickness 4 mm, the temperature gradient easily spans the range from 97 to 52 degrees Celsius. By making full use of the hot (90-97 degrees Celsius) and cold (60-70 degrees Celsius) regions on the temperature gradient device, the parallel, two-temperature MG-PCR amplification is feasible. As a demonstration, the MG-PCR from three parallel reactions of 112-bp Escherichia coli DNA fragment is performed in a continuous-flow format, in which the flow of the PCR reagent in the closed loop is induced by the buoyancy-driven nature convection. Although the prototype is not optimized, the MG-PCR amplification can be completed in less than 45 min. However, the MG-PCR thermocycler presented herein can be further scaled-down, and thus the amplification times and reagent consumption can be further reduced. In addition, the currently developed temperature gradient technology can be applied onto other continuous-flow MG-PCR systems or used for other analytical purposes such as parallel and combination measurements, and fluorescent melting curve analysis.

  3. Virtual PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Clague, D S; Vandersall, J A; Hon, G; Williams, P L

    2006-02-23

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stands among the keystone technologies for analysis of biological sequence data. PCR is used to amplify DNA, to generate many copies from as little as a single template. This is essential, for example, in processing forensic DNA samples, pathogen detection in clinical or biothreat surveillance applications, and medical genotyping for diagnosis and treatment of disease. It is used in virtually every laboratory doing molecular, cellular, genetic, ecologic, forensic, or medical research. Despite its ubiquity, we lack the precise predictive capability that would enable detailed optimization of PCR reaction dynamics. In this LDRD, we proposed to develop Virtual PCR (VPCR) software, a computational method to model the kinetic, thermodynamic, and biological processes of PCR reactions. Given a successful completion, these tools will allow us to predict both the sequences and concentrations of all species that are amplified during PCR. The ability to answer the following questions will allow us both to optimize the PCR process and interpret the PCR results: What products are amplified when sequence mixtures are present, containing multiple, closely related targets and multiplexed primers, which may hybridize with sequence mismatches? What are the effects of time, temperature, and DNA concentrations on the concentrations of products? A better understanding of these issues will improve the design and interpretation of PCR reactions. The status of the VPCR project after 1.5 years of funding is consistent with the goals of the overall project which was scoped for 3 years of funding. At half way through the projected timeline of the project we have an early beta version of the VPCR code. We have begun investigating means to improve the robustness of the code, performed preliminary experiments to test the code and begun drafting manuscripts for publication. Although an experimental protocol for testing the code was developed, the preliminary

  4. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C M; Koo, J C

    2001-01-10

    Gas chromatography is a prominent technique for separating complex gases and then analyzing the relative quantities of the separate components. This analytical technique is popular with scientists in a wide range of applications, including environmental restoration for air and water pollution, and chemical and biological analysis. Today the analytical instrumentation community is to working towards moving the analysis away from the laboratory to the point of origin of the sample (''the field'') to achieve real-time data collection and lower analysis costs. The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has developed a hand-held, real-time detection gas chromatograph (GC) through Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this GC is approximately 8 pounds, and it measures 8 inches by 5 inches by 3 inches. It consumes approximately 12 watts of electrical power and has a response time on the order of 2 minutes. The current detector is a glow discharge detector with a sensitivity of parts per billion. The average retention time is about 30 to 45 seconds. Under optimum conditions, the calculated effective plate number is 40,000. The separation column in the portable GC is fabricated completely on silicon wafers. Silicon is a good thermal conductor and provides rapid heating and cooling of the column. The operational temperature can be as high as 350 degrees Celsius. The GC system is capable of rapid column temperature ramping and cooling operations. These are especially important for organic and biological analyses in the GC applications.

  5. Handheld-Level Electromechanical Cartilage Reshaping Device.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sehwan; Manuel, Cyrus T; Wong, Brian J F; Chung, Phil-Sang; Mo, Ji-Hun

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a handheld-level multichannel electromechanical reshaping (EMR) cartilage device and evaluated the feasibility of providing a means of cartilage reshaping in a clinical outpatient setting. The effect of EMR on pig costal cartilage was evaluated in terms of shape change, tissue heat generation, and cell viability. The pig costal cartilage specimens (23 mm × 6.0 mm × 0.7 mm) were mechanically deformed to 90 degrees and fixed to a plastic jig and applied 5, 6, 7, and 8 V up to 8 minutes to find the optimal dosimetry for the our developed EMR device. The results reveal that bend angle increased with increasing voltage and application time. The maximum bend angle obtained was 70.5 ± 7.3 at 8 V, 5 minutes. The temperature of flat pig costal cartilage specimens were measured, while a constant electric voltage was applied to three pairs of electrodes that were inserted into the cartilages. The nonthermal feature of EMR was validated by a thermal infrared camera; that is, the maximum temperate of the flat cartilages is 20.3°C at 8 V. Cell viability assay showed no significant difference in cell damaged area from 3 to 7 minutes exposure with 7 V. In conclusion, the multichannel EMR device that was developed showed a good feasibility of cartilage shaping with minimal temperature change. PMID:26126226

  6. Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis; Dokos, Adam; Burns, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    The Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device (PHOWID) is a measurement system for imaging small defects (scratches, pits, micrometeor impacts, and the like) in the field. Designed primarily for window inspection, PHOWID attaches to a smooth surface with suction cups, and raster scans a small area with an optical pen in order to provide a three-dimensional image of the defect. PHOWID consists of a graphical user interface, motor control subsystem, scanning head, and interface electronics, as well as an integrated camera and user display that allows a user to locate minute defects before scanning. Noise levels are on the order of 60 in. (1.5 m). PHOWID allows field measurement of defects that are usually done in the lab. It is small, light, and attaches directly to the test article in any orientation up to vertical. An operator can scan a defect and get useful engineering data in a matter of minutes. There is no need to make a mold impression for later lab analysis.

  7. The effect of thermocycling on the bonding of different restorative materials to access opening through porcelain fused to metal restorations

    PubMed Central

    AL-Moaleem, Mohammed M.; Shah, Farhan Khalid; Khan, Nausheen Saied

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crowns provide the best treatment option for teeth that have a large or defective restoration. More than 20% of teeth with PFM crowns or bridges require non-surgical root canal treatment (NSRCT). This may be due to the effect of restorative procedures and the possible leakage of bacteria and or their by-products, which leads to the demise of the tooth pulp. Thus, this study was planned to compare the ability of the restorative materials to seal perforated PFM specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study evaluates the ability of amalgam, composite or compomer restorative materials to close perforated PFM specimen's in-vitro. Ninety PFM specimens were constructed using Ni-Cr alloys and feldspathic porcelain, and then they were divided into 3 groups: amalgam (A), composite + Exite adhesive bond (B) and compomer + Syntac adhesive bond (C). All the PFM samples were embedded in an acrylic block to provide complete sealing of the hole from the bottom side. After the aging period, each group was further divided into 3 equal subgroups according to the thermocycling period (one week for 70 cycles, one month for 300 cycles and three months for 900 cycles). Each subgroup was put into containers containing dye (Pelikan INK), one maintained at 5℃ and the other at 55℃, each cycle for 30 sec time. The data obtained was analyzed by SPSS, 2006 using one way ANOVA test and student t-test and significant difference level at (P<.01). RESULTS The depth of dye penetration was measured at the interfaces of PFM and filling materials using Co-ordinate Vernier Microscope. The lowest levels of the dye penetration for the three groups, as well as subgroups were during the first week. The values of dye leakage had significantly increased by time intervals in subgroups A and C. CONCLUSION It was seen that amalgam showed higher leakage than composite while compomer showed the lowest level of leakage. PMID:22259701

  8. Effect of Thermocycling, Degree of Conversion, and Cavity Configuration on the Bonding Effectiveness of All-in-One Adhesives.

    PubMed

    El-Damanhoury, H M; Gaintantzopoulou, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare five all-in-one bonding agents with respect to microleakage, microtensile bond strength (μTBS), degree of conversion (DC) and the impact of cavity configuration. The materials tested were Adper Easy Bond, Clearfil S3 Bond, iBond, Optibond All-in-One, Xeno IV, and Adper Single Bond Plus as a control. The DC of each adhesive was measured on the surfaces of dentin discs (n=5) by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. One hundred and forty-four extracted human molars were randomly divided and assigned to one of the five tested adhesives and the control group. The μTBS to dentin was measured on flat occlusal dentin with and without thermocycling and to the gingival floor dentin of class II cavities (n=8). All specimens were restored with Filtek Z250 resin composite. Class II samples were immersed in a 5% methylene blue dye solution for 24 hours, and microleakage was examined under a stereomicroscope. Micromorphological analysis of demineralized/deproteinized specimens was done using scanning electron microscopy. The DC and microleakage data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and μTBS data by two-way ANOVA followed by a Bonferroni multiple comparison post hoc test (α=0.05) and Weibull-distribution survival analysis. The relation between different variables and μTBS and microleakage was tested by the Pearson correlation coefficient and regression statistics. A moderate direct relation between DC and μTBS durability was found for all the adhesives tested. Significant wide variations exist among the results obtained for single-bottle adhesives tested regarding their μTBS and microleakage. Some of the all-in-one materials tested have shown significantly inferior results under a high C-factor or after aging. The use of these materials should be carefully considered. PMID:25748210

  9. A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.

  10. Advances in handheld FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Cardillo, Len; Judge, Kevin; Frayer, Maxim; Frunzi, Michael; Hetherington, Paul; Levy, Dustin; Oberndorfer, Kyle; Perec, Walter; Sauer, Terry; Stein, John; Zuidema, Eric

    2012-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenges of ConOps (Concepts of Operation) in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the advances resulting from a project designed to overcome the challenges associated with miniaturizing FT-IR instruments. The project team developed a disturbance-corrected permanently aligned cube corner interferometer for improved robustness and optimized opto-mechanical design to maximize optical throughput and signal-to-noise ratios. Thermal management and heat flow were thoroughly modeled and studied to isolate sensitive components from heat sources and provide the widest temperature operation range. Similarly, extensive research on mechanical designs and compensation techniques to protect against shock and vibration will be discussed. A user interface was carefully created for military and emergency response applications to provide actionable information in a visual, intuitive format. Similar to the HazMatID family of products, state-of-the-art algorithms were used to quickly identify the chemical composition of complex samples based on the spectral information. This article includes an overview of the design considerations, tests results, and performance validation of the mechanical ruggedness, spectral, and thermal performance.

  11. Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Jeon, Mansik; Chaney, Eric J; Stewart, Charles N; Boppart, Stephen A

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an advanced point-of-care diagnostic instrument for use in a primary care office using handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT). This system has the potential to enable earlier detection of diseases and accurate image-based diagnostics. Our system was designed to be compact, portable, user-friendly, and fast, making it well suited for the primary care office setting. The unique feature of our system is a versatile handheld OCT imaging scanner which consists of a pair of computer-controlled galvanometer-mounted mirrors, interchangeable lens mounts, and miniaturized video camera. This handheld scanner has the capability to guide the physician in real time for finding suspicious regions to be imaged by OCT. In order to evaluate the performance and use of the handheld OCT scanner, the anterior chamber of a rat eye and in vivo human retina, cornea, skin, and tympanic membrane were imaged. Based on this feasibility study, we believe that this new type of handheld OCT device and system has the potential to be an efficient point-of-care imaging tool in primary care medicine. PMID:21134801

  12. Ultra-compact switchable SLO/OCT handheld probe design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; DuBose, Theodore; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2015-03-01

    Handheld scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems facilitate imaging of young children and subjects that have difficulty fixating. More compact and lightweight probes allow for better portability and increased comfort for the operator of the handheld probe. We describe a very compact, novel SLO and OCT handheld probe design. A single 2D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner and a custom optical design using a converging beam prior to the scanner permitted significant reduction in the system size. Our design utilized a combination of commercial and custom optics that were optimized in Zemax to achieve near diffraction-limited resolution of 8 μm over a 7° field of view. The handheld probe has a form factor of 7 x 6 x 2.5 cm and a weight of only 94 g, which is over an order of magnitude lighter than prior SLO-OCT handheld probes. Images were acquired from a normal subject with an incident power on the eye under the ANSI limit. With this device, which is the world's lightest and smallest SLO-OCT system, we were able to visualize parafoveal cone photoreceptors and nerve fiber bundles without the use of adaptive optics.

  13. Sensitive, microliter PCR with consensus degenerate primers for Epstein Barr virus amplification

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyudam; Pak, Nikita; Saunders, D. Curtis; Conrardy, Christina; Landers, James P.; Tong, Suxiang; Forest, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive identification of the etiology of viral diseases is key to implementing appropriate prevention and treatment. The gold standard for virus identification is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a technique that allows for highly specific and sensitive detection of pathogens by exponentially amplifying a specific region of DNA from as little as a single copy through thermocycling a biochemical cocktail. Today, molecular biology laboratories use commercial instruments that operate in 0.5–2 h/analysis using reaction volumes of 5–50 μL contained within polymer tubes or chambers. Towards reducing this volume and maintaining performance, we present a semi-quantitative, systematic experimental study of how PCR yield is affected by tube/chamber substrate, surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA:V), and passivation methods. We perform PCR experiments using traditional PCR tubes as well as using disposable polymer microchips with 1 μL reaction volumes thermocycled using water baths. We report the first oil encapsulation microfluidic PCR method without fluid flow and its application to the first microfluidic amplification of Epstein Barr virus using consensus degenerate primers, a powerful and broad PCR method to screen for both known and novel members of a viral family. The limit of detection is measured as 140 starting copies of DNA from a starting concentration of 3×105 copies/mL, regarded as an accepted sensitivity threshold for diagnostic purposes, and reaction specificity was improved as compared to conventional methods. Also notable, these experiments were conducted with conventional reagent concentrations, rather than commonly spiked enzyme and/or template mixtures. This experimental study of the effects of substrate, SA:V, and passivation, together with sensitive and specific microfluidic PCR with consensus degenerate primers represent advances towards lower cost and higher throughput pathogen screening. PMID:23080522

  14. A case of recurrent, self-inflicted handheld laser retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Simonett, Joseph M; Scarinci, Fabio; Labriola, Leanne T; Jampol, Lee M; Goldstein, Debra A; Fawzi, Amani A

    2016-04-01

    A 17-year-old young man presented with vision loss and discrete, bilateral foveal lesions. The patient returned 6 weeks later with worsening vision, prominent bilateral retinal lesions, and a full-thickness macular hole in the right eye consistent with recurrent self-inflicted handheld laser retinopathy. After instructing the family to remove the patient's access to laser pointers, follow-up examination revealed spontaneous closure of the macular hole but minimal vision improvement. Recurrent ocular exposure to handheld lasers can masquerade as an organic process in patients who withhold pertinent history. Clinicians should rely on the distinguishing features seen on examination and multimodal imaging to make the diagnosis of handheld laser retinopathy.

  15. A case of recurrent, self-inflicted handheld laser retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Simonett, Joseph M; Scarinci, Fabio; Labriola, Leanne T; Jampol, Lee M; Goldstein, Debra A; Fawzi, Amani A

    2016-04-01

    A 17-year-old young man presented with vision loss and discrete, bilateral foveal lesions. The patient returned 6 weeks later with worsening vision, prominent bilateral retinal lesions, and a full-thickness macular hole in the right eye consistent with recurrent self-inflicted handheld laser retinopathy. After instructing the family to remove the patient's access to laser pointers, follow-up examination revealed spontaneous closure of the macular hole but minimal vision improvement. Recurrent ocular exposure to handheld lasers can masquerade as an organic process in patients who withhold pertinent history. Clinicians should rely on the distinguishing features seen on examination and multimodal imaging to make the diagnosis of handheld laser retinopathy. PMID:27012364

  16. Design of a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy handheld probe

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Sheng, Mingyu; Huang, Lin; Tang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system with handheld probe using femtosecond fiber laser. Here we present the detailed optical design and analysis of the handheld probe. The optical systems using Lightpath 352140 and 352150 as objective lens were analyzed. A custom objective module that includes Lightpath 355392 and two customized corrective lenses was designed. Their performances were compared by wavefront error, field curvature, astigmatism, F-θ error, and tolerance in Zemax simulation. Tolerance analysis predicted the focal spot size to be 1.13, 1.19 and 0.83 µm, respectively. Lightpath 352140 and 352150 were implemented in experiment and the measured lateral resolution was 1.22 and 1.3 µm, respectively, which matched with the prediction. MPM imaging by the handheld probe were conducted on leaf, fish scale and rat tail tendon. The MPM resolution can potentially be improved by the custom objective module.

  17. Design of a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy handheld probe

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Sheng, Mingyu; Huang, Lin; Tang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system with handheld probe using femtosecond fiber laser. Here we present the detailed optical design and analysis of the handheld probe. The optical systems using Lightpath 352140 and 352150 as objective lens were analyzed. A custom objective module that includes Lightpath 355392 and two customized corrective lenses was designed. Their performances were compared by wavefront error, field curvature, astigmatism, F-θ error, and tolerance in Zemax simulation. Tolerance analysis predicted the focal spot size to be 1.13, 1.19 and 0.83 µm, respectively. Lightpath 352140 and 352150 were implemented in experiment and the measured lateral resolution was 1.22 and 1.3 µm, respectively, which matched with the prediction. MPM imaging by the handheld probe were conducted on leaf, fish scale and rat tail tendon. The MPM resolution can potentially be improved by the custom objective module. PMID:27699109

  18. In vivo melanoma depth detection by a handheld photoacoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Xing, Wenxin; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We developed a handheld photoacoustic microscope (PAM) to detect melanoma and determine tumor depth in nude mice in vivo. Compared to our previous PAM system for melanoma imaging, a new light delivery mechanism is introduced to improve light penetration. We show that melanomas with 4.1 mm and 3.3 mm thicknesses can be successfully detected in phantom and in vivo experiments, respectively. With its deep melanoma imaging ability and novel handheld design, this system is promising for clinical melanoma diagnosis, prognosis, and surgical planning for patients at the bedside.

  19. 78 FR 27441 - NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices AGENCY: National...) is soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an... soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an evaluation...

  20. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  4. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  5. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  6. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  8. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  9. Imaging Emission Spectra with Handheld and Cellphone Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitar, David

    2012-01-01

    As point-and-shoot digital camera technology advances it is becoming easier to image spectra in a laboratory setting on a shoestring budget and get immediate results. With this in mind, I wanted to test three cameras to see how their results would differ. Two undergraduate physics students and I used one handheld 7.1 megapixel (MP) digital Cannon…

  10. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  11. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  12. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  13. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  15. Handheld technology acceptance in radiologic science education and training programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Kevin Jay

    The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention of directors of educational programs in the radiologic sciences to adopt handheld devices to aid in managing student clinical data. Handheld devices were described to participants as a technology representing a class of mobile electronic devices including, but not limited to, personal digital assistants such as a Palm TX, Apple iPod Touch, Apple iPad or Hewlett Packard iPaq, and cellular or smartphones with third generation mobile capabilities such as an Apple iPhone, Blackberry or Android device. The study employed a non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design to determine the potential of adopting handheld technologies based on the constructs of Davis's (1989) Technology Acceptance Model. An online self-report questionnaire survey instrument was used to gather study data from 551 entry level radiologic science programs specializing in radiography, radiation therapy, nuclear medicine and medical sonography. The study design resulted in a single point in time assessment of the relationship between the primary constructs of the Technology Acceptance Model: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and the behavioral intention of radiography program directors to adopt the information technology represented by hand held devices. Study results provide justification for investing resources to promote the adoption of mobile handheld devices in radiologic science programs and study findings serve as a foundation for further research involving technology adoption in the radiologic sciences.

  16. 20. HANDHELD VIEW OF CREW AT REST WHILE UNDERWAY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HANDHELD VIEW OF CREW AT REST WHILE UNDERWAY ON MOBILE BAY TO TRAIN TAKEOVER CREW FROM DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  17. Hand-held Calculators: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Max; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations of several publications with regard to the use of hand-held calculators in the mathematics curriculum are presented. Relevant portions of the NACOME and Euclid Conference reports are cited as well as a report to NSF and recommendations from an NIE/NSF conference. Recommendations support expanded use of, and research concerning,…

  18. Evaluation of Handheld Computers for Direct Systematic Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Michael W.; Gouwens, Donald A.; Schuh, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Through this study the authors evaluate outcomes associated with the use of handheld computers by interventionists in improving the efficiency of direct systematic classroom observation. Information from observations is used by interventionists for treatment planning and evaluation. In this study, interventionists were trained to use personal…

  19. Handheld, Wireless Computers: Can They Improve Learning and Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moallem, Mahnaz; Kermani, Hengameh; Chen, Sue-Jen

    2006-01-01

    Reports show that handheld, wireless computers, once used by business professionals to keep track of appointments, contacts, e-mail, and the Internet, have found their way into classrooms and schools across the United States. However, there has not been much systematic research to investigate the effects of these new technology tools on student…

  20. The State of the Art in Museum Handhelds in 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Nancy; Tellis, Chris

    This paper examines the rapidly changing state of museum handhelds from both a technology and content perspective. The paper also discusses the component parts for a successful museum installation: content, user interface, applications, form factor, positioning and the challenges to integrating these components. Specific examples are demonstrated…

  1. Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

    2008-01-01

    A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

  2. Handheld calculator program simplifies calculation of data for gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, W.

    1982-01-11

    For natural gases having several components, Elliott Co.'s handheld calculator program can characterize the gas mixture with a printout that provides its molecular weight, molar specific heat at constant pressure, pseudocritical pressure and temperature, ratio of specific heats, and adiabatic compression exponent. The program also provides for further calculations that yield specific gravity, specific heat/lb, and compressibility.

  3. Epilepsy Forewarning Using A Hand-Held Device

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, LM

    2005-02-21

    Over the last decade, ORNL has developed and patented a novel approach for forewarning of a large variety of machine and biomedical events. The present implementation uses desktop computers to analyze archival data. This report describes the next logical step in this effort, namely use of a hand-held device for the analysis.

  4. Data for Users of Handheld Ion Mobility Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Keith A. Daum; Sandra L. Fox

    2008-05-01

    Chemical detection technology end-user surveys conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in 2005 and 2007 indicated that first responders believed manufacturers’ claims for instruments sometimes were not supported in field applications, and instruments sometimes did not meet their actual needs. Based on these findings, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) asked INL to conduct a similar survey for handheld ion mobility spectrometers (IMS), which are used by a broad community of first responders as well as for other applications. To better access this broad community, the INL used the Center for Technology Commercialization, Inc. (CTC), Public Safety Technology Center (PSTC) to set up an online framework to gather information from users of handheld IMS units. This framework (Survey Monkey) was then used to perform an online Internet survey, augmented by e-mail prompts, to get information from first responders and personnel from various agencies about their direct experience with handheld IMS units. Overall, 478 individuals responded to the survey. Of these, 174 respondents actually owned a handheld IMS. Performance and satisfaction data from these 174 respondents are captured in this report. The survey identified the following observations: • The most common IMS unit used by respondents was the Advanced Portable Detector (APD 2000), followed by ChemRae, Sabre 4000, Sabre 2000, Draeger Multi IMS, Chemical Agent Monitor-2, Chemical Agent Monitor, Vapor Tracer, and Vapor Tracer 2. • The primary owners were HazMat teams (20%), fire services (14%), local police (12%), and sheriffs’ departments (9%). • IMS units are seldom used as part of an integrated system for detecting and identifying chemicals but instead are used independently. • Respondents are generally confused about the capabilities of their IMS unit. This is probably a result of lack of training. • Respondents who had no training or fewer than 8 hours were not satisfied with the overall

  5. Portable robotic platform for handheld landmine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Herman; McMahill, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    To support the development of advanced algorithms for hand-held detectors, it is desirable to collect data with a specific sweep rate, height and spacing. In addition, it is also important that the position of each data point produced by the detector is known. Since it is impossible for a human operator to precisely control these sweep parameters, we have developed a semi-autonomous robotic data collection system. It is designed as a portable robot with a 2-axis manipulator that can be used to sweep any hand-held detector at a precise sweep rate, height, and spacing. It is also equipped with an interface to the hand-held detector, so it can log the output data during the sweeping motion. It also tags the output data with the position data from the on-board positioning system. As a result, we can construct an accurate 2-D or 3-D grid of the detector's output as a function of horizontal and vertical position of the detector. The manipulator is also equipped with force sensing capability that can be used to sense terrain height or collision. To increase deployment flexibility, all functions of the robot are controlled through a wireless communication link by a hand-held computer with a maximum operating distance of at least 100m. Through the hand-held computer, the operator can move the robot, and program its behavior using a script based motion sequencer. The robot has been deployed successfully on several data acquisition activities, and successfully produced high-resolution 2-D map of the buried targets.

  6. Hand-held radiometry: A set of notes developed for use at the Workshop of Hand-held radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A set of notes was developed to aid the beginner in hand-held radiometry. The electromagnetic spectrum is reviewed, and pertinent terms are defined. View areas of multiband radiometers are developed to show the areas of coincidence of adjacent bands. The amounts of plant cover seen by radiometers having different fields of view are described. Vegetation indices are derived and discussed. Response functions of several radiometers are shown and applied to spectrometer data taken over 12 wheat plots, to provide a comparison of instruments and bands within and among instruments. The calculation of solar time is reviewed and applied to the calculation of the local time of LANDSAT satellite overpasses for any particular location in the Northern Hemisphere. The use and misuse of hand-held infrared thermometers are discussed, and a procedure for photographic determination of plant cover is described. Some suggestions are offered concerning procedures to be followed when collecting hand-held spectral and thermal data. A list of references pertinent to hand-held radiometry is included.

  7. The methylation status of plant genomic DNA influences PCR efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, K V; Dubrovina, A S; Tyunin, A P

    2015-03-01

    During the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a versatile and widely used method, certain DNA sequences are rapidly amplified through thermocycling. Although there are numerous protocols of PCR optimization for different applications, little is known about the effect of DNA modifications, such as DNA methylation, on PCR efficiency. Recent studies show that cytosine methylation alters DNA mechanical properties and suggest that DNA methylation may directly or indirectly influence the effectiveness of DNA amplification during PCR. In the present study, using plant DNA, we found that highly methylated plant DNA genomic regions were amplified with lower efficiencies compared to that for the regions methylated at a lower level. The correlation was observed when amplifying stilbene synthase (STS1, STS10) genes of Vitis amurensis, the Actin2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, the internal transcribed spacer (AtITS), and tRNAPro of A. thaliana. The level of DNA methylation within the analyzed DNA regions has been analyzed with bisulfite sequencing. The obtained data show that efficient PCRs of highly methylated plant DNA regions can be hampered. Proteinase K treatment of the plant DNA prior to PCR and using HotTaq DNA polymerase improved amplification of the highly methylated plant DNA regions. We suggest that increased DNA denaturation temperatures of the highly methylated DNA and contamination with DNA-binding proteins contribute to the hampered PCR amplification of highly methylated DNA. The data show that it is necessary to use current DNA purification protocols and commercial kits with caution to ensure appropriate PCR product yield and prevent bias toward unmethylated DNA amplification in PCRs.

  8. Effects of surface treatments, thermocycling, and cyclic loading on the bond strength of a resin cement bonded to a lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Guarda, G B; Correr, A B; Gonçalves, L S; Costa, A R; Borges, G A; Sinhoreti, M A C; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives : The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of two surface treatments, fatigue and thermocycling, on the microtensile bond strength of a newly introduced lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) and a dual-cured resin cement. Methods : A total of 18 ceramic blocks (10 mm long × 7 mm wide × 3.0 mm thick) were fabricated and divided into six groups (n=3): groups 1, 2, and 3-air particle abraded for five seconds with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles; groups 4, 5, and 6-acid etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 seconds. A silane coupling agent was applied onto all specimens and allowed to dry for five seconds, and the ceramic blocks were bonded to a block of composite Tetric N-Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent) with RelyX ARC (3M ESPE) resin cement and placed under a 500-g static load for two minutes. The cement excess was removed with a disposable microbrush, and four periods of light activation for 40 seconds each were performed at right angles using an LED curing unit (UltraLume LED 5, Ultradent) with a final 40 second light exposure from the top surface. All of the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Groups 2 and 5 were submitted to 3,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C, and groups 3 and 6 were submitted to a fatigue test of 100,000 cycles at 2 Hz. Specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the bonding area to obtain beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2) (30 beams per group) and submitted to a microtensile bond strength test in a testing machine (EZ Test) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (p≤0.05). Results : The microtensile bond strength values (MPa) were 26.9 ± 6.9, 22.2 ± 7.8, and 21.2 ± 9.1 for groups 1-3 and 35.0 ± 9.6, 24.3 ± 8.9, and 23.9 ± 6.3 for groups 4-6. For the control group, fatigue testing and thermocycling produced a predominance of adhesive failures. Fatigue and

  9. Effects of surface treatments, thermocycling, and cyclic loading on the bond strength of a resin cement bonded to a lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Guarda, G B; Correr, A B; Gonçalves, L S; Costa, A R; Borges, G A; Sinhoreti, M A C; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives : The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of two surface treatments, fatigue and thermocycling, on the microtensile bond strength of a newly introduced lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) and a dual-cured resin cement. Methods : A total of 18 ceramic blocks (10 mm long × 7 mm wide × 3.0 mm thick) were fabricated and divided into six groups (n=3): groups 1, 2, and 3-air particle abraded for five seconds with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles; groups 4, 5, and 6-acid etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 seconds. A silane coupling agent was applied onto all specimens and allowed to dry for five seconds, and the ceramic blocks were bonded to a block of composite Tetric N-Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent) with RelyX ARC (3M ESPE) resin cement and placed under a 500-g static load for two minutes. The cement excess was removed with a disposable microbrush, and four periods of light activation for 40 seconds each were performed at right angles using an LED curing unit (UltraLume LED 5, Ultradent) with a final 40 second light exposure from the top surface. All of the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Groups 2 and 5 were submitted to 3,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C, and groups 3 and 6 were submitted to a fatigue test of 100,000 cycles at 2 Hz. Specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the bonding area to obtain beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2) (30 beams per group) and submitted to a microtensile bond strength test in a testing machine (EZ Test) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (p≤0.05). Results : The microtensile bond strength values (MPa) were 26.9 ± 6.9, 22.2 ± 7.8, and 21.2 ± 9.1 for groups 1-3 and 35.0 ± 9.6, 24.3 ± 8.9, and 23.9 ± 6.3 for groups 4-6. For the control group, fatigue testing and thermocycling produced a predominance of adhesive failures. Fatigue and

  10. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue, conventional polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Balne, P K; Basu, S; Rath, S; Barik, M R; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    This study is a comparative evaluation (Chi-square test) of a closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue dye (HNB-LAMP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis. Considering clinical presentation as the gold standard in 33 patients, the sensitivity of HNB-LAMP assay (75.8%) was higher (not significant, P value 0.2) than conventional PCR (57.6%) and lower than real-time PCR (90.9%). Specificity was 100% by all three methods. No amplification was observed in negative controls (n = 20) by all three methods. The cost of the HNB-LAMP assay was Rs. 500.00 and it does not require thermocycler, therefore, it can be used as an alternative to conventional PCR in resource-poor settings.

  11. Handheld computers in nursing education: PDA pilot project.

    PubMed

    Koeniger-Donohue, Rebecca

    2008-02-01

    Interest in the use and application of handheld technology at undergraduate and graduate nursing programs across the country is growing rapidly. Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are often referred to as a "peripheral brain" because they can save time, decrease errors, and simplify information retrieval at the point of care. In addition, research results support the notion that PDAs enhance nursing clinical education and are an effective student learning resource. However, most nursing programs lack the full range of technological resources to implement and provide ongoing support for handheld technology use by faculty and students. This article describes a 9-month pilot project for the initial use of PDAs by novice faculty and students at Simmons College.

  12. A First Look at Mobile Hand-Held Device Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Gregor; Schneider, Fabian; Feldmann, Anja

    Although mobile hand-held devices (MHDs) are ubiquitous today, little is know about how they are used - especially at home. In this paper, we cast a first look on mobile hand-held device usage from a network perspective. We base our study on anonymized packet level data representing more than 20,000 residential DSL customers. Our characterization of the traffic shows that MHDs are active on up to 3% of the monitored DSL lines. Mobile devices from Apple (i.e., iPhones and iPods) are, by a huge margin, the most commonly used MHDs and account for most of the traffic. We find that MHD traffic is dominated by multimedia content and downloads of mobile applications.

  13. Real-time focal stack compositing for handheld mobile cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solh, Mashhour

    2013-03-01

    Extending the depth of field using a single lens camera on a mobile device can be achieved by capturing a set of images each focused at a different depth or focal stack then combine these samples of the focal stack to form a single all-in-focus image or an image refocused at a desired depth of field. Focal stack compositing in real time for a handheld mobile camera has many challenges including capturing, processing power, handshaking, rolling shutter artifacts, occlusion, and lens zoom effect. In this paper, we describe a system for a real time focal stack compositing system for handheld mobile device with an alignment and compositing algorithms. We will also show all-in-focus images captured and processed by a cell phone camera running on Android OS.

  14. Integrating RFID technique to design mobile handheld inventory management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Chen, Shih-Chung

    2008-04-01

    An RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system is proposed in this paper. Differing from the manual inventory management method, the proposed system works on the personal digital assistant (PDA) with an RFID reader. The system identifies electronic tags on the properties and checks the property information in the back-end database server through a ubiquitous wireless network. The system also provides a set of functions to manage the back-end inventory database and assigns different levels of access privilege according to various user categories. In the back-end database server, to prevent improper or illegal accesses, the server not only stores the inventory database and user privilege information, but also keeps track of the user activities in the server including the login and logout time and location, the records of database accessing, and every modification of the tables. Some experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of the integrated RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system.

  15. Engineering issues for hand-held sensing devices, with examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiwald, David A.; Freiwald, Joyce

    1994-03-01

    It is now U.S. defense policy that there will be no new platform starts. The emphasis for platforms will be on O&M cost reduction, life-extension improvements, and force-multiplier- device upgrades. There is also an increasing emphasis on hand-held force-multiplier devices for individuals, which is the focus of this paper. Engineering issues include operations analysis, weight, cube, cost, prime power, ease of use, data storage, reliability, fault tolerance, data communications and human factors. Two examples of hand-held devices are given. Applications include USMC, Army, SOCOM, DEA, FBI, SS, Border Patrol and others. Barriers to adoption of such technology are also discussed.

  16. Quantification of Norwalk virus inocula: Comparison of endpoint titration and real-time reverse transcription-PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengbo; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis. In order to fully characterize features such as persistence and infectious dose, precise quantification of virus concentration is necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods [endpoint titration RT-PCR and quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR)] with respect to quantification of Norwalk virus (NV) in inocula made from purified stock suspensions of human fecal specimens. A full-length NV RNA transcript was developed to facilitate quantification using RT-qPCR and provided log linear detection in the range of 49-4.9 x 10(4) genome equivalent copies (GEC) per reaction. Endpoint titration RT-PCR was used to estimate PCR detection units, and RT-qPCR was used to estimate genome copies in two NV inocula (8fIIa and 8fIIb) used in previous human challenge studies. Overall, RT-qPCR was 1.1-1.6 log(10) more sensitive (lower detection limit) than endpoint titration RT-PCR when the same RNA release method, PCR primers and thermocycle program were used. These findings have important implications for many experimental interpretations, not the least of which is estimating the median infectious dose in human challenge studies.

  17. A Cheap, Semiquantitative Hand-Held Conductivity Tester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacky, Susan K. S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a design for a hand-held conductivity tester powered by a 9V battery that gives semi-quantitative results for aqueous electrolyte solutions of concentrations ranging from 0.001 M to 0.1 M. The tester uses a bar-graph LED driven by an LM3914 integrated circuit to indicate the level of conductivity. A list of parts, procedures, and results…

  18. Elemental analysis using a handheld X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groover, Krishangi; Izbicki, John

    2016-06-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey is collecting geologic samples from local stream channels, aquifer materials, and rock outcrops for studies of trace elements in the Mojave Desert, southern California. These samples are collected because geologic materials can release a variety of elements to the environment when exposed to water. The samples are to be analyzed with a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer to determine the concentrations of up to 27 elements, including chromium.

  19. Elemental analysis using a handheld X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groover, Krishangi; Izbicki, John

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is collecting geologic samples from local stream channels, aquifer materials, and rock outcrops for studies of trace elements in the Mojave Desert, southern California. These samples are collected because geologic materials can release a variety of elements to the environment when exposed to water. The samples are to be analyzed with a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer to determine the concentrations of up to 27 elements, including chromium.

  20. Distributing Data from Desktop to Hand-Held Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    A system of server and client software formats and redistributes data from commercially available desktop to commercially available hand-held computers via both wired and wireless networks. This software is an inexpensive means of enabling engineers and technicians to gain access to current sensor data while working in locations in which such data would otherwise be inaccessible. The sensor data are first gathered by a data-acquisition server computer, then transmitted via a wired network to a data-distribution computer that executes the server portion of the present software. Data in all sensor channels -- both raw sensor outputs in millivolt units and results of conversion to engineering units -- are made available for distribution. Selected subsets of the data are transmitted to each hand-held computer via the wired and then a wireless network. The selection of the subsets and the choice of the sequences and formats for displaying the data is made by means of a user interface generated by the client portion of the software. The data displayed on the screens of hand-held units can be updated at rates from 1 to

  1. The use of a handheld Raman system for virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chunyuan; Driskell, Jeremy D.; Tripp, Ralph A.; Cui, Yiping; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-06-01

    The combination of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a handheld Raman system would lead to a powerful portable device for defense and security applications. The Thermo Scientific FirstDefender RM instrument is a 785-nm handheld Raman spectrometer intended for rapid field identification of unknown solid and liquid samples. Its sensitivity and effectiveness for SERS-based detection was initially confirmed by evaluating detection of 1,2-di(4- pyridyl)ethylene as a reporter molecule on a silver nanorod (AgNR) substrate, and the results are comparable to those from a confocal Bruker Raman system. As avian influenza A viruses (AIV) are recognized as an important emerging threat to public health, this portable handheld Raman spectrometer is used, for the first time, to detect and identify avian influenza A viruses using a multi-well AgNR SERS chip. The SERS spectra obtained had rich peaks which demonstrated that the instrument can be effectively used for SERS-based influenza virus detection. According to the SERS spectra, these different influenza viruses were distinguished from the negative control via the principal component analysis and by partial least squares-discriminate analysis. Together, these results show that the combination effective SERS substrates when combined with a portable Raman spectrometer provides a powerful field device for chemical and biological sensing.

  2. Carbonaceous species emitted from handheld two-stroke engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volckens, John; Olson, David A.; Hays, Michael D.

    Small, handheld two-stroke engines used for lawn and garden work (e.g., string trimmers, leaf blowers, etc.) can emit a variety of potentially toxic carbonaceous air pollutants. Yet, the emissions effluents from these machines go largely uncharacterized, constraining the proper development of human exposure estimates, emissions inventories, and climate and air quality models. This study samples and evaluates chemical pollutant emissions from the dynamometer testing of six small, handheld spark-ignition engines—model years 1998-2002. Four oil-gas blends were tested in each engine in duplicate. Emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and gas-phase hydrocarbons were predominant, and the PM emitted was organic matter primarily. An ANOVA model determined that engine type and control tier contributed significantly to emissions variations across all identified compound classes; whereas fuel blend was an insignificant variable accounting for <5% of the observed variation in emissions. Though emissions rates from small engines were generally intermediate in magnitude compared with other gasoline-powered engines, numerous compounds traditionally viewed as motor vehicle markers are also present in small engine emissions in similar relative proportions. Given that small, handheld two-stroke engines used for lawn and garden work account for 5-10% of total US emissions of CO, CO 2, NO x, HC, and PM 2.5, source apportionment models and human exposure studies need to consider the effect of these small engines on ambient concentrations in air polluted environments.

  3. Identification of handheld objects for electro-optic/FLIR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Steve K.; Flug, Eric; Edwards, Timothy C.; Krapels, Keith A.; Scarbrough, John

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes research on the determination of the fifty-percent probability of identification cycle criterion (N50) for two sets of handheld objects. The first set consists of 12 objects which are commonly held in a single hand. The second set consists of 10 objects commonly held in both hands. These sets consist of not only typical civilian handheld objects but also objects that are potentially lethal. A pistol, a cell phone, a rocket propelled grenade (RPG) launcher, and a broom are examples of the objects in these sets. The discrimination of these objects is an inherent part of homeland security, force protection, and also general population security. Objects were imaged from each set in the visible and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectrum. Various levels of blur are then applied to these images. These blurred images were then used in a forced choice perception experiment. Results were analyzed as a function of blur level and target size to give identification probability as a function of resolvable cycles on target. These results are applicable to handheld object target acquisition estimates for visible imaging systems and MWIR systems. This research provides guidance in the design and analysis of electro-optical systems and forward-looking infrared (FLIR) systems for use in homeland security, force protection, and also general population security.

  4. Detecting buried explosive hazards with handheld GPR and deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besaw, Lance E.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosive hazards (BEHs), including traditional landmines and homemade improvised explosives, have proven difficult to detect and defeat during and after conflicts around the world. Despite their various sizes, shapes and construction material, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an excellent phenomenology for detecting BEHs due to its ability to sense localized differences in electromagnetic properties. Handheld GPR detectors are common equipment for detecting BEHs because of their flexibility (in part due to the human operator) and effectiveness in cluttered environments. With modern digital electronics and positioning systems, handheld GPR sensors can sense and map variation in electromagnetic properties while searching for BEHs. Additionally, large-scale computers have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for ingesting massive datasets and extracting meaningful relationships. This is no more evident than the maturation of deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs) for image and speech recognition now commonplace in industry and academia. This confluence of sensing, computing and pattern recognition technologies offers great potential to develop automatic target recognition techniques to assist GPR operators searching for BEHs. In this work deep learning ANNs are used to detect BEHs and discriminate them from harmless clutter. We apply these techniques to a multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning system that was used to collect data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. This work demonstrates that deep learning ANNs can automatically extract meaningful information from complex GPR signatures, complementing existing GPR anomaly detection and classification techniques.

  5. Toward Automated Intraocular Laser Surgery Using a Handheld Micromanipulator

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for automated intraocular laser surgery using a handheld micromanipulator known as Micron. The novel handheld manipulator enables the automated scanning of a laser probe within a cylinder of 4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter. For the automation, the surface of the retina is reconstructed using a stereomicroscope, and then preplanned targets are placed on the surface. The laser probe is precisely located on the target via visual servoing of the aiming beam, while maintaining a specific distance above the surface. In addition, the system is capable of tracking the surface of the eye in order to compensate for any eye movement introduced during the operation. We compared the performance of the automated scanning using various control thresholds, in order to find the most effective threshold in terms of accuracy and speed. Given the selected threshold, we conducted the handheld operation above a fixed target surface. The average error and execution time are reduced by 63.6% and 28.5%, respectively, compared to the unaided trials. Finally, the automated laser photocoagulation was demonstrated also in an eye phantom, including compensation for the eye movement. PMID:25893135

  6. Competitive PCR-ELISA protocols for the quantitative and the standardized detection of viral genomes.

    PubMed

    Musiani, Monica; Gallinella, Giorgio; Venturoli, Simona; Zerbini, Marialuisa

    2007-01-01

    Competitive PCR-ELISA combines competitive PCR with an ELISA to allow quantitative detection of PCR products. It is based on the inclusion of an internal standard competitor molecule that is designed to differ from the target by a short sequence of nucleotides. Once such a competitor molecule has been designed and constructed, target and competitor sequences are concurrently PCR-amplified, before hybridization to two different specific probes and determination of their respective OD values by ELISA. The target can be quantified in relation to a titration curve of different dilutions of the competitor. The competitor can alternatively be used at a unique optimal concentration to allow for standardized detection of the target sequence. PCR-ELISA can be performed in 1 d in laboratories without access to a real-time PCR thermocycler. This technique is applied in diagnostics to monitor the course of infections and drug efficacy. Competitive PCR-ELISA protocols for the quantitative and for the standardized detection of parvovirus B19 are detailed here as an example of the technique.

  7. Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Bachman, Julia

    2013-01-01

    RT-PCR is commonly used to test for genetic diseases and to characterize gene expression in various tissue types, cell types, and over developmental time courses. This serves as a form of expression profiling, but typically as a candidate approach. RT-PCR is also commonly used to clone cDNAs for further use with other molecular biology techniques (e.g., see Oligo(dT)-primed RT-PCR isolation of polyadenylated RNA degradation intermediates and Circularized RT-PCR (cRT-PCR): analysis of RNA 5' ends, 3' ends, and poly(A) tails).

  8. Development of a Real-Time Microchip PCR System for Portable Plant Disease Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Cifci, Osman S.; Vaughn-Diaz, Vanessa L.; Ma, Bo; Kim, Sungman; Abdel-Raziq, Haron; Ong, Kevin; Jo, Young-Ki; Gross, Dennis C.; Shim, Won-Bo; Han, Arum

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of plant pathogens in the field is crucial to prevent the proliferation of infected crops. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process is the most reliable and accepted method for plant pathogen diagnosis, however current conventional PCR machines are not portable and require additional post-processing steps to detect the amplified DNA (amplicon) of pathogens. Real-time PCR can directly quantify the amplicon during the DNA amplification without the need for post processing, thus more suitable for field operations, however still takes time and require large instruments that are costly and not portable. Microchip PCR systems have emerged in the past decade to miniaturize conventional PCR systems and to reduce operation time and cost. Real-time microchip PCR systems have also emerged, but unfortunately all reported portable real-time microchip PCR systems require various auxiliary instruments. Here we present a stand-alone real-time microchip PCR system composed of a PCR reaction chamber microchip with integrated thin-film heater, a compact fluorescence detector to detect amplified DNA, a microcontroller to control the entire thermocycling operation with data acquisition capability, and a battery. The entire system is 25×16×8 cm3 in size and 843 g in weight. The disposable microchip requires only 8-µl sample volume and a single PCR run consumes 110 mAh of power. A DNA extraction protocol, notably without the use of liquid nitrogen, chemicals, and other large lab equipment, was developed for field operations. The developed real-time microchip PCR system and the DNA extraction protocol were used to successfully detect six different fungal and bacterial plant pathogens with 100% success rate to a detection limit of 5 ng/8 µl sample. PMID:24349341

  9. COLD-PCR enriches low-level variant DNA sequences and increases the sensitivity of genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Rizaldos, Elena; Milbury, Coren A; Guha, Minakshi; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2014-01-01

    Detection of low-level mutations is important for cancer biomarker and therapy targets discovery, but reliable detection remains a technical challenge. The newly developed method of CO-amplification at Lower Denaturation temperature PCR (COLD-PCR) helps to circumvent this issue. This PCR-based technology preferentially enriches minor known or unknown variants present in samples with a high background of wild type DNA which often hampers the accurate identification of these minority alleles. This is a simple process that consists of lowering the temperature at the denaturation step during the PCR-cycling protocol (critical denaturation temperature, T c) and inducing DNA heteroduplexing during an intermediate step. COLD-PCR in its simplest forms does not need additional reagents or specific instrumentation and thus, can easily replace conventional PCR and at the same time improve the mutation detection sensitivity limit of downstream technologies. COLD-PCR can be applied in two basic formats: fast-COLD-PCR that can enrich T m-reducing mutations and full-COLD-PCR that can enrich all mutations, though it requires an intermediate cross-hybridization step that lengthens the thermocycling program. An improved version of full-COLD-PCR (improved and complete enrichment, ice-COLD-PCR) has also been described. Finally, most recently, we developed yet another form of COLD-PCR, temperature-tolerant-COLD-PCR, which gradually increases the denaturation temperature during the COLD-PCR reaction, enriching diverse targets using a single cycling program. This report describes practical considerations for application of fast-, full-, ice-, and temperature-tolerant-COLD-PCR for enrichment of mutations prior to downstream screening.

  10. Sex Determination Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kima, Peter E.; Rasche, Madeline E.

    2004-01-01

    PCR has revolutionized many aspects of biochemistry and molecular biology research. In the following exercise, students learn PCR by isolating their own DNA, amplifying specific segments of the X and Y chromosomes, and estimating the sizes of the PCR products using agarose gel electrophoresis. Based on the pattern of PCR products, students can…

  11. Developing a handheld record for patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Omendra; Davies, Siobhan; Tibbins, Carly; Rees, JH Martyn; Lenney, Warren; Gilchrist, Francis J

    2015-01-01

    Patient handheld records (PHHRs) promote self-management and empower the holder to take a more active role in the management of their disease. They have been used successfully in improving preventative care for children and have contributed to improved adherence in a number of chronic illnesses. Despite the potential advantages, there are no standard PHHRs for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We report the consultation process that led to the development of a CF PHHR, describe the final document, and analyze the feedback from their use at our center. We have made the CF PHHR freely available online. PMID:26316833

  12. Development of dual sensor hand-held detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    In this paper hand-held dual sensor detector development requirements are considered dedicated to buried object detection. Design characteristics of such a system are categorized and listed. Hardware and software structures, ergonomics, user interface, environmental and EMC/EMI tests to be applied and performance test issues are studied. Main properties of the developed system (SEZER) are presented, which contains Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The realized system has ergonomic structure and can detect both metallic and non-metallic buried objects. Moreover classification of target is possible if it was defined to the signal processing software in learning phase.

  13. Imaging Emission Spectra with Handheld and Cellphone Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitar, David

    2012-12-01

    As point-and-shoot digital camera technology advances it is becoming easier to image spectra in a laboralory setting on a shoestring budget and get immediale results. With this in mind, I wanted to test three cameras to see how their results would differ. Two undergraduate physics students and I used one handheld 7.1 megapixel (MP) digital Cannon point-and-shoot auto focusing camera and two different cellphone cameras: one at 6.1 MP and the other at 5.1 MP.

  14. Skylab-2 handheld photography alphabetized geographical features list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcniel, J. L.; Devalcourt, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    This publication represents a relisting of the Skylab-2, PTD Handheld Photography Catalog. The purpose of this publication is to provide imagery researchers a supplement to the PTD Catalog by alphabetically sorting together all similar major and minor features. Some cross-referencing of feature names was accomplished where the authors deemed necessary; however, no attempt was made to exhaust all possible means of cross-referencing. An example of the cross-referencing which was done: Kuril Islands may be found under the major feature column and also as a minor feature of Islands.

  15. Handheld portable real-time tracking and communications device

    DOEpatents

    Wiseman, James M.; Riblett, Jr., Loren E.; Green, Karl L.; Hunter, John A.; Cook, III, Robert N.; Stevens, James R.

    2012-05-22

    Portable handheld real-time tracking and communications devices include; a controller module, communications module including global positioning and mesh network radio module, data transfer and storage module, and a user interface module enclosed in a water-resistant enclosure. Real-time tracking and communications devices can be used by protective force, security and first responder personnel to provide situational awareness allowing for enhance coordination and effectiveness in rapid response situations. Such devices communicate to other authorized devices via mobile ad-hoc wireless networks, and do not require fixed infrastructure for their operation.

  16. Ball Lens Fiber Optic Sensor based Smart Handheld Microsurgical Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Song, Cheol; Gehlbach, Peter L.; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-01-01

    During freehand performance of vitreoretinal microsurgery the surgeon must perform precise and stable maneuvers that achieve surgical objectives and avoid surgical risk. Here, we present an improved smart handheld microsurgical tool which is based on a ball lens fiber optic sensor that utilizes common path swept source optical coherence tomography. Improvements include incorporation of a ball lens single mode fiber optic probe that increases the working angle of the tool to greater than 45 degrees; and increases the magnitude of the distance sensing signal through water. Also presented is a cutting function with an improved ergonomic design. PMID:24224076

  17. Hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Deanna Lynn; Coleman, Matthew A; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Albala, Joanna; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2013-04-23

    A hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection includes a microarray reader engineered to be small enough for portable applications. The invention includes a high-powered light-emitting diode that emits excitation light, an excitation filter positioned to receive the excitation light, a slide, a slide holder assembly for positioning the slide to receive the excitation light from the excitation filter, an emission filter positioned to receive the excitation light from the slide, a lens positioned to receive the excitation light from the emission filter, and a CCD camera positioned to receive the excitation light from the lens.

  18. Using handheld GPS for data acquisition in blasting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Blasters in the field for years have been faced with the task of plotting blast locations for future reference and calculating scaled distances or seismograph placement from maps, aerial photo`s etc. With the constellation fully operational, GPS provides a satellite signal transmitted to a ground receiver which will display the desired coordinate positioning worldwide, 24 hours a day in any kind of weather conditions. There are a variety of GPS receivers available with varying levels of accuracy. The field trials of a handheld navigational quality instrument for plotting blast and seismograph locations along with other necessary industry related data is the basis of this paper.

  19. Video indirect ophthalmoscopy using a hand-held video camera.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mahesh P

    2011-01-01

    Fundus photography in adults and cooperative children is possible with a fundus camera or by using a slit lamp-mounted digital camera. Retcam TM or a video indirect ophthalmoscope is necessary for fundus imaging in infants and young children under anesthesia. Herein, a technique of converting and using a digital video camera into a video indirect ophthalmoscope for fundus imaging is described. This device will allow anyone with a hand-held video camera to obtain fundus images. Limitations of this technique involve a learning curve and inability to perform scleral depression.

  20. 75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices and battery packs by reason of infringement of certain...

  1. 75 FR 36678 - In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic... public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http... software and handheld electronic devices, by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No....

  2. An Investigation of Game-Embedded Handheld Devices to Enhance English Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study proposed and implemented a system combining the advantages of both educational games and wireless handheld technology to promote the interactive English learning in the classroom setting. An interactive English vocabulary acquisition board game was designed with the system being implemented on handheld devices. Thirty sixth-grade…

  3. Students Using Handheld Computers to Learn Collaboratively in a First Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Megan Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated how first grade students used handheld computers to learn in collaboration with others throughout the learning process. This research focused specifically on how the use of handheld computers impacts students' learning outcomes and relates to technology standards. A qualitative methodology was used to capture…

  4. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the tools or shall be equipped with friction or other equivalent safety devices. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices....

  5. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to operate the tools or shall be equipped with friction or other...

  6. 75 FR 43206 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices... communications system server software, wireless handheld devices and battery packs by reason of infringement of..., 2010, based on a complaint filed by Motorola, Inc. (``Motorola'') of Schaumburg, Illinois. 75 FR...

  7. My-Mini-Pet: A Handheld Pet-Nurturing Game to Engage Students in Arithmetic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, C. C. Y.; Chen, Z-H.; Cheng, H. N. H.; Chen, F-C.; Chan, T-W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, more and more games have been developed for handheld devices. Furthermore, the popularity of handheld devices and increase of wireless computing can be taken advantage of to provide students with more learning opportunities. Games also could bring promising benefits--specifically, motivating students to learn/play, sustaining…

  8. 16 CFR 1225.2 - Requirements for hand-held infant carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for hand-held infant carriers... ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR HAND-HELD INFANT CARRIERS (Eff. 6-6-14) § 1225.2 Requirements...

  9. Are Handheld Computers Dependable? A New Data Collection System for Classroom-Based Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Tufan; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Parker, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Very little research exists on the dependability of handheld computers used in public school classrooms. This study addresses four dependability criteria--reliability, maintainability, availability, and safety--to evaluate a data collection tool on a handheld computer. Data were collected from five sources: (1) time-use estimations by 19 special…

  10. The Effect of Teaching and Learning with Texas Instruments Handheld Devices on Student Achievement in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyublinskaya, Irina; Tournaki, Nelly

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the respective achievement of students in an integrated algebra course taught with two different types of handhelds over a period of one year. The experimental group was taught with TI-Nspire[TM] handhelds and was compared to the control group taught with TI-84 Plus graphing calculators. The teachers of each group received…

  11. Evidence of Effectiveness of Health Care Professionals Using Handheld Computers: A Scoping Review of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Handheld computers and mobile devices provide instant access to vast amounts and types of useful information for health care professionals. Their reduced size and increased processing speed has led to rapid adoption in health care. Thus, it is important to identify whether handheld computers are actually effective in clinical practice. Objective A scoping review of systematic reviews was designed to provide a quick overview of the documented evidence of effectiveness for health care professionals using handheld computers in their clinical work. Methods A detailed search, sensitive for systematic reviews was applied for Cochrane, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Global Health, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. All outcomes that demonstrated effectiveness in clinical practice were included. Classroom learning and patient use of handheld computers were excluded. Quality was assessed using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. A previously published conceptual framework was used as the basis for dual data extraction. Reported outcomes were summarized according to the primary function of the handheld computer. Results Five systematic reviews met the inclusion and quality criteria. Together, they reviewed 138 unique primary studies. Most reviewed descriptive intervention studies, where physicians, pharmacists, or medical students used personal digital assistants. Effectiveness was demonstrated across four distinct functions of handheld computers: patient documentation, patient care, information seeking, and professional work patterns. Within each of these functions, a range of positive outcomes were reported using both objective and self-report measures. The use of handheld computers improved patient documentation through more complete recording, fewer documentation errors, and increased efficiency. Handheld computers provided easy access to

  12. Handheld probes and galvanometer scanning for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, V.-F.; Dobre, G.; Demian, D.; Cernat, R.; Sinescu, C.; Topala, F. I.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Hutiu, Gh.; Bradu, A.; Rolland, J. P.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    As part of the ongoing effort of the biomedical imaging community to move Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) systems from the lab to the clinical environment and produce OCT systems appropriate for multiple types of investigations in a medical department, handheld probes equipped with different types of scanners need to be developed. These allow different areas of a patient's body to be investigated using OCT with the same system and even without changing the patient's position. This paper reviews first the state of the art regarding OCT handheld probes. Novel probes with a uni-dimensional (1D) galvanometer-based scanner (GS) developed in our groups are presented. Their advantages and limitations are discussed. Aspects regarding the use of galvoscanners with regard to Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are pointed out, in relationship with our studies on optimal scanning functions of galvanometer devices in OCT. These scanning functions are briefly discussed with regard to their main parameters: profile, theoretical duty cycle, scan frequency, and scan amplitude. The optical design of the galvoscanner and refractive optics combination in the probe head, optimized for various applications, is considered. Perspectives of the field are pointed out in the final part of the paper.

  13. Military GPS handheld display development: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiel, Alicia P.; Smothers, Andrew D.

    1998-09-01

    The military Precision Lightweight Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver or 'PLGR' hand-held product eliminated many technical barriers to bring a low cost 'commercial' transflective display to be a standard military issue. This low cost display, combined with silicone keypad, provides a human interface that has been extremely successful at a current rate of 190 units built per day. With the PLGR and more recent PLGR-II success in meeting the challenges of the military GPS market with a low-cost display, the PLGR is now a platform to provide affordable military-commercial display solutions for the future. The paper will provide technical background on the display provided for the initial GPS hand- held award and the technology changes that were based on the voice of the customer. The display performance in the areas of contrast, Night Vision Goggle (NVG) compatibility, backlighting, and off axis viewability will be presented. Current and future challenges in hand-held and vehicular GPS products will also be presented with possible applications of new display technologies.

  14. A hand-held EPR scanner for transcutaneous oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, Helen; Ahmad, Rizwan; Twig, Ygal; Blank, Aharon; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous (skin) oxygenation is an important prognostic factor for the treatment of chronic wounds, skin cancer, diabetes side effects, and limb amputation. Currently, there are no reliable methods for measuring this parameter. Oximetry, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, is emerging as a potential tool for clinical oximetry, including cutaneous applications. The problem with EPR oximetry, however, is that the conventional EPR design requires the use of a large magnet that can generate homogeneous field across the sample, making it unattractive for clinical practice. We present a novel approach that makes use of a miniature permanent magnet, combined with a small microwave resonator, to enable the acquisition of EPR signals from paramagnetic species placed on the skin. The instrumentation consists of a hand-held, modular, cylindrical probehead with overall dimensions of 36-mm diameter and 24-mm height, with 150-g weight. The probehead includes a Halbach array of 16 pieces (4×4×8 mm3) of Sm-Co permanent magnet and a loop-gap resonator (2.24 GHz). Preliminary measurements using a Hahn-echo pulse sequence (800 echos in 20 ms) showed a signalto- noise ratio of ~70 compared to ~435 in a homogenous magnet under identical settings. Further work is in progress to improve the performance of the probehead and to optimize the hand-held system for clinical use

  15. Handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doheny, Robert C.; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard; Chernoff, Jeff

    2006-05-01

    The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program of the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), under the direction of the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (OASD SO/LIC) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP) for humanitarian demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) in the southern African country of Namibia. Participants included the US Humanitarian Demining Team of NVESD; ITEP personnel from several member countries; deminers from two non-governmental organizations in Angola, Menschen Gegen Minen (MgM) and HALO Trust; and CyTerra Corporation. The primary objectives were to demonstrate the performance of the U.S. Army's newest handheld multisensor mine detector, the HSTAMIDS, to the performance of the metal detector being used by local demining organizations and also to assess the performance of deminers using the HSTAMIDS after limited experience and training.

  16. Covert situational awareness with handheld ultrawideband short-pulse radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Mark A.; Nag, Soumya; Payment, Tim

    2001-08-01

    Law enforcement and emergency services all face the difficult task of determining the locations of people within a building. A handheld radar able to detect motion through walls and other obstructions has been developed to fill this need. This paper describes the attributes and difficulties of the radar design and includes test results of the radar's performance. This discussion begins by summarizing key user requirements and the electromagnetic losses of typical building materials. Ultra-wideband (UWB) short pulse radars are well suited for a handheld sensor primarily because of their inherit time isolation in high clutter environments and their capability to achieve high resolution at low spectral center frequencies. There are also constraints that complicate the system design. Using a technique referred to as time-modulation allows the radars to reject range ambiguities and enhances electromagnetic compatibility with similar radars and ambient systems. An outline of the specifications of the radar developed and a process diagram on how it generates a motion map showing range and direction of the people moving within structures is included. Images are then presented to illustrate its performance. The images include adults, child, and a dog. The test results also include data showing the radar's performance through a variety of building materials.

  17. Turbulence degradation and mitigation performance for handheld weapon ID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinola, Richard L.; Aghera, Sameer; Thompson, Roger; Miller, Jason

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric turbulence can severely limit the range performance of state-of-the-art large aperture imaging sensor systems, specifically those intended for long range ground to ground target identification. Simple and cost-effective mitigation solutions which operate in real-time are desired. Software-based post-processing techniques are attractive as they lend themselves to easy implementation and integration into the back-end of existing sensor systems. Recently, various post-processing algorithms to mitigate turbulence have been developed and implemented in real-time hardware. To determine their utility in Army-relevant tactical scenarios, an assessment of the impact of the post processing on observer performance is required. In this paper, we test a set of representative turbulence mitigation algorithms on field collected data of human targets carrying various handheld objects in varying turbulence conditions. We use a controlled human perception test to assess handheld weapon identification performance before and after turbulence mitigation post-processing. In addition, novel image analysis tools are implemented to estimate turbulence strength from the scene. Results of this assessment will lead to recommendations on cost-effective turbulence mitigation strategies suitable for future sensor systems.

  18. Micron: an Actively Stabilized Handheld Tool for Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Robert A.; Becker, Brian C.; Tabarés, Jaime Cuevas; Podnar, Gregg W.; Lobes, Louis A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a hand-held actively stabilized tool to increase accuracy in micro-surgery or other precision manipulation. It removes involuntary motion such as tremor by actuating the tip to counteract the effect of the undesired handle motion. The key components are a three-degree-of-freedom piezoelectric manipulator that has 400 μm range of motion, 1 N force capability, and bandwidth over 100 Hz, and an optical position measurement subsystem that acquires the tool pose with 4 μm resolution at 2000 samples/s. A control system using these components attenuates hand motion by at least 15 dB (a fivefold reduction). By considering the effect of the frequency response of Micron on the human visual feedback loop, we have developed a filter that reduces unintentional motion, yet preserves intuitive eye-hand coordination. We evaluated the effectiveness of Micron by measuring the accuracy of the human/machine system in three simple manipulation tasks. Handheld testing by three eye surgeons and three non-surgeons showed a reduction in position error of between 32% and 52%, depending on the error metric. PMID:23028266

  19. Ultratrace detector for hand-held gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Miller, Fred S.

    1999-01-01

    An ultratrace detector system for hand-held gas chromatography having high sensitivity, for example, to emissions generated during production of weapons, biological compounds, drugs, etc. The detector system is insensitive to water, air, helium, argon, oxygen, and C0.sub.2. The detector system is basically composed of a hand-held capillary gas chromatography (GC), an insulated heated redox-chamber, a detection chamber, and a vapor trap. For example, the detector system may use gas phase redox reactions and spectral absorption of mercury vapor. The gas chromatograph initially separates compounds that percolate through a bed of heated mercuric oxide (HgO) in a silica--or other metal--aerogel material which acts as an insulator. Compounds easily oxidized by HgO liberate atomic mercury that subsequently pass through a detection chamber which includes a detector cell, such as quartz, that is illuminated with a 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) mercury discharge lamp which generates the exact mercury absorption bands that are used to detect the liberated mercury atoms. Atomic mercury strongly absorbs 254 nm energy is therefore a specific signal for reducing compounds eluting from the capillary GC, whereafter the atomic mercury is trapped for example, in a silicon-aerogel trap.

  20. Buried threat detection using a handheld ground penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Mary; Torrione, Peter; Collins, Leslie; Morton, Kenneth

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we explore the efficacy of two buried threat detectors on handheld data. The first algorithm is an energy-based algorithm, which computes how anomalous a given A-scan measurement after it is normalized according to its local statistics. It is based on a commonly used prescreener for the Husky Mounted Detection System (HMDS). In the HMDS setting measurements are sampled on a crosstrack-downtrack grid, and sequential measurements are at neighboring downtrack locations. In contrast, in the handheld setting sequential scans are often taken at neighboring crosstrack locations, and neighboring downtrack locations can be hundreds of scans away. In order to include both downtrack and crosstrack information, we compute local statistics over a much larger area than in the HMDS setting. The second algorithm is a shape-based algorithm. Shape Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features, which capture the gradient distributions of local patches, are extracted and used to train a non-linear Support Vector Machine (SVM). We found that in terms of AUC, the SIFT-SVM algorithm results in a 2.2% absolute improvement over the energy-based algorithm, with the greatest gains seen at lower false alarm rates.

  1. Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Dustin K.; Rao, Brianna M.; McLain, Jean E.; Watts, George S.; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics offers quick access to information but fails to operate at a speed required for clinical decision-making. Our novel methodology, droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette real-time polymerase chain reaction (DOTS qPCR), uses interfacial effects for droplet actuation, inhibition relief, and amplification sensing. DOTS qPCR has sample-to-answer times as short as 3 min 30 s. In infective endocarditis diagnosis, DOTS qPCR demonstrates reproducibility, differentiation of antibiotic susceptibility, subpicogram limit of detection, and thermocycling speeds of up to 28 s/cycle in the presence of tissue contaminants. Langmuir and Gibbs adsorption isotherms are used to describe the decreasing interfacial tension upon amplification. Moreover, a log-linear relationship with low threshold cycles is presented for real-time quantification by imaging the droplet-on-thermocouple silhouette with a smartphone. DOTS qPCR resolves several limitations of commercially available real-time PCR systems, which rely on fluorescence detection, have substantially higher threshold cycles, and require expensive optical components and extensive sample preparation. Due to the advantages of low threshold cycle detection, we anticipate extending this technology to biological research applications such as single cell, single nucleus, and single DNA molecule analyses. Our work is the first demonstrated use of interfacial effects for sensing reaction progress, and it will enable point-of-care molecular diagnosis of infections. PMID:26601245

  2. Optimal enhancement of in situ hybridization for the detection of porcine circovirus 2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissues using a combined pretreatment of thermocycler and proteinase K.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Chae, C

    2003-06-01

    Optimal enhancement of the hybridization signal was developed for the detection of porcine circovirus (PCV) 2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissues from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. The hybridization signal obtained after thermocycler pretreatment was very uniform across the section, whereas the signal obtained after either proteinase K or microwave pretreatment not only was weaker but was of variable intensity across sections. Thermocycler pretreatment combined with brief proteinase K digestion can enhance signal detection for target viral nucleic acid in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissues. A strong hybridization signal was detected in the cytoplasm of macrophages and multinucleated giant cells in lymph node and spleen without background staining and morphological damage. The technical improvement results, therefore, in an identical background at the same time as an increased signal and, thus, may help detect lower levels of PCV2 DNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissues.

  3. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration.

  4. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. PMID:25089769

  5. Handheld access to radiology teaching files: an automated system for format conversion and content creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Raghav; Raman, Lalithakala; Raman, Bhargav; Gold, Garry; Beaulieu, Christopher F.

    2002-05-01

    Current handheld Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) can be used to view radiology teaching files. We have developed a toolkit that allows rapid creation of radiology teaching files in handheld formats from existing repositories. Our toolkit incorporated a desktop converter, a web conversion server and an application programming interface (API). Our API was integrated with an existing pilot teaching file database. We evaluated our system by obtaining test DICOM and JPEG images from our PACS system, our pilot database and from personal collections and converting them on a Windows workstation (Microsoft, Redmond, CA) and on other platforms using the web server. Our toolkit anonymized, annotated and categorized images using DICOM header information and data entered by the authors. Image processing was automatically customized for the target handheld device. We used freeware handheld image viewers as well as our custom applications that allowed window/level manipulation and viewing of additional textual information. Our toolkit provides desktop and web access to image conversion tools to produce organized handheld teaching file packages for most handheld devices and our API allows existing teaching file databases to incorporate handheld compatibility. The distribution of radiology teaching files on PDAs can increase the accessibility to radiology teaching.

  6. Hand-Held Reader for Colorimetric Sensor Arrays.

    PubMed

    Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2015-08-01

    An inexpensive hand-held device for analysis of colorimetric sensor arrays (CSAs) has been developed. The device makes use of a contact image sensor (CIS), technology commonly used in business card scanners, to rapidly collect low-noise colorimetric data for chemical sensing. The lack of moving parts and insensitivity to vibration allow for lower noise and improved scan rates compared to other digital imaging techniques (e.g., digital cameras, flatbed scanners); signal-to-noise ratios are a factor of 3-10 higher than currently used methods, and scan rates are up to 250 times faster without compromising sensitivity. The device is capable of real-time chemical analysis at scan rates up to 48 Hz. PMID:26177346

  7. Hand-Held Reader for Colorimetric Sensor Arrays.

    PubMed

    Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2015-08-01

    An inexpensive hand-held device for analysis of colorimetric sensor arrays (CSAs) has been developed. The device makes use of a contact image sensor (CIS), technology commonly used in business card scanners, to rapidly collect low-noise colorimetric data for chemical sensing. The lack of moving parts and insensitivity to vibration allow for lower noise and improved scan rates compared to other digital imaging techniques (e.g., digital cameras, flatbed scanners); signal-to-noise ratios are a factor of 3-10 higher than currently used methods, and scan rates are up to 250 times faster without compromising sensitivity. The device is capable of real-time chemical analysis at scan rates up to 48 Hz.

  8. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  9. Handheld Micromanipulation with Vision-Based Virtual Fixtures.

    PubMed

    Becker, Brian C; Maclachlan, Robert A; Hager, Gregory D; Riviere, Cameron N

    2011-08-18

    Precise movement during micromanipulation becomes difficult in submillimeter workspaces, largely due to the destabilizing influence of tremor. Robotic aid combined with filtering techniques that suppress tremor frequency bands increases performance; however, if knowledge of the operator's goals is available, virtual fixtures have been shown to greatly improve micromanipulator precision. In this paper, we derive a control law for position-based virtual fixtures within the framework of an active handheld micromanipulator, where the fixtures are generated in real-time from microscope video. Additionally, we develop motion scaling behavior centered on virtual fixtures as a simple and direct extension to our formulation. We demonstrate that hard and soft (motion-scaled) virtual fixtures outperform state-of-the-art tremor cancellation performance on a set of artificial but medically relevant tasks: holding, move-and-hold, curve tracing, and volume restriction.

  10. Comparative Geometrical Investigations of Hand-Held Scanning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Lindstaedt, M.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Misgaiski-Hass, M.

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of hand-held scanning systems by different manufacturers are becoming available on the market. However, their geometrical performance is little-known to many users. Therefore the Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has carried out geometrical accuracy tests with the following systems in co-operation with the Bochum University of Applied Sciences (Laboratory for Photogrammetry) as well as the Humboldt University in Berlin (Institute for Computer Science): DOTProduct DPI-7, Artec Spider, Mantis Vision F5 SR, Kinect v1 + v2, Structure Sensor and Google's Project Tango. In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data were acquired by measurement with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M). The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  11. Development of an automated handheld immunoaffinity fluorometric biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Terry E.; Bargeron, C. Brent; Benson, Richard C.; Carlson, Micah A.; Fraser, Allan B.; Groopman, John D.; Ko, Harvey W.; Strickland, Paul T.; Velky, James

    2000-04-01

    A new immunoaffinity fluorometric biosensor has been developed for detecting and quantifying aflatoxins, a family of potent fungi-produced carcinogens that are commonly found in a variety of agriculture products. They have also been cited as a biological agent under weapons development. The handheld, self-contained biosensor is fully automatic, highly sensitive, quick, quantitative, and requires no special storage. Concentration from 0.1 parts per billion to 50 ppb can be determined in less than 2 minutes with a 1 ml sample volume. Higher concentrations can be determined by simply reducing the sample volume. The device operates on the principles of immunoaffinity for specificity and fluorescence for a quantitative assay. The analytic procedure is flexible so that other chemical and biological analytes could be detected with minor modifications to the current device.

  12. A Smart Haptic Hand-Held Device for Neurosurgical Microdissection.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Marcus, Hani J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Microneurosurgery requires dexterity, precision and delicate force application in order to be carried out safely and effectively. Neurosurgeons must apply sufficient force in order to carry out microsurgical procedures effectively but not excessive force such that iatrogenic injury occurs. This paper presents a smart hand-held microsurgical instrument that indicates to the surgeon when a force-threshold has been exceeded by providing vibrotactile feedback. Many existing haptic-feedback systems, particularly master-slave robotic platforms, are large, highly complex, and costly. By comparison, the proposed device is compact, fail-safe and low cost. Two psychophysical user studies were carried out to assess the proposed vibrotactile force-threshold feedback system. A cadaveric pilot study was carried out to evaluate the device in a microdissection task. In all the studies performed, the haptic dissector device has shown to be effective in providing real-time feedback in terms of force application during microsurgical tasks. PMID:25631207

  13. Physician order entry of ultrasound examination with handheld wireless terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuya, Shiro; Onogi, Yuzo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Watanabe, Hiroki; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Niidome, Takuro; Oyama, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    Although our hospital has an electronic order entry system, physician order entries must be performed using one of a limited number of terminals which are located in places like nurse stations. Due to this limitation, the mobility of the ultrasound machine cannot be fully exploited if a physician wants to perform a mobile ultrasound examination far from an entry terminal. In addition, this situation increases the possibility that a physician will fail to issue a paper voucher of the examination. In an attempt to resolve these problems, we have developed a mobile physician order entry system that incorporates ultrasound machines equipped with handheld wireless terminals, which use the 802.11b standard and the bandwidth is 11 Mbps. This is an efficient way to order ultrasound examination entries because physicians can register entries at any location in a hospital ward. In addition, the proposed system is a reliable method by which to attach images upon ultrasound examination entry.

  14. Center of percussion of hand-held implements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2004-05-01

    The center of percussion is commonly regarded as a sweet spot when referring to a baseball bat or a tennis racquet because it is assumed that there will be no sudden motion of the handle with respect to the hand if the corresponding axis of rotation passes through the hand. A problem with this interpretation is that the hand extends over a finite length of the handle and exerts an opposing reaction force on the handle. The hand also changes the total mass and moment of inertia of the system, while the arm restricts free motion of the hand. Experimental results are presented showing that the axis of rotation passes through the hand or the wrist for all the usual impact points on a hand-held implement. As a result, the impact point that feels best is usually the node of the fundamental vibration mode, not the center of percussion.

  15. A handheld laser-induced fluorescence detector for multiple applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Han-Yang; Fang, Pan; Pan, Jian-Zhang; Fang, Qun

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a compact handheld laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detector based on a 450 nm laser diode and quasi-confocal optical configuration with a total size of 9.1 × 6.2 × 4.1 cm(3). Since there are few reports on the use of 450 nm laser diode in LIF detection, especially in miniaturized LIF detector, we systematically investigated various optical arrangements suitable for the requirements of 450 nm laser diode and system miniaturization, including focusing lens, filter combination, and pinhole, as well as Raman effect of water at 450 nm excitation wavelength. As the result, the handheld LIF detector integrates the light source (450 nm laser diode), optical circuit module (including a 450 nm band-pass filter, a dichroic mirror, a collimating lens, a 525 nm band-pass filter, and a 1.0mm aperture), optical detector (miniaturized photomultiplier tube), as well as electronic module (including signal recording, processing and displaying units). This detector is capable of working independently with a cost of ca. $2000 for the whole instrument. The detection limit of the instrument for sodium fluorescein solution is 0.42 nM (S/N=3). The broad applicability of the present system was demonstrated in capillary electrophoresis separation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled amino acids and in flow cytometry of tumor cells as an on-line LIF detector, as well as in droplet array chip analysis as a LIF scanner. We expect such a compact LIF detector could be applied in flow analysis systems as an on-line detector, and in field analysis and biosensor analysis as a portable universal LIF detector. PMID:26838391

  16. Handheld laser scanner automatic registration based on random coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Yu, Chun-ping; Wang, Li

    2011-06-01

    Current research on Laser Scanner often focuses mainly on the static measurement. Little use has been made of dynamic measurement, that are appropriate for more problems and situations. In particular, traditional Laser Scanner must Keep stable to scan and measure coordinate transformation parameters between different station. In order to make the scanning measurement intelligently and rapidly, in this paper ,we developed a new registration algorithm for handleheld laser scanner based on the positon of target, which realize the dynamic measurement of handheld laser scanner without any more complex work. the double camera on laser scanner can take photograph of the artificial target points to get the three-dimensional coordinates, this points is designed by random coding. And then, a set of matched points is found from control points to realize the orientation of scanner by the least-square common points transformation. After that the double camera can directly measure the laser point cloud in the surface of object and get the point cloud data in an unified coordinate system. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, a laser scanner based on binocular vision is designed with double camera and one laser head. By those, the real-time orientation of laser scanner is realized and the efficiency is improved. Secondly, the coding marker is introduced to solve the data matching, a random coding method is proposed. Compared with other coding methods,the marker with this method is simple to match and can avoid the shading for the object. Finally, a recognition method of coding maker is proposed, with the use of the distance recognition, it is more efficient. The method present here can be used widely in any measurement from small to huge obiect, such as vehicle, airplane which strengthen its intelligence and efficiency. The results of experiments and theory analzing demonstrate that proposed method could realize the dynamic measurement of handheld laser

  17. Handheld camera 3D modeling system using multiple reference panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Kouta; Oue, Yasuhiro; Terauchi, Tomoya; Emi, Tetsuichi

    2002-03-01

    A novel 3D modeling system in which a target object is easily captured and modeled by using a hand-held camera with several reference panels is presented in this paper. The reference panels are designed to be able to obtain the camera position and discriminate between each other. A conventional 3D modeling system using a reference panel has several restrictions regarding the target object, specifically the size and its location. Our system uses multiple reference panels, which are set around the target object to remove these restrictions. The main features of this system are as follows: 1) The whole shape and photo-realistic textures of the target object can be digitized based on several still images or a movie captured by using a hand-held camera; as well as each location of the camera that can be calculated using the reference panels. 2) Our system can be provided as a software product only. That means there are no special requirements for hardware; even the reference panels , because they can be printed from image files or software. 3) This system can be applied to digitize a larger object. In the experiments, we developed and used an interactive region selection tool to detect the silhouette on each image instead of using the chroma -keying method. We have tested our system with a toy object. The calculation time is about 10 minutes (except for the capturing the images and extracting the silhouette by using our tool) on a personal computer with a Pentium-III processor (600MHz) and 320MB memory. However, it depends on how complex the images are and how many images you use. Our future plan is to evaluate the system with various kind of objects, specifically, large ones in outdoor environments.

  18. Field results from a combined metal/GPR developmental handheld mine detector known as Balanced Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbondy, Kelly D.

    1996-05-01

    Realistic field evaluations on the performance of hand-held mine detectors has until recently been limited to large bulky commercial test equipment instrumental with a network analyzer and computer controls. The Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate's Mine Detection Branch has just recently successfully completed field performance evaluations of new hand-held sensors at the Close-In Man Portable Mine Detector (CIMMD) Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATD). Described in this paper will be one of the hand-held mine detector technologies evaluated at the CIMMD ATD and it's associated measured field performance results.

  19. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone... highway, including while temporarily stationary because of traffic, a traffic control device, or...

  20. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone... highway, including while temporarily stationary because of traffic, a traffic control device, or...

  1. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone... highway, including while temporarily stationary because of traffic, a traffic control device, or...

  2. Implementation of the 7-point checklist for melanoma detection on smart handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Tarun; Situ, Ning; Rui, Hu; Lancaster, Keith; Yuan, Xiaojing; Zouridakis, George

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we implement the 7-point checklist, a set of dermoscopic criteria widely used by clinicians for melanoma detection, on smart handheld devices, such as the Apple iPhone and iPad. The application developed is using sophisticated image processing and pattern recognition algorithms, yet it is light enough to run on a handheld device with limited memory and computational speed. When combined with a commercially available handheld dermoscope that provides proper lesion illumination, this application provides a truly self-contained handheld system for melanoma detection. Such a device can be used in a clinical setting for routine skin screening, or as an assistive diagnostic device in underserved areas and in developing countries with limited healthcare infrastructure. PMID:22255015

  3. Discrimination of Pigments of Microalgae, Bacteria and Yeasts Using Lightweight Handheld Raman Spectrometers: Prospects for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehlicka, J.; Osterrothova, K.; Nedbalova, L.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.; Oren, A.

    2014-06-01

    Handheld Raman instrumentation with 532 nm lasers can be used to distinguish carotenoids of autotrophic microalgae, purple sulfur bacteria, halophilic Archaea and pigmented yeasts. Pigments are proposed as biomarkers for astrobiology of Mars.

  4. Prospective evaluation of an internet-linked handheld computer critical care knowledge access system

    PubMed Central

    Lapinsky, Stephen E; Wax, Randy; Showalter, Randy; Martinez-Motta, J Carlos; Hallett, David; Mehta, Sangeeta; Burry, Lisa; Stewart, Thomas E

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Critical care physicians may benefit from immediate access to medical reference material. We evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of a handheld computer based knowledge access system linking a central academic intensive care unit (ICU) to multiple community-based ICUs. Methods Four community hospital ICUs with 17 physicians participated in this prospective interventional study. Following training in the use of an internet-linked, updateable handheld computer knowledge access system, the physicians used the handheld devices in their clinical environment for a 12-month intervention period. Feasibility of the system was evaluated by tracking use of the handheld computer and by conducting surveys and focus group discussions. Before and after the intervention period, participants underwent simulated patient care scenarios designed to evaluate the information sources they accessed, as well as the speed and quality of their decision making. Participants generated admission orders during each scenario, which were scored by blinded evaluators. Results Ten physicians (59%) used the system regularly, predominantly for nonmedical applications (median 32.8/month, interquartile range [IQR] 28.3–126.8), with medical software accessed less often (median 9/month, IQR 3.7–13.7). Eight out of 13 physicians (62%) who completed the final scenarios chose to use the handheld computer for information access. The median time to access information on the handheld handheld computer was 19 s (IQR 15–40 s). This group exhibited a significant improvement in admission order score as compared with those who used other resources (P = 0.018). Benefits and barriers to use of this technology were identified. Conclusion An updateable handheld computer system is feasible as a means of point-of-care access to medical reference material and may improve clinical decision making. However, during the study, acceptance of the system was variable. Improved training and new

  5. Demonstration Report: Handheld UXO Discriminator, SERDP No. MR-1667

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, E.

    2010-09-01

    In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' In keeping with these remarks and with prior funding (UX-1225, MM-0437, and MM-0838), the LBNL group has successfully designed and built the cart-mounted Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) and demonstrated its performance at various test sites (cf. Gasperikova et al., 2007, 2008, and 2009). Because hand-held systems have the advantage of being lightweight, compact, portable, and deployable under most site conditions, they are particularly useful in areas of dense vegetation or challenging terrain. In heavily wooded areas or areas with steep or uneven terrain, hand-held sensors may be the only suitable device for UXO detection and discrimination because it can be carried through spaces that the operator could walk through or at least approach. Furthermore, it is desirable to find and characterize a metallic object without the need to accurately locate the sensors at multiple positions around the target. The ideal system would thus locate and characterize the target from a single position of the sensor and indicate to the operator where to flag the target for subsequent study. Based on these considerations, we designed and built a sensor package in a shape of a 14-in (0.35 m) cube. This hand-held prototype incorporates the key features of the cart-mounted system - (a) three orthogonal transmitters and ten pairs of receivers, and (b) difference or gradient measurements that significantly reduce the ambient and motion

  6. Handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography: developments, applications, and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, V.-F.; Demian, D.; Sinescu, C.; Cernat, R.; Dobre, G.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Topala, F. I.; Hutiu, Gh.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2016-03-01

    We present the handheld scanning probes that we have recently developed in our current project for biomedical imaging in general and for Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in particular. OCT is an established, but dynamic imagistic technique based on laser interferometry, which offers micrometer resolutions and millimeters penetration depths. With regard to existing devices, the newly developed handheld probes are simple, light and relatively low cost. Their design is described in detail to allow for the reproduction in any lab, including for educational purposes. Two probes are constructed almost entirely from off-the-shelf components, while a third, final variant is constructed with dedicated components, in an ergonomic design. The handheld probes have uni-dimensional (1D) galvanometer scanners therefore they achieve transversal sections through the biological sample investigated - in contrast to handheld probes equipped with bi-dimensional (2D) scanners that can also achieve volumetric (3D) reconstructions of the samples. These latter handheld probes are therefore also discussed, as well as the possibility to equip them with galvanometer 2D scanners or with Risley prisms. For galvanometer scanners the optimal scanning functions studied in a series of previous works are pointed out; these functions offer a higher temporal efficiency/duty cycle of the scanning process, as well as artifact-free OCT images. The testing of the handheld scanning probes in dental applications is presented, for metal ceramic prosthesis and for teeth.

  7. Hand-held water fluoride analysis: An accessible caries prevention tool for dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Quock, Ryan L; Yank, Stephanie W; Chan, Jarvis T

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to compare the relative accuracy of a commercially available hand-held water fluoride analysis unit with a standard laboratory bench-top fluoride-specific electrode/millivoltmeter apparatus, with the goal of identifying possible practical applications of the hand-held unit for preventive dentistry. The units analyzed identical gravimetrically prepared fluoride solutions ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 ppm. The average difference between the measurements from the hand-held unit and the nominal values of the fluoride solutions was 0.011 ppm (SD = 0.068), and the average difference between the hand-held unit's measurements and the bench-top unit's measurements was 0.030 ppm (SD = 0.115). T-test analysis demonstrated no statistical difference between measurements from the hand-held unit with either the nominal values of the fluoride solutions or the bench-top unit's measurements. Results indicate that the hand-held water fluoride analysis unit has an appropriate level of accuracy for the measurement of fluoride levels in drinking water samples by dental professionals.

  8. Military forensic use of handheld 3D camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Hâkan; Letalick, Dietmar

    2013-05-01

    One of the main threats for armed forces in conflict areas are attacks by improvised explosive devices (IED). After an IED attack a forensic investigation of the site is undertaken. In many ways military forensic work is similar to the civilian counterpart. There are the same needs to acquire evidence in the crime scene, such as fingerprints, DNA, and samples of the remains of the IED. Photos have to be taken and the geometry of the location shall be measured, preferably in 3D. A main difference between the military and the civilian forensic work is the time slot available for the scene investigation. The military must work under the threat of fire assault, e.g. snipers. The short time slot puts great demands on the forensic team and the equipment they use. We have done performance measurements of the Mantis-Vision F5 sensor and evaluated the usefulness in military forensic applications. This paper will describe some applications and show possibilities and also limitations of using a handheld laser imaging sensor for military forensic investigations.

  9. An analysis of sweep patterns for a handheld demining system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. N.; Gader, P. D.; Ho, K. C.; Mazhar, R.

    2006-05-01

    Handheld sensors are commonly used to assist in landmine location and removal. A number of computer systems aimed at assisting humans in discriminating between buried mines and other objects have been developed. Each such system requires some protocol that involves sweeping the sensor over a region of ground using some set of patterns to search for objects (detection) and determine the nature of those objects (discrimination). The work reported here is an effort to determine an acceptable sweep pattern for mine/nonmine discrimination that provides good performance while still being simple for the operator to use. The paper describes a series of data collections and case studies employing a combined radar and metal detection sensor. The system was evaluated first using a robotic operator and later human operators. We discuss the application of a supervised learning system discriminator to each data set, and evaluate discrimination performance. We found that using a relatively simple sweep pattern, computer algorithms can achieve better discrimination performance than an expert human operator, and that (at least up to ten sweeps) our computer algorithm performs better with more sweeps over target.

  10. Temperature and Structure of Active Eruptions from a Handheld Camcorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebaugh, Jani; Carling, Greg T.; Saito, Takeshi; Dangerfield, Anne; Tingey, David G.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Lopes, Rosaly M.; Howell, Robert R.; Diniega, Serina; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2014-11-01

    A commercial handheld digital camcorder can operate as a high-resolution, short-wavelength, low-cost thermal imaging system for monitoring active volcanoes, when calibrated against a laboratory heated rock of similar composition to the given eruptive material. We utilize this system to find full pixel brightness temperatures on centimeter scales at close but safe proximity to active lava flows. With it, observed temperatures of a Kilauea tube flow exposed in a skylight reached 1200 C, compared with pyrometer measurements of the same flow of 1165 C, both similar to reported eruption temperatures at that volcano. The lava lake at Erta Ale, Ethiopia had crack and fountain temperatures of 1175 C compared with previous pyrometer measurements of 1165 C. Temperature calibration of the vigorously active Marum lava lake in Vanuatu is underway, challenges being excessive levels of gas and distance from the eruption (300 m). Other aspects of the fine-scale structure of the eruptions are visible in the high-resolution temperature maps, such as flow banding within tubes, the thermal gradient away from cracks in lake surfaces, heat pathways through pahoehoe crust and temperature zoning in spatter and fountains. High-resolution measurements such as these reveal details of temperature, structure, and change over time at the rapidly evolving settings of active lava flows. These measurement capabilities are desirable for future instruments exploring bodies with active eruptions like Io, Enceladus and possibly Venus.

  11. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging with a handheld system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Pim J.; Daoudi, Khalid; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2016-02-01

    Flow imaging is an important technique in a range of disease areas, but estimating low flow speeds, especially near the walls of blood vessels, remains challenging. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging can be an alternative since there is little signal contamination from background tissue with photoacoustic imaging. We propose flow imaging using a clinical photoacoustic system that is both handheld and portable. The system integrates a linear array with 7.5 MHz central frequency in combination with a high-repetition-rate diode laser to allow high-speed photoacoustic imaging-ideal for this application. This work shows the flow imaging performance of the system in vitro using microparticles. Both two-dimensional (2-D) flow images and quantitative flow velocities from 12 to 75 mm/s were obtained. In a transparent bulk medium, flow estimation showed standard errors of ˜7% the estimated speed; in the presence of tissue-realistic optical scattering, the error increased to 40% due to limited signal-to-noise ratio. In the future, photoacoustic flow imaging can potentially be performed in vivo using fluorophore-filled vesicles or with an improved setup on whole blood.

  12. Cordless hand-held optical 3D sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munkelt, Christoph; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Kühmstedt, Peter; Schmidt, Ingo; Notni, Gunther

    2007-07-01

    A new mobile optical 3D measurement system using phase correlation based fringe projection technique will be presented. The sensor consist of a digital projection unit and two cameras in a stereo arrangement, whereby both are battery powered. The data transfer to a base station will be done via WLAN. This gives the possibility to use the system in complicate, remote measurement situations, which are typical in archaeology and architecture. In the measurement procedure the sensor will be hand-held by the user, illuminating the object with a sequence of less than 10 fringe patterns, within a time below 200 ms. This short sequence duration was achieved by a new approach, which combines the epipolar constraint with robust phase correlation utilizing a pre-calibrated sensor head, containing two cameras and a digital fringe projector. Furthermore, the system can be utilized to acquire the all around shape of objects by using the phasogrammetric approach with virtual land marks introduced by the authors 1, 2. This way no matching procedures or markers are necessary for the registration of multiple views, which makes the system very flexible in accomplishing different measurement tasks. The realized measurement field is approx. 100 mm up to 400 mm in diameter. The mobile character makes the measurement system useful for a wide range of applications in arts, architecture, archaeology and criminology, which will be shown in the paper.

  13. Portable multiwavelength laser diode source for handheld photoacoustic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, Celine; Laugustin, Arnaud; Kohl, Andreas; Rabot, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The ageing population faces today an increase of chronic diseases such as rheumatism/arthritis, cancer and cardio vascular diseases for which appropriate treatments based on a diagnosis at an early-stage of the disease are required. Some imaging techniques are already available in order to get structural information. Within the non-invasive group, ultrasound images are common in these fields of medicine. However, there is a need for a point-of-care device for imaging smaller structures such as blood vessels that cannot be observed with purely ultrasound based devices. Photoacoustics proved to be an attractive candidate. This novel imaging technique combines pulsed laser light for excitation of tissues and an ultrasound transducer as a receptor. Introduction of this technique into the clinic requires to drastically shrink the size and cost of the expensive and bulky nanosecond lasers generally used for light emission. In that context, demonstration of ultra-short pulse emission with highly efficient laser diodes in the near-infrared range has been performed by Quantel, France. A multi-wavelength laser source as small as a hand emitted more than 1 mJ per wavelength with four different wavelengths available in pulses of about 90 ns. Such a laser source can be integrated into high sensitivity photoacoustic handheld systems due to their outstanding electrical-to-optical efficiency of about 25 %. Further work continues to decrease the pulse length as low as 40 ns while increasing the pulse energy to 2 mJ.

  14. Hand-held digital line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. D.; Ustun, Teoman E.; Maislin, Gami; Webb, Robert H.

    2004-07-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy is a powerful research tool with specialized but, to date, limited use in ophthalmic clinics due in part to the size, cost, and complexity of instruments. Conversely, low-cost retinal imaging devices have limited capabilities in screening, detection, and diagnosis of diseases. To fill the niche between these two, a low-cost, hand-held, line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO) was designed, constructed, and tested on normal human subjects. The LSLO has only one moving part, multiple imaging modes, and uses low-cost but highly sensitive complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) linear arrays for imaging with a detector dynamic range of 12-bits. The line-scanning approach produces high contrast quasi-confocal images with nearly the same performance as a flying-spot SLO. Imaging modes include simultaneous dual wavelength illumination and live stereoscopic imaging with a split aperture. Image processing and display functions are controlled with two stacked prototype compact printed circuit boards using field-programmable gated arrays (FPGA) and other digital electronic elements. With near shot-noise limited performance, the digital LSLO camera requires low illumination power (~ 100 μW) at near-infrared wavelengths. Wide field fundus images with several imaging modes have been obtained from several human subjects. The LSLO will significantly enhance confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for routine use by ophthalmologist, optometrists, general practitioners and also non-specialized emergency medical personnel and technicians in the field for retinal disease detection and other diverse applications.

  15. Handheld chemical threat monitor for the soldier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, Suneet; Henning, Patrick F.; Weling, Ani S.; Landers, Franklin M.; Samuels, Alan C.

    2003-08-01

    A small, low-cost sensor capable of autonomous detection of a wide variety of chemical agents in either vapor, particulate or liquid phase is urgently needed. It now appears that this need also extends to homeland defense and the vast network of civilian security forces including police, fire, public health and emergency medical personnel. We are developing a low-cost, compact infrared Chemical Threat Monitor (CTM) that could meet this need. This palm-sized handheld instrument combines Foster-Miller's unique optical "wedge" technology coupled to novel, disposable infrared fiber optic sensors for sample collection. These technologies will be coupled to emerging high sensitivity, low-cost uncooled linear array infrared detectors optimized for this application. This combination will provide the individual user with most of the capability of today"s expensive FTIR units in a miniature robust unit that has no moving parts. In this paper we will describe the CTM device, its operation, and present preliminary results on liquid chemical agent simulants.

  16. Development of handheld dual-sensor ALIS and its evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Feng, Xuan; Takahashi, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Takao

    2006-05-01

    We are developing a new landmine detection sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. Although this is a hand-held system, we can record the metal detector and GPR signal with the sensor position information. Therefore, signal processing for 2-D signal image is possible. For the metal detector, we apply cross-correlation algorism for sharpening the image and estimation of the depth of the target. For GPR signal, we can apply migration algorithm, which drastically reduce the clutter and we can obtain 3-D image of the buried targets. At first, linear interpolation and cubic interpolation are used respectively to deal with the problem of random data position. Comparing results, we find the image quality of two kinds of interpolations is almost same. Then the migration is used to refocus the scattered signals and improve the image quality for reconstructed landmine image. ALIS demonstration were held in Afghanistan in December 2004 and other countries including Egypt and Croatia in 2005. After some demonstrations and evaluation, we received many useful suggestions. Using these advises, we have modified the ALIS and it is now more easy to use. In this paper, we describe the latest characteristics of the ALIS and summarize its operation.

  17. Sensor fusion for hand-held multisensor landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sanjeev; Chander, Venkat S.; Palit, Partha P.; Stanley, Joe; Mitchell, O. Robert

    2001-10-01

    Sensor fusion issues in a streamlined assimilation of multi-sensor information for landmine detection are discussed. In particular multi-sensor fusion in hand-held landmine detection system with ground penetrating radar (GPR) and metal detector sensors is investigated. The fusion architecture consists of feature extraction for individual sensors followed by a feed-forward neural network training to learn the feature space representation of the mine/no-mine classification. A correlation feature from GPR, and slope and energy feature from metal detector are used for discrimination. Various fusion strategies are discussed and results compared against each other and against individual sensors using ROC curves for the available multi-sensor data. Both feature level and decision level fusion have been investigated. Simple decision level fusion scheme based on Dempster-Shafer evidence accumulation, soft AND, MIN and MAX are compared. Feature level fusion using neural network training is shown to provide best results. However comparable performance is achieved using decision level sensor fusion based on Dempster-Shafer accumulation. It is noted that, the above simple feed-forward fusion scheme lacks a means to verify detections after a decision has been made. New detection algorithms that are more than anomaly detectors are needed. Preliminary results with features based on independent component analysis (ICA) show promising results towards this end.

  18. Dynamic template-matching-based processing for handheld landmine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. C.; Gader, Paul D.

    2003-09-01

    This paper investigates the use of landmine templates in the GPR data to improve the detection accuracy for a hand-held mine detection unit. The proposed algorithm applies to the discrimination operating mode after the initial detection from the search mode. The proposed template matching-based algorithm extracts the mine templates from the data acquired during the first few sweeps, and correlates the templates from the data at subsequent sweeps to enhance the detection of landmine. The proposed technique does not have a time lag in producing detection values and a detection value is generated at each sample location. Experimental results show that the proposed template matching-based detector is able to increase the detection especially for low-metal anti-personnel mines. Based on the experiment performed over the data set collected at a test site, at 95% Pd, the proposed algorithm reduces the probability of false alarms by 66% for the low-metal anti-personnel mines and 30% for the low-metal anti-tank mines.

  19. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging with a handheld system.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Pim J; Daoudi, Khalid; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2016-02-01

    Flow imaging is an important technique in a range of disease areas, but estimating low flow speeds, especially near the walls of blood vessels, remains challenging. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging can be an alternative since there is little signal contamination from background tissue with photoacoustic imaging. We propose flow imaging using a clinical photoacoustic system that is both handheld and portable. The system integrates a linear array with 7.5 MHz central frequency in combination with a high-repetition-rate diode laser to allow high-speed photoacoustic imaging--ideal for this application. This work shows the flow imaging performance of the system in vitro using microparticles. Both two-dimensional (2-D) flow images and quantitative flow velocities from 12 to 75  mm/s were obtained. In a transparent bulk medium, flow estimation showed standard errors of ∼7% the estimated speed; in the presence of tissue-realistic optical scattering, the error increased to 40% due to limited signal-to-noise ratio. In the future, photoacoustic flow imaging can potentially be performed in vivo using fluorophore-filled vesicles or with an improved setup on whole blood.

  20. Bone age maturity assessment using hand-held device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Gilsanz, Vicente; Liu, Xiaodong; Boechat, M. I.

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: Assessment of bone maturity is traditionally performed through visual comparison of hand and wrist radiograph with existing reference images in textbooks. Our goal was to develop a digital index based on idealized hand Xray images that can be incorporated in a hand held computer and used for visual assessment of bone age for patients. Material and methods: Due to the large variability in bone maturation in normals, we generated a set of "ideal" images obtained by computer combinations of images from our normal reference data sets. Software for hand-held PDA devices was developed for easy navigation through the set of images and visual selection of matching images. A formula based on our statistical analysis provides the standard deviation from normal based on the chronological age of the patient. The accuracy of the program was compared to traditional interpretation by two radiologists in a double blind reading of 200 normal Caucasian children (100 boys, 100 girls). Results: Strong correlations were present between chronological age and bone age (r > 0.9) with no statistical difference between the digital and traditional assessment methods. Determinations of carpal bone maturity in adolescents was slightly more accurate using the digital system. The users did praise the convenience and effectiveness of the digital Palm Index in clinical practice. Conclusion: An idealized digital Palm Bone Age Index provides a convenient and effective alternative to conventional atlases for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

  1. Handheld Flyback driven coaxial dielectric barrier discharge: Development and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V. J.; Milosavljevic, V.; O'Connor, N.; Daniels, S.; Lalor, J. F.

    2008-09-15

    The development of a handheld single and triple chamber atmospheric pressure coaxial dielectric barrier discharge driven by Flyback circuitry for helium and argon discharges is described. The Flyback uses external metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor power switching technology and the transformer operates in the continuous current mode to convert a continuous dc power of 10-33 W to generate a 1.2-1.6 kV 3.5 {mu}s pulse. An argon discharge breakdown voltage of {approx}768 V is measured. With a 50 kHz, pulse repetition rate and an argon flow rate of 0.5-10 argon slm (slm denotes standard liters per minute), the electrical power density deposited in the volume discharge increases linearly at a rate of 75{+-}20% mW/cm{sup 3} per 1 slm of gas. Electrical power transfer efficiency between the secondary Flyback coil and the discharge volume increases from 0.1% to 0.65%. Neutral argon gas forced convection analysis yields a similar energy loss rate to the electrical discharge process. Optical emission spectroscopy studies of the expanding discharge plume into ambient air reveal that the air climatically controls the plume chemistry to produce an abundance of neutral argon atoms and molecular nitrogen.

  2. Sex determination using PCR.

    PubMed

    Kima, Peter E; Rasche, Madeline E

    2004-03-01

    PCR has revolutionized many aspects of biochemistry and molecular biology research. In the following exercise, students learn PCR by isolating their own DNA, amplifying specific segments of the X and Y chromosomes, and estimating the sizes of the PCR products using agarose gel electrophoresis. Based on the pattern of PCR products, students can distinguish between male and female samples and determine the gender of an unknown DNA donor. The exercise is presented for upper division undergraduate majors in microbiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology, but can be adapted to different academic levels and disciplines. The use of student samples in the exercise can enhance learning of these techniques by making PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis directly relevant to the students.

  3. In silico PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Zhang, Changbin

    2011-01-01

    In silico PCR analysis is a useful and efficient complementary method to ensure primer specificity for an extensive range of PCR applications from gene discovery, molecular diagnosis, and pathogen detection to forensic DNA typing. In silico PCR, SNPCheck, and Primer-BLAST are commonly used web-based in silico PCR tools. Their applications are discussed here in stepwise detail along with several examples, which aim to make it easier for the intended users to apply the tools. This virtual PCR method can assist in the selection of newly designed primers, identify potential mismatches in the primer binding sites due to known SNPs, and avoid the amplification of unwanted amplicons so that potential problems can be prevented before any "wet bench" experiment.

  4. Use of a rapid and simple method to extract proviral DNA in the identification of HIV-1 by PCR.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferro, L; Corbelli, M; Maietta, G; Pellegrino, V; Pignatelli, P

    1995-07-01

    DNA extraction is a critical step in PCR analysis and is closely related to its sensitivity. Traditional methods, based on phenol-chloroform extraction, require more time and the use of toxic reagents. GeneReleaser (Bio Ventures Inc.) is a commercial product which releases DNA from whole blood, cell cultures, bacterial colonies and the like. Cells lysis and DNA extraction are accomplished directly in the amplification tube on a thermocycler. We used GeneReleaser in the identification of HIV-1 proviral DNA by PCR on whole blood samples. All samples arrived at our laboratory for HIV-1 detection were treated with two different procedures. The classical one was based on the lysis of separated lymphocytes by proteinase K, while the other consisted in DNA extraction by GeneReleaser from 5 microliters of whole blood in sodium citrate. All samples were amplified for HIV-1 GAG region; to prevent carry-over contamination Uracil N-glycosylase (UNG) sterilization was performed. Amplified sequences were revealed using the DEIA commercial system (Sorin Biomedica, Italy). To verify the suitability both of cell lysates and GeneReleaser DNA-extracted samples for PCR, we amplified a specific sequence of HLA-DQ-alpha gene. Initial data indicate that this new method might reduce the performance time of PCR (DNA extraction time was around 15 minutes) and improve PCR sensitivity.

  5. Hand-Held Units for Short-Range Wireless Biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2008-01-01

    Special-purpose hand-held radiotransceiver units have been proposed as means of short-range radio powering and interrogation of surgically implanted microelectromechanical sensors and actuators. These units are based partly on the same principles as those of the units described in "Printed Multi- Turn Loop Antennas for RF Biotelemetry" (LEW-17879-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 48. Like the previously reported units, these units would make it unnecessary to have wire connections between the implanted devices and the external equipment used to activate and interrogate them. Like a unit of the previously reported type, a unit of the type now proposed would include a printed-circuit antenna on a dielectric substrate. The antenna circuitry would include integrated surface-mount inductors for impedance tuning. Circuits for processing the signals transmitted and received by the antenna would be included on the substrate. During operation, the unit would be positioned near (but not in electrical contact with) a human subject, in proximity to a microelectromechanical sensor or actuator that has been surgically implanted in the subject. It has been demonstrated that significant electromagnetic coupling with an implanted device could be established at a distance of as much as 4 in. (.10 cm). During operation in the interrogation mode, the antenna of the unit would receive a radio telemetry signal transmitted by the surgically implanted device. The antenna substrate would have dimensions of approximately 3.25 by 3.75 inches (approximately 8.3 by 9.5 cm). The substrate would have a thickness of the order of 30 mils (of the order of a somewhat less than a millimeter). The substrate would be made of low-radiofrequency- loss dielectric material that could be, for example, fused quartz, alumina, or any of a number of commercially available radio-frequency dielectric composite materials. The antenna conductors would typically be made of copper or a

  6. Portable Hand-Held Electrochemical Sensor for the Transuranics

    SciTech Connect

    Dale D. Russell, William B. Knowlton, Ph.D.; Russel Hertzog, Ph.D

    2005-11-25

    sensitive detector for uranium. Millimeter scale electrodes, operated by a hand-held instrument assembled in this lab and operated in the voltammetric mode, were transported to the DOE-Nevada test site (Las Vegas, NV) where field detection and quantitation of plutonium, uranium, and a mixture of these two elements was also demonstrated. Several probe designs were prepared, built and tested including probes with movable protective windows. A miniature, battery powered potentiostat was designed, built and demonstrated for use in a hand-held field portable instrument. This work was performed largely by undergraduates who gained valuable research experience, and many of them have continued on to graduate schools. In addition, they all gained exposure to and appreciation for national security research, in particular non-proliferation research. Four graduate students participated and one earned the MS degree on this project.

  7. Direction-Sensitive Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2012-10-04

    A novel, light-weight, hand-held gamma-ray detector with directional sensitivity is being designed. The detector uses a set of multiple rings around two cylindrical surfaces, which provides precise location of two interaction points on two concentric cylindrical planes, wherefrom the source location can be traced back by back projection and/or Compton imaging technique. The detectors are 2.0 × 2.0 mm europium-doped strontium iodide (SrI2:Eu2+) crystals, whose light output has been measured to exceed 120,000 photons/MeV, making it one of the brightest scintillators in existence. The crystal’s energy resolution, less than 3% at 662 keV, is also excellent, and the response is highly linear over a wide range of gamma-ray energies. The emission of SrI2:Eu2+ is well matched to both photo-multiplier tubes and blue-enhanced silicon photodiodes. The solid-state photomultipliers used in this design (each 2.0 × 2.0 mm) are arrays of active pixel sensors (avalanche photodiodes driven beyond their breakdown voltage in reverse bias); each pixel acts as a binary photon detector, and their summed output is an analog representation of the total photon energy, while the individual pixel accurately defines the point of interaction. A simple back-projection algorithm involving cone-surface mapping is being modeled. The back projection for an event cone is a conical surface defining the possible location of the source. The cone axis is the straight line passing through the first and second interaction points.

  8. LCD display screen performance testing for handheld thermal imaging cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinaburg, Joshua B.; Amon, Francine; Hamins, Anthony; Boynton, Paul

    2006-05-01

    Handheld thermal imaging cameras are an important tool for the first responder community. As their use becomes more prevalent, it will become important for a set of standard test metrics to be available to characterize the performance of these cameras. A major factor in the performance of the imagers is the quality of the image on a display screen. An imager may employ any type of display screen, but the results of this paper will focus on those using liquid crystal displays. First responders, especially firefighters, in the field rely on the performance of this screen to relay vital information during critical situations. Current research on thermal imaging camera performance metrics for first responder applications uses trained observer tests or camera composite output signal measurements. Trained observer tests are subjective and composite output tests do not evaluate the performance of the complete imaging system. It is the goal of this work to develop a non-nondestructive, objective method that tests the performance of the entire thermal imaging camera system, from the infrared destructive, sensor to the display screen. Application of existing display screen performance metrics to thermal imaging cameras requires additional consideration. Most display screen test metrics require a well defined electronic input, with either full black or white pixel input, often encompassing detailed spatial patterns and resolution. Well characterized thermal inputs must be used to obtain accurate, repeatable, and non-destructive display screen measurements for infrared cameras. For this work, a thermal target is used to correlate the measured camera output with the actual display luminance. A test method was developed to determine display screen luminance. A well characterized CCD camera and digital recording device were used to determine an electro-optical transfer function for thermal imaging cameras. This value directly relates the composite output signal to the luminance

  9. An ergonomic handheld ultrasound probe providing contact forces and pose information.

    PubMed

    Yohan Noh; Housden, R James; Gomez, Alberto; Knight, Caroline; Garcia, Francesca; Hongbin Liu; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a handheld ultrasound probe which is integrated with sensors to measure force and pose (position/orientation) information. Using an integrated probe like this, one can relate ultrasound images to spatial location and create 3D ultrasound maps. The handheld device can be used by sonographers and also easily be integrated with robot arms for automated sonography. The handheld device is ergonomically designed; rapid attachment and removal of the ultrasound transducer itself is possible using easy-to-operate clip mechanisms. A cable locking mechanism reduces the impact that gravitational and other external forces have (originating from data and power supply cables connected to the probe) on our measurements. Gravitational errors introduced by the housing of the probe are compensated for using knowledge of the housing geometry and the integrated pose sensor that provides us with accurate orientation information. In this paper, we describe the handheld probe with its integrated force/pose sensors and our approach to gravity compensation. We carried out a set of experiments to verify the feasibility of our approach to obtain accurate spatial information of the handheld probe. PMID:26737604

  10. Final Report Nucleic Acid System - PCR, Multiplex Assays and Sample Preparation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R.P.; Langlois, R.G.; Nasarabadi, S.; Benett, W.J.; Richards, J.B.; Hadley, D.R.; Miles, R.R.; Brown, S.B.; Stratton, P.L.; Milanovich, F.P.

    2001-04-20

    The objective of this project was to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction). This entailed not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This project had two principal deliverables: (1) design, construct, test and deliver a 24 chamber, multiplex capable suitcase sized PCR instrument, and (2) develop and reduce to practice a multiplex assay for the detection of PCR product by flow cytometry. In addition, significant resources were allocated to test and evaluation of the Hand-held Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA). This project helps provide the signature and intelligence gathering community the ability to perform, on-site or remote, rapid analysis of environmental or like samples for the presence of a suite of biological warfare pathogens.

  11. Diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection with Handheld Microscopy in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Meister, Isabel; Utzinger, Jürg; Odermatt, Peter; Andrews, Jason R; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease, yet it is of considerable public health importance in Southeast Asia given the predilection for chronically infected persons to develop cholangiocarcinoma. We evaluated a handheld microscope for the diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini in a community-based setting in Lao People's Democratic Republic in comparison with conventional light microscopy. In stool samples collected from 104 individuals, handheld microscopy revealed a sensitivity of 70.6% and a specificity of 89.5% for O. viverrini infection. Pearson's correlation for quantitative fecal egg counts between the two devices was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-0.99). With small adjustments to further increase diagnostic sensitivity, a handheld microscope may become a helpful tool to screen for O. viverrini and other helminth infections in public health settings. PMID:26526923

  12. Towards Vision-Based Control of a Handheld Micromanipulator for Retinal Cannulation in an Eyeball Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brian C.; Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Injecting clot-busting drugs such as t-PA into tiny vessels thinner than a human hair in the eye is a challenging procedure, especially since the vessels lie directly on top of the delicate and easily damaged retina. Various robotic aids have been proposed with the goal of increasing safety by removing tremor and increasing precision with motion scaling. We have developed a fully handheld micromanipulator, Micron, that has demonstrated reduced tremor when cannulating porcine retinal veins in an “open sky” scenario. In this paper, we present work towards handheld robotic cannulation with the goal of vision-based virtual fixtures guiding the tip of the cannula to the vessel. Using a realistic eyeball phantom, we address sclerotomy constraints, eye movement, and non-planar retina. Preliminary results indicate a handheld micromanipulator aided by visual control is a promising solution to retinal vessel occlusion. PMID:24649479

  13. Performance of a 6-Degree-of-Freedom Active Microsurgical Manipulator in Handheld Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; Wells, Trent S.; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first experimental results from human users of a new 6-degree-of-freedom handheld micromanipulator. This is the latest prototype of a fully-handheld system, known as “Micron,” which performs active compensation of hand tremor for microsurgery. The manipulator is a miniature Gough-Stewart platform incorporating linear ultrasonic motors that provide a cylindrical workspace 4 mm long and 4 mm wide. In addition, the platform allows the possibility of imposing a remote center of motion for controlling motion not only at the tip but also at the entry point in the sclera of the eye. We demonstrate hand tremor reduction in both static and dynamic micromanipulation tasks on a rubber pad. The handheld performance is also evaluated in an artificial eye model while imposing a remote center of motion. In all cases, hand tremor is significantly reduced. PMID:24111024

  14. Impact of weighted density distribution function features on land mine detection using hand-held units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Ronald J.; Somanchi, Satish; Gader, Paul D.

    2002-08-01

    Landmine detection using metal detector (MD) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) sensors in hand-held units is a difficult problem. Detection difficulties arise due to: 1) the varying composition and type of metal in landmines, 2) the time-varying nature of background and 3) the variation in height and velocity of the hand-held unit in data measurement. In prior research, spatially distributed MD features were explored for differentiating landmine signatures from background and non-landmine objects. These features were computed based on correlating sequences of MD energy values with six weighted density distribution functions. In this research the effectiveness of these features to detect landmines of varying metal composition and type is investigated. Experimental results are presented from statistical analysis for feature assessment. Preliminary experimental results are also presented for evaluating the impact on MD feature calculations from varying height and sweep rate of the hand-held unit for data acquisition.

  15. Open source handheld-based EMR for paramedics working in rural areas.

    PubMed Central

    Anantraman, Vishwanath; Mikkelsen, Tarjei; Khilnani, Reshma; Kumar, Vikram S.; Pentland, Alex; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2002-01-01

    We describe a handheld-based electronic medical record (EMR) for use in certain rural settings. The system is based on the Linux operating system and allows access to large mobile databases. The open source system is designed for paramedical health workers serving remote areas in rural India. A PDA loaded with the handheld-based EMR provides workers who have little access to medical doctors with different kinds of decision support and alerts. It addresses two important problems in developing countries: prenatal care and child health. This paper describes the technical challenges and innovation needed in the design, development, adaptation and implementation of the handheld EMR in a real setting in India PMID:12463777

  16. Automated DNA extraction, quantification, dilution, and PCR preparation for genotyping by high-resolution melting.

    PubMed

    Seipp, Michael T; Herrmann, Mark; Wittwer, Carl T

    2010-12-01

    Genotyping by high-resolution amplicon melting uses only two PCR primers per locus and a generic, saturating DNA dye that detects heteroduplexes as well as homoduplexes. Heterozygous genotypes have a characteristic melting curve shape and a broader width than homozygous genotypes, which are usually differentiated by their melting temperature (T(m)). The H63D mutation, associated with hemochromatosis, is a single nucleotide polymorphism, which is impossible to genotype based on T(m), as the homozygous WT and mutant amplicons melt at the same temperature. To distinguish such homozygous variants, WT DNA can be added to controls and unknown samples to create artificial heterozygotes with all genotypes distinguished by quantitative heteroduplex analysis. By automating DNA extraction, quantification, and PCR preparation, a hands-off integrated solution for genotyping is possible. A custom Biomek® NX robot with an onboard spectrophotometer and custom programming was used to extract DNA from whole blood, dilute the DNA to appropriate concentrations, and add the sample DNA to preprepared PCR plates. Agencourt® Genfind™ v.2 chemistry was used for DNA extraction. PCR was performed on a plate thermocycler, high-resolution melting data collected on a LightScanner-96, followed by analysis and automatic genotyping using custom software. In a blinded study of 42 H63D samples, 41 of the 42 sample genotypes were concordant with dual hybridization probe genotyping. The incorrectly assigned genotype was a heterozygote that appeared to be a homozygous mutant as a result of a low sample DNA concentration. Automated DNA extraction from whole blood with quantification, dilution, and PCR preparation was demonstrated using quantitative heteroduplex analysis. Accuracy is critically dependent on DNA quantification.

  17. Motion Tracking Of A Handheld Scanner With An Infrared Vision System

    SciTech Connect

    Seppi, Jeremy H.; Hatchell, Brian K.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2011-08-07

    Handheld scanners are used in a large number of applications to inspect walls, floors, tanks, and other large structures. Measurements are made to characterize physical properties, uncover defects, detect evidence of tampering, quantify surface contamination, and so forth. Handheld scanning suffers from a number of drawbacks. The relationship between the data collected and scanned location is difficult or impossible to track. Humans using handheld scanners can unintentionally scan the same area multiple times or entirely overlook an area of interest. An automated scanner tracking system could improve upon current inspection practices with a handheld scanner in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and quality. The authors have developed a handheld scanner tracking system that will allow users to visualize previously scanned areas, highlight areas where important or unusual data are acquired, and store scanning location with acquired data. The scanned regions are saved in real time and projected back on the scanned area using a projector. The system currently utilizes the Smoothboard software, which has already been designed to interpret the location of a captured infrared source from a Wii Remote controller to create an interactive whiteboard. This software takes advantage of the Wii Remote’s ability to track the location of an infrared source, and when proper calibration of the Wii Remote orientation is complete, any surface can become a virtual whiteboard. In addition to recording and projecting scan pathways, the system developed by the authors can be used to make notes on the scanning process and project acquired data on top of the scanned area. This latter capability can be used to guide sample acquisition or demolition activities. This paper discusses development of the system and potential benefits to wall scanning with handheld scanners.

  18. A Review of Research Methodologies Used in Studies on Mobile Handheld Devices in K-12 and Higher Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Wing Sum; Hew, Khe Foon

    2009-01-01

    Mobile handheld devices are increasingly being used in education. In this paper, we undertook a review of empirical based articles to summarise the current research regarding the use of mobile handheld devices (personal digital assistants/PDAs, palmtops, and mobile phones) in K-12 and higher education settings. This review was guided by the…

  19. Hand-Held Color Meters Based on Interference Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Chen, Gang; Yang, Rong Gui

    2004-01-01

    Small, inexpensive, hand-held optoelectronic color-measuring devices based on metal-film/dielectric-film interference filters are undergoing development. These color meters could be suitable for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements to quantify or match colors for aesthetic purposes but there is no need for the high spectral resolution of scientific-grade spectrometers. Such applications typically occur in the paint, printing, and cosmetic industries, for example. The figure schematically depicts a color meter of this type being used to measure the color of a sample in terms of the spectrum of light reflected from the sample. Light from a white source (for example, a white light-emitting diode) passes through a collimating lens to the sample. Another lens collects some of the light reflected from the sample and focuses the light onto the input end of optical fiber. Light emerging from the output end of the optical fiber illuminates an array of photodetectors covered with metal/dielectric-film interference filters like those described in Metal/Dielectric-film Interference Color Filters (NPO-20217), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 70. Typically, these are wide-band-pass filters, as shown at the bottom of the figure. The photodetector array need not be of any particular design: it could be something as simple as an assembly containing several photodiodes or something as elaborate as an active-pixel sensor or other imaging device. What is essential is that each of the photodetectors or each of several groups of photodetectors is covered with a metal/dielectric-film filter of a different color. In most applications, it would be desirable to have at least three different filters, each for a spectral band that contains one of the three primary additive red, green, and blue colors. In some applications, it may be necessary to have more than three different color filters in order to characterize subtle differences in color

  20. Hand-held radiometer red and photographic infrared spectral measurements of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1978-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared radiance data, collected under a variety of conditions at weekly intervals throughout the growing season using a hand-held radiometer, were used to monitor crop growth and development. The vegetation index transformation was used to effectively compensate for the different irradiational conditions encountered during the study period. These data, plotted against time, compared the different crops measured by comparing their green leaf biomass dynamics. This approach, based entirely upon spectral inputs, closely monitors crop growth and development and indicates the promise of ground-based hand-held radiometer measurements of crops.

  1. Application of Handheld Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to Geochemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Connors, Brendan; Somers, Andrew; Day, David

    2016-05-01

    While laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been in use for decades, only within the last two years has technology progressed to the point of enabling true handheld, self-contained instruments. Several instruments are now commercially available with a range of capabilities and features. In this paper, the SciAps Z-500 handheld LIBS instrument functionality and sub-systems are reviewed. Several assayed geochemical sample sets, including igneous rocks and soils, are investigated. Calibration data are presented for multiple elements of interest along with examples of elemental mapping in heterogeneous samples. Sample preparation and the data collection method from multiple locations and data analysis are discussed. PMID:27170779

  2. Application of Handheld Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to Geochemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Connors, Brendan; Somers, Andrew; Day, David

    2016-05-01

    While laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been in use for decades, only within the last two years has technology progressed to the point of enabling true handheld, self-contained instruments. Several instruments are now commercially available with a range of capabilities and features. In this paper, the SciAps Z-500 handheld LIBS instrument functionality and sub-systems are reviewed. Several assayed geochemical sample sets, including igneous rocks and soils, are investigated. Calibration data are presented for multiple elements of interest along with examples of elemental mapping in heterogeneous samples. Sample preparation and the data collection method from multiple locations and data analysis are discussed.

  3. State Estimation and Feedforward Tremor Suppression for a Handheld Micromanipulator with a Kalman Filter

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brian C.; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2011-01-01

    Active compensation of physiological tremor for handheld micromanipulators depends on fast control and actuation responses. Because of real-world latencies, real-time compensation is usually not completely effective at eliminating unwanted hand motion. By modeling tremor, more effective cancellation is possible by anticipating future hand motion. We propose a feedforward control strategy that utilizes tremor velocity from a state-estimating Kalman filter. We demonstrate that estimating hand motion in a feedforward controller overcomes real-world latencies in micromanipulator actuation. In hold-still tasks with a fully handheld micromanipulator, the proposed feedforward approach improves tremor rejection by over 50%. PMID:22229111

  4. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    PubMed

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  5. Explanatory chapter: PCR primer design.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Fernández, Rubén

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is intended as a guide on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer design (for information on PCR, see General PCR and Explanatory Chapter: Troubleshooting PCR). In the next section, general guidelines will be provided, followed by a discussion on primer design for specific applications. A list of recommended software tools is shown at the end.

  6. QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held a workshop in January 2003 on the detection of viruses in water using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Speakers were asked to address a series of specific questions, including whether a single standard method coul...

  7. QUALITY CONTROLS FOR PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to present an overview of the quality control (QC) sections of a draft EPA document entitled, "Quality Assurance/Quality Control Guidance for Laboratories Performing PCR Analyses on Environmental Samples." This document has been prepared by th...

  8. [Solution of PACS to communicate with the handheld mobile intelligent equipment based on web service].

    PubMed

    Xue, Weijing; Wang, Pengcheng; Meng, Jian; Wang, Haiyang

    2013-09-01

    Using the Web Service technology, the paper puts forward a solution of remote communication between PACS and the handheld mobile intelligent devices, the characteristics of the solution are simple, easy to implement, short development cycle, high practicability, and low cost etc. PMID:24409803

  9. Use of a hand-held meter for detecting subclinical ketosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Voyvoda, Huseyin; Erdogan, Hasan

    2010-12-01

    The Optium Xceed is a new hand-held meter for determining blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose in human medicine. The objective of this study was to compare BHBA and glucose results obtained using the hand-held meter with those results made with a laboratory method and to evaluate its usefulness as a cowside test in the diagnosis of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows. Seventy-eight blood samples from clinically healthy Holstein cows between 5 and 60 days post-calving were analysed. BHBA and glucose values were significantly higher with the hand-held meter versus laboratory methods. Correlation coefficients (r) for BHBA and glucose with the Optium Xceed versus laboratory methods were 0.97 and 0.63, respectively. Based on Bland-Altman plot and Passing-Bablok regression, agreement between two methods was good for BHBA but the agreement for glucose was only fair. When SCK was defined as plasma BHBA levels ≥ 1200 μmol/L, the sensitivity and specificity of the hand-held meter ketone testing in determining SCK were 85% and 94%, respectively. Raising the threshold of the laboratory method to ≥ 1400 μmol/L, the sensitivity and specificity incremented to 0.90 and 0.98, respectively. In conclusion, the blood ketone-monitoring device can be used as a rapid and reliable diagnostic test to detect SCK under field conditions.

  10. Handheld multispectral dual-axis confocal microscope for cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapukdee, Pongsak; Rattanavarin, Santi; Jarujareet, Ungkarn; Khemthongcharoen, Numfon; Jolivot, Romuald; Jung, Il Woong; López, Daniel; Mandella, Michael J.; Piyawattanametha, Wibool

    2013-03-01

    Our work demonstrates a MEMS based handheld dual-axis confocal microscope for cervical cancer screening. Imaging demonstration is performed with plant and animal tissue biopsies. The data is collected and displayed in real time with 2-5 Hz frame rates.

  11. Using a Handheld Gene Gun for Genetic Transformation of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Gotesman, Michael; Williams, Selwyn A

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes protocols for using a handheld gene gun to deliver transformation vectors for overexpression of genes or gene replacement in the macronucleus of Tetrahymena thermophila. The protocols provide helpful information for preparing Tetrahymena for biolistic bombardment, preparation of vector-coated microcarriers, and basic gene gun operating procedures.

  12. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  13. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  14. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF.

    PubMed

    Aldrian, Alexia; Ledersteger, Alfred; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-02-01

    This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC-MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements. PMID:25464945

  15. Enhancing Mathematical Concepts through Leading Questions and Hand-Held Data Collection Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    Hand-held data collection technology allows for access to real-world data collection--at any other time and almost any place. Is the use of data and its collection desirable to the mathematical learning process? The answer is a resounding yes! Not only can significant mathematical ideas be taught in the process; colleagues are also helped in the…

  16. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how using two different ways of displaying the solar system--a true-to-scale mode vs. an orrery mode--affected students' knowledge of astronomical concepts. Solar system displays were presented in a software application on a handheld tablet computer. In the true-to-scale mode, users navigated a simulated three-dimensional…

  17. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF.

    PubMed

    Aldrian, Alexia; Ledersteger, Alfred; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-02-01

    This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC-MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements.

  18. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by ...

  19. Hand-Held Model of a Sarcomere to Illustrate the Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    From our teaching of the contractile unit of the striated muscle, we have found limitations in using textbook illustrations of sarcomere structure and its related dynamic molecular physiological details. A hand-held model of a striated muscle sarcomere made from common items has thus been made by us to enhance students' understanding of the…

  20. Efficacy of Handheld Electronic Visual Supports to Enhance Vocabulary in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Boles, Margot B.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Flores, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Although electronic tools such as handheld computers have become increasingly common throughout society, implementation of such tools to improve skills in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities has lagged in the professional literature. However, the use of visual scripts for individuals with disabilities, particularly those…

  1. PDAs and Handhelds: ICT at Your Side and Not in Your Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Jocelyn; Ramsden, Andy; McFarlane, Angela

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers to support initial teacher training (ITT), 14 science teacher trainees at the Graduate School of Education in the University of Bristol were given PDAs with mobile phone connectivity to use throughout the academic year. The following areas were…

  2. Online Responses towards Parental Rearing Styles Regarding Hand-Held Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Disney, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This article reviewed the literature on parental rearing styles and used responses from an online discussion forum to investigate people's opinions towards parental rearing styles and strategies when children use hand-held devices. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used as an analysis method via micro, meso and macro multi-level…

  3. A Mobile Mixed-Reality Environment for Children's Storytelling Using a Handheld Projector and a Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimoto, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a system called GENTORO that uses a robot and a handheld projector for supporting children's storytelling activities. GENTORO differs from many existing systems in that children can make a robot play their own story in a physical space augmented by mixed-reality technologies. Pilot studies have been conducted to clarify the…

  4. Beyond the Organizer: A Manual of Educational Uses for the Handheld Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibiger, Carol A.

    This manual was initially written to support the University of South Dakota's Palm Initiative. It has been substantially revised and updated to include the latest in handheld applications with educational uses, and it applies to any Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) using the Palm OS Software (3.1 or higher) and having at least 8 megabytes of…

  5. Measurement of muscle strength with handheld dynamometer in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Samosawala, Nidhi R.; Vaishali, K.; Kalyana, B. Chakravarthy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intensive Care Unit (ICU) acquired weakness is a common complication in critically ill patients affecting their prognosis. The handheld dynamometry is an objective method in detecting minimum muscle strength change, which has an impact on the physical function of ICU survivors. The minimal change in the force can be measured in units of weight such as pounds or kilograms. Aim of the Study: To detect the changes in peripheral muscle strength with handheld dynamometer in the early stage of ICU stay and to observe the progression of muscle weakness. Methodology: Three upper and three lower limb muscles force measured with handheld dynamometer during ICU stay. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA to detect changes in force generated by muscle on alternate days of ICU stay. Results: There was a reduction in peripheral muscle strength from day 3 to day 5 as well from day 5 to day 7 of ICU stay (P < 0.01). The average reduction in peripheral muscle strength was 11.8% during ICU stay. Conclusion: This study showed a progressive reduction in peripheral muscle strength as measured by handheld dynamometer during early period of ICU stay. PMID:26955213

  6. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... to cause electrical current to flow beyond normal circuitry, the circuit interrupter will sense the... standard. 15 U.S.C. 2064(j). Underwriters Laboratories (``UL'') Standard for Safety for Household Electric... requirements for certain household appliances, including hand-held hair dryers. The current...

  7. A Fresh Look at the Crystal Violet Lab with Handheld Camera Colorimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Theodore R.; Knutson, Cassandra M.; Mozzetti, Abbie R.; Campos, Antonio R.; Haynes, Christy L.; Penn, R. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Chemical kinetic experiments to determine rate laws are common in high school and college chemistry courses. For reactions involving a color change, rate laws can be determined experimentally using spectrophotometric or colorimetric equipment though this equipment can be cost prohibitive. Previous work demonstrated that inexpensive handheld camera…

  8. Surgical procedure logging with use of a hand-held computer

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Sandra; Lapinsky, Stephen E.; Weshler, Jason; Howard, Frazer; Rotstein, Lorne E.; Cohen, Zane; Stewart, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of incorporating hand-held computing technology in a surgical residency program, by means of hand-held devices for surgical procedure logging linked through the Internet to a central database. Setting Division of General Surgery, University of Toronto. Design A survey of general surgery residents. Methods The 69 residents in the general surgery training program received hand-held computers with preinstalled medical programs and a program designed for surgical procedure logging. Procedural data were uploaded via the Internet to a central database. Survey data were collected regarding previous computer use as well as previous procedure logging methods. Main outcome measure Utilization of the procedure logging system. Results After a 5-month pilot period, 38% of surgical residents were using the procedure-logging program successfully and on a regular basis. Program use was higher among more junior trainees. Analysis of the database provided valuable information on individual trainees, hospital programs and supervising surgeons, data that would assist in program development. Conclusions Hand-held devices can be implemented in a large division of general surgery to provide a reference database and a procedure-logging platform. However, user acceptance is not uniform and continued training and support are necessary to increase acceptance. The procedure database provides important information for optimizing trainees’ educational experience. PMID:12387537

  9. Droplet size characterization of hand-held atomization equipment typically used in vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The atomization characteristics from four hand-held sprayers (Leco P-1, Colt ULV Aerosol Generator, UlVAFAN MK2, Turbair ElectraFan 12) and a Stihl SR400 backpack sprayer were evaluated using water- and oil-based solutions. The effects on droplet size spectrum for three insecticides (Tempo SC Ultra...

  10. The Use of Handheld Devices for Improved Phonemic Awareness in a Traditional Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna-McBee, Cristy Ann

    2010-01-01

    Effective teaching strategies that improve the development of phonemic awareness are important to ensure students are fluent readers by third grade. The use of handheld devices to improve phonemic awareness with kindergarten students may be such a strategy, but no research exists that evaluates the use of these devices. This study explored the…

  11. "New Directions for Traditional Lessons": Can Handheld Game Consoles Enhance Mental Mathematics Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Susan; O'Rourke, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that compared the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) handheld game consoles (HGCs) with traditional teaching methods to develop the automaticity of mathematical calculations and self-concept towards mathematics for year 4 students in two metropolitan schools. One class conducted daily sessions using the HGCs…

  12. Teachers' Perception of Handheld Response Systems as a Tool for Formative Assessment in High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Jon

    2011-01-01

    While research supports that formative assessment can improve student learning, it is rarely used and difficult to implement. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the use of student handheld response systems (SRS) as a tool for formative assessment in high school classes as well as teachers' attitudes towards this…

  13. Analysis of Peer Interaction in Learning Activities with Personal Handhelds and Shared Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Chung, Chen-Wei; Chen, Nian-Shing; Liu, Baw-Jhiune

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative learning is extensively applied in classroom activities, but the screens on handheld devices are designed for individual-user mobile applications and may constrain interaction among group learners. The small screen size may lead to fragmented and tete-a-tete communication patterns and frequently obstruct the externalization of the…

  14. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  15. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  16. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  17. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... credits under the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program for HC+NOX emissions as described in... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50 805... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  18. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... credits under the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program for HC+NOX emissions as described in... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50 805... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  19. A Study of the Use of a Handheld Computer Algebra System in Discrete Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Robert A.; Allison, Dean E.; Grassl, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the TI-92 handheld Computer Algebra System (CAS) on student achievement in a discrete mathematics course. Specifically, the researchers examined the differences between a CAS section and a control section of discrete mathematics on students' in-class examinations. Additionally, they analysed student approaches…

  20. Notebooks, Handhelds, and Software in Physical Education (Grades 5-8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohnsen, Bonnie

    2005-01-01

    Heart monitors, pedometers, and now virtual reality-based equipment (e.g., Cyberbikes, "Dance Dance Revolution") have been embraced by physical educators as technologies worth using in the physical education program; however, the use of computers (be it a desktop, notebook, or handheld) in the physical education instructional program, has not been…

  1. Learning Motivation and Adaptive Video Caption Filtering for EFL Learners Using Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide adaptive assistance to improve the listening comprehension of eleventh grade students. This study developed a video-based language learning system for handheld devices, using three levels of caption filtering adapted to student needs. Elementary level captioning excluded 220 English sight words (see Section 1…

  2. The Use and Efficacy of Handheld Computers for School-Based Data Collection: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Tufan; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Zellner, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Given the increasing influence of technology and the explosion in data collection demands, the acceptance and assimilation of new paradigms and technologies require today's educators, researchers, and evaluators to consider alternative tools, and apply them effectively. One of these alternatives, handheld computers, also known as personal digital…

  3. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrian, Alexia; Ledersteger, Alfred; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Specification of an empirical factor for conversion from bromine to PBB and PBDE. • The handheld XRF device was validated for this particular application. • A very large number of over 4600 pieces of monitor housings was analysed. • The recyclable fraction mounts up to 85% for TV but only 53% of PC waste plastics. • A high percentage of pieces with bromine contents of over 50,000 ppm was obtained. - Abstract: This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000 ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC–MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements.

  4. Performance assessments of Android-powered military applications operating on tactical handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Brian A.; Fronczek, Lisa; Morse, Emile; Kootbally, Zeid; Schlenoff, Craig

    2013-05-01

    Transformative Apps (TransApps) is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded program whose goal is to develop a range of militarily-relevant software applications ("apps") to enhance the operational-effectiveness of military personnel on (and off) the battlefield. TransApps is also developing a military apps marketplace to facilitate rapid development and dissemination of applications to address user needs by connecting engaged communities of endusers with development groups. The National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) role in the TransApps program is to design and implement evaluation procedures to assess the performance of: 1) the various software applications, 2) software-hardware interactions, and 3) the supporting online application marketplace. Specifically, NIST is responsible for evaluating 50+ tactically-relevant applications operating on numerous Android™-powered platforms. NIST efforts include functional regression testing and quantitative performance testing. This paper discusses the evaluation methodologies employed to assess the performance of three key program elements: 1) handheld-based applications and their integration with various hardware platforms, 2) client-based applications and 3) network technologies operating on both the handheld and client systems along with their integration into the application marketplace. Handheld-based applications are assessed using a combination of utility and usability-based checklists and quantitative performance tests. Client-based applications are assessed to replicate current overseas disconnected (i.e. no network connectivity between handhelds) operations and to assess connected operations envisioned for later use. Finally, networked applications are assessed on handhelds to establish baselines of performance for when connectivity will be common usage.

  5. Development of real-time dual-display handheld and bench-top hybrid-mode SD-OCTs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Park, Kibeom; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Shin, Yong Seung; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2014-01-01

    Development of a dual-display handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for retina and optic-nerve-head diagnosis beyond the volunteer motion constraints is reported. The developed system is portable and easily movable, containing the compact portable OCT system that includes the handheld probe and computer. Eye posterior chambers were diagnosed using the handheld probe, and the probe could be fixed to the bench-top cradle depending on the volunteers' physical condition. The images obtained using this handheld probe were displayed in real time on the computer monitor and on a small secondary built-in monitor; the displayed images were saved using the handheld probe's built-in button. Large-scale signal-processing procedures such as k-domain linearization, fast Fourier transform (FFT), and log-scaling signal processing can be rapidly applied using graphics-processing-unit (GPU) accelerated processing rather than central-processing-unit (CPU) processing. The Labview-based system resolution is 1,024 × 512 pixels, and the frame rate is 56 frames/s, useful for real-time display. The 3D images of the posterior chambers including the retina, optic-nerve head, blood vessels, and optic nerve were composed using real-time displayed images with 500 × 500 × 500 pixel resolution. A handheld and bench-top hybrid mode with a dual-display handheld OCT was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method. PMID:24473286

  6. A spot multiplex nested RT-PCR for the simultaneous and generic detection of viruses involved in the aetiology of grapevine leafroll and rugose wood of grapevine.

    PubMed

    Dovas, C I; Katis, N I

    2003-05-01

    A spot nested RT-PCR assay using degenerate deoxyinosine-containing primers was developed, allowing rapid and simultaneous detection of Closterovirus sequences. Nested PCR amplification increased the specificity and sensitivity of detection. The sensitivity was also increased by a factor of 10 by using in addition to the deoxyinosine (dI)-containing primers, respective homologous primers in which dI was substituted by dG in the region of sequence homology. These homologous primers are shorter, having lower degeneracy and higher amplification efficiency than the dI-containing primers. This method was coupled to a similar nested RT-PCR detection method for Vitivirus and Foveavirus sequences. This permitted multiplex RT-PCR amplification of sequences belonging to the three genera in the same reaction tube and the two subsequent nested PCR amplifications (one for closteroviruses and one for viti- and foveaviruses) to run in parallel. Different primers and amplification parameters (additives and thermocycling conditions) were evaluated and optimised, respectively, in order to amplify efficiently all different templates. These improvements permitted the multiplex detection of fovea- and closteroviruses in petiole and cortical scraping preparations from 23 infected field-grown grapevines throughout the year, with the exception of GLRaV-1 in petioles that was only possible from June onwards. Preliminary results show that this method can detect reliably virus species from three genera in grapevine allowing simple, fast and cost-effective testing of a large number of samples in certification schemes.

  7. MAMMALIAN DNA IN PCR REAGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high- cycle PCR amplification t...

  8. Impacts of the SCA Core Framework on High Speed Broadband Waveform in SDR Handheld System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sangchul; Park, Namhoon; Kwon, Ohjun; Kim, Yeongjin

    In this paper, we have shown a major element occupying the large portion of software communications architecture (SCA)-based software defined radio (SDR) handheld embedded system and an important feature for implementing a high speed broadband radio to an SCA waveform through a couple of experiments. First, this paper identifies the main items possessing the large portion of SCA-based SDR handheld embedded system by the experiment on the target platform which is similar to a commercial mobile handheld system. Both the world interoperabillity for microwave access (WiMAX) and high speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) waveform software packages are used as an SCA waveform application. This paper also presents the results of the relative binary size distribution of SCA software resources for looking for the major elements making an SCA-based SDR handheld embedded system heavier. As a result, when focusing on the relative weight portion of SCA core framework (CF), the SCA CF takes 16% up and others have 84% out of the whole binary size distribution of SCA software resources. The results of the experiment give us notice that the weight portion of SCA CF is minor and compatible with the overall software binary size needs of an SCA-based SDR handheld embedded system, on the other hand, the practical problem on the lightweight is in a common object request broker architecture (CORBA) and extensible markup language (XML) parser resources. Second, this paper describes an important feature for implementing a high speed broadband radio to an SCA waveform and presents the performance evaluation results of the SCA port communication on both power PC (PPC) 405 and x86 processor platforms. The PPC 405 platform, which is similar to a commercial mobile handset, takes the value of average round trip time (RTT) with a maximum of thirty six millisecond. The x86 platform, however, which is analogous to a server platform, maintains stable micro-second resolution. From our experiments, we

  9. SkinScan©: A PORTABLE LIBRARY FOR MELANOMA DETECTION ON HANDHELD DEVICES.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Tarun; Situ, Ning; Lancaster, Keith; Yuan, Xiaojing; Zouridakis, George

    2011-03-30

    We have developed a portable library for automated detection of melanoma termed SkinScan© that can be used on smartphones and other handheld devices. Compared to desktop computers, embedded processors have limited processing speed, memory, and power, but they have the advantage of portability and low cost. In this study we explored the feasibility of running a sophisticated application for automated skin cancer detection on an Apple iPhone 4. Our results demonstrate that the proposed library with the advanced image processing and analysis algorithms has excellent performance on handheld and desktop computers. Therefore, deployment of smartphones as screening devices for skin cancer and other skin diseases can have a significant impact on health care delivery in underserved and remote areas. PMID:21892382

  10. Handheld computers in veterinary medical education: a view from human medical education.

    PubMed

    Nestel, Debra; Brenton, Harry; Kneebone, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Handheld computers are widely used in clinical practice, and their use in both human medical education and veterinary medical education is increasing, especially, for the former, in activities involving point-of-care access. This article references the insights that can be obtained from the usage and activities that are gaining a strong foothold in human medical education. Handheld computer technology gives students access to a large and changing knowledge base for clinical practice, especially when they are geographically dispersed. Differences in use between education and practice largely relate to the importance clinicians place on patient information. Student use focuses on progress mapping and ready access to clinical reference material. Suggestions are made for future use in medical education.

  11. Hand-held transendoscopic robotic manipulators: A transurethral laser prostate surgery case study

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Richard J.; Mitchell, Christopher R.; Herrell, S. Duke; Webster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural orifice endoscopic surgery can enable incisionless approaches, but a major challenge is the lack of small and dexterous instrumentation. Surgical robots have the potential to meet this need yet often disrupt the clinical workflow. Hand-held robots that combine thin manipulators and endoscopes have the potential to address this by integrating seamlessly into the clinical workflow and enhancing dexterity. As a case study illustrating the potential of this approach, we describe a hand-held robotic system that passes two concentric tube manipulators through a 5 mm port in a rigid endoscope for transurethral laser prostate surgery. This system is intended to catalyze the use of a clinically superior, yet rarely attempted, procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia. This paper describes system design and experiments to evaluate the surgeon’s functional workspace and accuracy using the robot. Phantom and cadaver experiments demonstrate successful completion of the target procedure via prostate lobe resection. PMID:27570361

  12. An efficient solid modeling system based on a hand-held 3D laser scan device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The hand-held 3D laser scanner sold in the market is appealing for its port and convenient to use, but price is expensive. To develop such a system based cheap devices using the same principles as the commercial systems is impossible. In this paper, a simple hand-held 3D laser scanner is developed based on a volume reconstruction method using cheap devices. Unlike convenient laser scanner to collect point cloud of an object surface, the proposed method only scan few key profile curves on the surface. Planar section curve network can be generated from these profile curves to construct a volume model of the object. The details of design are presented, and illustrated by the example of a complex shaped object.

  13. Hand-held cow horn: resurgence of an old arm or apotential terrorist weapon

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Lawal; Ahmed, Adamu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A 23 year old man presented with intestinal evisceration from stab injury to the left side of the abdomen with a hand-held cow horn at a local night party. He complained of severe abdominal pain and bleeding at the site of injury. He was hemodynamically stable. At emergency exploration, the eviscerated bowel was viable with no adjacent mesenteric tear. Other intra abdominal organs were normal. The eviscerated bowel was lavaged and reduced into the abdomen through the 7cm anterior abdominal wall laceration. The laceration was repaired and abdomen closed in layers. Post operative recovery was uneventful. The hand-held cow horn can easily be concealed and may pass through security checks undetected. It should be added to the ever increasing list of weapons of small scale terror. PMID:21502787

  14. System design of a hand-held mobile robot for craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Kane, Gavin; Eggers, Georg; Boesecke, Robert; Raczkowsky, Jörg; Wörn, Heinz; Marmulla, Rüdiger; Mühling, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This contribution reports the development and initial testing of a Mobile Robot System for Surgical Craniotomy, the Craniostar. A kinematic system based on a unicycle robot is analysed to provide local positioning through two spiked wheels gripping directly onto a patients skull. A control system based on a shared control system between both the Surgeon and Robot is employed in a hand-held design that is tested initially on plastic phantom and swine skulls. Results indicate that the system has substantially lower risk than present robotically assisted craniotomies, and despite being a hand-held mobile robot, the Craniostar is still capable of sub-millimetre accuracy in tracking along a trajectory and thus achieving an accurate transfer of pre-surgical plan to the operating room procedure, without the large impact of current medical robots based on modified industrial robots.

  15. WebAlchemist: a Web transcoding system for mobile Web access in handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whang, Yonghyun; Jung, Changwoo; Kim, Jihong; Chung, Sungkwon

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of WebAlchemist, a prototype web transcoding system, which automatically converts a given HTML page into a sequence of equivalent HTML pages that can be properly displayed on a hand-held device. The Web/Alchemist system is based on a set of HTML transcoding heuristics managed by the Transcoding Manager (TM) module. In order to tackle difficult-to-transcode pages such as ones with large or complex table structures, we have developed several new transcoding heuristics that extract partial semantics from syntactic information such as the table width, font size and cascading style sheet. Subjective evaluation results using popular HTML pages (such as the CNN home page) show that WebAlchemist generates readable, structure-preserving transcoded pages, which can be properly displayed on hand-held devices.

  16. Hand-held cow horn: resurgence of an old arm or a potential terrorist weapon.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Lawal; Ahmed, Adamu

    2012-01-01

    A 23 year old man presented with intestinal evisceration from stab injury to the left side of the abdomen with a hand-held cow horn at a local night party. He complained of severe abdominal pain and bleeding at the site of injury. He was hemodynamically stable. At emergency exploration, the eviscerated bowel was viable with no adjacent mesenteric tear. Other intra abdominal organs were normal. The eviscerated bowel was lavaged and reduced into the abdomen through the 7 cm anterior abdominal wall laceration. The laceration was repaired and abdomen closed in layers. Post operative recovery was uneventful. The hand-held cow horn can easily be concealed and may pass through security checks undetected. It should be added to the ever increasing list of weapons of small scale terror.

  17. Capillary - Discharge Based Hand-Held Detector For Chemical Vapor Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang

    2005-05-31

    A handheld/portable detector for chemical vapor monitoring includes a housing and a discharge chamber that is established therein. The plasma discharge has a relatively small volume, e.g., in the micro-liter range. A first electrode and a second electrode are disposed within the discharge chamber and a discharge gap is established therebetween. A sample gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a sample gas to the discharge chamber. Also, a plasma gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a plasma gas thereto. Accordingly, the plasma gas can be used to maintain microplasma discharge between the electrodes and the sample gas can be introduced into the microplasma discharge. A spectrometer optically connected to the handheld/portable detector is used to measure the radiation emitted by the sample gas when subjected to the microplasma discharge.

  18. Using a Handheld Device for Patient Data Collection: A Pilot for Medical Countermeasures Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Daley, Matthew F; Goddard, Kristin; McClung, Melissa; Davidson, Arthur; Weiss, Gretchen; Palen, Ted; Nyirenda, Carsie; Platt, Richard; Courtney, Brooke; Reichman, Marsha E

    2016-01-01

    Medical countermeasures (MCMs) are medical products used during public health emergencies. This study, conducted within the Mini-Sentinel Initiative, sought to develop the patient identification and matching processes necessary to assess safety outcomes for MCMs. A handheld device was used to collect identifying information (e.g., name, birthdate, and sex) from the driver's licenses of 421 individuals presenting for routine care at their primary care medical office. Overall, 374 individuals (88.8%) could be linked to their electronic health data using driver's license information. The device was also pilot-tested at a seasonal influenza immunization clinic: detailed vaccine information (e.g., lot number and manufacturer) was captured with a high degree of accuracy. This investigation demonstrated that a handheld device is a feasible means of collecting patient identity and medical product receipt data. This capacity should be useful for safety surveillance of MCMs, particularly when dispensed in settings outside the traditional health-care delivery system. PMID:26843667

  19. Computer implemented method, and apparatus for controlling a hand-held tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Kenneth William (Inventor); Taylor, James Clayton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The invention described here in is a computer-implemented method and apparatus for controlling a hand-held tool. In particular, the control of a hand held tool is for the purpose of controlling the speed of a fastener interface mechanism and the torque applied to fasteners by the fastener interface mechanism of the hand-held tool and monitoring the operating parameters of the tool. The control is embodied in intool software embedded on a processor within the tool which also communicates with remote software. An operator can run the tool, or through the interaction of both software, operate the tool from a remote location, analyze data from a performance history recorded by the tool, and select various torque and speed parameters for each fastener.

  20. Early Childhood Vision Screening in Hawai'i Utilizing a Hand-Held Screener.

    PubMed

    Chang, Duane A; Ede, Roger C; Chow, Dominic C; Souza, Ryan D; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A; Hanks, Nancy; Nakamoto, Beau K; Mitchell, Brooks; Masutani, Alison T; Fisk, Sam; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Dill, Jan E

    2015-09-01

    The goal of early childhood vision screening is to detect subnormal vision and amblyopic risk factors that threaten visual development so that treatment can be initiated early to yield the highest benefit. Hand-held, portable, instrument-based vision screening devices can be used in children as young as 6 months of age. We assessed the feasibility of hand-held photoscreeners to screen for vision disorders in pre-school children in Hawai'i. A total of 137 preschool children on O'ahu in the "Tutu and Me"/Partners in Development program were screened at 6 different locations using the Plusoptix S12 hand-held photoscreener. Once technical issues were resolved, screening was fast and well tolerated. Possible vision abnormalities were found in 11 of the 137 children (8%). Poor compliance for follow-up with formal vision examination limited our ability to confirm these abnormalities. We conclude that photoscreening has the potential to facilitate early childhood vision screening in Hawai'i. The optimal referral criteria for use in Hawai'i will need to be determined after considering the age of the screening population and the available medical resources in Hawai'i. Early detection of treatable eye disorders has far-reaching benefits for the visual development and long term health and well-being of children. A comprehensive early childhood vision screening program in Hawai'i utilizing automated hand-held photoscreeners may have public health value. Such a program should integrate referral to an eye care professional for confirmation and management of vision disorders of at-risk children found on screening. PMID:26468424

  1. Reproducibility of Circumpapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements Using Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography in Sedated Children

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Robert A.; Cnaan, Avital; Schuman, Joel S.; Chen, Chieh-Li; Glaug, Natalie C.; Packer, Roger J.; Quinn, Graham E.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the intra- and intervisit reproducibility of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measures using handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) in sedated children. Design Prospective cross-sectional and longitudinal study Methods Children undergoing sedation for a clinically indicated MRI for an optic pathway glioma and or Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) had multiple 6 × 6 mm volumes (isotropic 300×300 or non-isotropic 1000×100 samplings) acquired over the optic nerve. Children with two handheld OCT sessions within 6 months were included in the intervisit cohort. The intra- and inter-visit coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated for the average and anatomic quadrant circumpapillary RNFL thickness. Results Fifty-nine subjects (mean age 5.1 years, range 0.8–13.0 years) comprised the intravisit cohort and 29 subjects (mean age 5.7 years, range 1.8–12.7 years) contributed to the intervisit cohort. Forty-nine subjects had an optic pathway glioma and 10 subjects had NF1 without an optic pathway glioma. The CV was comparable regardless of imaging with an isotropic and non-isotropic volume in both the intra- and intervisit cohorts. The average circumpapillary RNFL demonstrated the lowest CV and highest ICC compared to the quadrants. For the intervisit cohort, the average ICC was typically higher while the CV was typically lower, but not statistically different compared to the other quadrants. Discussion Circumpapillary RNFL measures acquired with handheld OCT during sedation demonstrate good intra- and intervisit reproducibility. Handheld OCT has the potential to monitor progressive optic neuropathies in young children who have difficulty cooperating with traditional OCT devices. PMID:24983792

  2. Longer term effects of New York State's law on drivers' handheld cell phone use

    PubMed Central

    McCartt, A; Geary, L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether substantial short term declines in drivers' use of handheld cell phones, after a state ban, were sustained one year later. Design: Drivers' daytime handheld cell phone use was observed in four New York communities and two Connecticut communities. Observations were conducted one month before the ban, shortly after, and 16 months after. Driver gender, estimated age, and vehicle type were recorded for phone users and a sample of motorists. Intervention: Effective 1 November 2001, New York became the only state in the United States to ban drivers' handheld cell phone use. Connecticut is an adjacent state without such a law. Sample: 50 033 drivers in New York, 28 307 drivers in Connecticut. Outcome measures: Drivers' handheld cell phone use rates in New York and Connecticut and rates by driver characteristics. Results: Overall use rates in Connecticut did not change. Overall use in New York declined from 2.3% pre-law to 1.1% shortly after (p<0.05). One year later, use was 2.1%, higher than immediately post-law (p<0.05) and not significantly different from pre-law. Initial declines in use followed by longer term increases were observed for males and females, drivers younger than 60, and car and van drivers; use patterns varied among the four communities. Publicity declined after the law's implementation. No targeted enforcement efforts were evident. Cell phone citations issued during the first 15 months represented 2% of all traffic citations. Conclusions: Vigorous enforcement campaigns accompanied by publicity appear necessary to achieve longer term compliance with bans on drivers' cell phone use. PMID:14760020

  3. Hand-held calculator programs determine natural-gas physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ajitsaria, N.K.

    1983-06-01

    Although physical properties of natural gas are readily available in the literature, the determination of such properties using a hand-held calculator can be of great convenience to the engineer. Two typical examples of gas properties often required in gas transmission and reservoir engineering calculations are compressibility factor (z factor) and viscosity (..mu..). In this article, programs developed for determining these properties are described.

  4. Early Childhood Vision Screening in Hawai‘i Utilizing a Hand-Held Screener

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Duane A; Ede, Roger C; Chow, Dominic C; Souza, Ryan D; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A; Hanks, Nancy; Nakamoto, Beau K; Mitchell, Brooks; Masutani, Alison T; Fisk, Sam; Dill, Jan E

    2015-01-01

    The goal of early childhood vision screening is to detect subnormal vision and amblyopic risk factors that threaten visual development so that treatment can be initiated early to yield the highest benefit. Hand-held, portable, instrument-based vision screening devices can be used in children as young as 6 months of age. We assessed the feasibility of hand-held photoscreeners to screen for vision disorders in pre-school children in Hawai‘i. A total of 137 preschool children on O‘ahu in the “Tutu and Me”/Partners in Development program were screened at 6 different locations using the Plusoptix S12 hand-held photoscreener. Once technical issues were resolved, screening was fast and well tolerated. Possible vision abnormalities were found in 11 of the 137 children (8%). Poor compliance for follow-up with formal vision examination limited our ability to confirm these abnormalities. We conclude that photoscreening has the potential to facilitate early childhood vision screening in Hawai‘i. The optimal referral criteria for use in Hawai‘i will need to be determined after considering the age of the screening population and the available medical resources in Hawai‘i. Early detection of treatable eye disorders has far-reaching benefits for the visual development and long term health and well-being of children. A comprehensive early childhood vision screening program in Hawai‘i utilizing automated hand-held photoscreeners may have public health value. Such a program should integrate referral to an eye care professional for confirmation and management of vision disorders of at-risk children found on screening. PMID:26468424

  5. Handheld Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-Aptamer Sensor for Bone Markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts lose significant bone mass during lengthy space flights. NASA wishes to monitor this bone loss in order to develop nutritional and exercise countermeasures. Operational Technologies Corporation (OpTech) has developed a handheld device that quantifies bone loss in a spacecraft environment. The innovation works by adding fluorescent dyes and quenchers to aptamers to enable pushbutton, one-step bind-and-detect FRET assays that can be freeze-dried, rehydrated with body fluids, and used to quantify bone loss.

  6. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maximum values you may specify for family emission limits: (1) 336 g/kW-hr for Class III engines. (2) 275 g/kW-hr for Class IV engines. (3) 186 g/kW-hr for Class V engines. (c) Fuel types. The exhaust... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50...

  7. Winter wheat stand density determination and yield estimates from handheld and airborne scanners. [Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aase, J. K.; Millard, J. P.; Siddoway, F. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Radiance measurements from handheld (Exotech 100-A) and air-borne (Daedalus DEI 1260) radiometers were related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) stand densities (simulated winter wheat winterkill) and to grain yield for a field located 11 km northwest of Sidney, Montana, on a Williams loam soil (fine-loamy, mixed Typic Argiborolls) where a semidwarf hard red spring wheat cultivar was needed to stand. Radiances were measured with the handheld radiometer on clear mornings throughout the growing season. Aircraft overflight measurements were made at the end of tillering and during the early stem extension period, and the mid-heading period. The IR/red ratio and normalized difference vegetation index were used in the analysis. The aircraft measurements corroborated the ground measurements inasmuch as wheat stand densities were detected and could be evaluated at an early enough growth stage to make management decision. The aircraft measurements also corroborated handheld measurements when related to yield prediction. The IR/red ratio, although there was some growth stage dependency, related well to yield when measured from just past tillering until about the watery-ripe stage.

  8. Handheld X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometers: Radiation Exposure Risks of Matrix-Specific Measurement Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Marek; Kristensen, Louise J; Gore, Damian B

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates X-ray intensity and dispersion around handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments during the measurement of a range of sample matrices to establish radiation exposure risk during operation. Four handheld XRF instruments representing three manufacturers were used on four smooth, flat-lying materials of contrasting matrix composition. Dose rates were measured at 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm intervals every 30° around the instrument at 0 and 45° from the horizontal, as well as vertically from the instrument screen. The analysis of polyethylene recorded dose rates 156 times higher (on average) than steel measurements and 34 times higher than both quartz sand and quartz sandstone. A worst-case exposure scenario was assumed where a user analyses a polyethylene material at arms reach for 1 h each working day for one year. This scenario resulted in an effective body dose of 73.5 μSv, equivalent to three to four chest X-rays (20 μSv) a year, 20 times lower than the average annual background radiation exposure in Australia and well below the annual exposure limit of 1 mSv for non-radiation workers. This study finds the advantages of using handheld XRF spectrometers far outweighs the risk of low radiation exposure linked to X-ray scattering from samples. PMID:26037330

  9. Gen-2 Hand-Held Optical Imager towards Cancer Imaging: Reflectance and Transillumination Phantom Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jean; Roman, Manuela; Hall, Michael; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Hand-held near-infrared (NIR) optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards non-invasive clinical breast imaging. Unlike these existing imagers that can perform only reflectance imaging, a generation-2 (Gen-2) hand-held optical imager has been recently developed to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging. The unique forked design of the hand-held probe head(s) allows for reflectance imaging (as in ultrasound) and transillumination or compressed imaging (as in X-ray mammography). Phantom studies were performed to demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) target detection via reflectance and transillumination imaging at various target depths (1–5 cm deep) and using simultaneous multiple point illumination approach. It was observed that 0.45 cc targets were detected up to 5 cm deep during transillumination, but limited to 2.5 cm deep during reflectance imaging. Additionally, implementing appropriate data post-processing techniques along with a polynomial fitting approach, to plot 2D surface contours of the detected signal, yields distinct target detectability and localization. The ability of the gen-2 imager to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging allows its direct comparison to ultrasound and X-ray mammography results, respectively, in future clinical breast imaging studies. PMID:22438743

  10. Hand-held resonance sensor for tissue stiffness measurements—a theoretical and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalkanen, Ville

    2010-05-01

    A piezoelectric transducer in a feedback circuit operating in a resonance state is the basis of a resonance sensor. Upon contact with a soft object a change in the resonance frequency reflects the acoustic impedance. Together with force measurement it is possible to obtain the elastic stiffness of the object. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concept of a hand-held resonance sensor for tissue stiffness measurement. A time derivative analysis of the force and the frequency change showed that a stiffness-sensitive parameter was independent of the impression speed. Soft tissue phantoms of gelatin were used in an experimental validation of the theory. A force indentation method was used as a reference method for assessing the gelatin's elastic stiffness. Results from the hand-held measurements showed that the stiffness parameter accurately measured the elastic stiffness of the gelatin (R2 = 0.94, p < 0.05). The stiffness parameter was weakly (on average R2 = 0.15) and non-significantly (p > 0.05, 14 out of 17) dependent on an impression speed parameter. On average, a small amount of the total variance was explained by the impression speed. In conclusion, soft tissue stiffness can be objectively measured with free-hand measurement with a resonance sensor. This study contributes a theoretical analysis and an experimental demonstration of the concept of a hand-held resonance sensor for stiffness measurements.

  11. Real-time integral imaging system with handheld light field camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Youngmo; Kim, Jonghyun; Yeom, Jiwoon; Lee, Byoungho

    2014-11-01

    Our objective is to construct real-time pickup and display in integral imaging system with handheld light field camera. A micro lens array and high frame rate charge-coupled device (CCD) are used to implement handheld light field camera, and a simple lens array and a liquid crystal (LC) display panel are used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) images in real-time. Handheld light field camera is implemented by adding the micro lens array on CCD sensor. Main lens, which is mounted on CCD sensor, is used to capture the scene. To make the elemental image in real-time, pixel mapping algorithm is applied. With this algorithm, not only pseudoscopic problem can be solved, but also user can change the depth plane of the displayed 3D images in real-time. For real-time high quality 3D video generation, a high resolution and high frame rate CCD and LC display panel are used in proposed system. Experiment and simulation results are presented to verify our proposed system. As a result, 3D image is captured and reconstructed in real-time through integral imaging system.

  12. Neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) forward-viewing probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Vuong, Barry; Cusimano, Michael; Brukson, Alexander; Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-02-01

    A prototype neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging probe has been developed to provide micron resolution cross-sectional images of subsurface tissue during open surgery. This new ergonomic hand-held probe has been designed based on our group's previous work on electrostatically driven optical fibers. It has been packaged into a catheter probe in the familiar form factor of the clinically accepted Bayonet shaped neurosurgical non-imaging Doppler ultrasound probes. The optical design was optimized using ZEMAX simulation. Optical properties of the probe were tested to yield an ~20 um spot size, 5 mm working distance and a 3.5 mm field of view. The scan frequency can be increased or decreased by changing the applied voltage. Typically a scan frequency of less than 60Hz is chosen to keep the applied voltage to less than 2000V. The axial resolution of the probe was ~15 um (in air) as determined by the OCT system. A custom-triggering methodology has been developed to provide continuous stable imaging, which is crucial for clinical utility. Feasibility of this probe, in combination with a 1310 nm swept source OCT system was tested and images are presented to highlight the usefulness of such a forward viewing handheld OCT imaging probe. Knowledge gained from this research will lay the foundation for developing new OCT technologies for endovascular management of cerebral aneurysms and transsphenoidal neuroendoscopic treatment of pituitary tumors.

  13. Driver performance while text messaging using handheld and in-vehicle systems.

    PubMed

    Owens, Justin M; McLaughlin, Shane B; Sudweeks, Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of driver performance while text messaging via handheld mobile phones and an in-vehicle texting system. Participants sent and received text messages while driving with an experimenter on a closed-road course, using their personal mobile phones and the vehicle's system. The test vehicle was an instrumented 2010 Mercury Mariner equipped with an OEM in-vehicle system that supports text messaging and voice control of mobile devices via Bluetooth, which was modified to allow text message sending during driving. Twenty participants were tested, 11 younger (19-34) and 9 older (39-51). All participants were regular users of the in-vehicle system, although none had experience with the texting functions. Results indicated that handheld text message sending and receiving resulted in higher mental demand, more frequent and longer glances away from the roadway, and degraded steering measures compared to baseline. Using the in-vehicle system to send messages showed less performance degradation, but still had more task-related interior glance time and higher mental demand than baseline; using the system's text-to-speech functionality for incoming messages showed no differences from baseline. These findings suggest that using handheld phones to send and receive text messages may interfere with drivers' visual and steering behaviors; the in-vehicle system showed improvement, but performance was not at baseline levels during message sending. PMID:21376886

  14. An examination of the handheld adapter approach for measuring hand-transmitted vibration exposure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xueyan S.; Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of a handheld adapter equipped with a tri-axial accelerometer is the most convenient and efficient approach for measuring vibration exposure at the hand-tool interface, especially when the adapter is incorporated into a miniature handheld or wrist-strapped dosimeter. To help optimize the adapter approach, the specific aims of this study are to identify and understand the major sources and mechanisms of measurement errors and uncertainties associated with using these adapters, and to explore their improvements. Five representative adapter models were selected and used in the experiment. Five human subjects served as operators in the experiment on a hand-arm vibration test system. The results of this study confirm that many of the handheld adapters can produce substantial overestimations of vibration exposure, and measurement errors can significantly vary with tool, adapter model, mounting position, mounting orientation, and subject. Major problems with this approach include unavoidable influence of the hand dynamic motion on the adapter, unstable attachment, insufficient attachment contact force, and inappropriate adapter structure. However, the results of this study also suggest that measurement errors can be substantially reduced if the design and use of an adapter can be systematically optimized toward minimizing the combined effects of the identified factors. Some potential methods for improving the design and use of the adapters are also proposed and discussed. PMID:26744580

  15. A Mixed Methods Analysis of a Library Based Handheld Intervention with Rural Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Richard L.; Woodward, Nakia J.; Wolf, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The East Tennessee State University Quillen College of Medicine Library has participated for several years in projects to provide rural clinicians with health information resources. Objectives To determine if a strategy of handheld devices with a best-evidence point-of-care disease tool and a drug database paired with access to a medical library for full-text articles and training to use the tools would be an affordable way to meet the information needs of rural underserved clinicians. Methods This study is a mixed methods methodology. The first project was evaluated using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology. The second was evaluated qualitatively using interviews and focus groups. Results The quantitative findings discovered that clinicians equipped with a handheld device with evidence-based software more frequently found answers to clinical questions, found answers more quickly, were more satisfied with information they found, and use expensive resources such as continuing medical education, online databases, and textbooks less than the group that did not have access to online technology. Qualitative results supported the quantitative findings. Conclusion Librarians can implement a three-pronged strategy of the secondary literature via a handheld, the primary literature via LoansomeDoc, and quality training to meet basic information needs of rural clinicians. PMID:25155980

  16. MEMS-Based Handheld Fourier Domain Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography for Intraoperative Microvascular Anastomosis Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Furtmüller, Georg J.; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of a miniature handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) imager for real time intraoperative vascular patency evaluation in the setting of super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis. Methods A novel handheld imager Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on a 1.3-µm central wavelength swept source for extravascular imaging was developed. The imager was minimized through the adoption of a 2.4-mm diameter microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanning mirror, additionally a 12.7-mm diameter lens system was designed and combined with the MEMS mirror to achieve a small form factor that optimize functionality as a handheld extravascular OCT imager. To evaluate in-vivo applicability, super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis was performed in a mouse femoral vessel cut and repair model employing conventional interrupted suture technique as well as a novel non-suture cuff technique. Vascular anastomosis patency after clinically successful repair was evaluated using the novel handheld OCT imager. Results With an adjustable lateral image field of view up to 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm, high-resolution simultaneous structural and flow imaging of the blood vessels were successfully acquired for BALB/C mouse after orthotopic hind limb transplantation using a non-suture cuff technique and BALB/C mouse after femoral artery anastomosis using a suture technique. We experimentally quantify the axial and lateral resolution of the OCT to be 12.6 µm in air and 17.5 µm respectively. The OCT has a sensitivity of 84 dB and sensitivity roll-off of 5.7 dB/mm over an imaging range of 5 mm. Imaging with a frame rate of 36 Hz for an image size of 1000(lateral)×512(axial) pixels using a 50,000 A-lines per second swept source was achieved. Quantitative vessel lumen patency, lumen narrowing and thrombosis analysis were performed based on acquired structure and Doppler images. Conclusions A miniature handheld OCT imager that can be used for

  17. Picoliter droplet-based digital peptide nucleic acid clamp PCR and dielectric sorting for low abundant K-ras mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huidan; Sperling, Ralph; Rotem, Assaf; Shan, Lianfeng; Heyman, John; Zhang, Yizhe; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the US, and the 5-year survival of metastatic CRC (mCRC) is less than 10%. Although monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) provide incremental improvements in survival, approximately 40% of mCRC patients with activating KRAS mutations won't benefit from this therapy. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA), a synthetic non-extendable oligonucleotides, can bind strongly to completely complementary wild-type KRAS by Watson-Crick base pairing and suppress its amplification during PCR, while any mutant allele will show unhindered amplification. The method is particularly suitable for the simultaneously detection of several adjoining mutant sites, just as mutations of codons 12 and 13 of KRAS gene where there are totally 12 possible mutation types. In this work, we describe the development and validation of this method, based on the droplet-based digital PCR. Using a microfluidic system, single target DNA molecule is compartmentalized in microdroplets together with PNA specific for wild-type KRAS, thermocycled and the fluorescence of each droplet was detected, followed by sorting and sequencing. It enables the precise determination of all possible mutant KRAS simultaneously, and the precise quantification of a single mutated KRAS in excess background unmutated KRAS.

  18. High Throughput Sample Preparation and Analysis for DNA Sequencing, PCR and Combinatorial Screening of Catalysis Based on Capillary Array Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yonghua Zhang

    2002-05-27

    Sample preparation has been one of the major bottlenecks for many high throughput analyses. The purpose of this research was to develop new sample preparation and integration approach for DNA sequencing, PCR based DNA analysis and combinatorial screening of homogeneous catalysis based on multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence or imaging UV absorption detection. The author first introduced a method to integrate the front-end tasks to DNA capillary-array sequencers. protocols for directly sequencing the plasmids from a single bacterial colony in fused-silica capillaries were developed. After the colony was picked, lysis was accomplished in situ in the plastic sample tube using either a thermocycler or heating block. Upon heating, the plasmids were released while chromsomal DNA and membrane proteins were denatured and precipitated to the bottom of the tube. After adding enzyme and Sanger reagents, the resulting solution was aspirated into the reaction capillaries by a syringe pump, and cycle sequencing was initiated. No deleterious effect upon the reaction efficiency, the on-line purification system, or the capillary electrophoresis separation was observed, even though the crude lysate was used as the template. Multiplexed on-line DNA sequencing data from 8 parallel channels allowed base calling up to 620 bp with an accuracy of 98%. The entire system can be automatically regenerated for repeated operation. For PCR based DNA analysis, they demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis with UV detection can be used for DNA analysis starting from clinical sample without purification. After PCR reaction using cheek cell, blood or HIV-1 gag DNA, the reaction mixtures was injected into the capillary either on-line or off-line by base stacking. The protocol was also applied to capillary array electrophoresis. The use of cheaper detection, and the elimination of purification of DNA sample before or after PCR reaction, will make this approach an

  19. Portable handheld diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system for clinical evaluation of skin: a pilot study in psoriasis patients

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Guo, Jean-Yan; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Huang, Hung Ji; Chou, Shih-Jie; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been utilized to study biological tissues for a variety of applications. However, many DRS systems are not designed for handheld use and/or relatively expensive which limit the extensive clinical use of this technique. In this paper, we report a handheld, low-cost DRS system consisting of a light source, optical switch, and a spectrometer, that can precisely quantify the optical properties of tissue samples in the clinical setting. The handheld DRS system was employed to determine the skin chromophore concentrations, absorption and scattering properties of 11 patients with psoriasis. The measurement results were compared to the clinical severity of psoriasis as evaluated by dermatologist using PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) scores. Our statistical analyses indicated that the handheld DRS system could be a useful non-invasive tool for objective evaluation of the severity of psoriasis. It is expected that the handheld system can be used for the objective evaluation and monitoring of various skin diseases such as keloid and psoriasis. PMID:26977366

  20. A new hand-held optical reflectometer to measure enamel erosion: correlation with surface hardness and calcium release

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Baumann, Tommy; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the surface reflection intensity (SRI) was measured from enamel with different induced erosion degrees using a hand-held pen-size reflectometer (Hand-Held) and a Table-Top reflectometer. To validate the Hand-Held reflectometer, we correlated its optical signals with the change of surface microhardness (SMH), and amount of calcium released from the enamel samples during erosion. We used 124 tooth enamel specimens that were exposed to an erosive challenge of either 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 minutes. SRI and SMH were measured before and after the erosive challenge and we also measured the amount of calcium released to the citric acid. Relative SRI loss (rSRIloss) and relative SMH loss (rSMHloss) were calculated. rSRIloss from the Hand-Held and the Table-Top reflectometers were similar and significantly correlated to rSMHloss and calcium release. The regression analyses showed a significant association between rSRIloss from both reflectometers and rSMHloss and calcium, showing that both reflectometers can be used to measure erosive demineralization of enamel. The Hand-Held reflectometer is capable of assessing in vitro erosion, correlating to other commonly used methods. It is small, easy to handle and provides fast measurement, being a possible candidate to measure erosion in clinical studies. PMID:27121129

  1. Portable handheld diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system for clinical evaluation of skin: a pilot study in psoriasis patients.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Guo, Jean-Yan; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Huang, Hung Ji; Chou, Shih-Jie; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been utilized to study biological tissues for a variety of applications. However, many DRS systems are not designed for handheld use and/or relatively expensive which limit the extensive clinical use of this technique. In this paper, we report a handheld, low-cost DRS system consisting of a light source, optical switch, and a spectrometer, that can precisely quantify the optical properties of tissue samples in the clinical setting. The handheld DRS system was employed to determine the skin chromophore concentrations, absorption and scattering properties of 11 patients with psoriasis. The measurement results were compared to the clinical severity of psoriasis as evaluated by dermatologist using PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) scores. Our statistical analyses indicated that the handheld DRS system could be a useful non-invasive tool for objective evaluation of the severity of psoriasis. It is expected that the handheld system can be used for the objective evaluation and monitoring of various skin diseases such as keloid and psoriasis. PMID:26977366

  2. Comparative assessment of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measured using a hand-held vs. isokinetic dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48−0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75−0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2–4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from −0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option. PMID:27799667

  3. Protocol: a fast and simple in situ PCR method for localising gene expression in plant tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An important step in characterising the function of a gene is identifying the cells in which it is expressed. Traditional methods to determine this include in situ hybridisation, gene promoter-reporter fusions or cell isolation/purification techniques followed by quantitative PCR. These methods, although frequently used, can have limitations including their time-consuming nature, limited specificity, reliance upon well-annotated promoters, high cost, and the need for specialized equipment. In situ PCR is a relatively simple and rapid method that involves the amplification of specific mRNA directly within plant tissue whilst incorporating labelled nucleotides that are subsequently detected by immunohistochemistry. Another notable advantage of this technique is that it can be used on plants that are not easily genetically transformed. Results An optimised workflow for in-tube and on-slide in situ PCR is presented that has been evaluated using multiple plant species and tissue types. The protocol includes optimised methods for: (i) fixing, embedding, and sectioning of plant tissue; (ii) DNase treatment; (iii) in situ RT-PCR with the incorporation of DIG-labelled nucleotides; (iv) signal detection using colourimetric alkaline phosphatase substrates; and (v) mounting and microscopy. We also provide advice on troubleshooting and the limitations of using fluorescence as an alternative detection method. Using our protocol, reliable results can be obtained within two days from harvesting plant material. This method requires limited specialized equipment and can be adopted by any laboratory with a vibratome (vibrating blade microtome), a standard thermocycler, and a microscope. We show that the technique can be used to localise gene expression with cell-specific resolution. Conclusions The in situ PCR method presented here is highly sensitive and specific. It reliably identifies the cellular expression pattern of even highly homologous and low abundance

  4. A Data-Driven Design Evaluation Tool for Handheld Device Soft Keyboards

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Matthieu B.; Sunderland, Elsie M.; Jindrich, Devin L.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    Thumb interaction is a primary technique used to operate small handheld devices such as smartphones. Despite the different techniques involved in operating a handheld device compared to a personal computer, the keyboard layouts for both devices are similar. A handheld device keyboard that considers the physical capabilities of the thumb may improve user experience. We developed and applied a design evaluation tool for different geometries of the QWERTY keyboard using a performance evaluation model. The model utilizes previously collected data on thumb motor performance and posture for different tap locations and thumb movement directions. We calculated a performance index (PITOT, 0 is worst and 2 is best) for 663 designs consisting in different combinations of three variables: the keyboard's radius of curvature (R) (mm), orientation (O) (°), and vertical location on the screen (L). The current standard keyboard performed poorly (PITOT = 0.28) compared to other designs considered. Keyboard location (L) contributed to the greatest variability in performance out of the three design variables, suggesting that designers should modify this variable first. Performance was greatest for designs in the middle keyboard location. In addition, having a slightly upward curve (R = −20 mm) and orientated perpendicular to the thumb's long axis (O = −20°) improved performance to PITOT = 1.97. Poorest performances were associated with placement of the keyboard's spacebar in the bottom right corner of the screen (e.g., the worst was for R = 20 mm, O = 40°, L =  Bottom (PITOT = 0.09)). While this evaluation tool can be used in the design process as an ergonomic reference to promote user motor performance, other design variables such as visual access and usability still remain unexplored. PMID:25211465

  5. Evaluation of the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer in horses and cattle.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Silvia Franco; Kupper, Daniel Silva; Pinho, Luiz Fernando Rodrigues; Franco, Elizabeth Cunha; Prataviera, Marcus Vinícius Felix Fabri; Duarte, Rodrigo Rolim; Junqueira, José Ricardo Cecílio

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and validate the accuracy of the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer for measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) in horses and cattle. Both eyes of 10 adult horses and cattle were evaluated in a postmortem study. The eyes from 10 clinically normal adult horses and cattle were also examined after bilateral auriculopalpebral nerve block and topical anesthesia for an in vivo study. IOP was measured postmortem using direct manometry (measured with an aneroid manometer) and tonometry (measured with a Perkins handheld applanation tonometer). The correlation coefficients (r(2)) for the data from the postmortem manometry and Perkins tonometer study were 0.866 for horses and 0.864 for cattle. In the in vivo study, IOP in horses was 25.1 ± 2.9 mmHg (range 19.0~30.0 mmHg) as measured by manometry and 23.4 ± 3.2 mmHg (range 18.6~28.4 mmHg) according to tonometry. In cattle, IOP was found to be 19.7 ± 1.2 mmHg (range 18.0~22.0 mmHg) by manometry and 18.8 ± 1.7 mmHg (range 15.9~20.8 mmHg) by tonometry. There was a strong correlation between the IOP values obtained by direct ocular manometry and the tonometer in both horses and cattle. Our results demonstrate that the Perkins handheld tonometer could be an additional tool for accurately measuring IOP in equine and bovine eyes.

  6. Optoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature: Feasibility by Using a Handheld Probe.

    PubMed

    Taruttis, Adrian; Timmermans, Arwin C; Wouters, Philip C; Kacprowicz, Marcin; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To investigate whether multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) developed for deep-tissue imaging in humans could enable the clinical assessment of major blood vessels and microvasculature. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University Medical Center Groningen (CCMO-NL-43587) and registered in the Dutch National Trial Registry (NTR4125). The authors designed a real-time handheld optoacoustic scanner for human use, based on a concave 8-MHz transducer array, attaining 135° angular coverage. They applied a single-pulse-frame (SPF) sequence, which enabled motion insensitive optoacoustic imaging during handheld operation. SPF optoacoustic imaging was applied to imaging arteries and microvascular landmarks in the lower extremities of 10 healthy volunteers. The diameters selected microvessels were determined by measuring the full width at half maximum through the vessels in the MSOT images. Duplex ultrasonography was performed on the same landmarks in seven of the 10 volunteers for subjective comparison to the corresponding optoacoustic images. Results Optoacoustic imaging resolved blood vessels as small as 100 µm in diameter and within 1 cm depth. Additionally, MSOT provided images reflecting hemoglobin oxygen saturation in blood vessels, clearly identifying arteries and veins, and was able to identify pulsation in arteries during imaging. Larger blood vessels, specifically the tibialis posterior and the dorsalis pedis arteries, were also visualized with MSOT. Conclusion Handheld MSOT was found to be capable of clinical vascular imaging, providing visualization of major blood vessels and microvasculature and providing images of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and pulsation. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:27379543

  7. Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chen D; Kraus, Martin F; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan J; Choi, Woojhon; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E; Hornegger, Joachim; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2013-12-20

    We developed an ultrahigh speed, handheld swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) ophthalmic instrument using a 2D MEMS mirror. A vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at 1060 nm center wavelength yielded a 350 kHz axial scan rate and 10 µm axial resolution in tissue. The long coherence length of the VCSEL enabled a 3.08 mm imaging range with minimal sensitivity roll-off in tissue. Two different designs with identical optical components were tested to evaluate handheld OCT ergonomics. An iris camera aided in alignment of the OCT beam through the pupil and a manual fixation light selected the imaging region on the retina. Volumetric and high definition scans were obtained from 5 undilated normal subjects. Volumetric OCT data was acquired by scanning the 2.4 mm diameter 2D MEMS mirror sinusoidally in the fast direction and linearly in the orthogonal slow direction. A second volumetric sinusoidal scan was obtained in the orthogonal direction and the two volumes were processed with a software algorithm to generate a merged motion-corrected volume. Motion-corrected standard 6 x 6 mm(2) and wide field 10 x 10 mm(2) volumetric OCT data were generated using two volumetric scans, each obtained in 1.4 seconds. High definition 10 mm and 6 mm B-scans were obtained by averaging and registering 25 B-scans obtained over the same position in 0.57 seconds. One of the advantages of volumetric OCT data is the generation of en face OCT images with arbitrary cross sectional B-scans registered to fundus features. This technology should enable screening applications to identify early retinal disease, before irreversible vision impairment or loss occurs. Handheld OCT technology also promises to enable applications in a wide range of settings outside of the traditional ophthalmology or optometry clinics including pediatrics, intraoperative, primary care, developing countries, and military medicine. PMID:24466495

  8. Accuracy and validity of IK4 handheld video keratometer measurements in children

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.; Dobson, Velma

    2011-01-01

    The Infant Keratometer (IK4) is a custom handheld instrument that was designed specifically to allow measurement of corneal astigmatism in infants as young as 6 months of age. In this study, accuracy of IK4 measurements using standard toric surfaces was within 0.25 D. Validity measurements obtained in 860 children aged 3–7 years demonstrated slightly higher astigmatism measurements in the IK4 than in the Retinomax K+. Measurement success was 98% using the IK4. The IK4 may prove to be clinically useful for screening children as young as 3 years of age at high risk for corneal astigmatism. PMID:21907130

  9. Rapid diagnosis of tinea incognito using handheld reflectance confocal microscopy: a paradigm shift in dermatology?

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Dechent, Cristián; Bajaj, Shirin; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Marchetti, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Dermatophytoses are common skin infections. Traditional diagnostic tests such as skin scrapings for light microscopy examination, fungal cultures and biopsies remain imperfect due to false-negative test results, cost, time required to perform the procedure, time delays in test results and/or a requirement for an invasive procedure. Herein, we present a case of an 80-year-old female whose tinea incognito was non-invasively diagnosed within seconds using handheld reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). As non-invasive skin imaging continues to improve, we expect light-based office microscopy to be replaced with technologies such as RCM, which has multiple and continually expanding diagnostic applications.

  10. Applications of a hand-held GPS receiver in South American rain forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baksh, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A hand-held Global Positioning System receiver was used to determine the precise locations of villages, houses, gardens, and other cultural and environmental features in poorly mapped South American rain forests. The Magellan NAV 1000 unit profides extremely accurate latitude and longitude information, but determination of altitude is problematical. Overall, the receiver effectively allows anthropologists to obtain essential locational data useful for categorizing land uses, mapping tribal boundaries, and other applications in regions where environmental conditions are harsh and/or accessibility is difficult.

  11. Handheld dual-wavelength Raman instrument for the detection of chemical agents and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christesen, Steven D.; Guicheteau, Jason A.; Curtiss, Justin M.; Fountain, Augustus W.

    2016-07-01

    Handheld Raman systems have become powerful analytical tools for the detection and identification of hazardous chemical materials that are now commonly used by both the civilian and military communities. Due to the availability of compact lasers and sensitive detectors, systems typically operate at 785 nm. However, the Raman return at this wavelength can still be obscured by fluorescent impurities in the targeted materials or their matrices. To potentially mitigate this shortcoming, a prototype dual-wavelength Raman incorporating both 785- and 1064-nm excitations was developed and assessed at the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. The results of that evaluation are discussed here.

  12. A handheld wireless device for diffuse optical spectroscopic assessment of infantile hemangiomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Christopher J.; Flexman, Molly; Hoi, Jennifer W.; Geller, Lauren; Garzon, Maria; Kim, Hyun K.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2013-03-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are common vascular growths that occur in 5-10% of neonates and have the potential to cause disfiguring and even life-threatening complications. With no objective tool to monitor IH, a handheld wireless device (HWD) that uses diffuse optical spectroscopy has been developed for use in assessment of IH by measurements in absolute oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration as well as scattering in tissue. Reconstructions of these variables can be computed using a multispectral evolution algorithm. We validated the new system by experimental studies using phantom experiments and a clinical study is under way to assess the utility of DOI for IH.

  13. Environmental applications of hand-held photography taken from the space shuttle

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlberger, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Astronauts have been taking photographs of earth since 1965, years before unmanned satellites began systematic coverage. The trained eye of an intelligent observer permits the rapid identification of a feature or an anomaly so that it can be the central focus of the photograph, rather than one of an endless stream of information from an unmanned satellite through which the interpreter has to sort and pick. This paper describes some of the environmental uses of hand-held photography since the launch of the first Space Shuttle in April, 1981.

  14. A Wireless, Handheld Decision Support System To Promote Smoking Cessation in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Michel, George; Marcy, Theodore; Shiffman, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco use remains a relatively unaddressed cause of disease and death in the daily care of patients by physicians. To overcome the barriers that physicians face in addressing tobacco use and its treatment in the primary care setting, we have developed a clinical decision support system that is readily accessible through the use of familiar wireless handheld devices and supportive of treatment through the implementation of the Tobacco Use and Dependence Treatment Guideline recommendations. We adopted the Information Management Services model to ensure that the application would effectively implement the guideline. The techniques used here are readily adaptable to implementing a broad range of clinical guidelines. PMID:16779096

  15. Rapid Diagnosis of an Ulnar Fracture with Portable Hand-Held Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Brown, Ross; Diebel, Lawrence N.; Nicolaou, Savvas; Marshburn, Tom; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Orthopedic fractures are a common injury in operational activities, injuries that often occur in isolated or hostile environments. Clinical ultrasound devices have become more user friendly and lighter allowing them to be easily transported with forward medical teams. The bone-soft tissue interface has a very large acoustic impedance, with a high reflectance that can be used to visualize breaks in contour including fractures. Herein reported is a case of an ulnar fracture that was quickly visualized in the early phase of a multi-system trauma resuscitation with a hand-held ultrasound device. The implications for operational medicine are discussed.

  16. Electronics System for the GammaTracker Handheld CdZnTe Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Myjak, Mitchell J.; Morris, Scott J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; McCann, Jason M.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Rohrer, John S.; Burghard, Brion J.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2007-12-31

    We are currently developing a handheld radioisotope identifier containing eighteen position-sensitive CdZnTe crystals. In addition to isotope identification, the device performs basic Compton imaging to determine the location of suspected sources. This paper gives an overview of the electronics system we have designed for this instrument. We use specialized application-specific integrated circuits to preprocess the outputs of each CdZnTe crystal. A low-power microprocessor running Windows CE drives the user interface and implements the isotope identification and directionality computations. Finally, we use a field-programmable gate array to perform the computationally intensive imaging tasks in real time.

  17. Active depth-guiding handheld micro-forceps for membranectomy based on CP-SSOCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Lee, Phillip; Gonenc, Berk; Gehlbach, Peter L.; Kang, Jin U.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a handheld motion-compensated micro-forceps system using common-path swept source optical coherence tomography with highly accurate depth-targeting and depth-locking for Epiretinal Membrane Peeling. Two motors and a touch sensor were used to separate the two independent motions: motion compensation and tool-tip manipulation. A smart motion monitoring and guiding algorithm was devised for precise and intuitive freehand control. Ex-vivo bovine eye experiments were performed to evaluate accuracy in a bovine retina retinal membrane peeling model. The evaluation demonstrates system capabilities of 40 um accuracy when peeling the epithelial layer of bovine retina.

  18. Multiple instance dictionary learning for subsurface object detection using handheld EMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Alina; Cook, Matthew; Alvey, Brendan; Ho, Dominic K.

    2015-05-01

    A dictionary learning approach for subsurface object detection using handheld electromagnetic induction (EMI) data is presented. A large number of unsupervised and supervised dictionary learning methods have been developed in the literature. However, the majority of these methods require data point-specific labels during training. In the application to subsurface object detection, often the specific training data samples that correspond to target and non-target are not known and difficult to determine manually. In this paper, a dictionary learning method that addresses this issue using the multiple instance learning techniques is presented. Results are shown on real EMI data sets.

  19. Quantitative Chemical Analysis of Archaeological Slag Material Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebecca B; Eekelers, Kim; Degryse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) has seen a dramatic increase in use for archaeological projects. The attraction of the technique is its portable and nondestructive nature. In many cases, the archaeological artefacts in question cannot be destructively sampled, or the piece itself cannot be sent to an analytical laboratory. One of the current research interests associated with the Sagalassos project is the study of the Roman iron industry. Previously exported iron slag and ore from the site and the surrounding area was subjected to laboratory chemical analyses. These indicated that different ores were being utilized in the production of iron in different periods. In order to further the project the slag material still in the site depot needed to be analyzed. However, recent legislative changes mean that materials can only be analyzed on-site. Since samples could not be taken and destructive chemical analysis was no longer feasible, a portable, nondestructive technique was required. Handheld XRF can easily provide qualitative data, but these data are only comparable to other handheld XRF qualitative data, from the same device. Quantitative data gathering is possible, but can be more problematic, particularly when the material in question is heterogeneous in nature. A calibration file was created using the manufacturer's software and "in-house" standards made from the pre-quantified samples of iron slag available in the laboratory. In order to make the calibration as robust as possible, the composition of the standards was analyzed statistically to determine which of these created bias and leverage for specific elements. These standards were then omitted from the calibration for that element. The calibration was tested in the laboratory using samples of iron slag previously analyzed with wet chemistry, and the results indicated that most sample analyses showed <30% error. Results with a >30% error were found in samples which contained very low or very

  20. Quantitative Chemical Analysis of Archaeological Slag Material Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebecca B; Eekelers, Kim; Degryse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) has seen a dramatic increase in use for archaeological projects. The attraction of the technique is its portable and nondestructive nature. In many cases, the archaeological artefacts in question cannot be destructively sampled, or the piece itself cannot be sent to an analytical laboratory. One of the current research interests associated with the Sagalassos project is the study of the Roman iron industry. Previously exported iron slag and ore from the site and the surrounding area was subjected to laboratory chemical analyses. These indicated that different ores were being utilized in the production of iron in different periods. In order to further the project the slag material still in the site depot needed to be analyzed. However, recent legislative changes mean that materials can only be analyzed on-site. Since samples could not be taken and destructive chemical analysis was no longer feasible, a portable, nondestructive technique was required. Handheld XRF can easily provide qualitative data, but these data are only comparable to other handheld XRF qualitative data, from the same device. Quantitative data gathering is possible, but can be more problematic, particularly when the material in question is heterogeneous in nature. A calibration file was created using the manufacturer's software and "in-house" standards made from the pre-quantified samples of iron slag available in the laboratory. In order to make the calibration as robust as possible, the composition of the standards was analyzed statistically to determine which of these created bias and leverage for specific elements. These standards were then omitted from the calibration for that element. The calibration was tested in the laboratory using samples of iron slag previously analyzed with wet chemistry, and the results indicated that most sample analyses showed <30% error. Results with a >30% error were found in samples which contained very low or very

  1. Measuring earthquake periodicity of the Sparta fault with a handheld XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzon, R.; Stroeven, A. P.; Skelton, A.; Goodfellow, B. W.; Caffee, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting earthquakes would help immensely in saving human lives and protecting economic interest. However a reliable method has not yet been found. When making risk assessments scientists still rely on reconstruction of earthquake periodicity. Finding a fast and cheap method to determine such periodicity is therefore of much interest. Benedetti et al. (2002, Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 29, NO. 8, 1246) used 36Cl exposure dating to determine the earthquake periodicity on the limestone surfaces of the Sparta normal fault, southern Greece. Since the analysis for cosmic ray exposure dating is costly Carcaillet et al. (2008, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 271, 145-158) instead used geochemical analyses to identify weathering patterns on the fault scarp in order to count the number and magnitude of slips. Both of these methods requires drilling or cutting of bedrock for sampling which is both complicated and time consuming since the faults are step and exposed. A handheld XRF device can instantly determine the geochemistry of the rock surface. This method requires no drilling and it is possible to analyse the results in field at the fault scarp. Using a handheld XRF to determine weathering patterns would still require exposure dating to yield earthquake periodicity, but the number of sampling points could be highly reduced since it would be possible to pin-point the sample locations. In our study we have analysed 200 sample points with a Olympus Innov-X DeltaTM handheld XRF from a 6.8m high section of the limestone normal fault scarp surface at Sparta. Our profile is taken next to the Benedetti et al. (2002) sampling site. Our study shows significant variations of Yttrium concentration along the profile with a strong peak just below the present soil cover at the base of the section and then repeated peaks up along the transect on the subaerially exposed scarp surface. These Yttrium concentrations taken from the surface are correlated to Yttrium

  2. A wireless handheld probe with spectrally constrained evolution strategies for diffuse optical imaging of tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexman, M. L.; Kim, H. K.; Stoll, R.; Khalil, M. A.; Fong, C. J.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2012-03-01

    We present a low-cost, portable, wireless diffuse optical imaging device. The handheld device is fast, portable, and can be applied to a wide range of both static and dynamic imaging applications including breast cancer, functional brain imaging, and peripheral artery disease. The continuous-wave probe has four near-infrared wavelengths and uses digital detection techniques to perform measurements at 2.3 Hz. Using a multispectral evolution algorithm for chromophore reconstruction, we can measure absolute oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration as well as scattering in tissue. Performance of the device is demonstrated using a series of liquid phantoms comprised of Intralipid®, ink, and dye.

  3. A handheld FTIR spectrometer with swappable modules for chemical vapor identification and surface swab analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Walter J.; Falvey, Brendan; Vander Rhodes, Greg; Krasnobaev, Leo; Vachon, Kenneth

    2013-05-01

    ThermoFisher Scientific (formerly Ahura Scientific) has developed a handheld, modular detection and identification system for trace-level gases, chemical vapors and aerosols, and swab analyses. The sample chamber is a separate, removable module that can be tailored specifically to the users' needs. The vapor module can operate in three modes: ambient sampling, vapor/aerosol preconcentration, and direct injection. A swab module can be used to analyze thermally desorbed vapors from a sample swab. Limits of identification for vapors are as low as 0.1 ppm following a 15-min preconcentration period. The swab module can detect as little as 5 μg of TNT.

  4. [Allele polymorphism analysis in coagulation factors F2, F5 and folate metabolism gene MTHFR by using microchip-based multiplex real time PCR].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, K V; Nikitin, M M; Slyadnev, M N

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping methods are widely used for the detection of hereditary thrombophilias caused by genetic defects in the coagulation system. The hereditary thrombophilias are frequently associated with higher incidences of point mutations in hemostasis (F2 20210G>A, F5 1691G>A) and folate metabolism (MTHFR 677C>Т, MTHFR 1298A>C) genes. Moreover, the combination of gene abnormalities in F2 or/and MTHFR with F5 Leiden mutation leads to increased risk of developing thrombosis. Thus, simultaneous detection of the multiple gene mutations in a sample has important clinical relevance. The microchip-based multiplex real time PCR for estimation of allele specific polymorphism in hemostatic and folate metabolism genes presented here has a high efficiency and may be used for laboratory diagnosis. The optimized protocol for estimation of 4 different types of genetic polymorphisms allowed PCR to be performed with minimal quantity of DNA template and PCR reagents including Taq polymerase and a short-term thermocycling. PMID:26215413

  5. [Allele polymorphism analysis in coagulation factors F2, F5 and folate metabolism gene MTHFR by using microchip-based multiplex real time PCR].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, K V; Nikitin, M M; Slyadnev, M N

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping methods are widely used for the detection of hereditary thrombophilias caused by genetic defects in the coagulation system. The hereditary thrombophilias are frequently associated with higher incidences of point mutations in hemostasis (F2 20210G>A, F5 1691G>A) and folate metabolism (MTHFR 677C>Т, MTHFR 1298A>C) genes. Moreover, the combination of gene abnormalities in F2 or/and MTHFR with F5 Leiden mutation leads to increased risk of developing thrombosis. Thus, simultaneous detection of the multiple gene mutations in a sample has important clinical relevance. The microchip-based multiplex real time PCR for estimation of allele specific polymorphism in hemostatic and folate metabolism genes presented here has a high efficiency and may be used for laboratory diagnosis. The optimized protocol for estimation of 4 different types of genetic polymorphisms allowed PCR to be performed with minimal quantity of DNA template and PCR reagents including Taq polymerase and a short-term thermocycling.

  6. From usability requirement to technical specifications for hand-held tools and materials: an applied research in the construction field.

    PubMed

    Duca, Gabriella; Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    Literature shows incidence of musculoskeletal disorders in bricklaying workers as well as the relevance of good designed hand-held tools in musculoskeletal disorders prevention. In this framework, it can be supposed that providing usable hand-held tools and material in construction worksites will help to improve bricklayers' working conditions. Here a study is presented aimed at framing a methodology for usability assessment of bricklayers handled objects, in order to provide employers with practical indicators for choosing tools and materials best fitting workers needs, under the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction perspective. On the basis of a task analysis, usability requirements for bricklaying hand-held tools and materials have been detailed and related, quantitative and qualitative, technical specifications have been elicited. Theoretical framework and usability assessment methodology are presented and, finally, findings from a field application are discussed.

  7. The Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV Hand-Held Computer as a Medium for Teaching Mathematics to Fire Control Systems Repairers. Research Report 1408.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldovici, John A.; Scott, Thomas D.

    A study compared the benefits of using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV hand-held computer, as opposed to conventional training without computers, in teaching mathematics to fire control systems repairers. Thirty soldiers in a course to train fire control systems repairers received training in technical mathematics using the hand-held computer, whereas…

  8. Laboratory evaluation of the GreenSeeker (TM) hand-held optical sensor to variations in orientation and height above canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Handheld optical sensors recently have been introduced to the agricultural market to simplify acquisition of spectral reflectance data. These handheld sensors are able to provide operators with Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) data when cloud cover prevents acquisition of satellite or ...

  9. Simple hand-held metal detectors are an effective means of detecting cardiac pacemakers in the deceased prior to cremation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jason Lyle; Williams, John; Fearn, Lesley

    2010-05-01

    The hazard of undetected cardiac pacemakers exploding in crematoria is well described. This short report describes the use of an affordable hand-held metal detector to detect cardiac pacemakers. Over the course of a year, the metal detector located 100% of cardiac pacemakers in a district general hospital mortuary. A simple model using pigskin and fat is also used to demonstrate the effectiveness in vitro. Commercially purchased hand-held metal detectors should be used in all mortuaries responsible for detection and removal of cardiac pacemakers prior to cremation.

  10. Curvelet filter based prescreener for explosive hazard detection in hand-held ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Julie L.; Anderson, Derek T.; Ball, John E.; Parker, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Explosive hazards, above and below ground, are a serious threat to civilians and soldiers. In an attempt to mitigate these threats, different forms of explosive hazard detection (EHD) exist; e.g., multi-sensor hand-held platforms, downward looking and forward looking vehicle mounted platforms, etc. Robust detection of these threats resides in the processing and fusion of different data from multiple sensing modalities, e.g., radar, infrared, electromagnetic induction (EMI), etc. Herein, we focus on a new energy-based prescreener in hand-held ground penetrating radar (GPR). First, we Curvelet filter B-scan signal data using either Reverse-Reconstruction followed by Enhancement (RRE) or selectivity with respect to wedge information in the Curvelet transform. Next, we aggregate the result of a bank of matched filters and run a size contrast filter with Bhattacharyya distance. Alarms are then combined using weighted mean shift clustering. Results are demonstrated in the context of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve performance on data from a U. S. Army test site that contains multiple target and clutter types, burial depths and times of the day.

  11. Strength and Pain Threshold Handheld Dynamometry Test Reliability in Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, R A; Vollebregt, T; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; van Middelkoop, M

    2015-12-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), characterized by peri- and retropatellar pain, is a common disorder in young, active people. The etiology is unclear; however, quadriceps strength seems to be a contributing factor, and sensitization might play a role. The study purpose is determining the inter-rater reliability of handheld dynamometry to test both quadriceps strength and pressure pain threshold (PPT), a measure for sensitization, in patients with PFPS. This cross-sectional case-control study comprises 3 quadriceps strength and one PPT measurements performed by 2 independent investigators in 22 PFPS patients and 16 matched controls. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Inter-rater reliability of quadriceps strength testing was fair to good in PFPS patients (ICC=0.72) and controls (ICC=0.63). Bland-Altman plots showed an increased difference between assessors when average quadriceps strength values exceeded 250 N. Inter-rater reliability of PPT was excellent in patients (ICC=0.79) and fair to good in controls (ICC=0.52). Handheld dynamometry seems to be a reliable method to test both quadriceps strength and PPT in PFPS patients. Inter-rater reliability was higher in PFPS patients compared to control subjects. With regard to quadriceps testing, a higher variance between assessors occurs when quadriceps strength increases. PMID:26422052

  12. A Non-Invasive Handheld Assistive Device to Accommodate Essential Tremor: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Anupam; Redmond, John A.; Allen, Michael; Chou, Kelvin L.

    2014-01-01

    Background We explored whether a non-invasive, handheld device using Active Cancellation of Tremor (ACT) technology could stabilize tremor-induced motion of a spoon in individuals with essential tremor (ET). Methods Fifteen ET subjects (9M/6F) performed 3 tasks with the ACT device turned on and off. Tremor severity was rated with the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (TRS). Subjective improvement was rated by subjects with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI-S). Tremor amplitude was measured using device-embedded accelerometers in 11 subjects. Results TRS scores improved with ACT on (versus off) in all 3 tasks: holding (1.00±0.76 vs. 0.27±0.70, p=0.016), eating (1.47±1.06 vs. 0.13±0.64, p=0.001) and transferring (1.33±0.82 vs. 0.27±0.59, p=0.001). CGI-S improved with eating and transferring, but not the holding task. Accelerometer measurements demonstrated 71-76% reduction in tremor with ACT device on. Conclusions This non-invasive, handheld ACT device can reduce tremor amplitude and severity for eating and transferring tasks in individuals with ET. PMID:24375570

  13. Handheld non-contact evaluation of fastener flushness and countersink surface profiles using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, James H.; Wang, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    We report the use of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for non-contact optical evaluation of fastener flushness and countersink surface profile. Using a handheld galvanometer scanner of only 0.5 lb in weight the SD-OCT can perform line scan surface profile measurement of fastener and countersink without demanding accurate scan center alignment. It demonstrates fast measurement of fastener flushness, radius, slant angle, as well as countersink edge radius and surface angle within 90 ms suitable for handheld operation. With the use of a broadband light source at 840 nm center wavelength and 45 nm spectral bandwidth and a lens of 60 mm focal length, the low coherence interferometry based SD-OCT measurement offers axial depth resolution of 8.5 μm, lateral resolution of 19 μm, and measurement depth of 3.65 mm in the air. Multi-line scans can yield 3D surface profiles of fastener and countersink.

  14. Three-dimensional multispectral hand-held optoacoustic imaging with microsecond-level delayed laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. L.; Bay, Erwin; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional hand-held optoacoustic imaging comes with important advantages that prompt the clinical translation of this modality, with applications envisioned in cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease, disorders of the lymphatic system, breast cancer, arthritis or inflammation. Of particular importance is the multispectral acquisition of data by exciting the tissue at several wavelengths, which enables functional imaging applications. However, multispectral imaging of entire three-dimensional regions is significantly challenged by motion artefacts in concurrent acquisitions at different wavelengths. A method based on acquisition of volumetric datasets having a microsecond-level delay between pulses at different wavelengths is described in this work. This method can avoid image artefacts imposed by a scanning velocity greater than 2 m/s, thus, does not only facilitate imaging influenced by respiratory, cardiac or other intrinsic fast movements in living tissues, but can achieve artifact-free imaging in the presence of more significant motion, e.g., abrupt displacements during handheld-mode operation in a clinical environment.

  15. Hand-held optoacoustic probe for three-dimensional imaging of human morphology and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We report on a hand-held imaging probe for real-time optoacoustic visualization of deep tissues in three dimensions. The proposed solution incorporates a two-dimensional array of ultrasonic sensors densely distributed on a spherical surface, whereas illumination is performed coaxially through a cylindrical cavity in the array. Visualization of three-dimensional tomographic data at a frame rate of 10 images per second is enabled by parallel recording of 256 time-resolved signals for each individual laser pulse along with a highly efficient GPUbased real-time reconstruction. A liquid coupling medium (water), enclosed in a transparent membrane, is used to guarantee transmission of the optoacoustically generated waves to the ultrasonic detectors. Excitation at multiple wavelengths further allows imaging spectrally distinctive tissue chromophores such as oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin. The performance is showcased by video-rate tracking of deep tissue vasculature and three-dimensional measurements of blood oxygenenation in a healthy human volunteer. The flexibility provided by the hand-held hardware design, combined with the real-time operation, makes the developed platform highly usable for both small animal research and clinical imaging in multiple indications, including cancer, inflammation, skin and cardiovascular diseases, diagnostics of lymphatic system and breast

  16. Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Demian, Dorin; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Cernat, Ramona; Topala, Florin Ionel; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-08-01

    Three simple and low-cost configurations of handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography have been developed. Their design and testing for dentistry applications are presented. The first two configurations were built exclusively from available off-the-shelf optomechanical components, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the first designs of this type. The third configuration includes these components in an optimized and ergonomic probe. All the designs are presented in detail to allow for their duplication in any laboratory with a minimum effort, for applications that range from educational to high-end clinical investigations. Requirements that have to be fulfilled to achieve configurations which are reliable, ergonomic-for clinical environments, and easy to build are presented. While a range of applications is possible for the prototypes developed, in this study the handheld probes are tested ex vivo with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system built in-house, for dental constructs. A previous testing with a swept source optical coherence tomography system has also been performed both in vivo and ex vivo for ear, nose, and throat-in a medical environment. The applications use the capability of optical coherence tomography to achieve real-time, high-resolution, non-contact, and non-destructive interferometric investigations with micrometer resolutions and millimeter penetration depth inside the sample. In this study, testing the quality of the material of one of the most used types of dental prosthesis, metalo-ceramic is thus demonstrated.

  17. Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Demian, Dorin; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Cernat, Ramona; Topala, Florin Ionel; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-01-01

    Three simple and low-cost configurations of handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography have been developed. Their design and testing for dentistry applications are presented. The first two configurations were built exclusively from available off-the-shelf optomechanical components, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the first designs of this type. The third configuration includes these components in an optimized and ergonomic probe. All the designs are presented in detail to allow for their duplication in any laboratory with a minimum effort, for applications that range from educational to high-end clinical investigations. Requirements that have to be fulfilled to achieve configurations which are reliable, ergonomic—for clinical environments, and easy to build are presented. While a range of applications is possible for the prototypes developed, in this study the handheld probes are tested ex vivo with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system built in-house, for dental constructs. A previous testing with a swept source optical coherence tomography system has also been performed both in vivo and ex vivo for ear, nose, and throat—in a medical environment. The applications use the capability of optical coherence tomography to achieve real-time, high-resolution, non-contact, and non-destructive interferometric investigations with micrometer resolutions and millimeter penetration depth inside the sample. In this study, testing the quality of the material of one of the most used types of dental prosthesis, metalo-ceramic is thus demonstrated. PMID:25107512

  18. Stabilized, hand-held, gamma-ray verification instrument for special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Wiig, G.

    1988-01-01

    For many years, Los Alamos has developed intelligent, hand-held, search instruments for use by non-specialists to search for special nuclear materials (SNM). The instruments sense SNM by detecting its emitted radiation with scintillation detectors monitored by digital alarm circuitry. Now, we have developed a new hand-held instrument that can verify the presence or absence of particular radioisotopes by analyzing gamma-ray spectra. The new instrument is similar to recent, microprocessor-based, search instruments, but has LED detector stabilization, three adjustable regions-of-interest, and additional operating programs for spectrum analysis. We call the new instrument an SNM verification instrument. Its spectrum analysis capability can verify the presence or absence of specific plutonium isotopes in containers or verify the presence of uranium and its enrichment. The instrument retains the search capability, light weight, and low-power requirement of its predecessors. Its ready portability, detector stabilization, and simple operation allow individuals with little technical training to verify the contents of SNM containers. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  19. DNA aptamer beacon assay for C-telopeptide and handheld fluorometer to monitor bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John Gordon; Carrillo, Maria P; Phillips, Taylor; Hanson, Douglas; Bohmann, Jonathan A

    2011-09-01

    A novel DNA aptamer beacon is described for quantification of a 26-amino acid C-telopeptide (CTx) of human type I bone collagen. One aptamer sequence and its reverse complement dominated the aptamer pool (31.6% of sequenced clones). Secondary structures of these aptamers were examined for potential binding pockets. Three-dimensional computer models which analyzed docking topologies and binding energies were in agreement with empirical fluorescence experiments used to select one candidate loop for beacon assay development. All loop structures from the aptamer finalists were end-labeled with TYE 665 and Iowa Black quencher for comparison of beacon fluorescence levels as a function of CTx concentration. The optimal beacon, designated CTx 2R-2h yielded a low ng/ml limit of detection using a commercially available handheld fluorometer. The CTx aptamer beacon bound full-length 26-amino acid CTx peptide, but not a shorter 8-amino acid segment of CTx peptide which is a common target for commercial CTx ELISA kits. The prototype assay was shown to detect CTx peptide from human urine after creatinine and urea were removed by size-exclusion chromatography to prevent nonspecific denaturing of the aptamer beacon. This work demonstrates the potential of aptamer beacons to be utilized for rapid and sensitive bone health monitoring in a handheld or point-of-care format.

  20. Initial Usability Testing of a Hand-held Electronic Logbook Prototype for the Human Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Andrea H.; Whitmore, Mihriban

    1996-01-01

    The Apple(R) Newton(TM) MessagePad 110 was flown aboard the KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft for microgravity usability testing. The Newton served as the initial hand-held electronic logbook prototype for the International Space Station (ISS) Human Research Facility (HRF). Subjects performed three different tasks with the Newton: (1) using the stylus to tap on different sections of the screen in order to launch an application and to select options within it; (2) using the stylus to write, and; (3) correcting handwriting recognition errors in a handwriting-intensive application. Subjects rated handwriting in microgravity 'Borderline' and had great difficulties finding a way in which to adequately restrain themselves at the lower body in order to have their hands free for the Newton. Handwriting recognition was rated 'Unacceptable,' but this issue is hardware-related and not unique to the microgravity environment. It is suggested that the restraint and handwriting issues are related and require further joint research with the current Handheld Electronic Logbook prototype: the Norand Pen*key Model #6300.

  1. Finger tracking for hand-held device interface using profile-matching stereo vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yung-Ping; Lee, Dah-Jye; Moore, Jason; Desai, Alok; Tippetts, Beau

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people use hand-held devices frequently and control them by touching the screen with their fingers. If this method of operation is being used by people who are driving, the probability of deaths and accidents occurring substantially increases. With a non-contact control interface, people do not need to touch the screen. As a result, people will not need to pay as much attention to their phones and thus drive more safely than they would otherwise. This interface can be achieved with real-time stereovision. A novel Intensity Profile Shape-Matching Algorithm is able to obtain 3-D information from a pair of stereo images in real time. While this algorithm does have a trade-off between accuracy and processing speed, the result of this algorithm proves the accuracy is sufficient for the practical use of recognizing human poses and finger movement tracking. By choosing an interval of disparity, an object at a certain distance range can be segmented. In other words, we detect the object by its distance to the cameras. The advantage of this profile shape-matching algorithm is that detection of correspondences relies on the shape of profile and not on intensity values, which are subjected to lighting variations. Based on the resulting 3-D information, the movement of fingers in space from a specific distance can be determined. Finger location and movement can then be analyzed for non-contact control of hand-held devices.

  2. A MEMS based handheld confocal microscope with Raman spectroscopy for in-vivo skin cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrasmith, Christopher L.; Patil, Chetan A.; Dickensheets, David L.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2009-02-01

    Both Confocal Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy have shown potential for diagnosis and differentiation of cancerous and normal skin. Many current studies utilizing these techniques use large bench-top microscopes, and are not suited for in-vivo diagnosis in a clinical setting. We have developed a microscope which combines confocal reflectance imaging with Raman spectroscopy into a compact handheld probe, allowing images and Raman spectra to be taken in-vivo. The compact design of this handheld unit is largely due to the use of a MEMS mirror which scans the illumination laser light in two dimensions to produce the confocal reflectance image of the skin. An integrated CCD camera provides a large area view of the skin surface which helps to guide the location of the confocal reflectance image area. Using this probe, in-vivo confocal reflectance images and Raman spectra of normal skin have been obtained with axial resolutions of 4 μm for the confocal channel and 10 μm for the Raman channel. This paper presents the instrument design and optical characteristics, including representative in-vivo images and Raman data from normal skin tissue.

  3. Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Demian, Dorin; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Cernat, Ramona; Topala, Florin Ionel; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-08-01

    Three simple and low-cost configurations of handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography have been developed. Their design and testing for dentistry applications are presented. The first two configurations were built exclusively from available off-the-shelf optomechanical components, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the first designs of this type. The third configuration includes these components in an optimized and ergonomic probe. All the designs are presented in detail to allow for their duplication in any laboratory with a minimum effort, for applications that range from educational to high-end clinical investigations. Requirements that have to be fulfilled to achieve configurations which are reliable, ergonomic-for clinical environments, and easy to build are presented. While a range of applications is possible for the prototypes developed, in this study the handheld probes are tested ex vivo with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system built in-house, for dental constructs. A previous testing with a swept source optical coherence tomography system has also been performed both in vivo and ex vivo for ear, nose, and throat-in a medical environment. The applications use the capability of optical coherence tomography to achieve real-time, high-resolution, non-contact, and non-destructive interferometric investigations with micrometer resolutions and millimeter penetration depth inside the sample. In this study, testing the quality of the material of one of the most used types of dental prosthesis, metalo-ceramic is thus demonstrated. PMID:25107512

  4. Handheld Thermoacoustic Scanning System Based on a Linear-array Transducer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Ye, Fanghao; Lou, Cunguang

    2016-07-01

    To receive the information necessary for imaging, traditional microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging systems (MITISs) use a type of circular-scanning mode using single or arc detectors. However, the use of MITISs for body scanning is complicated by restrictions in space and imaging time. A linear-array detector, the most widely used transducer in medical ultrasound imaging systems for body scanning, is a possible alternative to MITISs for scanning biological tissues, such as from the breast or limbs. In this paper, a handheld MITIS, based on a linear-array detector and a multiple data acquisition system, is described, and the capacity of the system is explored experimentally. First, the vertical and lateral resolution of the system is discussed. Next, real-time imaging of a moving object, obtained with an image capture rate of 20 frame/s, is described. Finally, a phantom experiment is detailed, investigating the overall imaging capability. The results show that this system achieves rapid scanning with a large field of view. The system has the obvious advantages of being handheld, not using coupled fluids, and achieving real-time imaging with a large field of view, which make this MITIS more suitable for clinical applications.

  5. A novel handheld fluorescent microarray reader for point-of-care diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Kozma, P; Lehmann, A; Wunderlich, K; Michel, D; Schumacher, S; Ehrentreich-Förster, E; Bier, F F

    2013-09-15

    A novel handheld optical sensor for quantification of fluorescent microarrays, the so-called portMD-113 has been developed. On the surface of a planar waveguide, the spots of different fluorescently labeled biological complexes are excited by the evanescent field of the guided light. The emitted fluorescence signals of the spots are independently and simultaneously detected applying our system, which consists of a pinehole array, a microlens array, an interference filter and a detector array. As it is demonstrated in comparative measurements, the detection limit of this sensor is close to that of commercial top microarray readers, e.g. of modern laser scanners, while it has remarkable and important advantages over them. Namely, the device comprises only a few low-cost, lightweight and small components without applying any moving or energy-intensive elements, which results in turn in a commercially competitive, handheld and compact design and in the possibility to be supplied simply by a battery or a personal computer. These advantageous properties open prospects e.g. for point-of-care medical checks, as well.

  6. Migration and interpolation for the hand-held GPR MD sensor system (ALIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xuan; Kobayashi, Takao; Takahashi, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Jun; Sato, Motoyuki

    2006-05-01

    We developed a hand-held landmine detection sensor system, ALIS (Advanced Landmine Imaging System), combined with a metal detector and GPR (Ground penetrating radar). The system has a CCD camera attached on the sensor handle and can record the MD and GPR signal with the sensor position information. Therefore, it can offer the visual MD image and GPR image, which is used to define targets. But because ALIS is a hand-held system, the sensor position is random when it is operated in the field by human being. Also GPR normally suffers from very strong clutter. To deal with these problems, the interpolation is a common choice for both MD and GPR to create grid data set firstly and migration was used to improve the quality of GPR image. But generally the interpolation can not improve the quality of data set, although it can offer grid data set for visualization. Also for 3D GPR data set, it will consume much processing time. In fact, the migration can not only improve the quality of GPR data but also interpolate data to offer grid data set. It is a kind of 2.5D interpolation and just uses related data in the diffraction trajectory surface. So it can offer directly the visual GPR image and save the processing time. We will discuss two procedures for GPR, interpolation + migration or only migration, in this paper. Lastly, we also will report some results of evaluation test in 2006 February in Croatia.

  7. Development of a hand-held GPR MD sensor system (ALIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Feng, Xuan; Zhou, Zheng-Shu; Kobayashi, Takao

    2005-06-01

    ALIS (Advanced Landmine Imaging System), which is a novel landmine detection sensor system combined with a metal detector and GPR, was developed. This is a hand-held equipment, which has a sensor position tracking system, and can visualize the sensor output in real time on a head-mounted PC display. In order to achieve the sensor tracking system, ALIS needs only one CCD camera attached on the sensor handle. The new hand-held system ALIS is a very compact and do not require any additional sensor for sensor position tracking. The acquired signal from the metal detector and GPR is displayed on the PC display on real time, and the sensor trace can be checked by the operator. At the same time, the operator can visually recognize the signal on the same display. The CCD captured image is superimposed with the GPR and metal detector signal, therefore the detection and identification of buried targets is quite easy and reliable. Field evaluation test of ALIS was conducted in Afghanistan, and we demonstrated that it can detect buried antipersonnel landmines, and can also discriminate metal fragments from landmines.

  8. Imaging algorithm of a hand-held GPR MD sensor system (ALIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xuan; Fujiwara, Jun; Zhou, Zheng-shu; Kobayashi, Takao; Sato, Motoyuki

    2005-06-01

    We are developing a new landmine detection system, called advanced landmine imaging system (ALIS), which is equipped with metal detector (MD) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Although this is a hand-held system, we can record the MD and GPR signal with the sensor position information acquired by CCD camera. Therefore, 2D MD image and 3D GPR image are possible after signal processing. But because ALIS is a hand-held system, the sensor position is random when it is operated in the field. So interpolation processing is used to deal with the problem and offer grid data set for both MD and GPR. Good MD image can be achieved after interpolation. Also, interpolation can prepare good data set for migration to get good horizontal slice image. After interpolation, 3D diffraction stacking migration with migration aperture is used to refocus the scattered signals and enhance the signal-clutter ratio for reconstructed good GPR image. The ALIS was tested in Afghanistan in December 2004 and could achieve good landmine image. Especially, GPR could obtain good image of anti-person (AP) mine buried at more than 20cm depth. Also MD image and GPR image could combine to distinguish mine from metal fragment.

  9. Algorithms for a hand-held miniature x-ray fluorescence analytical instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, W.T.; Newman, D.; Ziemba, F.

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this joint program was to provide technical assistance with the development of a Miniature X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analytical Instrument. This new XRF instrument is designed to overcome the weaknesses of spectrometers commercially available at the present time. Currently available XRF spectrometers (for a complete list see reference 1) convert spectral information to sample composition using the influence coefficients technique or the fundamental parameters method. They require either a standard sample with composition relatively close to the unknown or a detailed knowledge of the sample matrix. They also require a highly-trained operator and the results often depend on the capabilities of the operator. In addition, almost all existing field-portable, hand-held instruments use radioactive sources for excitation. Regulatory limits on such sources restrict them such that they can only provide relatively weak excitation. This limits all current hand-held XRF instruments to poor detection limits and/or long data collection times, in addition to the licensing requirements and disposal problems for radioactive sources. The new XRF instrument was developed jointly by Quantrad Sensor, Inc., the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and the Department of Energy (DOE). This report describes the analysis algorithms developed by NRL for the new instrument and the software which embodies them.

  10. A Handheld Open-Field Infant Keratometer (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate a new infant keratometer that incorporates an unobstructed view of the infant with both eyes (open-field design). Methods: The design of the open-field infant keratometer is presented, and details of its construction are given. The design incorporates a single-ring keratoscope for measurement of corneal astigmatism over a 4-mm region of the cornea and includes a rectangular grid target concentric within the ring to allow for the study of higher-order aberrations of the eye. In order to calibrate the lens and imaging system, a novel telecentric test object was constructed and used. The system was bench calibrated against steel ball bearings of known dimensions and evaluated for accuracy while being used in handheld mode in a group of 16 adult cooperative subjects. It was then evaluated for testability in a group of 10 infants and toddlers. Results: Results indicate that while the device achieved the goal of creating an open-field instrument containing a single-ring keratoscope with a concentric grid array for the study of higher-order aberrations, additional work is required to establish better control of the vertex distance. Conclusion: The handheld open-field infant keratometer demonstrates testability suitable for the study of infant corneal astigmatism. Use of collimated light sources in future iterations of the design must be incorporated in order to achieve the accuracy required for clinical investigation. PMID:21212850

  11. Handheld Reflective Foil Emissometer with 0.007 Absolute Accuracy at 0.05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ham, E. W. M.; Ballico, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    The development and performance of a handheld emissometer for the measurement of the emissivity of highly reflective metallic foils used for the insulation of domestic and commercial buildings are described. Reflective roofing insulation based on a thin coating of metal on a more robust substrate is very widely used in hotter climates to reduce the radiant heat transfer between the ceiling and roof in commercial and residential buildings. The required normal emissivity of these foils is generally below 0.05, so stray reflected ambient infrared radiation (IR) makes traditional reflectance-based measurements of emissivity very difficult to achieve with the required accuracy. Many manufacturers apply additional coatings onto the metallic foil to reduce visible glare during installation on a roof, and to provide protection to the thin reflective layer; however, this layer can also substantially increase the IR emissivity. The system as developed at the National Measurement Institute, Australia (NMIA) is based on the principle of measurement of the modulation in thermal infrared radiation, as the sample is thermally modulated by hot and cold air streams. A commercial infrared to band radiation thermometer with a highly specialized stray and reflected radiation shroud attachment is used as the detector system, allowing for convenient handheld field measurements. The performance and accuracy of the system have been compared with NMIA's reference emissometer systems for a number of typical material samples, demonstrating its capability to measure the absolute thermal emissivity of these very highly reflective foils with an uncertainty of better than.

  12. Radiology on handheld devices: image display, manipulation, and PACS integration issues.

    PubMed

    Raman, Bhargav; Raman, Raghav; Raman, Lalithakala; Beaulieu, Christopher F

    2004-01-01

    Handheld personal digital assistants (PDAs) have undergone continuous and substantial improvements in hardware and graphics capabilities, making them a compelling platform for novel developments in teleradiology. The latest PDAs have processor speeds of up to 400 MHz and storage capacities of up to 80 Gbytes with memory expansion methods. A Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-compliant, vendor-independent handheld image access system was developed in which a PDA server acts as the gateway between a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and PDAs. The system is compatible with most currently available PDA models. It is capable of both wired and wireless transfer of images and includes custom PDA software and World Wide Web interfaces that implement a variety of basic image manipulation functions. Implementation of this system, which is currently undergoing debugging and beta testing, required optimization of the user interface to efficiently display images on smaller PDA screens. The PDA server manages user work lists and implements compression and security features to accelerate transfer speeds, protect patient information, and regulate access. Although some limitations remain, PDA-based teleradiology has the potential to increase the efficiency of the radiologic work flow, increasing productivity and improving communication with referring physicians and patients.

  13. Application of handheld and portable spectrometers for screening acrylamide content in commercial potato chips.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Huseyin; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2015-05-01

    The most common methods for acrylamide analysis in foods require the use of LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. Although these methods have great analytical performance, they need intensive sample preparation, highly specialised instrumentation, and are time consuming. In this study, portable and handheld infrared spectrometers were evaluated as rapid methods for screening acrylamide in potato chips and their performances were compared to those of benchtop infrared systems. The acrylamide content of 64 commercial potato chips (169-2453 μg/kg) was determined by LC-MS/MS. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration models were developed to predict acrylamide levels. Overall, good linear correlation was found between the predicted acrylamide levels and actual measured acrylamide concentrations by LC-MS/MS (rPred > 0.90 and SEP < 100 μg/kg). Our results indicate that portable and handheld spectrometers can be used as simple and rapid alternatives for acrylamide analysis in potato chips. PMID:25529665

  14. Handheld Thermoacoustic Scanning System Based on a Linear-array Transducer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Ye, Fanghao; Lou, Cunguang

    2016-07-01

    To receive the information necessary for imaging, traditional microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging systems (MITISs) use a type of circular-scanning mode using single or arc detectors. However, the use of MITISs for body scanning is complicated by restrictions in space and imaging time. A linear-array detector, the most widely used transducer in medical ultrasound imaging systems for body scanning, is a possible alternative to MITISs for scanning biological tissues, such as from the breast or limbs. In this paper, a handheld MITIS, based on a linear-array detector and a multiple data acquisition system, is described, and the capacity of the system is explored experimentally. First, the vertical and lateral resolution of the system is discussed. Next, real-time imaging of a moving object, obtained with an image capture rate of 20 frame/s, is described. Finally, a phantom experiment is detailed, investigating the overall imaging capability. The results show that this system achieves rapid scanning with a large field of view. The system has the obvious advantages of being handheld, not using coupled fluids, and achieving real-time imaging with a large field of view, which make this MITIS more suitable for clinical applications. PMID:26294659

  15. Development of a handheld bistatic imaging sonar system for underwater search and survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Alice; Broadstone, Steven; Impagliazzo, John

    2003-10-01

    A high resolution, handheld imaging sonar system is under development by Teratech Corporation for the U.S. Navy. This is a 192 channel, dual frequency bistatic sonar for Navy divers performing search and survey missions for underwater explosives. Our goal is to provide the most compact and energy efficient imaging system for the divers. The system consists of a self-contained handheld unit and a head mounted display integrated into the divers mask. The low power and small volume are a result of the development of Teratechs Charge Domain Processing (CDP) technology. This technology has led to the development of a low power 64-channel beamformer chip. As a result, only three beamformer chips will be required for the 192 channels. Until now, the implementation of small, low power sonar systems containing this many elements and forming enough beams to create an image was considered impossible. Progress in the development of this product will be presented. In-water testing is planned for late summer 2003. Experimental results and test images available will be presented at the conference. [Work sponsored by ONR and OSD Small Business Innovative Research Program, Program manager, Mr. Bruce Johnson, Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division.

  16. Estimation of antioxidant components of tomato using VIS-NIR reflectance data by handheld portable spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuvandzsiev, Péter; Helyes, Lajos; Lugasi, Andrea; Szántó, Csongor; Baranowski, Piotr; Pék, Zoltán

    2014-10-01

    Processing tomato production represents an important part of the total production of processed vegetables in the world. The quality characteristics of processing tomato, important for the food industry, are soluble solids content and antioxidant content (such as lycopene and polyphenols) of the fruit. Analytical quantification of these components is destructive, time and labour consuming. That is why researchers try to develop a non-destructive and rapid method to assess those quality parameters. The present study reports the suitability of a portable handheld visible near infrared spectrometer to predict soluble solids, lycopene and polyphenol content of tomato fruit puree. Spectral ranges of 500-1000 nm were directly acquired on fruit puree of five different tomato varieties using a FieldSpec HandHeld 2™ Portable Spectroradiometer. Immediately after spectral measurement, each fruit sample was analysed to determine soluble solids, lycopene and polyphenol content. Partial least square regressions were carried out to create models of prediction between spectral data and the values obtained from the analytical results. The accuracy of the predictions was analysed according to the coefficient of determination value (R2), the root mean square error of calibration/ cross-validation.

  17. Advanced sampling techniques for hand-held FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Weber, Chris; Levy, Dustin

    2013-05-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenging ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, extreme reliability, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the HazMatID™ Elite, a FT-IR instrument designed to balance the portability advantages of a handheld device with the performance challenges associated with miniaturization. In this paper, special focus will be given to the HazMatID Elite's sampling interfaces optimized to collect and interrogate different types of samples: accumulated material using the on-board ATR press, dispersed powders using the ClearSampler™ tool, and the touch-to-sample sensor for direct liquid sampling. The application of the novel sample swipe accessory (ClearSampler) to collect material from surfaces will be discussed in some detail. The accessory was tested and evaluated for the detection of explosive residues before and after detonation. Experimental results derived from these investigations will be described in an effort to outline the advantages of this technology over existing sampling methods.

  18. Application of handheld and portable spectrometers for screening acrylamide content in commercial potato chips.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Huseyin; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2015-05-01

    The most common methods for acrylamide analysis in foods require the use of LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. Although these methods have great analytical performance, they need intensive sample preparation, highly specialised instrumentation, and are time consuming. In this study, portable and handheld infrared spectrometers were evaluated as rapid methods for screening acrylamide in potato chips and their performances were compared to those of benchtop infrared systems. The acrylamide content of 64 commercial potato chips (169-2453 μg/kg) was determined by LC-MS/MS. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration models were developed to predict acrylamide levels. Overall, good linear correlation was found between the predicted acrylamide levels and actual measured acrylamide concentrations by LC-MS/MS (rPred > 0.90 and SEP < 100 μg/kg). Our results indicate that portable and handheld spectrometers can be used as simple and rapid alternatives for acrylamide analysis in potato chips.

  19. Schools Going Mobile: A Study of the Adoption of Mobile Handheld Technologies in Western Australian Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegrum, Mark; Oakley, Grace; Faulkner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the adoption of mobile handheld technologies in ten Western Australian independent schools, based on interviews with staff conducted in 2011. iPads were the most popular device, followed by iPod Touches and iPhones. Class sets were common at lower levels, with 1:1 models becoming increasingly common at higher levels. Mobile…

  20. Linear Text vs. Non-Linear Hypertext in Handheld Computers: Effects on Declarative and Structural Knowledge, and Learner Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Chanhee; Park, Sanghoon; Kim, Minjeong

    2011-01-01

    This study compared linear text-based and non-linear hypertext-based instruction in a handheld computer regarding effects on two different levels of knowledge (declarative and structural knowledge) and learner motivation. Forty four participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: linear text, hierarchical hypertext,…

  1. Performance, Accuracy, Data Delivery, and Feedback Methods in Order Selection: A Comparison of Voice, Handheld, and Paper Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Goomas, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Field study was conducted in auto-parts after-market distribution centers where selectors used handheld computers to receive instructions and feedback about their product selection process. A wireless voice-interaction technology was then implemented in a multiple baseline fashion across three departments of a warehouse (N = 14) and was associated…

  2. High-Tech versus Low-Tech Instructional Strategies: A Comparison of Clickers and Handheld Response Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Marianne; Forrest, Stacey L.

    2011-01-01

    Although the use of clickers (classroom response systems) has been widely investigated, fewer studies directly compared outcomes for clickers with other active response methods, such as handheld response cards. We measured students' test performance and their self-reported anxiety and hope for upcoming tests after attending review sessions for an…

  3. Handheld E-Book Readers and Scholarship Report and Reader Survey: ACLS Humanities E-Book. White Paper No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gielen, Nina

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a conversion experiment and subsequent reader survey conducted by the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) Humanities E-Book (HEB) in late 2009 and early 2010 to assess the viability of using scholarly monographs with handheld e-readers. As sample content, HEB selected six titles from its own online collection, three…

  4. Are PDAs Pedagogically Feasible for Young Children? Examining the Age-Appropriateness of Handhelds in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Young Mi; Mullen, Laurie; Stuve, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    The frequency and form of computing for children are still open to definition at the classroom level. There are three major classifications of general-purpose computers to consider: desktops, laptops and handhelds (PDAs). However, despite the final commercial realization of a "computer" teachers should consider the physiological and cognitive…

  5. 78 FR 20695 - Walk-Through Metal Detectors and Hand-Held Metal Detectors Test Method Validation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... has recently developed updated versions of its minimum performance standards for walk-through metal detectors and hand-held metal detectors. In order to ensure that the test methods in the standards are... efforts from testing laboratories. NIJ is also seeking the participation of metal detector...

  6. A Scaffolding Strategy to Develop Handheld Sensor-Based Vocabulary Games for Improving Students' Learning Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is the foundation for students who learn a foreign language. Nevertheless, students may be bored by the painstaking process of rote learning. To this end, this study designed a handheld sensor-based vocabulary game based on a scaffolding strategy for improving students' motivation and achievement in vocabulary learning. On the one hand,…

  7. Jump Distance Increases while Carrying Handheld Weights: Impulse, History, and Jump Performance in a Simple Lab Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Michael T.; Bertram, John E. A.

    2004-01-01

    This laboratory exercise is designed to provide an understanding of the mechanical concept of impulse as it applies to human movement and athletic performance. Students compare jumps performed with and without handheld weights. Contrary to initial expectation, jump distance is increased with moderate additional weights. This was familiar to…

  8. Manipulator Design and Operation for a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Handheld Tremor-Canceling Microsurgical Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and actuation of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) manipulator for a handheld instrument, known as “Micron,” which performs active tremor compensation during microsurgery. The design incorporates a Gough-Stewart platform based on piezoelectric linear motor, with a specified minimum workspace of a cylinder 4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter at the end-effector. Given the stall force of the motors and the loading typically encountered in vitreoretinal microsurgery, the dimensions of the manipulator are optimized to tolerate a transverse load of 0.2 N on a remote center of motion near the midpoint of the tool shaft. The optimization yields a base diameter of 23 mm and a height of 37 mm. The fully handheld instrument includes a custom-built optical tracking system for control feedback, and an ergonomic housing to serve as a handle. The manipulation performance was investigated in both clamped and handheld conditions. In positioning experiments with varying side loads, the manipulator tolerates side load up to 0.25 N while tracking a sinusoidal target trajectory with less than 20 μm error. Physiological hand tremor is reduced by about 90% in a pointing task, and error less than 25 μm is achieved in handheld circle-tracing. PMID:25419103

  9. Use of Crystalline Boron as a Burn Rate Retardant toward the Development of Green-Colored Handheld Signal Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Jesse J.; Poret, Jay C.; Broad, Russell N.

    2011-10-01

    The effect of using crystalline boron in green-colored handheld signal formulations is described. Due to its chemically inert nature, crystalline boron served to reduce the burn rates of the formulations. By adjusting crystalline boron percentages in the formulations, the pyrotechnic system could be tuned to meet burn time specifications.

  10. The Pixel Paradox and Transition-Metal Spectroscopy: One of Many Uses of the Handheld Digital Microscope in Chemical Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2010-01-01

    A handheld digital microscope (HDM) interfaced to a computer with a presentation projector is used to project an out-of-focus yellow patch on the screen, then the patch is brought into focus to show that, paradoxically, there are red and green but no yellow pixels. Chromaticity diagrams are used to discuss this observation and spectroscopic…

  11. Nanoliter high throughput quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Tom; Hurley, James; Garcia, Javier; Yoder, Karl; Katz, Arrin; Roberts, Douglas; Cho, Jamie; Kanigan, Tanya; Ilyin, Sergey E.; Horowitz, Daniel; Dixon, James M.; Brenan, Colin J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding biological complexity arising from patterns of gene expression requires accurate and precise measurement of RNA levels across large numbers of genes simultaneously. Real time PCR (RT-PCR) in a microtiter plate is the preferred method for quantitative transcriptional analysis but scaling RT-PCR to higher throughputs in this fluidic format is intrinsically limited by cost and logistic considerations. Hybridization microarrays measure the transcription of many thousands of genes simultaneously yet are limited by low sensitivity, dynamic range, accuracy and sample throughput. The hybrid approach described here combines the superior accuracy, precision and dynamic range of RT-PCR with the parallelism of a microarray in an array of 3072 real time, 33 nl polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) the size of a microscope slide. RT-PCR is demonstrated with an accuracy and precision equivalent to the same assay in a 384-well microplate but in a 64-fold smaller reaction volume, a 24-fold higher analytical throughput and a workflow compatible with standard microplate protocols. PMID:17000636

  12. Identifying paleoseismic information from limestone normal faults with a handheld XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzon, Ruben; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Skelton, Alasdair; Goodfellow, Brad W.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2014-05-01

    Predicting earthquakes would help immensely in saving human lives and protecting economic interest but a reliable method has not yet been found. When making risk assessments scientists continue to rely on paleoseismic studies. Determining a fast and cheap proxy for paleoseismicity is therefore of much interest. Surface exposure dating is an emergent method for paleoseismic studies of active normal fault scarps in the Mediterranean region. This method gives crucial paleoearthquake information such as timing and vertical slip along the fault but the analysis of cosmogenic nuclides is costly and the sampling is both complicated and time consuming. In our study we employ an Olympus Innov-X DeltaTM handheld XRF to analyse the geochemistry of a scarp surface in order to determine the number and magnitude of slips along the fault. This method requires no drilling and it is possible to analyse the results at the fault scarp. Exposure dating is still required to yield the timeframe of the paleoearthquake record, but the number of sampling points may be significantly reduced since it would be possible to pin-point the sampling locations around suspected former soil horizons. We have analysed 200 sample points with the handheld XRF from a 6.8 m section of the limestone normal fault scarp surface close to Sparta, southern Greece. Our profile is taken next to the Benedetti et al.[Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 8 (2002)] sampling site. Our results show significant variations in Yttrium concentration along the profile with a strong peak just below the present soil cover at the base of the section and then repeated peaks up along the transect on the subaerially exposed scarp surface. These Yttrium concentrations at the surface are correlated with Yttrium concentrations in the rock determined from drill cores taken every 10 cm from the same profile. The preliminary dataset appears to indicate a good correlation between the Yttrium concentrations and the earthquake events

  13. Non-destructive Measurement of Calcium and Potassium in Apple and Pear Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kalcsits, Lee A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and potassium are essential for cell signaling, ion homeostasis and cell wall strength in plants. Unlike nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium, calcium is immobile in plants. Localized calcium deficiencies result in agricultural losses; particularly for fleshy horticultural crops in which elemental imbalances in fruit contribute to the development of physiological disorders such as bitter pit in apple and cork spot in pear. Currently, elemental analysis of plant tissue is destructive, time consuming and costly. This is a limitation for nutrition studies related to calcium in plants. Handheld portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be used to non-destructively measure elemental concentrations. The main objective was to test if handheld XRF can be used for semi-quantitative calcium and potassium analysis of in-tact apple and pear. Semi-quantitative measurements for individual fruit were compared to results obtained from traditional lab analysis. Here, we observed significant correlations between handheld XRF measurements of calcium and potassium and concentrations determined using MP-AES lab analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.73 and 0.97. Furthermore, measuring apple and pear using handheld XRF identified spatial variability in calcium and potassium concentrations on the surface of individual fruit. This variability may contribute to the development of localized nutritional imbalances. This highlights the importance of understanding spatial and temporal variability in elemental concentrations in plant tissue. Handheld XRF is a relatively high-throughput approach for measuring calcium and potassium in plant tissue. It can be used in conjunction with traditional lab analysis to better understand spatial and temporal patterns in calcium and potassium uptake and distribution within an organ, plant or across the landscape. PMID:27092160

  14. Hand-held monitor of sympathetic nervous system using salivary amylase activity and its validation by driver fatigue assessment.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Deguchi, Mitsuo; Wakasugi, Junichi; Ono, Shin; Takai, Noriyasu; Higashi, Tomoyuki; Mizuno, Yasufumi

    2006-01-15

    In order to realize a hand-held monitor of the sympathetic nervous system, we fabricated a completely automated analytical system for salivary amylase activity using a dry-chemistry system. This was made possible by the fabrication of a disposable test-strip equipped with built-in collecting and reagent papers and an automatic saliva transfer device. In order to cancel out the effects of variations in environmental temperature and pH of saliva, temperature- and pH-adjusted equations were experimentally determined, and each theoretical value was input into the memory of the hand-held monitor. Within a range of salivary amylase activity between 10 and 140 kU/l, the calibration curve for the hand-held monitor showed a coefficient with R(2)=0.97. Accordingly, it was demonstrated that the hand-held monitor enabled a user to automatically measure the salivary amylase activity with high accuracy with only 30 microl sample of saliva within a minute from collection to completion of the measurement. In order to make individual variations of salivary amylase activity negligible during driver fatigue assessment, a normalized equation was proposed. The normalized salivary amylase activity correlated with the mental and physical fatigue states. Thus, this study demonstrated that an excellent hand-held monitor with an algorithm for normalization of individuals' differences in salivary amylase activity, which could be easily and quickly used for evaluating the activity of the sympathetic nervous system at any time. Furthermore, it is suggested that the salivary amylase activity might be used as a better index for psychological research.

  15. Non-destructive Measurement of Calcium and Potassium in Apple and Pear Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Kalcsits, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and potassium are essential for cell signaling, ion homeostasis and cell wall strength in plants. Unlike nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium, calcium is immobile in plants. Localized calcium deficiencies result in agricultural losses; particularly for fleshy horticultural crops in which elemental imbalances in fruit contribute to the development of physiological disorders such as bitter pit in apple and cork spot in pear. Currently, elemental analysis of plant tissue is destructive, time consuming and costly. This is a limitation for nutrition studies related to calcium in plants. Handheld portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be used to non-destructively measure elemental concentrations. The main objective was to test if handheld XRF can be used for semi-quantitative calcium and potassium analysis of in-tact apple and pear. Semi-quantitative measurements for individual fruit were compared to results obtained from traditional lab analysis. Here, we observed significant correlations between handheld XRF measurements of calcium and potassium and concentrations determined using MP-AES lab analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.73 and 0.97. Furthermore, measuring apple and pear using handheld XRF identified spatial variability in calcium and potassium concentrations on the surface of individual fruit. This variability may contribute to the development of localized nutritional imbalances. This highlights the importance of understanding spatial and temporal variability in elemental concentrations in plant tissue. Handheld XRF is a relatively high-throughput approach for measuring calcium and potassium in plant tissue. It can be used in conjunction with traditional lab analysis to better understand spatial and temporal patterns in calcium and potassium uptake and distribution within an organ, plant or across the landscape. PMID:27092160

  16. Free-viewpoint video of human actors using multiple handheld Kinects.

    PubMed

    Ye, Genzhi; Liu, Yebin; Deng, Yue; Hasler, Nils; Ji, Xiangyang; Dai, Qionghai; Theobalt, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We present an algorithm for creating free-viewpoint video of interacting humans using three handheld Kinect cameras. Our method reconstructs deforming surface geometry and temporal varying texture of humans through estimation of human poses and camera poses for every time step of the RGBZ video. Skeletal configurations and camera poses are found by solving a joint energy minimization problem, which optimizes the alignment of RGBZ data from all cameras, as well as the alignment of human shape templates to the Kinect data. The energy function is based on a combination of geometric correspondence finding, implicit scene segmentation, and correspondence finding using image features. Finally, texture recovery is achieved through jointly optimization on spatio-temporal RGB data using matrix completion. As opposed to previous methods, our algorithm succeeds on free-viewpoint video of human actors under general uncontrolled indoor scenes with potentially dynamic background, and it succeeds even if the cameras are moving. PMID:23893757

  17. Scanning in biomedical imaging: from classical devices to handheld heads and micro-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2014-01-01

    We review some of the most important scanning systems that are competitive in high-end biomedical imaging applications such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), but also Confocal Microscopy (CM) or multiphoton microscopy. Both 1-D (uni-dimensional) and 2-D (bi-dimensional) scanning systems are considered. The paper discusses different scanners, including polygon mirror, galvanometer-based and Risley prisms. Their configurations and characteristics, as well some of our contributions in the domain are presented. The tendency of applying them into special designs such as handheld scanning probes and endoscopes - the latter with MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) and micro-systems is pointed out. A discussion on further advancements of scanning technology in biomedical applications in general and in OCT in particular concludes the study.

  18. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  19. Handheld Real-Time Volumetric Imaging of The Spine: Technology Development

    PubMed Central

    Tiouririne, Mohamed; Nguyen, Sarah; Hossack, John A.; Owen, Kevin; Mauldin, F. William

    2014-01-01

    Technical difficulties, poor image quality and reliance on pattern identifications represent some of the drawbacks of two-dimensional ultrasound imaging of spinal bone anatomy. To overcome these limitations, we sought to develop real-time volumetric imaging of the spine using a portable handheld device. The device measured 19.2 cm x 9.2 cm x 9.0 cm and imaged at 5 MHz center frequency. 2D imaging under conventional ultrasound and volumetric (3D) imaging in real time was achieved and verified by inspection using a custom spine phantom. Further device performance was assessed and revealed a 75-minute battery life and average frame rate of 17.7 Hz in volumetric imaging mode. Our results suggest that real-time volumetric imaging of the spine is a feasible technique for more intuitive visualization of the spine. These results may have important ramifications for a large array of neuraxial procedures. PMID:24446802

  20. Self-Contained, Hand-held, Optical Waveguide, Chemical Sensor System

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Pollina

    1998-11-01

    A self-contained, hand-held, optical waveguide, chemical detection system has been built to detect and quantify gases and vapors. The system uses a hybrid integrated circuit (IC) containing optical waveguides coated with sensing chemistry as the optical platform. The IC with sensing chemistry is available commercially under the name Sensor-on-a-Chip. This IC is mounted in a small, uniquely designed sample chamber where the measured analyte is identified by the sensing chemistry and biochemistry. Continuous or stop-flow sampling is possible. Sensitivities in the low parts-per-million have been attained for hydrocarbons and alcohol. Analyte coverage is only limited by the sensing chemistries and biochemistries that are available.

  1. PalmCIS: a wireless handheld application for satisfying clinician information needs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Mendonça, Eneida A; McKnight, Lawrence K; Stetson, Peter D; Lei, Jianbo; Cimino, James J

    2004-01-01

    Wireless handheld technology provides new ways to deliver and present information. As with any technology, its unique features must be taken into consideration and its applications designed accordingly. In the clinical setting, availability of needed information can be crucial during the decision-making process. Preliminary studies performed at New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYPH) determined that there are inadequate access to information and ineffective communication among clinicians (potential proximal causes of medical errors). In response to these findings, the authors have been developing extensions to their Web-based clinical information system including PalmCIS, an application that provides access to needed patient information via a wireless personal digital assistant (PDA). The focus was on achieving end-to-end security and developing a highly usable system. This report discusses the motivation behind PalmCIS, design and development of the system, and future directions. PMID:14527976

  2. Application of a Hand-Held Computer for Data Capture in the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Maruschak, Gary F.; Mack, Stephen S.; Rosenfeld, Gilbert I.; Blanck, Thomas J.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the use of a battery-powered, handheld computer system (HHC) for the capture of drug and events (D&E) during anesthesia and surgery is described. The advantages of the HHC system are small size, non-volatile memory, flexible keyboard configuration-every key can be a special function key labeled with custom overlays, fast entry of D&E with accurate time of day and provision of a pulse signal to external trend recorders logging each real-time entry. Disadvantages are limited processing speed that can inhibit complex operations such as long searches for a particular drug entry and some training is required to become a proficient user. ImagesFigure 1Figure 1

  3. In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; Dubose, Theodore; Toth, Cynthia A.; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-09-01

    Enabled by adaptive optics, retinal photoreceptor cell imaging is changing our understanding of retinal structure and function, as well as the pathogenesis of numerous ocular diseases. To date, use of this technology has been limited to cooperative adult subjects due to the size, weight and inconvenience of the equipment, thus excluding study of retinal maturation during human development. Here, we report the design and operation of a handheld probe that can perform both scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography of the parafoveal photoreceptor structure in infants and children without the need for adaptive optics. The probe, featuring a compact optical design weighing only 94 g, was able to quantify packing densities of parafoveal cone photoreceptors and visualize cross-sectional photoreceptor substructure in children with ages ranging from 14 months to 12 years. The probe will benefit paediatric research by improving the understanding of retinal development, maldevelopment and early onset of disease during human growth.

  4. Free-viewpoint video of human actors using multiple handheld Kinects.

    PubMed

    Ye, Genzhi; Liu, Yebin; Deng, Yue; Hasler, Nils; Ji, Xiangyang; Dai, Qionghai; Theobalt, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We present an algorithm for creating free-viewpoint video of interacting humans using three handheld Kinect cameras. Our method reconstructs deforming surface geometry and temporal varying texture of humans through estimation of human poses and camera poses for every time step of the RGBZ video. Skeletal configurations and camera poses are found by solving a joint energy minimization problem, which optimizes the alignment of RGBZ data from all cameras, as well as the alignment of human shape templates to the Kinect data. The energy function is based on a combination of geometric correspondence finding, implicit scene segmentation, and correspondence finding using image features. Finally, texture recovery is achieved through jointly optimization on spatio-temporal RGB data using matrix completion. As opposed to previous methods, our algorithm succeeds on free-viewpoint video of human actors under general uncontrolled indoor scenes with potentially dynamic background, and it succeeds even if the cameras are moving.

  5. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; Proicou, M.; Duran, G.; Kamto, J.

    2015-06-10

    In this study, a new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurable to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.

  6. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    DOE PAGES

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; et al

    2015-06-10

    In this study, a new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurablemore » to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.« less

  7. User-friendly tools on handheld devices for observer performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Hara, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Junji; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Abe, Hiroyuki; Matsusako, Masaki; Yamada, Akira; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    ROC studies require complex procedures to select cases from many data samples, and to set confidence levels in each selected case to generate ROC curves. In some observer performance studies, researchers have to develop software with specific graphical user interface (GUI) to obtain confidence levels from readers. Because ROC studies could be designed for various clinical situations, it is difficult task for preparing software corresponding to every ROC studies. In this work, we have developed software for recording confidence levels during observer studies on tiny personal handheld devices such as iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad. To confirm the functions of our software, three radiologists performed observer studies to detect lung nodules by using public database of chest radiograms published by Japan Society of Radiological Technology. The output in text format conformed to the format for the famous ROC kit from the University of Chicago. Times required for the reading each case was recorded very precisely.

  8. A review of the use of handheld computers in medical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Holubar, Stefan; Harvey-Banchik, Lillian

    2007-08-01

    Handheld computers, or personal digital assistants (PDAs), have been used to assist clinicians in medical nutrition since the early 1980s. The term PDA was originally applied to programmable calculators; over time, the capabilities of these devices were expanded to allow for the use of more complicated programs such as databases, spreadsheets, and electronic books. Slowly, the device evolved into what is more commonly thought of as a PDA, that is, a device such as a PalmOS (PalmSource, Inc, Tokyo, Japan) or PocketPC (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) unit. We present a review of the literature about the use of PDAs in medical nutrition, followed by a discussion of the different types of PDAs and mobile technologies that are commercially available. This is followed by a discussion of software applications that are currently available for use by nutrition clinicians, focusing on freeware applications. Finally, future technologies and applications are discussed.

  9. Textbooks on tap: using electronic books housed in handheld devices in nursing clinical courses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Margaret G; Dittmer, Arlis

    2009-01-01

    Changing technology is creating new ways to approach nursing education and practice. Beginning in 2003, using a quasi-experimental design, this project introduced personal digital assistants (PDAs) as a clinical tool to five experimental and control groups of students and faculty. The handheld device, or PDA, was loaded with e-books for clinical practice. Differences in learning styles and preferences emerged during the different phases of the study. Students were quickly able to master the technology and use the device effectively, reporting that they liked the concise nature of the information obtained. No students expressed dissatisfaction or regret at being in the experimental group. Results and implications for clinical practice, education, and library resources are discussed.

  10. Handheld Diffuse Reflectance Spectral Imaging (DRSi) for in-vivo characterization of skin.

    PubMed

    Bish, Sheldon F; Sharma, Manu; Wang, Youmin; Triesault, Nicholas J; Reichenberg, Jason S; Zhang, John X J; Tunnell, James W

    2014-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provides a noninvasive means to measure optical and physiological properties of tissues. To expand on these measurements, we have developed a handheld diffuse reflectance spectral imaging (DRSi) system capable of acquiring wide field hyperspectral images of tissue. The image acquisition time was approximately 50 seconds for a 50x50 pixel image. A transport model was used to fit each spectra for reduced scattering coefficient, hemoglobin concentration and melanin concentration resulting in optical property maps. The system was validated across biologically relevant levels of reduced scattering (5.14% error) and absorption (8.34% error) using tissue simulating phantoms. DRSi optical property maps of a pigmented skin lesion were acquired in vivo. These trends in optical properties were consistent with previous observations using point probe devices. PMID:24575350

  11. Handheld Diffuse Reflectance Spectral Imaging (DRSi) for in-vivo characterization of skin

    PubMed Central

    Bish, Sheldon F.; Sharma, Manu; Wang, Youmin; Triesault, Nicholas J.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Zhang, John X.J.; Tunnell, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provides a noninvasive means to measure optical and physiological properties of tissues. To expand on these measurements, we have developed a handheld diffuse reflectance spectral imaging (DRSi) system capable of acquiring wide field hyperspectral images of tissue. The image acquisition time was approximately 50 seconds for a 50x50 pixel image. A transport model was used to fit each spectra for reduced scattering coefficient, hemoglobin concentration and melanin concentration resulting in optical property maps. The system was validated across biologically relevant levels of reduced scattering (5.14% error) and absorption (8.34% error) using tissue simulating phantoms. DRSi optical property maps of a pigmented skin lesion were acquired in vivo. These trends in optical properties were consistent with previous observations using point probe devices. PMID:24575350

  12. Handheld Electronic Technology for Weight Loss in Overweight/Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle C; Burley, V J; Cade, J E

    2014-09-01

    Handheld electronic devices could offer a convenient and scalable platform with which to deliver a weight loss intervention. This paper aims to summarise the evidence provided by randomised trials of such interventions. There is heterogeneity among trials in terms of the components of the intervention package, the theoretical framework, the comparison groups and the duration of follow-up. While in the short term (<6 months) trials have shown some promising findings, two trials (one of a text message intervention and one of a PDA device for dietary self-monitoring) do not indicate clinically significant weight loss in the longer term (1-2 years). Topical issues are discussed including the importance of further research into dietary self-monitoring, the logistics of trialling smartphone applications and considerations of health literacy. There is currently no definitive randomised controlled trial of a smartphone app for weight loss in adults and further research into this approach is warranted. PMID:26626760

  13. A handheld laser scanning confocal reflectance imaging–confocal Raman microspectroscopy system

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chetan A.; Arrasmith, Christopher L.; Mackanos, Mark A.; Dickensheets, David L.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Confocal reflectance microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy have shown potential for non-destructive analysis of samples at micron-scale resolutions. Current studies utilizing these techniques often employ large bench-top microscopes, and are not suited for use outside of laboratory settings. We have developed a microscope which combines laser scanning confocal reflectance imaging and confocal Raman spectroscopy into a compact handheld probe that is capable of high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy in a variety of settings. The compact size of the probe is largely due to the use of a MEMS mirror for beam scanning. The probe is capable of axial resolutions of up to 4 μm for the confocal imaging channel and 10 μm for the confocal Raman spectroscopy channel. Here, we report instrument design, characterize optical performance, and provide images and spectra from normal skin to demonstrate the instrument’s capabilities for clinical diagnostics. PMID:22435097

  14. Position-Based Virtual Fixtures for Membrane Peeling with a Handheld Micromanipulator.

    PubMed

    Becker, Brian C; Maclachlan, Robert A; Lobes, Louis A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2012-12-31

    Peeling delicate retinal membranes, which are often less than 5 µm thick, is one of the most challenging retinal surgeries. Preventing rips and tears caused by tremor and excessive force can decrease injury and reduce the need for follow up surgeries. We propose the use of a fully handheld microsurgical robot to suppress tremor while enforcing helpful constraints on the motion of the tool. Using stereo vision and tracking algorithms, the robot activates motion-scaled behavior as the tip reaches the surface, providing finer control during the critical step of engaging the membrane edge. A hard virtual fixture just below the surface limits the total downward force that can be applied. Furthermore, velocity limiting during the peeling helps the surgeon maintain a smooth, constant force while lifting and delaminating the membrane. On a phantom consisting of plastic wrap stretched across a rubber slide, we demonstrate our approach reduces maximum force by 40-70%.

  15. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue Fang, Jing

    2015-10-15

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  16. Handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Thailand (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doheny, Robert C.; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard

    2005-06-01

    The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program of Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), under the direction of the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (OASD/SOLIC) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) for Humanitarian Demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of HSTAMIDS in the region of Humanitarian Demining Unit #1 (HMAU1) in Thailand. Participants included the US Humanitarian Demining Team of NVESD, ITEP personnel, Thailand Mine Action Center (TMAC), HALO Trust organization from Cambodia, and CyTerra Corporation. The primary objectives were to demonstrate the performance of the U.S. Army's latest handheld multisensor mine detector, the AN/PSS-14, in a demining environment in comparison to the performance of the metal detector being used by the local deminers and also to assess the performance of the trained deminers after limited experience and training with the HSTAMIDS.

  17. Buried object detection using handheld WEMI with task-driven extended functions of multiple instances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Matthew; Zare, Alina; Ho, Dominic K. C.

    2016-05-01

    Many effective supervised discriminative dictionary learning methods have been developed in the literature. However, when training these algorithms, precise ground-truth of the training data is required to provide very accurate point-wise labels. Yet, in many applications, accurate labels are not always feasible. This is especially true in the case of buried object detection in which the size of the objects are not consistent. In this paper, a new multiple instance dictionary learning algorithm for detecting buried objects using a handheld WEMI sensor is detailed. The new algorithm, Task Driven Extended Functions of Multiple Instances, can overcome data that does not have very precise point-wise labels and still learn a highly discriminative dictionary. Results are presented and discussed on measured WEMI data.

  18. The Rosetta phone: a hand-held device for automatic translation of signs in natural images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafri, Syed Ali Raza; Mikkilineni, Aravind K.; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using the Roman alphabet, translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring a picture of the text, identifying the text within the image, and producing both an audible and a visual English interpretation of the text. We started with English, as a developement language, for which we achieved close to 100% accuracy in identifying and reading text. We then modified the system to be able to read and translate words written using the Arabic character set. We currently achieve approximately 95% accuracy in reading words from a small directory of town names.

  19. True color scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography handheld probe.

    PubMed

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A

    2014-09-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (SLOs) are able to achieve superior contrast and axial sectioning capability compared to fundus photography. However, SLOs typically use monochromatic illumination and are thus unable to extract color information of the retina. Previous color SLO imaging techniques utilized multiple lasers or narrow band sources for illumination, which allowed for multiple color but not "true color" imaging as done in fundus photography. We describe the first "true color" SLO, handheld color SLO, and combined color SLO integrated with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. To achieve accurate color imaging, the SLO was calibrated with a color test target and utilized an achromatizing lens when imaging the retina to correct for the eye's longitudinal chromatic aberration. Color SLO and OCT images from volunteers were then acquired simultaneously with a combined power under the ANSI limit. Images from this system were then compared with those from commercially available SLOs featuring multiple narrow-band color imaging.

  20. Read-only-memory pipelay analysis module written for hand-held computer

    SciTech Connect

    Mousselli, A.H.

    1985-06-10

    Complex offshore pipelay computer analysis has until now required large computers and time-consuming inputs. Accurate results were only available with large office computers. Now a technique for such analysis, using a memory module for Hewlett Packard HP-41 series hand-held computers, has been developed. The custom read-only-memory (ROM) module, SEAPIPE, performs analyses of offshore pipeline installations by conventional ''S-curve'' and vertical ''J-curve'' methods. The analyses include tension and stringer requirements, pipe spans, and maximum stresses. Results of the program have been compared to results of mainframe computer solutions, which include wide ranges of water depth, tension, and pipe sizes. This article describes the pipelaying analysis, the module, and solutions. Typical pipelay solutions using the module are also provided. And solutions which aid the user during various project needs are illustrated and discussed.

  1. Hand-held dual-sensor ALIS and its evaluation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2008-04-01

    Since 2002, our research group at Tohoku University has developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data afterwards, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the image of the buried objects. ALIS evaluation test was conducted in Croatia in October 2007. Then after, we stared a half-year evaluation test of ALIS in QC test in Croatia in December 2007. This test will be conducted in various soil and environmental conditions in Croatia.

  2. Multiphoton microscopy system with a compact fiber-based femtosecond-pulse laser and handheld probe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gangjun; Kieu, Khanh; Wise, Frank W; Chen, Zhongping

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of a compact multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system that integrates a compact and robust fiber laser with a miniature probe. The all normal dispersion fiber femtosecond laser has a central wavelength of 1.06 μm, pulse width of 125 fs and average power of more than 1 W. A double cladding photonic crystal fiber was used to deliver the excitation beam and to collect the two-photon signal. The hand-held probe included galvanometer-based mirror scanners, relay lenses and a focusing lens. The packaged probe had a diameter of 16 mm. Second harmonic generation (SHG) images and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) images of biological tissues were demonstrated using the system. PMID:20635426

  3. Use of handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry units for identification of arsenic in treated wood

    PubMed Central

    Block, Colleen N.; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of handheld XRF analyzers on wood that has been treated with a preservative containing arsenic. Experiments were designed to evaluate precision, detection limit, effective depth of analysis, and accuracy of the XRF arsenic readings. Results showed that the precision of the XRF improved with increased sample concentration and longer analysis times. Reported detection limits decreased with longer analysis times to values of less than 1 mg/kg or 18 mg/kg, depending on the model used. The effective depth of analysis was within the top 1.2 cm and 2.0 cm of sample for wood containing natural gradients of chemical preservative and concentration extremes, respectively. XRF results were found to be 1.5-2.3 times higher than measurements from traditional laboratory analysis. Equations can be developed to convert XRF values to results which are consistent with traditional laboratory testing. PMID:17241725

  4. Calcium and Phosphorus Detection Using Benchtop Versus Handheld X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Kuzel, Aaron R; Christensen, Angi M; Marvin, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Elemental analysis of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) has been shown to be useful in differentiating skeletal and nonskeletal material. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is an attractive, nondestructive technique for forensic anthropologists, and the development of portable XRF instrumentation is promising for field applications. This study examines the performance of handheld XRF instrumentation operated in air compared to a traditional benchtop XRF device that has the ability to control the analysis atmosphere. Both instruments can be used to effectively distinguish skeletal from nonskeletal remains. However, as the measurement atmosphere affects detection levels for calcium and phosphorus, Ca/P ratios obtained from the instruments and analysis conditions were found to differ significantly, with analyses conducted in air showing significantly lower phosphorus detection. Consequently, comparison of Ca/P ratios to conclude skeletal versus nonskeletal origin must be based on data collected under similar analysis conditions.

  5. Impact of an external radiation field on handheld XRF measurements for nuclear forensics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Steeb, Jennifer L.; Mertz, Carol J.; Finck, Martha R.; Engelstad, Gary; Carney, Kevin P.; Chamberlain, David B.

    2015-03-28

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is an attractive technique for nuclear forensics applications. We evaluated a handheld, portable XRF device by applying an external radiation field (10 mR/h to 17 R/h) using two types of radiography sources: a 60Co radiography camera to observe effects from high-energy gamma emissions and an 192Ir radiography camera to observe effects from several low-energy gamma (0.604, 0.468, and 0.317 MeV) and decay daughter x-ray emissions. External radiation tests proved that radiation, in general, has a significant effect on the dead time or background at dose rates over 1 R/hr for both the 192Ir and 60Co sources.

  6. Characterization and evaluation of a handheld AC-coupled pulsed photothermal radiometry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byungjo; Kim, Chang-Seok; Choi, Bernard; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2006-02-01

    In laser therapy of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks, measurement of maximum temperature rise is important to determine the maximum permissible light dose for PWS laser therapy. To measure maximum temperature rise on arbitrary PWS skin site, we developed a handheld pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) system, which overcomes in vivo measurement limitations of bench-top PPTR systems. The developed PPTR system consists of an IR lens, an AC-coupled thermoelectrically cooled IR detector, a laser handpiece holder, and a fixed distance measurement port. With system characterization, experimental results were in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Preliminary results for maximum temperature rise demonstrate the feasibility of the PPTR system for PWS skin characterization in the clinic.

  7. PalmCIS: a wireless handheld application for satisfying clinician information needs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Mendonça, Eneida A; McKnight, Lawrence K; Stetson, Peter D; Lei, Jianbo; Cimino, James J

    2004-01-01

    Wireless handheld technology provides new ways to deliver and present information. As with any technology, its unique features must be taken into consideration and its applications designed accordingly. In the clinical setting, availability of needed information can be crucial during the decision-making process. Preliminary studies performed at New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYPH) determined that there are inadequate access to information and ineffective communication among clinicians (potential proximal causes of medical errors). In response to these findings, the authors have been developing extensions to their Web-based clinical information system including PalmCIS, an application that provides access to needed patient information via a wireless personal digital assistant (PDA). The focus was on achieving end-to-end security and developing a highly usable system. This report discusses the motivation behind PalmCIS, design and development of the system, and future directions.

  8. EXTENDED PERFORMANCE HANDHELD AND MOBILE SENSORS FOR REMOTE DETECTION OF NATURAL GAS LEAKS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael B. Frish; B. David Green; Richard T. Wainner; Francesca Scire-Scappuzzo; Paul Cataldi; Matthew C. Laderer

    2005-05-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) to advance the state-of-the-art of surveying for leaks of natural gas from transmission and distribution pipelines. The principal project goal was to develop means of deploying on an automotive platform an improved version of the handheld laser-based standoff natural gas leak detector previously developed by PSI and known as the Remote Methane Leak Detector or RMLD. A laser beam which interrogates the air for methane is projected from a spinning turret mounted upon a van. As the van travels forward, the laser beam scans an arc to the front and sides of the van so as to survey across streets and to building walls from a moving vehicle. When excess methane is detected within the arc, an alarm is activated. In this project, we built and tested a prototype Mobile RMLD (MRMLD) intended to provide lateral coverage of 10 m and one lateral scan for every meter of forward motion at forward speeds up to 10 m/s. Using advanced detection algorithms developed as part of this project, the early prototype MRMLD, installed on the back of a truck, readily detected simulated gas leaks of 50 liters per hour. As a supplement to the originally planned project, PSI also participated in a DoE demonstration of several gas leak detection systems at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) during September 2004. Using a handheld RMLD upgraded with the advanced detection algorithms developed in this project, from within a moving vehicle we readily detected leaks created along the 7.4 mile route of a virtual gas transmission pipeline.

  9. Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Chris M; Fulcher, Mark L; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A

    2010-05-01

    Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of reliable clinical tests that are commonly used when making return to sport decisions in athletes with chronic adductor related groin pain have been selected. One hundred and twenty adult male association football players, free from injury, were recruited. Isometric strength of the hip flexors and adductor muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Mean age was 24.9 years (SD 5.9). Eighty participants (67%) had experienced groin pain in the past. Mean strength for dominant leg hip flexion was 47.3 kg (95% confidence interval 45.6-49.0), non-dominant leg hip flexion was 42.5 kg (41.1-43.9), adduction at 0 degrees hip flexion was 35.6 kg (34.1-37.1), adduction at 45 degrees was 32.0 kg (30.9-33.1), and adduction at 90 degrees was 25.5 kg (24.4-26.5). This study establishes reference ranges and predictive equations for maximal isometric contraction strength of the hip muscles in non-injured adult male association football players. This information will assist assessment and management of an athlete's return to play following injury. PMID:19574097

  10. Photopic Negative Response Obtained Using a Handheld Electroretinogram Device: Determining the Optimal Measure and Repeatability

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhichao; Hadoux, Xavier; Hui, Flora; Sarossy, Marc G.; Crowston, Jonathan G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the measure of the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the full-field electroretinogram (ERG) that exhibits the optimal level of test-retest repeatability, and examine its repeatability under different conditions using a handheld, nonmydriatic ERG system and self-adhering skin electrodes. Methods Multiple ERG recordings (using 200 sweeps each) were performed in both eyes of 20 normal participants at two different sessions to compare its coefficient of repeatability (CoR; where 95% of the test-retest difference is expected to lie) between different PhNR measures and under different testing conditions (within and between examiners, and between sessions). Results The ratio between the PhNR trough to b-wave peak and b-wave peak to a-wave trough amplitude (PhNR/B ratio) exhibited the lowest CoR relative to its effective dynamic range (30 ± 4%) when including three recordings. There were no significant changes in the PhNR/B ratio over seven measurements (4 right and 3 left eyes) at either session (P ≥ 0.100), or significant difference in its CoR between different testing conditions (P = 0.314). Conclusion The PhNR/B ratio was the measure that minimized variability, and its measurements using a novel handheld ERG system with self-adhering skin electrodes and the protocols described in this study were comparable under different testing conditions and over multiple recordings. Translational Relevance The PhNR can be measured for clinical and research purposes using a simple-to-implement technique that is consistent within and between visits, and also between examiners. PMID:27540494

  11. Functional requirements analysis and human machine interface specifications for handheld metal detector wands

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, V.; Hartney, C.; Banks, W.

    1994-11-01

    Functional Requirements Analysis (FRA) and Human-Machine-Interface Design Specifications (HMIDs) are critical elements in the development of effective security systems. Handheld metal detector wands are currently used by security personnel to detect metal weapons and munitions that might be smuggled onboard an aircraft by terrorists or individuals who intend to do harm to passengers, aircraft, or other air carrier-related targets. The FAA has requested that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) assist in developing functional requirements for handheld metal detector devices (wands) used at airports. This effort is focused on both defining and assuring adequate functional and human interface designs that are an integral part of airport security operations. In addition to developing functional requirements, LLNL was also requested to examine and review wanding procedures currently used by the airports and air carriers and provide comments, recommendations, and suggestions for enhanced security based upon this review. The phrase ``Human-Machine-Interface`` (HMI) is frequently used to describe the characteristics of a system that allows the human to interact and control the machine or system. Equipment used by checkpoint security Pre-Board Screeners (PBS`s) during rapid search of passengers must be designed to fit a broad range of anthropometric differences in height, hand size, grip strength, upper body strength, visual. acuity, auditory acuity, and other related human variables. In essence, if there is a high degree of compatibility between the end-user and the equipment, there will be a direct enhancement of total system performance and system operability. Thus, this document may also be used as, a guideline to enhance ergonomic compatibility between the PBS`s and the equipment they use.

  12. An integrated portable hand-held analyser for real-time isothermal nucleic acid amplification.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew C; Steimle, George; Ivanov, Stan; Holly, Mark; Fries, David P

    2007-08-29

    A compact hand-held heated fluorometric instrument for performing real-time isothermal nucleic acid amplification and detection is described. The optoelectronic instrument combines a Printed Circuit Board/Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (PCB/MEMS) reaction detection/chamber containing an integrated resistive heater with attached miniature LED light source and photo-detector and a disposable glass waveguide capillary to enable a mini-fluorometer. The fluorometer is fabricated and assembled in planar geometry, rolled into a tubular format and packaged with custom control electronics to form the hand-held reactor. Positive or negative results for each reaction are displayed to the user using an LED interface. Reaction data is stored in FLASH memory for retrieval via an in-built USB connection. Operating on one disposable 3 V lithium battery >12, 60 min reactions can be performed. Maximum dimensions of the system are 150 mm (h) x 48 mm (d) x 40 mm (w), the total instrument weight (with battery) is 140 g. The system produces comparable results to laboratory instrumentation when performing a real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction, and also displayed comparable precision, accuracy and resolution to laboratory-based real-time nucleic acid amplification instrumentation. A good linear response (R2 = 0.948) to fluorescein gradients ranging from 0.5 to 10 microM was also obtained from the instrument indicating that it may be utilized for other fluorometric assays. This instrument enables an inexpensive, compact approach to in-field genetic screening, providing results comparable to laboratory equipment with rapid user feedback as to the status of the reaction. PMID:17719904

  13. Manometric evaluation of oral function with a hand-held balloon probe.

    PubMed

    Tsuga, K; Maruyama, M; Yoshikawa, M; Yoshida, M; Akagawa, Y

    2011-09-01

    Tongue pressure measured with a disposable hand-held balloon probe has been used for assessing tongue function; however, no diagnostic standard for assessing other oral functions exists currently. In this study, to develop a method for multifactorial manometric evaluation of oral functions, 20 men and 20 women (21-32 years of age) were instructed to apply 7-s maximal voluntary muscular effort on a hand-held balloon probe placed against the anterior and lateral parts of the palate, buccal surface of the molars on the habitual chewing side and labial surface of the anterior teeth for measuring anterior and posterior tongue, cheek and lip pressures (LPs), respectively. Intra-session reproducibility was determined by three repeated measurements, and associations between the obtained and the conventional data on oral diadochokinesis were tested. The men exhibited higher values of all the pressure types. Further, both genders showed a positive correlation between anterior and posterior tongue pressures (PTPs) (P < 0·05), but only the women exhibited positive correlations between anterior tongue and cheek pressures, cheek and PTPs, anterior tongue and LPs, and cheek and LPs (P < 0·05). No statistically significant correlation was found between the pressures and the number of syllabic articulations, except between LP and the number of /pa/ articulations in the women (r = 0·524, P < 0·05). In conclusion, the balloon probe method enables objective manometric evaluation of oral functions and could be an effective tool for clinical epidemiological studies and evidence-based decision-making in nursing care.

  14. In situ analysis of agrochemical residues on fruit using ambient ionization on a handheld mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Soparawalla, Santosh; Tadjimukhamedov, Fatkhulla K; Wiley, Joshua S; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-11-01

    We describe a rapid in situ method for detecting agrochemicals on the surface or in the tissue of fruit using a portable mass spectrometer equipped with an ambient ionization source. Two such ionization methods, low temperature plasma (LTP) and paper spray (PS), were employed in experiments performed at a local grocery store. LTP was used to detect diphenylamine (DPA) directly from the skin of apples in the store and those treated after harvest with DPA were recognized by MS and MS/MS. These data therefore allowed ready distinction between organic and non-organic apples. DPA was also found within the internal tissue of purchased apples and its distribution was mapped using LTP. Similarly, thiabendazole residues were detected on the skin of treated oranges in a grocery store experiment in which paper spray was performed by wiping the orange surface with a moist commercial lens wipe and then applying a high voltage to ionize the chemicals directly from the wipe. The handheld mass spectrometer used in these measurements is capable of performing several stages of tandem mass spectrometry (up to MS(5)); the compounds on the fruit were identified by their MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Protonated DPA (m/z 170) produced a characteristic MS(2) fragment ion at m/z 92, while thiabendazole was identified by MS(3) using precursor to fragment ion transitions m/z 202 →m/z 175 →m/z 131. These particular examples exemplify the power of in situ analysis of complex samples using ambient ionization and handheld mass spectrometers.

  15. Hand-held text-to-speech device for the non-vocal disabled.

    PubMed

    Damper, R I; Burnett, J W; Gray, P W; Straus, L P; Symes, R A

    1987-10-01

    A hand-held, battery-powered synthetic speech aid for the non-vocally disabled has been constructed. The device accepts as its input, largely unrestricted text keyed by the user. This is converted by text-to-speech software, based on 349 letter-to-sound rules and some simple rules of continuity, intonation and stress, to appropriate control signals which drive a single-chip (series formant) speech synthesizer. A number of implementation constraints are imposed by portability; the system has, as far as possible, been designed using CMOS components. To extend the time for which the system will operate between battery charges, power saving facilities are incorporated. Hand-held use implies the need for a one-handed keyboard: a unique integral keyboard is used, designed to minimize the visual search time to locate a letter key. Considerable attention has been paid to rule-search strategies, the handling of 'exceptions' which violate the letter-to-sound principle and the resolution of conflicts when more than one rule might apply. The quality and intelligibility of speech from a rule-based system is typically poor, and every effort has been made to improve it. Limits on possible improvement are, however, set by the use of a proprietary single chip synthesizer and by the minimal nature of a portable system. To facilitate the task of composing messages, a two-line liquid crystal display is provided together with a range of editing functions. The display can also be shown to the message receiver should he/she be deaf, or used for silent communication as an analogue to 'whispering'.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2960853

  16. Hand-held tools with complex kinematics are efficiently incorporated into movement planning and online control.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Lee A; Hoe, Erica; Flanagan, J Randall

    2012-10-01

    Certain hand-held tools alter the mapping between hand motion and motion of the tool end point that must be controlled in order to perform a task. For example, when using a pool cue, the motion of the cue tip is reversed relative to the hand. Previous studies have shown that the time required to initiate a reaching movement (Fernandez-Ruiz J, Wong W, Armstrong IT, Flanagan JR. Behav Brain Res 219: 8-14, 2011), or correct an ongoing reaching movement (Gritsenko V, Kalaska JF. J Neurophysiol 104: 3084-3104, 2010), is prolonged when the mapping between hand motion and motion of a cursor controlled by the hand is reversed. Here we show that these time costs can be significantly reduced when the reversal is instantiated by a virtual hand-held tool. Participants grasped the near end of a virtual tool, consisting of a rod connecting two circles, and moved the end point to displayed targets. In the reversal condition, the rod translated through, and rotated about, a pivot point such that there was a left-right reversal between hand and end point motion. In the nonreversal control, the tool translated with the hand. As expected, when only the two circles were presented, movement initiation and correction times were much longer in the reversal condition. However, when full vision of the tool was provided, the reaction time cost was almost eliminated. These results indicate that tools with complex kinematics can be efficiently incorporated into sensorimotor control mechanisms used in movement planning and online control.

  17. Quartz lamp thermocycling rig for combustion liners

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Improved combustor liner durability is a major design objective for advanced combustors. Combinations of low cycle fatigue, creep, oxidation and crack propagation are the damage mechanisms that reduce durability. Each of these mechanisms is a consequence of cyclic thermal loading. Closely controlled rig tests can simulate these damage mechanisms. Although rig testing requires duplicating the actual thermal strain range on a full size liner, it is economically more attractive than full-engine testing. A suitable rig for controlled cyclic thermal loading of large size cylindrical test specimens is developed using a 672 KW electric quartz lamp radiant heat source. The design objectives, operational features and development shake-down test results are presented in this paper. The development discusses deals specifically with combustor liner test specimens. The rig is also suitable for high temperature testing of large advanced material specimens including composite ceramics.

  18. A handheld flow genetic analysis system (FGAS): towards rapid, sensitive, quantitative and multiplex molecular diagnosis at the point-of-care level.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bowen; Zhang, Chunsun; Xing, Da

    2015-06-21

    A handheld flow genetic analysis system (FGAS) is proposed for rapid, sensitive, multiplex and real-time quantification of nucleic acids at the point-of-care (POC) level. The FGAS includes a helical thermal-gradient microreactor and a microflow actuator, as well as control circuitry for temperature, fluid and power management, and smartphone fluorescence imaging. All of these features are integrated into a field-portable and easy-to-use molecular diagnostic platform powered by lithium batteries. Due to the unique design of the microreactor, not only steady temperatures for denaturation and annealing/extension but also a linear thermal gradient for spatial high-resolution melting can be achieved through simply maintaining a single heater at constant temperature. The smartphone fluorescence imaging system has a wide field of view that captures all PCR channels of the microreactor in a single snapshot without the need for any mechanical scanning. By these designs, the FGAS enables real-time monitoring of the temporal and spatial fluorescence signatures of amplicons during continuous-flow amplification. On the current FGAS, visual detection of as little as 10 copies per μL of genomic DNA of Salmonella enterica was achieved in 15 min, with real-time quantitative detection of the DNA over 6 orders of magnitude concentration from 10(6) to 10(1) copies per μL also completed in 7.5-15 min. In addition, multiple pathogenic DNA targets could be simultaneously discriminated with direct bar-chart readout or multiplex spatial melting in serial flow. We anticipate that the FGAS has great potential to become a next-generation gene analyzer for POC molecular diagnostics. PMID:25953325

  19. A molecular-beacon-based asymmetric PCR assay for easy visualization of amplicons in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis.

    PubMed

    Sonkar, Subash C; Sachdev, Divya; Mishra, Prashant K; Kumar, Anita; Mittal, Pratima; Saluja, Daman

    2016-12-15

    The currently available nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for trichomoniasis are accurate, quick and confirmative with superior sensitivity than traditional culture-based microbiology assays. However, these assays are associated with problems of carry over contamination, false positive results, requirement of technical expertise for performance and detection of end product. Hence, a diagnostic assay with easy visualization of the amplified product will be profitable. An in-house, rapid, sensitive, specific molecular-beacon-based PCR assay, using primers against pfoB gene of Trichomonas vaginalis, was developed and evaluated using dry ectocervical swabs (n=392) from symptomatic females with vaginal discharge. Total DNA was isolated and used as template for the PCR assays. The performance and reproducibility of PCR assay was evaluated by composite reference standard (CRS). For easy visualization of the amplified product, molecular-beacon was designed and amplicons were visualized directly using fluorescent handheld dark reader or by Micro-Plate Reader. Molecular-beacons are single-stranded hairpin shaped nucleic acid probes composed of a stem, with fluorophore/quencher pair and a loop region complementary to the desired DNA. The beacon-based PCR assay designed in the present study is highly specific as confirmed by competition experiments and extremely sensitive with detection limit of 20fg of genomic DNA (3-4 pathogens). The minimum infrastructure requirement and ease to perform the assay makes this method highly useful for resource poor countries for better disease management. PMID:27318568

  20. A molecular-beacon-based asymmetric PCR assay for easy visualization of amplicons in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis.

    PubMed

    Sonkar, Subash C; Sachdev, Divya; Mishra, Prashant K; Kumar, Anita; Mittal, Pratima; Saluja, Daman

    2016-12-15

    The currently available nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for trichomoniasis are accurate, quick and confirmative with superior sensitivity than traditional culture-based microbiology assays. However, these assays are associated with problems of carry over contamination, false positive results, requirement of technical expertise for performance and detection of end product. Hence, a diagnostic assay with easy visualization of the amplified product will be profitable. An in-house, rapid, sensitive, specific molecular-beacon-based PCR assay, using primers against pfoB gene of Trichomonas vaginalis, was developed and evaluated using dry ectocervical swabs (n=392) from symptomatic females with vaginal discharge. Total DNA was isolated and used as template for the PCR assays. The performance and reproducibility of PCR assay was evaluated by composite reference standard (CRS). For easy visualization of the amplified product, molecular-beacon was designed and amplicons were visualized directly using fluorescent handheld dark reader or by Micro-Plate Reader. Molecular-beacons are single-stranded hairpin shaped nucleic acid probes composed of a stem, with fluorophore/quencher pair and a loop region complementary to the desired DNA. The beacon-based PCR assay designed in the present study is highly specific as confirmed by competition experiments and extremely sensitive with detection limit of 20fg of genomic DNA (3-4 pathogens). The minimum infrastructure requirement and ease to perform the assay makes this method highly useful for resource poor countries for better disease management.

  1. LLNL Center for Microtechnology: Capabilities, Customers, Case Study-HANAA (Handheld Nucleic Acid Analyzer)

    SciTech Connect

    Mariella, R

    2002-12-30

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an enzyme-based chemical reaction that manufactures copies of one or more identifying regions of double-stranded DNA sequences (target sequences). These copies of target DNA are known as ''amplicons''. By creating millions of these copies of the identifying sequences (when they are present!), PCR allows researchers to detect by them, and hence the presence of the relevant organism, with techniques such as electrophoresis, flow cytometry, or spectrometry. Although there are numerous commercial PCR instruments that are designed for bench-top use in a laboratory, the challenges of building a battery-powered instrument that could perform such assays in the field.

  2. Validation of handheld meters to measure blood L-lactate concentration in dairy cows and calves.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2012-11-01

    In cattle, blood lactate was measured in various conditions such as parturition and dystocia. To our knowledge, to date, no handheld device has been validated for the use in cows and only one handheld device was validated for the use in calves. When determining plasma lactate concentrations blood samples have to be processed carefully. Sodium fluoride was recommended to inhibit glycolysis and to stabilize plasma lactate concentrations during transport. However, its effect on measurements conducted with electrochemical meters has not been studied. The objectives of 3 experiments were to study factors influencing measures of L-lactate in dairy cows (e.g., different anticoagulants, different methods) and to validate a handheld device (Lactate Scout, SensLab GmbH, Leipzig, Germany) to determine L-lactate concentration in dairy cows and calves. In a first approach, blood samples from 49 cows were analyzed by 2 different laboratories. Measures of L-lactate concentration were correlated between the different laboratories in both lithium heparin plasma (r=0.98) and sodium fluoride plasma (r=0.99). In a second approach, these samples were analyzed using 3 methods [Lactate Scout, Biosen C_line (EKF Diagnostics GmbH, Barleben, Germany), and commercial laboratory]. Concentrations of L-lactate measured in lithium heparin did not differ when analyzed with the Lactate Scout (0.99±0.35 mmol/L), the Biosen C_line (0.81±0.26 mmol/L), or the laboratory (1.0±0.36 mmol/L). Concentrations of L-lactate measured in sodium fluoride, however, were higher when analyzed with the Lactate Scout (1.85±0.66 mmol/L) compared with those measured with the Biosen C_line (0.92±0.37 mmol/L) and by the commercial laboratory (0.72±0.45 mmol/L). In the second and third experiments, blood samples from 173 cows and 106 calves were analyzed using the 3 methods (Lactate Scout, Biosen C_line, and commercial laboratory). L-Lactate concentrations measured with the 3 methods were correlated (cows: Lactate

  3. D Building FAÇADE Reconstruction Using Handheld Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, F.; Arefi, H.; Fallah, A.; Hahn, M.

    2015-12-01

    3D The three dimensional building modelling has been an interesting topic of research for decades and it seems that photogrammetry methods provide the only economic means to acquire truly 3D city data. According to the enormous developments of 3D building reconstruction with several applications such as navigation system, location based services and urban planning, the need to consider the semantic features (such as windows and doors) becomes more essential than ever, and therefore, a 3D model of buildings as block is not any more sufficient. To reconstruct the façade elements completely, we employed the high density point cloud data that obtained from the handheld laser scanner. The advantage of the handheld laser scanner with capability of direct acquisition of very dense 3D point clouds is that there is no need to derive three dimensional data from multi images using structure from motion techniques. This paper presents a grammar-based algorithm for façade reconstruction using handheld laser scanner data. The proposed method is a combination of bottom-up (data driven) and top-down (model driven) methods in which, at first the façade basic elements are extracted in a bottom-up way and then they are served as pre-knowledge for further processing to complete models especially in occluded and incomplete areas. The first step of data driven modelling is using the conditional RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus) algorithm to detect façade plane in point cloud data and remove noisy objects like trees, pedestrians, traffic signs and poles. Then, the façade planes are divided into three depth layers to detect protrusion, indentation and wall points using density histogram. Due to an inappropriate reflection of laser beams from glasses, the windows appear like holes in point cloud data and therefore, can be distinguished and extracted easily from point cloud comparing to the other façade elements. Next step, is rasterizing the indentation layer that holds the windows

  4. Laboratory Tests of a Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer: A Tool for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Hodges, K.

    2011-12-01

    Maximizing the science return from a mission to another planetary surface involves the integration of science objectives with deployable technologies that enable the collection of data and samples. For long duration manned missions, it is likely that more samples will be collected than can be returned to Earth due to mass limits. A niche exists for technologies that help prioritize samples for return, provide data for future sample handling and curation, and characterization for samples that are not returned to Earth. To fill this niche, hardware and protocols for field instruments are currently being developed and evaluated at NASA Johnson Space Center and Arizona State University. Our goal is to develop an easily used, environmentally isolated facility as part of the astronaut surface habitat for preliminary sample characterization and down-selection. NASA has constructed a prototype, GeoLab, as a testbed for evaluating the scientific applicability and operational considerations of various analytical instruments. One instrument under evaluation is a small, portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer that can be also be used by astronaut explorers as part of their field gear while on scientific sorties, or on robotic field assistants. We report on preliminary usability tests for commercially available handheld XRF instruments. These instruments collect data by contacting the surface of a rock or sediment sample with an 8 mm-wide sensor window. Within 60 seconds, the devices can provide relatively precise data on the abundance of major and trace elements heavier than Na. Lab-based handheld XRF analyses of terrestrial and lunar samples, compared with those made with full-scale laboratory XRF systems, show good correlation, but we continue to investigate potential sources of error and the need for careful calibration with standards of known composition. Specifically, we use a suite of five terrestrial and five lunar basalts, all well characterized by conventional

  5. Development of a handheld near-infrared imager for dynamic characterization of in vivo biological tissue systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ronald X; Qiang, Bo; Mao, Jimmy J; Povoski, Stephen P

    2007-10-20

    A handheld near-infrared imager was developed for real-time monitoring of tissue physiologic changes in response to dynamic compression stimuli. Both 2D and 3D imaging schemas were developed for reconstruction of tissue heterogeneities based on optical measurements. The handheld imager and the dynamic imaging schema were validated on both benchtop phantoms and in vivo human tissues. The benchtop tests demonstrated that the imager was able to reconstruct absorption properties of the embedded heterogeneity with accuracy and repeatability. The tests on in vivo human tissues demonstrated that the imager was able to generate various dynamic loading profiles with reproducibility and to detect tissue optical, mechanical, and physiologic changes under the dynamic loading condition.

  6. Library service delivery via hand-held computers--the right information at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mary

    2004-03-01

    Today's health and medical librarians are well aware of the move towards evidence-based clinical practice which has emerged during the past decade. Hand-in-hand with this trend is the need for health practitioners to have access to the best possible evidence to help them in their clinical decision making. Libraries have a key role in the provision of information to their clients, and this means keeping abreast, not only of the various information sources available, but also the means by which those sources may be used. This paper will examine the effects that the hand-held computer is having on the work practices of our clients-library users. It is hoped that the paper will give an insight into the various types of library material which are suitable for use with hand-held devices, and an understanding of their advantages and limitations.

  7. Analysis of the reliability of the make test in young adults by using a hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Yong Ho

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the make test, a manual muscle testing measurement method, using a hand-held dynamometer in Korean young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 42 university students participated in this study. The make test, a manual muscle testing method, was conducted. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure elbow joint flexion during the make test. [Results] Both intra-rater (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.992) and inter-rater reliabilities (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.949) were excellent, with values over 0.9. [Conclusion] The make test is a useful manual muscle testing method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. PMID:27630404

  8. A 128-ch Δ-Σ ADC based mixed signal IC for full digital beamforming Wireless handheld Ultrasound imaging system.

    PubMed

    Chirala, Mohan K; Phuong Huynh; Jaeyoung Ryu; Young-Hwan Kim

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports a massively integrated Δ-Σ ADC based mixed signal chipset for a handheld Wireless Ultrasound imaging system. The IC has been fabricated in a standard 0.13 μm 1.5V 7M2F CMOS process with 128 parallel channels containing Delta-Sigma (Δ-Σ) ADCs, Anti-aliasing filter, Decimation filters, Serializers and LVDS drivers. The entire chip is SPI controlled and allows group-level power control through an FPGA. The IC measures 15 × 15 mm and dissipates around ~ 4.6 W of power, with 12-bit resolution at 20 Msps sample rate. The chip was packaged in a thermally stable BGA package and demonstrated in a handheld ultrasound battery operated system with complete digital beamforming. PMID:26736516

  9. Analysis of the reliability of the make test in young adults by using a hand-held dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Yong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the make test, a manual muscle testing measurement method, using a hand-held dynamometer in Korean young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 42 university students participated in this study. The make test, a manual muscle testing method, was conducted. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure elbow joint flexion during the make test. [Results] Both intra-rater (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.992) and inter-rater reliabilities (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.949) were excellent, with values over 0.9. [Conclusion] The make test is a useful manual muscle testing method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability.

  10. Analysis of the reliability of the make test in young adults by using a hand-held dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Yong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the make test, a manual muscle testing measurement method, using a hand-held dynamometer in Korean young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 42 university students participated in this study. The make test, a manual muscle testing method, was conducted. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure elbow joint flexion during the make test. [Results] Both intra-rater (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.992) and inter-rater reliabilities (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.949) were excellent, with values over 0.9. [Conclusion] The make test is a useful manual muscle testing method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. PMID:27630404

  11. Continuing Measurements of CO2 Crystals with a Hand-Held 35 GHz Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J.; Chang, A.; Hall, D.; Tait, A.; Wergin, W.; Erbe, E.

    2000-01-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of the Martian polar caps, an improved understanding of the behavior of both frozen H2O and CO2 in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is needed. The thermal microwave part of the spectrum has received relatively little attention compared to the visible and infrared wavelengths. A simple experiment to measure the brightness temperature of frozen CO2 was first performed in the winter of 1998 using a 35 GHz radiometer. in experiments performed during the winter of 1999 and 2000, passive microwave radiation emanating from within layers of manufactured CO2 (dry ice) crystals was again measured with a 35 GHz handheld radiometer. Both large (0.8 cm) and small (0.3 cm) cylindrical-shaped dry ice pellets, at a temperature of 197 K (-76 C), were measured. A 1 sq m plate of aluminum sheet metal was positioned beneath the dry ice so that microwave emissions from the underlying soil layers would be minimized. Non-absorbing foam was positioned around the sides of the plate in order to keep the dry ice in place and to assure that the incremental deposits were level. Thirty-five GHz measurements of this plate were made through the dry ice deposits in the following way. Layers of dry ice were built up and measurements were repeated for the increasing CO2 pack. First, 7 cm of large CO2 pellets were poured onto the sheet metal plate, then an additional 7 cm were added, and finally, 12 cm were added on top of the 14 cm base. Hand-held 35 GHz measurements were made each time the thickness of the deposit was increased. The same process was repeated for the smaller grain pellets. Furthermore, during the past winter, 35 GHz measurements were taken of a 25 kg (27 cm x 27 cm x 27 cm) solid cube Of CO2, which was cut in half and then re-measured. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Continuing Measurements of CO2 Crystals with a Hand-Held 35 GHz Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J.; Chang, A.; Hall, D.; Tait, A.; Wergin, W.; Erbe, E.

    2000-08-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of the Martian polar caps, an improved understanding of the behavior of both frozen H2O and CO2 in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is needed. The thermal microwave part of the spectrum has received relatively little attention compared to the visible and infrared wavelengths. A simple experiment to measure the brightness temperature of frozen CO2 was first performed in the winter of 1998 using a 35 GHz radiometer. in experiments performed during the winter of 1999 and 2000, passive microwave radiation emanating from within layers of manufactured CO2 (dry ice) crystals was again measured with a 35 GHz handheld radiometer. Both large (0.8 cm) and small (0.3 cm) cylindrical-shaped dry ice pellets, at a temperature of 197 K (-76 C), were measured. A 1 sq m plate of aluminum sheet metal was positioned beneath the dry ice so that microwave emissions from the underlying soil layers would be minimized. Non-absorbing foam was positioned around the sides of the plate in order to keep the dry ice in place and to assure that the incremental deposits were level. Thirty-five GHz measurements of this plate were made through the dry ice deposits in the following way. Layers of dry ice were built up and measurements were repeated for the increasing CO2 pack. First, 7 cm of large CO2 pellets were poured onto the sheet metal plate, then an additional 7 cm were added, and finally, 12 cm were added on top of the 14 cm base. Hand-held 35 GHz measurements were made each time the thickness of the deposit was increased. The same process was repeated for the smaller grain pellets. Furthermore, during the past winter, 35 GHz measurements were taken of a 25 kg (27 cm x 27 cm x 27 cm) solid cube Of CO2, which was cut in half and then re-measured. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Handheld computers and paper diaries for documenting the use of factor concentrates used in haemophilia home therapy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, E; Heddle, N; Lane, S; Sek, J; Almonte, T; Walker, I

    2005-05-01

    A recently published randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed that adherence to infusion diary record keeping was improved by the use of handheld computers. In this study, attitudes to record keeping were explored and patient preferences regarding the method of recording determined for the patients who participated in the trial. Qualitative study consisting of individual semi-structured interviews with 20 severely affected patients with haemophilia who participated in an RCT. Individuals were purposefully sampled based on their recent method of record keeping and whether child or adult. Analysis employed a constant comparative method to identify key themes from the data. Most individuals (19 of 20, 95%) considered record keeping to be important. They readily identified reasons to keep records: to benefit themselves, their families, clinical staff, product distributors and manufacturers. Keeping records helps them: feel a part of the health care team; have confidence they would be notified of product recalls; review their past history; improve their ability to advocate for themselves and improve communication among all parties. Record keeping, particularly when using paper diaries, can be burdensome and a challenge to maintain consistently. All 10 individuals (100%) who had used both paper diaries and handheld computers preferred the latter. Most patients understand that record keeping can be of benefit to them. Clinics can use this knowledge to inspire other patients by developing educational programmes that de-emphasize authority. In addition, given the evidence of both patients' preference for handheld computers, and the effectiveness of this approach documented in an RCT, switching to handheld computers is likely to improve record keeping.

  14. Comparing dynamic contour tonometry to Goldmann and hand-held tonometry in normal, ocular hypertension, and glaucoma populations.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Kenneth D; Mezej, Mihaly; Eichenbaum, Joseph W

    2007-01-01

    We prospectively compared dynamic contour tonometry (DCT) to Goldmann (GAT) and hand-held tonometry (HHT) in normal, ocular hypertension, and glaucoma populations. Both measurements were made on each patient within a 5-minute period during routine office exams over 4 months. While DCT is in good overall agreement with GAT and HTT, there is some systematic deviation at different pressure ranges in normal, ocular hypertension, and glaucoma populations.

  15. Simultaneous hand-held contact color fundus and SD-OCT imaging for pediatric retinal diseases (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Marco; Hernandez, Victor; De Freitas, Carolina; Relhan, Nidhi; Silgado, Juan; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-01

    Hand-held wide-field contact color fundus photography is currently the standard method to acquire diagnostic images of children during examination under anesthesia and in the neonatal intensive care unit. The recent development of portable non-contact hand-held OCT retinal imaging systems has proved that OCT is of tremendous help to complement fundus photography in the management of pediatric patients. Currently, there is no commercial or research system that combines color wide-field digital fundus and OCT imaging in a contact-fashion. The contact of the probe with the cornea has the advantages of reducing motion experienced by the photographer during the imaging and providing fundus and OCT images with wider field of view that includes the periphery of the retina. In this study we produce proof of concept for a contact-type hand-held unit for simultaneous color fundus and OCT live view of the retina of pediatric patients. The front piece of the hand-held unit consists of a contact ophthalmoscopy lens integrating a circular light guide that was recovered from a digital fundus camera for pediatric imaging. The custom-made rear piece consists of the optics to: 1) fold the visible aerial image of the fundus generated by the ophthalmoscopy lens on a miniaturized level board digital color camera; 2) conjugate the eye pupil to the galvanometric scanning mirrors of an OCT delivery system. Wide-field color fundus and OCT images were simultaneously obtained in an eye model and sequentially obtained on the eye of a conscious 25 year-old human subject with healthy retina.

  16. Robotic hand-held surgical device: evaluation of end-effector's kinematics and development of proof-of-concept prototypes.

    PubMed

    Zahraee, Ali Hassan; Szewczyk, Jérome; Paik, Jamie Kyujin; Morel, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    We are working towards the development of a robotic hand-held surgical device for laparoscopic interventions that enhances the surgeons' dexterity. In this paper, the kinematics of the end effector is studied. Different choices of kinematics are compared during an evaluation campaign using a virtual reality simulator to find the optimal one: the Yaw-Roll (YR) kinematics. A proof of concept prototype is made based on the results. PMID:20879429

  17. Applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld spectrometer to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage materials.

    PubMed

    Arrizabalaga, Iker; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Aramendia, Julene; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-08-14

    This work studies the applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld device to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage assets. This portable diffuse reflectance spectrometer has been used to characterise and diagnose the conservation state of (a) building materials of the Guevara Palace (15th century, Segura, Basque Country, Spain) and (b) different 19th century wallpapers manufactured by the Santa Isabel factory (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain) and by the well known Dufour and Leroy manufacturers (Paris, France), all of them belonging to the Torre de los Varona Castle (Villanañe, Basque Country, Spain). In all cases, in situ measurements were carried out and also a few samples were collected and measured in the laboratory by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFT) in order to validate the information obtained by the handheld instrument. In the analyses performed in situ, distortions in the diffuse reflectance spectra can be observed due to the presence of specular reflection, showing the inverted bands caused by the Reststrahlen effect, in particular on those IR bands with the highest absorption coefficients. This paper concludes that the results obtained in situ by a diffuse reflectance handheld device are comparable to those obtained with laboratory diffuse reflectance spectroscopy equipment and proposes a few guidelines to acquire good spectra in the field, minimising the influence caused by the specular reflection.

  18. Design and experiment of silicon PCR chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zheng; Zhao, Zhan; Xia, Shanhong

    2002-04-01

    There are considerable interests in integrating Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a microchip can have much fast heating and cooling rate, the delicacy in its structure makes the PCR experiment difficult and cracks often occur particularly for the thin membrane type of PCR chips. Design study and experiment of silicon PCR chips are presented with the aim of identifying the problems encountered in experiment and finding an optimum chip structure. Heating characteristics of four different heater designs have been compared, so have the PCR chambers with fixed frame and with suspended frame. The thermal stress analysis has shown that the structure and heater design can make a significant difference in heating characteristics and in reducing the failure of PCR chips. Different solutions to reduce PCR chip failure have been proposed. One of the solutions was implemented in the experiment, confirming the design study results. Silicon PCR chips have been fabricated. Thermal cycling and initial DNA amplification results are presented.

  19. A miniature infrared sight for both weapon-mounted and handheld security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Terre, William A.; Frank, Jeff; Malmberg, Roy; Switzer, Larry; Antesberger, Wayne; Newsome, Gwendolyn

    2004-08-01

    Thermal weapon sights have been used by the U.S. military for decades. More recently, there has been a growing interest in infrared imagers for paramilitary and civilian applications such as law-enforcement and homeland defense. However, traditional weapon sights are not always ideal products for these applications because they do not typically have form-factor or features allowing them to be readily employed as general-purpose imagers off the weapon. Simply stated, most law-enforcement agencies cannot afford a dedicated sniper scope. Instead, this market demands a thermal imager that can be employed in a variety of situations, both weapon-mounted and handheld. Described herein is a new infrared sight that provides this multi-use capability. Based around the Omega imaging core developed by Indigo Systems, this lightweight system employs a unique housing design that mounts to a weapon rail or tripod or is held comfortably in one hand for use as a short-range "pocket scope". Key aspects of the design are discussed, with particular focus on ergonomics, human factors, and advanced features that enhance its utility in a multi-use role.

  20. Droplet-size characterization of handheld atomization equipment typically used in vector control.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, W Clint; Walker, Todd W; Smith, Vince L; Martin, Dan E; Fritz, Brad K

    2007-09-01

    The atomization characteristics of 4 handheld sprayers (Leco P-1, Colt ULV Aerosol Generator, ULVAFAN MK2, Turbair ElectraFan 12) and a Stih1 SR400 backpack sprayer were evaluated with the use of water- and oil-based solutions. The effects on droplet-size spectrum (i.e., droplet size) for 3 insecticides (Tempo SC Ultra, Anvil 10+10, and Aqua-Reslin) were also evaluated. Generic solutions were used to simulate the physical properties of the active-ingredient solutions in some tests. Significant differences were observed in the droplet spectrum generated by the different sprayers. The volume median diameter of the equipment tested ranged from 14.9 to 90.5 microm for the water-based solutions and from 11.7 to 92.4 microm for the oil-based solutions. The Colt ULV sprayer was the only one tested that complied with label requirements for aerosols, yielding acceptable Dv0.5 values of 14.9 16.0 microm with water-based Aqua-Reslin and 14.1 microm with Anvil 10+10. The information presented will allow equipment operators to make an informed decision when selecting equipment and operational parameters. PMID:17939513