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Sample records for handwashing indicators wealth

  1. Sustained improvements in handwashing indicators more than 5 years after a cluster-randomised, community-based trial of handwashing promotion in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Anna; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Ayers, Tracy; Tobery, Timothy; Tariq, Maria; Luby, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate handwashing behaviour 5 years after a handwashing intervention in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS In 2003, we randomised neighbourhoods to control, handwashing promotion, or handwashing promotion and water treatment. Intervention households were given soap +/− water treatment product and weekly handwashing education for 9 months. In 2009, we re-enrolled 461 households from the three study groups: control (160), handwashing (141), and handwashing + water treatment (160) and assessed hygiene-related outcomes, accounting for clustering. RESULTS Intervention households were 3.4 times more likely than controls to have soap at their handwashing stations during the study visit [293/301 (97%) vs. 45/159 (28%), P < 0.0001]. While nearly all households reported handwashing after toileting, intervention households more commonly reported handwashing before cooking [relative risk (RR) 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0–1.4)] and before meals [RR 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3–2.1)]. Control households cited a mean of 3.87 occasions for washing hands; handwashing households, 4.74 occasions; and handwashing + water treatment households, 4.78 occasions (P < 0.0001). Households reported purchasing a mean of 0.65 (control), 0.91 (handwashing) and 1.1 (handwashing + water treatment) bars of soap/person/month (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Five years after receiving handwashing promotion, intervention households were more likely to have soap at the household handwashing station, know key times to wash hands and report purchasing more soap than controls, suggesting habituation of improved handwashing practices in this population. Intensive handwashing promotion may be an effective strategy for habituating hygiene behaviours and improving health. PMID:23294343

  2. Faecal indicator bacteria on the hands and the effectiveness of hand-washing in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kaltenthaler, E; Waterman, R; Cross, P

    1991-10-01

    Two aspects of hand-washing were explored in this study. Mothers and children from 80 families in Zimbabwe were asked to wash their hands in the traditional manner in sterile water. Mothers were asked to answere a socio-economic questionnaire. By using the questionnaire and observations in conjunction with the microbiological data from hand-washing, factors were identified which contributed to high counts on the hands. These were: high relative humidity, living on a commercial farm, and having an infant in the family. Mothers and children 1-5 years of age had higher counts than children of 6-12 years. People recently involved in outdoor physical activities such as farming had higher counts than those involved in other activities. The traditional hand-washing method was also compared with two other hand-washing methods: hand-washing using soap and hand-washing using a container known as the mukombe. Hand-washing with soap was the most effective method closely followed by hand-washing using the mukombe. The least effective method was traditional hand-washing.

  3. Handwashing compliance.

    PubMed

    Antoniak, Jeannie

    2004-09-01

    Undeniably, handwashing remains the single most effective and cost-efficient method for preventing and reducing the transmission of nosocomial infections. Yet the rates and outbreaks of nosocomial infections in Canadian and international healthcare institutions continue to increase. Shaikh Khalifa Medical Center developed and implemented a multidisciplinary approach to address the challenges of handwashing compliance among nurses and healthcare workers in its workplace setting. Supported by evidence-based research, the approach consisted of three components: collaboration, implementation and evaluation. The use of the alcohol-based hand rub sanitizer or "solution" was integral to the multidisciplinary approach. Ongoing education, communication and a committed leadership were essential to promote and sustain handwashing compliance. PMID:15510782

  4. Household Possessions Indices as Wealth Measures: A Validity Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traynor, Anne; Raykov, Tenko

    2013-01-01

    In international achievement studies, questionnaires typically ask about the presence of particular household assets in students' homes. Responses to the assets questions are used to compute a total score, which is intended to represent household wealth in models of test performance. This study uses item analysis and confirmatory factor…

  5. Participation in "Handwashing University" Promotes Proper Handwashing Techniques for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ginger; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Handwashing University on teaching youth the benefits of proper handwashing. The Handwashing University is an interactive display with several successive stations through which participants move to learn necessary skills for proper handwashing. Upon completion of the Handwashing University,…

  6. Mapping Spatial Variability in Health and Wealth Indicators in Accra, Ghana Using High Spatial Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, R.; Ashcroft, E.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of research conducted that examines disparities in health and wealth of persons between urban and rural areas however, relatively little research has been undertaken to examine variations within urban areas. A major limitation to elucidating differences with urban areas is the lack of social and demographic data at a sufficiently high spatial resolution to determine these differences. Generally the only available data that contain this information are census data which are collected at most every ten years and are often difficult to obtain at a high enough spatial resolution to allow for examining in depth variability in health and wealth indicators at high spatial resolutions, especially in developing countries. High spatial resolution satellite imagery may be able to provide timely and synoptic information that is related to health and wealth variability within a city. In this study we use two dates of Quickbird imagery (2003 and 2010) classified into the vegetation-impervious surface-soil (VIS) model introduced by Ridd (1995). For 2003 we only have partial coverage of the city, while for 2010 we have a mosaic, which covers the entire city of Accra, Ghana. Variations in the VIS values represent the physical variations within the city and these are compared to variations in economic, and/or sociodemographic data derived from the 2000 Ghanaian census at two spatial resolutions, the enumeration area (approximately US Census Tract) and the neighborhood for the city. Results indicate a significant correlation between both vegetation and impervious surface to type of cooking fuel used in the household, population density, housing density, availability of sewers, cooking space usage, and other variables. The correlations are generally stronger at the neighborhood level and the relationships are stable through time and space. Overall, the results indicate that information derived from high resolution satellite data is related to

  7. Handwashing machines, handwashing compliance, and potential for cross-contamination.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, R; Moye, G; Jovanovic, B

    1994-08-01

    Although handwashing is considered an important factor in the prevention of nosocomial infections, the optimal technique has not been determined and compliance is often difficult to obtain. Handwashing compliance is particularly important in intensive care areas of the hospital. In an effort to improve HW compliance, the surgical intensive care unit in our hospital purchased three handwashing machines. Four months after installation of the handwashing machines, an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurred in the intensive care unit. As part of evaluating the outbreak, we cultured the handwashing machines, including the portholes and the paper towel dispenser. Cultures were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Achromobacter species, and Streptococcus viridans. The design of the handwashing machines made contamination of sleeves and already-washed hands possible. An observational study revealed that handwashing compliance was poor but improved from 22% to 38% when the handwashing machines were in use. Nurses preferred handwashing at the sink and physicians preferred the handwashing machine. Handwashing machines may increase handwashing compliance because of their novelty, but they may also result in novel problems. PMID:7985823

  8. Fun with Handwashing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Brian F.; Artz, Lynn; Petri, Cynthia J.; Winnail, Scott D.; Mason, J. Walter

    Noting that primary prevention of contagious diseases includes teaching young children and their caregivers about personal hygiene behavior, this paper presents a lesson for teaching handwashing to young children in preschool and early elementary grades using a variety of fun and low-cost techniques. The learning objectives for the lesson are that…

  9. The antimicrobial properties of a urea-based handwash lotion with triclosan.

    PubMed

    Tung, F F; Estafan, D; Scherer, W

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the antimicrobial action of a urea-based handwash lotion with triclosan with a lipid-depleting detergent-based handwash product with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate. The zones of inhibition produced by the two handwash lotions and the one produced by the positive control were similar against all strains of bacteria tested, indicating that a urea-based handwash lotion with triclosan is as effective as a lipid-depleting handwash lotion in inhibiting bacterial activity.

  10. The role of handwashing in prevention of endemic intensive care unit infections.

    PubMed

    Simmons, B; Bryant, J; Neiman, K; Spencer, L; Arheart, K

    1990-11-01

    Handwashing is believed to be the most important means of preventing nosocomial infections. Previous studies of healthcare workers (HCWs) have shown that handwashing practices are poor. No one has shown that handwashing practices can be easily improved and that this prevents endemic (nonepidemic) nosocomial infection. Handwashing and infection rates were studied in two intensive care units (ICUs) of a community teaching hospital. Handwashing rates were monitored secretly throughout the study. After six months of observation, we started interventions to increase handwashing. Handwashing increased gradually, but overall rates before (22.0%) and after (29.9%) interventions were not significantly different (p = .071). Handwashing never occurred before intravenous care, whereas it occurred 67.5% for all other indications (p less than .0001). When questioned, nurses felt they were washing appropriately nearly 90% of the time. Infection rates seemed unrelated to handwashing throughout the study, and no clusters of infection were detected. We conclude that handwashing rates, when measured against arbitrary but reasonable standards, are suboptimal, difficult to change and not closely related to evidence of cross-infection. Further, nurses wash hands selectively, depending on the indication for handwashing, and generally believe they are washing much more frequently than an objective observer believes they are.

  11. Wealth happens.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Mark

    2002-04-01

    The economic world is full of patterns, and one of the most controversial is the distribution of wealth. You might expect the balance between rich and poor to vary widely from country to country. But back in 1897, Vilfredo Pareto discovered a pattern of wealth distribution that appears to be universal. Whenever you double the amount of wealth within a country, the number of people in each successively higher wealth bracket falls by a constant factor. The factor varies among countries, but the pattern remains essentially the same. From a mathematical standpoint, Pareto's distribution has stubbornly defied explanation. But recently, researchers were able to replicate the curve by applying the principles of network organization. They began with two simple assumptions. First, wealth accumulates either by transfers from person to person or through investment returns, positive or negative. Second, rich people invest more money than poor people. Starting with a hypothetical group of 1,000 people of equal wealth and abilities, the model always produces Pareto's wealth distribution no matter how the links in the network are organized or how the balance between interpersonal transactions and investment returns are set. The model also indicates that the degree of wealth concentration can be influenced. Increasing the number of links in the network or the total amount of money flowing through an economy tends to decrease wealth disparities; increasing investment returns or volatility tends to increase it. Replete with public policy implications, the model is only one example of how network analysis can reshape our understanding of complex economic and social systems, which may have less to do with the behavior of individual members than with impersonal and seemingly insignificant forces. PMID:11930782

  12. Wealth happens.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Mark

    2002-04-01

    The economic world is full of patterns, and one of the most controversial is the distribution of wealth. You might expect the balance between rich and poor to vary widely from country to country. But back in 1897, Vilfredo Pareto discovered a pattern of wealth distribution that appears to be universal. Whenever you double the amount of wealth within a country, the number of people in each successively higher wealth bracket falls by a constant factor. The factor varies among countries, but the pattern remains essentially the same. From a mathematical standpoint, Pareto's distribution has stubbornly defied explanation. But recently, researchers were able to replicate the curve by applying the principles of network organization. They began with two simple assumptions. First, wealth accumulates either by transfers from person to person or through investment returns, positive or negative. Second, rich people invest more money than poor people. Starting with a hypothetical group of 1,000 people of equal wealth and abilities, the model always produces Pareto's wealth distribution no matter how the links in the network are organized or how the balance between interpersonal transactions and investment returns are set. The model also indicates that the degree of wealth concentration can be influenced. Increasing the number of links in the network or the total amount of money flowing through an economy tends to decrease wealth disparities; increasing investment returns or volatility tends to increase it. Replete with public policy implications, the model is only one example of how network analysis can reshape our understanding of complex economic and social systems, which may have less to do with the behavior of individual members than with impersonal and seemingly insignificant forces.

  13. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-14

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  14. Improving handwashing in hospitals: a patient education and empowerment program.

    PubMed

    McGuckin, M

    2001-11-01

    Each year, about 5% of people admitted to U.S. hospitals (about 2 million people) acquire an infection there. These infections cause nearly 20,000 deaths each year, and cost an estimated $4.5 billion to treat. Handwashing is the single most effective measure for preventing hospital-acquired infections. Despite widespread knowledge of the importance of handwashing, health care workers wash their hands far less often than is indicated. This Issue Brief describes a novel strategy to improve handwashing among hospital personnel, by involving the people with the most to gain--the patients themselves.

  15. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. PMID:27139449

  16. Hand washing behavior and associated factors in Vietnam based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    To, Kien Gia; Lee, Jong-Koo; Nam, You-Seon; Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Handwashing is a cost-effective way of preventing communicable diseases such as respiratory and food-borne illnesses. However, handwashing rates are low in developing countries. Target 7C of the seventh Millennium Development Goals was to increase by half the proportion of people with sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. Studies have found that better access to improved water sources and sanitation is associated with higher rates of handwashing. Objective Our goal was to describe handwashing behaviour and identify the associated factors in Vietnamese households. Design Data from 12,000 households participating in the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 were used. The survey used a multistage sampling method to randomly select 100 clusters and 20 households per cluster. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from a household representative. Demographic variables, the presence of a specific place for handwashing, soap and water, access to improved sanitation, and access to improved water sources were tested for association with handwashing behaviour in logistic regression. Results Almost 98% of households had a specific place for handwashing, and 85% had cleansing materials and water at such a place. The prevalence of handwashing in the sample was almost 85%. Educational level, ethnicity of the household head, and household wealth were factors associated with handwashing practice (p<0.05). Those having access to an improved sanitation facility were more likely to practise handwashing [odds ratio (OR)=1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37–2.09, p<0.001], as were those with access to improved water sources (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.37–2.21, p<0.001). Conclusions Households with low education, low wealth, belonging to ethnic minorities, and with low access to improved sanitation facilities and water sources should be targeted for interventions implementing handwashing practice. In addition

  17. Effectiveness of a handwashing program.

    PubMed

    Day, R A; St Arnaud, S; Monsma, M

    1993-02-01

    A pilot study to develop and evaluate a program to teach 13 Grade 1 children with disabilities about handwashing was conducted at Glenrose School, which is located within Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital. Children aged 6 to 8 years were taught how and when to wash their hands. Handwashing skills were evaluated before the teaching began, immediately following the teaching program, and at 1, 3, and 5 months postteaching. The children's handwashing skills did improve, with the girls generally scoring higher than the boys on both washing techniques and times of washing on all the testing occasions. Although the children had fewer visits to the doctor, took fewer prescribed antibiotics, and had fewer infectious illnesses than they did for the same time period the previous year, other variables, in addition to the teaching program, may have contributed to the outcome. A revised handwashing program is now included in the Grade 1 curriculum.

  18. School Nurse Inspections Improve Handwashing Supplies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Schrader, Ronald; Trujillo, Rebecca; Blea, Mary; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Handwashing in the school setting is important for infectious disease control, yet maintaining adequate handwashing supplies is often made difficult by lack of funds, limited staff time, and student vandalism. This study measured the availability of handwashing supplies for students in New Mexico public schools and determined the…

  19. Environmental surface cleanliness and the potential for contamination during handwashing.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Christopher J; Malik, Rifhat; Cooper, Rose A; Looker, Nick; Michaels, Barry

    2003-04-01

    Effective handwashing (including drying) is important in infection control. The ability of the various stages of handwashing to decrease skin-surface microbial counts has been documented. However, an important element, environmental surface cleanliness, and the potential for contamination of hands during the process has not been well studied or quantified. An examination of the adenosine triphosphate (a measure of residual organic soil), bacterial, and staphylococcal load on ward handwash station surfaces, which could be touched during handwashing, is reported. Hand contact surfaces tested consisted of approximately 620 each of: faucet handles, soap dispenser activator mechanisms, and folded paper-towel dispenser exits. Failure rates in excess of benchmark clean values were higher with adenosine triphosphate assays than microbial counts. This could indicate the presence of a higher level of general organic debris (eg, skin cells) as opposed to microbial contamination or could reflect greater assay sensitivity. Faucet handles were more likely to be contaminated and be in excess of benchmark values than paper-towel dispenser exits. However, the latter are likely to be the final surface touched during the handwashing process and overall nearly 20% were above microbiologic benchmark values. Many of the organisms isolated were staphylococci and the results are discussed within the context of microbial cross-contamination and potential pathogen spread. PMID:12665742

  20. Simplified Asset Indices to Measure Wealth and Equity in Health Programs: A Reliability and Validity Analysis Using Survey Data From 16 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Nirali M; Fry, Kenzo; Behl, Rasika; Longfield, Kim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Social franchising programs in low- and middle-income countries have tried using the standard wealth index, based on the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) questionnaire, in client exit interviews to assess clients’ relative wealth compared with the national wealth distribution to ensure equity in service delivery. The large number of survey questions required to capture the wealth index variables have proved cumbersome for programs. Methods: Using an adaptation of the Delphi method, we developed shortened wealth indices and in February 2015 consulted 15 stakeholders in equity measurement. Together, we selected the best of 5 alternative indices, accompanied by 2 measures of agreement (percent agreement and Cohen’s kappa statistic) comparing wealth quintile assignment in the new indices to the full DHS index. The panel agreed that reducing the number of assets was more important than standardization across countries because a short index would provide strong indication of client wealth and be easier to collect and use in the field. Additionally, the panel agreed that the simplified index should be highly correlated with the DHS for each country (kappa ≥ 0.75) for both national and urban-specific samples. We then revised indices for 16 countries and selected the minimum number of questions and question options required to achieve a kappa statistic ≥ 0.75 for both national and urban populations. Findings: After combining the 5 wealth quintiles into 3 groups, which the expert panel deemed more programmatically meaningful, reliability between the standard DHS wealth index and each of 3 simplified indices was high (median kappa = 0.81, 086, and 0.77, respectively, for index B that included only the common questions from the DHS VI questionnaire, index D that included the common questions plus country-specific questions, and index E that found the shortest list of common and country-specific questions that met the minimum reliability

  1. Frequency and duration of handwashing in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Graham, M

    1990-04-01

    The effects on hand decontamination of the introduction of an antiseptic handrub lotion in an intensive care unit was studied. To obtain baseline data, nursing, medical, physiotherapy, radiology, and orderly staff members were observed. Further observations were carried out after the introduction of the handrub lotion. Patient care activities were classified as high or low, according to the degree of contact with the patients or their equipment. A total of 884 patient contacts and 341 hand decontamination episodes was observed: 440 contacts and 140 handwashes in stage one (32%) and 444 contacts and 201 handwashes in stage two (45%). There was an increase of 13% in hand decontamination frequency after the introduction of the handrub lotion. The data indicate that the frequency of hand decontamination is below levels recommended by infection control authorities. Increasing the accessibility of hand decontamination facilities did result in a slight increase in handwashing compliance.

  2. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed. PMID:26784210

  3. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed. PMID:26784210

  4. Breaking the Chain: Handwashing and Infection Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Sarah Anne

    1996-01-01

    Highlights the importance of each child-care facility having an explicit hand-washing policy that includes caregivers and teachers as well as children. Outlines a specific hand-washing technique and gives a variety of practical suggestions for promoting good hygiene and good health. (ET)

  5. Handwashing Programme in Kindergarten: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, W. H.; Suen, L. K. P.; Kwok, Y. L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured programme on handwashing which has taken into account of the developmental stage of children. Design/methodology/approach: This is a pilot study using a structured handwashing programme as intervention. The intervention group (n=15) receives the structured…

  6. Handwashing with soap and national handwashing projects in Korea: focus on the National Handwashing Survey, 2006-2014

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Young-Taek

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Handwashing is the most fundamental way to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Correct handwashing can prevent 50 to 70% of water-infections and foodborne-infections. We report the results of a fact-finding study on general handwashing attitude and practice in the Republic of Korea by analyzing habits and awareness among adults and students (grades 4 to 12) based on the 2006 to 2014 National Handwashing Surveys and observational surveys. METHODS: The awareness survey was performed by telephone interviews with adults and students in 16 municipalities and provinces sampled by quota for region, sex and age. The observational survey was performed in subway, railway, and other public restrooms in seven municipalities selected through systematic sampling. RESULTS: Adults and students washed their hands with soap/sanitizer an average of 6.6 and 5.2 times daily, respectively, in 2014, an increase and decrease compared to 2006 (4.8) and 2013 (6.8). Their average daily handwashing frequency in 2014, 9.8 and 8.3, was higher than in 2006 (7.6), but lower than in 2013 (10.3).The percentage of participants handwashing with soap after using the restroom (29.5%) has been increasing since 2009, but remain slower than in other countries (42% to 49%). The percentages of participants handwashing with water in 2014, 2013, and 2011 were 57.5%, 72.6%, and 71.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Handwashing with soap is an important national public health issue, and national projects promoting it should be given high priority. Research support is necessary to provide scientific evidence of the importance of handwashing with soap and to develop and implement evidence-based policies. PMID:26725224

  7. Over-Reporting in Handwashing Self-Reports: Potential Explanatory Factors and Alternative Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Contzen, Nadja; De Pasquale, Sandra; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Handwashing interventions are a priority in development and emergency aid programs. Evaluation of these interventions is essential to assess the effectiveness of programs; however, measuring handwashing is quite difficult. Although observations are considered valid, they are time-consuming and cost-ineffective; self-reports are highly efficient but considered invalid because desirable behaviour tends to be over-reported. Socially desirable responding has been claimed to be the main cause of inflated self-reports, but its underlying factors and mechanisms are understudied. The present study investigated socially desirable responding and additional potential explanatory factors for over-reported handwashing to identify indications for measures which mitigate over-reporting. Additionally, a script-based covert recall, an alternative interview question intended to mitigate recall errors and socially desirable responding, was developed and tested. Cross-sectional data collection was conducted in the Borena Zone, Ethiopia, through 2.5-hour observations and 1-hour interviews with the primary caregivers in households. A total sample of N = 554 was surveyed. Data were analysed with correlation and multiple regression analyses and dependent t-tests. Over-reporting of handwashing was associated with factors assumed to be involved in (1) socially desirable responding, (2) encoding and recall of information, and (3) dissonance processes. The latter two factor groups explained over-reported handwashing beyond socially desirable responding. The alternative interview question—script-based covert recall—reduced over-reporting compared to conventional self-reports. Although the difficulties involved in measuring handwashing by self-reports and observations are widely known, the present study is the first to investigate the factors which explain over-reporting of handwashing. This research contributes to the limited evidence base on a highly important subject: how to evaluate

  8. Over-Reporting in Handwashing Self-Reports: Potential Explanatory Factors and Alternative Measurements.

    PubMed

    Contzen, Nadja; De Pasquale, Sandra; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Handwashing interventions are a priority in development and emergency aid programs. Evaluation of these interventions is essential to assess the effectiveness of programs; however, measuring handwashing is quite difficult. Although observations are considered valid, they are time-consuming and cost-ineffective; self-reports are highly efficient but considered invalid because desirable behaviour tends to be over-reported. Socially desirable responding has been claimed to be the main cause of inflated self-reports, but its underlying factors and mechanisms are understudied. The present study investigated socially desirable responding and additional potential explanatory factors for over-reported handwashing to identify indications for measures which mitigate over-reporting. Additionally, a script-based covert recall, an alternative interview question intended to mitigate recall errors and socially desirable responding, was developed and tested. Cross-sectional data collection was conducted in the Borena Zone, Ethiopia, through 2.5-hour observations and 1-hour interviews with the primary caregivers in households. A total sample of N = 554 was surveyed. Data were analysed with correlation and multiple regression analyses and dependent t-tests. Over-reporting of handwashing was associated with factors assumed to be involved in (1) socially desirable responding, (2) encoding and recall of information, and (3) dissonance processes. The latter two factor groups explained over-reported handwashing beyond socially desirable responding. The alternative interview question--script-based covert recall--reduced over-reporting compared to conventional self-reports. Although the difficulties involved in measuring handwashing by self-reports and observations are widely known, the present study is the first to investigate the factors which explain over-reporting of handwashing. This research contributes to the limited evidence base on a highly important subject: how to evaluate

  9. "Think the sink:" Preliminary evaluation of a handwashing promotion campaign.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Liang, Ming-Ching; Champlin, Sara

    2013-03-01

    Owing to its utility in guiding the planning and evaluation of health promotion campaigns, the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to implement a 1-month campaign aimed at increasing handwashing among college students. Based on observations of bathroom users' handwashing behavior (n = 1,005) and an online survey (n = 188), overall handwashing did not increase as a result of the campaign; however, more students did use soap (58% vs 70%). Future campaigns designed to increase handwashing behavior in students may be advised to target messages according to gender difference-based responsiveness to handwashing norms. PMID:22990299

  10. Handwashing practices for the prevention of nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Steere, A C; Mallison, G F

    1975-11-01

    Handwashing is generally considered the most important procedure in preventing nosocomial infections, because many types of these infections may be caused by organisms transmitted on the hands of personnel. Personnel should wash their hands before and after significant contact with any patient. The risk of personnel acquiring transient hand carriage of organisms is usually greatest after contact with excretions, secretions, or blood; patients at greatest risk are those undergoing surgery, those with catheters, and newborn infants. Although handwashing with an antiseptic agent between patient contacts is theoretically desirable, handwashing with soap, water, and mechanical friction are sufficient ro remove most transiently acquired organisms. Antiseptic agents may produce excessively dry skin if used frequently, and any regimen of handwashing that leads to dermatitis negates the purpose of handwashing. We favor antiseptics for handwashing before surgery and other high-risk invasive procedures and in the care of newborn infants but prefer soap and water for other handwashing.

  11. Handwashing Technique. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pamela

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on handwashing. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to…

  12. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications.

  13. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications. PMID:11759028

  14. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  15. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  16. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  17. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  18. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... of floor space per unit. Adequate, dry dressing space shall be provided in common use facilities.... When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by...

  19. Household Wealth in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  20. The use of antiseptics for handwashing by medical personnel.

    PubMed

    Maki, D G

    1989-04-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the major reservoir of nosocomial infection in the hospital is the infected or colonised patient and the major mode of spread of organisms between patients is on the hands of medical personnel. A prolonged preoperative scrub with an antiseptic is one of the most time-honoured rituals of surgical asepsis. Hygienic handwashing in the hospital or clinic, to remove transient contaminants acquired from patients or the environment and prevent cross-infection to vulnerable patients, is similarly regarded as one of the most fundamental infection control measures, yet is done infrequently by personnel in most hospitals. Following a typical brief (7.10 second) handwashing with a nonmedicated soap, the number of organisms that can be transmitted from the person's hands may, paradoxically, actually increase. Use of chlorhexidine for handwashing or application of an evaporative alcohol-based lotion has been found to reduce shedding of bacteria-laden skin squames. Routine use of antiseptic-containing handwashing agents is clearly more effective than nonmedicated soaps for microbial removal, can enhance the value of the handwashings that are done and might further confer protection against contaminants acquired between handwashings. In a sequential comparative trial of three handwashing agents in a surgical intensive care unit--a nonmedicated soap, 10% povidone-iodine solution, and 4% aqueous chlorhexidine, each used exclusively for approximately six weeks--the incidence of nosocomial infection was 50% lower during the use of the antiseptic handwashing products than during the use of nonmedicated soap (P less than .001). Novel approaches are needed to improve the frequency of hygienic handwashing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Household wealth and child health in India.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  2. Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Graham, Jay P; Mattson, Kay D; Kelsey, Andrea; Mukherji, Supriya; Cronin, Aidan A

    2016-09-01

    Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households' hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials and location of facilities in the home. Prevalence ratios were calculated to analyze associations between handwashing with soap and hypothesized determinants of the behavior. Our results showed that determinants that had a significant association with handwashing with soap included: (1) a desire to smell nice; (2) interpersonal influences; (3) the presence of handwashing places within 10 paces of the kitchen and the toilet; and (4) key handwashing moments when hands felt dirty, including after eating and after cleaning child stools. This study concludes that handwashing with soap may be more effectively promoted through the use of non-health messages.

  3. Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Graham, Jay P; Mattson, Kay D; Kelsey, Andrea; Mukherji, Supriya; Cronin, Aidan A

    2016-01-01

    Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households' hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials and location of facilities in the home. Prevalence ratios were calculated to analyze associations between handwashing with soap and hypothesized determinants of the behavior. Our results showed that determinants that had a significant association with handwashing with soap included: (1) a desire to smell nice; (2) interpersonal influences; (3) the presence of handwashing places within 10 paces of the kitchen and the toilet; and (4) key handwashing moments when hands felt dirty, including after eating and after cleaning child stools. This study concludes that handwashing with soap may be more effectively promoted through the use of non-health messages. PMID:27598178

  4. Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Graham, Jay P.; Mattson, Kay D.; Kelsey, Andrea; Mukherji, Supriya; Cronin, Aidan A.

    2016-01-01

    Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households’ hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials and location of facilities in the home. Prevalence ratios were calculated to analyze associations between handwashing with soap and hypothesized determinants of the behavior. Our results showed that determinants that had a significant association with handwashing with soap included: (1) a desire to smell nice; (2) interpersonal influences; (3) the presence of handwashing places within 10 paces of the kitchen and the toilet; and (4) key handwashing moments when hands felt dirty, including after eating and after cleaning child stools. This study concludes that handwashing with soap may be more effectively promoted through the use of non-health messages. PMID:27598178

  5. Now wash your hands? A survey of hospital handwashing facilities.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, S; Barodawala, S; Mulley, G P

    1998-12-01

    We studied the adequacy of handwashing facilities on elderly-care wards in seven UK hospitals. We found 10.9% of sinks were inaccessible, 12% of sinks did not have any cleansing agent, 93.2% of ward sinks and 79% of treatment room sinks had no antiseptic agent. We conclude that in our survey, handwashing facilities were inadequate and have suggested a standard checklist for hospital sinks.

  6. Prediction of National Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetzel, Deborah L.; McDaniel, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    In their book, IQ and the Wealth of Nations, Lynn and Vanhanen ([Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger.]) proposed the hypothesis that "the intelligence of the populations has been a major factor responsible for the national differences in economic growth and for the gap in per capita income between…

  7. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dingmei; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wangjian; Guo, Pi; Ma, Zhanzhong; Chen, Qian; Du, Shaokun; Peng, Jing; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children’s parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases. Results of further multivariate analysis indicated that older age (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.56) and hand-washing before meals (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.13–0.70) are protective factors, whereas airing out bedding more than thrice a month (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.19–17.37) was associated with increased risk for HFMD. Therefore, hand-washing should be recommended to prevent HFMD, and the potential threat of airing out bedding should be carefully considered. However, further studies are needed to examine other possible risk factors. PMID:27322307

  8. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dingmei; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wangjian; Guo, Pi; Ma, Zhanzhong; Chen, Qian; Du, Shaokun; Peng, Jing; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children's parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases. Results of further multivariate analysis indicated that older age (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34-0.56) and hand-washing before meals (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) are protective factors, whereas airing out bedding more than thrice a month (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.19-17.37) was associated with increased risk for HFMD. Therefore, hand-washing should be recommended to prevent HFMD, and the potential threat of airing out bedding should be carefully considered. However, further studies are needed to examine other possible risk factors. PMID:27322307

  9. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dingmei; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wangjian; Guo, Pi; Ma, Zhanzhong; Chen, Qian; Du, Shaokun; Peng, Jing; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children's parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases. Results of further multivariate analysis indicated that older age (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34-0.56) and hand-washing before meals (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) are protective factors, whereas airing out bedding more than thrice a month (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.19-17.37) was associated with increased risk for HFMD. Therefore, hand-washing should be recommended to prevent HFMD, and the potential threat of airing out bedding should be carefully considered. However, further studies are needed to examine other possible risk factors.

  10. The Wealth of Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Hildebrand, Vincent A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of disparities in the relative wealth position of Mexican Americans. Results reveal that--unlike the racial wealth gap--Mexican Americans' wealth disadvantage is in large part not the result of differences in wealth distributions conditional on the underlying determinants of wealth. Rather, Mexican Americans' wealth…

  11. Handwashing technique in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Donowitz, L G

    1987-06-01

    A one-year prospective study of 454 patients in a pediatric intensive care unit was performed to determine whether the rate of breaks in handwashing technique was different between medical professionals and to determine whether these rates were altered by the use of the overgown. A handwashing break in technique was defined as not washing your hands after direct contact with either patients or support equipment before contact with another patient or departure from the unit. Ninety-four two-hour sessions were monitored by a research nurse during four cross-over periods of gown and no-gown use. Physicians did not wash their hands in 834 (79%) of 1056 contacts, nurses in 1073 (63%) of 1714 cases, occupational therapists in 21 (62%) of 34 cases, respiratory therapists in 269 (78%) of 346 cases, and radiology technicians in 59 (78%) of 76 cases. Nurses used significantly better technique when compared with physicians, respiratory therapists, and radiology technicians. Gown usage overall did not affect these breaks in handwashing technique rates. Physicians did not wash their hands 75% of the time when gowns were not used and 82% of the time when gowns were used. Handwashing rates were unaffected by gown use in all other professionals. Handwashing remains an important but neglected method of interrupting the transmission of hospital pathogens.

  12. Washington State hospital survey 2000: gloves, handwashing agents, and moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Marino, C; Cohen, M

    2001-12-01

    Hand dermatitis as a result of frequent exposure to water and cleansing agents is a significant problem in the health care industry. In developing prevention efforts to address this problem, it is necessary to make appropriate recommendations for moisturizers that are compatible with latex gloves and/or handwashing agents that contain chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG). Infection control personnel or employee health nurses in all 106 Washington hospitals were interviewed to determine what types of gloves, handwashing agents, and moisturizers are in current use in the hospital setting. The interview also addressed awareness of skin care issues involving the compatibility of moisturizers with latex gloves and handwashing agents that contain CHG. Latex gloves were available in 90% of the hospitals. Handwashing agents containing CHG were available in 33% of the hospitals. Moisturizers were supplied for the nursing personnel in 61% of the hospitals; most of these moisturizers were compatible with latex gloves and agents containing CHG. Seventy-four percent of the infection control personnel were aware of the compatibility issues of petroleum-based moisturizers with latex gloves, and 48% were aware of the need to avoid the use of anionic moisturizers in combination with CHG handwashing agents.

  13. Wealth reallocation and sustainability under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Levin, Simon A.; McCay, Bonnie; St. Martin, Kevin; Abbott, Joshua K.; Pinsky, Malin L.

    2016-03-01

    Climate change is often described as the greatest environmental challenge of our time. In addition, a changing climate can reallocate natural capital, change the value of all forms of capital and lead to mass redistribution of wealth. Here we explain how the inclusive wealth framework provides a means to measure shifts in the amounts and distribution of wealth induced by climate change. Biophysical effects on prices, pre-existing institutions and socio-ecological changes related to shifts in climate cause wealth to change in ways not correlated with biophysical changes. This implies that sustainable development in the face of climate change requires a coherent approach that integrates biophysical and social measurement. Inclusive wealth provides a measure that indicates sustainability and has the added benefit of providing an organizational framework for integrating the multiple disciplines studying global change.

  14. Family factors associated with children's handwashing hygiene behavior.

    PubMed

    Song, In Han; Kim, Sang-A; Park, Woong-Sub

    2013-06-01

    Despite the importance of children's hand hygiene and family influence on children's behaviors, few studies have been dedicated to identifying family factors affecting handwashing practice. This study investigated the entire group of sixth-grade students (N = 2323) and their parents (N = 2089) at 11 elementary schools randomly selected from the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea. The results show that parents' handwashing practice, parent and child bonding, and shared time have a significant correlation with children's hand hygiene practice. The thoroughness of hand cleansing is more likely to be associated with health education, parents' practice of proper handwashing, greater parent-child bonding, and a greater amount of shared time with parents. Parent-child bonding and shared time are crucial in promoting children's hand hygiene. These results imply that public health policies need to be targeted at not only providing health education but at increasing parent-child bonding and shared time in order to promote children's health more effectively.

  15. Family factors associated with children's handwashing hygiene behavior.

    PubMed

    Song, In Han; Kim, Sang-A; Park, Woong-Sub

    2013-06-01

    Despite the importance of children's hand hygiene and family influence on children's behaviors, few studies have been dedicated to identifying family factors affecting handwashing practice. This study investigated the entire group of sixth-grade students (N = 2323) and their parents (N = 2089) at 11 elementary schools randomly selected from the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea. The results show that parents' handwashing practice, parent and child bonding, and shared time have a significant correlation with children's hand hygiene practice. The thoroughness of hand cleansing is more likely to be associated with health education, parents' practice of proper handwashing, greater parent-child bonding, and a greater amount of shared time with parents. Parent-child bonding and shared time are crucial in promoting children's hand hygiene. These results imply that public health policies need to be targeted at not only providing health education but at increasing parent-child bonding and shared time in order to promote children's health more effectively. PMID:23197385

  16. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; Bravo, David

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs. PMID:23355747

  17. The effect of handwashing with water or soap on bacterial contamination of hands.

    PubMed

    Burton, Maxine; Cobb, Emma; Donachie, Peter; Judah, Gaby; Curtis, Val; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. However it is not conclusive that handwashing with soap is more effective at reducing contamination with bacteria associated with diarrhoea than using water only. In this study 20 volunteers contaminated their hands deliberately by touching door handles and railings in public spaces. They were then allocated at random to (1) handwashing with water, (2) handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and (3) no handwashing. Each volunteer underwent this procedure 24 times, yielding 480 samples overall. Bacteria of potential faecal origin (mostly Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp.) were found after no handwashing in 44% of samples. Handwashing with water alone reduced the presence of bacteria to 23% (p < 0.001). Handwashing with plain soap and water reduced the presence of bacteria to 8% (comparison of both handwashing arms: p < 0.001). The effect did not appear to depend on the bacteria species. Handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and water is more effective for the removal of bacteria of potential faecal origin from hands than handwashing with water alone and should therefore be more useful for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. PMID:21318017

  18. Wealth and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue examines three historical and current problems surrounding wealth and power. The first article looks at King Leopold of Belgium and his exploitation of the Congo. The second article explores John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil monopoly. The final article examines the antitrust case against the Microsoft Corporation. Each…

  19. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of wealth condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Dieter

    2006-09-01

    We analyze wealth condensation for a wide class of stochastic economy models on the basis of the economic analog of thermodynamic potentials, termed transfer potentials. The economy model is based on three common transfers modes of wealth: random transfer, profit proportional to wealth and motivation of poor agents to work harder. The economies never reach steady state. Wealth condensation is the result of stochastic tunneling through a metastable transfer potential. In accordance with reality, both wealth and income distribution transiently show Pareto tails for high-income subjects. For metastable transfer potentials, exponential wealth condensation is a robust feature. For example with 10% annual profit 1% of the population owns 50% of the wealth after 50 years. The time to reach such a strong wealth condensation is a hyperbolic function of the annual profit rate.

  20. Children Use Wealth Cues to Evaluate Others

    PubMed Central

    Shutts, Kristin; Brey, Elizabeth L.; Dornbusch, Leah A.; Slywotzky, Nina; Olson, Kristina R.

    2016-01-01

    Wealth differences between individuals are ubiquitous in modern society, and often serve as the basis for biased social evaluations among adults. The present research probed whether children use cues that are commonly associated with wealth differences in society to guide their consideration of others. In Study 1, 4–5-year-old participants from diverse racial backgrounds expressed preferences for children who were paired with high-wealth cues; White children in Study 1 also matched high-wealth stimuli with White faces. Study 2 conceptually replicated the preference effect from Study 1, and showed that young children (4–6 years) also use material wealth indicators to guide their inferences about people’s relative standing in other domains (i.e., competence and popularity). Study 3 revealed that children (5–9 years) use a broad range of wealth cues to guide their evaluations of, and actions toward, unfamiliar people. Further, biased responses were not attenuated among children whose families were lower in socioeconomic status. Often overlooked by those who study children’s attitudes and stereotypes, social class markers appear to influence evaluations, inferences, and behavior early in development. PMID:26933887

  1. Children Use Wealth Cues to Evaluate Others.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Kristin; Brey, Elizabeth L; Dornbusch, Leah A; Slywotzky, Nina; Olson, Kristina R

    2016-01-01

    Wealth differences between individuals are ubiquitous in modern society, and often serve as the basis for biased social evaluations among adults. The present research probed whether children use cues that are commonly associated with wealth differences in society to guide their consideration of others. In Study 1, 4-5-year-old participants from diverse racial backgrounds expressed preferences for children who were paired with high-wealth cues; White children in Study 1 also matched high-wealth stimuli with White faces. Study 2 conceptually replicated the preference effect from Study 1, and showed that young children (4-6 years) also use material wealth indicators to guide their inferences about people's relative standing in other domains (i.e., competence and popularity). Study 3 revealed that children (5-9 years) use a broad range of wealth cues to guide their evaluations of, and actions toward, unfamiliar people. Further, biased responses were not attenuated among children whose families were lower in socioeconomic status. Often overlooked by those who study children's attitudes and stereotypes, social class markers appear to influence evaluations, inferences, and behavior early in development. PMID:26933887

  2. Children Use Wealth Cues to Evaluate Others.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Kristin; Brey, Elizabeth L; Dornbusch, Leah A; Slywotzky, Nina; Olson, Kristina R

    2016-01-01

    Wealth differences between individuals are ubiquitous in modern society, and often serve as the basis for biased social evaluations among adults. The present research probed whether children use cues that are commonly associated with wealth differences in society to guide their consideration of others. In Study 1, 4-5-year-old participants from diverse racial backgrounds expressed preferences for children who were paired with high-wealth cues; White children in Study 1 also matched high-wealth stimuli with White faces. Study 2 conceptually replicated the preference effect from Study 1, and showed that young children (4-6 years) also use material wealth indicators to guide their inferences about people's relative standing in other domains (i.e., competence and popularity). Study 3 revealed that children (5-9 years) use a broad range of wealth cues to guide their evaluations of, and actions toward, unfamiliar people. Further, biased responses were not attenuated among children whose families were lower in socioeconomic status. Often overlooked by those who study children's attitudes and stereotypes, social class markers appear to influence evaluations, inferences, and behavior early in development.

  3. Wealth Transmission and Inequality Among Hunter-Gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kim; Marlowe, Frank; Nolin, David; Wiessner, Polly; Gurven, Michael; Bowles, Samuel; Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    We report quantitative estimates of intergenerational transmission and population-wide inequality for wealth measures in a set of hunter-gatherer populations. Wealth is defined broadly as factors that contribute to individual or household well-being, ranging from embodied forms such as weight and hunting success to material forms such household goods, as well as relational wealth in exchange partners. Intergenerational wealth transmission is low to moderate in these populations, but is still expected to have measurable influence on an individual’s life chances. Wealth inequality (measured with Gini coefficients) is moderate for most wealth types, matching what qualitative ethnographic research has generally indicated (if not the stereotype of hunter-gatherers as extreme egalitarians). We discuss some plausible mechanisms for these patterns, and suggest ways in which future research could resolve questions about the role of wealth in hunter-gatherer social and economic life. PMID:21151711

  4. Measures of Wealth in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dady, Kenneth J., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The measure of district wealth used by a state is a critical factor in reducing the potential extremes in available resources that may occur across districts. To be effective, the state definition of wealth should correlate closely with the local tax structure that is available to school districts to raise local revenues. Conversely, if wealth is…

  5. Use of gloves and handwashing behaviour among health care workers in intensive care units. A multicentre investigation in four hospitals in Denmark and Norway.

    PubMed

    Zimakoff, J; Stormark, M; Larsen, S O

    1993-05-01

    Glove use and handwashing frequencies (HW) were observed in intensive care units (ICU) in two university hospitals in Denmark and two in Norway. The study included a total of 1632 patient procedures performed by 325 persons. Handwashing (HW) has become an important part of general barrier precautions. Earlier studies have shown that health care workers (HCW) far too often neglect to wash their hands after patient procedures when handwashing is strongly recommended. Despite earlier claims that increased glove use in hospitals would discourage handwashing, our results showed that HCW washed their hands more often after glove use (57%) than when gloves had not been used (40%). This significant difference in HW frequency was also noted when similar procedures were carried out by HCW with or without gloves. This might be a matter of personal discomfort after wearing gloves, but could also be due to differences in awareness of hygienic aspects of patient care. In the two countries gloves were used on average at 17% of the procedures, but were not used appropriately for dirty procedures. The results of this study indicate that more effective methods for the implementation of appropriate glove use and HW should be emphasized.

  6. Local Wealth and Teachers' Salaries in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kenneth M.; And Others

    Findings of a study that examined the relationship between Pennsylvania teachers' salaries and local wealth are presented in this paper. Statistical analyses of 491 Pennsylvania school districts involved regression, t tests, and chi square. Findings indicate that two factors had a statistically significant impact on local teacher salaries: (1) the…

  7. Healthy Hands: Use of Alcohol Gel as an Adjunct to Handwashing in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jennifer L.; Schultz, Alyce A.

    2004-01-01

    Elementary school-age children are particularly vulnerable to infections. While handwashing is the best method of preventing infections, many elementary schools are housed in buildings that have barriers to effective hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an alcohol gel as an adjunct to handwashing in…

  8. An expert panel report of a proposed scientific model demonstrating the effectiveness of antibacterial handwash products.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Dupont, Herbert L; Massaro, Joseph; Sack, David; Schaffner, Donald W

    2012-10-01

    In 2005, a US Food and Drug Administration Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee (NDAC) review of consumer antiseptic handwash product studies concluded that the data regarding existing products failed to demonstrate any association between specific log reductions of bacteria achieved by antiseptic handwashing and reduction of infection. The NDAC recommended that consumer antibacterial handwashing products should demonstrate a reduction in infection compared with non-antibacterial handwash products. In response to the NDAC review, a consumer product industry-sponsored expert panel meeting was held in October 2007 to review new methods for assessing the efficacy of antibacterial handwashes. The expert panel reviewed a newly proposed model for linking the effectiveness of antibacterial handwashing to infection reduction and made recommendations for conducting future studies designed to demonstrate the efficacy of antibacterial handwash formulations. The panel concluded that using the surrogate infection model to demonstrate efficacy has a sound scientific basis, that the use of Shigella flexneri as a test organism coupled with a modified hand contamination procedure is supported by published data, and that the model represents a realistic test for the efficacy of consumer antibacterial handwash products. This article summarizes the expert panel's deliberations, conclusions, and recommendations.

  9. An expert panel report of a proposed scientific model demonstrating the effectiveness of antibacterial handwash products.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Dupont, Herbert L; Massaro, Joseph; Sack, David; Schaffner, Donald W

    2012-10-01

    In 2005, a US Food and Drug Administration Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee (NDAC) review of consumer antiseptic handwash product studies concluded that the data regarding existing products failed to demonstrate any association between specific log reductions of bacteria achieved by antiseptic handwashing and reduction of infection. The NDAC recommended that consumer antibacterial handwashing products should demonstrate a reduction in infection compared with non-antibacterial handwash products. In response to the NDAC review, a consumer product industry-sponsored expert panel meeting was held in October 2007 to review new methods for assessing the efficacy of antibacterial handwashes. The expert panel reviewed a newly proposed model for linking the effectiveness of antibacterial handwashing to infection reduction and made recommendations for conducting future studies designed to demonstrate the efficacy of antibacterial handwash formulations. The panel concluded that using the surrogate infection model to demonstrate efficacy has a sound scientific basis, that the use of Shigella flexneri as a test organism coupled with a modified hand contamination procedure is supported by published data, and that the model represents a realistic test for the efficacy of consumer antibacterial handwash products. This article summarizes the expert panel's deliberations, conclusions, and recommendations. PMID:22300895

  10. A descriptive study of the handwashing environment in a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Hattula, J L; Stevens, P E

    1997-11-01

    The authors present a clinical research project accomplished by a nurse during her first year of practice after graduating from a B.S.N. program. In her caregiving at a long-term care facility subacute unit, she was unable to do proper handwashing. The poorly placed pump-style paper towel dispensers were inadequate for the task. She knew that handwashing before and after resident contact is the single most effective infection control measure to prevent nosocomial infections. In consultation with her university professor, she designed and implemented a descriptive study of the facility's handwashing environment. She mapped and measured handwashing areas, explained constrictions the environment placed on handwashing technique, collected random cultures from the sinks and dispenser levers, and illustrated for administrative and auxiliary personnel the basic principles of microbiology. Implications for infection prevention and control in long-term care facilities are discussed in light of increased "high-end skilled nursing" being offered in subacute units. PMID:9384056

  11. Social-cognitive factors mediating intervention effects on handwashing: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Contzen, Nadja; Inauen, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Handwashing with soap effectively prevents diarrhoea, a leading cause of death in infants. Theory-based interventions are expected to promote handwashing more successfully than standard approaches. The present article investigates the underlying change processes of theory-based handwashing interventions. A nonrandomised field study compared a standard approach to two theory-based interventions that were tailored to the target population, the inhabitants of four villages in southern Ethiopia (N = 408). Data were collected before and after interventions by structured interviews and analysed by mediation analysis. In comparison to the standard approach (i.e., education only), education with public commitment and reminder was slightly more effective in changing social-cognitive factors and handwashing. Education with an infrastructure promotion and reminder was most effective in promoting handwashing through enhancing social-cognitive factors. The results confirm the relevance of testing interventions' underlying change processes.

  12. Explaining the gender wealth gap.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M

    2013-08-01

    To assess and explain the United States' gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family's best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and between never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. After controlling for the full model, we find that a gender wealth gap remains between married men and women that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects.

  13. Wealth condensation in pareto macroeconomies.

    PubMed

    Burda, Z; Johnston, D; Jurkiewicz, J; Kamiński, M; Nowak, M A; Papp, G; Zahed, I

    2002-02-01

    We discuss a Pareto macroeconomy (a) in a closed system with fixed total wealth and (b) in an open system with average mean wealth, and compare our results to a similar analysis in a super-open system (c) with unbounded wealth [J.-P. Bouchaud and M. Mézard, Physica A 282, 536 (2000)]. Wealth condensation takes place in the social phase for closed and open economies, while it occurs in the liberal phase for super-open economies. In the first two cases, the condensation is related to a mechanism known from the balls-in-boxes model, while in the last case, to the nonintegrable tails of the Pareto distribution. For a closed macroeconomy in the social phase, we point to the emergence of a "corruption" phenomenon: a sizeable fraction of the total wealth is always amassed by a single individual.

  14. Wealth condensation in pareto macroeconomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, Z.; Johnston, D.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Kamiński, M.; Nowak, M. A.; Papp, G.; Zahed, I.

    2002-02-01

    We discuss a Pareto macroeconomy (a) in a closed system with fixed total wealth and (b) in an open system with average mean wealth, and compare our results to a similar analysis in a super-open system (c) with unbounded wealth [J.-P. Bouchaud and M. Mézard, Physica A 282, 536 (2000)]. Wealth condensation takes place in the social phase for closed and open economies, while it occurs in the liberal phase for super-open economies. In the first two cases, the condensation is related to a mechanism known from the balls-in-boxes model, while in the last case, to the nonintegrable tails of the Pareto distribution. For a closed macroeconomy in the social phase, we point to the emergence of a ``corruption'' phenomenon: a sizeable fraction of the total wealth is always amassed by a single individual.

  15. Measuring the wealth of nations.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kirk; Dixon, John A

    2003-01-01

    The sustainability of development is closely linked to changes in total per capita wealth. This paper presents estimates of the wealth of nations for nearly 100 countries, broken down into produced assets, natural resources and human resources. While the latter is the dominant form of wealth in virtually all countries, in low income natural resource exporters the share of natural resources in total wealth is equal to the share of produced assets. For low income countries in general, cropland forms the vast majority of natural wealth. The analysis suggests the process of development can be viewed as one of portfolio management: sustainable development entails saving the rents from exhaustible resources, managing renewable resources sustainably, and investing savings in both produced assets and human resources.

  16. Wealth inhomogeneity applied to crash rate theory.

    PubMed

    Shuler, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    A crash rate theory based on corporate economic utility maximization is applied to individual behavior in U.S. and German motorway death rates, by using wealth inhomogeneity data in ten-percentile bins to account for variations of utility maximization in the population. Germany and the U.S. have similar median wealth figures, a well-known indicator of accident risk, but different motorway death rates. It is found that inhomogeneity in roughly the 10(th) to 30(th) percentile, not revealed by popular measures such as the Gini index which focus on differences at the higher percentiles, provides a satisfactory explanation of the data. The inhomogeneity analysis reduces data disparity from a factor of 2.88 to 1.75 as compared with median wealth assumed homogeneity, and further to 1.09 with average wealth assumed homogeneity. The first reduction from 2.88 to 1.75 is attributable to inequality at lower percentiles and suggests it may be as important in indicating socioeconomic risk as extremes in the upper percentile ranges, and that therefore the U.S. socioeconomic risk may be higher than generally realized. PMID:27441226

  17. Wealth inhomogeneity applied to crash rate theory.

    PubMed

    Shuler, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    A crash rate theory based on corporate economic utility maximization is applied to individual behavior in U.S. and German motorway death rates, by using wealth inhomogeneity data in ten-percentile bins to account for variations of utility maximization in the population. Germany and the U.S. have similar median wealth figures, a well-known indicator of accident risk, but different motorway death rates. It is found that inhomogeneity in roughly the 10(th) to 30(th) percentile, not revealed by popular measures such as the Gini index which focus on differences at the higher percentiles, provides a satisfactory explanation of the data. The inhomogeneity analysis reduces data disparity from a factor of 2.88 to 1.75 as compared with median wealth assumed homogeneity, and further to 1.09 with average wealth assumed homogeneity. The first reduction from 2.88 to 1.75 is attributable to inequality at lower percentiles and suggests it may be as important in indicating socioeconomic risk as extremes in the upper percentile ranges, and that therefore the U.S. socioeconomic risk may be higher than generally realized.

  18. Shedding of bacteria and skin squames after handwashing.

    PubMed

    Meers, P D; Yeo, G A

    1978-08-01

    Particles released into the air by wringing the hands together were collected in a slit sampler before and after washing with bar soap, with three surgical scrubs, and after rubbing them with a spirit-based lotion. The particles were identified, their number estimated, those that bore bacteria counted, and the bacteria themselves classified. It was found that there was a significant increase, averaging 17-fold, in the number of particles carrying viable bacteria released after washing with soap. The increase in bacterial dissemination was suppressed if a surgical scrub was used in place of soap, or when the lotion was used without washing. The number of skin squames released increased by 18-fold or more after washing with soap or a surgical scrub, but not after using the lotion. This suggests that a surgical scrub should be used more widely in clinical practice, and that a spirit-based hand lotion might with advantage become a partial substitute for handwashing, particularly in areas where handwashing is frequent and iatrogenic coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection common.

  19. Wealth and the marital divide.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Marriage patterns differ dramatically in the United States by race and education. The author identifies a novel explanation for these marital divides, namely, the important role of personal wealth in marriage entry. Using event-history models and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, the author shows that wealth is an important predictor of first marriage and that differences in asset ownership by race and education help to explain a significant portion of the race and education gaps in first marriage. The article also tests possible explanations for why wealth plays an important role in first marriage entry. PMID:22268248

  20. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic habits and seasonal influenza infection. We conducted a case-control study to test whether the risk of influenza transmission associated with self-reported hand-washing and unhealthy hygienic habits among residents in Fujian Province, southeastern China. Laboratory confirmed seasonal influenza cases were consecutively included in the study as case-patients (n = 100). For each case, we selected 1 control person matched for age and city of residence. Telephone interview was used to collect information on hand-washing and hygienic habits. The associations were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the poorest hand-washing score of 0 to 3, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased progressively from 0.26 to 0.029 as hand-washing score increased from 4 to the maximum of 9 (P < 0.001). Compared with the poorest hygienic habit score of 0 to 2, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased from 0.10 to 0.015 with improving score of hygienic habits (P < 0.001). Independent protective factors against influenza infection included good hygienic habits, higher hand-washing score, providing soap or hand cleaner beside the hand-washing basin, and receiving influenza vaccine. Regular hand-washing and good hygienic habits were associated with a reduced risk of influenza infection. These findings support the general recommendation for nonpharmaceutical interventions against influenza. PMID:26986125

  1. Teacher perspectives on implementing and sustaining a handwashing promotion intervention in Western Kenyan primary schools.

    PubMed

    Graves, Janessa M; Finsness, Erica D; Quick, Robert; Nyando Integrated Child Health And Education Project Niche Study Team; Harris, Julie R; Daniell, William E

    School-based handwashing programs are challenging to establish and sustain, especially in low-resource settings. This qualitative study described teacher perspectives associated with implementing and sustaining a handwashing program in primary schools participating in the Nyando Integrated Child Health and Education (NICHE) project. Structured key informant interviews were conducted with teachers. Prevalent concepts and themes were grouped into themes and topic areas using an iterative, open coding approach. Forty-one teacher respondents reported favorable expectations and benefits of handwashing programs. The importance of available resources (e.g., reliable water) was cited as a primary concern. Other challenges included time and personal or institutional financial commitment necessary to ensure program sustainability. Handwashing programs in low-income, rural schools, where infrastructure is lacking and "student ambassadors" extend the intervention to the surrounding community, hold great promise to improve community health. Teachers must have adequate support and resources to implement and sustain the programs. PMID:24928608

  2. Medicaid and Family Wealth Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinkook; Kim, Hyungsoo; Tanenbaum, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines whether the relationship between making familial wealth transfers and becoming a Medicaid recipient sheds light on the current debate about Medicaid estate planning, whereby some elders transfer their assets to their families to qualify for Medicaid. Design and Methods: Using the Health and Retirement Study, we tracked a national sample of community-based elders who did not receive Medicaid at the 1993 baseline interview but became Medicaid recipients during a 10-year time period and examined wealth transfers for these new Medicaid beneficiaries. Results: Among elders aged 70 or older who did not receive Medicaid in 1993, 16.4% became Medicaid recipients over 10 years. Among these new Medicaid recipients, 17.9% transferred their wealth to family members before receiving Medicaid benefits, with an average transfer amount of $8,507 during the 2 years prior to receiving Medicaid benefits. In addition, 15.2% of community-residing elders entered a nursing home during the 10-year period, and 26.3% of these were covered by Medicaid. Of these new Medicaid recipients living in nursing homes, 12.6% transferred wealth to their families in the mean amount of $4,112. Implications: Familial wealth transfers do occur before changes in Medicaid eligibility in a small, but nontrivial, number of cases, but the amount transferred is modest, especially among nursing home residents. This finding implies that policies to reduce Medicaid long-term-care expenditures by limiting such transfers may not be very effective. PMID:16452279

  3. Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, and Entrepreneurship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Erik; Lusardi, Annamaria

    2004-01-01

    The propensity to become a business owner is a nonlinear function of wealth. The relationship between wealth and entry into entrepreneurship is essentially flat over the majority of the wealth distribution. It is only at the top of the wealth distribution--after the ninety-fifth percentile--that a positive relationship can be found. Segmenting…

  4. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation. PMID:23530370

  5. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation.

  6. More Opportunities than Wealth. A Network of Power and Frustration

    SciTech Connect

    Mahault, Benoit Alexandre; Saxena, Avadh Behari; Nisoli, Cristiano

    2015-08-17

    We introduce a minimal agent-based model to qualitatively conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant opportunities. We study the interplay of power, satisfaction and frustration in the problem of wealth distribution, concentration, and inequality. This framework allows us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from, or lose wealth to, anybody else invariably leads to a complete polarization of the distribution of wealth vs. opportunity, only minimally ameliorated by disorder in a non-optimized society. The picture is however dramatically modified when hard constraints are imposed over agents, and they are forced to share wealth with neighbors on a network. We discuss the case of random networks and scale free networks. We then propose an out of equilibrium dynamics of the networks, based on a competition of power and frustration in the decision-making of agents that leads to network evolution. We show that the ratio of power and frustration controls different dynamical regimes separated by kinetic transition and characterized by drastically different values of the indices of equality.

  7. Factors associated with biosafety level-2 research workers' laboratory exit handwashing behaviors and glove removal compliance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Merrill, Ray M; Zimmerman, Grant C; Collingwood, Scott C; Reading, James C

    2016-01-01

    Biosafety level-2 laboratories are designated for work with human-derived samples or moderate-risk microorganisms that transmit primarily by direct contact exposures. Many laboratory procedures generate unseen droplets that contaminate workers' hands, equipment, and work surfaces. Workers' strict adherence to glove removal and handwashing is required prior to laboratory exit to prevent inadvertent transmission of pathogens to self or others. However, little is known about biosafety level-2 workers' compliance with these behaviors. In this article, glove removal and handwashing compliance upon laboratory exit were measured by direct observation of 93 biosafety level-2 research workers from 21 university laboratories. Participants completed a 41-item survey measuring social cognitive theory-based variables related to handwashing, self-reported compliance, and demographic factors. Survey items, observed exit frequency, and laboratory characteristics were evaluated for associations with handwashing compliance. Overall, observed glove removal and handwashing compliance upon laboratory exit were 43.0% (Standard Error [SE] = 2.3%), and 8.2% (SE = 1.2%), respectively, while workers' self-reported glove removal and handwashing compliance were 73.7% (SE = 3.6%) and 35.5% (SE = 4.1%), respectively. The average number of observed laboratory exits per hour was 2.8 for workers with any handwashing compliance vs. 5.4 for workers with no handwashing compliance (p = 0.0013). Among the cognitive variables, behavioral modeling by supervisors and coworkers had the strongest association with workers' compliance (slope = 3.5, SE = 1.3, p = 0.0113). Workers in laboratories with a written handwashing policy had higher compliance (Mean = 14.1%, SE = 5.9%) than workers in laboratories with no written policy (Mean = 1.1%, SE = 1.0%; p = 0.0488). Multi-faceted interventions that encourage modeling of the behavior by supervisors and coworkers, implementation of written handwashing policies

  8. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  9. Paternity and inheritance of wealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, John

    1981-06-01

    One of the oldest conjectures in anthropology is that men transfer wealth to their sister's son when the biological paternity of their `own' children is in doubt1-12. Because maternity is certain, a man is necessarily related to his sister's son and his brother (see Fig. 1). It is argued here that relatedness to male heirs can be assured by passing wealth to sister's sons or down a line of brothers, whether the prevailing kinship system reckons those brothers matrilineally or patrilineally. It is also argued that when several transfers of wealth are considered, a man's likelihood of being cuckolded need not be unrealistically high13 for his successive matrilineal heirs to be more related to him than his successive patrilineal heirs (see Fig. 2). Cross-cultural data on sister's son/brother inheritance14 and frequency of extramarital sex for females15 support the hypothesis that men tend to transmit wealth to their sister's son and/or brother when the probability that their putative children are their genetic children is relatively low.

  10. The Environmental Cost of Misinformation: Why the Recommendation to Use Elevated Temperatures for Handwashing is Problematic

    PubMed Central

    Carrico, Amanda R.; Spoden, Micajah; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Vandenbergh, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple government and health organizations recommend the use of warm or hot water in publications designed to educate the public on best practices for washing one’s hands. This is despite research suggesting that the use of an elevated water temperature does not improve handwashing efficacy, but can cause hand irritation. There is reason to believe that the perception that warm or hot water is more effective at cleaning one’s hands is pervasive, and may be one factor that is driving up unnecessary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. We examine handwashing practices and beliefs about water temperature using a survey of 510 adults in the United States. The survey included measures of handwashing frequency, duration, the proportion of time an elevated temperature was used, and beliefs about water temperature and handwashing efficacy. We also estimate the energy consumed and resultant carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2eq) in the U.S. due to the use of elevated temperatures during handwashing. Participants used an elevated temperature 64% of the time, causing 6.3 million metric tons (MMt) of CO2eq which is 0.1% of total annual emissions and 0.3% of commercial and residential sector emissions. Roughly 69% of the sample believed that elevated temperatures improve handwashing efficacy. Updating these beliefs could prevent 1 MMt of CO2eq annually, exceeding the total emissions from many industrial sources in the U.S. including the Lead and Zinc industries. In addition to causing skin irritation, the recommendation to use an elevated temperature during handwashing contributes to another major threat to public health—climate change. Health and consumer protection organizations should consider advocating for the use of a “comfortable” temperature rather than warm or hot water. PMID:23814480

  11. The context and practice of handwashing among new mothers in Serang, Indonesia: a formative research study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article reports on formative research into the context and practice of handwashing with soap by new mothers, which can substantially impact child morbidity and mortality. New mothers are an important target group for handwashing interventions: they are considered particularly susceptible to behaviour change and their actions can directly affect a child’s health. Methods Twenty-seven mothers of infants (including neonates) from urban and rural sub-districts of Serang were recruited and filmed over a period of eight hours. Video footage was used to identify handwashing occasions and to understand the context in which behaviour took place. Each woman was subsequently interviewed. Results Handwashing with soap was found to be infrequent, typically occurring after eating, cooking and household chores or after cleaning a child’s bottom. Handwashing before preparing food or eating was rare. Pre-pregnancy routines were reported to have been disrupted. Advice on child care comes from many sources, particularly the midwife and new child’s grandmother. Conclusions Developing interventions to change perceptions and practice of handwashing would seed an important behaviour and could save lives. New mothers represent an ideal target group for such an intervention. We suggest that interventions target an increase in handwashing with soap after contact with own and a baby’s faecal matter as part of the post-defecation hygiene routines. As the child’s grandmother is an authoritative source of information about parenting, interventions focussed on improving newborn care could target grandmothers as well as midwives. PMID:24020804

  12. The Environmental Cost of Misinformation: Why the Recommendation to Use Elevated Temperatures for Handwashing is Problematic.

    PubMed

    Carrico, Amanda R; Spoden, Micajah; Wallston, Kenneth A; Vandenbergh, Michael P

    2013-07-01

    Multiple government and health organizations recommend the use of warm or hot water in publications designed to educate the public on best practices for washing one's hands. This is despite research suggesting that the use of an elevated water temperature does not improve handwashing efficacy, but can cause hand irritation. There is reason to believe that the perception that warm or hot water is more effective at cleaning one's hands is pervasive, and may be one factor that is driving up unnecessary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. We examine handwashing practices and beliefs about water temperature using a survey of 510 adults in the United States. The survey included measures of handwashing frequency, duration, the proportion of time an elevated temperature was used, and beliefs about water temperature and handwashing efficacy. We also estimate the energy consumed and resultant carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2eq) in the U.S. due to the use of elevated temperatures during handwashing. Participants used an elevated temperature 64% of the time, causing 6.3 million metric tons (MMt) of CO2eq which is 0.1% of total annual emissions and 0.3% of commercial and residential sector emissions. Roughly 69% of the sample believed that elevated temperatures improve handwashing efficacy. Updating these beliefs could prevent 1 MMt of CO2eq annually, exceeding the total emissions from many industrial sources in the U.S. including the Lead and Zinc industries. In addition to causing skin irritation, the recommendation to use an elevated temperature during handwashing contributes to another major threat to public health-climate change. Health and consumer protection organizations should consider advocating for the use of a "comfortable" temperature rather than warm or hot water. PMID:23814480

  13. The use of various handwashing agents to decontaminate gloved hands.

    PubMed

    Douglas, C W; Millward, T A; Clark, A

    1989-07-22

    It has been suggested that gloved hands could be washed between patient treatments in the dental surgery and gloves re-used, provided they are undamaged. A series of experiments are described, which evaluate the effectiveness of four handwashing agents at removing defined bacterial inoculae from two types of latex rubber glove, a dedicated dental procedure glove (Regent Biogel D) which has a rough surface and a smooth-surfaced examination glove (Microtouch). The four agents tested were povidone iodine (Betadine), chlorhexidine (Hibiscrub), 60% iso-propyl alcohol, and a detergent triclosan preparation (Kleenex washcream). The Biogel D gloves required slightly shorter washing times to eradicate organisms than the Microtouch gloves. It was found that washing with water alone reduced the organisms on gloves by 300-1000-fold, but a minimum washing time of 20 seconds with povidone iodine or chlorhexidine was required to eradicate all the organisms inoculated, except bacterial spores, from both glove surfaces. Povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine were more effective washing agents than iso-propyl alcohol and triclosan soap.

  14. Climate policies under wealth inequality.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Vítor V; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Levin, Simon A

    2014-02-11

    Taming the planet's climate requires cooperation. Previous failures to reach consensus in climate summits have been attributed, among other factors, to conflicting policies between rich and poor countries, which disagree on the implementation of mitigation measures. Here we implement wealth inequality in a threshold public goods dilemma of cooperation in which players also face the risk of potential future losses. We consider a population exhibiting an asymmetric distribution of rich and poor players that reflects the present-day status of nations and study the behavioral interplay between rich and poor in time, regarding their willingness to cooperate. Individuals are also allowed to exhibit a variable degree of homophily, which acts to limit those that constitute one's sphere of influence. Under the premises of our model, and in the absence of homophily, comparison between scenarios with wealth inequality and without wealth inequality shows that the former leads to more global cooperation than the latter. Furthermore, we find that the rich generally contribute more than the poor and will often compensate for the lower contribution of the latter. Contributions from the poor, which are crucial to overcome the climate change dilemma, are shown to be very sensitive to homophily, which, if prevalent, can lead to a collapse of their overall contribution. In such cases, however, we also find that obstinate cooperative behavior by a few poor may largely compensate for homophilic behavior.

  15. Climate policies under wealth inequality

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Vítor V.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Levin, Simon A.

    2014-01-01

    Taming the planet’s climate requires cooperation. Previous failures to reach consensus in climate summits have been attributed, among other factors, to conflicting policies between rich and poor countries, which disagree on the implementation of mitigation measures. Here we implement wealth inequality in a threshold public goods dilemma of cooperation in which players also face the risk of potential future losses. We consider a population exhibiting an asymmetric distribution of rich and poor players that reflects the present-day status of nations and study the behavioral interplay between rich and poor in time, regarding their willingness to cooperate. Individuals are also allowed to exhibit a variable degree of homophily, which acts to limit those that constitute one’s sphere of influence. Under the premises of our model, and in the absence of homophily, comparison between scenarios with wealth inequality and without wealth inequality shows that the former leads to more global cooperation than the latter. Furthermore, we find that the rich generally contribute more than the poor and will often compensate for the lower contribution of the latter. Contributions from the poor, which are crucial to overcome the climate change dilemma, are shown to be very sensitive to homophily, which, if prevalent, can lead to a collapse of their overall contribution. In such cases, however, we also find that obstinate cooperative behavior by a few poor may largely compensate for homophilic behavior. PMID:24469806

  16. Novel handwashes are superior to soap and water in removal of Clostridium difficile spores from the hands.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Dylan; Haller, Barbara; Leslie, Hannah; Roemer, Marguerite; Winston, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    We examined the efficacy of 5 experimental handwash formulations in removing nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile spores from the hands of health care workers. Handwashing with sand resulted in an additional 0.5-log reduction in spore recovery compared with the current standard of soap and water.

  17. Novel handwashes are superior to soap and water in removal of Clostridium difficile spores from the hands.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Dylan; Haller, Barbara; Leslie, Hannah; Roemer, Marguerite; Winston, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    We examined the efficacy of 5 experimental handwash formulations in removing nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile spores from the hands of health care workers. Handwashing with sand resulted in an additional 0.5-log reduction in spore recovery compared with the current standard of soap and water. PMID:25952050

  18. Teaching Wealth Distribution in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This article presents detailed instructional plans for a two-day, high school-level lesson on wealth distribution in society. The terms "income" and "wealth" are defined and compared, and the significance of studying wealth is discussed. Resources for the lesson are identified, and a pedagogical mode is outlined in relation to…

  19. Wealth Inequality: Ethnic Disparities in Israeli Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semyonov, Moshe; Lewin-Epstein, Noah

    2011-01-01

    This research examines wealth distribution across ethnic groups in Israel and evaluates the role of labor market rewards and intergenerational transfers in producing ethnic disparities. Israel SHARE data from 2005-2006 are used in the analyses. The findings reveal considerable ethnic disparities in wealth. Wealth disparities are most pronounced…

  20. [Bactericidal power's assessment of eight antiseptic products intended to surgeon's hand-washing (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Charrel, J; Gevaudan, M J; Mallet, M N; Blancard, A; Gevaudan, P

    1977-01-01

    A standard hand-washing technique was used in order to test the relative effectiveness of eight both detergent and alcoholic preparations intended to surgeon's hands disinfection. A single four or seven minutes washing with alcoholic solutions was shown to eliminate a much larger proportion of the skin flora than could be removed by a single four or seven minutes hand-washing with detergent antiseptic preparations. Authors have also determined effect of wearing surgical rubber gloves after skin disinfection and compared viable bacterial counts in hand washings immediately after the antiseptic treatment and when gloves had been worn for one hour.

  1. The wealth of poor nations

    SciTech Connect

    Suriyakumaran, C.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents a review of the record of worldwide efforts to promote the economic development of developing countries, discussing the issues and options for the future. The author addresses such issues as the conditions for wealth creation, the mechanics of growth, new national decisions for self-sustained growth, new international decisions for trade and aid, trade and development cooperation, monetary and investment cooperation, limits to growth, integrated development, development planning, and the problem of wages. Includes practical studies of energy, urban transportation, and tourism.

  2. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  3. Global Handwashing Day 2012: a qualitative content analysis of Chinese social media reaction to a health promotion event

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jingxian; Hao, Yi; Ying, Yuchen; Chan, Benedict Shing Bun; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Fu, King-Wa

    2015-01-01

    Background Global Handwashing Day (GHD) is a handwashing promotion campaign organized by the Global Public-Private Partnership of Handwashing with Soap. In China, it has been promoted by the Chinese public health authorities, international organizations and multinational corporations through various channels including social media such as Sina Weibo, the leading Chinese microblogging site similar to Twitter. The objective of this study is to qualitatively assess Chinese social media users’ reactions to a health promotion campaign using Global Handwashing Day (GHD) 2012 as an example. Methods We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 552 Weibo posts generated on GHD 2012 by Weibo users with 1000 or more followers with the Chinese keyword for “handwashing.” We categorized the Weibo posts into groups by keywords that frequently appeared in the data set. These groups were either exact reposts of an original post, or they conveyed similar information. Results We observed the interconnections between traditional media and social media in handwashing promotion. Social media were found to serve as amplifiers of contents provided by traditional media. We observed the contextualization of global hygiene messages in a unique national social media market in China. Discussion Our study showed that social media and traditional media are two interconnected arms of the GHD campaign in China. Our analysis demonstrated that public health campaigns in China can be evaluated using social media data. The themes and topics identified in this study will help public health practitioners evaluate future social media handwashing promotion campaigns. PMID:26668765

  4. 18. DETAIL OF COMBINATION HANDWASH SINK/KNIFE STERILIZER ON SPLITTERS' PLATFORM; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF COMBINATION HANDWASH SINK/KNIFE STERILIZER ON SPLITTERS' PLATFORM; KNIVES AND CLEAVERS WERE CLEANED FREQUENTLY BY DIPPING THEM INTO STEAM-HEATED WATER IN THE RECTANGULAR TANK; NOTE FOOT-OPERATED FAUCETS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  5. Hand-washing behaviour and nurses' knowledge after a training programme.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Tulay; Findik, Ummu Yildiz; Tokuc, Burcu

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nurses' hand-washing behaviour and knowledge before and after a training programme. This prospective study involved 200 nurses who participated in hand-washing training at a university hospital in Turkey. The data were collected using a personal information form and pre- and post-test surveys that had been developed by the researchers. During the study, the nurses received 40 min of training on hand washing and a handbook prepared by the researchers. The hand-washing behaviour and knowledge of the nurses were assessed before training and 1 month after the training. To analyse the data, descriptive statistics, a t-test and a Mc Nemar chi-squared test were used. Following the training, there was a significant increase in the frequency of hand washing by the nurses (t = -2.202, P = 0.029), together with an increase in the time allowed for hand washing (P = 0.024, P < 0.05), knowledge of hand-washing practices (t = -16.081, P < 0.05) and quality (t = -10.874, P < 0.05). Planned training programmes for hand washing should be implemented to improve the behaviour and knowledge of nurses. PMID:21939477

  6. The Effect of a Handwashing Intervention on Preschool Educator Beliefs, Attitudes, Knowledge and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, L.; Zucker, D.; Brody, D.; Engelhard, D.; Manor, O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of a preschool hygiene intervention program on psychosocial measures of educators regarding handwashing and communicable pediatric disease. A cluster-randomized trial, with randomization at the level of the preschool, was run in 40 Jerusalem preschool classrooms. Eighty preschool educators participated. The program…

  7. Hygiene Practices During Food Preparation in Rural Bangladesh: Opportunities to Improve the Impact of Handwashing Interventions.

    PubMed

    Nizame, Fosiul A; Leontsini, Elli; Luby, Stephen P; Nuruzzaman, Md; Parveen, Shahana; Winch, Peter J; Ram, Pavani K; Unicomb, Leanne

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the steps of food preparation, related handwashing opportunities, current practices, and community perceptions regarding foods at high-risk of contamination such as mashed foods and salads. In three rural Bangladeshi villages, we collected qualitative and observational data. Food preparation was a complex and multistep process. Food preparation was interrupted by tasks that could contaminate the preparers' hands, after which they continued food preparation without washing hands. Community members typically ate hand-mixed, uncooked mashed food and salad as accompaniments to curry and rice at meals. Hand-mixed dried foods were mostly consumed as a snack. Observers recorded handwashing during preparation of these foods. Among 24 observed caregivers, of 85 opportunities to wash hands with soap during food preparation, washing hands with soap occurred twice, both times after cutting fish, whereas washing hands with water alone was common. A simple and feasible approach is promotion of handwashing with soap upon entering and re-entering the food preparation area, and ensuring that everything needed for handwashing should be within easy reach.

  8. Hygiene Practices During Food Preparation in Rural Bangladesh: Opportunities to Improve the Impact of Handwashing Interventions.

    PubMed

    Nizame, Fosiul A; Leontsini, Elli; Luby, Stephen P; Nuruzzaman, Md; Parveen, Shahana; Winch, Peter J; Ram, Pavani K; Unicomb, Leanne

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the steps of food preparation, related handwashing opportunities, current practices, and community perceptions regarding foods at high-risk of contamination such as mashed foods and salads. In three rural Bangladeshi villages, we collected qualitative and observational data. Food preparation was a complex and multistep process. Food preparation was interrupted by tasks that could contaminate the preparers' hands, after which they continued food preparation without washing hands. Community members typically ate hand-mixed, uncooked mashed food and salad as accompaniments to curry and rice at meals. Hand-mixed dried foods were mostly consumed as a snack. Observers recorded handwashing during preparation of these foods. Among 24 observed caregivers, of 85 opportunities to wash hands with soap during food preparation, washing hands with soap occurred twice, both times after cutting fish, whereas washing hands with water alone was common. A simple and feasible approach is promotion of handwashing with soap upon entering and re-entering the food preparation area, and ensuring that everything needed for handwashing should be within easy reach. PMID:27296388

  9. Effects of an Awareness Raising Campaign on Intention and Behavioural Determinants for Handwashing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seimetz, E.; Kumar, S.; Mosler, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were…

  10. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic habits and seasonal influenza infection. We conducted a case-control study to test whether the risk of influenza transmission associated with self-reported hand-washing and unhealthy hygienic habits among residents in Fujian Province, southeastern China.Laboratory confirmed seasonal influenza cases were consecutively included in the study as case-patients (n = 100). For each case, we selected 1 control person matched for age and city of residence. Telephone interview was used to collect information on hand-washing and hygienic habits. The associations were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the poorest hand-washing score of 0 to 3, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased progressively from 0.26 to 0.029 as hand-washing score increased from 4 to the maximum of 9 (P < 0.001). Compared with the poorest hygienic habit score of 0 to 2, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased from 0.10 to 0.015 with improving score of hygienic habits (P < 0.001). Independent protective factors against influenza infection included good hygienic habits, higher hand-washing score, providing soap or hand cleaner beside the hand-washing basin, and receiving influenza vaccine. Regular hand-washing and good hygienic habits were associated with a reduced risk of influenza infection. These findings support the general recommendation for nonpharmaceutical interventions against influenza. PMID:26986125

  11. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  12. Rater Wealth Predicts Perceptions of Outgroup Competence.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R; Rogers, Darrin L; Weimer, Amy A; Greenberg, David M; Terracciano, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    National income has a pervasive influence on the perception of ingroup stereotypes, with high status and wealthy targets perceived as more competent. In two studies we investigated the degree to which economic wealth of raters related to perceptions of outgroup competence. Raters' economic wealth predicted trait ratings when 1) raters in 48 other cultures rated Americans' competence and 2) Mexican Americans rated Anglo Americans' competence. Rater wealth also predicted ratings of interpersonal warmth on the culture level. In conclusion, raters' economic wealth, either nationally or individually, is significantly associated with perception of outgroup members, supporting the notion that ingroup conditions or stereotypes function as frames of reference in evaluating outgroup traits.

  13. Rater Wealth Predicts Perceptions of Outgroup Competence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R.; Rogers, Darrin L.; Weimer, Amy A.; Greenberg, David M.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    National income has a pervasive influence on the perception of ingroup stereotypes, with high status and wealthy targets perceived as more competent. In two studies we investigated the degree to which economic wealth of raters related to perceptions of outgroup competence. Raters’ economic wealth predicted trait ratings when 1) raters in 48 other cultures rated Americans’ competence and 2) Mexican Americans rated Anglo Americans’ competence. Rater wealth also predicted ratings of interpersonal warmth on the culture level. In conclusion, raters’ economic wealth, either nationally or individually, is significantly associated with perception of outgroup members, supporting the notion that ingroup conditions or stereotypes function as frames of reference in evaluating outgroup traits. PMID:22379232

  14. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  15. Wealth index and maternal health care: Revisiting NFHS-3.

    PubMed

    Goel, Manish Kr; Roy, Pritam; Rasania, Sanjeev Kumar; Roy, Sakhi; Kumar, Yogesh; Kumar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    The third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) is a large dataset on indicators of family welfare, maternal and child health, and nutrition in India. This article using NFHS-3 data is an attempt to bring out the impact of economic status, i.e., the wealth index on maternal health. The study was based on an analysis of the NFHS-3 data. Independent variables taken were the wealth index, literacy, and age at first child birth. Effects of these variables on the maternal health care services were investigated. Out of the total 124,385 women aged 15-49 years included in the NFHS-3 dataset, 36,850 (29.6%) had one or more childbirth during the past 5 years. The number of antenatal care (ANC) visits increased as the wealth index increased and there was a pattern for choice of place of delivery (for all deliveries during the last 5 years) according to the wealth index. Logistic regression analysis of the abovementioned variables were sought to find out the independent role of key determinants of the different aspects of maternal health care. It showed that the wealth index is the leading key independent determinant for three or more ANC received: Tetanus toxoid (TT) received before delivery, iron tablet/syrup taken for more than 100 days, and institutional delivery. Mother's literacy was the leading independent key determinant for early antenatal registration. The study suggested that along with the mother's literacy, the wealth index that is an important predictor of maternal health care can be added for categorization of the districts for providing differential approach for maternal health care services.

  16. Behavioral and network origins of wealth inequality: insights from a virtual world.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Almost universally, wealth is not distributed uniformly within societies or economies. Even though wealth data have been collected in various forms for centuries, the origins for the observed wealth-disparity and social inequality are not yet fully understood. Especially the impact and connections of human behavior on wealth could so far not be inferred from data. Here we study wealth data from the virtual economy of the massive multiplayer online game (MMOG) Pardus. This data not only contains every player's wealth at every point in time, but also all actions over a timespan of almost a decade. We find that wealth distributions in the virtual world are very similar to those in Western countries. In particular we find an approximate exponential distribution for low wealth levels and a power-law tail for high levels. The Gini index is found to be g = 0.65, which is close to the indices of many Western countries. We find that wealth-increase rates depend on the time when players entered the game. Players that entered the game early on tend to have remarkably higher wealth-increase rates than those who joined later. Studying the players' positions within their social networks, we find that the local position in the trade network is most relevant for wealth. Wealthy people have high in- and out-degrees in the trade network, relatively low nearest-neighbor degrees, and low clustering coefficients. Wealthy players have many mutual friendships and are socially well respected by others, but spend more time on business than on socializing. Wealthy players have few personal enemies, but show animosity towards players that behave as public enemies. We find that players that are not organized within social groups are significantly poorer on average. We observe that "political" status and wealth go hand in hand.

  17. Behavioral and Network Origins of Wealth Inequality: Insights from a Virtual World

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Almost universally, wealth is not distributed uniformly within societies or economies. Even though wealth data have been collected in various forms for centuries, the origins for the observed wealth-disparity and social inequality are not yet fully understood. Especially the impact and connections of human behavior on wealth could so far not be inferred from data. Here we study wealth data from the virtual economy of the massive multiplayer online game (MMOG) Pardus. This data not only contains every player's wealth at every point in time, but also all actions over a timespan of almost a decade. We find that wealth distributions in the virtual world are very similar to those in Western countries. In particular we find an approximate exponential distribution for low wealth levels and a power-law tail for high levels. The Gini index is found to be , which is close to the indices of many Western countries. We find that wealth-increase rates depend on the time when players entered the game. Players that entered the game early on tend to have remarkably higher wealth-increase rates than those who joined later. Studying the players' positions within their social networks, we find that the local position in the trade network is most relevant for wealth. Wealthy people have high in- and out-degrees in the trade network, relatively low nearest-neighbor degrees, and low clustering coefficients. Wealthy players have many mutual friendships and are socially well respected by others, but spend more time on business than on socializing. Wealthy players have few personal enemies, but show animosity towards players that behave as public enemies. We find that players that are not organized within social groups are significantly poorer on average. We observe that “political” status and wealth go hand in hand. PMID:25153072

  18. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure. PMID:26641519

  19. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure.

  20. The effect of a comprehensive handwashing program on absenteeism in elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Guinan, Maryellen; McGuckin, Maryanne; Ali, Yusef

    2002-06-01

    Handwashing is one of the most important factors in controlling the spread of micro-organisms and in preventing the development of infections. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a comprehensive handwashing program on absenteeism in elementary grades. Two hundred ninety students from 5 independent schools were enrolled in the study. Each test classroom had a control classroom, and only the test classroom received the intervention (education program and hand sanitizer). Absenteeism data were collected for 3 months. The number of absences was 50.6% lower in the test group (P <.001). The data strongly suggest that a hand hygiene program that combines education and use of a hand sanitizer in the classroom can lower absenteeism and be cost-effective. PMID:12032496

  1. Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation.

    PubMed

    Ram, Pavani K; Halder, Amal K; Granger, Stewart P; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-11-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3-10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0-18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior.

  2. Kinetics of wealth and the Pareto law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, Bruce M.

    2014-04-01

    An important class of economic models involve agents whose wealth changes due to transactions with other agents. Several authors have pointed out an analogy with kinetic theory, which describes molecules whose momentum and energy change due to interactions with other molecules. We pursue this analogy and derive a Boltzmann equation for the time evolution of the wealth distribution of a population of agents for the so-called Yard-Sale Model of wealth exchange. We examine the solutions to this equation by a combination of analytical and numerical methods and investigate its long-time limit. We study an important limit of this equation for small transaction sizes and derive a partial integrodifferential equation governing the evolution of the wealth distribution in a closed economy. We then describe how this model can be extended to include features such as inflation, production, and taxation. In particular, we show that the model with taxation exhibits the basic features of the Pareto law, namely, a lower cutoff to the wealth density at small values of wealth, and approximate power-law behavior at large values of wealth.

  3. Kinetics of wealth and the Pareto law.

    PubMed

    Boghosian, Bruce M

    2014-04-01

    An important class of economic models involve agents whose wealth changes due to transactions with other agents. Several authors have pointed out an analogy with kinetic theory, which describes molecules whose momentum and energy change due to interactions with other molecules. We pursue this analogy and derive a Boltzmann equation for the time evolution of the wealth distribution of a population of agents for the so-called Yard-Sale Model of wealth exchange. We examine the solutions to this equation by a combination of analytical and numerical methods and investigate its long-time limit. We study an important limit of this equation for small transaction sizes and derive a partial integrodifferential equation governing the evolution of the wealth distribution in a closed economy. We then describe how this model can be extended to include features such as inflation, production, and taxation. In particular, we show that the model with taxation exhibits the basic features of the Pareto law, namely, a lower cutoff to the wealth density at small values of wealth, and approximate power-law behavior at large values of wealth.

  4. A new surgical handwashing and hand antisepsis from scrubbing to rubbing.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kiyonori; Ogawa, Rho; Norose, Yoshihiro; Tajiri, Takashi

    2004-06-01

    In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines for surgical handwashing and hand antisepsis on the Internet. According to these guidelines, we revised our surgical handwashing method from scrubbing with brushes to rubbing with antiseptic. The new method consists of scrubbing around the nails with brushes and rubbing the hands and arms with antiseptic from the elbow to the antebrachium. A total of 182 surgeons and operating-room nurses participated in the current study. Bacterial contamination was investigated using the glove-juice method. The new surgical handwashing method is simple, and requires only a short time to perform (2 minutes 50 seconds). The bacterial examination confirmed that rubbing the hands with antiseptic was significantly more effective than scrubbing with brushes. In terms of sterilization or prolonged effects, 4% chlor-hexidine gluconate (CHG) was superior to 7.5% povidone-iodine (PVI) throughout a 3-hour period after hand antisepsis. Although bacterial counts were increased 3 hours after the beginning of surgery, additional hand rubbing with 0.2% chlorhexidine-83% ethanol (Hibisoft(TM)) was effective in suppressing the number of bacteria. Hibisoft(TM) successfully prolonged sterilization for more than 3 hours. For long surgical procedures, CHG should be used as an antiseptic and gloves should be changed every 3 hours, alcohol-based hand rubbing should also be performed 3 hours after the initial handwashing. This new technique will be included in the OSCE curriculum to ensure its standardization. Moreover, in-depth education regarding central operating-room practices is desired.

  5. Changing handwashing behaviour in southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions.

    PubMed

    Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing

  6. Designing a handwashing station for infrastructure-restricted communities in Bangladesh using the integrated behavioural model for water, sanitation and hygiene interventions (IBM-WASH)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Handwashing with soap reduces the risk of infection; however, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain low. Handwashing stations – a dedicated, convenient location where both soap and water are available for handwashing – are associated with improved handwashing practices. Our aim was to identify a locally feasible and acceptable handwashing station that enabled frequent handwashing for two subsequent randomized trials testing the health effects of this behaviour. Methods We conducted formative research in the form of household trials of improved practices in urban and rural Bangladesh. Seven candidate handwashing technologies were tested by nine to ten households each during two iterative phases. We conducted interviews with participants during an introductory visit and two to five follow up visits over two to six weeks, depending on the phase. We used the Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (IBM-WASH) to guide selection of candidate handwashing stations and data analysis. Factors presented in the IBM-WASH informed thematic coding of interview transcripts and contextualized feasibility and acceptability of specific handwashing station designs. Results Factors that influenced selection of candidate designs were market availability of low cost, durable materials that were easy to replace or replenish in an infrastructure-restricted and shared environment. Water storage capacity, ease of use and maintenance, and quality of materials determined the acceptability and feasibility of specific handwashing station designs. After examining technology, psychosocial and contextual factors, we selected a handwashing system with two different water storage capacities, each with a tap, stand, basin, soapy water bottle and detergent powder for pilot testing in preparation for the subsequent randomized

  7. Wealth redistribution in conservative linear kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscani, G.

    2009-10-01

    We introduce and discuss kinetic models for wealth distribution which include both taxation and uniform redistribution. The evolution of the continuous density of wealth obeys a linear Boltzmann equation where the background density represents the action of an external subject on the taxation mechanism. The case in which the mean wealth is conserved is analyzed in full details, by recovering the analytical form of the steady states. These states are probability distributions of convergent random series of a special structure, called perpetuities. Among others, Gibbs distribution appears as steady state in case of total taxation and uniform redistribution.

  8. Comment on "Wealth condensation in Pareto macroeconomies".

    PubMed

    Huang, Ding-Wei

    2003-10-01

    In a recent study of the Pareto macroeconomy [Phys. Rev. E 65, 026102 (2002)], a surprising deviation to the power law distribution of the large wealths is reported. We comment that such a "corruption" phenomenon can be reproduced in a much simplified framework. The corruption disappears when the small wealths are further included in a mean-field treatment. The constraint of the total-wealth conservation leads to a cutoff in the power-law tail, in contrast to the prominent enhancement reported previously.

  9. Comment on ``Wealth condensation in Pareto macroeconomies''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-Wei

    2003-10-01

    In a recent study of the Pareto macroeconomy [Phys. Rev. E 65, 026102 (2002)], a surprising deviation to the power law distribution of the large wealths is reported. We comment that such a “corruption” phenomenon can be reproduced in a much simplified framework. The corruption disappears when the small wealths are further included in a mean-field treatment. The constraint of the total-wealth conservation leads to a cutoff in the power-law tail, in contrast to the prominent enhancement reported previously.

  10. Cellular Automata Simulation for Wealth Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Ching

    2009-08-01

    Wealth distribution of a country is a complicate system. A model, which is based on the Epstein & Axtell's "Sugars cape" model, is presented in Netlogo. The model considers the income, age, working opportunity and salary as control variables. There are still other variables should be considered while an artificial society is established. In this study, a more complicate cellular automata model for wealth distribution model is proposed. The effects of social welfare, tax, economical investment and inheritance are considered and simulated. According to the cellular automata simulation for wealth distribution, we will have a deep insight of financial policy of the government.

  11. Effects of an awareness raising campaign on intention and behavioural determinants for handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, E; Kumar, S; Mosler, H-J

    2016-04-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were conducted with 687 visitors before and after their visit to the campaign. Data showed that a campaign visit had little effect on the intention to wash hands with soap, even when comparing visitors who had actively participated in handwashing games with those who had not. After a campaign visit, knowledge about the benefits of washing hands had increased by almost half a standard deviation. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that when considering all behavioural determinants change scores simultaneously, they were able to explain 57% of the variance in the intention change score. These findings suggest that substantively changing behaviour requires more than improving knowledge and emphasizing the importance of washing hands. Identifying the crucial behavioural determinants for handwashing may be an important first step in planning effective large-scale promotion programmes. PMID:26936481

  12. Microbial Content of "Bowl Water" Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A; Minamor, Andrew A; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of "bowl water" used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  13. An association between neighborhood wealth inequality and HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brodish, Paul Henry

    2016-01-01

    Summary This paper investigates whether community-level wealth inequality predicts HIV serostatus, using DHS household survey and HIV biomarker data for men and women ages 15-59 pooled from six sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates exceeding five percent. The analysis relates the binary dependent variable HIV positive serostatus and two weighted aggregate predictors generated from the DHS Wealth Index: the Gini coefficient, and the ratio of the wealth of households in the top 20% wealth quintile to that of those in the bottom 20%. In separate multilevel logistic regression models, wealth inequality is used to predict HIV prevalence within each SEA, controlling for known individual-level demographic predictors of HIV serostatus. Potential individual-level sexual behavior mediating variables are added to assess attenuation, and ordered logit models investigate whether the effect is mediated through extramarital sexual partnerships. Both the cluster-level wealth Gini coefficient and wealth ratio significantly predict positive HIV serostatus: a 1 point increase in the cluster-level Gini coefficient and in the cluster-level wealth ratio is associated with a 2.35 and 1.3 times increased likelihood of being HIV positive, respectively, controlling for individual-level demographic predictors, and associations are stronger in models including only males. Adding sexual behavior variables attenuates the effects of both inequality measures. Reporting 11 plus lifetime sexual partners increases the odds of being HIV positive over five-fold. The likelihood of having more extramarital partners is significantly higher in clusters with greater wealth inequality measured by the wealth ratio. Disaggregating logit models by sex indicates important risk behavior differences. Household wealth inequality within DHS clusters predicts HIV serostatus, and the relationship is partially mediated by more extramarital partners. These results emphasize the importance of

  14. An association between neighbourhood wealth inequality and HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Brodish, Paul Henry

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates whether community-level wealth inequality predicts HIV serostatus using DHS household survey and HIV biomarker data for men and women ages 15-59 pooled from six sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates exceeding 5%. The analysis relates the binary dependent variable HIV-positive serostatus and two weighted aggregate predictors generated from the DHS Wealth Index: the Gini coefficient, and the ratio of the wealth of households in the top 20% wealth quintile to that of those in the bottom 20%. In separate multilevel logistic regression models, wealth inequality is used to predict HIV prevalence within each statistical enumeration area, controlling for known individual-level demographic predictors of HIV serostatus. Potential individual-level sexual behaviour mediating variables are added to assess attenuation, and ordered logit models investigate whether the effect is mediated through extramarital sexual partnerships. Both the cluster-level wealth Gini coefficient and wealth ratio significantly predict positive HIV serostatus: a 1 point increase in the cluster-level Gini coefficient and in the cluster-level wealth ratio is associated with a 2.35 and 1.3 times increased likelihood of being HIV positive, respectively, controlling for individual-level demographic predictors, and associations are stronger in models including only males. Adding sexual behaviour variables attenuates the effects of both inequality measures. Reporting eleven plus lifetime sexual partners increases the odds of being HIV positive over five-fold. The likelihood of having more extramarital partners is significantly higher in clusters with greater wealth inequality measured by the wealth ratio. Disaggregating logit models by sex indicates important risk behaviour differences. Household wealth inequality within DHS clusters predicts HIV serostatus, and the relationship is partially mediated by more extramarital partners. These results emphasize the importance

  15. Modeling wealth distribution in growing markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Urna; Mohanty, P. K.

    2008-10-01

    We introduce an auto-regressive model which captures the growing nature of realistic markets. In our model agents do not trade with other agents, they interact indirectly only through a market. Change of their wealth depends, linearly on how much they invest, and stochastically on how much they gain from the noisy market. The average wealth of the market could be fixed or growing. We show that in a market where investment capacity of agents differ, average wealth of agents generically follow the Pareto-law. In few cases, the individual distribution of wealth of every agentcould also be obtained exactly. We also show that the underlying dynamics of other well studied kinetic models of markets can be mapped to the dynamics of our auto-regressive model.

  16. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

    PubMed

    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.

  17. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Rheinländer, Thilde; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, initiatives have been started aimed at increasing the practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS) among primary schoolchildren. However, compliance remains low. Objective This study aims to investigate responses to a teacher-centred participatory HWWS intervention in a multi-ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. Design This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July–November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September–December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction to the intervention of teachers, children and parents. This included semi-structured interviews with children (15), and their parents (15), focus group discussions (FGDs) with schoolchildren (32) and school staff (20) and observations during 15 HWWS involving children. Results Observations and interview data from children demonstrated that children were visibly excited and pleased with HWWS sessions where teachers applied active teaching methods including rewards, games and HWWS demonstrations. All children, schoolteachers and parents also viewed the HWWS intervention as positive and feasible, irrespective of ethnicity, gender of schoolchildren and background of schoolteachers. However, some important barriers were indicated for sustaining and transferring the HWWS practice to the home setting including limited emphasis on hygiene in the standard curriculum of schools, low priority and lack of time given to practical teaching methods and lack of guidance and reminding HWWS on a regular basis at home, in particular by highland parents, who spend most of their time

  18. Transforming wealth: using the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) and splines to predict youth's math achievement.

    PubMed

    Friedline, Terri; Masa, Rainier D; Chowa, Gina A N

    2015-01-01

    The natural log and categorical transformations commonly applied to wealth for meeting the statistical assumptions of research may not always be appropriate for adjusting for skewness given wealth's unique properties. Finding and applying appropriate transformations is becoming increasingly important as researchers consider wealth as a predictor of well-being. We present an alternative transformation-the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS)-for simultaneously dealing with skewness and accounting for wealth's unique properties. Using the relationship between household wealth and youth's math achievement as an example, we apply the IHS transformation to wealth data from US and Ghanaian households. We also explore non-linearity and accumulation thresholds by combining IHS transformed wealth with splines. IHS transformed wealth relates to youth's math achievement similarly when compared to categorical and natural log transformations, indicating that it is a viable alternative to other transformations commonly used in research. Non-linear relationships and accumulation thresholds emerge that predict youth's math achievement when splines are incorporated. In US households, accumulating debt relates to decreases in math achievement whereas accumulating assets relates to increases in math achievement. In Ghanaian households, accumulating assets between the 25th and 50th percentiles relates to increases in youth's math achievement.

  19. Transforming wealth: using the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) and splines to predict youth's math achievement.

    PubMed

    Friedline, Terri; Masa, Rainier D; Chowa, Gina A N

    2015-01-01

    The natural log and categorical transformations commonly applied to wealth for meeting the statistical assumptions of research may not always be appropriate for adjusting for skewness given wealth's unique properties. Finding and applying appropriate transformations is becoming increasingly important as researchers consider wealth as a predictor of well-being. We present an alternative transformation-the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS)-for simultaneously dealing with skewness and accounting for wealth's unique properties. Using the relationship between household wealth and youth's math achievement as an example, we apply the IHS transformation to wealth data from US and Ghanaian households. We also explore non-linearity and accumulation thresholds by combining IHS transformed wealth with splines. IHS transformed wealth relates to youth's math achievement similarly when compared to categorical and natural log transformations, indicating that it is a viable alternative to other transformations commonly used in research. Non-linear relationships and accumulation thresholds emerge that predict youth's math achievement when splines are incorporated. In US households, accumulating debt relates to decreases in math achievement whereas accumulating assets relates to increases in math achievement. In Ghanaian households, accumulating assets between the 25th and 50th percentiles relates to increases in youth's math achievement. PMID:25432618

  20. Development of an intervention to reduce transmission of respiratory infections and pandemic flu: measuring and predicting hand-washing intentions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sascha; Yardley, Lucy; Little, Paul

    2012-01-01

    included in the study explained a substantial proportion of the variance in intentions. The study also provided useful indications that our high-threat message might increase hand-washing intentions, that providing hand gel might be beneficial and that it would be necessary to actively manage the risk of selective dropout in the intervention group.

  1. Development of an intervention to reduce transmission of respiratory infections and pandemic flu: measuring and predicting hand-washing intentions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sascha; Yardley, Lucy; Little, Paul

    2012-01-01

    included in the study explained a substantial proportion of the variance in intentions. The study also provided useful indications that our high-threat message might increase hand-washing intentions, that providing hand gel might be beneficial and that it would be necessary to actively manage the risk of selective dropout in the intervention group. PMID:21644184

  2. Health and wealth in Uzbekistan and sub-Saharan Africa in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Sophie; Garenne, Michel

    2010-12-01

    The study investigates the magnitude of differences in child and adult mortality by wealth in Uzbekistan, a former soviet country of Central Asia, and compares it with similar indicators from sub-Saharan Africa. Data were derived from Demographic and Health Surveys. An "Absolute Wealth Index" was built from data on goods owned by households and quality of housing, and scaled from 0 to 12. Wealth was distributed evenly in Uzbekistan, with a symmetric distribution around a mean of 5.5 modern goods. In sub-Saharan Africa, on the contrary, the wealth distribution had a lower mean (2.5) and was highly skewed towards the left, revealing a high proportion of very poor people. Adult and child mortality levels were lower in Uzbekistan. Despite these major differences, the relationships between mortality indicators and the wealth index were similar in the two cases. The magnitude of mortality differentials by wealth was of the same order in both cases, with gradients ranging from 2.5 to 1 for child mortality and 1.5 to 1 for adult mortality (poorest versus richest). However, mortality levels remained lower in Uzbekistan than in sub-Saharan Africa at the same level of wealth for both children and adults. A similar relationship was found between nutritional status and wealth index in both cases. On the contrary, there were no differences by wealth in use of health services and level of education in Uzbekistan, whereas wealth gradients were steep for the same variables in sub-Saharan Africa. The study suggests that mortality differentials were primarily due to nutritional status, and not to access and use of health services or to education. The discussion focuses on health and social policies during the colonial and post-colonial period that have produced these patterns.

  3. Effect of intensive handwashing in the prevention of diarrhoeal illness among patients with AIDS: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Huang, David B; Zhou, Jing

    2007-05-01

    Patients with AIDS frequently develop diarrhoeal illness. In this randomized, controlled study, 260 patients were screened for those who had not had diarrhoea in the preceding 3 months and who had received a stable highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen for at least 6 weeks prior to the study enrollment. A total of 148 patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled: 75 patients were randomly assigned to an intensive handwashing intervention (i.e. handwashing after defecation, after cleaning infants who had defecated, before preparing food, before eating, and before and after sex) and 73 patients were randomly assigned to the control group. Patients in both groups were called weekly by telephone to determine compliance with handwashing and to determine the number of diarrhoeal episodes for the preceding week. Patients were observed for 1 year. Patients assigned to the intensive handwashing intervention group washed their hands more frequently compared with the control group (seven vs four times a day, respectively; P <0.05) and developed fewer episodes of diarrhoeal illness (1.24+/-0.9 vs 2.92+/-0.6 new episodes of diarrhoea, respectively; P <0.001) during the 1 year observation. The most common pathogens identified in both groups in patients who developed diarrhoeal illness were Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica and Shigella flexneri. These data suggest that intensive handwashing reduces diarrhoeal illness in patients with AIDS.

  4. Ineffectiveness of handwashing with lotion soap to remove nosocomial bacterial pathogens persisting on fingertips: a major link in their intrahospital spread.

    PubMed

    Bottone, Edward J; Cheng, Mark; Hymes, Saul

    2004-03-01

    The effectiveness of five 30-second handwashes with a non-antiseptic lotion soap to remove nosocomial pathogens (10(8) CFU) applied to fingertips was studied. CFU for all species dropped rapidly after the first handwash; persistence (10 to 15 CFU) was maintained thereafter. Wiping hands with an antiseptic (70% isopropyl or 10% povidone-iodine) sponge removed persisters.

  5. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N=84) in South Africa associate higher-status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher-value belongings with White people more often than with multiracial or Black people and with multiracial people more often than with Black people, thus showing sensitivity to the de facto racial hierarchy in their society. There were no age-related changes in children’s tendency to associate racial groups with wealth differences. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the general tendency for people to legitimize and perpetuate the status quo. PMID:22860510

  6. The Antieconomy Hypothesis (Part 1): From Wealth Creation to Wealth Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to make some sense of what is happening to the role of money and the economy in our lives and in our communities. It shows that the picture provided by the discipline of economics makes no sense at all. Corporations and national economies have become wealth extractors as opposed to wealth creators. Only about 3% of daily…

  7. Allocation of Wealth and Emergence of Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Natalia; Wille, Luc

    2010-03-01

    Though socioeconomic inequality has always been a classic subject of study in sociology and finance, it has caught the attention of many physicists in the last decade. The application of kinetic theory of gases to study the emergence of wealth distributions continues to develop itself as a new field of applications of statistical physics. The challenge for physicists is to identify basic microscopic interactions among individuals, namely trading and investment, which rule the macroscopic statistics of the system of individuals as a whole. Several models have been elaborated and certain microscopic parameters were identified as vital for the existence of statistically different wealth distributions. We present a model which considers different savings propensities, stochastic nature of trades and investments, and explore specific choices of micro-trading parameters which produce qualitatively different wealth distributions like those of the United States and Australia.

  8. Wealth distribution in modern and medieval societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M. A.; Coelho, R.; Hegyi, G.; Néda, Z.; Ramasco, J.

    2007-04-01

    The power-law form of the upper part of the distribution of individual wealth/income (Pareto's law) is very well established for many countries and years. The Pareto index is however non-universal, varying typically from 1.5 to around 3. A recently introduced model for wealth exchange on an evolving family-network [Physica A 353, 515 (2005)] is reviewed and compared with empirical data. While the model mimics very well recent individual wealth data in a modern society (U.K.), it fails to explain results for a feudal society, based on the number of serf families owned by nobles (Hungary, mid XVI century). The unusually low (around 1) Pareto index found in this case is not compatible with the previous model. It is suggested that this fact may be interpreted as a result of the absence of active trading among agents.

  9. Old-Age Wealth in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca; DeGraff, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined relationships between the wealth of older adults and their early-life decisions regarding investment in human capital, family formation, and work activities in Mexico, using the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study. The authors examined correlates of accumulated financial wealth by gender and across three age cohorts: 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 years or older. The authors outline the changing context these cohorts experienced during their lifetimes; describe patterns of net financial worth by main covariates across groups defined by age, sex, and marital status; and present the results of multivariate models of net worth. Simulations were conducted to illustrate patterns of net worth associated with alternative scenarios depicting differing representative combinations of life-course characteristics by age cohort. The findings suggest that old-age financial wealth in Mexico is more closely associated with family formation and human capital decisions than with employment decisions over the lifetime. PMID:20694054

  10. Econophysics of Income and Wealth Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Chakraborti, Anirban; Chakravarty, Satya R.; Chatterjee, Arnab

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Income and wealth distribution data for different countries; 3. Major socio-economic modellings; 4. Market exchanges and scattering process; 5. Analytic structure of the kinetic exchange market models; 6. Microeconomic foundation of the kinetic exchange models; 7. Dynamics: generation of income, inequality and development; 8. Outlook; References; Index.

  11. IQ and the Wealth of States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    In "IQ and the Wealth of Nations" (2002), Lynn and Vanhanen estimate the mean IQs of 185 nations and demonstrate that national IQs strongly correlate with the macroeconomic performance of the nations, explaining about half of the variance in GDP per capita. I seek to replicate Lynn and Vanhanen's results across states within the United States. I…

  12. Efficacy of waterless hand hygiene compared with handwashing with soap: a field study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Boehm, Alexandria B; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  13. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  14. Project WEALTH (Water, Energy, Agriculture, Lighting, Training and Health): Harnessing the wealth of nations

    SciTech Connect

    Kashkari, C.

    1996-12-31

    Project WEALTH, hereafter referred to as WEALTH, is a global plan for the economic development of an estimated one million villages in the world, where one billion people live. The plan will focus on the provision of: Water, Energy, Agriculture, Lighting, Training and Health (WEALTH), by harnessing the natural resources of the villages and utilizing the technologies available in the industrialized countries. In the first phase of the project, one model village (WEALTH Center) will be established in every developing country of the world. The Center will serve as the training and demonstration center and promote the project in the country. WEALTH will provide economic opportunities for the industrialized and the developing countries. The Small Business Sector will play a major role in the implementation of the project. The project will be developed and implemented, not by governments, but by private sector, in cooperation with national governments. When fully operational, the project has the potential of generating business to the tune of billions of dollars every year. The Inner-cities of the US can participate in the project resulting in their own rapid development. WEALTH will spur global economic growth and lay the foundation for prosperity and peace in the twenty-first century.

  15. Measuring Socioeconomic Differences in Use of Health Care Services by Wealth Versus by Income

    PubMed Central

    Allin, Sara; Masseria, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the extent of socioeconomic differences in use of health care services based on wealth (i.e., accumulated assets) as the socioeconomic ranking variable with the extent of differences based on income to explore the sensitivity of the estimates of equity to the choice of the socioeconomic indicator. Methods. We used data from the Health and Retirement Study in the United States and the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe to estimate levels of income- and wealth-related disparity in use of physician and dental services among adults 50 or older in 12 countries. Results. We found socioeconomic differences in use of physician services after standardizing for need in about half of the countries studied. No consistent pattern in levels of disparity measured by wealth versus those measured by income was found. However, the rich were significantly more likely to use dental services in all countries. Wealth-related differences in dental service use were consistently higher than were income-related differences. Conclusions. We found some support for wealth as a more sensitive indicator of socioeconomic status among older adults than was income. Wealth may thus allow more accurate measurements of socioeconomic differences in use of health care services for this population. PMID:19150899

  16. Evaluation of a pre-existing, 3-year household water treatment and handwashing intervention in rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Benjamin; Arana, Byron; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Hubbard, Alan; Colford, John M

    2009-01-01

    Background The promotion of household water treatment and handwashing with soap has led to large reductions in child diarrhoea in randomized efficacy trials. Currently, we know little about the health effectiveness of behaviour-based water and hygiene interventions after the conclusion of intervention activities. Methods We present an extension of previously published design (propensity score matching) and analysis (targeted maximum likelihood estimation) methods to evaluate the behavioural and health impacts of a pre-existing but non-randomized intervention (a 3-year, combined household water treatment and handwashing campaign in rural Guatemala). Six months after the intervention, we conducted a cross-sectional cohort study in 30 villages (15 intervention and 15 control) that included 600 households, and 929 children <5 years of age. Results The study design created a sample of intervention and control villages that were comparable across more than 30 potentially confounding characteristics. The intervention led to modest gains in confirmed water treatment behaviour [risk difference = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02–0.09]. We found, however, no difference between the intervention and control villages in self-reported handwashing behaviour, spot-check hygiene conditions, or the prevalence of child diarrhoea, clinical acute lower respiratory infections or child growth. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first post-intervention follow-up study of a combined household water treatment and handwashing behaviour change intervention, and the first post-intervention follow-up of either intervention type to include child health measurement. The lack of child health impacts is consistent with unsustained behaviour adoption. Our findings highlight the difficulty of implementing behaviour-based household water treatment and handwashing outside of intensive efficacy trials. PMID:19574492

  17. Local operators in kinetic wealth distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrecut, M.

    2016-05-01

    The statistical mechanics approach to wealth distribution is based on the conservative kinetic multi-agent model for money exchange, where the local interaction rule between the agents is analogous to the elastic particle scattering process. Here, we discuss the role of a class of conservative local operators, and we show that, depending on the values of their parameters, they can be used to generate all the relevant distributions. We also show numerically that in order to generate the power-law tail, an heterogeneous risk aversion model is required. By changing the parameters of these operators, one can also fine tune the resulting distributions in order to provide support for the emergence of a more egalitarian wealth distribution.

  18. Wealth Accumulation and Factors Accounting for Success

    PubMed Central

    Pawasutipaisit, Anan; Townsend, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We use detailed income, balance sheet, and cash flow statements constructed for households in a long monthly panel in an emerging market economy, and some recent contributions in economic theory, to document and better understand the factors underlying success in achieving upward mobility in the distribution of net worth. Wealth inequality is decreasing over time, and many households work their way out of poverty and lower wealth over the seven year period. The accounts establish that, mechanically, this is largely due to savings rather than incoming gifts and remittances. In turn, the growth of net worth can be decomposed household by household into the savings rate and how productively that savings is used, the return on assets (ROA). The latter plays the larger role. ROA is, in turn, positively correlated with higher education of household members, younger age of the head, and with a higher debt/asset ratio and lower initial wealth, so it seems from cross-sections that the financial system is imperfectly channeling resources to productive and poor households. Household fixed effects account for the larger part of ROA, and this success is largely persistent, undercutting the story that successful entrepreneurs are those that simply get lucky. Persistence does vary across households, and in at least one province with much change and increasing opportunities, ROA changes as households move over time to higher-return occupations. But for those households with high and persistent ROA, the savings rate is higher, consistent with some micro founded macro models with imperfect credit markets. Indeed, high ROA households save by investing in their own enterprises and adopt consistent financial strategies for smoothing fluctuations. More generally growth of wealth, savings levels and/or rates are correlated with TFP and the household fixed effects that are the larger part of ROA. PMID:21643466

  19. Wealth Accumulation and Factors Accounting for Success.

    PubMed

    Pawasutipaisit, Anan; Townsend, Robert M

    2011-03-01

    We use detailed income, balance sheet, and cash flow statements constructed for households in a long monthly panel in an emerging market economy, and some recent contributions in economic theory, to document and better understand the factors underlying success in achieving upward mobility in the distribution of net worth. Wealth inequality is decreasing over time, and many households work their way out of poverty and lower wealth over the seven year period. The accounts establish that, mechanically, this is largely due to savings rather than incoming gifts and remittances. In turn, the growth of net worth can be decomposed household by household into the savings rate and how productively that savings is used, the return on assets (ROA). The latter plays the larger role. ROA is, in turn, positively correlated with higher education of household members, younger age of the head, and with a higher debt/asset ratio and lower initial wealth, so it seems from cross-sections that the financial system is imperfectly channeling resources to productive and poor households. Household fixed effects account for the larger part of ROA, and this success is largely persistent, undercutting the story that successful entrepreneurs are those that simply get lucky. Persistence does vary across households, and in at least one province with much change and increasing opportunities, ROA changes as households move over time to higher-return occupations. But for those households with high and persistent ROA, the savings rate is higher, consistent with some micro founded macro models with imperfect credit markets. Indeed, high ROA households save by investing in their own enterprises and adopt consistent financial strategies for smoothing fluctuations. More generally growth of wealth, savings levels and/or rates are correlated with TFP and the household fixed effects that are the larger part of ROA. PMID:21643466

  20. How wealth accumulation can promote cooperation.

    PubMed

    Chadefaux, Thomas; Helbing, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the emergence and stability of cooperation has been a central challenge in biology, economics and sociology. Unfortunately, the mechanisms known to promote it either require elaborate strategies or hold only under restrictive conditions. Here, we report the emergence, survival, and frequent domination of cooperation in a world characterized by selfishness and a strong temptation to defect, when individuals can accumulate wealth. In particular, we study games with local adaptation such as the prisoner's dilemma, to which we add heterogeneity in payoffs. In our model, agents accumulate wealth and invest some of it in their interactions. The larger the investment, the more can potentially be gained or lost, so that present gains affect future payoffs. We find that cooperation survives for a far wider range of parameters than without wealth accumulation and, even more strikingly, that it often dominates defection. This is in stark contrast to the traditional evolutionary prisoner's dilemma in particular, in which cooperation rarely survives and almost never thrives. With the inequality we introduce, on the contrary, cooperators do better than defectors, even without any strategic behavior or exogenously imposed strategies. These results have important consequences for our understanding of the type of social and economic arrangements that are optimal and efficient. PMID:21048947

  1. Housing wealth and mortality: A register linkage study of the Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Martikainen, Pekka

    2009-09-01

    In many countries home ownership is the main form of property and covers a major part of people's possessions. Since overall wealth is difficult to measure, many health studies have used home ownership as an indicator of wealth and material resources. However, most studies have measured housing wealth with a simple dichotomous measure of home ownership. We examined the associations between three different measures of housing wealth and overall mortality, separating subsidized renters and private renters, and using floor area and the number of rooms as measures of dwelling size. We further examined whether other socioeconomic factors, level of urbanisation of the region of residence, and household composition account for the found associations. Finns aged 35-79 years at the end of 1999 were followed up until the end of 2004. Data were drawn from various registers combined by Statistics Finland and linked with death records. The age-adjusted hazard ratio for mortality among subsidized renters compared to owner-occupiers was 2.26 in men and 1.87 in women. However, also private renters had clearly higher mortality than owner-occupiers, with the excess mortality of 92% in men and 61% in women. Both measures of home size were also strongly associated with mortality, with the excess risk of 1.7-3.0 in the lowest home size quintile compared to the highest. Adjusting for socioeconomic factors and mutually for all housing wealth measures considerably attenuated the associations. Further adjustment for urbanisation had no effect whereas adjustment for household size, marital status and living arrangements attenuated the associations of the two home size measures and mortality. However, a clear association remained between all housing wealth measures and mortality after all adjustments. Housing wealth summarises one's material circumstances over a prolonged period of time. Measures of housing wealth may therefore provide useful social classifications for studies on poor health

  2. More Opportunities than Wealth: Inequality and Emergent Social Classes in a Network of Power and Frustration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Mahault, Benoit; Saxena, Avadh

    We introduce a minimal agent-based model to qualitatively conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant opportunities. There the interplay of power, satisfaction and frustration determines the distribution, concentration, and inequality of wealth. Our framework allows us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from, or lose wealth to, anybody else invariably leads to large inequality. The picture is however dramatically modified when hard constraints are imposed over agents, and they are limited to share wealth with neighbors on a network. We address dynamical societies via an out of equilibrium coevolution of the network, driven by a competition between power and frustration. The ratio between power and frustration controls different dynamical regimes separated by kinetic transitions and characterized by drastically different values of the indices of equality. In particular, it leads to the emergence of three self-organized social classes, lower, middle, and upper class, whose interactions drive a cyclical regime.

  3. A choice mind-set increases the acceptance and maintenance of wealth inequality.

    PubMed

    Savani, Krishna; Rattan, Aneeta

    2012-07-01

    Wealth inequality has significant psychological, physiological, societal, and economic costs. In six experiments, we investigated how seemingly innocuous, culturally pervasive ideas can help maintain and further wealth inequality. Specifically, we tested whether the concept of choice, which is deeply valued in American society, leads Americans to act in ways that perpetuate wealth inequality. Thinking in terms of choice, we argue, activates the belief that life outcomes stem from personal agency, not societal factors, and thereby leads people to justify wealth inequality. The results showed that highlighting the concept of choice makes people less disturbed by facts about existing wealth inequality in the United States, more likely to underestimate the role of societal factors in individuals' successes, less likely to support the redistribution of educational resources, and less likely to support raising taxes on the rich-even if doing so would help resolve a budget deficit crisis. These findings indicate that the culturally valued concept of choice contributes to the maintenance of wealth inequality.

  4. A choice mind-set increases the acceptance and maintenance of wealth inequality.

    PubMed

    Savani, Krishna; Rattan, Aneeta

    2012-07-01

    Wealth inequality has significant psychological, physiological, societal, and economic costs. In six experiments, we investigated how seemingly innocuous, culturally pervasive ideas can help maintain and further wealth inequality. Specifically, we tested whether the concept of choice, which is deeply valued in American society, leads Americans to act in ways that perpetuate wealth inequality. Thinking in terms of choice, we argue, activates the belief that life outcomes stem from personal agency, not societal factors, and thereby leads people to justify wealth inequality. The results showed that highlighting the concept of choice makes people less disturbed by facts about existing wealth inequality in the United States, more likely to underestimate the role of societal factors in individuals' successes, less likely to support the redistribution of educational resources, and less likely to support raising taxes on the rich-even if doing so would help resolve a budget deficit crisis. These findings indicate that the culturally valued concept of choice contributes to the maintenance of wealth inequality. PMID:22700330

  5. Health, Wealth and Happiness: Why Pursue a Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartog, Joop; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    1998-01-01

    Explores schooling's effect on health, wealth, and happiness for a cohort of Dutch individuals born around 1940. Uses observations on childhood IQ and family background. The group with a nonvocational, intermediate-level education scored highest on all three factors. IQ affects health, not wealth or happiness. Family background increases wealth,…

  6. Healthcare system and the wealth-health gradient: a comparative study of older populations in six countries.

    PubMed

    Maskileyson, Dina

    2014-10-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of the association between wealth and health in six healthcare systems (Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Czech Republic, Israel, the United States). National samples of individuals fifty years and over reveal considerable cross-country variations in health outcomes. In all six countries wealth and health are positively associated. The findings also show that state-based healthcare systems produce better population health outcomes than private-based healthcare systems. The results indicate that in five out of the six countries studied, the wealth-health gradients were remarkably similar, despite significant variations in healthcare system type. Only in the United States was the association between wealth and health substantially different from, and much greater than that in the other five countries. The findings suggest that private-based healthcare system in the U.S. is likely to promote stronger positive associations between wealth and health.

  7. Associations between presence of handwashing stations and soap in the home and diarrhoea and respiratory illness, in children less than five years old in rural western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, K. B.; Feikin, D. R.; Bigogo, G. M.; Aol, G.; Audi, A.; Cohen, A. L.; Shah, M. M.; Yu, J.; Breiman, R. F.; Ram, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether soap presence in the home or a designated handwashing station was associated with diarrhoea and respiratory illness in Kenya. METHODS In April 2009, we observed presence of a handwashing station and soap in households participating in a longitudinal health surveillance system in rural Kenya. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children < 5 years old were identified using parent-reported syndromic surveillance collected January–April 2009. We used multivariate generalised linear regression to estimate differences in prevalence of illness between households with and without the presence of soap in the home and a handwashing station. RESULTS Among 2547 children, prevalence of diarrhoea and ARI was 2.3 and 11.4 days per 100 child-days, respectively. Soap was observed in 97% of households. Children in households with soap had 1.3 fewer days of diarrhoea/100 child-days (95% CI −2.6, −0.1) than children in households without soap. ARI prevalence was not associated with presence of soap. A handwashing station was identified in 1.4% of households and was not associated with a difference in diarrhoea or ARI prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Soap presence in the home was significantly associated with reduced diarrhoea, but not ARI, in children in rural western Kenya. Whereas most households had soap in the home, almost none had a designated handwashing station, which may prevent handwashing at key times of hand contamination. PMID:24405627

  8. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  9. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries. PMID:26493298

  10. Carbon taxes and the petroleum wealth

    SciTech Connect

    Rosendahl, K.E.

    1995-12-31

    A global carbon tax may have considerable impact on the petroleum wealth of fossil fuel producers. However, it is not clear to what extent such a tax eventually will decrease the producer prices, rather than increase the consumer prices. Thus, an interesting question is: How will the tax burden be shared between producers and consumers? This question is of course of major importance for countries with relatively large petroleum reserves, like for instance the OPEC-countries as well as Norway. In this study we are addressing this question, trying to reveal how different carbon taxes may change the petroleum wealth, both for the average producer and for Norway in particular. Even if a global climate treaty at present seems a bit distant, several OECD-countries are or have been discussing a carbon tax to restrict their emissions of CO{sub 2}. Hence, there is a fair possibility that such a tax, or eventually some quota restrictions, will be imposed in at least the main countries of the OECD-area, which stands for almost 60 percent of the worlds oil consumption. The size of this tax is difficult to foresee, and in addition, the tax may not be constant over time. However, some concrete proposals of a carbon tax have been put forward in e.g. the EU and the US, and several research projects have come up with appropriate suggestions (see e.g. Manne and Richels and Oliveira Martins et al.).

  11. The physiological impacts of wealth shocks in late life: Evidence from the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Boen, Courtney; Yang, Y Claire

    2016-02-01

    Given documented links between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and health, it is likely that-in addition to its impacts on individuals' wallets and bank accounts-the Great Recession also took a toll on individuals' disease and mortality risk. Exploiting a quasi-natural experiment design, this study utilizes nationally representative, longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) (2005-2011) (N = 930) and individual fixed effects models to examine how household-level wealth shocks experienced during the Great Recession relate to changes in biophysiological functioning in older adults. Results indicate that wealth shocks significantly predicted changes in physiological functioning, such that losses in net worth from the pre-to the post-Recession period were associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and C-reactive protein over the six year period. Further, while the association between wealth shocks and changes in blood pressure was unattenuated with the inclusion of other indicators of SES, psychosocial well-being, and health behaviors in analytic models, we document some evidence of mediation in the association between changes in wealth and changes in C-reactive protein, which suggests specificity in the social and biophysiological mechanisms relating wealth shocks and health at older ages. Linking macro-level conditions, meso-level household environments, and micro-level biological processes, this study provides new insights into the mechanisms through which economic inequality contributes to disease and mortality risk in late life.

  12. The relationship among biodiversity, governance, wealth, and scientific capacity at a country level: Disaggregation and prioritization.

    PubMed

    Lira-Noriega, Andrés; Soberón, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    At a global level, the relationship between biodiversity importance and capacity to manage it is often assumed to be negative, without much differentiation among the more than 200 countries and territories of the world. We examine this relationship using a database including terrestrial biodiversity, wealth and governance indicators for most countries. From these, principal components analysis was used to construct aggregated indicators at global and regional scales. Wealth, governance, and scientific capacity represent different skills and abilities in relation to biodiversity importance. Our results show that the relationship between biodiversity and the different factors is not simple: in most regions wealth and capacity varies positively with biodiversity, while governance vary negatively with biodiversity. However, these trends, to a certain extent, are concentrated in certain groups of nations and outlier countries. We discuss our results in the context of collaboration and joint efforts among biodiversity-rich countries and foreign agencies.

  13. The impact of migration and remittances on wealth accumulation and distribution in rural Thailand.

    PubMed

    Garip, Filiz

    2014-04-01

    This article studies the impact of internal migration and remittance flows on wealth accumulation and distribution in 51 rural villages in Nang Rong, Thailand. Using data from 5,449 households, the study constructs indices of household productive and consumer assets with principal component analysis. The changes in these indices from 1994 to 2000 are modeled as a function of households' prior migration and remittance behavior with ordinary least squares, matching, and instrumental variable methods. The findings show that rich households lose productive assets with migration, potentially because of a reduction in the labor force available to maintain local economic activities, while poor households gain productive assets. Regardless of wealth status, households do not gain or lose consumer assets with migration or remittances. These results suggest an equalizing effect of migration and remittances on wealth distribution in rural Thailand. PMID:24363180

  14. Yard-Sale exchange on networks: wealth sharing and wealth appropriation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2012-12-01

    Yard Sale (YS) is a stochastic multiplicative wealth exchange model with two phases: a stable one where wealth is shared, and an unstable one where wealth condenses onto one agent. YS is here studied numerically on 1D rings, 2D square lattices, and random graphs with variable average coordination, comparing its properties with those in mean field (MF). Equilibrium properties in the stable phase are almost unaffected by the introduction of a network. Measurement of decorrelation times in the stable phase allows us to determine the critical interface with very good precision, and it turns out to be the same, for all networks analyzed, as the one that can be analytically derived in MF. In the unstable phase, on the other hand, dynamical as well as asymptotic properties are strongly network dependent. Wealth no longer condenses on a single agent, as in MF, but onto an extensive set of agents, the properties of which depend on the network. Connections with previous studies of coalescence of immobile reactants are discussed, and their analytic predictions are successfully compared with our numerical results.

  15. Where wealth matters more for health: the wealth-health gradient in 16 countries.

    PubMed

    Semyonov, Moshe; Lewin-Epstein, Noah; Maskileyson, Dina

    2013-03-01

    Researchers have long demonstrated that persons of high economic status are likely to be healthier than persons of low socioeconomic standing. Cross-national studies have also demonstrated that health of the population tends to increase with country's level of economic development and to decline with level of economic inequality. The present research utilizes data for 16 national samples (of populations fifty years of age and over) to examine whether the relationship between wealth and health at the individual-level is systematically associated with country's level of economic development and country's level of income inequality. The analysis reveals that in all countries rich persons tend to be healthier than poor persons. Furthermore, in all countries the positive association between wealth and health holds even after controlling for socio-demographic attributes and household income. Hierarchical regression analysis leads to two major conclusions: first, country's economic resources increase average health of the population but do not weaken the tie between wealth and health; second, a more equal distribution of economic resources (greater egalitarianism) does not raise health levels of the population but weakens the tie between wealth and health. The latter findings can be mostly attributed to the uniqueness of the US case. The findings and their significance are discussed in light of previous research and theory.

  16. The effects of 'in-use' surgical handwashing on the pre- and postoperative fingertip flora during cardiothoracic and orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J B; Andersen, B M; Thomassen, S M; Johansen, O; Lie, M

    1995-08-01

    Two operating teams (25 persons) were followed for two months with fingerprint samples taken preoperatively; before and after 'in-use' surgical handwashing; and immediately postoperatively, with and without surgical gloves. The mean time for handwashing for the cardiothoracic team (CT) was 2 min and for the orthopaedic team (OT) was 3.5 min. A closer observation of 10 persons revealed a great individual variation in washing techniques, in spite of standard guidelines. The CT team performed eight, and the OT team nine sterile operations with an average duration of 3 h and 20 min and 2 h and 40 min, respectively. Surgical handwashing resulted in fingertip sterility in 111/118 (94.1%) cases; in 61/66 (92.4%) samples from the surgeons and in 50/52 (96.2%) samples from the assistants. Postoperative fingerprinting with gloves on showed sterile conditions in 85/91 (93.4%) samples; 57/59 (96.6%) from the surgeons and 28/32 (87.5%) from the assistants. Immediately after removal of the gloves, 43/67 (64.2%) of fingerprint samples from the surgeons and 13/48 (27.1%) from the assistants were still sterile. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) and Bacillus species predominated in fingerprint samples. Of the 105 CNS strains tested, 11.4% were methicillin resistant. Only five strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated; in 4/5 cases from the OT. This study illustrates that in spite of standard guidelines, there is great individual variation in surgical handwashing. However, in most instances, the bacteria are eradicated from the fingertips. Even after surgery for 2-3 h, there may still be a residual effect of the hand disinfecting agent in half of the cases.

  17. Marketing hygiene behaviours: the impact of different communication channels on reported handwashing behaviour of women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Scott, Beth E; Schmidt, Wolf P; Aunger, Robert; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Animashaun, Rasaaque

    2008-06-01

    In 2003-04, a National Handwashing Campaign utilizing mass media and community events took place in Ghana. This article describes the results of the evaluation of the campaign in a sample of 497 women with children <5 years. The unifying message across all communication channels was that hands were not 'truly' clean unless washed with soap. The campaign reached 82% of the study population. Sixty-two per cent of women knew the campaign song, 44% were exposed to one channel and 36% to two or more. Overall, TV and radio had greater reach and impact on reported handwashing than community events, while exposure to both a mass media channel and an event yielded the greatest effect, resulting in a 30% increase in reported handwashing with soap after visiting the toilet or cleaning a child's bottom. Our evaluation questions wide-held belief that community events are more effective agents of behaviour change than mass media commercials, at least in the case of hygiene promotion. However, failure of mass media to reach the entire target audience, particularly in specific regions and lower socio-economic groups, and the additive effect of exposure, underscores the need to implement integrated communication programmes utilizing a variety of complementary channels.

  18. Microbial Content of “Bowl Water” Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A.; Minamor, Andrew A.; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of “bowl water” used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  19. Marketing hygiene behaviours: the impact of different communication channels on reported handwashing behaviour of women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Scott, Beth E; Schmidt, Wolf P; Aunger, Robert; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Animashaun, Rasaaque

    2008-06-01

    In 2003-04, a National Handwashing Campaign utilizing mass media and community events took place in Ghana. This article describes the results of the evaluation of the campaign in a sample of 497 women with children <5 years. The unifying message across all communication channels was that hands were not 'truly' clean unless washed with soap. The campaign reached 82% of the study population. Sixty-two per cent of women knew the campaign song, 44% were exposed to one channel and 36% to two or more. Overall, TV and radio had greater reach and impact on reported handwashing than community events, while exposure to both a mass media channel and an event yielded the greatest effect, resulting in a 30% increase in reported handwashing with soap after visiting the toilet or cleaning a child's bottom. Our evaluation questions wide-held belief that community events are more effective agents of behaviour change than mass media commercials, at least in the case of hygiene promotion. However, failure of mass media to reach the entire target audience, particularly in specific regions and lower socio-economic groups, and the additive effect of exposure, underscores the need to implement integrated communication programmes utilizing a variety of complementary channels. PMID:18000025

  20. Health, Wealth and the Price of Oil.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert G

    2016-05-01

    The correlation between health and wealth is arguably a very solidly established relationship. Yet that relationship may be reversing. Falling oil prices have raised (average) per capita incomes, worldwide. But from a long-run perspective they are a public health disaster. The latter is easy to see: low oil reduces the incentive to develop alternative energy sources and "bend the curve" of global warming. Their principal impact on incomes has been redistributional - Alberta and Russia lose, Ontario and Germany gain, etc. Zero net gain. But the price has fallen because technical progress in extracting American shale oil has forced the Saudis' hand. These efficiencies have real benefits for (average) incomes, but costs for long-run health. A compensating carbon tax is an obvious response.

  1. Health, Wealth and the Price of Oil.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert G

    2016-05-01

    The correlation between health and wealth is arguably a very solidly established relationship. Yet that relationship may be reversing. Falling oil prices have raised (average) per capita incomes, worldwide. But from a long-run perspective they are a public health disaster. The latter is easy to see: low oil reduces the incentive to develop alternative energy sources and "bend the curve" of global warming. Their principal impact on incomes has been redistributional - Alberta and Russia lose, Ontario and Germany gain, etc. Zero net gain. But the price has fallen because technical progress in extracting American shale oil has forced the Saudis' hand. These efficiencies have real benefits for (average) incomes, but costs for long-run health. A compensating carbon tax is an obvious response. PMID:27232232

  2. Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups?

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Methods Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25–64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, was used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Results Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both datasets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). Conclusions The results add to literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23427209

  3. Measuring the Level and Inequality of Wealth: An Application to China

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We construct and compare three distinct measures of household asset wealth that complement traditional income- or expenditure-based measures of socioeconomic status. We apply these measures to longitudinal household survey data from China and demonstrate that household asset wealth has been increasing over time, a theme consistent with many previous studies on the process of development in China. Unlike other studies that have shown rising income inequality over time, however, we show that asset wealth inequality has actually been declining in recent years, indicating widespread participation in the benefits of economic reforms. Furthermore, the evolution in the cumulative distribution of household welfare is such that social welfare has been increasing with the passage of time, despite rising inequality in the early years of the survey. PMID:25641989

  4. Quantitative description of realistic wealth distributions by kinetic trading models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammoglia, Nelson; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Toledo, Benjamín; Zarama, Roberto; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2008-10-01

    Data on wealth distributions in trading markets show a power law behavior x-(1+α) at the high end, where, in general, α is greater than 1 (Pareto’s law). Models based on kinetic theory, where a set of interacting agents trade money, yield power law tails if agents are assigned a saving propensity. In this paper we are solving the inverse problem, that is, in finding the saving propensity distribution which yields a given wealth distribution for all wealth ranges. This is done explicitly for two recently published and comprehensive wealth datasets.

  5. Wealth Disparities before and after the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Fabian T; Danziger, Sheldon; Schoeni, Robert F

    2013-11-01

    The collapse of the labor, housing, and stock markets beginning in 2007 created unprecedented challenges for American families. This study examines disparities in wealth holdings leading up to the Great Recession and during the first years of the recovery. All socioeconomic groups experienced declines in wealth following the recession, with higher wealth families experiencing larger absolute declines. In percentage terms, however, the declines were greater for less-advantaged groups as measured by minority status, education, and pre-recession income and wealth, leading to a substantial rise in wealth inequality in just a few years. Despite large changes in wealth, longitudinal analyses demonstrate little change in mobility in the ranking of particular families in the wealth distribution. Between 2007 and 2011, one fourth of American families lost at least 75 percent of their wealth, and more than half of all families lost at least 25 percent of their wealth. Multivariate longitudinal analyses document that these large relative losses were disproportionally concentrated among lower income, less educated, and minority households.

  6. Entrepreneurs, chance, and the deterministic concentration of wealth.

    PubMed

    Fargione, Joseph E; Lehman, Clarence; Polasky, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In many economies, wealth is strikingly concentrated. Entrepreneurs--individuals with ownership in for-profit enterprises--comprise a large portion of the wealthiest individuals, and their behavior may help explain patterns in the national distribution of wealth. Entrepreneurs are less diversified and more heavily invested in their own companies than is commonly assumed in economic models. We present an intentionally simplified individual-based model of wealth generation among entrepreneurs to assess the role of chance and determinism in the distribution of wealth. We demonstrate that chance alone, combined with the deterministic effects of compounding returns, can lead to unlimited concentration of wealth, such that the percentage of all wealth owned by a few entrepreneurs eventually approaches 100%. Specifically, concentration of wealth results when the rate of return on investment varies by entrepreneur and by time. This result is robust to inclusion of realities such as differing skill among entrepreneurs. The most likely overall growth rate of the economy decreases as businesses become less diverse, suggesting that high concentrations of wealth may adversely affect a country's economic growth. We show that a tax on large inherited fortunes, applied to a small portion of the most fortunate in the population, can efficiently arrest the concentration of wealth at intermediate levels.

  7. Entrepreneurs, chance, and the deterministic concentration of wealth.

    PubMed

    Fargione, Joseph E; Lehman, Clarence; Polasky, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In many economies, wealth is strikingly concentrated. Entrepreneurs--individuals with ownership in for-profit enterprises--comprise a large portion of the wealthiest individuals, and their behavior may help explain patterns in the national distribution of wealth. Entrepreneurs are less diversified and more heavily invested in their own companies than is commonly assumed in economic models. We present an intentionally simplified individual-based model of wealth generation among entrepreneurs to assess the role of chance and determinism in the distribution of wealth. We demonstrate that chance alone, combined with the deterministic effects of compounding returns, can lead to unlimited concentration of wealth, such that the percentage of all wealth owned by a few entrepreneurs eventually approaches 100%. Specifically, concentration of wealth results when the rate of return on investment varies by entrepreneur and by time. This result is robust to inclusion of realities such as differing skill among entrepreneurs. The most likely overall growth rate of the economy decreases as businesses become less diverse, suggesting that high concentrations of wealth may adversely affect a country's economic growth. We show that a tax on large inherited fortunes, applied to a small portion of the most fortunate in the population, can efficiently arrest the concentration of wealth at intermediate levels. PMID:21814540

  8. Wealth Condensation and ``Corruption'' in a Toy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, D.; Burda, Z.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Kaminski, M.; Nowak, M. A.; Papp, G.; Zahed, I.

    2005-09-01

    We discuss the wealth condensation mechanism in a simple toy economy in which individual agent's wealths are distributed according to a Pareto power law and the overall wealth is fixed. The observed behaviour is the manifestation of a transition which occurs in Zero Range Processes (ZRPs) or ``balls in boxes'' models. An amusing feature of the transition in this context is that the condensation can be induced by increasing the exponent in the power law, which one might have naively assumed penalised greater wealths more.

  9. Wealth Disparities before and after the Great Recessioni

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Danziger, Sheldon; Schoeni, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The collapse of the labor, housing, and stock markets beginning in 2007 created unprecedented challenges for American families. This study examines disparities in wealth holdings leading up to the Great Recession and during the first years of the recovery. All socioeconomic groups experienced declines in wealth following the recession, with higher wealth families experiencing larger absolute declines. In percentage terms, however, the declines were greater for less-advantaged groups as measured by minority status, education, and pre-recession income and wealth, leading to a substantial rise in wealth inequality in just a few years. Despite large changes in wealth, longitudinal analyses demonstrate little change in mobility in the ranking of particular families in the wealth distribution. Between 2007 and 2011, one fourth of American families lost at least 75 percent of their wealth, and more than half of all families lost at least 25 percent of their wealth. Multivariate longitudinal analyses document that these large relative losses were disproportionally concentrated among lower income, less educated, and minority households. PMID:25332508

  10. Interaction between Education and Household Wealth on the Risk of Obesity in Women in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Chandola, Tarani; Friel, Sharon; Nouraei, Reza; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing problem in lower income countries particularly among women. There are few studies exploring individual socioeconomic status indicators in depth. This study examines the interaction of education and wealth in relation to obesity, hypothesising that education protects against the obesogenic effect of wealth. Methods Four datasets of women of reproductive age from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys spanning the period 1992–2008 are used to examine two distinct time periods: 1992/95 (N = 11097) and 2005/08 (N = 23178). The association in the two time periods between education level and household wealth in relation to the odds of being obese is examined, and the interaction between the two socioeconomic indicators investigated. Estimates are adjusted for age group and area of residence. Results An interaction was found between the association of education and wealth with obesity in both time periods (P-value for interaction <0.001). For women with the lowest education level, moving up one wealth quintile was associated with a 78% increase in the odds of obesity in 1992/95 (OR; 95%CI: 1.78; 1.65,1.91) and a 33% increase in 2005/08 (OR; 95%CI: 1.33; 1.26,1.39). For women with the highest level of education, there was little evidence of an association between wealth and obesity (OR; 95%CI: 0.82; 0.57,1.16 in 1992/95 and 0.95; 0.84,1.08 in 2005/08). Obesity levels increased most in women who were in the no/primary education, poorest wealth quintile and rural groups (absolute difference in prevalence percentage points between the two time periods: 20.2, 20.1, and 21.3 respectively). Conclusion In the present study, wealth appears to be a risk factor for obesity in women with lower education levels, while women with higher education are protected. The findings also suggest that a reversal in the social distribution of obesity risk is occurring which can be explained by the large increase in obesity levels in lower

  11. Upward Wealth Mobility: Exploring the Roman Catholic Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    Wealth inequality is among the most extreme forms of stratification in the United States, and upward wealth mobility is not common. Yet mobility is possible, and this paper takes advantage of trends among a unique group to explore the processes that generate mobility. I show that non-Hispanic whites raised in Roman Catholic families have been…

  12. Elements of Property Wealth and Educational Expenditures in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lows, Raymond L.; Ho, Fanny

    This study examines the relationships between various elements of property wealth and operating expenditures per pupil by types of school district--elementary (K-8), high (9-12), and unit (K-12). Elements of property wealth were defined as the equalized assessed valuation per pupil for each of the following property tax classifications:…

  13. Wealth, fertility and adaptive behaviour in industrial populations.

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    2016-04-19

    The lack of association between wealth and fertility in contemporary industrialized populations has often been used to question the value of an evolutionary perspective on human behaviour. Here, we first present the history of this debate, and the evolutionary explanations for why wealth and fertility (the number of children) are decoupled in modern industrial settings. We suggest that the nature of the relationship between wealth and fertility remains an open question because of the multi-faceted nature of wealth, and because existing cross-sectional studies are ambiguous with respect to how material wealth and fertility are linked. A literature review of longitudinal studies on wealth and fertility shows that the majority of these report positive effects of wealth, although levels of fertility seem to fall below those that would maximize fitness. We emphasize that reproductive decision-making reflects a complex interplay between individual and societal factors that resists simple evolutionary interpretation, and highlight the role of economic insecurity in fertility decisions. We conclude by discussing whether the wealth-fertility relationship can inform us about the adaptiveness of modern fertility behaviour, and argue against simplistic claims regarding maladaptive behaviour in humans.

  14. Black-White Achievement Gap and Family Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, W. Jean; Conley, Dalton

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which family wealth affects the Black-White test score gap for young children based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (aged 3-12). This study found little evidence that wealth mediated the Black-White test scores gaps, which were eliminated when child and family demographic covariates were held…

  15. Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Sylvestre

    2011-02-01

    The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables.

  16. Community Cultural Wealth and Chicano/Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Trina M.; Lugg, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a vision of how educators can better foster the various forms of knowledge and wealth that Chicano/Latino students bring to their public schools. By using LatCrit (i.e., Latino/a critical race theory) to conceptualize community cultural wealth, we hope to give educational leaders greater insights into culturally appropriate…

  17. Estimating Wealth Effects without Expenditure Data--or Tears: An Application to Educational Enrollments in States of India. Policy Research Working Papers No. 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filmer, Deon; Pritchett, Lant

    The relationship between household wealth and educational enrollment of children can be estimated without expenditure data. A method for doing this uses an index based on household asset ownership indicators. To estimate the relationship between household wealth in India and the probability that a child aged 6-14 would be enrolled in school, data…

  18. Wealth distribution and Pareto's law in the Hungarian medieval society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegyi, Géza; Néda, Zoltán; Augusta Santos, Maria

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of wealth in the medieval Hungarian aristocratic society is studied and reported. Assuming the wealth of a noble family to be directly related to the size and agricultural potential of the owned land, we take the number of owned serf families as a measure of the respective wealth. Our data analysis reveals the power-law nature of this wealth distribution, confirming the validity of the Pareto law for this society. Since, in the feudal society, land was not commonly traded, our targeted system can be considered as an experimental realization of the no-trade limit of wealth-distribution models. The obtained Pareto exponent ( α=0.92-0.95) close to 1, is in agreement with the prediction of such models.

  19. The Inequality Process as a wealth maximizing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angle, John

    2006-07-01

    The One Parameter Inequality Process (OPIP) long predates the Saved Wealth Model (SWM) to which it is isomorphic up to the different choice of stochastic driver of wealth exchange. Both are stochastic interacting particle systems intended to model wealth and income distribution. The OPIP and other versions of the Inequality Process explain many aspects of wealth and income distribution but have gone undiscussed in econophysics. The OPIP is a jump process with a discrete 0,1 uniform random variate driving the exchange of wealth between two particles, while the SWM, as an extension of the stochastic version of the ideal gas model, is driven by a continuous uniform random variate with support at [0.0,1.0]. The OPIP's stationary distribution is a Lévy stable distribution attracted to the Pareto pdf near the (hot) upper bound of the OPIP's parameter, ω, and attracted to the normal (Gaussian) pdf toward the (cool) lower bound of ω. A gamma pdf model approximating the OPIP's stationary distribution is heuristically derived from the solution of the OPIP. The approximation works for ω<.5, better as ω→0. The gamma pdf model has parameters in terms of ω. The Inequality Process with Distributed Omega (IPDO) is a generalization of the OPIP. In the IPDO each particle can have a unique value of its parameter, i.e., particle i has ωi. The meta-model of the Inequality Process implies that smaller ω is associated with higher skill level among workers. This hypothesis is confirmed in a test of the IPDO. Particle wealth gain or loss in the OPIP and IPDO is more clearly asymmetric than in the SWM (λ≠0). Time-reversal asymmetry follows from asymmetry of gain and loss. While the IPDO scatters wealth, it also transfers wealth from particles with larger ω to those with smaller ω, particles that according to the IPDO's meta-model are more productive of wealth, nourishing wealth production. The smaller the harmonic mean of the ωi's in the IPDO population of particles, the

  20. Statistical Mechanics of Money, Income, and Wealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovenko, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In Ref. [1], we proposed an analogy between the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution of energy in physics and the equilibrium probability distribution of money in a closed economic system. Analogously to energy, money is locally conserved in interactions between economic agents, so the thermal Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution function is expected for money. Since then, many researchers followed and expanded this idea [2]. Much work was done on the analysis of empirical data, mostly on income, for which a lot of tax and census data is available. We demonstrated [3] that income distribution in the USA has a well-defined two-class structure. The majority of population (97-99%) belongs to the lower class characterized by the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs (``thermal'') distribution. The upper class (1-3% of population) has a Pareto power-law (``superthermal'') distribution, whose parameters change in time with the rise and fall of stock market. We proposed a concept of equilibrium inequality in a society, based on the principle of maximal entropy, and quantitatively demonstrated that it applies to the majority of population. Income distribution in other countries shows similar patterns. For more references, see http://www2.physics.umd.edu/˜yakovenk/econophysics.html. References: [1] A. A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Statistical mechanics of money'', Eur. Phys. J. B 17, 723 (2000). [2] ``Econophysics of Wealth Distributions'', edited by A. Chatterjee, S. Yarlagadda, and B. K. Chakrabarti, Springer, 2005. [3] A. C. Silva and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Temporal evolution of the `thermal' and `superthermal' income classes in the USA during 1983-2001'', Europhys. Lett. 69, 304 (2005).

  1. No germs on me: a social marketing campaign to promote hand-washing with soap in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context. PMID:21721304

  2. Wealth inequality and health: a political economy perspective.

    PubMed

    Nowatzki, Nadine R

    2012-01-01

    Despite a plethora of studies on income inequality and health, researchers have been unable to make any firm conclusions as a result of methodological and theoretical limitations. Within this body of research, there has been a call for studies of wealth inequality and health. Wealth is far more unequally distributed than income and is conceptually unique from income. This paper discusses the results of bivariate cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between wealth inequality (Gini coefficient) and population health (life expectancy and infant mortality) in 14 wealthy countries. The results confirm that wealth inequality is associated with poor population health. Both unweighted and weighted correlations between wealth inequality and health are strong and significant, even after controlling for a variety of potential aggregate-level confounders, including gross domestic product per capita, and after excluding the United States, the most unequal country. The results are strongest for female life expectancy and infant mortality. The author outlines potential pathways through which wealth inequality might affect health, using specific countries to illustrate. The article concludes with policy recommendations that could contribute to a more equitable distribution of wealth and, ultimately, decreased health disparities.

  3. Inequality and visibility of wealth in experimental social networks.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro; Shirado, Hirokazu; Rand, David G; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2015-10-15

    Humans prefer relatively equal distributions of resources, yet societies have varying degrees of economic inequality. To investigate some of the possible determinants and consequences of inequality, here we perform experiments involving a networked public goods game in which subjects interact and gain or lose wealth. Subjects (n = 1,462) were randomly assigned to have higher or lower initial endowments, and were embedded within social networks with three levels of economic inequality (Gini coefficient = 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4). In addition, we manipulated the visibility of the wealth of network neighbours. We show that wealth visibility facilitates the downstream consequences of initial inequality-in initially more unequal situations, wealth visibility leads to greater inequality than when wealth is invisible. This result reflects a heterogeneous response to visibility in richer versus poorer subjects. We also find that making wealth visible has adverse welfare consequences, yielding lower levels of overall cooperation, inter-connectedness, and wealth. High initial levels of economic inequality alone, however, have relatively few deleterious welfare effects.

  4. Validity of rapid estimates of household wealth and income for health surveys in rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Morris, S.; Carletto, C.; Hoddinott, J.; Christiaensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To test the validity of proxy measures of household wealth and income that can be readily implemented in health surveys in rural Africa.
DESIGN—Data are drawn from four different integrated household surveys. The assumptions underlying the choice of wealth proxy are described, and correlations with the true value are assessed in two different settings. The expenditure proxy is developed and then tested for replicability in two independent datasets representing the same population.
SETTING—Rural areas of Mali, Malawi, and Côte d'Ivoire (two national surveys).
PARTICIPANTS—Random sample of rural households in each setting (n=275, 707, 910, and 856, respectively).
MAIN RESULTS—In both Mali and Malawi, the wealth proxy correlated highly (r⩾0.74) with the more complex monetary value method. For rural areas of Côte d'Ivoire, it was possible to generate a list of just 10 expenditure items, the values of which when summed correlated highly with expenditures on all items combined (r=0.74, development dataset, r=0.72, validation dataset). Total household expenditure is an accepted alternative to household income in developing country settings.
CONCLUSIONS—It is feasible to approximate both household wealth and expenditures in rural African settings without dramatically lengthening questionnaires that have a primary focus on health outcomes.


Keywords: socioeconomic status; indicators; Africa PMID:10814660

  5. Return to Being Black, Living in the Red: a race gap in wealth that goes beyond social origins.

    PubMed

    Killewald, Alexandra

    2013-08-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in wealth are vast, yet their causes are only partially understood. In Being Black, Living in the Red, Conley (1999) argued that the sociodemographic traits of young blacks and their parents, particularly parental wealth, wholly explain their wealth disadvantage. Using data from the 1980-2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I show that this conclusion hinges on the specific sample considered and the treatment of debtors in the sample. I further document that prior research has paid insufficient attention to the possibility of variation in the association between wealth and race at different points of the net worth distribution. Among wealth holders, blacks remain significantly disadvantaged in assets compared with otherwise similar whites. Among debtors, however, young whites hold more debt than otherwise similar blacks. The results suggest that, among young adults, debt may reflect increased access to credit, not simply the absence of assets. The asset disadvantage for black net wealth holders also indicates that research and policy attention should not be focused only on young blacks "living in the red."

  6. The Treatment of Wealth Distribution by High School Economics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from an investigation of the treatment of wealth distribution by high school economics textbooks. The eight leading high school economics texts in the United States were examined.

  7. Racial and ethnic differences in wealth and asset choices.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, S

    White households in the United States are far wealthier than black or Hispanic households, a disparity that remains unexplained even after taking into account income and demographic factors. This article uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine various components of aggregate wealth, including housing equity, nonhousing equity, financial assets in general, and risky assets in particular. It inspects asset choices by race and ethnicity and assesses whether differences in saving behavior--and, consequently, in rates of return on assets--are possible sources of the wealth gap. It also demonstrates the equalizing effect of pension wealth and Social Security wealth on total wealth. Racial and ethnic differences in housing equity narrow among households in the higher income quartiles, whereas differences in nonhousing equity generally widen as income increases. The widening gap in nonhousing equity stems from differences in financial asset holdings, particularly risky assets. At every income quartile and educational level, the percentage of black and Hispanic households that own risky, higher-yielding assets in considerably smaller than the percentage of white households. Thus, some of the wealth gap appears to be attributable to differences in saving behavior. Understanding how people save--in particular, knowing whether certain people will be more vulnerable financially because of their saving choices--helps policymakers assess older Americans' financial preparedness for retirement and anticipate their economic well-being thereafter. Lower rates of investment in the financial market will probably result in slower wealth creation in minority households. Recognizing this, some organizations are trying to open opportunities for minority households to invest in the financial market. This is a positive step toward narrowing the wealth divide. Such efforts will become even more critical if Social Security reform places increased responsibility on individuals

  8. Comparison of two approaches for measuring household wealth via an asset-based index in rural and peri-urban settings of Hunan province, China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are growing concerns regarding inequities in health, with poverty being an important determinant of health as well as a product of health status. Within the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), disparities in socio-economic position are apparent, with the rural-urban gap of particular concern. Our aim was to compare direct and proxy methods of estimating household wealth in a rural and a peri-urban setting of Hunan province, P.R. China. Methods We collected data on ownership of household durable assets, housing characteristics, and utility and sanitation variables in two village-wide surveys in Hunan province. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and principal axis factoring (PAF) to generate household asset-based proxy wealth indices. Households were grouped into quartiles, from 'most wealthy' to 'most poor'. We compared the estimated household wealth for each approach. Asset-based proxy wealth indices were compared to those based on self-reported average annual income and savings at the household level. Results Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed that PCA and PAF yielded similar results, indicating that either approach may be used for estimating household wealth. In both settings investigated, the two indices were significantly associated with self-reported average annual income and combined income and savings, but not with savings alone. However, low correlation coefficients between the proxy and direct measures of wealth indicated that they are not complementary. We found wide disparities in ownership of household durable assets, and utility and sanitation variables, within and between settings. Conclusion PCA and PAF yielded almost identical results and generated robust proxy wealth indices and categories. Pooled data from the rural and peri-urban settings highlighted structural differences in wealth, most likely a result of localized urbanization and modernization. Further research is needed to improve measurements of

  9. Association between Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Young Children in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) and Types of Handwashing Materials Used by Caretakers in Mirzapur, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kelly K.; Dil Farzana, Fahmida; Ferdous, Farzana; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Kumar Das, Sumon; Faruque, A. S. G.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kotloff, Karen L.; Nataro, James P.; Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Levine, Myron M.

    2014-01-01

    Handwashing practices among caretakers of case and control children < 5 years of age enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study in Mirzapur, Bangladesh were characterized and analyzed for association with moderate-to-severe diarrhea. Soap or detergent ownership was common, yet 48% of case and 47.7% of control caretakers also kept ashes for handwashing, including 36.8% of the wealthiest households. Soap, detergent, and ash were used for multiple hygiene purposes and were kept together at handwashing areas. Caretakers preferred soap for handwashing, but frequently relied on ash, or a detergent/ash mixture, as a low-cost alternative. Moderate-to-severe diarrhea was equally likely for children of caretakers who kept soap versus those who kept ash (matched OR = 0.91; 0.62–1.32). Contact with ash and water reduced concentrations of bacterial enteropathogens, without mechanical scrubbing. Thus, washing hands with ash is a prevalent behavior in Mirzapur and may help diminish transmission of diarrheal pathogens to children. PMID:24778193

  10. Provision of private, piped water and sewerage connections and directly observed handwashing of mothers in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, William E.; Hunter, Gabrielle C.; Kramer, Michael R.; Leontsini, Elli; Cabrera, Lilia; Lescano, Andres G.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the association between improved water and sanitation access and handwashing of mothers living in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru. METHODS We observed 27 mothers directly, before and after installation of private, piped water and sewerage connections in the street just outside their housing plots, and measured changes in the proportion of faecal-hand contamination and hand-to-mouth transmission events with handwashing. RESULTS After provision of water and sewerage connections, mothers were approximately two times more likely to be observed washing their hands within a minute of defecation, compared with when they relied on shared, external water sources and non-piped excreta disposal (RR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.99–4.62). With piped water and sewerage available at housing plots, handwashing with or without soap occurred within a minute after 48% (10/21) of defecation events and within 15 min prior to 8% (11/136) of handling food events. CONCLUSIONS Handwashing increased following installation of private, piped water and sewerage connections, but its practice remained infrequent, particularly before food-related events. Infrastructural interventions should be coupled with efforts to promote hygiene and ensure access to water and soap at multiple on-plot locations convenient to mothers. PMID:24438038

  11. Association between moderate-to-severe diarrhea in young children in the global enteric multicenter study (GEMS) and types of handwashing materials used by caretakers in Mirzapur, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kelly K; Dil Farzana, Fahmida; Ferdous, Farzana; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Kumar Das, Sumon; Faruque, A S G; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kotloff, Karen L; Nataro, James P; Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Levine, Myron M

    2014-07-01

    Handwashing practices among caretakers of case and control children < 5 years of age enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study in Mirzapur, Bangladesh were characterized and analyzed for association with moderate-to-severe diarrhea. Soap or detergent ownership was common, yet 48% of case and 47.7% of control caretakers also kept ashes for handwashing, including 36.8% of the wealthiest households. Soap, detergent, and ash were used for multiple hygiene purposes and were kept together at handwashing areas. Caretakers preferred soap for handwashing, but frequently relied on ash, or a detergent/ash mixture, as a low-cost alternative. Moderate-to-severe diarrhea was equally likely for children of caretakers who kept soap versus those who kept ash (matched OR = 0.91; 0.62-1.32). Contact with ash and water reduced concentrations of bacterial enteropathogens, without mechanical scrubbing. Thus, washing hands with ash is a prevalent behavior in Mirzapur and may help diminish transmission of diarrheal pathogens to children. PMID:24778193

  12. The impact of back problems on retirement wealth.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Deborah; Kelly, Simon; Shrestha, Rupendra; Callander, Emily; Passey, Megan; Percival, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study undertook an economic analysis of the costs of early retirement due to back problems, with the aim of quantifying how much lower the value of accumulated wealth of individuals who exit the workforce early due to back problems is by the time they reach the traditional retirement age of 65 years--compared to those who remained in the workforce. This was done using the output dataset of the microsimulation model Health&WealthMOD. It was found that over 99% of individuals who are employed full time will have accumulated some wealth at age 65 years, whereas as little as 74% of those who are out of the labour force due to back problems will have done so. Those who retire from the labour force early due to back problems will have a median value of total accumulated wealth by the time they are 65 of as little as $3708 (for women aged 55-64 years). This is far lower than the median value of accumulated wealth for those women aged 55-64 years who remained in the labour force full time, who will have $214,432 of accumulated wealth at age 65 years. Not only will early retirement due to back problems limit the immediate income available to individuals, but it will also reduce their long-term financial capacity by reducing their wealth accumulation. Maintaining the labour force participation of those with back problems, or preventing the onset of the disease, should be a priority in order to maintain living standards comparable with others who do not suffer from this condition.

  13. The impact of back problems on retirement wealth.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Deborah; Kelly, Simon; Shrestha, Rupendra; Callander, Emily; Passey, Megan; Percival, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study undertook an economic analysis of the costs of early retirement due to back problems, with the aim of quantifying how much lower the value of accumulated wealth of individuals who exit the workforce early due to back problems is by the time they reach the traditional retirement age of 65 years--compared to those who remained in the workforce. This was done using the output dataset of the microsimulation model Health&WealthMOD. It was found that over 99% of individuals who are employed full time will have accumulated some wealth at age 65 years, whereas as little as 74% of those who are out of the labour force due to back problems will have done so. Those who retire from the labour force early due to back problems will have a median value of total accumulated wealth by the time they are 65 of as little as $3708 (for women aged 55-64 years). This is far lower than the median value of accumulated wealth for those women aged 55-64 years who remained in the labour force full time, who will have $214,432 of accumulated wealth at age 65 years. Not only will early retirement due to back problems limit the immediate income available to individuals, but it will also reduce their long-term financial capacity by reducing their wealth accumulation. Maintaining the labour force participation of those with back problems, or preventing the onset of the disease, should be a priority in order to maintain living standards comparable with others who do not suffer from this condition. PMID:22192565

  14. Multilevel Effects of Wealth on Women's Contraceptive Use in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Dias, José G.; de Oliveira, Isabel Tiago

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper analyzes the impact of wealth on the use of contraception in Mozambique unmixing the contextual effects due to community wealth from the individual effects associated with the women's situation within the community of residence. Methods Data from the 2011 Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey on women who are married or living together are analyzed for the entire country and also for the rural and urban areas separately. We used single level and multilevel probit regression models. Findings A single level probit regression reveals that region, religion, age, previous fertility, education, and wealth impact contraceptive behavior. The multilevel analysis shows that average community wealth and the women’s relative socioeconomic position within the community have significant positive effects on the use of modern contraceptives. The multilevel framework proved to be necessary in rural settings but not relevant in urban areas. Moreover, the contextual effects due to community wealth are greater in rural than in urban areas and this feature is associated with the higher socioeconomic heterogeneity within the richest communities. Conclusion This analysis highlights the need for the studies on contraceptive behavior to specifically address the individual and contextual effects arising from the poverty-wealth dimension in rural and urban areas separately. The inclusion in a particular community of residence is not relevant in urban areas, but it is an important feature in rural areas. Although the women's individual position within the community of residence has a similar effect on contraceptive adoption in rural and urban settings, the impact of community wealth is greater in rural areas and smaller in urban areas. PMID:25786228

  15. Wealth distribution of simple exchange models coupled with extremal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagatella-Flores, N.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.; Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Punctuated Equilibrium (PE) states that after long periods of evolutionary quiescence, species evolution can take place in short time intervals, where sudden differentiation makes new species emerge and some species extinct. In this paper, we introduce and study the effect of punctuated equilibrium on two different asset exchange models: the yard sale model (YS, winner gets a random fraction of a poorer player's wealth) and the theft and fraud model (TF, winner gets a random fraction of the loser's wealth). The resulting wealth distribution is characterized using the Gini index. In order to do this, we consider PE as a perturbation with probability ρ of being applied. We compare the resulting values of the Gini index at different increasing values of ρ in both models. We found that in the case of the TF model, the Gini index reduces as the perturbation ρ increases, not showing dependence with the agents number. While for YS we observe a phase transition which happens around ρc = 0.79. For perturbations ρ <ρc the Gini index reaches the value of one as time increases (an extreme wealth condensation state), whereas for perturbations greater than or equal to ρc the Gini index becomes different to one, avoiding the system reaches this extreme state. We show that both simple exchange models coupled with PE dynamics give more realistic results. In particular for YS, we observe a power low decay of wealth distribution.

  16. 31 CFR 1010.652 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 1010.652 Section 1010.652 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters, branches, and offices of Asia Wealth...

  17. Exploring the Wealth Returns to Latino Higher Educational Attainment: Estimates of Work-Life Earnings Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant research gap exists in our knowledge of how educational attainment affects wealth building and intergenerational wealth transfers among Latinos. Wealth includes earnings but is a much wider and more fundamental measure of economic mobility. The education-earnings-wealth relationship is explored by constructing estimates of social…

  18. The Role of Permanent Income and Demographics in Black/White Differences in Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altonji, Joseph G.; Doraszelski, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the racial disparity with wealth holdings with income and demographic variables can be explained by examining the wealth model of a sample of whites, but only a small fraction when we use a black wealth model. Research finds a higher self-employment rate and a stronger link between self-employment and wealth for whites than for…

  19. 31 CFR 1010.652 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 1010.652 Section 1010.652 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters, branches, and offices of Asia Wealth...

  20. Efficacy of Handwashing with Soap and Nail Clipping on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in School-Aged Children: A Factorial Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Bezabih, Afework Mulugeta; Pavon, Ignacio Lopez; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Velasco, Roman Blanco

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections are highly endemic among school-aged children in resource-limited settings. To lower their impact, preventive measures should be implemented that are sustainable with available resources. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of handwashing with soap and nail clipping on the prevention of intestinal parasite reinfections. Methods and Findings In this trial, 367 parasite-negative school-aged children (aged 6–15 y) were randomly assigned to receive both, one or the other, or neither of the interventions in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Assignment sequence was concealed. After 6 mo of follow-up, stool samples were examined using direct, concentration, and Kato-Katz methods. Hemoglobin levels were determined using a HemoCue spectrometer. The primary study outcomes were prevalence of intestinal parasite reinfection and infection intensity. The secondary outcome was anemia prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main effects were adjusted for sex, age, drinking water source, latrine use, pre-treatment parasites, handwashing with soap and nail clipping at baseline, and the other factor in the additive model. Fourteen percent (95% CI: 9% to 19%) of the children in the handwashing with soap intervention group were reinfected versus 29% (95% CI: 22% to 36%) in the groups with no handwashing with soap (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.32, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.62). Similarly, 17% (95% CI: 12% to 22%) of the children in the nail clipping intervention group were reinfected versus 26% (95% CI: 20% to 32%) in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.95). Likewise, following the intervention, 13% (95% CI: 8% to 18%) of the children in the handwashing group were anemic versus 23% (95% CI: 17% to 29%) in the groups with no handwashing with soap (AOR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.78). The prevalence of anemia did not differ significantly between children in the nail clipping group and those in the groups with no nail

  1. Preterm Birth and Adult Wealth: Mathematics Skills Count.

    PubMed

    Basten, Maartje; Jaekel, Julia; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Each year, 15 million babies worldwide are born preterm. Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes across the life span. Recent registry-based studies suggest that preterm birth is associated with decreased wealth in adulthood, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated whether the relationship between preterm birth and low adult wealth is mediated by poor academic abilities and educational qualifications. Participants were members of two British population-based birth cohorts born in 1958 and 1970, respectively. Results showed that preterm birth was associated with decreased wealth at 42 years of age. This association was mediated by decreased intelligence, reading, and, in particular, mathematics attainment in middle childhood, as well as decreased educational qualifications in young adulthood. Findings were similar in both cohorts, which suggests that these mechanisms may be time invariant. Special educational support in childhood may prevent preterm children from becoming less wealthy as adults.

  2. A generalized statistical model for the size distribution of wealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementi, F.; Gallegati, M.; Kaniadakis, G.

    2012-12-01

    In a recent paper in this journal (Clementi et al 2009 J. Stat. Mech. P02037), we proposed a new, physically motivated, distribution function for modeling individual incomes, having its roots in the framework of the κ-generalized statistical mechanics. The performance of the κ-generalized distribution was checked against real data on personal income for the United States in 2003. In this paper we extend our previous model so as to be able to account for the distribution of wealth. Probabilistic functions and inequality measures of this generalized model for wealth distribution are obtained in closed form. In order to check the validity of the proposed model, we analyze the US household wealth distributions from 1984 to 2009 and conclude an excellent agreement with the data that is superior to any other model already known in the literature.

  3. Household wealth, residential status and the incidence of diarrhoea among children under-five years in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the impact that the joint effect of household wealth quintile and urban-rural residence has on the incidence of diarrhoea among Ghanaian children. Data for this paper were drawn from the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) of 2006. Descriptive and logistic regression was applied to analyse data on 3466 children. Rural residents are less likely, albeit insignificant, to report diarrhoea compared with those in urban areas. Significant wealth gradients are manifested in childhood experiences of diarrhoea. However, an interaction of wealth with residence does not show significant disparities. Controlling for other important covariates of childhood, the odds of diarrhoea incidence were significantly higher among: the rural poorer (OR=4.869; 95% CI=0.792, 29.94), the rural middle (OR=7.477; 95% CI=1.300, 42.99), the rural richer (OR=6.162; 95% CI=0.932, 40.74) and the rural richest (OR=6.152; 95% CI=0.458, 82.54). Apart from residential status and wealth quintile, female children (OR=0.441; 95% CI=0.304, 0.640), older children (OR=0.968; 95% CI=0.943, 0.993), having a mother with secondary and higher education (OR=0.313; 95% CI) had lesser odds of experiencing diarrhoea. The findings show that there is a need to apportion interventions intended to improve child health outcomes even beyond residential status and household wealth position.

  4. Wealth distribution under Yard-Sale exchange with proportional taxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2016-03-01

    Recent analysis of a Yard-Sale (YS) exchange model supplemented with redistributive proportional taxation suggested an asymptotic behavior P(w)˜1/wμ for the wealth distribution, with a parameter-dependent exponent μ. Revisiting this problem, it is here shown analytically, and confirmed by extensive numerical simulation, that the asymptotic behavior of P(w) is not power-law but rather a Gaussian. When taxation is weak, we furthermore show that a restricted-range power-law behavior appears for wealths around the mean value. The corresponding power-law exponent equals 3/2 when the return distribution has zero mean.

  5. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data--or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India.

    PubMed

    Filmer, D; Pritchett, L H

    2001-02-01

    Using data from India, we estimate the relationship between household wealth and children's school enrollment. We proxy wealth by constructing a linear index from asset ownership indicators, using principal-components analysis to derive weights. In Indian data this index is robust to the assets included, and produces internally coherent results. State-level results correspond well to independent data on per capita output and poverty. To validate the method and to show that the asset index predicts enrollments as accurately as expenditures, or more so, we use data sets from Indonesia, Pakistan, and Nepal that contain information on both expenditures and assets. The results show large, variable wealth gaps in children's enrollment across Indian states. On average a "rich" child is 31 percentage points more likely to be enrolled than a "poor" child, but this gap varies from only 4.6 percentage points in Kerala to 38.2 in Uttar Pradesh and 42.6 in Bihar.

  6. Wealth, intelligence, politics and global fertility differentials.

    PubMed

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2009-07-01

    Demographic trends in today's world are dominated by large fertility differentials between nations, with 'less developed' nations having higher fertility than the more advanced nations. The present study investigates whether these fertility differences are related primarily to indicators of economic development, the intellectual level of the population, or political modernity in the form of liberal democracy. Results obtained with multiple regression, path models and latent variable models are compared. Both log-transformed GDP and measures of intelligence independently reduce fertility across all methods, whereas the effects of liberal democracy are weak and inconsistent. At present rates of fertility and mortality and in the absence of changes within countries, the average IQ of the young world population would decline by 1.34 points per decade and the average per capita income would decline by 0.79% per year.

  7. Wealth, Stereotypes, and Issues of Prestige: The College Choice Experience of Mexican American Students within Their Community Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Melissa Ann

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing the notion of community cultural wealth, this study focuses on the various forms of capital that Mexican American students from the South Texas Border draw upon within their community to navigate the college choice process. Findings indicate that neighbors, church members, and in one case, a physician, served as sources of social…

  8. Understanding wealth-based inequalities in child health in India: a decomposition approach.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Satvika

    2012-12-01

    India experienced tremendous economic growth since the mid-1980s but this growth was paralleled by sharp rises in economic inequality. Urban areas experienced greater economic growth as well as greater increases in economic inequality than rural areas. During the same period, child health improved on average but socioeconomic differentials in child health persisted. This paper attempts to explain wealth-based inequalities in child mortality and malnutrition using a regression-based decomposition approach. Data for the analysis come from the 1992/93, 1998/99, and 2005/06 Indian National Family Health Surveys. Inequalities in child health are measured using the concentration index. The concentration index for each outcome is then decomposed into the contributions of wealth-based inequality in the observed determinants of child health. Results indicate that mortality inequality declined in urban areas but remained unchanged or increased in rural areas. Malnutrition inequality increased dramatically both in urban and rural areas. The two largest individual/household-level sources of disparities in child health are (i) inequality in the distribution of wealth itself, and (ii) inequality in maternal education. The contributions of observed determinants (i) to neonatal mortality inequality remained unchanged, (ii) to child mortality inequality increased, and (ii) to malnutrition inequality increased. It is possible that the increases in child health inequality reflect urban biases in economic growth, and the mixed performance of public programs that could have otherwise offset the impacts of unequal growth.

  9. Community Cultural Wealth: Uyghurs, Social Networks, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article employs Yosso's framework of "community cultural wealth" to explore the ways in which educated Uyghurs, one of China's 56 officially recognized ethnic groups, build on social networks like family and friends to improve their own social standing and contribute to the benefit of their communities. Through Yosso's lens, ethnic…

  10. Statistical Handbook on Consumption and Wealth in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaul, Chandrika, Ed.; Tomaselli-Moschovitis, Valerie, Ed.

    This easy-to-use statistical handbook features the most up-to-date and comprehensive data related to U.S. wealth and consumer spending patterns. More than 300 statistical tables and charts are organized into 8 detailed sections. Intended for students, teachers, and general users, the handbook contains these sections: (1) "General Economic Data"…

  11. The Dollar Game Curriculum: Inspiring Wealth Creation in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braak, Willem J.; Lewin, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Rural wealth creation and local entrepreneurship are emerging economic development approaches that bring back a sense of self-determination to rural communities. However, their potential is often greatly diminished by preconceived and opposing notions within the community on what drives economic growth. The Dollar Game is an innovative curriculum…

  12. Property and wealth inequality as cultural niche construction

    PubMed Central

    Shennan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to other approaches, evolutionary perspectives on understanding the power and wealth inequalities in human societies view wealth and power not as ends in themselves but as proximate goals that contribute to the ultimate Darwinian goal of achieving reproductive success. The most successful means of achieving it in specific times and places depend on local conditions and these have changed in the course of human history, to such an extent that strategies focused on the maintenance and increase of wealth can even be more successful in reproductive terms than strategies directed at maximizing reproductive success in the short term. This paper argues that a major factor leading to such changes is a shift in the nature of inter-generational wealth transfers from relatively intangible to material property resources and the opportunities these provided for massively increased inequality. This shift can be seen as a process of niche construction related to the increasing importance of fixed and defensible resources in many societies after the end of the last Ice Age. It is suggested that, despite problems of inference, the evidence of the archaeological record can be used to throw light on these processes in specific places and times. PMID:21320904

  13. Power laws of wealth, market order volumes and market returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sorin; Richmond, Peter

    2001-10-01

    Using the Generalized Lotka Volterra model adapted to deal with mutiagent systems we can investigate economic systems from a general viewpoint and obtain generic features common to most economies. Assuming only weak generic assumptions on capital dynamics, we are able to obtain very specific predictions for the distribution of social wealth. First, we show that in a ‘fair’ market, the wealth distribution among individual investors fulfills a power law. We then argue that ‘fair play’ for capital and minimal socio-biological needs of the humans traps the economy within a power law wealth distribution with a particular Pareto exponent α∼ {3}/{2}. In particular, we relate it to the average number of individuals L depending on the average wealth: α∼ L/( L-1). Then we connect it to certain power exponents characterizing the stock markets. We find that the distribution of volumes of the individual (buy and sell) orders follows a power law with similar exponent β∼α∼ {3}/{2}. Consequently, in a market where trades take place by matching pairs of such sell and buy orders, the corresponding exponent for the market returns is expected to be of order γ∼2 α∼3. These results are consistent with recent experimental measurements of these power law exponents (S. Maslov, M. Mills, Physica A 299 (2001) 234 for β; P. Gopikrishnan et al., Phys. Rev. E 60 (1999) 5305 for γ).

  14. The Real Wealth Purchased in a New England Fish Dinner

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing realization within the scientific community and the public at large that the environment makes a real contribution to wealth that is not adequately valued by markets. In addition, almost everyone recognizes the feeling if they are getting a “good deal&rdq...

  15. The Effects of the Capital Accumulation Ratio on Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harness, Nathaniel J.; Finke, Michael S.; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2009-01-01

    The capital accumulation ratio (CAR) is commonly used in academic research as a measure of household portfolio quality. This study tested whether a higher initial CAR impacts change in wealth over a decade among households in the accumulation life cycle stage. Meeting the 25% CAR guideline resulted in a 28.1% increase in net worth between 1994 and…

  16. Depleting Capital? Race, Wealth and Informal Financial Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Rourke L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work suggests that part of the racial gap in wealth is explained by racial differences in network poverty. In this article, data from the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances and the 2005 and 2007 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) are used to demonstrate that middle- and upper-income blacks are more likely to provide informal financial…

  17. Latina/o Dropouts: Generating Community Cultural Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burciaga, Rebeca; Erbstein, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This article builds upon a community cultural wealth framework (Yosso, 2005) to discuss how strategies for school persistence are articulated, cultivated and employed through individual aspirations and practices. The analysis draws from testimonios of six Latina/o young adults between the ages of 18 and 20 living in California's 9-County…

  18. Teaching through "Testimonio": Accessing Community Cultural Wealth in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNicolo, Christina Passos; González, Mónica; Morales, Socorro; Romaní, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Using the concept of community cultural wealth, this article examines the ways that a group of 3rd-grade students engaged in writing "testimonios," or personal narratives, to reflect on their cultural and linguistic lives in and outside of the classroom. Countering deficit notions of Latina/o students, families, and communities, this…

  19. Public housing into private assets: wealth creation in urban China.

    PubMed

    Walder, Andrew G; He, Xiaobin

    2014-07-01

    State socialist economies provided public housing to urban citizens at nominal cost, while allocating larger and better quality apartments to individuals in elite occupations. In transitions to a market economy, ownership is typically transferred to existing occupants at deeply discounted prices, making home equity the largest component of household wealth. Housing privatization is therefore a potentially important avenue for the conversion of bureaucratic privilege into private wealth. We estimate the resulting inequalities with data from successive waves of a Chinese national income survey that details household assets and participation in housing programs. Access to privatization programs was relatively equal across urban residents in state sector occupations. Elite occupations had substantially greater wealth in the form of home equity shortly after privatization, due primarily to their prior allocations of newer and higher quality apartments. The resulting gaps in private wealth were nonetheless small by the standards of established market economies, and despite the inherent biases in the process, housing privatization distributed home equity widely across those who were resident in public housing immediately prior to privatization.

  20. Property and wealth inequality as cultural niche construction.

    PubMed

    Shennan, Stephen

    2011-03-27

    In contrast to other approaches, evolutionary perspectives on understanding the power and wealth inequalities in human societies view wealth and power not as ends in themselves but as proximate goals that contribute to the ultimate Darwinian goal of achieving reproductive success. The most successful means of achieving it in specific times and places depend on local conditions and these have changed in the course of human history, to such an extent that strategies focused on the maintenance and increase of wealth can even be more successful in reproductive terms than strategies directed at maximizing reproductive success in the short term. This paper argues that a major factor leading to such changes is a shift in the nature of inter-generational wealth transfers from relatively intangible to material property resources and the opportunities these provided for massively increased inequality. This shift can be seen as a process of niche construction related to the increasing importance of fixed and defensible resources in many societies after the end of the last Ice Age. It is suggested that, despite problems of inference, the evidence of the archaeological record can be used to throw light on these processes in specific places and times.

  1. MEDICINAL PLANT WEALTH OF ANDHRA PRADESH – PART I

    PubMed Central

    Hemadri, Koppula; Sarma, C. Raja Rajeswari; Rao, Swahari Sasibushana

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the Medical Plant Wealth of Andhra Pradesh based on the results of Medico – Ethno – Botanical exploration undertaken during the last fourteen years (1971 – 72 till the end of 1984). In all, 117 well known medicinal plants widely used in Ayurveda, Siddha and other systems of Medicine are enumerated here. PMID:22557569

  2. Five American authors on wealth, poverty, and inequality.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Ichiro; Howden Chapman, Philippa

    2004-09-01

    There is much to be gleaned from novels concerning the links between wealth and power, inequality and corruption, poverty and illness. A student of social epidemiology will profit as much from close reading of these classics as from consulting textbooks on social stratification.

  3. The Real Wealth Purchased in a Fish Dinner

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing realization within the scientific community and in the public at large that the environment makes real contributions to wealth that are not adequately valued by markets. In addition, almost everyone recognizes when they are getting a “good deal” on ...

  4. Beyond Health and Wealth: Predictors of Women's Retirement Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christine A.; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2009-01-01

    Despite empirical support for the positive effects of health and wealth on retirement satisfaction, alternative variables also play a key role in helping to shape women's assessment of retirement. In the present study, we explore personal and psychosocial predictors of women's retirement satisfaction while controlling for financial security and…

  5. Wealth distribution across communities of adaptive financial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Garofalo, Franco; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Napoletano, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the trading volumes and wealth distribution of a novel agent-based model of an artificial financial market. In this model, heterogeneous agents, behaving according to the Von Neumann and Morgenstern utility theory, may mutually interact. A Tobin-like tax (TT) on successful investments and a flat tax are compared to assess the effects on the agents’ wealth distribution. We carry out extensive numerical simulations in two alternative scenarios: (i) a reference scenario, where the agents keep their utility function fixed, and (ii) a focal scenario, where the agents are adaptive and self-organize in communities, emulating their neighbours by updating their own utility function. Specifically, the interactions among the agents are modelled through a directed scale-free network to account for the presence of community leaders, and the herding-like effect is tested against the reference scenario. We observe that our model is capable of replicating the benefits and drawbacks of the two taxation systems and that the interactions among the agents strongly affect the wealth distribution across the communities. Remarkably, the communities benefit from the presence of leaders with successful trading strategies, and are more likely to increase their average wealth. Moreover, this emulation mechanism mitigates the decrease in trading volumes, which is a typical drawback of TTs.

  6. Redistributing Wealth to Families: The Advantages of the MYRIADE Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legendre, Francois; Lorgnet, Jean-Paul; Thibault, Florence

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to shed light on the main characteristics of the French system for redistributing wealth to families through tax revenues and social transfers. For the purposes of this exercise, the authors used the MYRIADE microsimulation model, which covers most of the redistribution system, though it is limited to monetary flows such as family…

  7. Some Home Truths on Household Size and Wealth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, Robert McC.

    1982-01-01

    Uses cross-cultural sociological and archaeological data to support the conclusion that wealth, measured in land and livestock, and household size are positively correlated. Social stratification is reflected in average household size and socioeconomic change affects the proportions of different household sizes in the population. (Author/AM)

  8. Is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination of ward-based computer terminals a surrogate marker for nosocomial MRSA transmission and handwashing compliance?

    PubMed

    Devine, J; Cooke, R P; Wright, E P

    2001-05-01

    A survey of two acute district general hospitals (A and B) was undertaken to investigate the extent of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination of ward-based computer terminals. Of 25 terminals examined, MRSA was identified in six (24%). Environmental contamination was of a low level. Five of the MRSA positive terminals were from hospital A which had a significantly higher rate of MRSA transmission compared to hospital B (1.02 vs. 0.49 new inpatient MRSA cases per 100 hospital admissions for 1999). MRSA containment and handwashing policies were similar at both hospitals, though only hospital B actively audited handwashing compliance and had a 44% higher rate of paper towel usage per hospital bed. Ward-based computer terminals pose a low risk of MRSA cross-infection. This risk can be further reduced if all staff wash their hands before and after patient contact.

  9. Is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination of ward-based computer terminals a surrogate marker for nosocomial MRSA transmission and handwashing compliance?

    PubMed

    Devine, J; Cooke, R P; Wright, E P

    2001-05-01

    A survey of two acute district general hospitals (A and B) was undertaken to investigate the extent of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination of ward-based computer terminals. Of 25 terminals examined, MRSA was identified in six (24%). Environmental contamination was of a low level. Five of the MRSA positive terminals were from hospital A which had a significantly higher rate of MRSA transmission compared to hospital B (1.02 vs. 0.49 new inpatient MRSA cases per 100 hospital admissions for 1999). MRSA containment and handwashing policies were similar at both hospitals, though only hospital B actively audited handwashing compliance and had a 44% higher rate of paper towel usage per hospital bed. Ward-based computer terminals pose a low risk of MRSA cross-infection. This risk can be further reduced if all staff wash their hands before and after patient contact. PMID:11358473

  10. Alcohol handrubbing and chlorhexidine handwashing are equally effective in removing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from health care workers' hands: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hanley J; Poh, Bee-Fong; Choudhury, Saugata; Krishnan, Prabha; Ang, Brenda; Chow, Angela

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial in a tertiary-care hospital in a real-time setting to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 hand hygiene protocols in reducing hand carriage of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus among health care workers. Our study shows that use of alcohol handrub, either covering all hand surfaces in no particular order or using the 7-step technique, and chlorhexidine handwashing were equally effective in removing hand carriage of these pathogens. PMID:26190381

  11. Evaluation of the skin disinfecting activity and cumulative effect of chlorhexidine and triclosan handwash preparations on hands artificially contaminated with Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Bartzokas, C A; Corkill, J E; Makin, T

    1987-04-01

    The initial and cumulative efficacy of two antiseptic handwash preparations in eliminating Serratia marcescens from hands was evaluated on volunteers. Two antiseptics with persistent skin antibacterial activity, 4% chlorhexidine gluconate in detergent and 1.5% triclosan in natural soap, were studied in a new protocol designed according to Food and Drug Administration guidelines. After a single handwash, both preparations exhibited a degerming action statistically superior to the mechanical elimination of the marker organism that was achieved by the nonmedicated controls. Following a further nine hand recontamination sequence with 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL S marcescens (mean predisinfection baseline, log10 6.6), the efficacy of chlorhexidine and triclosan was significantly augmented: the mean log10 reduction factors were 4.15 and 3.78, respectively. In the absence of internationally accepted testing standards for antiseptic handwash products, the significance of protocol variables is discussed. The advantages to preventative microbiology of antiseptics with persistent skin antibacterial activity are highlighted.

  12. Local Distributions of Wealth to Describe Health Inequalities in India: A New Approach for Analyzing Nationally Representative Household Survey Data, 1992–2008

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Diego G.; Corsi, Daniel J.; Gaffey, Michelle F.; Barros, Aluisio J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Worse health outcomes including higher morbidity and mortality are most often observed among the poorest fractions of a population. In this paper we present and validate national, regional and state-level distributions of national wealth index scores, for urban and rural populations, derived from household asset data collected in six survey rounds in India between 1992–3 and 2007–8. These new indices and their sub-national distributions allow for comparative analyses of a standardized measure of wealth across time and at various levels of population aggregation in India. Methods Indices were derived through principal components analysis (PCA) performed using standardized variables from a correlation matrix to minimize differences in variance. Valid and simple indices were constructed with the minimum number of assets needed to produce scores with enough variability to allow definition of unique decile cut-off points in each urban and rural area of all states. Results For all indices, the first PCA components explained between 36% and 43% of the variance in household assets. Using sub-national distributions of national wealth index scores, mean height-for-age z-scores increased from the poorest to the richest wealth quintiles for all surveys, and stunting prevalence was higher among the poorest and lower among the wealthiest. Urban and rural decile cut-off values for India, for the six regions and for the 24 major states revealed large variability in wealth by geographical area and level, and rural wealth score gaps exceeded those observed in urban areas. Conclusions The large variability in sub-national distributions of national wealth index scores indicates the importance of accounting for such variation when constructing wealth indices and deriving score distribution cut-off points. Such an approach allows for proper within-sample economic classification, resulting in scores that are valid indicators of wealth and correlate well with health

  13. Wealth and health: the need for more strategic public health research

    PubMed Central

    Baum, F.

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that public health researchers have often ignored the analysis of wealth in the quest to understand the social determinants of health. Wealth concentration and the inequities in wealth between and within countries are increasing. Despite this scare accurate data are available to assist the analysis of the health impact of this trend. Improved data collection on wealth distribution should be encouraged. Epidemiologists and political economy of health researchers should pay more attention to understanding the dynamics of wealth and its consequences for population health. Policy research to underpin policies designed to reduce inequities in wealth distribution should be intensified. PMID:15965135

  14. Fokker-Planck description of wealth dynamics and the origin of Pareto's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The so-called "Yard-Sale Model" of wealth distribution posits that wealth is transferred between economic agents as a result of transactions whose size is proportional to the wealth of the less wealthy agent. In recent work [B. M. Boghosian, Phys. Rev. E89, 042804 (2014)], it was shown that this results in a Fokker-Planck equation governing the distribution of wealth. With the addition of a mechanism for wealth redistribution, it was further shown that this model results in stationary wealth distributions that are very similar in form to Pareto's well-known law. In this paper, a much simpler derivation of that Fokker-Planck equation is presented.

  15. Air quality in Delhi during the CommonWealth Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrapu, P.; Cheng, Y.; Beig, G.; Sahu, S.; Srinivas, R.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2014-04-01

    Air quality during The CommonWealth Games (CWG, held in Delhi in October 2010) is analyzed using a new air quality forecasting system established for the Games. The CWG stimulated enhanced efforts to monitor and model air quality in the region. The air quality of Delhi during the CWG had high levels of particles with mean values of PM2.5 and PM10 at the venues of 111 and 238 μg m-3, respectively. Black carbon (BC) accounted for ∼10% of the PM2.5 mass. It is shown that BC, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are well predicted, but with positive biases of ∼25%. The diurnal variations are also well captured, with both the observations and the modeled values showing nighttime maxima and daytime minima. A new emissions inventory, developed as part of this air quality forecasting initiative, is evaluated by comparing the observed and predicted species-species correlations (i.e., BC : CO; BC : PM2.5; PM2.5 : PM10). Assuming that the observations at these sites are representative and that all the model errors are associated with the emissions, then the modeled concentrations and slopes can be made consistent by scaling the emissions by: 0.6 for NOx, 2 for CO, and 0.7 for BC, PM2.5 and PM10. The emission estimates for particles are remarkably good considering the uncertainty in the estimates due to the diverse spread of activities and technologies that take place in Delhi and the rapid rates of change. The contribution of various emission sectors including transportation, power, domestic and industry to surface concentrations are also estimated. Transport, domestic and industrial sectors all make significant contributions to PM levels in Delhi, and the sectoral contributions vary spatially within the city. Ozone levels in Delhi are elevated, with hourly values sometimes exceeding 100 ppb. The continued growth of the transport sector is expected to make ozone pollution a more pressing air pollution problem in Delhi. The sector analysis provides useful inputs into the

  16. Individual wealth rank, community wealth inequality, and self-reported adult poor health: a test of hypotheses with panel data (2002-2006) from native Amazonians, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nyberg, Colleen; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg; Reyes-García, Victoria; Huanca, Tomás; Leonard, William R; McDade, Thomas W; Tanner, Susan; Vadez, Vincent; Godoy, Ricardo

    2010-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that economic inequality in a community harms the health of a person. Using panel data from a small-scale, preindustrial rural society, we test whether individual wealth rank and village wealth inequality affects self-reported poor health in a foraging-farming native Amazonian society. A person's wealth rank was negatively but weakly associated with self-reported morbidity. Each step up/year in the village wealth hierarchy reduced total self-reported days ill by 0.4 percent. The Gini coefficient of village wealth inequality bore a positive association with self-reported poor health that was large in size, but not statistically significant. We found small village wealth inequality, and evidence that individual economic rank did not change. The modest effects may have to do with having used subjective rather than objective measures of health, having small village wealth inequality, and with the possibly true modest effect of a person's wealth rank on health in a small-scale, kin-based society. Finally, we also found that an increase in mean individual wealth by village was related to worse self-reported health. As the Tsimane' integrate into the market economy, their possibilities of wealth accumulation rise, which may affect their well-being. Our work contributes to recent efforts in biocultural anthropology to link the study of social inequalities, human biology, and human-environment interactions.

  17. Kinetic equations modelling wealth redistribution: A comparison of approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düring, Bertram; Matthes, Daniel; Toscani, Giuseppe

    2008-11-01

    Kinetic equations modelling the redistribution of wealth in simple market economies is one of the major topics in the field of econophysics. We present a unifying approach to the qualitative study for a large variety of such models, which is based on a moment analysis in the related homogeneous Boltzmann equation, and on the use of suitable metrics for probability measures. In consequence, we are able to classify the most important feature of the steady wealth distribution, namely the fatness of the Pareto tail, and the dynamical stability of the latter in terms of the model parameters. Our results apply, e.g., to the market model with risky investments [S. Cordier, L. Pareschi, and G. Toscani, J. Stat. Phys. 120, 253 (2005)], and to the model with quenched saving propensities [A. Chatterjee, B. K. Chakrabarti, and S. S. Manna, Physica A 335, 155 (2004)]. Also, we present results from numerical experiments that confirm the theoretical predictions.

  18. A look at income and wealth in America.

    PubMed

    Vatter, R H

    1997-01-01

    Diverse forces in the U.S. economy have led to a tendency for increased concentration of income and wealth in the upper income brackets. Some mobility within classes helps to mitigate the problem, but sluggish growth of real incomes has heightened awareness of this trend. Even though the vast majority of Americans continue to identify themselves as "middle class," this slowed growth contributes to the concerns about the shrinking size of this group. Between 1975 and 1995 the highest quintile of households was the only one to experience a growing share of money income, with virtually all of the increase occurring within the top 5 percent. Education and training in our high-technology society are two key elements in improving income. Demographic forces may also change income and wealth dynamics in the future particularly as the population ages and the ratio of workers to the elderly retired affects the supply demand forces in the labor markets.

  19. Wealth condensation in a Barabasi-Albert network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Montejo, J.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.

    2010-04-01

    We study the flow of money among agents in a Barabasi-Albert (BA) scale free network, where each network node represents an agent and money exchange interactions are established through links. The system allows money trade between two agents at a time, betting a fraction f of the poorer’s agent wealth. We also allow for the bet to be biased, giving the poorer agent a winning probability p. In the no network case there is a phase transition involving a relationship between p and f. In the networked case, we also found a condensation interface, however, this is not a complete condensation due to the presence of clusters in the network and its topology. As can be expected, the winner is always a well-connected agent, but we also found that the mean wealth decreases with the agents’ connectivity.

  20. The Wealth Distribution Model with the Kickback Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yujie; He, Mingfeng

    We define an asset exchange model by adding the kickback rate to the trade, and discuss the Gini index with different kickback rates. It is found that for every kickback rate, the related Gini index tends to be steady; thus, the kickback rate — Gini index curve may be obtained. Furthermore, it is shown that the Gini index decreases when the kickback rate increases, so that the fair degree of social wealth distribution gets better. The Gini index reaches a minimum when the kickback rate is 0.58, and then it increases, as the accretion of the kickback rate destroys the fair degree of social wealth distribution. However, in all situations, the Gini index with kickback rate is less than the one without kickback. This means that the introduction of kickback rate is favorable to the raising of the fair degree of wealth distribution. We also define a moral index similar to the Gini index to weigh the differences of social moral level, and find that the differences of social moral level increase with time for the model with kickback rate.

  1. Wealth condensation in a simple model of economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Mézard, Marc

    2000-07-01

    We introduce a simple model of economy, where the time evolution is described by an equation capturing both exchange between individuals and random speculative trading, in such a way that the fundamental symmetry of the economy under an arbitrary change of monetary units is insured. We investigate a mean-field limit of this equation and show that the distribution of wealth is of the Pareto (power-law) type. The Pareto behaviour of the tails of this distribution appears to be robust for finite range models, as shown using both a mapping to the random ‘directed polymer’ problem, as well as numerical simulations. In this context, a phase transition between an economy dominated by a few individuals and a situation where the wealth is more evenly spread out, is found. An interesting outcome is that the distribution of wealth tends to be very broadly distributed when exchanges are limited, either in amplitude or topologically. Favouring exchanges (and, less surprisingly, increasing taxes) seems to be an efficient way to reduce inequalities.

  2. Evolution of consumption distribution and model of wealth distribution in China between 1995 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li

    2015-07-01

    We study the evolution of the distribution of consumption of individuals in the majority population in China during the period 1995-2012 and find that its probability density functions (PDFs) obey the rule Pc(x) = K(x - μ) e-(x - μ)2/2σ2. We also find (i) that the PDFs and the individual income distribution appear to be identical, (ii) that the peaks of the PDFs of the individual consumption distribution are consistently on the low side of the PDFs of the income distribution, and (iii) that the average of the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is large, MPC bar = 0.77, indicating that in the majority population individual consumption is low and strongly dependent on income. The long right tail of the PDFs of consumption indicates that few people in China are participating in the high consumption economy, and that consumption inequality is high. After comparing the PDFs of consumption with the PDFs of income we obtain the PDFs of residual wealth during the period 1995-2012, which exhibit a Gaussian distribution. We use an agent-based kinetic wealth-exchange model (KWEM) to simulate this evolutional process and find that this Gaussian distribution indicates a strong propensity to save rather than spend. This may be due to an anticipation of such large potential outlays as housing, education, and health care in the context of an inadequate welfare support system.

  3. 31 CFR 103.187 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 103.187 Section 103.187 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section... in Burma or in any jurisdiction. (4) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters, branches, and...

  4. Culture and Well-Being: A New Inquiry Into the Psychological Wealth of Nations.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2010-07-01

    What is a good society? Philosophers from Plato to Bentham have argued that a good society is a happy society-namely, a society in which most citizens are happy and free from fear. Since the publication of The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith in 1776, most economists have implicitly assumed that a happy society is a materially wealthy society. Thus, gross national product and related indices became the most popular indicators of the well-being of nations from the 1950s to date. Recently, however, prominent economists as well as political scientists, sociologists, and psychologists have shown that a happy society is not only a materially wealthy society but also a society in which citizens can trust one another, have a sense of freedom, and have close social relationships. The inquiry into the psychological wealth of nations, or the subjective well-being of nations, helps answer a fundamental question in philosophy and social sciences for millennia: "What is a good society?"

  5. Family structure and fertility in Taiwan: an extension and modification of Caldwell's wealth flows theory.

    PubMed

    Hsuing, P C

    1988-06-01

    Based on the data from a nationwide survey of labor force participation conducted in 1985 by the Office of the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Republic of China, this project tries to modify Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory in order to analyze fertility behavior of married women. Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory indicates that a patriarchal family has a significant effect on fertility. Unless the patriarchal family structure is replaced by a nuclear family system, he claims, fertility levels will remain relatively high in developing countries. However, he does not discuss social factors which may influence the process of change in the family structure and which factors in the patriarchal family may influence fertility. To make up this shortcoming, this paper shows that female educational level, employment patterns, and occupational prestige brings about change in the family structure. This research also indicates that women with higher education and occupational prestige have lower fertility. In addition, it finds that female occupational status is a main factor to bring about change in the family structure. (author's) PMID:12222474

  6. Family structure and fertility in Taiwan: an extension and modification of Caldwell's wealth flows theory.

    PubMed

    Hsuing, P C

    1988-06-01

    Based on the data from a nationwide survey of labor force participation conducted in 1985 by the Office of the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Republic of China, this project tries to modify Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory in order to analyze fertility behavior of married women. Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory indicates that a patriarchal family has a significant effect on fertility. Unless the patriarchal family structure is replaced by a nuclear family system, he claims, fertility levels will remain relatively high in developing countries. However, he does not discuss social factors which may influence the process of change in the family structure and which factors in the patriarchal family may influence fertility. To make up this shortcoming, this paper shows that female educational level, employment patterns, and occupational prestige brings about change in the family structure. This research also indicates that women with higher education and occupational prestige have lower fertility. In addition, it finds that female occupational status is a main factor to bring about change in the family structure. (author's)

  7. Stochastic processes in the social sciences: Markets, prices and wealth distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Natalia E.

    The present work uses statistical mechanics tools to investigate the dynamics of markets, prices, trades and wealth distribution. We studied the evolution of market dynamics in different stages of historical development by analyzing commodity prices from two distinct periods ancient Babylon, and medieval and early modern England. We find that the first-digit distributions of both Babylon and England commodity prices follow Benfords law, indicating that the data represent empirical observations typically arising from a free market. Further, we find that the normalized prices of both Babylon and England agricultural commodities are characterized by stretched exponential distributions, and exhibit persistent correlations of a power law type over long periods of up to several centuries, in contrast to contemporary markets. Our findings suggest that similar market interactions may underlie the dynamics of ancient agricultural commodity prices, and that these interactions may remain stable across centuries. To further investigate the dynamics of markets we present the analogy between transfers of money between individuals and the transfer of energy through particle collisions by means of the kinetic theory of gases. We introduce a theoretical framework of how the micro rules of trading lead to the emergence of income and wealth distribution. Particularly, we study the effects of different types of distribution of savings/investments among individuals in a society and different welfare/subsidies redistribution policies. Results show that while considering savings propensities the models approach empirical distributions of wealth quite well the effect of redistribution better captures specific features of the distributions which earlier models failed to do; moreover the models still preserve the exponential decay observed in empirical income distributions reported by tax data and surveys.

  8. Changes in Child Mortality Over Time Across the Wealth Gradient in Less-Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether inequalities in under-5 mortality by wealth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are growing or declining. METHODS: All Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2002 and 2012 were used to measure under-5 mortality trends in 3 wealth tertiles. Two approaches were used to estimate changes in under-5 mortality: within-survey changes from all 54 countries, and between-survey changes for 29 countries with repeated survey waves. The principal outcome measures include annual decline in mortality, and the ratio of mortality between the poorest and least-poor wealth tertiles. RESULTS: Mortality information in 85 surveys from 929 224 households and 1 267 167 women living in 54 countries was used. In the subset of 29 countries with repeat surveys, mortality declined annually by 4.36, 3.36, and 2.06 deaths per 1000 live births among the poorest, middle, and least-poor tertiles, respectively (P = .031 for difference). The mortality ratio declined from 1.68 to 1.48 during the study period (P = .006 for trend). In the complete set of 85 surveys, the mortality ratio declined in 64 surveys (from 2.11 to 1.55), and increased in 21 surveys (from 1.58 to 1.88). Multivariate analyses suggest that convergence was associated with good governance (P ≤ .03 for 4 governance indicators: government effectiveness, rule of law, regulatory quality, and control of corruption). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, under-5 mortality in low- and middle-income countries has decreased faster among the poorest compared with the least poor between 1995 and 2012, but progress in some countries has lagged, especially with poor governance. PMID:25384496

  9. MARRIAGE AND MEN’S WEALTH ACCUMULATION IN THE UNITED STATES, 1860-1870

    PubMed Central

    HONG, SOK CHUL

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how changes in marital status affected men’s wealth accumulation in mid-nineteenth-century America, using a longitudinal sample of Union Army veterans linked to the 1860 and 1870 census manuscript schedules. Controlling for the endogeneity of wealth and marital selection, this paper provides strong evidence that marriage had positive effects on men’s wealth accumulation, whereas ending a marriage had negative effects. The estimated wealth premium on married men is about 60 percent per marital year. This substantial wealth premium is closely related to wives’ specializing in household production, and farmers and craftsmen economically benefited from the unpaid labor of their wives. PMID:24058226

  10. Aristophanes' Wealth: ancient alternative medicine and its modern survival.

    PubMed Central

    Koutouvidis, N; Papamichael, E; Fotiadou, A

    1996-01-01

    The miraculous cure of the blind god Plutos ("Wealth') in Aristophanes' play illuminates some of the reasons why people have sought help in alternative medicine over the ages. Apart from limitations of conventional medicine these factors can be social, political, religious, psychological, and scientific. Alternative medicine may function in a complementary way to the conventional. Nevertheless, an overestimation of its therapeutic potentials by the public can lead to the domination of irrationalism, all in the name of liberation from the shackles of a mechanistic rationalism. PMID:9135601

  11. The wealth repartition law in an altruistic society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigaux, Richard

    2005-03-01

    Econophysics and economy simulations claim to have demonstrated that the repartition of wealth in every economic system always occur in a very inegalitarian mathematical law, called the Pareto law. As this inegalitarian repartition is a cause of many problems in the world, it would be interesting to find a remedy. We can note that the econophysic studies always start from the hypothesis as what economy systems are formed only of agents perfectly egocentric, each seeking only to gather the maximum of wealth for himself. Should the Pareto law come only of this limiting hypothesis? And if agents had other types of behaviours, for instance altruistic? This study is based on a simple simulation where we can program various rates of altruism and egocentrism. Really we can check that a much more egalitarian repartition appears, even with a relatively low rate of altruism (15%). More so, this egalitarian repartition occurs according to a completely different law from that of Pareto: a Gauss law, a bell curve.

  12. Household Wealth and Neurocognitive Development Disparities among School-aged Children in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shivani A; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul

    2013-01-01

    Background Wealth disparities in child developmental outcomes are well documented in developed countries. We sought to (1) describe the extent of wealth-based neurocognitive development disparities and (2) examine potential mediating factors of disparities among a population-based cohort of children in rural Nepal. Methods We investigated household wealth-based differences in intellectual, executive and motor function of n = 1692 children aged between 7 and 9 years in Nepal. Using linear mixed models, wealth-based differences were estimated before and after controlling for child and household demographic characteristics. We further examined wealth-based differences adjusted for three sets of mediators: child nutritional status, home environment, and schooling pattern. Results We observed a positive gradient in child neurocognitive performance by household wealth. After adjusting for child and household control factors, disparities between children in the highest and lowest wealth quintiles persisted in intellectual and motor function, but not executive function. No statistically significant wealth-based differentials in outcomes remained after accounting for nutritional status, home environment, and schooling patterns. The largest differences in neurocognitive development were associated with schooling pattern. Conclusions Household wealth patterns child neurocognitive development in rural Nepal, likely through its influence on nutritional status, the home environment, and schooling. In the current context, improving early and regular schooling in this setting is critical to addressing wealth-based disparities in outcomes. PMID:24118003

  13. The poorest of the poor: composition and wealth of older person households in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Zachary; Das, Suparna

    2014-05-01

    Linking household composition of older persons and material well-being is an important step toward understanding quality of life among elders in less developed settings. The association is particularly important in sub-Saharan Africa, given the poverty in the region. Ordinary least square regressions using data from 23 countries examine how age composition among all households and presence of offspring and grandchildren among older person households associates with a wealth index that is based on ownership of resources and housing characteristics, and whether the association is consistent across countries. Results indicate older-person-only households, and older persons with youth, have, generally, less wealth than households with other age compositions. Among older person households, those without offspring or grandchildren and skip-generation households fare worst in most countries. Findings highlight the importance of considering older persons households when assessing material well-being and chances of living in poverty in poor regions of the world.

  14. Body mass, wealth, and inequality in the 19th century: joining the debate surrounding equality and health.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2013-01-01

    We explore relationships among BMI variation, wealth, and inequality in the 19th century US. There was an inverse relationship between BMI and average state-level wealth and a small, inverse relationship with wealth inequality. After controlling for wealth and inequality, farmers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations, and blacks had greater BMI values because of nutritional deprivation in utero.

  15. Redistributing wealth to families: the advantages of the MYRIADE model.

    PubMed

    Legendre, François; Lorgnet, Jean-Paul; Thibault, Florence

    2005-10-01

    This study aims to shed light on the main characteristics of the French system for redistributing wealth to families through tax revenues and social transfers. For the purposes of this exercise, the authors used the MYRIADE microsimulation model, which covers most of the redistribution system, though it is limited to monetary flows such as family benefits, housing allowances, minimum social welfare payments, income tax, and tax on furnished accommodation. The authors used a particular methodology to highlight the way this redistribution works; rather than calculate the difference between each family's disposable income and their gross primary income, they opted to isolate the variation in disposable income that could be attributed to the youngest member of each family where there is at least one child under the age of 25. The average increase in disposable income that this child contributes to his or her family amounts to in200 per month. PMID:16127124

  16. Predicting poverty and wealth from mobile phone metadata.

    PubMed

    Blumenstock, Joshua; Cadamuro, Gabriel; On, Robert

    2015-11-27

    Accurate and timely estimates of population characteristics are a critical input to social and economic research and policy. In industrialized economies, novel sources of data are enabling new approaches to demographic profiling, but in developing countries, fewer sources of big data exist. We show that an individual's past history of mobile phone use can be used to infer his or her socioeconomic status. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the predicted attributes of millions of individuals can, in turn, accurately reconstruct the distribution of wealth of an entire nation or to infer the asset distribution of microregions composed of just a few households. In resource-constrained environments where censuses and household surveys are rare, this approach creates an option for gathering localized and timely information at a fraction of the cost of traditional methods. PMID:26612950

  17. Perceptions of national wealth and skill influence pay expectations: replicating global hierarchy on a microscale

    PubMed Central

    Maitner, Angela T.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    In highly multicultural societies, the economic status hierarchy may come to mimic the hierarchy of global wealth, reinforcing social inequality by tying pay scales to national wealth. We investigated how nationality influences expectations of payment in the UAE. Participants reported how much they expected people to be paid and how much skill they were perceived to have by nationality. They also reported their perceptions of the national wealth of different countries. Participants generally expected Westerners to be paid more than Arabs, who would be paid more than Sub-Saharan Africans and Asians. Expectations about payment in private sector employment were driven by both actual and stereotyped differences in national wealth and skill, with non-Gulf Cooperation Council Arabs most likely to see national wealth as a factor explaining the economic hierarchy. These results suggest that people expect payment to be tied to national wealth, reflecting the global hierarchy on a microscale. PMID:26074852

  18. Perceptions of national wealth and skill influence pay expectations: replicating global hierarchy on a microscale.

    PubMed

    Maitner, Angela T; DeCoster, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    In highly multicultural societies, the economic status hierarchy may come to mimic the hierarchy of global wealth, reinforcing social inequality by tying pay scales to national wealth. We investigated how nationality influences expectations of payment in the UAE. Participants reported how much they expected people to be paid and how much skill they were perceived to have by nationality. They also reported their perceptions of the national wealth of different countries. Participants generally expected Westerners to be paid more than Arabs, who would be paid more than Sub-Saharan Africans and Asians. Expectations about payment in private sector employment were driven by both actual and stereotyped differences in national wealth and skill, with non-Gulf Cooperation Council Arabs most likely to see national wealth as a factor explaining the economic hierarchy. These results suggest that people expect payment to be tied to national wealth, reflecting the global hierarchy on a microscale.

  19. Building a Better America-One Wealth Quintile at a Time.

    PubMed

    Norton, Michael I; Ariely, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Disagreements about the optimal level of wealth inequality underlie policy debates ranging from taxation to welfare. We attempt to insert the desires of "regular" Americans into these debates, by asking a nationally representative online panel to estimate the current distribution of wealth in the United States and to "build a better America" by constructing distributions with their ideal level of inequality. First, respondents dramatically underestimated the current level of wealth inequality. Second, respondents constructed ideal wealth distributions that were far more equitable than even their erroneously low estimates of the actual distribution. Most important from a policy perspective, we observed a surprising level of consensus: All demographic groups-even those not usually associated with wealth redistribution such as Republicans and the wealthy-desired a more equal distribution of wealth than the status quo.

  20. Too Much of a Good Thing? Exploring the Impact of Wealth on Weight.

    PubMed

    Au, Nicole; Johnston, David W

    2015-11-01

    Obesity, like many health conditions, is more prevalent among the socioeconomically disadvantaged. In our data, very poor women are three times more likely to be obese and five times more likely to be severely obese than rich women. Despite this strong correlation, it remains unclear whether higher wealth causes lower obesity. In this paper, we use nationally representative panel data and exogenous wealth shocks (primarily inheritances and lottery wins) to shed light on this issue. Our estimates show that wealth improvements increase weight for women, but not men. This effect differs by initial wealth and weight-an average-sized wealth shock received by initially poor and obese women is estimated to increase weight by almost 10 lb. Importantly, for some females, the effects appear permanent. We also find that a change in diet is the most likely explanation for the weight gain. Overall, the results suggest that additional wealth may exacerbate rather than alleviate weight problems.

  1. Parental wealth and resource transfers: How they matter in France for home ownership and living standards.

    PubMed

    Spilerman, Seymour; Wolff, Francois-Charles

    2012-03-01

    The role played by parental wealth in facilitating the life chances and living standards of offspring is a topic of growing interest in stratification research. For working and middle class households much of their intervivos transfers to children is provided in the form of assistance with a home purchase. This paper examines the impact of parental wealth and transfers of wealth on several aspects of the homeownership decision - the timing of the purchase, the cost of the home, and the downpayment proportion, as well as living standards subsequent to the purchase. We utilize a unique data set from France which contains information on parental wealth and wealth transfers from both sets of parents of a couple. We correct for possible endogeneity of parental transfers and model the joint determination of the downpayment proportion and home value. The results make clear the complex pathways by which parental wealth influences the tenancy arrangements and living standards of offspring.

  2. Evidence for power-law tail of the wealth distribution in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sitabhra

    2006-01-01

    The higher-end tail of the wealth distribution in India is studied using recently published lists of the wealth of richest Indians between the years 2002-2004. The resulting rank distribution seems to imply a power-law tail for the wealth distribution, with a Pareto exponent between 0.81 and 0.92 (depending on the year under analysis). This provides a comparison with previous studies of wealth distribution, which have all been confined to Western advanced capitalist economies. We conclude with a discussion on the appropriateness of multiplicative stochastic process as a model for asset accumulation, the relation between the wealth and income distributions (we estimate the Pareto exponent for the latter to be around 1.5 for India), as well as possible sources of error in measuring the Pareto exponent for wealth.

  3. Race, Wealth, and Solid Waste Facilities in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Jennifer M.; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Cravey, Altha J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Objective Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. Methods We used census block groups to obtain racial and economic characteristics, and information on solid waste facilities was abstracted from solid waste facility permit records. We used logistic regression to compute prevalence odds ratios for 2003, and Cox regression to compute hazard ratios of facilities issued permits between 1990 and 2003. Results The adjusted prevalence odds of a solid waste facility was 2.8 times greater in block groups with ≥50% people of color compared with block groups with < 10% people of color, and 1.5 times greater in block groups with median house values < $60,000 compared with block groups with median house values ≥$100,000. Among block groups that did not have a previously permitted solid waste facility, the adjusted hazard of a new permitted facility was 2.7 times higher in block groups with ≥50% people of color compared with block groups with < 10% people of color. Conclusion Solid waste facilities present numerous public health concerns. In North Carolina solid waste facilities are disproportionately located in communities of color and low wealth. In the absence of action to promote environmental justice, the continued need for new facilities could exacerbate this environmental injustice. PMID:17805426

  4. The Dynamics of Wealth Inequality and the Effect of Income Distribution.

    PubMed

    Berman, Yonatan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Shapira, Yoash

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of wealth inequality in the past few decades is one of the most disturbing social and economic issues of our time. Studying its origin and underlying mechanisms is essential for policy aiming to control and even reverse this trend. In that context, controlling the distribution of income, using income tax or other macroeconomic policy instruments, is generally perceived as effective for regulating the wealth distribution. We provide a theoretical tool, based on the realistic modeling of wealth inequality dynamics, to describe the effects of personal savings and income distribution on wealth inequality. Our theoretical approach incorporates coupled equations, solved using iterated maps to model the dynamics of wealth and income inequality. Notably, using the appropriate historical parameter values we were able to capture the historical dynamics of wealth inequality in the United States during the course of the 20th century. It is found that the effect of personal savings on wealth inequality is substantial, and its major decrease in the past 30 years can be associated with the current wealth inequality surge. In addition, the effect of increasing income tax, though naturally contributing to lowering income inequality, might contribute to a mild increase in wealth inequality and vice versa. Plausible changes in income tax are found to have an insignificant effect on wealth inequality, in practice. In addition, controlling the income inequality, by progressive taxation, for example, is found to have a very small effect on wealth inequality in the short run. The results imply, therefore, that controlling income inequality is an impractical tool for regulating wealth inequality. PMID:27105224

  5. The Dynamics of Wealth Inequality and the Effect of Income Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of wealth inequality in the past few decades is one of the most disturbing social and economic issues of our time. Studying its origin and underlying mechanisms is essential for policy aiming to control and even reverse this trend. In that context, controlling the distribution of income, using income tax or other macroeconomic policy instruments, is generally perceived as effective for regulating the wealth distribution. We provide a theoretical tool, based on the realistic modeling of wealth inequality dynamics, to describe the effects of personal savings and income distribution on wealth inequality. Our theoretical approach incorporates coupled equations, solved using iterated maps to model the dynamics of wealth and income inequality. Notably, using the appropriate historical parameter values we were able to capture the historical dynamics of wealth inequality in the United States during the course of the 20th century. It is found that the effect of personal savings on wealth inequality is substantial, and its major decrease in the past 30 years can be associated with the current wealth inequality surge. In addition, the effect of increasing income tax, though naturally contributing to lowering income inequality, might contribute to a mild increase in wealth inequality and vice versa. Plausible changes in income tax are found to have an insignificant effect on wealth inequality, in practice. In addition, controlling the income inequality, by progressive taxation, for example, is found to have a very small effect on wealth inequality in the short run. The results imply, therefore, that controlling income inequality is an impractical tool for regulating wealth inequality. PMID:27105224

  6. The Dynamics of Wealth Inequality and the Effect of Income Distribution.

    PubMed

    Berman, Yonatan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Shapira, Yoash

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of wealth inequality in the past few decades is one of the most disturbing social and economic issues of our time. Studying its origin and underlying mechanisms is essential for policy aiming to control and even reverse this trend. In that context, controlling the distribution of income, using income tax or other macroeconomic policy instruments, is generally perceived as effective for regulating the wealth distribution. We provide a theoretical tool, based on the realistic modeling of wealth inequality dynamics, to describe the effects of personal savings and income distribution on wealth inequality. Our theoretical approach incorporates coupled equations, solved using iterated maps to model the dynamics of wealth and income inequality. Notably, using the appropriate historical parameter values we were able to capture the historical dynamics of wealth inequality in the United States during the course of the 20th century. It is found that the effect of personal savings on wealth inequality is substantial, and its major decrease in the past 30 years can be associated with the current wealth inequality surge. In addition, the effect of increasing income tax, though naturally contributing to lowering income inequality, might contribute to a mild increase in wealth inequality and vice versa. Plausible changes in income tax are found to have an insignificant effect on wealth inequality, in practice. In addition, controlling the income inequality, by progressive taxation, for example, is found to have a very small effect on wealth inequality in the short run. The results imply, therefore, that controlling income inequality is an impractical tool for regulating wealth inequality.

  7. Do the wealthy have a health advantage? Cardiovascular disease risk factors and wealth.

    PubMed

    Hajat, A; Kaufman, J S; Rose, K M; Siddiqi, A; Thomas, J C

    2010-12-01

    The use of wealth as a measure of socioeconomic status (SES) remains uncommon in epidemiological studies. When used, wealth is often measured crudely and at a single point in time. Our study explores the relationship between wealth and three cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (smoking, obesity and hypertension) in a US population. We improve upon existing literature by using a detailed and validated measure of wealth in a longitudinal setting. We used four waves of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) collected between 1999 and 2005. Inverse probability weights were employed to control for time-varying confounding and to estimate both relative (risk ratio) and absolute (risk difference) measures of effect. Wealth was defined as inflation-adjusted net worth and specified as a six category variable: one category for those with less than or equal to zero wealth and quintiles of positive wealth. After adjusting for income and other time-varying confounders, as well as baseline covariates, the risk of becoming obese was inversely related to wealth. There was a 40%-89% higher risk of becoming obese among the less wealthy relative to the wealthiest quintile and 11 to 25 excess cases (per 1000 persons) among the less wealthy groups over six years of follow up. Smoking initiation had similar but more moderate effects; risk ratios and differences both revealed a smaller magnitude of effect compared to obesity. Of the three CVD risk factors examined here, hypertension incidence had the weakest association with wealth, showing a smaller increased risk and fewer excess cases among the less wealthy groups. In conclusion, this study found a strong inverse association between wealth and obesity incidence, a moderate inverse association between wealth and smoking initiation and a weak inverse association between wealth and hypertension incidence after controlling for income and other time-varying confounders.

  8. Individual behavior and social wealth in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Xian; Yan, Shu; Tang, Shaoting; Pei, Sen; Li, Weihua; Zheng, Zhiming

    2014-05-01

    Group interactions on structured populations can be represented by the public goods game on networks. During the evolutionary games, selective investment mechanism fosters social cooperative behavior. First we focus on star-like graphs to provide some light on why selective investment mechanism can promote collective cooperation. Then we implement public goods game with this mechanism on scale free networks to investigate behavior properties of individuals within different social environments. We indicate that high-degree nodes are predominantly inert owning largely to their satisfaction with their status, while low-degree nodes are very active due to their strive towards higher prosperity. Besides, we introduce the Gini coefficient to describe social inequality and find that large multiply factor r favors social fairness. Our work is applicable for community supervision and social wealth regulation.

  9. Internationally Comparable Health Indices

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Erik; Kapteyn, Arie; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most intractable problems in international health research is the lack of comparability of health measures across countries or cultures. We develop a cross-country measurement model for health in which functional limitations, self-reports of health, and a physical measure are interrelated to construct health indices. To establish comparability across countries, we define the measurement scales by the physical measure while other parameters vary by country to reflect cultural and linguistic differences in response patterns. We find significant cross-country variation in response styles of health reports along with variability in genuine health that is related to differences in national income. Our health indices achieve satisfactory reliability of about 80% and their gradients by age, income, and wealth for the most part show the expected patterns. Moreover, the health indices correlate much more strongly with income and net worth than self reported health measures. PMID:20572201

  10. Equity monitoring for social marketing: use of wealth quintiles and the concentration index for decision making in HIV prevention, family planning, and malaria programs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of social marketing programs are intended to reach the poor. It is therefore essential that social marketing organizations monitor the health equity of their programs and improve targeting when the poor are not being reached. Current measurement approaches are often insufficient for decision making because they fail to show a program's ability to reach the poor and demonstrate progress over time. Further, effective program equity metrics should be benchmarked against a national reference population and consider exposure, not just health outcomes, to measure direct results of implementation. This study compares two measures of health equity, concentration indices and wealth quintiles, using a defined reference population, and considers benefits of both measures together to inform programmatic decision making. Methods Three datasets from recent cross-sectional behavioral surveys on malaria, HIV, and family planning from Nepal and Burkina Faso were used to calculate concentration indices and wealth quintiles. Each sample was standardized to national wealth distributions based on recent Demographic and Health Surveys. Wealth quintiles were generated and concentration indices calculated for health outcomes and program exposure in each sample. Chi-square and t-tests were used to assess statistical significance of results. Results Reporting wealth quintiles showed that recipients of Population Services International (PSI) interventions were wealthier than national populations. Both measures indicated that desirable health outcomes were usually concentrated among wealthier populations. Positive and significant concentration indices in all three surveys indicated that wealth and program exposure were correlated; however this relationship was not necessarily linear. In analyzing the equity of modern contraceptive use stratified by exposure to family planning messages in Nepal, the outcome was equitable (concentration index = 0.006, p = 0.68) among the

  11. Modeling the Origin and Possible Control of the Wealth Inequality Surge

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase of wealth inequality in the past few decades is a most disturbing social and economic issue of our time. In order to control, and even reverse that surge, its origin and underlying mechanisms should be revealed. One of the challenges in studying these mechanisms is to incorporate realistic individual dynamics in the population level in a self-consistent manner. Our theoretical approach meets the challenge by using interacting multi-agent master-equations to model the dynamics of wealth inequality. The model is solved using stochastic multi-agent iterated maps. Taking into account growth rate, return on capital, private savings and economic mobility, we were able to capture the historical dynamics of wealth inequality in the United States during the course of the 20th century. We show that the fraction of capital income in the national income and the fraction of private savings are the critical factors that govern the wealth inequality dynamics. In addition, we found that economic mobility plays a crucial role in wealth accumulation. Notably, we found that the major decrease in private savings since the 1980s could be associated primarily with the recent surge in wealth inequality and if nothing changes in this respect we predict further increase in wealth inequality in the future. However, the 2007–08 financial crisis brought an opportunity to restrain the wealth inequality surge by increasing private savings. If this trend continues, it may lead to prevention, and even reversing, of the ongoing inequality surge. PMID:26107388

  12. The Relationship of Size, Wealth, and District Type to the Athletic Success of Georgia Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Timothy Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of size, wealth, and district type to athletic success and found that wealth and size were important predictors of athletic performance. The relationship of these variables to performance was anticipated in a theory of differentiation propounded by Blau and Schoenerr (1971). The authors theorized that…

  13. Modeling the Origin and Possible Control of the Wealth Inequality Surge.

    PubMed

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase of wealth inequality in the past few decades is a most disturbing social and economic issue of our time. In order to control, and even reverse that surge, its origin and underlying mechanisms should be revealed. One of the challenges in studying these mechanisms is to incorporate realistic individual dynamics in the population level in a self-consistent manner. Our theoretical approach meets the challenge by using interacting multi-agent master-equations to model the dynamics of wealth inequality. The model is solved using stochastic multi-agent iterated maps. Taking into account growth rate, return on capital, private savings and economic mobility, we were able to capture the historical dynamics of wealth inequality in the United States during the course of the 20th century. We show that the fraction of capital income in the national income and the fraction of private savings are the critical factors that govern the wealth inequality dynamics. In addition, we found that economic mobility plays a crucial role in wealth accumulation. Notably, we found that the major decrease in private savings since the 1980s could be associated primarily with the recent surge in wealth inequality and if nothing changes in this respect we predict further increase in wealth inequality in the future. However, the 2007-08 financial crisis brought an opportunity to restrain the wealth inequality surge by increasing private savings. If this trend continues, it may lead to prevention, and even reversing, of the ongoing inequality surge.

  14. Integrating Resource-Based and Person-Based Approaches to Understanding Wealth Effects on School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Destin, Mesmin

    2013-01-01

    Wealth and assets have a reliable positive relationship with the achievement outcomes of students. Various approaches to understanding student achievement may inform the understanding of how wealth seems to influence children's educational experiences. This paper describes several perspectives from the student achievement literature within the…

  15. Long-term effects of wealth on mortality and self-rated health status.

    PubMed

    Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Jay S; Rose, Kathryn M; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Thomas, James C

    2011-01-15

    Epidemiologic studies seldom include wealth as a component of socioeconomic status. The authors investigated the associations between wealth and 2 broad outcome measures: mortality and self-rated general health status. Data from the longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics, collected in a US population between 1984 and 2005, were used to fit marginal structural models and to estimate relative and absolute measures of effect. Wealth was specified as a 6-category variable: those with ≤0 wealth and quintiles of positive wealth. There were a 16%-44% higher risk and 6-18 excess cases of poor/fair health (per 1,000 persons) among the less wealthy relative to the wealthiest quintile. Less wealthy men, women, and whites had higher risk of poor/fair health relative to their wealthy counterparts. The overall wealth-mortality association revealed a 62% increased risk and 4 excess deaths (per 1,000 persons) among the least wealthy. Less wealthy women had between a 24% and a 90% higher risk of death, and the least wealthy men had 6 excess deaths compared with the wealthiest quintile. Overall, there was a strong inverse association between wealth and poor health status and between wealth and mortality.

  16. The Differential Impact of Wealth versus Income in the College-Going Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jez, Su Jin

    2014-01-01

    College is increasingly essential for economic and social mobility. Current research and public policy devotes significant attention to race, income, and socioeconomic factors in college access. Yet, wealth's role, as differentiated from income, is largely unexplored. This paper examines the differences between wealth and income in the…

  17. Immigrants and Wealth Stratification in the U.S. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Lingxin

    This study examines the importance of including immigrants in studies of wealth stratification by race/ethnicity, using data from the 1992 and 1993 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. It addresses the uniqueness of immigrants using descriptive and multivariate analyses by constructing a measure of wealth age that considers…

  18. Conditional Wealth Neutrality as a School Finance Equity Criterion in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmink, David P.; And Others

    This study looks at the relationship between district wealth and revenues available for education in Illinois using a "conditional" conception of wealth neutrality that holds constant the operational tax rate. Data used were demographic data of Illinois school districts. An analysis of beta weights suggested an undesirable relationship between…

  19. Antipersistent dynamics in kinetic models of wealth exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Sanchari; Chatterjee, Arnab; Sen, Parongama

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the detailed dynamics of gains and losses made by agents in some kinetic models of wealth exchange. An earlier work suggested that a walk in an abstract gain-loss space can be conceived for the agents. For models in which agents do not save, or save with uniform saving propensity, the walk has diffusive behavior. For the case in which the saving propensity λ is distributed randomly (0≤λ<1), the resultant walk showed a ballistic nature (except at a particular value of λ*≈0.47). Here we consider several other features of the walk with random λ. While some macroscopic properties of this walk are comparable to a biased random walk, at microscopic level, there are gross differences. The difference turns out to be due to an antipersistent tendency toward making a gain (loss) immediately after making a loss (gain). This correlation is in fact present in kinetic models without saving or with uniform saving as well, such that the corresponding walks are not identical to ordinary random walks. In the distributed saving case, antipersistence occurs with a simultaneous overall bias.

  20. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural–urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:22826252

  1. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-07-31

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural-urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases.

  2. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-07-31

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural-urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:22826252

  3. Mental Health Following Acquisition of Disability in Adulthood—The Impact of Wealth

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Anne Marie; Aitken, Zoe; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony Daniel; Bentley, Rebecca; Milner, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Background Acquisition of a disability in adulthood has been associated with a reduction in mental health. We tested the hypothesis that low wealth prior to disability acquisition is associated with a greater deterioration in mental health than for people with high wealth. Methods We assess whether level of wealth prior to disability acquisition modifies this association using 12 waves of data (2001–2012) from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey–a population-based cohort study of working-age Australians. Eligible participants reported at least two consecutive waves of disability preceded by at least two consecutive waves without disability (1977 participants, 13,518 observations). Fixed-effects linear regression was conducted with a product term between wealth prior to disability (in tertiles) and disability acquisition with the mental health component score of the SF–36 as the outcome. Results In models adjusted for time-varying confounders, there was evidence of negative effect measure modification by prior wealth of the association between disability acquisition and mental health (interaction term for lowest wealth tertile: -2.2 points, 95% CI -3.1 points, -1.2, p<0.001); low wealth was associated with a greater decline in mental health following disability acquisition (-3.3 points, 95% CI -4.0, -2.5) than high wealth (-1.1 points, 95% CI -1.7, -0.5). Conclusion The findings suggest that low wealth prior to disability acquisition in adulthood results in a greater deterioration in mental health than among those with high wealth. PMID:26444990

  4. Impact of a hygiene curriculum and the installation of simple handwashing and drinking water stations in rural Kenyan primary schools on student health and hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal K; Harris, Julie R; Juliao, Patricia; Nygren, Benjamin; Were, Vincent; Kola, Steve; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Otieno, Ronald; Obure, Alfredo; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

    2012-10-01

    School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half ("intervention schools"). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention.

  5. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

    PubMed

    Bunge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.

  6. Urban scaling and its deviations: revealing the structure of wealth, innovation and crime across cities.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Lobo, José; Strumsky, Deborah; West, Geoffrey B

    2010-11-10

    With urban population increasing dramatically worldwide, cities are playing an increasingly critical role in human societies and the sustainability of the planet. An obstacle to effective policy is the lack of meaningful urban metrics based on a quantitative understanding of cities. Typically, linear per capita indicators are used to characterize and rank cities. However, these implicitly ignore the fundamental role of nonlinear agglomeration integral to the life history of cities. As such, per capita indicators conflate general nonlinear effects, common to all cities, with local dynamics, specific to each city, failing to provide direct measures of the impact of local events and policy. Agglomeration nonlinearities are explicitly manifested by the superlinear power law scaling of most urban socioeconomic indicators with population size, all with similar exponents (1.15). As a result larger cities are disproportionally the centers of innovation, wealth and crime, all to approximately the same degree. We use these general urban laws to develop new urban metrics that disentangle dynamics at different scales and provide true measures of local urban performance. New rankings of cities and a novel and simpler perspective on urban systems emerge. We find that local urban dynamics display long-term memory, so cities under or outperforming their size expectation maintain such (dis)advantage for decades. Spatiotemporal correlation analyses reveal a novel functional taxonomy of U.S. metropolitan areas that is generally not organized geographically but based instead on common local economic models, innovation strategies and patterns of crime.

  7. Per-capita GDP and nonequilibrium wealth-concentration in a model for trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2013-12-01

    Data describing the per-capita Gross Domestic Product of around two hundred countries in years 1960 to 2008 are analyzed and found to decay approximately exponentially with rank. We discuss this experimental fact in the context of a wealth exchange model called Yard-Sale exchange, in which pairs of agents (i.e. nations) 'bet' for a fraction f of the wealth of the poorest of them. If the chances for this poorest agent to win the bet are not large enough, this model presents a 'wealth condensation' phase, in which one lucky agent gets to own the whole wealth in the end. In a recent study of this model [1], it was found that, in the condensed phase, the typical wealth of an agent with rank R decays exponentially with R. By establishing a parallel between wealth of a nation and its per-capita GDP, these observations suggest that international trade rules are such that strong wealth concentration is favored. Possible extensions of this work, that also consider endogenous factors affecting the evolution of GDP, are also discussed.

  8. Contextual Effect of Wealth on Independence: An Examination through Regional Differences in China

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Kosuke; Hamamura, Takeshi; Guan, Yanjun; Suzuki, Satoko

    2016-01-01

    The current study disentangled two different effects of wealth on psychological tendency toward independence: one is an effect exerted at the individual level (i.e., being rich) and the other one is a contextual effect (i.e., being surrounded by rich individuals). Past research has found a stronger tendency toward independence among people in economically developed societies. This association has often been explained as a result of a greater amount of choices, and thus more opportunities to express individuality that wealth affords individuals. In addition to this individual-level process, theories in cultural psychology imply that the wealth-independence link also reflects social processes—living in a rich society, regardless of one’s own wealth, promotes independence (contextual effect of wealth on independence). Through a large-scale survey in China, using multilevel analyses, we found that wealth had both the individual-level effect and contextual effect on independence as well as related psychological tendencies (influence orientation and generalized trust), suggesting that individuals are more likely to be independent with greater personal wealth and when surrounded by wealthy others. Possible processes through which independence is promoted by liing in a wealthy area are discussed. PMID:27014175

  9. Contextual Effect of Wealth on Independence: An Examination through Regional Differences in China.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kosuke; Hamamura, Takeshi; Guan, Yanjun; Suzuki, Satoko

    2016-01-01

    The current study disentangled two different effects of wealth on psychological tendency toward independence: one is an effect exerted at the individual level (i.e., being rich) and the other one is a contextual effect (i.e., being surrounded by rich individuals). Past research has found a stronger tendency toward independence among people in economically developed societies. This association has often been explained as a result of a greater amount of choices, and thus more opportunities to express individuality that wealth affords individuals. In addition to this individual-level process, theories in cultural psychology imply that the wealth-independence link also reflects social processes-living in a rich society, regardless of one's own wealth, promotes independence (contextual effect of wealth on independence). Through a large-scale survey in China, using multilevel analyses, we found that wealth had both the individual-level effect and contextual effect on independence as well as related psychological tendencies (influence orientation and generalized trust), suggesting that individuals are more likely to be independent with greater personal wealth and when surrounded by wealthy others. Possible processes through which independence is promoted by liing in a wealthy area are discussed. PMID:27014175

  10. Contextual Effect of Wealth on Independence: An Examination through Regional Differences in China.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kosuke; Hamamura, Takeshi; Guan, Yanjun; Suzuki, Satoko

    2016-01-01

    The current study disentangled two different effects of wealth on psychological tendency toward independence: one is an effect exerted at the individual level (i.e., being rich) and the other one is a contextual effect (i.e., being surrounded by rich individuals). Past research has found a stronger tendency toward independence among people in economically developed societies. This association has often been explained as a result of a greater amount of choices, and thus more opportunities to express individuality that wealth affords individuals. In addition to this individual-level process, theories in cultural psychology imply that the wealth-independence link also reflects social processes-living in a rich society, regardless of one's own wealth, promotes independence (contextual effect of wealth on independence). Through a large-scale survey in China, using multilevel analyses, we found that wealth had both the individual-level effect and contextual effect on independence as well as related psychological tendencies (influence orientation and generalized trust), suggesting that individuals are more likely to be independent with greater personal wealth and when surrounded by wealthy others. Possible processes through which independence is promoted by liing in a wealthy area are discussed.

  11. How does dementia onset in parents influence unmarried adult children's wealth.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kanika

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing concern that long-term care (LTC) needs of older adults lead to negative financial consequences for their family members. This paper examines whether the onset of dementia in parents influences wealth change among unmarried adult children regardless of their status as informal caregivers. Longitudinal data from seven waves (1998-2010) of the Health and Retirement Study (1540 person-wave observations) are used to analyze this question. Unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate that as a result of parental dementia diagnosis, unmarried adult children have lower wealth accumulation above the median of the wealth change distribution. These effects are more pronounced for unmarried adult children without siblings. Further, this response is observed to persist in the subsequent period as well. Both losses in labor income and nursing home expenditures may play a role in leading to wealth declines. PMID:26859082

  12. The impact of taxation on the distribution of wealth in an economy with changing population.

    PubMed

    Schwodiauer, G; Wenig, A

    1990-01-01

    The authors examine the determinants of the personal distribution of income and wealth using an overlapping generations model in which all individuals are assumed to be identical except for their inherited wealth. "It is shown that, in general, higher tax rates reduce distributive inequality as long as the rate of interest is exogenously given. In steady state, however, where the rate of interest is determined endogenously, increasing taxation and higher social security payments both diminish the capital labor ratio so that the rate of interest rises. If this interest effect is strong enough then it may outbalance the tendency toward more equality because higher interest rates enhance initial differences in the distribution of both income and wealth and, eventually, the inequality in the distribution of income and wealth in the society." The geographical focus is on developed countries.

  13. Frustrated Freedom: The Effects of Agency and Wealth on Wellbeing in Rural Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Bart; Fischer, Edward; Cooil, Bruce; Vergara, Alfredo; Mukolo, Abraham; Blevins, Meridith

    2014-01-01

    In Sen's capability view of poverty, wellbeing is threatened by both deficits of wealth and deficits of individual agency. Sen further predicts that “unfreedom,” or low levels of agency will suppress the wellbeing effects of higher levels of wealth. The current paper extends Sen's view to include a condition, labeled “frustrated freedom,” in which relatively higher levels of agency can heighten the poverty effects of relatively low levels of material wealth. Applying data from a large scale population study of female heads of household in rural Mozambique, the paper empirically tests Sen's view and the proposed extension. As predicted, agency is found to moderate the relationship between agency, wealth, and wellbeing, uncovering evidence of both unfreedom and frustrated freedom in the population. Further research into the complex dynamics of wellbeing and poverty are called for by the authors. PMID:25125791

  14. 78 FR 12358 - UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...., Local Information Services, Inc., Mindlance, Inc., Mobius, Inc., Net2source, Inc., Pyramid Consulting... Vidhwan, Inc., IDC Technologies, Inc., Local Information Services, Inc., Mindlance, Inc., Mobius, Inc... Employment and Training Administration UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas...

  15. How does dementia onset in parents influence unmarried adult children's wealth.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kanika

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing concern that long-term care (LTC) needs of older adults lead to negative financial consequences for their family members. This paper examines whether the onset of dementia in parents influences wealth change among unmarried adult children regardless of their status as informal caregivers. Longitudinal data from seven waves (1998-2010) of the Health and Retirement Study (1540 person-wave observations) are used to analyze this question. Unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate that as a result of parental dementia diagnosis, unmarried adult children have lower wealth accumulation above the median of the wealth change distribution. These effects are more pronounced for unmarried adult children without siblings. Further, this response is observed to persist in the subsequent period as well. Both losses in labor income and nursing home expenditures may play a role in leading to wealth declines.

  16. The distribution of wealth in the presence of altruism in simple economic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Achach, M.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.

    2006-02-01

    We study the effect of altruism in two simple asset exchange models: the yard sale model (winner gets a random fraction of the poorer player's wealth) and the theft and fraud model (winner gets a random fraction of the loser's wealth). We also introduce in these models the concept of bargaining efficiency, which makes the poorer trader more aggressive in getting a favorable deal thus augmenting his winning probabilities. The altruistic behavior is controlled by varying the number of traders who behave altruistically and by the degree of altruism that they show. The resulting wealth distribution is characterized using the Gini index. We compare the resulting values of the Gini index at different levels of altruism in both models. It is found that altruistic behavior does lead to a more equitable wealth distribution but only for unreasonable high values of altruism that are difficult to expect in a real economic system.

  17. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention. PMID:26728766

  18. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention.

  19. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-10-01

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend <0.01), but had a negative association with extremely severe mental disability (p for trend <0.01). Moreover, wealth index category had a significant, inverse association with mental disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study's results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability. PMID:26492258

  20. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-10-19

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend <0.01), but had a negative association with extremely severe mental disability (p for trend <0.01). Moreover, wealth index category had a significant, inverse association with mental disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study's results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability.

  1. Health and Wealth of Elderly Couples: Causality Tests Using Dynamic Panel Data Models*

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Pierre-Carl; van Soest, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    A positive relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and health, the “health-wealth gradient”, is repeatedly found in many industrialized countries. This study analyzes competing explanations for this gradient: causal effects from health to wealth (health causation) and causal effects from wealth to health (wealth or social causation). Using six biennial waves of couples aged 51–61 in 1992 from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study, we test for causality in panel data models incorporating unobserved heterogeneity and a lag structure supported by specification tests. In contrast to tests relying on models with only first order lags or without unobserved heterogeneity, these tests provide no evidence of causal wealth health effects. On the other hand, we find strong evidence of causal effects from both spouses’ health on household wealth. We also find an effect of the husband’s health on the wife’s mental health, but no other effects from one spouse’s health to health of the other spouse. PMID:18513809

  2. The effects of household wealth on HIV prevalence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe – a prospective household census and population-based open cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schur, Nadine; Mylne, Adrian; Mushati, Phyllis; Takaruza, Albert; Ward, Helen; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intensified poverty arising from economic decline and crisis may have contributed to reductions in HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe. Objectives To assess the impact of the economic decline on household wealth and prevalent HIV infection using data from a population-based open cohort. Methods Household wealth was estimated using data from a prospective household census in Manicaland Province (1998 to 2011). Temporal trends in summed asset ownership indices for sellable, non-sellable and all assets combined were compared for households in four socio-economic strata (small towns, agricultural estates, roadside settlements and subsistence farming areas). Multivariate logistic random-effects models were used to measure differences in individual-level associations between prevalent HIV infection and place of residence, absolute wealth group and occupation. Results Household mean asset scores remained similar at around 0.37 (on a scale of 0 to 1) up to 2007 but decreased to below 0.35 thereafter. Sellable assets fell substantially from 2004 while non-sellable assets continued increasing until 2008. Small-town households had the highest wealth scores but the gap to other locations decreased over time, especially for sellable assets. Concurrently, adult HIV prevalence fell from 22.3 to 14.3%. HIV prevalence was highest in better-off locations (small towns) but differed little by household wealth or occupation. Initially, HIV prevalence was elevated in women from poorer households and lower in men in professional occupations. However, most recently (2009 to 2011), men and women in the poorest households had lower HIV prevalence and men in professional occupations had similar prevalence to unemployed men. Conclusions The economic crisis drove more households into extreme poverty. However, HIV prevalence fell in all socio-economic locations and sub-groups, and there was limited evidence that increased poverty contributed to HIV prevalence decline. PMID:26593453

  3. Implementing the Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding in Hospitals Serving Low-Wealth Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Emily C.; Nickel, Nathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding is a proven approach to support breastfeeding in maternity settings; however, scant literature exists on the relative impact and interpretation of each step on breastfeeding. We assessed the Ten Steps and their relationship with in-hospital breastfeeding rates at facilities serving low-wealth populations and explored the outcomes to identify step-specific actions. Methods. We present descriptive and nonparametric comparisons and qualitative findings to examine the relationship between the Ten Steps and breastfeeding rates from each hospital using baseline data collection. Results. Some steps (1-policy, 2-training, 4-skin-to-skin, 6-no supplements, and 9-no artificial nipples, followed by 3-prenatal counseling, 7-rooming-in) reflected differences in relative baseline breastfeeding rates between settings. Key informant interviews revealed misunderstanding of some steps. Conclusions. Self-appraisal may be less valid when not all elements of the criteria for evaluating Step implementation may be fully understood. Limited exposure and understanding may lead to self-appraisal errors, resulting in scores that are not reflective of actual practices. Nonetheless, the indication that breastfeeding rates may be better mirrored by a defined subset of steps may provide some constructive insight toward prioritizing implementation activities and simplifying assessment. These issues will be further explored in the next phase of this study. PMID:23078473

  4. Fertility decline and the changing dynamics of wealth, status and inequality

    PubMed Central

    Colleran, Heidi; Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In the course of demographic transitions (DTs), two large-scale trends become apparent: (i) the broadly positive association between wealth, status and fertility tends to reverse, and (ii) wealth inequalities increase and then temporarily decrease. We argue that these two broad patterns are linked, through a diversification of reproductive strategies that subsequently converge as populations consume more, become less self-sufficient and increasingly depend on education as a route to socio-economic status. We examine these links using data from 22 mid-transition communities in rural Poland. We identify changing relationships between fertility and multiple measures of wealth, status and inequality. Wealth and status generally have opposing effects on fertility, but these associations vary by community. Where farming remains a viable livelihood, reproductive strategies typical of both pre- and post-DT populations coexist. Fertility is lower and less variable in communities with lower wealth inequality, and macro-level patterns in inequality are generally reproduced at the community level. Our results provide a detailed insight into the changing dynamics of wealth, status and inequality that accompany DTs at the community level where peoples' social and economic interactions typically take place. We find no evidence to suggest that women with the most educational capital gain wealth advantages from reducing fertility, nor that higher educational capital delays the onset of childbearing in this population. Rather, these patterns reflect changing reproductive preferences during a period of profound economic and social change, with implications for our understanding of reproductive and socio-economic inequalities in transitioning populations. PMID:25833859

  5. Fertility decline and the changing dynamics of wealth, status and inequality.

    PubMed

    Colleran, Heidi; Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Mace, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    In the course of demographic transitions (DTs), two large-scale trends become apparent: (i) the broadly positive association between wealth, status and fertility tends to reverse, and (ii) wealth inequalities increase and then temporarily decrease. We argue that these two broad patterns are linked, through a diversification of reproductive strategies that subsequently converge as populations consume more, become less self-sufficient and increasingly depend on education as a route to socio-economic status. We examine these links using data from 22 mid-transition communities in rural Poland. We identify changing relationships between fertility and multiple measures of wealth, status and inequality. Wealth and status generally have opposing effects on fertility, but these associations vary by community. Where farming remains a viable livelihood, reproductive strategies typical of both pre- and post-DT populations coexist. Fertility is lower and less variable in communities with lower wealth inequality, and macro-level patterns in inequality are generally reproduced at the community level. Our results provide a detailed insight into the changing dynamics of wealth, status and inequality that accompany DTs at the community level where peoples' social and economic interactions typically take place. We find no evidence to suggest that women with the most educational capital gain wealth advantages from reducing fertility, nor that higher educational capital delays the onset of childbearing in this population. Rather, these patterns reflect changing reproductive preferences during a period of profound economic and social change, with implications for our understanding of reproductive and socio-economic inequalities in transitioning populations.

  6. Effects of heterogeneous wealth distribution on public cooperation with collective risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Fu, Feng; Wang, Long

    2010-07-01

    The distribution of wealth among individuals in real society can be well described by the Pareto principle or "80-20 rule." How does such heterogeneity in initial wealth distribution affect the emergence of public cooperation, when individuals, the rich and the poor, engage in a collective-risk enterprise, not to gain a profit but to avoid a potential loss? Here we address this issue by studying a simple but effective model based on threshold public goods games. We analyze the evolutionary dynamics for two distinct scenarios, respectively: one with fair sharers versus defectors and the other with altruists versus defectors. For both scenarios, particularly, we in detail study the dynamics of the population with dichotomic initial wealth-the rich versus the poor. Moreover, we demonstrate the possible steady compositions of the population and provide the conditions for stability of these steady states. We prove that in a population with heterogeneous wealth distribution, richer individuals are more likely to cooperate than poorer ones. Participants with lower initial wealth may choose to cooperate only if all players richer than them are cooperators. The emergence of pubic cooperation largely relies on rich individuals. Furthermore, whenever the wealth gap between the rich and the poor is sufficiently large, cooperation of a few rich individuals can substantially elevate the overall level of social cooperation, which is in line with the well-known Pareto principle. Our work may offer an insight into the emergence of cooperative behavior in real social situations where heterogeneous distribution of wealth among individual is omnipresent.

  7. Fertility decline and the changing dynamics of wealth, status and inequality.

    PubMed

    Colleran, Heidi; Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Mace, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    In the course of demographic transitions (DTs), two large-scale trends become apparent: (i) the broadly positive association between wealth, status and fertility tends to reverse, and (ii) wealth inequalities increase and then temporarily decrease. We argue that these two broad patterns are linked, through a diversification of reproductive strategies that subsequently converge as populations consume more, become less self-sufficient and increasingly depend on education as a route to socio-economic status. We examine these links using data from 22 mid-transition communities in rural Poland. We identify changing relationships between fertility and multiple measures of wealth, status and inequality. Wealth and status generally have opposing effects on fertility, but these associations vary by community. Where farming remains a viable livelihood, reproductive strategies typical of both pre- and post-DT populations coexist. Fertility is lower and less variable in communities with lower wealth inequality, and macro-level patterns in inequality are generally reproduced at the community level. Our results provide a detailed insight into the changing dynamics of wealth, status and inequality that accompany DTs at the community level where peoples' social and economic interactions typically take place. We find no evidence to suggest that women with the most educational capital gain wealth advantages from reducing fertility, nor that higher educational capital delays the onset of childbearing in this population. Rather, these patterns reflect changing reproductive preferences during a period of profound economic and social change, with implications for our understanding of reproductive and socio-economic inequalities in transitioning populations. PMID:25833859

  8. Effects of heterogeneous wealth distribution on public cooperation with collective risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Fu, Feng; Wang, Long

    2010-07-01

    The distribution of wealth among individuals in real society can be well described by the Pareto principle or "80-20 rule." How does such heterogeneity in initial wealth distribution affect the emergence of public cooperation, when individuals, the rich and the poor, engage in a collective-risk enterprise, not to gain a profit but to avoid a potential loss? Here we address this issue by studying a simple but effective model based on threshold public goods games. We analyze the evolutionary dynamics for two distinct scenarios, respectively: one with fair sharers versus defectors and the other with altruists versus defectors. For both scenarios, particularly, we in detail study the dynamics of the population with dichotomic initial wealth-the rich versus the poor. Moreover, we demonstrate the possible steady compositions of the population and provide the conditions for stability of these steady states. We prove that in a population with heterogeneous wealth distribution, richer individuals are more likely to cooperate than poorer ones. Participants with lower initial wealth may choose to cooperate only if all players richer than them are cooperators. The emergence of pubic cooperation largely relies on rich individuals. Furthermore, whenever the wealth gap between the rich and the poor is sufficiently large, cooperation of a few rich individuals can substantially elevate the overall level of social cooperation, which is in line with the well-known Pareto principle. Our work may offer an insight into the emergence of cooperative behavior in real social situations where heterogeneous distribution of wealth among individual is omnipresent. PMID:20866684

  9. Impact of the Integration of Water Treatment and Handwashing Incentives with Antenatal Services on Hygiene Practices of Pregnant Women in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Anandi N.; Russo, Elizabeth T.; Menon, Manoj; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Weinger, Merri; Kudzala, Amose C.; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D.; Msowoya, Tapona E.; Quick, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved hygiene are important for reducing morbidity and mortality from diarrhea. We surveyed 330 pregnant women who participated in an antenatal clinic-based intervention in Malawi that promoted water treatment and hygiene through distribution of water storage containers, sodium hypochlorite water treatment solution, soap, and educational messages. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (62% versus 27%, P < 0.0001), chlorinate drinking water (61% versus 1%, P < 0.0001), demonstrate correct handwashing practices (68% versus 22%, P < 0.0001), and purchase water treatment solution after free distribution (32% versus 1%, P < 0.0001). Among participants, 72% had at least three antenatal visits, 76% delivered in a health facility, and 54% had a postnatal check. This antenatal-clinic-based program is an effective new strategy for promoting water treatment and hygiene behaviors among pregnant women. Participants had high use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal services, which could improve maternal and child health. PMID:21118942

  10. Water treatment and handwashing behaviors among non-pregnant friends and relatives of participants in an antenatal hygiene promotion program in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Russo, Elizabeth T; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Weinger, Merri; Kudzala, Amose C; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D; Msowoya, Tapona E; Quick, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved hygiene are essential for preventing diarrheal diseases. To integrate hygiene improvement with antenatal care, free hygiene kits (water storage containers, water treatment solution, soap) and educational messages were distributed to pregnant women at antenatal clinics in Malawi. We assessed water treatment and hygiene practices of 275 non-pregnant friends and relatives of the hygiene kit recipients at baseline and follow-up nine months later to measure program impact on non-participants in the same communities. At follow-up, friends and relatives who did not receive kits or education were more likely than at baseline to purchase and use water treatment solution (25% versus 1%; P < 0.0001) and demonstrate correct handwashing practices (60% versus 18%; P < 0.0001). This antenatal clinic-based program resulted in improved water treatment and hygiene behaviors among non-pregnant friends and relatives living in the same communities as hygiene kit recipients, suggesting that program benefits extended beyond direct beneficiaries.

  11. Assessing the impact of a school-based latrine cleaning and handwashing program on pupil absence in Nyanza Province, Kenya: A cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Bethany A.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Garn, Joshua V.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Saboori, Shadi; Muga, Richard; Rheingans, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Improving school water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions has been shown to be effective in reducing pupil absence and illness. However, the benefit of sanitation and hygiene promotion improvements at school may depend on the conditions of the latrines and availability of consumables. We employed a three-arm, cluster-randomized trial to determine if a low-cost, policy-relevant, environmental-level latrine cleaning intervention could a) improve latrine cleanliness, b) increase latrine use, and c) reduce absenteeism. We assessed absence via periodical roll-call among 17,564 pupils in 60 schools that previously received WASH Improvements as part of the SWASH+ project. Latrine conditions and use were also assessed using structured observation. Latrine cleanliness increased significantly during the post-intervention period among schools receiving the latrine-cleaning package compared to controls. Handwashing with soap increased as well in intervention schools relative to controls. We found no difference in latrine use and absence across arms. The additive impact of cleaning may not have been strong enough to impact absence above and beyond reductions attributable to the original WASH infrastructure improvements and basic hygiene education the schools previously received. Improving latrine conditions is important for the dignity and well being of pupils, and investments and strategies are necessary to ensure school sanitation environments are clean and pupil-friendly. PMID:25055716

  12. Water Treatment and Handwashing Behaviors among Non-Pregnant Friends and Relatives of Participants in an Antenatal Hygiene Promotion Program in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Elizabeth T.; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Weinger, Merri; Kudzala, Amose C.; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D.; Msowoya, Tapona E.; Quick, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved hygiene are essential for preventing diarrheal diseases. To integrate hygiene improvement with antenatal care, free hygiene kits (water storage containers, water treatment solution, soap) and educational messages were distributed to pregnant women at antenatal clinics in Malawi. We assessed water treatment and hygiene practices of 275 non-pregnant friends and relatives of the hygiene kit recipients at baseline and follow-up nine months later to measure program impact on non-participants in the same communities. At follow-up, friends and relatives who did not receive kits or education were more likely than at baseline to purchase and use water treatment solution (25% versus 1%; P < 0.0001) and demonstrate correct handwashing practices (60% versus 18%; P < 0.0001). This antenatal clinic–based program resulted in improved water treatment and hygiene behaviors among non-pregnant friends and relatives living in the same communities as hygiene kit recipients, suggesting that program benefits extended beyond direct beneficiaries. PMID:22556088

  13. Intergenerational Wealth Transmission and the Dynamics of Inequality in Small-Scale Societies*

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Bowles, Samuel; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian; Beise, Jan; Clark, Greg; Fazzio, Ila; Gurven, Michael; Hill, Kim; Hooper, Paul L.; Irons, William; Kaplan, Hillard; Leonetti, Donna; Low, Bobbi; Marlowe, Frank; McElreath, Richard; Naidu, Suresh; Nolin, David; Piraino, Patrizio; Quinlan, Rob; Schniter, Eric; Sear, Rebecca; Shenk, Mary; Smith, Eric Alden; von Rueden, Christopher; Wiessner, Polly

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale human societies range from foraging bands with a strong egalitarian ethos to more economically stratified agrarian and pastoral societies. We explain this variation in inequality using a dynamic model in which a population’s long-run steady-state level of inequality depends on the extent to which its most important forms of wealth are transmitted within families across generations. We estimate the degree of intergenerational transmission of three different types of wealth (material, embodied, and relational) as well as the extent of wealth inequality in 21 historical and contemporary populations. We show that intergenerational transmission of wealth and wealth inequality are substantial among pastoral and small-scale agricultural societies (on a par with or even exceeding the most unequal modern industrial economies) and quite limited among horticultural and foraging peoples (equivalent to the most egalitarian of modern industrial populations). Differences in the technology by which a people derive their livelihood and in the institutions and norms making up the economic system jointly contribute to this pattern. PMID:19900925

  14. The Challenge of Measuring UK Wealth Inequality in the 2000s†

    PubMed Central

    Alvaredo, Facundo; Atkinson, Anthony B.; Morelli, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concentration of personal wealth is now receiving a great deal of attention – after having been neglected for many years. One reason is the growing recognition that, in seeking explanations for rising income inequality, we need to look not only at wages and earned income but also at income from capital, particularly at the top of the distribution. In this paper, we use evidence from existing data sources to attempt to answer three questions: (i) What is the share of total personal wealth that is owned by the top 1 per cent, or the top 0.1 per cent? (ii) Is wealth much more unequally distributed than income? (iii) Is the concentration of wealth at the top increasing over time? The main conclusion of the paper is that the evidence about the UK concentration of wealth post‐2000 is seriously incomplete and significant investment in a variety of sources is necessary if we are to provide satisfactory answers to the three questions.

  15. Intergenerational wealth transmission and the dynamics of inequality in small-scale societies.

    PubMed

    Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Bowles, Samuel; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian; Beise, Jan; Clark, Greg; Fazzio, Ila; Gurven, Michael; Hill, Kim; Hooper, Paul L; Irons, William; Kaplan, Hillard; Leonetti, Donna; Low, Bobbi; Marlowe, Frank; McElreath, Richard; Naidu, Suresh; Nolin, David; Piraino, Patrizio; Quinlan, Rob; Schniter, Eric; Sear, Rebecca; Shenk, Mary; Smith, Eric Alden; von Rueden, Christopher; Wiessner, Polly

    2009-10-30

    Small-scale human societies range from foraging bands with a strong egalitarian ethos to more economically stratified agrarian and pastoral societies. We explain this variation in inequality using a dynamic model in which a population's long-run steady-state level of inequality depends on the extent to which its most important forms of wealth are transmitted within families across generations. We estimate the degree of intergenerational transmission of three different types of wealth (material, embodied, and relational), as well as the extent of wealth inequality in 21 historical and contemporary populations. We show that intergenerational transmission of wealth and wealth inequality are substantial among pastoral and small-scale agricultural societies (on a par with or even exceeding the most unequal modern industrial economies) but are limited among horticultural and foraging peoples (equivalent to the most egalitarian of modern industrial populations). Differences in the technology by which a people derive their livelihood and in the institutions and norms making up the economic system jointly contribute to this pattern.

  16. The Challenge of Measuring UK Wealth Inequality in the 2000s†

    PubMed Central

    Alvaredo, Facundo; Atkinson, Anthony B.; Morelli, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concentration of personal wealth is now receiving a great deal of attention – after having been neglected for many years. One reason is the growing recognition that, in seeking explanations for rising income inequality, we need to look not only at wages and earned income but also at income from capital, particularly at the top of the distribution. In this paper, we use evidence from existing data sources to attempt to answer three questions: (i) What is the share of total personal wealth that is owned by the top 1 per cent, or the top 0.1 per cent? (ii) Is wealth much more unequally distributed than income? (iii) Is the concentration of wealth at the top increasing over time? The main conclusion of the paper is that the evidence about the UK concentration of wealth post‐2000 is seriously incomplete and significant investment in a variety of sources is necessary if we are to provide satisfactory answers to the three questions. PMID:27635106

  17. The Wealth of Health: A Look into the Wellness Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Joyce

    1992-01-01

    Wellness is a lifelong process that must be updated constantly to maintain a high quality of life. Only the individual determines the path to total wellness. Restructuring lifestyle (eating habits, physical activity, attitudes) and understanding what it takes to be healthy take time. Evidence indicates that corporate wellness initiatives are…

  18. Evolution of the Distribution of Wealth in an Economic Environment Driven by Local Nash Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degond, Pierre; Liu, Jian-Guo; Ringhofer, Christian

    2014-02-01

    We present and analyze a model for the evolution of the wealth distribution within a heterogeneous economic environment. The model considers a system of rational agents interacting in a game theoretical framework, through fairly general assumptions on the cost function. This evolution drives the dynamic of the agents in both wealth and economic configuration variables. We consider a regime of scale separation where the large scale dynamics is given by a hydrodynamic closure with a Nash equilibrium serving as the local thermodynamic equilibrium. The result is a system of gas dynamics-type equations for the density and average wealth of the agents on large scales. We recover the inverse gamma distribution as an equilibrium in the particular case of quadratic cost functions which has been previously considered in the literature.

  19. Can we close the income and wealth gap between specialists and primary care physicians?

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Bryan T; DeVrieze, Steven R; Reed, Shelby D; Schulman, Kevin A

    2010-05-01

    Over their lifetimes, primary care physicians earn lower incomes--and accumulate considerably less wealth--than their specialist counterparts. This gap influences medical students, who are choosing careers in primary care in declining numbers. We estimated career wealth accumulation across specialists, primary care physicians, physician assistants, business school graduates, and college graduates. We then compared specialists, represented by cardiologists, to primary care physicians in four scenarios. The wealth gap is substantial; narrowing it would require substantial reductions in specialists' practice income or increases in primary care physicians' practice income, or both, of more than $100,000 a year. Current proposals for increasing primary care physician supply would do little to lessen these differences.

  20. Do wealth distributions follow power laws? Evidence from ‘rich lists’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2014-07-01

    We use data on the wealth of the richest persons taken from the ‘rich lists’ provided by business magazines like Forbes to verify if the upper tails of wealth distributions follow, as often claimed, a power-law behaviour. The data sets used cover the world’s richest persons over 1996-2012, the richest Americans over 1988-2012, the richest Chinese over 2006-2012, and the richest Russians over 2004-2011. Using a recently introduced comprehensive empirical methodology for detecting power laws, which allows for testing the goodness of fit as well as for comparing the power-law model with rival distributions, we find that a power-law model is consistent with data only in 35% of the analysed data sets. Moreover, even if wealth data are consistent with the power-law model, they are usually also consistent with some rivals like the log-normal or stretched exponential distributions.

  1. Wealth and Health Behavior: Testing the Concept of a Health Cost

    PubMed Central

    Galama, Titus J.

    2014-01-01

    Wealthier individuals engage in healthier behavior. This paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by exploiting both inheritances and lottery winnings to test a theory of health behavior. We distinguish between the direct monetary cost and the indirect health cost (value of health lost) of unhealthy consumption. The health cost increases with wealth and the degree of unhealthiness, leading wealthier individuals to consume more healthy and moderately unhealthy, but fewer severely unhealthy goods. The empirical evidence presented suggests that differences in health costs may indeed partially explain behavioral differences, and ultimately health outcomes, between wealth groups. PMID:25530621

  2. Climatic Warmth and National Wealth: Some Culture-Level Determinants of National Character Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri

    2009-01-01

    National character stereotypes are widely shared, but do not reflect assessed levels of personality traits. In this article we present data illustrating the divergence of stereotypes and assessed personality traits in north and south Italy, test hypotheses about the associations of temperature and national wealth with national character stereotypes in 49 cultures, and explore possible links to national values and beliefs. Results suggest that warmth and wealth are common determinants of national stereotypes, but that there are also idiosyncratic influences on the perceptions of individual nations. PMID:20046546

  3. Climatic Warmth and National Wealth: Some Culture-Level Determinants of National Character Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    McCrae, Robert R; Terracciano, Antonio; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri

    2007-12-01

    National character stereotypes are widely shared, but do not reflect assessed levels of personality traits. In this article we present data illustrating the divergence of stereotypes and assessed personality traits in north and south Italy, test hypotheses about the associations of temperature and national wealth with national character stereotypes in 49 cultures, and explore possible links to national values and beliefs. Results suggest that warmth and wealth are common determinants of national stereotypes, but that there are also idiosyncratic influences on the perceptions of individual nations.

  4. Wealth Accumulation and the Health of Union Army Veterans, 1860–1870

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2009-01-01

    How did the wartime health of Union Army recruits affect their wealth accumulation through 1870? Wounds and exposure to combat had strong negative effects on subsequent savings, as did illnesses while in the service. The impact of poor health was particularly strong for unskilled workers. Health was a powerful determinant of nineteenth-century economic mobility. Infectious diseases’ influences on wealth accumulation suggest that the economic gains from the improvement of the disease environment should be enormous. The direct economic costs of the Civil War were probably much greater than previously thought, given the persistent adverse health effects of wartime experiences. PMID:20300440

  5. An alternative method for modeling the size distribution of top wealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanjun; You, Shibing

    2016-09-01

    The Pareto distribution has been widely applied in modeling the distribution of wealth, as well as top incomes, cities and firms. However, recent evidence has shown that the Pareto distribution is not consistent with many situations in which it was previously considered applicable. We propose an alternative method for estimating the upper tail distribution of wealth and suggest a new Lorenz curve for building models to provide such estimates. Applying our new models to the Forbes World's Billionaire Lists, we show that they significantly outperform the Pareto Lorenz curve as well as some other popular alternatives.

  6. Model of wealth and goods dynamics in a closed market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Peķalski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    A simple computer simulation model of a closed market on a fixed network with free flow of goods and money is introduced. The model contains only two variables: the amount of goods and money beside the size of the system. An initially flat distribution of both variables is presupposed. We show that under completely random rules, i.e. through the choice of interacting agent pairs on the network and of the exchange rules that the market stabilizes in time and shows diversification of money and goods. We also indicate that the difference between poor and rich agents increases for small markets, as well as for systems in which money is steadily deduced from the market through taxation. It is also found that the price of goods decreases when taxes are introduced, likely due to the less availability of money.

  7. The effect of country wealth on incidence of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and income per capita across countries. Data on breast cancer incidence in 52 countries were obtained from GLOBOCAN, along with economic indicators of gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank. Number of computed tomography scanners and magnetic resonance imaging (from World Health Organization) were used as a surrogate for technology and access to screening for cancer diagnosis. Statistical analyses for correlation and regression were performed, along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). A strong positive association between breast cancer incidence and gross domestic product per capita, Pearson's r = 65.4 %, controlling latitude, density of computed tomography scanners and magnetic resonance imaging was found in countries of temperate zones. The estimated relationship suggests that 1 % higher gross domestic product per capita, within the temperate zones (latitudes), increases the expected age-standardized breast cancer incidence by about 35.6 % (p < 0.001). ANOVA confirms these vital results. While some have argued that latitude and seasonality may affect breast cancer incidence, these findings suggest that wealthier nations may have a higher incidence of breast cancer independent of geographic location and screening technology.

  8. Wealth from Health: an incentive program for disease and population management: a 12-year project.

    PubMed

    Ratner, D; Louria, D; Sheffet, A; Fain, R; Curran, J; Saed, N; Bhaskar, S; Quereshi, M; Cable, G

    2001-01-01

    The future of healthcare is linked with its ability to face the challenges of consumerism. Disease and population management will represent the dominant style of healthcare delivery in the future. This article describes the Wealth from Health programs which utilize current and future technologies to help the healthcare system become a leader in healthcare delivery and to assist many communities at an affordable cost.

  9. The Leverage Effect on Wealth Distribution in a Controllable Laboratory Stock Market

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chenge; Yang, Guang; An, Kenan; Huang, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Wealth distribution has always been an important issue in our economic and social life, since it affects the harmony and stabilization of the society. Under the background of widely used financial tools to raise leverage these years, we studied the leverage effect on wealth distribution of a population in a controllable laboratory market in which we have conducted several human experiments, and drawn the conclusion that higher leverage leads to a higher Gini coefficient in the market. A higher Gini coefficient means the wealth distribution among a population becomes more unequal. This is a result of the ascending risk with growing leverage level in the market plus the diversified trading abilities and risk preference of the participants. This work sheds light on the effects of leverage and its related regulations, especially its impact on wealth distribution. It also shows the capability of the method of controllable laboratory markets which could be helpful in several fields of study such as economics, econophysics and sociology. PMID:24968222

  10. 'Wealth', 'Nealth', and 'Illth' and the Responsibilities of the Consumer Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stewart M.

    1975-01-01

    Consumer education teachers should be responsible in teaching the areas of "good" and bad" consumption patterns. In relation to this, "wealth" includes food, clothing, shelter, health care, and education; "nealth" refers to snacks, carbonated beverages and candy; and "illth" refers to tobacco, gambling, alcholic beverages, pornography,…

  11. Towards the Development of More Comprehensive Measures of School District Wealth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Robert J.

    The author tests several ways in which income can be added to property wealth to improve the measurement of school-district fiscal capacity. His first chapter discusses the economic and legal reasons for this improvement, notes that seven states already combine income and property, and distinguishes adding income and property together from…

  12. Comparing Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations to James Madison's Federalist #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundell, Jean

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson which calls upon students to compare Adam Smith's WEALTH OF NATIONS to James Madison's FEDERALIST #10 to see how the ancient concept of individual rights and liberties was used to describe both economic and governmental systems. Presents questions to provide the basis for comparison. (GEA)

  13. The Effect of Housing Wealth on College Choice: Evidence from the Housing Boom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenheim, Michael F.; Reynolds, C. Lockwood

    2013-01-01

    We use NLSY97 data to examine how home price variation affects the quality of postsecondary schools students attend. We find a $10,000 increase in housing wealth increases the likelihood of public flagship university enrollment relative to nonflagship enrollment by 2.0 percent and decreases the relative probability of attending a community…

  14. Poverty Is Low Consumption and Low Wealth, Not Just Low Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an improved measure of financial poverty, based on household consumption and wealth as well as income. Data come from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics Australia (HILDA) Survey, which appears to be the first national socio-economic panel survey to provide longitudinal data on all three measures of…

  15. Teachers Can Be Millionaires, Too: Two Economic Educators Outline Strategies for Wealth Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers often regard themselves as unlikely candidates for financial success, chiefly because they earn low starting salaries. But people of modest means can build wealth over time if they adhere to certain simple strategies. The goal here is to explain this point as it applies to K-12 teachers. It begins, however, by acknowledging the salary…

  16. The Influence of Wealth, Transparency, and Democracy on the Number of Top Ranked Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of wealth, transparency and democracy on the number of universities per million people ranked among the top 300 and 500. The highly ranked universities in the world tend to be concentrated in a few countries. Design/Methodology/Approach: ANOVA was used to test the differences between the two groups…

  17. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-01-01

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player's individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player's wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval. PMID:27597441

  18. The leverage effect on wealth distribution in a controllable laboratory stock market.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenge; Yang, Guang; An, Kenan; Huang, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Wealth distribution has always been an important issue in our economic and social life, since it affects the harmony and stabilization of the society. Under the background of widely used financial tools to raise leverage these years, we studied the leverage effect on wealth distribution of a population in a controllable laboratory market in which we have conducted several human experiments, and drawn the conclusion that higher leverage leads to a higher Gini coefficient in the market. A higher Gini coefficient means the wealth distribution among a population becomes more unequal. This is a result of the ascending risk with growing leverage level in the market plus the diversified trading abilities and risk preference of the participants. This work sheds light on the effects of leverage and its related regulations, especially its impact on wealth distribution. It also shows the capability of the method of controllable laboratory markets which could be helpful in several fields of study such as economics, econophysics and sociology. PMID:24968222

  19. On growth-optimal tax rates and the issue of wealth inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a highly stylized, yet non trivial model of the economy, with a public and private sector coupled through a wealth tax and a redistribution policy. The model can be fully solved analytically, and allows one to address the question of optimal taxation and of wealth inequalities. We find that according to the assumption made on the relative performance of public and private sectors, three situations are possible. Not surprisingly, the optimal wealth tax rate is either 0% for a deeply dysfunctional government and/or highly productive private sector, or 100 % for a highly efficient public sector and/or debilitated/risk averse private investors. If the gap between the public/private performance is moderate, there is an optimal positive wealth tax rate maximizing economic growth, even -- counter-intuitively -- when the private sector generates more growth. The compromise between profitable private investments and taxation however leads to a residual level of inequalities. The mechanism leading to an optimal growth rate is related the well-known explore/exploit trade-off.

  20. Financial Literacy, Schooling, and Wealth Accumulation. NBER Working Paper No. 16452

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy; Bravo, David

    2010-01-01

    Financial literacy and schooling attainment have been linked to household wealth accumulation. Yet prior findings may be biased due to noisy measures of financial literacy and schooling, as well as unobserved factors such as ability, intelligence, and motivation that could enhance financial literacy and schooling but also directly affect wealth…

  1. Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The following article represents the first in a series dedicated to presenting students the opportunity to better understand the key theoretical constructs in the introductory financial management course. The current essay offers an introduction to the series and covers the topics of stockholder wealth maximization and its close cousin, agency…

  2. Modeling old-age wealth with endogenous early-life outcomes: The case of Mexico.

    PubMed

    DeGraff, Deborah S; Wong, Rebeca

    2014-04-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the life course and aging by examining the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being, using data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Empirical research in this area has been challenged by the potential endogeneity of the early-life outcomes of interest, an issue which most studies ignore or downplay. Our contribution takes two forms: (1) we examine in detail the potential importance of two key life-cycle outcomes, age at marriage (a measure of family formation) and years of educational attainment (a measure of human capital investment) for old-age wealth, and (2) we illustrate the empirical value of past context variables that could help model the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being. Our illustrative approach, matching macro-level historical policy and census variables to individual records to use as instruments in modeling the endogeneity of early-life behaviors, yields a statistically identified two-stage model of old-age wealth with minimum bias. We use simulations to show that the results for the model of wealth in old age are meaningfully different when comparing the approach that accounts for endogeneity with an approach that assumes exogeneity of early-life outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that in the Mexican case, models which ignore the potential endogeneity of early-life outcomes are likely to under-estimate the effects of such variables on old-age wealth.

  3. Hidden Benefits: The Impact of High School Graduation on Household Wealth. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Several recent reports have highlighted the earnings gap between high school graduates and dropouts; however, earnings tell only part of the story. Families rely on income from salary for regular expenses, but real economic security requires accumulated wealth. Education can be the key to higher earnings, but it is even more importantly linked to…

  4. Knowledge from the Fields: A Migrant Farmworker Student's Community Cultural Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Blanca E.

    2012-01-01

    Migrant farmworker students bring with them to schools a significant knowledge base that they acquire working in the fields alongside their families. These experiences can be valuable influences in their enrollment and completion of college. Using "community cultural wealth", this article examines how a Latino migrant farmworker student used his…

  5. Effects of Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) on Household Wealth and Saving Taste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study examines effects of individual development accounts (IDAs) on household wealth of low-income participants. Methods: This study uses longitudinal survey data from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD) involving experimental design (treatment group = 537, control group = 566). Results: Results from quantile regression analysis indicate…

  6. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-09-06

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player's individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player's wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval.

  7. Influence of Property School Wealth on Fifth Grade Student Achievement in Reading and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Jesus R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether, or to what extent, property wealth of the upper and lower 5% districts, per pupil expenditure, limited English proficient students, economically disadvantaged students, membership, and teacher experience contribute to student achievement in 5th grade reading and mathematics. To do this, the…

  8. Thirst-dependent risk preferences in monkeys identify a primitive form of wealth.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Tymula, Agnieszka; Louie, Kenway; Glimcher, Paul W

    2013-09-24

    Experimental economic techniques have been widely used to evaluate human risk attitudes, but how these measured attitudes relate to overall individual wealth levels is unclear. Previous noneconomic work has addressed this uncertainty in animals by asking the following: (i) Do our close evolutionary relatives share both our risk attitudes and our degree of economic rationality? And (ii) how does the amount of food or water one holds (a nonpecuniary form of "wealth") alter risk attitudes in these choosers? Unfortunately, existing noneconomic studies have provided conflicting insights from an economic point of view. We therefore used standard techniques from human experimental economics to measure monkey risk attitudes for water rewards as a function of blood osmolality (an objective measure of how much water the subjects possess). Early in training, monkeys behaved randomly, consistently violating first-order stochastic dominance and monotonicity. After training, they behaved like human choosers--technically consistent in their choices and weakly risk averse (i.e., risk averse or risk neutral on average)--suggesting that well-trained monkeys can serve as a model for human choice behavior. As with attitudes about money in humans, these risk attitudes were strongly wealth dependent; as the animals became "poorer," risk aversion increased, a finding incompatible with some models of wealth and risk in human decision making.

  9. Factors Affecting Wealth Accumulation in Hispanic Households: A Comparative Analysis of Stock and Home Asset Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Angela; Kelly, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research addresses differences between Hispanic ("N" = 2,333) and White ("N" = 15,521) households in the ownership and allocation of two representative measures of wealth accumulation, stock and homeownership. Using data from the 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this research estimates a…

  10. Individual wealth-based selection supports cooperation in spatial public goods games

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-01-01

    In a social dilemma game group members are allowed to decide if they contribute to the joint venture or not. As a consequence, defectors, who do not invest but only enjoy the mutual benefit, prevail and the system evolves onto the tragedy of the common state. This unfortunate scenario can be avoided if participation is not obligatory but only happens with a given probability. But what if we also consider a player’s individual wealth when to decide about participation? To address this issue we propose a model in which the probabilistic participation in the public goods game is combined with a conditional investment mode that is based on individual wealth: if a player’s wealth exceeds a threshold value then it is qualified and can participate in the joint venture. Otherwise, the participation is forbidden in the investment interactions. We show that if only probabilistic participation is considered, spatially structured populations cannot support cooperation better than well-mixed populations where full defection state can also be avoided for small participation probabilities. By adding the wealth-based criterion of participation, however, structured populations are capable to augment network reciprocity relevantly and allow cooperator strategy to dominate in a broader parameter interval. PMID:27597441

  11. Modeling old-age wealth with endogenous early-life outcomes: The case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DeGraff, Deborah S.; Wong, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the life course and aging by examining the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being, using data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Empirical research in this area has been challenged by the potential endogeneity of the early-life outcomes of interest, an issue which most studies ignore or downplay. Our contribution takes two forms: (1) we examine in detail the potential importance of two key life-cycle outcomes, age at marriage (a measure of family formation) and years of educational attainment (a measure of human capital investment) for old-age wealth, and (2) we illustrate the empirical value of past context variables that could help model the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being. Our illustrative approach, matching macro-level historical policy and census variables to individual records to use as instruments in modeling the endogeneity of early-life behaviors, yields a statistically identified two-stage model of old-age wealth with minimum bias. We use simulations to show that the results for the model of wealth in old age are meaningfully different when comparing the approach that accounts for endogeneity with an approach that assumes exogeneity of early-life outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that in the Mexican case, models which ignore the potential endogeneity of early-life outcomes are likely to under-estimate the effects of such variables on old-age wealth. PMID:25170434

  12. Incorporating Non-financial Wealth in College and University Investment Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger T.; Woglom, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Illustrates how nonendowment cash flows (tuition, grants, and gifts) affect the portfolio allocation decisions for the endowment and are "efficient" in terms of the total wealth of the institution. A mathematical appendix displays the reasoning behind the model. (Contains 12 references and 4 tables.) (Author/MLF)

  13. Larks and owls and health, wealth, and wisdom

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine; Martyn, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Objective To test the validity of Benjamin Franklin’s maxim “early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.” Design Cross sectional analysis of sleeping patterns in a nationally representative group of elderly people, and longitudinal investigation of mortality. Setting Eight areas in Britain (five in England, two in Scotland, and one in Wales). Subjects 1229 men and women aged 65 and over who in 1973-4 had taken part in a survey funded by the Department of Health and Social Security and for whom data on sleeping patterns, health, socioeconomic circumstances, and cognitive function had been recorded. Main outcome measures Self reported income, access to a car, standard of accommodation, performance on a test of cognitive function, state of health and mortality during 23 years of follow up. Results 356 people (29%) were defined as larks (to bed before 11 pm and up before 8 am) and 318 (26%) were defined as owls (to bed at or after 11 pm and up at or after 8 am). There was no indication that larks were richer than those with other sleeping patterns. On the contrary, owls had the largest mean income and were more likely to have access to a car. There was also no evidence that larks were superior to those with other sleeping patterns with regard to their cognitive performance or their state of health. Both larks and owls had a slightly reduced risk of death compared with the rest of the study sample, but this was accounted for by the fact that they spent less time in bed at night. In the study sample as a whole, longer periods of time in bed were associated with increased mortality. After adjustment for age, sex, the presence of illness, and other risk factors, people who spent 12 or more hours in bed had a relative risk of death of 1.7 (1.2 to 2.5) compared with those who were in bed for 9 hours. The lowest risk occurred in people who spent 8 hours in bed (adjusted relative risk 0.8; 0.7 to 1.0). Conclusion These findings do not

  14. The Influence of Wealth and Race in Four-Year College Attendance. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.18.08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jez, Su Jin

    2008-01-01

    College is increasingly essential for economic and social mobility. Current research devotes significant attention to race and socioeconomic factors in college access. Yet wealth's role, as differentiated from income, is largely unexplored. Utilizing a nationally representative dataset, this study analyzes the role of wealth among students who…

  15. Community indicators

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Community indicators are used to assess the impact of alcohol on communities. This article reviews the main data sources for community indicators, discusses their strengths and limitations, and discusses indicators used in reference to four main topics relating to alcohol use and problems at the community level: alcohol use, patterns, and problems; alcohol availability; alcohol-related health outcomes/trauma; and alcohol-related crime and enforcement. It also reviews the challenges associated with collecting community indicator data, along with important innovations in the field that have contributed to better knowledge of how to collect and analyze community-level data on the impact of alcohol. PMID:24881322

  16. RBC indices

    MedlinePlus

    ... corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); Mean corpuscular volume (MCV); Red blood cell indices ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 158. Goljan EF. Red blood cell disorders. In: Goljan E, ed. Rapid ...

  17. Do governance, equity characteristics, and venture capital nvolvement affect long-term wealth creation in U.S. health care and biotechnology IPOs?

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Duncan, W Jack; Ginter, Peter M; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2006-01-01

    Agency theory remains the dominant means of examining governance issues and ownership characteristics related to large organizations. Research in these areas within large organizations has increased our understanding, yet little is known about the influence that these mechanisms and characteristics have had on IPO firm performance. This study tests an agency perspective that venture capital involvement, governance and equity characteristics affect health care and biotechnology IPO firm performance. Our results indicate that there is no correlation between these factors and health care and biotechnology IPO wealth creation. For these entrepreneurs, our findings suggest a contingent approach for the use of these mechanisms.

  18. Old-Age Disability and Wealth among Return Mexican Migrants from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the old-age consequences of international migration with a focus on disability and wealth from the perspective of the origin country. Methods Analysis sample includes persons aged 60+ from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a national survey of older-adults in Mexico in 2001. Univariate methods are used to present a comparative profile of return migrants. Multivariate models are estimated for physical disability and wealth. Results Gender differences are profound. Return migrant women are more likely to be disabled while men are wealthier than comparable older adults in Mexico. Discussion Compared to current older adults, younger cohorts of Mexico-U.S. migrants increasingly include women, and more migrants seem likely to remain in the United States rather than return, thus more research will be needed on the old-age conditions of migrants in both countries. PMID:20876848

  19. Consanguinity and other marriage market effects of a wealth shock in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq; Kuhn, Randall; Peters, Christina

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses a wealth shock from the construction of a flood protection embankment in rural Bangladesh coupled with data on the universe of all 52,000 marriage decisions between 1982 and 1996 to examine changes in marital prospects for households protected by the embankment relative to unprotected households living on the other side of the river. We use difference-in-difference specifications to document that brides from protected households commanded larger dowries, married wealthier households, and became less likely to marry biological relatives. Financial liquidity-constrained households appear to use within-family marriage (in which one can promise ex-post payments) as a form of credit to meet up-front dowry demands, but the resultant wealth shock for households protected by the embankment relaxed this need to marry consanguineously. Our results shed light on the socioeconomic roots of consanguinity, which carries health risks for offspring but can also carry substantial benefits for the families involved.

  20. A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Belsky, Daniel; Dickson, Nigel; Hancox, Robert J.; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent W.; Ross, Stephen; Sears, Malcolm R.; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2011-01-01

    Policy-makers are considering large-scale programs aimed at self-control to improve citizens’ health and wealth and reduce crime. Experimental and economic studies suggest such programs could reap benefits. Yet, is self-control important for the health, wealth, and public safety of the population? Following a cohort of 1,000 children from birth to the age of 32 y, we show that childhood self-control predicts physical health, substance dependence, personal finances, and criminal offending outcomes, following a gradient of self-control. Effects of children's self-control could be disentangled from their intelligence and social class as well as from mistakes they made as adolescents. In another cohort of 500 sibling-pairs, the sibling with lower self-control had poorer outcomes, despite shared family background. Interventions addressing self-control might reduce a panoply of societal costs, save taxpayers money, and promote prosperity. PMID:21262822

  1. Hierarchical mechanism of development of wealth and structure for a premodern local society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Miki Y.

    2011-06-01

    We propose a hierarchical model of social development composed of two associated hierarchies, each of which describes economic and noneconomic activities in society, respectively. The model is designed to explain the development of wealth distribution and social structure over 50 years in a premodern Japanese local society. Data analysis shows that the wealth distribution has a well-known universal power-law tail throughout the observed period, while the Pareto index gradually decreases with time. We further show that the noneconomic social properties, such as the household number, average family size, and number of collaterals in a household, of the local society, also have decreasing or increasing trends throughout the observed period. We show that the hierarchical model consistently demonstrates the correlations of these economic and noneconomic properties.

  2. Wealth Index association with gender issues and the reproductive health of Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Mustafa

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the association of the Wealth Index of married women in Egypt with a number of gender and reproductive health issues found in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey. The data from a subsample of 5249 currently married women from a total of 19,474 was examined using logistic regression analysis. The women's lowest wealth quintile predicted the intention to continue female genital cutting for their daughters, exposure to physical and sexual marital violence, not being empowered in household decisions, having a higher number of children, having an unintended last child, mothers' maltreatment of their children, the perception of a lack of health-care providers or drugs as an obstacle to receiving care, and not being covered by health insurance. The association of poverty with the aforementioned adverse health outcomes are discussed. Physicians should understand the effect of poverty on health and endeavour to influence policy-makers to reduce the poverty burden on health.

  3. Generic features of the wealth distribution in ideal-gas-like markets.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, P K

    2006-07-01

    We provide an exact solution to the ideal-gas-like models studied in econophysics to understand the microscopic origin of Pareto law. In these classes of models the key ingredient necessary for having a self-organized scale-free steady-state distribution is the trading or collision rule where agents or particles save a definite fraction of their wealth or energy and invest the rest for trading. Using a Gibbs ensemble approach we could obtain the exact distribution of wealth in this model. Moreover we show that in this model (a) good savers are always rich and (b) every agent poor or rich invests the same amount for trading. Nonlinear trading rules could alter the generic scenario observed here. PMID:16907070

  4. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  5. Thirst-dependent risk preferences in monkeys identify a primitive form of wealth

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Tymula, Agnieszka; Louie, Kenway; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental economic techniques have been widely used to evaluate human risk attitudes, but how these measured attitudes relate to overall individual wealth levels is unclear. Previous noneconomic work has addressed this uncertainty in animals by asking the following: (i) Do our close evolutionary relatives share both our risk attitudes and our degree of economic rationality? And (ii) how does the amount of food or water one holds (a nonpecuniary form of “wealth”) alter risk attitudes in these choosers? Unfortunately, existing noneconomic studies have provided conflicting insights from an economic point of view. We therefore used standard techniques from human experimental economics to measure monkey risk attitudes for water rewards as a function of blood osmolality (an objective measure of how much water the subjects possess). Early in training, monkeys behaved randomly, consistently violating first-order stochastic dominance and monotonicity. After training, they behaved like human choosers—technically consistent in their choices and weakly risk averse (i.e., risk averse or risk neutral on average)—suggesting that well-trained monkeys can serve as a model for human choice behavior. As with attitudes about money in humans, these risk attitudes were strongly wealth dependent; as the animals became “poorer,” risk aversion increased, a finding incompatible with some models of wealth and risk in human decision making. PMID:24019461

  6. Social capital and health (plus wealth, income inequality and regional health governance).

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2002-03-01

    This article describes an empirical exploration of relationships among aspects of thirty health districts in Saskatchewan, Canada. These aspects include social capital, income inequality, wealth, governance by regional health authorities and population health, the primary dependent variable. The social capital index incorporated associational and civic participation, average and median household incomes served as proxies for wealth, the degree of skew in the distribution of household incomes assessed income inequality while the model for effective governance by District Health Boards (DHBs) focused on reflection of health needs, policy making and implementation, fiscal responsibility and the integration and co-ordination of services. I found no evidence of a relationship between social capital in health districts and the performance of DHBs. Among the determinants of health, wealth appeared unrelated to age-standardised mortality rates while income inequality was positively and social capital was negatively related to mortality. Income inequality was not as strongly related to age-standardised mortality after controlling for social capital. and vice versa, suggesting the two may be comingled somehow when it comes to population health, although they were not significantly related to one another. Of the predictors of social capital the distribution of age in districts appeared to be the most salient; of the predictors of age-standardised mortality rates the gender composition of a district was most salient.

  7. Projection of retirement adequacy using wealth-need ratio: A case study in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaudin, Ros Idayuwati; Ismail, Noriszura; Isa, Zaidi

    2015-02-01

    Adequacy of retirement income is very important to maintain a comfortable living standard during retirement. Under a life cycle model, assets are mainly accumulated during an individual's work life to finance consumption after retirement. A generally accepted goal of retirement planning is to provide enough income during retirement to prevent the level of living from dropping much below the pre-retirement level. Retirement wealth can be defined as adequate if the total retirement income is equal or greater than the desired total retirement consumption (or needs). In this study, retirement adequacy is projected using the Malaysian Household Income Survey (HIS) 2009 data which is based on 5881 sample of households and contains information on income, demographic and socioeconomic status of each household. Besides the projection of retirement adequacy, a regression of the ratio of projected wealth to needs (or wealth-needs ratio) is performed to investigate the demographic and socioeconomic determinants of retirement adequacy in Malaysia. The results show that 69% of households in Malaysia are adequately prepared for retirement.

  8. Immunization in India 1993-1999: wealth, gender, and regional inequalities revisited.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Sylvestre; Yazbeck, Abdo S

    2006-02-01

    Previously published evidence from the 1992-1993 Indian National Family and Health Survey (NFHS) on the state of childhood immunization showed the importance of analyzing immunization outcomes beyond national averages. Reported total system failure (no immunization for all) in some low performance areas suggested that improvements in immunization levels may come with a worsening of the distribution of immunization based on wealth. In this paper, using the second wave of the NFHS (1998-1999), we take a new snapshot of the situation and compare it to 1992-1993, focusing on heterogeneities between states, rural-urban differentials, gender differentials, and more specifically on wealth-related inequalities. To assess whether improvements in overall immunization rates (levels) were accompanied by distributional improvements, or conversely, whether inequalities were reduced at the expense of overall achievement, we use a recently developed methodology to calculate an inequality-adjusted achievement index that captures performance both in terms of efficiency (change in levels) and equity (distribution by wealth quintiles) for each of the 17 largest Indian states. Comparing 1992-1993 to 1998-1999 achievements using different degrees of "inequality aversion" provides no evidence that distributional improvements occur at the expense of overall performance.

  9. Polygyny without wealth: popularity in gift games predicts polygyny in BaYaka Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Thompson, James; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail; Smith, Daniel; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of polygynous marriage in hunter–gatherer societies, which do not accumulate wealth, remains largely unexplored since resource availability is dependent on male hunting capacity and limited by the lack of storage. Hunter–gatherer societies offer the greatest insight in to human evolution since they represent the majority of our species' evolutionary history. In order to elucidate the evolution of hunter–gatherer polygyny, we study marriage patterns of BaYaka Pygmies. We investigate (i) rates of polygyny among BaYaka hunter–gatherers; (ii) whether polygyny confers a fitness benefit to BaYaka men; (iii) in the absence of wealth inequalities, what are the alternative explanations for polygyny among the BaYaka. To understand the latter, we explore differences in phenotypic quality (height and strength), and social capital (popularity in gift games). We find polygynous men have increased reproductive fitness; and that social capital and popularity but not phenotypic quality might have been important mechanisms by which some male hunter–gatherers sustained polygynous marriages before the onset of agriculture and wealth accumulation. PMID:26064662

  10. Chemical Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prombain, Dorothy R.; And Others

    This science sourcebook was written for intermediate grade teachers to provide guidance in teaching a specially developed unit on chemical indicators. Directions and suggestions for guiding student science activities are given. Some of the activities concern soil testing, crystals, and household powders such as sugar and salt. A list of necessary…

  11. Wealth and antenatal care use: implications for maternal health care utilisation in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of wealth on maternal health care utilization in Ghana via its effect on Antenatal care use. Antenatal care serves as the initial point of contact of expectant mothers to maternal health care providers before delivery. The study is pivoted on the introduction of the free maternal health care policy in April 2005 in Ghana with the aim of reducing the financial barrier to the use of maternal health care services, to help reduce the high rate of maternal deaths. Prior to the introduction of the policy, studies found wealth to have a positive and significant influence on the use of Antenatal care. It is thus expected that with the policy, wealth should not influence the use of maternal health care significantly. Using secondary data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey, the results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of Antenatal care. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of Antenatal care in Ghana. There also exist considerable variations in the use of Antenatal care in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. It is recommended that to improve the use of Antenatal care and hence maternal health care utilization, some means of support is provided especially to women within the lowest wealth quintiles, like the provision and availability of recommended medication at the health center; secondly, women should be encouraged to pursue education to at least the secondary level since this improves their use of maternal health services. Policy should also target mothers who have had the experience of child birth on the need to use adequate Antenatal care for each pregnancy, since these mothers tend to use less antenatal care for subsequent pregnancies. The regional disparities found may be due to inaccessibility and unavailability of health facilities and services in the

  12. Wealth and antenatal care use: implications for maternal health care utilisation in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of wealth on maternal health care utilization in Ghana via its effect on Antenatal care use. Antenatal care serves as the initial point of contact of expectant mothers to maternal health care providers before delivery. The study is pivoted on the introduction of the free maternal health care policy in April 2005 in Ghana with the aim of reducing the financial barrier to the use of maternal health care services, to help reduce the high rate of maternal deaths. Prior to the introduction of the policy, studies found wealth to have a positive and significant influence on the use of Antenatal care. It is thus expected that with the policy, wealth should not influence the use of maternal health care significantly. Using secondary data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey, the results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of Antenatal care. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of Antenatal care in Ghana. There also exist considerable variations in the use of Antenatal care in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. It is recommended that to improve the use of Antenatal care and hence maternal health care utilization, some means of support is provided especially to women within the lowest wealth quintiles, like the provision and availability of recommended medication at the health center; secondly, women should be encouraged to pursue education to at least the secondary level since this improves their use of maternal health services. Policy should also target mothers who have had the experience of child birth on the need to use adequate Antenatal care for each pregnancy, since these mothers tend to use less antenatal care for subsequent pregnancies. The regional disparities found may be due to inaccessibility and unavailability of health facilities and services in the

  13. Social indicators.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R

    1975-05-16

    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  14. The impact of diminished housing wealth on health in the United States: evidence from the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer, Tansel; Babiarz, Patryk; Liu, Fen

    2015-04-01

    The sharp decline in home values in many industrialized and developing countries was one of the most evident facets of the global economic recession of 2008. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) for 2007-2011, this study examines how the decline in housing wealth affected the psychological and physical health and health-related behaviors of 4007 U.S. households who were homeowners in 2007. We focus on two mechanisms that could account for how the drop in housing wealth affects health: increase in stress and negative changes in health-related behaviors. Controlling for the changes in non-housing wealth and employment status during the recession, the decline in housing wealth is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in psychological distress. Psychological health deteriorates more as the housing wealth relative to total wealth decreases. Finally, homeowners who have difficulties with mortgage payments report substantial increases in psychological distress and have higher rates of depression. These findings, combined with limited evidence of the change in health-related behaviors, suggest that the increase in stress is the main cause of the adverse health outcomes.

  15. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are at home, at work, traveling, or already sick, find out how good hand hygiene can protect you, your family, and others. More… Featured Video Keeping our hands clean is one of the best things we can ...

  16. How Do Management Fees Affect Retirement Wealth under Mexico's Personal Retirement Accounts System?

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Hurd, Michael D.; Rohwedder, Susann

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, Mexico transformed its pay-as-you-go social security system to a fully funded system with personal retirement accounts, including management fees. This article examines changes in retirement wealth resulting from this new system. It shows that management fees have drained a significant proportion of individuals' retirement wealth and have increased the number of persons claiming a government-subsidized minimum pension, particularly from the time the system was introduced in 1997 until adjustment to management fees in 2008. Since 2008, retirement wealth accumulation has been similar to that of the previous system. En 1997, México transformó su sistema de pensiones basado en cotizaciones individuales a uno de ahorro para el retiro que incluyen cuotas por la administración de las cuentas. El presente estudio examina los cambios en el monto de las pensiones como resultado de la introducción del nuevo sistema. Los resultados muestran que las cuotas de administración han drenado una proporción significativa del ahorro para el retiro de los individuos por lo que ha aumentado el número de personas que solicita la pensión mínima garantizada subsidiada por el gobierno desde que se introdujo el sistema en 1997 hasta que se hicieron ajustes en las cuotas de administración de los fondos de pensiones en 2008. A partir de 2008, la acumulación del ahorro para el retiro ha sido similar que la del sistema anterior. PMID:25601893

  17. Spousal violence in sub-Saharan Africa: does household poverty-wealth matter?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the threat of violence to the health and rights of women yet, for many years, there has been a dearth of nationally comparable data on domestic violence in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines whether women from poor households are more likely to experience violence from husband/partner than other women who are from middle or rich households. Method Data for the study are derived from most recent DHS surveys of ever-married women age 15-49 in Cameroun(3,691), Kenya(4,336), Mozambique(5610), Nigeria (16,763), Zambia(3,010) and Zimbabwe(5,016) who participated in the questions on Domestic Violence Module. Bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression Analysis are used to explore the linkage between household poverty-wealth and spousal violence while simultaneously controlling for confounding variables. Results The overall prevalence of any form of violence (physical, sexual or emotional) ranges from 30.5% in Nigeria to 43.4% in Zimbabwe; 45.3% in Kenya; 45.5% in Mozambique; 53.9% in Zambia and 57.6% in Cameroun. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses show that in two of the six countries –Zambia and Mozambique, experience of violence is significantly higher among women from non-poor (rich) households than those from other households (poor and middle). For Zimbabwe and Kenya, women from poor households are more likely to have ever experienced spousal violence than those from non-poor households. In the remaining two countries- Nigeria and Cameroun, women from the middle class are more likely to have ever suffered abuse from husband/partner than those from the poor and rich households. Conclusion Our results thus show that similar measurements of household poverty-wealth have produced varying relationships with respect to experience of spousal violence in six sub-Saharan African countries. In other words, experience of violence cuts across all household poverty-wealth statuses and therefore may not provide enough explanations on whether

  18. User friendly web site a winner. San Diego's Sharp HealthCare provides wealth of information.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The Sharp HealthCare, San Diego, web site, a winner of the 2002 Medicine on the Net Web Excellence Award, provides a wealth of information without wasting space or confusing the visitor. The web site, www.sharp.com, can be viewed in both English and Spanish, a valuable consideration for those living in the California-Mexico border area served by Sharp. The integrated health network operates seven hospitals and three medical group practices. It has 2,541 physicians on medical staffs and more than 11,000 employees. PMID:12807120

  19. [Temporal ambivalences of aging: Individual patterns of time use in conflict between time wealth and time poverty].

    PubMed

    Münch, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Throughout their lives people are confronted with different time resources and demands that change continuously up into old age. With the help of a qualitative interview study the narrative constructions of subjective time experiences as well as individual ways of dealing with time in retirement were investigated. In particular the influences of older persons' experience of time within the dimensions of everyday time and life time were analyzed. In addition, the study focused on potential time conflicts between these two dimensions and the question of how older people deal with the ambivalence between everyday time wealth and biographical time poverty in older age. The results of the interviews with 50 retired men and women (aged 56-91 years) in Germany, which were analyzed with "grounded theory" techniques, indicated that time in retirement does not indeed always run smoothly. In particular, the individual perception of increasing biographical time poverty exerts pressure on the arrangement of activities and daily routine in retirement. The resulting time conflicts are reflected in differential patterns of time use through which older persons try to cope with their ambivalent time experiences.

  20. [Temporal ambivalences of aging: Individual patterns of time use in conflict between time wealth and time poverty].

    PubMed

    Münch, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Throughout their lives people are confronted with different time resources and demands that change continuously up into old age. With the help of a qualitative interview study the narrative constructions of subjective time experiences as well as individual ways of dealing with time in retirement were investigated. In particular the influences of older persons' experience of time within the dimensions of everyday time and life time were analyzed. In addition, the study focused on potential time conflicts between these two dimensions and the question of how older people deal with the ambivalence between everyday time wealth and biographical time poverty in older age. The results of the interviews with 50 retired men and women (aged 56-91 years) in Germany, which were analyzed with "grounded theory" techniques, indicated that time in retirement does not indeed always run smoothly. In particular, the individual perception of increasing biographical time poverty exerts pressure on the arrangement of activities and daily routine in retirement. The resulting time conflicts are reflected in differential patterns of time use through which older persons try to cope with their ambivalent time experiences. PMID:26625848

  1. The tyranny of profit: concentration of wealth, corporate globalization, and the failed US health care system.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Carole

    2003-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the concentration of wealth and power in the United States and its accompanying ideals of corporate capitalism and globalization are destroying not only the economic security of US families, but also our health care system and the ideals of a participatory democracy. The article is composed of 2 parts. Part I is a portrayal of the US economic and health care system as it is, one that enacts an ideology of never-ending profit, inequality, and exclusion based on class, color, and ability to pay. Initially, I outline the wealth gap in our society and deconstruct the popular myth that most US families benefited from the stock market gains of the 80s and 90s; next I discuss the process of corporatization and globalization of business and the resultant attack on the ideals of participatory democracy. Finally, I briefly trace the history of the corporatization of US health care and outline its impact on costs, access, quality, and population health. Part II is a more philosophical discussion of ways out of the dilemmas portrayed in Part I. Among other things, I discuss how a deepening of our political commitment is needed, a process that entails a move away from the current politics of the Prince toward a politics of the people. This deeper way of living our politics makes every act a political act, enabling us to resist what we are told, denounce that which is unacceptable, unite around common ground, and enact previously unimagined alternatives. PMID:12945653

  2. Competition for Cooperation: variability, benefits and heritability of relational wealth in hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Thompson, James; Rey, Aude; Gerbault, Pascale; Stevenson, Edward Geoffrey Jedediah; Dyble, Mark; E Page, Abigail; Smith, Daniel; Mace, Ruth; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-01-01

    Many defining human characteristics including theory of mind, culture and language relate to our sociality, and facilitate the formation and maintenance of cooperative relationships. Therefore, deciphering the context in which our sociality evolved is invaluable in understanding what makes us unique as a species. Much work has emphasised group-level competition, such as warfare, in moulding human cooperation and sociality. However, competition and cooperation also occur within groups; and inter-individual differences in sociality have reported fitness implications in numerous non-human taxa. Here we investigate whether differential access to cooperation (relational wealth) is likely to lead to variation in fitness at the individual level among BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Using economic gift games we find that relational wealth: a) displays individual-level variation; b) provides advantages in buffering food risk, and is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and female fertility; c) is partially heritable. These results highlight that individual-level processes may have been fundamental in the extension of human cooperation beyond small units of related individuals, and in shaping our sociality. Additionally, the findings offer insight in to trends related to human sociality found from research in other fields such as psychology and epidemiology. PMID:27404514

  3. Competition for Cooperation: variability, benefits and heritability of relational wealth in hunter-gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Thompson, James; Rey, Aude; Gerbault, Pascale; Stevenson, Edward Geoffrey Jedediah; Dyble, Mark; E. Page, Abigail; Smith, Daniel; Mace, Ruth; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-01-01

    Many defining human characteristics including theory of mind, culture and language relate to our sociality, and facilitate the formation and maintenance of cooperative relationships. Therefore, deciphering the context in which our sociality evolved is invaluable in understanding what makes us unique as a species. Much work has emphasised group-level competition, such as warfare, in moulding human cooperation and sociality. However, competition and cooperation also occur within groups; and inter-individual differences in sociality have reported fitness implications in numerous non-human taxa. Here we investigate whether differential access to cooperation (relational wealth) is likely to lead to variation in fitness at the individual level among BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Using economic gift games we find that relational wealth: a) displays individual-level variation; b) provides advantages in buffering food risk, and is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and female fertility; c) is partially heritable. These results highlight that individual-level processes may have been fundamental in the extension of human cooperation beyond small units of related individuals, and in shaping our sociality. Additionally, the findings offer insight in to trends related to human sociality found from research in other fields such as psychology and epidemiology. PMID:27404514

  4. Relative Deprivation and Relative Wealth Enhances Anti-Immigrant Sentiments: The V-Curve Re-Examined.

    PubMed

    Jetten, Jolanda; Mols, Frank; Postmes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that negative attitudes towards immigrants and support for anti-immigrant parties are observed both among those experiencing relative deprivation and those experiencing relative gratification (so called v-curve). Whereas the effect of relative deprivation is intuitive, the effect of relative gratification is more difficult to explain. Why would economic prosperity provoke negative attitudes towards immigrants? We first present correlational (Study 1) and experimental (Study 2) support for the v-curve. In Study 1, in a national Swiss referendum, a higher percentage anti-immigrant voting was found in cantons with relatively lower and relatively higher relative disposable income. In Study 2, in a hypothetical society, more opposition to 'newcomers' joining society was found among poor or above average wealth group members than among those in a moderate wealth group condition. In Study 3, we replicate this finding and also show that opposition to immigration is higher for all wealth groups when societal inequality is growing rather than declining. In a final study, we examine different forms of relative gratification and mediators of the relationship between relative gratification and opposition to immigration (i.e., identification, collective self-definition as competent and cold, and fear about future wealth). Only fear about future wealth mediates this relationship. We conclude that, paradoxically, relative gratification effects are partly due to the fear of future deprivation. PMID:26461497

  5. Relative Deprivation and Relative Wealth Enhances Anti-Immigrant Sentiments: The V-Curve Re-Examined.

    PubMed

    Jetten, Jolanda; Mols, Frank; Postmes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that negative attitudes towards immigrants and support for anti-immigrant parties are observed both among those experiencing relative deprivation and those experiencing relative gratification (so called v-curve). Whereas the effect of relative deprivation is intuitive, the effect of relative gratification is more difficult to explain. Why would economic prosperity provoke negative attitudes towards immigrants? We first present correlational (Study 1) and experimental (Study 2) support for the v-curve. In Study 1, in a national Swiss referendum, a higher percentage anti-immigrant voting was found in cantons with relatively lower and relatively higher relative disposable income. In Study 2, in a hypothetical society, more opposition to 'newcomers' joining society was found among poor or above average wealth group members than among those in a moderate wealth group condition. In Study 3, we replicate this finding and also show that opposition to immigration is higher for all wealth groups when societal inequality is growing rather than declining. In a final study, we examine different forms of relative gratification and mediators of the relationship between relative gratification and opposition to immigration (i.e., identification, collective self-definition as competent and cold, and fear about future wealth). Only fear about future wealth mediates this relationship. We conclude that, paradoxically, relative gratification effects are partly due to the fear of future deprivation.

  6. Relative Deprivation and Relative Wealth Enhances Anti-Immigrant Sentiments: The V-Curve Re-Examined

    PubMed Central

    Jetten, Jolanda; Mols, Frank; Postmes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that negative attitudes towards immigrants and support for anti-immigrant parties are observed both among those experiencing relative deprivation and those experiencing relative gratification (so called v-curve). Whereas the effect of relative deprivation is intuitive, the effect of relative gratification is more difficult to explain. Why would economic prosperity provoke negative attitudes towards immigrants? We first present correlational (Study 1) and experimental (Study 2) support for the v-curve. In Study 1, in a national Swiss referendum, a higher percentage anti-immigrant voting was found in cantons with relatively lower and relatively higher relative disposable income. In Study 2, in a hypothetical society, more opposition to ‘newcomers’ joining society was found among poor or above average wealth group members than among those in a moderate wealth group condition. In Study 3, we replicate this finding and also show that opposition to immigration is higher for all wealth groups when societal inequality is growing rather than declining. In a final study, we examine different forms of relative gratification and mediators of the relationship between relative gratification and opposition to immigration (i.e., identification, collective self-definition as competent and cold, and fear about future wealth). Only fear about future wealth mediates this relationship. We conclude that, paradoxically, relative gratification effects are partly due to the fear of future deprivation. PMID:26461497

  7. Socioeconomic status and chronic child malnutrition: Wealth and maternal education matter more in the Peruvian Andes than nationally.

    PubMed

    Urke, Helga B; Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the association of parents' socioeconomic status (SES) with child stunting in the Peruvian Andes and in Peru nationally. It was hypothesized that the relationship of SES to child stunting would be weaker in the Andean compared with the national sample. This is consistent with earlier research indicating that the relationship of SES to health may be weak in poor regions. The data were from the Demographic and Health Survey 2004 to 2006. Two samples of children 3 to 60 months old were compared: a national sample (n = 1426) and an Andean sample (n = 543). Malnutrition was measured using the indicator "stunting," which is small stature for age. Socioeconomic status was measured using parental education, occupation, and household wealth index (WI). In both samples, SES was significantly related to stunting. The odds of stunting in the poorest WI quintile were significantly higher than in the richest quintile. The same pattern was observed in children of mothers having incomplete primary education compared with children of mothers having complete secondary or higher education. The odds of stunting were significantly lower in children of mothers working at home compared with mothers in professional occupations. The associations of WI and maternal education with stunting were significantly stronger in the Andean compared with the national sample; the study did not find support for the hypothesis. Even in very poor regions such as the Andes, SES may be associated with child health, suggesting the importance of public health measures to overcome the health disadvantages experienced by children living in low SES households.

  8. Applications of physics to economics and finance: Money, income, wealth, and the stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragulescu, Adrian Antoniu

    Several problems arising in Economics and Finance are analyzed using concepts and quantitative methods from Physics. The dissertation is organized as follows: In the first chapter it is argued that in a closed economic system, money is conserved. Thus, by analogy with energy, the equilibrium probability distribution of money must follow the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs law characterized by an effective temperature equal to the average amount of money per economic agent. The emergence of Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution is demonstrated through computer simulations of economic models. A thermal machine which extracts a monetary profit can be constructed between two economic systems with different temperatures. The role of debt and models with broken time-reversal symmetry for which the Boltzmann-Gibbs law does not hold, are discussed. In the second chapter, using data from several sources, it is found that the distribution of income is described for the great majority of population by an exponential distribution, whereas the high-end tail follows a power law. From the individual income distribution, the probability distribution of income for families with two earners is derived and it is shown that it also agrees well with the data. Data on wealth is presented and it is found that the distribution of wealth has a structure similar to the distribution of income. The Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient were calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with both income and wealth data sets. In the third chapter, the stock-market fluctuations at different time scales are investigated. A model where stock-price dynamics is governed by a geometrical (multiplicative) Brownian motion with stochastic variance is proposed. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation can be solved exactly. Integrating out the variance, an analytic formula for the time-dependent probability distribution of stock price changes (returns) is found. The formula is in excellent agreement with the Dow

  9. Household Budgets as a Social Indicator of Poverty and Inequality in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Johan H.

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a universally accepted method of calculating poverty, household expenditure can be used to provide an indication of inequality of wealth and serve as an indicator of poverty. Household expenditure comprises expenditure of private households on goods and services, irrespective of their durability. The portion of household budgets…

  10. Health, wealth, and happiness: financial resources buffer subjective well-being after the onset of a disability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dylan M; Langa, Kenneth M; Kabeto, Mohammed U; Ubel, Peter A

    2005-09-01

    We examined the hypothesis that the relationship between financial status and subjective well-being, typically found to be very small in cross-sectional studies, is moderated by health status. Specifically, we predicted that wealth would buffer well-being after the onset of a disability. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal study of people at and approaching retirement age, we employed within-subjects analyses to test whether wealth measured prior to the onset of a disability protected participants' well-being from some of the negative effects of a new disability. We found support for this hypothesis: Participants who were above the median in total net worth reported a much smaller decline in well-being after a new disability than did participants who were below the median. We also found some evidence that the buffering effect of wealth faded with time, as below-median participants recovered some of their well-being.

  11. From wealth to health: modelling the distribution of income per capita at the sub-national level using night-time light imagery

    PubMed Central

    Ebener, Steeve; Murray, Christopher; Tandon, Ajay; Elvidge, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Background Sub-national figures providing information about the wealth of the population are useful in defining the spatial distribution of both economic activity and poverty within any given country. Furthermore, since several health indicators such as life expectancy are highly correlated with household welfare, sub-national figures allow for the estimation of the distribution of these health indicators within countries when direct measurement is difficult. We have developed methods that utilize spatially distributed information, including night-time light imagery and population to model the distribution of income per capita, as a proxy for wealth, at the country and sub-national level to support the estimation of the distribution of correlated health indicators. Results A first set of analysis are performed in order to propose a new global model for the prediction of income per capita at the country level. A second set of analysis is then confirming the possibility to transfer the country level approach to the sub-national level on a country by country basis before underlining the difficulties to create a global or regional models for the extrapolation of sub-national figures when no country data set exists. Conclusions The methods described provide promising results for the extrapolation of national and sub-national income per capita figures. These results are then discussed in order to evaluate if the proposed methods could not represent an alternative approach for the generation of consistent country specific and/or global poverty maps disaggregated to some sub-national level. PMID:15705196

  12. Friendship trumps neediness: The impact of social relations and others' wealth on preschool children's sharing.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Recent work has suggested the presence of a variety of motives and mechanisms that affect young children's sharing decisions. Yet, little is known about the relative impact of these motives. In three experiments with 3- to 6-year-old children (total N=140), the current study contrasts two important recipient characteristics that have been suggested to play a major role in early sharing; the positive social relationship between children and recipients and the differences in recipients' wealth. To this end, children could allocate resources to a friend who already possessed a lot of them and to a nonfriend (Experiments 1 and 2) or a stranger (Experiment 3) who owned only very few resources. Across age, children showed a preference to share more with their rich friend, although this tendency was stronger in the older preschool children. The findings are discussed with respect to theoretical accounts on the psychological basis of early sharing. PMID:26930165

  13. Boom and bust: housing equity withdrawal and consumption decisions and their impacts on household wealth.

    PubMed

    Gist, John R; Figueiredo, Carlos; Verma, Satyendra K

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine whether the surge in housing refinance and equity withdrawal generated by the housing boom disproportionately affected older households in terms of decisions on whether to refinance, whether to withdraw equity, and how much to withdraw, and how in turn these decisions affected their household wealth. Using the Federal Reserve's Survey of Consumer Finances, the authors found the highest rates of refinancing and cashing out equity among older (although not necessarily the oldest) households. The authors also found that appreciation in house value, being a baby boomer, and having higher household income were the factors that most increased the probability of refinancing and withdrawing equity. Amounts cashed out were higher among older than among younger households. Ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates showed that amounts withdrawn were increased by price appreciation, financial assets, and income, along with being a "pre-boomer" or "early boomer." Older cohorts displayed larger wealth effects than younger ones, but their withdrawn equity was a smaller percentage of total net worth. A relatively small percentage of respondents' dollars was used for consumption, and most dollars were used for home improvement, other investment, or debt repayment. However, massive equity withdrawal and the subsequent collapse of housing prices have caused housing leverage to soar, putting some homeowners "underwater" and jeopardizing others' retirement preparedness. The ensuing housing finance crisis raises numerous policy issues, from reform of mortgage underwriting, securitization, servicing, and foreclosure procedures, to potential limitations on borrowing against unrealized housing equity gains, to enhanced government transfers for distressed older homeowners, to local and state revenue policy changes. PMID:22239279

  14. Developing a Measure of Wealth for Primary Student Families in a Developing Country: Comparison of Two Methods of Psychometric Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This article compares the invariance properties of two methods of psychometric instrument calibration for the development of a measure of wealth among families of Grade 5 pupils in five provinces in Vietnam. The measure is based on self-reported lists of possessions in the home. Its stability has been measured over two time periods. The concept of…

  15. Ecological variation in wealth-fertility relationships in Mongolia: the 'central theoretical problem of sociobiology' not a problem after all?

    PubMed

    Alvergne, Alexandra; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-12-01

    The negative wealth-fertility relationship brought about by market integration remains a puzzle to classic evolutionary models. Evolutionary ecologists have argued that this phenomenon results from both stronger trade-offs between reproductive and socioeconomic success in the highest social classes and the comparison of groups rather than individuals. Indeed, studies in contemporary low fertility settings have typically used aggregated samples that may mask positive wealth-fertility relationships. Furthermore, while much evidence attests to trade-offs between reproductive and socioeconomic success, few studies have explicitly tested the idea that such constraints are intensified by market integration. Using data from Mongolia, a post-socialist nation that underwent mass privatization, we examine wealth-fertility relationships over time and across a rural-urban gradient. Among post-reproductive women, reproductive fitness is the lowest in urban areas, but increases with wealth in all regions. After liberalization, a demographic-economic paradox emerges in urban areas: while educational attainment negatively impacts female fertility in all regions, education uniquely provides socioeconomic benefits in urban contexts. As market integration progresses, socio-economic returns to education increase and women who limit their reproduction to pursue education get wealthier. The results support the view that selection favoured mechanisms that respond to opportunities for status enhancement rather than fertility maximization.

  16. Exploring the Role of Community Cultural Wealth in Graduate School Access and Persistence for Mexican American PhDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espino, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the extent to which devalued forms of capital along with limited access to valued cultural capital facilitated the access and persistence of 33 Mexican American PhDs who earned their doctorates in a variety of disciplines at 15 universities across the United States. Using the framework of community cultural wealth, this…

  17. The Family Affluence Scale as a Measure of National Wealth: Validation of an Adolescent Self-Report Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, William; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Currie, Candace; Zambon, Alessio

    2006-01-01

    One explanation for a lack of consistency in SES-health associations in youth is that parent-based income and occupation measures are inadequate. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS), a four-item measure of family wealth, has been developed in the WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study as an alternative measure. The aim of this paper is to…

  18. The HIV-poverty thesis re-examined: poverty, wealth or inequality as a social determinant of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa?

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M

    2012-07-01

    Although health is generally believed to improve with higher wealth, research on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has shown otherwise. Whereas researchers and advocates have frequently advanced poverty as a social determinant that can help to explain sub-Saharan Africa's disproportionate burden of HIV infection, recent evidence from population surveys suggests that HIV infection is higher among wealthier individuals. Furthermore, wealthier countries in Africa have experienced the fastest growing epidemics. Some researchers have theorized that inequality in wealth may be more important than absolute wealth in explaining why some countries have higher rates of infection and rapidly increasing epidemics. Studies taking a longitudinal approach have further suggested a dynamic process whereby wealth initially increases risk for HIV acquisition and later becomes protective. Prior studies, conducted exclusively at either the individual or the country level, have neither attempted to disentangle the effects of absolute and relative wealth on HIV infection nor to look simultaneously at different levels of analysis within countries at different stages in their epidemics. The current study used micro-, meso- and macro-level data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 170 regions within sixteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa to test the hypothesis that socioeconomic inequality, adjusted for absolute wealth, is associated with greater risk of HIV infection. These analyses reveal that inequality trumps wealth: living in a region with greater inequality in wealth was significantly associated with increased individual risk of HIV infection, net of absolute wealth. The findings also reveal a paradox that supports a dynamic interpretation of epidemic trends: in wealthier regions/countries, individuals with less wealth were more likely to be infected with HIV, whereas in poorer regions/countries, individuals with more wealth were more likely to be infected with HIV. These

  19. Wealth and its associations with enteric parasitic infections in a low-income community in Peru: use of principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Nundy, Shantanu; Gilman, Robert H; Xiao, Lihua; Cabrera, Lilia; Cama, Rosa; Ortega, Ynes R; Kahn, Geoffrey; Cama, Vitaliano A

    2011-01-01

    The association of wealth and infections with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and microsporidia were examined in a longitudinal cohort conducted in Peru from 2001 to 2006. Data from 492 participants were daily clinical manifestations, weekly copro-parasitological diagnosis, and housing characteristics and assets owned (48 variables), and these data were used to construct a global wealth index using principal component analysis. Data were analyzed using continuous and categorical (wealth tertiles) models. Participant's mean age was 3.43 years (range = 0-12 years), with average follow-up of 993 days. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified significant associations between wealth and infections with Giardia and microsporidia. Participants with greater wealth indexes were associated with protection against Giardia (P < 0.001) and persistent Giardia infections (> 14 days). For microsporidia, greater wealth was protective (P = 0.066 continuous and P = 0.042 by tertiles). Contrarily, infections with Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora were independent of wealth. Thus, subtle differences in wealth may affect the frequency of specific parasitic infections within low-income communities.

  20. Average State IQ, State Wealth and Racial Composition as Predictors of State Health Statistics: Partial Support for "g" as a Fundamental Cause of Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Basalik, Debra

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which differences in average IQ across the 50 states was associated with differences in health statistics independent of differences in wealth, health care expenditures and racial composition. Results show that even after controlling for differences in state wealth and health care expenditures, average IQ had…

  1. Wealth, equity and health care: a critique of a "population health" perspective on the determinants of health. Critical Social Science Group.

    PubMed

    Poland, B; Coburn, D; Robertson, A; Eakin, J

    1998-04-01

    In this paper we examine the recent ascendancy of a "population health" perspective on the "determinants of health" in health policy circles as conceptualized by health economists and social epidemiologists such as Evans and Stoddart [Evans and Stoddart (1990) Producing health, consuming health care. Social Science & Medicine 31(12), 1347 1363]. Their view, that the financing of health care systems may actually be deleterious for the health status of populations by drawing attention away from the (economic) determinants of health, has arguably become the "core" of the discourse of "population health". While applauding the efforts of these and other members of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research for "pushing the envelope", we nevertheless have misgivings about their conceptualization of both the "problem" and its "solutions", as well as about the implications of their perspective for policy. From our critique, we build an alternative point of view based on a political economy perspective. We point out that Evans and Stoddart's evidence is open to alternative interpretations--and, in fact, that their conclusions regarding the importance of wealth creation do not directly reflect the evidence presented, and are indicative of an oversimplified link between wealth and health. Their view also lacks an explicit substantive theory of society and of social change, and provides convenient cover for those who wish to dismantle the welfare state in the name of deficit reduction. Our alternative to the "provider dominance" theory of Evans and Stoddart and colleagues stresses that the factors or forces producing health status, which Evans and Stoddart describe, are contained within a larger whole (advanced industrial capitalism) which gives the parts their character and shapes their interrelationships. We contend that this alternative view better explains both how we arrived at a situation in which health care systems are as costly or extensive as they are, and suggests

  2. Agriculture, health, and wealth convergence: bridging traditional food systems and modern agribusiness solutions.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas.

  3. Agriculture, health, and wealth convergence: bridging traditional food systems and modern agribusiness solutions.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas. PMID:25514864

  4. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Elena; Günther, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Seventy percent of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa does not use adequate sanitation facilities. In rural Benin, as much as 95% of the population does not use improved sanitation. By analyzing a representative sample of 2000 rural households, this paper explores why households remain without latrines. Our results show that wealth and latrine prices play the most decisive role for sanitation demand and ownership. At current income levels, sanitation coverage will only increase to 50% if costs for construction are reduced from currently 190 USD to 50 USD per latrine. Our analysis also suggests that previous sanitation campaigns, which were based on prestige and the allure of a modern lifestyle as motives for latrine construction, have had no success in increasing sanitation coverage. Moreover, improved public health, which is the objective of public policies promoting sanitation, will not be effective at low sanitation coverage rates. Fear at night, especially of animals, and personal harassment, are stated as the most important motivational factors for latrine ownership and the intention to build one. We therefore suggest changing the message of sanitation projects and introduce new low-cost technologies into rural markets; otherwise, marketing strategies will continue to fail in increasing sanitation demand.

  5. Four barriers to the global understanding of biodiversity conservation: wealth, language, geographical location and security.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuya; Sutherland, William J

    2013-04-01

    Global biodiversity conservation is seriously challenged by gaps and heterogeneity in the geographical coverage of existing information. Nevertheless, the key barriers to the collection and compilation of biodiversity information at a global scale have yet to be identified. We show that wealth, language, geographical location and security each play an important role in explaining spatial variations in data availability in four different types of biodiversity databases. The number of records per square kilometre is high in countries with high per capita gross domestic product (GDP), high proportion of English speakers and high security levels, and those located close to the country hosting the database; but these are not necessarily countries with high biodiversity. These factors are considered to affect data availability by impeding either the activities of scientific research or active international communications. Our results demonstrate that efforts to solve environmental problems at a global scale will gain significantly by focusing scientific education, communication, research and collaboration in low-GDP countries with fewer English speakers and located far from Western countries that host the global databases; countries that have experienced conflict may also benefit. Findings of this study may be broadly applicable to other fields that require the compilation of scientific knowledge at a global level.

  6. How did the recession of 2007-2009 affect the wealth and retirement of the near retirement age population in the Health and Retirement Study?

    PubMed

    Gustman, Alan L; Steinmeier, Thomas L; Tabatabai, Nahid

    2012-01-01

    This article uses household wealth and labor market data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to investigate how the recent "Great Recession" has affected the wealth and retirement of those approaching retirement age as the recession began, a potentially vulnerable population. The retirement wealth of people aged 53-58 in 2006 declined by a relatively modest 2.8 percent by 2010. Relative losses were greatest among those with the highest wealth when the recession began. Most of the loss in wealth is due to a declining net value of housing, but several factors may provide this cohort with time to recover its housing losses. Although unemployment rose during the Great Recession, that increase was not mirrored by flows out of full-time work or partial retirement. To date, the retirement behavior of the Early Boomer cohort does not differ much from that of older cohorts at comparable ages. PMID:23397745

  7. Quantifying accessibility and use of improved sanitation: towards a comprehensive indicator of the need for sanitation interventions.

    PubMed

    Park, M J; Clements, A C A; Gray, D J; Sadler, R; Laksono, B; Stewart, D E

    2016-01-01

    To prevent diseases associated with inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene, people needing latrines and behavioural interventions must be identified. We compared two indicators that could be used to identify those people. Indicator 1 of household latrine coverage was a simple Yes/No response to the question "Does your household have a latrine?" Indicator 2 was more comprehensive, combining questions about defecation behaviour with observations of latrine conditions. Using a standardized procedure and questionnaire, trained research assistants collected data from 6,599 residents of 16 rural villages in Indonesia. Indicator 1 identified 30.3% as not having a household latrine, while Indicator 2 identified 56.0% as using unimproved sanitation. Indicator 2 thus identified an additional 1,710 people who were missed by Indicator 1. Those 1,710 people were of lower socioeconomic status (p < 0.001), and a smaller percentage practiced appropriate hand-washing (p < 0.02). These results show how a good indicator of need for sanitation and hygiene interventions can combine evidences of both access and use, from self-reports and objective observation. Such an indicator can inform decisions about sanitation-related interventions and about scaling deworming programmes up or down. Further, a comprehensive and locally relevant indicator allows improved targeting to those most in need of a hygiene-behaviour intervention. PMID:27452598

  8. Quantifying accessibility and use of improved sanitation: towards a comprehensive indicator of the need for sanitation interventions

    PubMed Central

    Park, M. J.; Clements, A. C. A.; Gray, D. J.; Sadler, R.; Laksono, B.; Stewart, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    To prevent diseases associated with inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene, people needing latrines and behavioural interventions must be identified. We compared two indicators that could be used to identify those people. Indicator 1 of household latrine coverage was a simple Yes/No response to the question “Does your household have a latrine?” Indicator 2 was more comprehensive, combining questions about defecation behaviour with observations of latrine conditions. Using a standardized procedure and questionnaire, trained research assistants collected data from 6,599 residents of 16 rural villages in Indonesia. Indicator 1 identified 30.3% as not having a household latrine, while Indicator 2 identified 56.0% as using unimproved sanitation. Indicator 2 thus identified an additional 1,710 people who were missed by Indicator 1. Those 1,710 people were of lower socioeconomic status (p < 0.001), and a smaller percentage practiced appropriate hand-washing (p < 0.02). These results show how a good indicator of need for sanitation and hygiene interventions can combine evidences of both access and use, from self-reports and objective observation. Such an indicator can inform decisions about sanitation-related interventions and about scaling deworming programmes up or down. Further, a comprehensive and locally relevant indicator allows improved targeting to those most in need of a hygiene-behaviour intervention. PMID:27452598

  9. Sorting through the Wealth of Options: Comparative Evaluation of Two Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Fisher, Christopher W.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental surfaces play an important role in the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens. Because environmental cleaning is often suboptimal, there is a growing demand for safe, rapid, and automated disinfection technologies, which has lead to a wealth of novel disinfection options available on the market. Specifically, automated ultraviolet-C (UV-C) devices have grown in number due to the documented efficacy of UV-C for reducing healthcare-acquired pathogens in hospital rooms. Here, we assessed and compared the impact of pathogen concentration, organic load, distance, and radiant dose on the killing efficacy of two analogous UV-C devices. Principal Findings The devices performed equivalently for each impact factor assessed. Irradiation delivered for 41 minutes at 4 feet from the devices consistently reduced C. difficile spores by ∼ 3 log10CFU/cm2, MRSA by>4 log10CFU/cm2, and VRE by >5 log10CFU/cm2. Pathogen concentration did not significantly impact the killing efficacy of the devices. However, both a light and heavy organic load had a significant negative impacted on the killing efficacy of the devices. Additionally, increasing the distance to 10 feet from the devices reduced the killing efficacy to ≤3 log10CFU/cm2 for MRSA and VRE and <2 log10CFU/cm2 for C.difficile spores. Delivery of reduced timed doses of irradiation particularly impacted the ability of the devices to kill C. difficile spores. MRSA and VRE were reduced by >3 log10CFU/cm2 after only 10 minutes of irradiation, while C. difficile spores required 40 minutes of irradiation to achieve a similar reduction. Conclusions The UV-C devices were equally effective for killing C. difficile spores, MRSA, and VRE. While neither device would be recommended as a stand-alone disinfection procedure, either device would be a useful adjunctive measure to routine cleaning in healthcare facilities. PMID:25247783

  10. The wealth, health and wellbeing of Ireland’s older people before and during the economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, A.; O’Sullivan, V.

    2014-01-01

    The economic crisis of 2008/9 was felt more acutely in Ireland relative to elsewhere and culminated in the international bailout in 2010. Given the economic collapse, Ireland provides an ideal case-study of the link between wealth collapses and movements in variables such as health and well-being. Using nationally-representative samples of older people collected before and during the crisis, we show that mean net assets fell by 45 percent between 2006/7 and 2012/13. In spite of this massive fall in wealth, measures of health and well-being remained broadly unchanged. However, expectations about future living standards became less optimistic. The results tend to support the findings of other recent studies that recessions do not have widespread negative effects on health and well-being. PMID:26478710

  11. Cognitive capitalism: the effect of cognitive ability on wealth, as mediated through scientific achievement and economic freedom.

    PubMed

    Rindermann, Heiner; Thompson, James

    2011-06-01

    Traditional economic theories stress the relevance of political, institutional, geographic, and historical factors for economic growth. In contrast, human-capital theories suggest that peoples' competences, mediated by technological progress, are the deciding factor in a nation's wealth. Using three large-scale assessments, we calculated cognitive-competence sums for the mean and for upper- and lower-level groups for 90 countries and compared the influence of each group's intellectual ability on gross domestic product. In our cross-national analyses, we applied different statistical methods (path analyses, bootstrapping) and measures developed by different research groups to various country samples and historical periods. Our results underscore the decisive relevance of cognitive ability--particularly of an intellectual class with high cognitive ability and accomplishments in science, technology, engineering, and math--for national wealth. Furthermore, this group's cognitive ability predicts the quality of economic and political institutions, which further determines the economic affluence of the nation. Cognitive resources enable the evolution of capitalism and the rise of wealth.

  12. Do Societal Wealth, Family Affluence, and Gender account for Trends in Adolescent Cannabis Use? A 30 Country Cross-National Study

    PubMed Central

    ter Bogt, Tom F.M.; de Looze, Margreet; Molcho, Michal; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Hublet, Anne; Kokkevi, Anna; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Franelic, Iva Pejnovic; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Sznitman, Sharon; Vieno, Alessio; Vollebergh, Wilma; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine cross-national changes in frequent adolescent cannabis use (40+ times consumed over lifetime at age 15) over time and relate these trends to societal wealth, family affluence, and gender. Design Data from three cycles (2002, 2006, 2010) of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study were used for cross-sectional and trend analyses of adolescent cannabis use. Setting Representative surveys in thirty European and North American countries. Participants 160,606 15-year-old students. Measurements Respondents’ life-time cannabis use, demographics, family affluence (FAS), and frequency of peer contacts were measured individually. Indicators of wealth (Gross Domestic Product per capita, GDP) and perceived availability of cannabis were obtained from national public data bases. Findings The frequency of lifetime cannabis use decreased over time among adolescents in Europe and North America, particularly in Western European countries and the United States of America (Relative Risk (RR) = 0.86: Confidence Interval (CI) 0.79 – 0.93). This trend was not observed consistently in rapidly developing countries in Eastern, Central, and Southern Europe. Over time (2002–2010) cannabis use became: (1) less characteristic of high GDP countries in contrast to lower GDP countries (RR = 0.74: CI 0.57–0.95); (2) less characteristic of youth from high FAS families in contrast to youth from low FAS families (RR = 0.83: CI 0.72–0.96); and (3) characterized by an increasing gender gap, i.e. consumption was higher among males (RR 1.26: CI 1.04–1.53). Perceived availability of cannabis and peer contacts remained strong predictors of frequent cannabis use. Conclusions Among 30 European and North American countries, cannabis use appears to have “trickled down” over time, with developing countries taking on the former (heavier) use pattern of richer countries, and less affluent youth taking on the former (heavier) use pattern of more affluent youth

  13. Comparison of physical, public and human assets as determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in Colombia - moving beyond the household wealth index

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Colombia is a lower-middle income country that faces the challenge of addressing health inequalities. This effort includes the task of developing measures of socioeconomic position (SEP) to describe and analyse disparities in health and health related outcomes. This study explores the use of a multidimensional approach to SEP, in which socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use are investigated along multiple dimensions of SEP. We tested the hypothesis that provision of Public capital compensated for low levels of Human capital. Methods This study used the 2005 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) dataset. The outcome measures were 'current non-use' and 'never use' of contraception. Inequalities in contraceptive behaviour along four measures of SEP were compared: the Household wealth index (HWI), Physical capital (housing, consumer durables), Public capital (publicly provided services) and Human capital (level of education). Principal component analysis was applied to construct the HWI, Physical capital and Public capital measures. Logistic regression models were used to estimate relative indices of inequality (RII) for each measure of SEP with both outcomes. Results Socio-economic inequalities among rural women tended to be larger than those among urban women, for all measures of SEP and for both outcomes. In models mutually adjusted for Physical, Public and Human capital and age, Physical capital identified stronger gradients in contraceptive behaviour in urban and rural areas (Current use of contraception by Physical capital in urban areas RII 2.37 95% CI (1.99-2.83) and rural areas RII 3.70 (2.57-5.33)). The impact of women's level of education on contraceptive behaviour was relatively weak in households with high Public capital compared to households with low Public capital (Current use of contraception in rural areas, interaction p = < 0.001). Reduced educational inequalities attributable to Public capital were partly explained by

  14. Risk-Adjusted Impact of Administrative Costs on the Distribution of Terminal Wealth for Long-Term Investment

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Montserrat; Jarner, Søren Fiig; Pérez-Marín, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth is approximated using a simple formula applicable to many investment situations. We show that the reduction in median returns attributable to administrative fees is usually at least twice the amount of the administrative costs charged for most investment funds, when considering a risk-adjustment correction over a reasonably long-term time horizon. The example we present covers a number of standard cases and can be applied to passive investments, mutual funds, and hedge funds. Our results show investors the potential losses they face in performance due to administrative costs. PMID:25180200

  15. Risk-adjusted impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth for long-term investment.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Montserrat; Jarner, Søren Fiig; Nielsen, Jens Perch; Pérez-Marín, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth is approximated using a simple formula applicable to many investment situations. We show that the reduction in median returns attributable to administrative fees is usually at least twice the amount of the administrative costs charged for most investment funds, when considering a risk-adjustment correction over a reasonably long-term time horizon. The example we present covers a number of standard cases and can be applied to passive investments, mutual funds, and hedge funds. Our results show investors the potential losses they face in performance due to administrative costs.

  16. The curse of wealth – Middle Eastern countries need to address the rapidly rising burden of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Klautzer, Lisa; Becker, Joachim; Mattke, Soeren

    2014-01-01

    The energy boom of the last decade has led to rapidly increasing wealth in the Middle East, particularly in the oil and gas-rich Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. This exceptional growth in prosperity has brought with it rapid changes in lifestyles that have resulted in a significant rise in chronic disease. In particular the number of people diagnosed with diabetes has increased dramatically and health system capacity has not kept pace. In this article, we summarize the current literature to illustrate the magnitude of the problem, its causes and its impact on health and point to options how to address it. PMID:24757686

  17. Risk-adjusted impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth for long-term investment.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Montserrat; Jarner, Søren Fiig; Nielsen, Jens Perch; Pérez-Marín, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The impact of administrative costs on the distribution of terminal wealth is approximated using a simple formula applicable to many investment situations. We show that the reduction in median returns attributable to administrative fees is usually at least twice the amount of the administrative costs charged for most investment funds, when considering a risk-adjustment correction over a reasonably long-term time horizon. The example we present covers a number of standard cases and can be applied to passive investments, mutual funds, and hedge funds. Our results show investors the potential losses they face in performance due to administrative costs. PMID:25180200

  18. Exponential and power-law probability distributions of wealth and income in the United Kingdom and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drăgulescu, Adrian; Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2001-10-01

    We present the data on wealth and income distributions in the United Kingdom, as well as on the income distributions in the individual states of the USA. In all of these data, we find that the great majority of population is described by an exponential distribution, whereas the high-end tail follows a power law. The distributions are characterized by a dimensional scale analogous to temperature. The values of temperature are determined for the UK and the USA, as well as for the individual states of the USA.

  19. Early Warning Indicator System: Supporting K-12 Educators in the Identification, Support, and Monitoring of At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A rise in data availability gives educators the opportunity to tailor instructional practices and interventions to student needs and invest resources in areas where students require the most support. Massachusetts developed the Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS), which synthesizes the wealth of student data available in the state, including…

  20. Indicators+: a proposal for everyday peace indicators.

    PubMed

    Mac Ginty, Roger

    2013-02-01

    Many of the approaches to measuring peace favoured by international organisations, INGOs and donor governments are deficient. Their level of analysis is often too broad or too narrow, and their aggregated statistical format often means that they represent the conflict-affected area in ways that are meaningless to local communities. This article takes the form of a proposal for a new generation of locally organised indicators that are based in everyday life. These indicators are inspired by practice from sustainable development in which indicators are crowd sourced. There is the potential for these to become 'indicators+' or part of a conflict transformation exercise as communities think about what peace might look like and how it could be realised. The article advocates a form of participatory action research that would be able to pick up the textured 'hidden transcript' found in many deeply divided societies and could allow for better targeted peacebuilding and development assistance. PMID:22868180

  1. Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Wealth, Food Security and Child Health in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil D; Freeman, Olivia E; Fisher, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-in-differences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits appear to increase with longer periods of implementation. Perhaps evidence of CBNRM benefits is limited because CBNRM hasn't been around long enough to yield demonstrable outcomes. Nonetheless, achieving demonstrable benefits to rural populations will be crucial for CBNRM's future success in Tanzania. PMID:26186210

  2. Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Wealth, Food Security and Child Health in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil D.; Freeman, Olivia E.; Fisher, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-in-differences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits appear to increase with longer periods of implementation. Perhaps evidence of CBNRM benefits is limited because CBNRM hasn’t been around long enough to yield demonstrable outcomes. Nonetheless, achieving demonstrable benefits to rural populations will be crucial for CBNRM’s future success in Tanzania. PMID:26186210

  3. Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Wealth, Food Security and Child Health in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil D; Freeman, Olivia E; Fisher, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-in-differences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits appear to increase with longer periods of implementation. Perhaps evidence of CBNRM benefits is limited because CBNRM hasn't been around long enough to yield demonstrable outcomes. Nonetheless, achieving demonstrable benefits to rural populations will be crucial for CBNRM's future success in Tanzania.

  4. The associations of household wealth and income with self-rated health--a study on economic advantage in middle-aged Finnish men and women.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2010-09-01

    The economic resources available to an individual or a household have been hypothesised to affect health through the direct material effects of living conditions as well as through social comparison and experiences of deprivation. The focus so far has been mainly on current individual or household income, and there is a lack of studies on wealth, a potentially relevant part of household resources. We studied the associations of household wealth and household income with self-rated health, and addressed some theoretical issues related to economic advantage and health. The data were from questionnaire survey of Finnish men and women aged from 45 to 67 years, who were employed by the City of Helsinki from five to seven years before the collection of the data in 2007. We found household wealth to have a strong and consistent association with self-rated health, poor health decreasing with increasing wealth. The relationship was only partly attributable to the association of wealth with employment status, household income, work conditions and health-related behaviour. In contrast, the association of household income with self-rated health was greatly attenuated by taking into account employment status and wealth, and even further attenuated by work conditions. The results suggested a significant contribution of wealth differentials to differences in health status. The insufficiency of current income as the only measure of material welfare was demonstrated. Conditions associated with long-term accumulation of material welfare may be a significant aspect of the causal processes that lead to socioeconomic inequalities in ill health.

  5. [Performance indicators: INCA (cardiovascular indicators) project].

    PubMed

    Gillespie, F; Orsi, G B; Caracci, G; Scanzano, P; Casertano, L; Duranti, G; Cardo, S; Barone, A P; Tozzi, Q; Ammirati, F

    2007-01-01

    The objective of INCA project was the development and implementation of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI type ST elevation) process and outcome indicators for the regional cardiology units, testing the possibility of using regional healthcare information data to evaluate the quality of provided healthcare within the regional healthcare accreditation process. The project is introduced by an overview of major concepts of evaluating and managing quality of healthcare. We performed a literature review of structure, process and outcome indicators in cardiology and of accreditation standards for cardiology at national and international level. Through consensus procedures and according to international evidence based literature a set of 18 process and outcome indicators for AMI was defined. A specific procedure for data collection has been developed. Education and training of participants on procedures, quality and accreditation was achieved. Expected verifiable end-points have been achieved over a three months period of data collecting throughout 21 cardiology units, differentiated for level of complexity and location, for a total of 409 clinical observed cases of AMI. Analysis of data was followed by the diffusion of results. Successful data collection of clinical performance indicators on a regional basis was achieved. Participants have been trained to quality sciences. Results will be useful to evaluate and design implementation strategies of regional accreditation of health care services within a shared framework. Benchmarking within Regional hospital cardiology care services will be developed following self evaluation and continuous quality improvement cycle activities. PMID:17405513

  6. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOEpatents

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V.; Bak, Chan S.

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  7. The support of human genetic evidence for approved drug indications.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew R; Tipney, Hannah; Painter, Jeffery L; Shen, Judong; Nicoletti, Paola; Shen, Yufeng; Floratos, Aris; Sham, Pak Chung; Li, Mulin Jun; Wang, Junwen; Cardon, Lon R; Whittaker, John C; Sanseau, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Over a quarter of drugs that enter clinical development fail because they are ineffective. Growing insight into genes that influence human disease may affect how drug targets and indications are selected. However, there is little guidance about how much weight should be given to genetic evidence in making these key decisions. To answer this question, we investigated how well the current archive of genetic evidence predicts drug mechanisms. We found that, among well-studied indications, the proportion of drug mechanisms with direct genetic support increases significantly across the drug development pipeline, from 2.0% at the preclinical stage to 8.2% among mechanisms for approved drugs, and varies dramatically among disease areas. We estimate that selecting genetically supported targets could double the success rate in clinical development. Therefore, using the growing wealth of human genetic data to select the best targets and indications should have a measurable impact on the successful development of new drugs.

  8. Evaluation of sustainability indices and indicators in the Paphos district area in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Italos, Chrysostomos; Akylas, Evangelos; Karidis, Demetris; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    During the last decades most of the coastal zones across the Mediterranean Sea concentrates population around polescities owing to the mass movement of people from the rural areas to urban areas. The extensive tourism development across the coast generates demand of new work positions and pressurizes the environment. The economic development increase the natural capital of the study areas increase the covered with buildings and infrastructures areas and as a consequence reduce the quality of life. All the above effects modify the density of the buildings and infrastructures, push and eliminate the free green covered areas and other open spaces. In order to measure the effects on the environment and the quality of life a composite index is developed which arises using combined indices using economical, social and environmental criteria. The above components give a realistic indicator of the effects on the environment. This unique index arises as a function of the ratios of a per capital income a ratio of cover area by the uncovered area and the density of people per unit area. Usually when the wealth is increased the demand of energy and goods also increased and the damage on environment becomes bigger. This paper explores how the application of sustainability indices can be used as a tool to assess the quality of life. The use of GIS and remote sensing is highlighted to support the application of the existing sustainability indices.

  9. Absolute wealth and world region strongly predict overweight among women (ages 18-49) in 360 populations across 36 developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Brewis, Alexandra A

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes a benchmark for comparing SES gradients across countries, based on gross domestic product apportioned to members of differing wealth categories within countries. Using this approach, we estimate absolute wealth in 360 populations in 36 developing countries and model its relationship with overweight (BMI≥25) among non-pregnant women ages 18-49. A simple model based on absolute wealth alone strongly predicts odds of overweight (R(2)=0.59), a relationship that holds both between countries and between different groups in the same country (10 populations for each of 36 countries). Moreover, world region modifies this relationship, accounting for an additional 22% of variance (R(2)=0.81). This allows us to extract a basic pattern: rising rates of overweight in lower and middle income countries closely track increasing economic resources, and the shape of that gradient differs by region in systematic ways.

  10. Does the level of wealth inequality within an area influence the prevalence of depression amongst older people?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alan; Jivraj, Stephen; Nazroo, James; Tampubolon, Gindo; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers whether the extent of inequality in house prices within neighbourhoods of England is associated with depressive symptoms in the older population using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We consider two competing hypotheses: first, the wealth inequality hypothesis which proposes that neighbourhood inequality is harmful to health and, second, the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis which suggests that socially mixed neighbourhoods are beneficial for health outcomes. Our results are supportive of the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis, we find a significant association between neighbourhood inequality and depression with lower levels of depression amongst older people in neighbourhoods with greater house price inequality after controlling for individual socio-economic and area correlates of depression. The association between area inequality and depression is strongest for the poorest individuals, but also holds among the most affluent. Our results are in line with research that suggests there are social and health benefits associated with economically mixed communities. PMID:24662528

  11. [The right to share in the nation's wealth: from the Family Allowance Program to Basic Citizenship Income].

    PubMed

    Suplicy, Eduardo Matarazzo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the positive outcomes of Brazil's Family Allowance Program, in terms of combating hunger and eradicating poverty, stressing that this is the first step towards introducing a Basic Income for Citizenship (RBC - Renda Básica de Cidadania) in Brazil, as established in 2004 through Law N degrees 10,835. This Basic Income for Citizenship will be phased in by stages at the discretion of the Executive Branch, starting with the neediest segments of the population. Everyone will be endowed with the unconditional right to receive an income that will be sufficient - as far as possible - to cover vital requirements. This is not a matter of charity or welfare, but rather an across-the-board right to share in the wealth of the nation. The rationality of this tool for ensuring real freedom and dignity for all is also examined here. PMID:18813498

  12. Examining the Effect of Household Wealth and Migration Status on Safe Delivery Care in Urban India, 1992–2006

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the urban health issue has been of long-standing interest to public health researchers, majority of the studies have looked upon the urban poor and migrants as distinct subgroups. Another concern is, whether being poor and at the same time migrant leads to a double disadvantage in the utilization of maternal health services? This study aims to examine the trends and factors that affect safe delivery care utilization among the migrants and the poor in urban India. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from the National Family Health Survey, 1992–93 and 2005–06, this study grouped the household wealth and migration status into four distinct categories poor-migrant, poor-non migrant, non poor-migrant, non poor-non migrant. Both chi-square test and binary logistic regression were performed to examine the influence of household wealth and migration status on safe delivery care utilization among women who had experienced a birth in the four years preceding the survey. Results suggest a decline in safe delivery care among poor-migrant women during 1992–2006. The present study identifies two distinct groups in terms of safe delivery care utilization in urban India – one for poor-migrant and one for non poor-non migrants. While poor-migrant women were most vulnerable, non poor-non migrant women were the highest users of safe delivery care. Conclusion This study reiterates the inequality that underlies the utilization of maternal healthcare services not only by the urban poor but also by poor-migrant women, who deserve special attention. The ongoing programmatic efforts under the National Urban Health Mission should start focusing on the poorest of the poor groups such as poor-migrant women. Importantly, there should be continuous evaluation to examine the progress among target groups within urban areas. PMID:22970324

  13. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Mariano J; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women's overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Demographic Health Surveys data (2006-2007) from 20 to 49 year old women in Namibia (n = 6,305), Swaziland (n = 2,786), and Zambia (n = 4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women's caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers' overweight status in Namibia.

  14. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Mariano J.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D.; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women’s overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Methods Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) data (2006–2007) from 20–49 year old women in Namibia (n=6,305), Swaziland (n=2,786), and Zambia (n=4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. Results OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women’s caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). Conclusions OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers’ overweight status in Namibia. PMID:25630405

  15. Alternative Solar Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  16. Alternative solar indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, L. J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  17. Calculation of enviromental indices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the development of environmental indices. These indices were developed to be a quantitative measure of characterizing how TVA power system operations and alternative energy strategies might affect the environment. All indices were calculated relative to the reference strategy, and for the environmental review, the reference strategy was `no action`.

  18. Wealth of P-T-t information in medium-high grade metapelites: Example from the Jubrique Unit of the Betic Cordillera, S Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2014-11-01

    It is demonstrated here that medium-high grade metapsammopelites contain a wealth of information to derive a well-constrained P-T-t path relevant for the understanding of the geodynamics resulting in a collisional orogen. The presented example is related to three samples from the Migmatite gneiss zone of the Jubrique Unit, being part of the Alpujárride Complex half way between Malaga and Cadiz. The rocks were studied to determine their pressure (P)-temperature (T) evolution mainly on the basis of the zonation of mm-sized garnet and contoured P-T pseudosections calculated with PERPLE_X. In addition, monazite was dated with the electron microprobe. Ca-poor garnet cores yielded granulite-facies P-T conditions around 0.7 GPa and 800 °C. This metamorphic event occurred in late Hercynian times [287 ± 9 (2σ) Ma] according to monazite enclosed in such garnet cores. The cores are surrounded by a Ca-richer garnet zone, which points to a high-pressure (HP) event close to 1.3 GPa and temperatures above 650 °C. At this stage, melting occurred as indicated by abundant melt inclusions in the Ca-rich garnet zone. Subsequently, the rocks were exhumed and heated to peak temperatures of 740 °C. The final metamorphic stage is characterised by late sillimanite and an outermost garnet rim which is poor in Ca. The melting event is late Alpine confirmed by age dating on monazite in the rock matrix. Similar conditions of a late Alpine HP event were also reported from other areas of the Alpujárride Complex. As the studied rocks never reached P-T conditions of the diamond stability field, it is concluded that the previously reported nanodiamonds in these rocks either grew metastably or were artificially introduced into rock thin-sections.

  19. Measuring wealth-based health inequality among Indian children: the importance of equity vs efficiency.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, P; Pradhan, J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration index is the most commonly used measure of socio-economic-related health inequality. However, a critical constraint has been that it is just a measure of inequality. Equity is an important goal of health policy but the average level of health also matters. In this paper, we explore evidence of both these crucial dimensions-equity (inequality) and efficiency (average health)-in child health indicators by adopting the recently developed measure of the extended concentration index on the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) data from India. An increasing degree of inequality aversion is used to measure health inequalities as well as achievement in the following child health indicators: under-2 child mortality, full immunization coverage, and prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting among children. State-wise adjusted under-2 child mortality scores reveal an increasing trend with increasing values of inequality aversion, implying that under-2 child deaths have been significantly concentrated among the poor households. The level of adjusted under-2 child mortality scores increases significantly with the increasing value of aversion even in states advanced in the health transition, such as Kerala and Goa. The higher values of adjusted scores for lower values of aversion for child immunization coverage are evidence that richer households benefited most from the rise in full immunization coverage. However, the lack of radical changes in the adjusted scores for underweight among children with increasing degrees of aversion implies that household economic status was not the only determinant of poor nutritional status in India.

  20. Energy-conservation indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  1. From Mental Health to Mental Wealth in Athletes: Looking Back and Moving Forward.

    PubMed

    Uphill, Mark; Sly, Dan; Swain, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Considerations of athletes' mental health are typically framed in the language of mental illness (Hughes and Leavey, 2012), a situation that contributes to stigmatization, denial, and the prevention of effective care. In this article, we provide a critical, narrative review of the extant literature on athlete mental health. Specifically, we begin by providing a brief synopsis of the extant literature on athletes' mental health, illustrating both what we know about (i) the prevalence of mental health issues in sport and (ii) variables contributing to help-seeking behaviors in athletes. Against, this backdrop, we outline Keyes' (2002) two-continuum model of mental health as a theoretical framework that has considerable promise in understanding, talking-about, and intervening to enhance, athletes' mental health. This model posits two related, but distinct dimensions: one continuum indicates the presence or absence of mental health, the other the presence or absence of mental illness. From this perspective, a number of possibilities emerge. For instance, athletes could simultaneously have both positive mental health and experience of mental illness. Alternatively, athletes could be free from mental illness, but in Keyes' terms be "languishing" (i.e., experiencing low levels of mental health). Implications for interventions based on the two-continuum model are discussed, particularly drawing on assets-based approaches to enhance flourishing (Theokas et al., 2005). We conclude the review by considering limitations in our understanding of how to promote flourishing and suggest avenues for further research. PMID:27445903

  2. Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth.

    PubMed

    Ajibola, Abdulwahid; Chamunorwa, Joseph P; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2012-06-20

    The use of natural honey (NH) as a nutraceutical agent is associated with nutritional benefits and therapeutic promises. NH is widely accepted as food and medicine by all generations, traditions and civilizations, both ancient and modern. The nutritional profiles, including its use in infant and children feeding reported in different literatures as well as health indices and biomarkers observed by various researchers are illustrated in this manuscript. The review documents folk medicine, experimentation with animal models, and orthodox medical practices shown by clinical trials. This covers virtually all human organs and body systems extensively studied by different workers. The sources and adverse effects of NH contamination, as well as the preventive methods are identified. This could promote the availability of residue free honey and a wholesome natural product for domestic consumption and international market. This could also help to prevent health problems associated with NH poisoning. In addition, apicultural practices and the economic importance of honey are well documented. This report also includes information about a relatively unknown and uncommon South American stingless bee species. We concluded this review by identifying important roles for Ethno-entomologists, other Scientists and Apiculturists in the development of stingless bees to boost honey production, consumption and economic earnings.

  3. From Mental Health to Mental Wealth in Athletes: Looking Back and Moving Forward

    PubMed Central

    Uphill, Mark; Sly, Dan; Swain, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Considerations of athletes’ mental health are typically framed in the language of mental illness (Hughes and Leavey, 2012), a situation that contributes to stigmatization, denial, and the prevention of effective care. In this article, we provide a critical, narrative review of the extant literature on athlete mental health. Specifically, we begin by providing a brief synopsis of the extant literature on athletes’ mental health, illustrating both what we know about (i) the prevalence of mental health issues in sport and (ii) variables contributing to help-seeking behaviors in athletes. Against, this backdrop, we outline Keyes’ (2002) two-continuum model of mental health as a theoretical framework that has considerable promise in understanding, talking-about, and intervening to enhance, athletes’ mental health. This model posits two related, but distinct dimensions: one continuum indicates the presence or absence of mental health, the other the presence or absence of mental illness. From this perspective, a number of possibilities emerge. For instance, athletes could simultaneously have both positive mental health and experience of mental illness. Alternatively, athletes could be free from mental illness, but in Keyes’ terms be “languishing” (i.e., experiencing low levels of mental health). Implications for interventions based on the two-continuum model are discussed, particularly drawing on assets-based approaches to enhance flourishing (Theokas et al., 2005). We conclude the review by considering limitations in our understanding of how to promote flourishing and suggest avenues for further research. PMID:27445903

  4. From Mental Health to Mental Wealth in Athletes: Looking Back and Moving Forward.

    PubMed

    Uphill, Mark; Sly, Dan; Swain, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Considerations of athletes' mental health are typically framed in the language of mental illness (Hughes and Leavey, 2012), a situation that contributes to stigmatization, denial, and the prevention of effective care. In this article, we provide a critical, narrative review of the extant literature on athlete mental health. Specifically, we begin by providing a brief synopsis of the extant literature on athletes' mental health, illustrating both what we know about (i) the prevalence of mental health issues in sport and (ii) variables contributing to help-seeking behaviors in athletes. Against, this backdrop, we outline Keyes' (2002) two-continuum model of mental health as a theoretical framework that has considerable promise in understanding, talking-about, and intervening to enhance, athletes' mental health. This model posits two related, but distinct dimensions: one continuum indicates the presence or absence of mental health, the other the presence or absence of mental illness. From this perspective, a number of possibilities emerge. For instance, athletes could simultaneously have both positive mental health and experience of mental illness. Alternatively, athletes could be free from mental illness, but in Keyes' terms be "languishing" (i.e., experiencing low levels of mental health). Implications for interventions based on the two-continuum model are discussed, particularly drawing on assets-based approaches to enhance flourishing (Theokas et al., 2005). We conclude the review by considering limitations in our understanding of how to promote flourishing and suggest avenues for further research.

  5. Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The use of natural honey (NH) as a nutraceutical agent is associated with nutritional benefits and therapeutic promises. NH is widely accepted as food and medicine by all generations, traditions and civilizations, both ancient and modern. The nutritional profiles, including its use in infant and children feeding reported in different literatures as well as health indices and biomarkers observed by various researchers are illustrated in this manuscript. The review documents folk medicine, experimentation with animal models, and orthodox medical practices shown by clinical trials. This covers virtually all human organs and body systems extensively studied by different workers. The sources and adverse effects of NH contamination, as well as the preventive methods are identified. This could promote the availability of residue free honey and a wholesome natural product for domestic consumption and international market. This could also help to prevent health problems associated with NH poisoning. In addition, apicultural practices and the economic importance of honey are well documented. This report also includes information about a relatively unknown and uncommon South American stingless bee species. We concluded this review by identifying important roles for Ethno-entomologists, other Scientists and Apiculturists in the development of stingless bees to boost honey production, consumption and economic earnings. PMID:22716101

  6. Some Investigations with Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Suggests activities involving the use of indices. Provides five activities with examples for routine practice, pattern recognition, prediction, conjecture, generalization, factorization, and limit concept. (YP)

  7. Chemical Calcium Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, R. Madelaine; Etzler, Julie C.; Watts, Lora Talley; Lechleiter, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Ca2+ signaling as well as our appreciation for its ubiquitous role in cellular processes and has been rapidly advanced, in large part, due to the development of fluorescent Ca2+ indicators. In this chapter, we discuss some of the most common chemical Ca2+ indicators that are widely used for the investigation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Advantages, limitations and relevant procedures will be presented for each dye including their spectral qualities, dissociation constants, chemical forms, loading methods and equipment for optimal imaging. Chemical indicators that are now available allow for intracellular Ca2+ detection over a very large range (<50 nM to >50 μM). Higher affinity indicators can be used to quantify Ca2+ levels in the cytosol while lower affinity indicators can be optimized for measuring Ca2+ in subcellular compartments with higher concentrations. Indicators can be classified into either single wavelength or ratiometric dyes. Both classes require specific lasers, filters, and/or detection methods that are dependent upon their spectral properties and both classes have advantages and limitations. Single wavelength indicators are generally very bright and optimal for Ca2+ detection when more than one fluorophore is being imaging. Ratiometric indicators can be calibrated very precisely and they minimize the most common problems associated with chemical Ca2+ indicators including uneven dye loading, leakage, photobleaching and changes in cell volume. Recent technical advances that permit in vivo Ca2+ measurements will also be discussed. PMID:18929663

  8. Does Wealth Enhance Life Satisfaction for People Who are Materially Deprived? Exploring the Association among the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Colleen J.; Howell, Ryan T.; Schwabe, Kurt A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies investigating need theory and the extent to which money can buy happiness have called for more research within culturally homogeneous samples from developing countries to explore this relationship. We examine wealth as a measure of possessions and savings and relate this to subjective well-being (SWB) among poor indigenous farmers…

  9. Exploring the Nexus between Community Cultural Wealth and the Academic and Social Experiences of Latino Male Achievers at Two Predominantly White Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez, David, II

    2014-01-01

    Latino males are grossly underrepresented at four-year postsecondary institutions in the United States. This phenomenological study seeks to address this emergent educational crisis by focusing on the experiences of two Latino male achievers at predominantly White research universities. Community Cultural Wealth is used to explore how Latino male…

  10. Funds of Knowledge and Community Cultural Wealth: Exploring How Pre-Service Teachers Can Work Effectively with Mexican and Mexican American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saathoff, Stacy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how pre-service teachers can work effectively with Mexican and Mexican American students. Using the foundation of funds of knowledge (González, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) and the critical race theory concept of community cultural wealth (Yosso, 2005), the article weaves together these ideas to discuss how they can be…

  11. The Structure of Social Disparities in Education: Gender and Wealth. Policy Research Report on Gender and Development. Working Paper Series, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filmer, Deon

    This study used internationally comparable household datasets to investigate the interaction of gender and wealth in generating within-country inequalities in educational enrollment and attainment. Data from 57 Demographic and Health Surveys in 41 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific were used to carry out…

  12. Capital Market Constraints, Parental Wealth and the Transition to Self-Employment among Men and Women. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Thomas; Holtz-Eakin, Douglas

    The effects of parental wealth and human capital on the probability of an individual entering self-employment and the relationship between gender and propensity toward self-employment were examined through an analysis of data from the four original cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Labor Market Experience. The data sets…

  13. Retractable Visual Indicator Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackler, George R. (Inventor); Gamboa, Ronald J. (Inventor); Dominquez, Victor (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A retractable indicator assembly may be mounted on a container which transmits air through the container and removes deleterious gases with an activated charcoal medium in the container. The assembly includes: an elongate indicator housing has a chamber therein; a male adaptor with an external threads is used for sealing engagement with the container; a plug located at the upper end of the housing; a housing that includes a transparent wall portion for viewing at least a portion of the chamber; a litmus indicator, moveable by a retractable rod from a retracted position within the container to an extended position within the chamber of the housing; and an outer housing that is secured to the upper end of the rod, and protects the indicator housing while the litmus indicator is in its normally retracted position. The assembly may be manually manipulated between its extended position wherein the litmus indicator may be viewed through the transparent wall of the indicator housing, and a retracted position wherein the outer housing encloses the indicator housing and engages the exterior of the container.

  14. School Readiness Indicator Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This report provides a compilation of indicators of school readiness used in national, state, and local surveys in the United States, delineating the advantages and disadvantages for each indicator. The report begins with a legend to assist in interpreting the tables and includes contact information for national and state surveys. The remainder of…

  15. Educational Quality Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    1993-01-01

    The Educational Quality Indicators initiative, a 3-year collaboration between Alberta Education and 12 school districts, generated 10 action research projects that developed educational indicator systems with a broad range of student outcomes, methods of data collection and interpretation, and outcomes reporting. Field testing of these systems…

  16. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  17. Temperature-indicating Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzig, F

    1939-01-01

    This report is an attempt at a new method of coating the surface of the cylinder with materials that undergo chemical change at definite temperatures as indicated by a change in color. In this way it was hoped that the substance itself would indicate directly the position of its isotherms, which in measurements with thermocouples requires a tedious amount of labor.

  18. Malaria risk factors in North West Tanzania: the effect of spraying, nets and wealth.

    PubMed

    West, Philippa A; Protopopoff, Natacha; Rowland, Mark; Cumming, Emma; Rand, Alison; Drakeley, Chris; Wright, Alexandra; Kivaju, Zuhura; Kirby, Matthew J; Mosha, Franklin W; Kisinza, William; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Malaria prevalence remains high in many African countries despite massive scaling-up of insecticide treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). This paper evaluates the protective effect of pyrethroid IRS and ITNs in relation to risk factors for malaria based on a study conducted in North-West Tanzania, where IRS has been conducted since 2007 and universal coverage of ITNs has been carried out recently. In 2011 community-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the two main malaria transmission periods that occur after the short and long rainy seasons. These included 5,152 and 4,325 children aged 0.5-14 years, respectively. Data on IRS and ITN coverage, household demographics and socio-economic status were collected using an adapted version of the Malaria Indicator Survey. Children were screened for malaria by rapid diagnostic test. In the second survey, haemoglobin density was measured and filter paper blood spots were collected to determine age-specific sero-prevalence in each community surveyed. Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in children 0.5-14 years old was 9.3% (95%CI:5.9-14.5) and 22.8% (95%CI:17.3-29.4) in the two surveys. Risk factors for infection after the short rains included households not being sprayed (OR = 0.39; 95%CI:0.20-0.75); low community net ownership (OR = 0.45; 95%CI:0.21-0.95); and low community SES (least poor vs. poorest tertile: OR = 0.13, 95%CI:0.05-0.34). Risk factors after the long rains included household poverty (per quintile increase: OR = 0.89; 95%CI:0.82-0.97) and community poverty (least poor vs. poorest tertile: OR = 0.26, 95%CI:0.15-0.44); household IRS or high community ITN ownership were not protective. Despite high IRS coverage and equitable LLIN distribution, poverty was an important risk factor for malaria suggesting it could be beneficial to target additional malaria control activities to poor households and communities. High malaria prevalence in some clusters and the

  19. The effect of asset-based wealth inequality on problem drinking among rural Thai elders: a prospective population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Abas, Melanie; Tangchonlatip, Kanchana; Punpuing, Sureeporn

    2014-01-01

    Evidence on the link between income inequality and alcohol-related problems is scarce, inconclusive and dominated by studies from the developed world. The use of income as a proxy measure for wealth is also questionable, particularly in developing countries. The goal of the present study is to explore the contextual influence of asset-based wealth inequality on problem drinking among Thai older adults. A population-based cohort study with a one-year follow-up was nested in a Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) of 100 villages in western Thailand. Data were drawn from a random sample of 1104 older residents, aged 60 or over (one per household) drawn from all 100 villages, of whom 982 (89%) provided problem drinking data at follow-up. The primary outcome measure was a validated Thai version of the Alcohol-Used Disorder Identification Test for problem drinking. Living in areas of high wealth inequality was prospectively associated with a greater risk for problem drinking among older people (adjusted odds ratio 2.30, 95% confidence intervals 1.02-5.22), after adjusting for individual-level and village-level factors. A rise in wealth inequality over the year was also independently associated with an increased risk of problem drinking (adjusted odds ratio 2.89, 95% confidence intervals 1.24-6.65). The associations were not explained by the social capital, status anxiety or psychosocial stress variables. The data suggest that wealth inequality and an increase in inequality across time lead to a greater risk of problem drinking. Efforts should be directed towards reducing gaps and preventing large jumps in inequality in the communities. Further research should investigate the effect of asset-based inequality on various health risk behaviors and its specific mediating pathways.

  20. Tamper indicating bolt

    DOEpatents

    Blagin, Sergei V.; Barkanov, Boris P.

    2004-09-14

    A tamper-indicating fastener has a cylindrical body with threads extending from one end along a portion of the body, and a tamper indicating having a transducer for converting physical properties of the body into electronic data; electronics for recording the electronic data; and means for communicating the recorded information to a remote location from said fastener. The electronics includes a capacitor that varies as a function of force applied by the fastener, and non-volatile memory for recording instances when the capacitance varies, providing an indication of unauthorized access.

  1. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  3. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  4. Functional Significance of Conflicting Age and Wealth Cross-Categorization: The Dominant Role of Categories That Violate Stereotypical Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingjing; Zuo, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify the functional significance of conflicting stereotypes and to identify the dominant category in such conflicts. In the present research we examined the conflicting crossed categories of age and wealth with regard to warmth and competence perceptions. It was found (Pilot Study and Study 1) that the old-rich targets presented a conflicting stereotype group in the perception of warmth, whereas young-poor targets presented a conflicting stereotype group in the perception of competence. In addition, the old stereotype dominated the warmth evaluation of old-rich targets, whereas the poor stereotype dominated the competence evaluation of young-poor targets. In Study 2, participants provided warmth and competence evaluations after they learned about the targets' behaviors which demonstrated high or low warmth and high or low competence. The results suggest that for the warmth evaluation of the old-rich target the category that did not match the behavior (i.e., contradicted the stereotype expectation) was more salient and drove judgments. However, the effect of stereotype expectation violation was not found in the competence evaluation of the young-poor target. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding factors that activate and inhibit stereotyped perceptions.

  5. Meadow birds as indicators.

    PubMed

    Beintema, A J

    1983-09-01

    The use of birds as indicators for 'biological qualities' is not without risks, and should always be based on a sound knowledge of population dynamics and ecological requirements of the species involved. Meadow birds form a comparatively well-studied group of waders, which breed in Dutch grasslands, heavily influenced by agricultural management. The individual species show different tolerances to intensity levels of management, and can therefore be used as indicators for these levels. PMID:24259105

  6. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  7. Indicator Systems and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, Shelley; Grabowski, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the workshop session were actively engaged in a hands-on, minds-on approach to learning about indicators and evaluation processes. The six hour session was broken down into three two hour sessions. Each session was built upon an instructional model which moved from general understanding to specific IITA application. Examples and practice exercises served to demonstrate tand reinforce the workshop concepts. Each successive session built upon the previous session and addressed the major steps in the evaluation process. The major steps covered in the workshop included: project descriptions, writing goals and objectives for categories, determining indicators and indicator systems for specific projects, and methods and issues of data collection. The workshop served as a baseline upon which the field centers will build during the summer in undertaking a comprehensive examination and evaluation of their existing K-12 education projects.

  8. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOEpatents

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  9. Sharing the Wealth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Teri Goodall

    1983-01-01

    A high school computer laboratory is also available for use by community members enrolled in a computer class. Equipment security is obtained by staggering the hours of teacher aides. Faculty and staff can take computers home on weekends. (MLF)

  10. Landscape-based Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is based on data and experience gained through the GLNPO-funded Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Consortium (GLCWC) and the EPA-STAR funded Great Lakes Ecological Indicators Project (GLEI). EPA-MED author Trebitz and other MED personnel were collaborators on the GLEI proje...

  11. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  12. ZERO-TIME INDICATOR

    DOEpatents

    Sander, H.H.

    1960-08-30

    The travel time of a nuclear shock wave from its point of origin to a location can be determined accurately by an apparatus for noting and comparably recording both zerotime, as indicated by the electromagnetic transient associated with the nuclear detonation, and shock wave arrival time.

  13. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple headcounts of students going to…

  14. Fluorescent Gage Indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barns, C. E.; Gilbaugh, B. L.; Gin, B.; Holt, W. L.; Lesak, P.; Mancini, R.; Spencer, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer of dye shows quality of contact between two mating parts. Mating parts checked for fit by spreading fluorescent dye on one, making brief light contact with other, and looking (under UV light) for transferred dye. Dye offers greater visibility under ultraviolet illumination, allowing better indication of how precisely parts match and what areas interfere.

  15. Triboluminescent indicator system

    DOEpatents

    Goods, Steven H.; Dentinger, Paul M.; Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.

    2003-06-24

    There is provided a light emitting device comprising a plurality of triboluminescent particles dispersed throughout a low density, frangible body and activated by rapidly crushing the body in order to transfer mechanical energy to some portion of the particles. The light emitted by these mechanically excited particles is collected and directed into a light conduit and transmitted to a detector/indicator means.

  16. Building Economic Security Today: making the health-wealth connection in Contra Costa county's maternal and child health programs.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Padmini; Dailey, Dawn E; Young, Maria-Elena D; Lam, Carrie; Pies, Cheri

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, maternal and child health professionals have been seeking approaches to integrating the Life Course Perspective and social determinants of health into their work. In this article, we describe how community input, staff feedback, and evidence from the field that the connection between wealth and health should be addressed compelled the Contra Costa Family, Maternal and Child Health (FMCH) Programs Life Course Initiative to launch Building Economic Security Today (BEST). BEST utilizes innovative strategies to reduce inequities in health outcomes for low-income Contra Costa families by improving their financial security and stability. FMCH Programs' Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC) conducted BEST financial education classes, and its Medically Vulnerable Infant Program (MVIP) instituted BEST financial assessments during public health nurse home visits. Educational and referral resources were also developed and distributed to all clients. The classes at WIC increased clients' awareness of financial issues and confidence that they could improve their financial situations. WIC clients and staff also gained knowledge about financial resources in the community. MVIP's financial assessments offered clients a new and needed perspective on their financial situations, as well as support around the financial and psychological stresses of caring for a child with special health care needs. BEST offered FMCH Programs staff opportunities to engage in non-traditional, cross-sector partnerships, and gain new knowledge and skills to address a pressing social determinant of health. We learned the value of flexible timelines, maintaining a long view for creating change, and challenging the traditional paradigm of maternal and child health.

  17. Evolving Indications for Tips.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mitchell; Durham, Janette

    2016-03-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation is a well-established therapy for refractory variceal bleeding and refractory ascites in patients who do not tolerate repeated large volume paracentesis. Experience and technical improvements including covered stents have led to improved TIPS outcomes that have encouraged an expanded application. Evidence for other less frequent indications continues to accumulate, including the indications of primary prophylaxis in patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding, gastric and ectopic variceal bleeding, primary treatment of medically refractory ascites, recurrent refractory ascites following liver transplantation, hepatic hydrothorax, hepatorenal syndrome, Budd-Chiari syndrome, and portal vein thrombosis. Treatment of patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding with early TIPS and using transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts as a primary therapy rather than large volume paracentesis for refractory ascites would likely be the 2 circumstances that permit expansion in the frequency of TIPS procedures. The remaining populations discussed above are relatively rare. PMID:26997087

  18. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  19. [Intraoperative colonoscopy: current indications].

    PubMed

    Stroppa, I; D'Antini, P; Rossi, L; Farinon, A M

    1993-01-01

    From January 1987 to December 1991, 37 patients underwent intraoperative colonoscopy for several indications; these latter can be summarized in the need to define the site or extension of the lesions treated or detected by endoscopy before surgery. This procedure is therefore necessary in those cases in whom intraoperative endoscopy is likely to be useful in planning the surgical treatment. The use of intraoperative colonoscopy should be however considered complementary, but not substitutive, of the preoperative colonoscopy.

  20. Magnetic Location Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Ferrofluidic device indicates point of highest magnetic-flux density in workspace. Consists of bubble of ferrofluid in immiscible liquid carrier in clear plastic case. Used in flat block or tube. Axes of centering circle on flat-block version used to mark location of maximum flux density when bubble in circle. Device used to find point on wall corresponding to known point on opposite side of wall.