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Sample records for hannes hagu siim

  1. Waste treatment at the La Hague and Marcoule sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In this report, an overview of waste treatment and solidification facilities located at the La Hague and Marcoule sites, which are owned and/or operated by Cogema, provided. The La Hague facilities described in this report include the following: The STE3 liquid effluent treatment facility (in operation); the AD2 solid waste processing facility (also in operation); and the UCD alpha waste treatment facility (under construction). The Marcoule facilities described in this report, both of which are in operation, include the following: The STEL-EVA liquid effluent treatment facilities for the entire site; and the alpha waste incinerator of the UPI plant. This report is organized into four sections: this introduction, low-level waste treatment at La Hague, low-level waste treatment at Marcoule, and new process development. including the solvent pyrolysis process currently in the development stage for Cogema`s plants.

  2. 78 FR 77621 - Forum To Discuss Proposed Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Designs, 78 FR 71870 (Nov. 29, 2013). Public comments will not be solicited for the forum. However... To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs AGENCY... International Registration of Industrial Designs (``Hague Agreement'') and is to take effect on the entry...

  3. Hague Forum on ICPD noted gains, outlined obstacles.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    In February 1999, delegates from 177 governments, UN agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the media convened for a forum in The Hague to assess the five-year country-level progress in implementing the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The Forum was organized to provide plenary sessions for all delegates and sessions for committees. The agenda was so full that the Forum did not allow as much time for discussion on implementation techniques and lessons learned as delegates had hoped. The summary report of The Hague Forum notes that several countries are implementing broad-based population policies grounded in a human rights framework, but that funding for implementation has been diverted by various crises. The director of international programs at the Population Reference Bureau reported that Iran offered a good example of a government working in partnership with local-level communities to devise culturally-acceptable programs to provide sexual and reproductive health programs for adolescents. In the area of resource allocation, developing countries have fulfilled 70% of their commitment, while developed countries have provided only 35% of their share. Many innovative schemes were proposed for mobilizing implementation resources. PMID:12295085

  4. Tables of square-law signal detection statistics for Hann spectra with 50 percent overlap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Stanley R.; Cullers, D. Kent

    1991-01-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, currently being planned by NASA, will require that an enormous amount of data be analyzed in real time by special purpose hardware. It is expected that overlapped Hann data windows will play an important role in this analysis. In order to understand the statistical implication of this approach, it has been necessary to compute detection statistics for overlapped Hann spectra. Tables of signal detection statistics are given for false alarm rates from 10(exp -14) to 10(exp -1) and signal detection probabilities from 0.50 to 0.99; the number of computed spectra ranges from 4 to 2000.

  5. La Hague Continuous Improvement Program: Enhancement of the Vitrification Throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Petitjean, V.; De Vera, R.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Tronche, E.; Flament, T.; Pereira Mendes, F.; Prod'homme, A.

    2006-07-01

    The vitrification of high-level liquid waste produced from nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out industrially for over 25 years by AREVA/COGEMA, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. At the 'La Hague' plant, in the 'R7' and 'T7' facilities, vitrified waste is obtained by first evaporating and calcining the nitric acid feed solution-containing fission products in calciners. The product-named calcinate- is then fed together with glass frit into induction-heated metallic melters to produce the so-called R7/T7 glass, well known for its excellent containment properties. Both facilities are equipped with three processing lines. In the near future the increase of the fuel burn-up will influence the amount of fission product solutions to be processed at R7/T7. As a consequence, in order to prepare these changes, it is necessary to feed the calciner at higher flow-rates. Consistent and medium-term R and D programs led by CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission, the AREVA/COGEMA's R and D and R and T provider), AREVA/COGEMA (Industrial Operator) and AREVA/SGN (AREVA/COGEMA's Engineering), and associated to the industrial feed back of AREVA/COGEMA operations, have allowed continuous improvement of the process since 1998: - The efficiency and limitation of the equipment have been studied and solutions for technological improvements have been proposed whenever necessary, - The increase of the feeding flow-rate has been implemented on the improved CEA test rig (so called PEV, Evolutional Prototype of Vitrification) and adapted by AREVA/SGN for the La Hague plant using their modeling studies; the results obtained during this test confirmed the technological and industrial feasibility of the improvements achieved, - After all necessary improved equipments have been implemented in R7/T7 facilities, and a specific campaign has been performed on the R7 facility by AREVA/COGEMA. The flow-rate to the

  6. Bicycling safety and distracted behavior in The Hague, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2013-08-01

    As planners and public health officials in many cities around the world seek to increase bicycle ridership, bicyclists who are performing a secondary task (such as listening to a portable music device) may pose a risk to public safety. This study examines bicycling safety and potentially distracted behavior in The Hague, the Netherlands, a place where bicycling is a common, everyday travel mode among all walks of life and where bicycling infrastructure is well developed. Based on 1360 observations of bicycling behavior, this study shows that bicyclists who were using a cell phone, listening to a portable music device, or talking with other bicyclists exhibited more unsafe behaviors than those bicyclists who were not performing a secondary task. Furthermore, bicyclists who were performing a secondary task also more frequently created situations where other people had to evade them to avoid an accident. As with distracted car driving, the performance of a secondary task while bicycling may be unsafe for the person engaging in the behavior as well as for other people around them.

  7. Workflow Challenges of Enterprise Imaging: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Towbin, Alexander J; Roth, Christopher J; Bronkalla, Mark; Cram, Dawn

    2016-10-01

    With the advent of digital cameras, there has been an explosion in the number of medical specialties using images to diagnose or document disease and guide interventions. In many specialties, these images are not added to the patient's electronic medical record and are not distributed so that other providers caring for the patient can view them. As hospitals begin to develop enterprise imaging strategies, they have found that there are multiple challenges preventing the implementation of systems to manage image capture, image upload, and image management. This HIMSS-SIIM white paper will describe the key workflow challenges related to enterprise imaging and offer suggestions for potential solutions to these challenges.

  8. Workflow Challenges of Enterprise Imaging: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Towbin, Alexander J; Roth, Christopher J; Bronkalla, Mark; Cram, Dawn

    2016-10-01

    With the advent of digital cameras, there has been an explosion in the number of medical specialties using images to diagnose or document disease and guide interventions. In many specialties, these images are not added to the patient's electronic medical record and are not distributed so that other providers caring for the patient can view them. As hospitals begin to develop enterprise imaging strategies, they have found that there are multiple challenges preventing the implementation of systems to manage image capture, image upload, and image management. This HIMSS-SIIM white paper will describe the key workflow challenges related to enterprise imaging and offer suggestions for potential solutions to these challenges. PMID:27527613

  9. Polyvalent fuel treatment facility (TCP): shearing and dissolution of used fuel at La Hague facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brueziere, J.; Tribout-Maurizi, A.; Durand, L.; Bertrand, N.

    2013-07-01

    Although many used nuclear fuel types have already been recycled, recycling plants are generally optimized for Light Water Reactor (LWR) UO{sub x} fuel. Benefits of used fuel recycling are consequently restricted to those fuels, with only limited capacity for the others like LWR MOX, Fast Reactor (FR) MOX or Research and Test Reactor (RTR) fuel. In order to recycle diverse fuel types, an innovative and polyvalent shearing and dissolving cell is planned to be put in operation in about 10 years at AREVA's La Hague recycling plant. This installation, called TCP (French acronym for polyvalent fuel treatment) will benefit from AREVA's industrial feedback, while taking part in the next steps towards a fast reactor fuel cycle development using innovative treatment solutions. Feasibility studies and R/Development trials on dissolution and shearing are currently ongoing. This new installation will allow AREVA to propose new services to its customers, in particular in term of MOX fuel, Research Test Reactors fuel and Fast Reactor fuel treatment. (authors)

  10. Computerized Analytical Data Management System and Automated Analytical Sample Transfer System at the COGEMA Reprocessing Plants in La Hague

    SciTech Connect

    Flament, T.; Goasmat, F.; Poilane, F.

    2002-02-25

    Managing the operation of large commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, such as UP3 and UP2-800 in La Hague, France, requires an extensive analytical program and the shortest possible analysis response times. COGEMA, together with its engineering subsidiary SGN, decided to build high-performance laboratories to support operations in its plants. These laboratories feature automated equipment, safe environments for operators, and short response times, all in centralized installations. Implementation of a computerized analytical data management system and a fully automated pneumatic system for the transfer of radioactive samples was a key factor contributing to the successful operation of the laboratories and plants.

  11. Van Koetsveld and His "School for Idiots" in the Hague (1855-1920): Gender and the History of Special Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Drenth, Annemieke

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how one of the first initiatives in what now is known as "special education" came into existence in the historical context of the Netherlands. It focuses on the first private and autonomous institution for mentally retarded pupils, the so-called "School for Idiots", established in 1855 in The Hague by the Reverend Cornelis…

  12. The Voice of THIMUN Youth: Action Papers of the Annual Session (2nd, The Hague, Netherlands, January 27-February 1, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L., Ed.; Munstermann, Ulrich, Ed.; Gamble, Helen E. W., Ed.

    These Action Papers of seven committees of The Hague International Model United Nations (THIMUN) Youth Assembly represent the efforts of young people, who have been given the opportunity to voice their personal opinions on issues permanently on the international agenda. The Committee on Education and Employment analyzes improving quality of…

  13. Mental Boundaries and Medico-Pedagogical Selection: Girls and Boys in the Dutch "School for Idiots", the Hague 1857-1873

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Drenth, Annemieke

    2007-01-01

    In the wake of developments in France and the United States where early psychiatrists such as Pinel, Esquirol, Belhomme and Seguin advocated "moral treatment" of the insane and classified"idiots" and "imbeciles" as incurable though educable, the Revd C. E. Van Koetsveld initiated his "School for Idiots" in The Hague in 1855. Within two years, he…

  14. Case-control study of leukaemia among young people near La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant: the environmental hypothesis revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Pobel, D.; Viel, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and established risk factors or other factors related to La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Area within a 35 km radius of La Hague, Normandy, France. SUBJECTS: Twenty seven cases of leukaemia diagnosed during the period 1978-93 in people aged under 25 years and 192 controls matched for sex, age, place of birth, and residence at time of diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Antenatal and postnatal exposure to x rays and viral infections, occupational exposure of parents (particularly ionising radiation), living conditions, lifestyle of parents and children. RESULTS: Increased trends were found for use of local beaches by mothers and children (P < or = 0.01); relative risks 2.87 (95% confidence intervals 1.05 to 8.72) and 4.49 (1.52 to 15.23) when categories were aggregated in two levels (more or less than once a month). Consumption of local fish and shellfish also showed an increased trend (P 0.01); relative risk 2.66 (0.91 to 9.51) when categories were grouped in two levels (more or less than once a week). A relative risk of 1.18 a year (1.03 to 1.42) was observed for length of residence in a granite-built house or in a granitic area. No association was shown with occupational radiation exposure in parents. CONCLUSIONS: There is some convincing evidence in childhood leukaemia of a causal role for environmental radiation exposure from recreational activities on beaches. New methods for identifying the environmental pathways, focusing on marine ecosystems, are warranted. PMID:9006467

  15. Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Connan, O; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Maro, D; Lamotte, M; Voiseux, C; Laguionie, P; Cazimajou, O; Le Cavelier, S; Godinot, C; Morillon, M; Thomas, L; Percot, S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of (85)Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague - France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two (85)Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5-4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments.

  16. Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Connan, O; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Maro, D; Lamotte, M; Voiseux, C; Laguionie, P; Cazimajou, O; Le Cavelier, S; Godinot, C; Morillon, M; Thomas, L; Percot, S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of (85)Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague - France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two (85)Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5-4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments. PMID:25078471

  17. Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel-industry demonstration program. Task I. Hague forge furnaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lownie, H.W.; Holden, F.C.

    1982-06-01

    A program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing particular types of energy-conserving devices and equipment was carried out. One of these types of equipment and the results obtained under production conditions in commercial plants are described. The equipment under consideration includes improved forge furnaces and associated heat-recovery components. They are used to heat steel to about 2300 F prior to hot forging. The energy-conserving devices include improved insulation, automatic air-fuel ratio control, and a ceramic recuperator that recovers heat from hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature recirculating burners. Twelve Hague furnaces and retrofit packages were purchased and installed by eleven host forge shops that agree to furnish performance data for the purpose of demonstrating the energy and economic savings that can be achieved in comparison with existing equipment. Fuel savings were reported by comparing the specific energy consumption (Btu's per pound of steel heated) for each Hague furnace with that of a comparison furnace. Economic comparisons were made using payback period based on annual after-tax cash flow. Payback periods for the Hague equipment varied from less than two years to five years or more. In several cases, payback times were high only because the units were operated at a small fraction of their available capacity.

  18. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal.

    PubMed

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-02-01

    Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled "trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal." Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a "Writers' Conference" in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. PMID:27500254

  19. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal.

    PubMed

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-02-01

    Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled "trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal." Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a "Writers' Conference" in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.

  20. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled “trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.” Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a “Writers' Conference” in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. PMID:27500254

  1. The incidence of childhood leukaemia around the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant (France): a survey for the years 1978-1998

    PubMed Central

    Guizard, A; Boutou, O; Pottier, D; Troussard, X; Pheby, D; Launoy, G; Slama, R; Spira, A; ARKM

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A previous study has suggested an increased incidence rate of leukaemia from 1978 to 1992 in people aged 0 to 24 years and living in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant without considering age and cytological type.
SETTING—The Nord Cotentin region (France) and the island of Alderney (United Kingdom).
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the occurrence of leukaemia for each age group and cytological type from 1978 to 1998 in the same area, using accurate reference incidence rates and adequate estimation of the at risk population.
DESIGN—A geographical study of incidence using three zones defined according to their distance from the site (0 to 10 km: Beaumont-Hague electoral ward, 10 to 20 km and 20 to 35 km) has been conducted. The risk of leukaemia was estimated from the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of the number of cases observed to the number expected. Exact 95% confidence intervals (CI) have been computed.
PARTICIPANTS—All people under the age of 25 years living in the study region between 1978 and 1998.
MAIN RESULTS—The observed number of cases of leukaemia in the study region as a whole was consistent with the expected value (SIR=1.03; 95%CI: 0.73, 1.41). No cases were observed on Alderney. The SIR in the Beaumont-Hague electoral ward was 2.17 (95%CI: 0.71, 5.07). The highest SIR was observed in the 5 to 9 years age group (SIR=6.38; 95%CI: 1.32, 18.65). This consists in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cases.
CONCLUSION—This study indicates an increased incidence of leukaemia in the area situated at less than 10 km from the plant. Monitoring and further investigations should be targeted at acute lymphoblastic leukaemia occurring during the childhood incidence peak (before 10 years) in children living near the La Hague site and may be other nuclear reprocessing plants.


Keywords: leukaemia; childhood; nuclear plant PMID:11413175

  2. Orders- Versus Encounters-Based Image Capture: Implications Pre- and Post-Procedure Workflow, Technical and Build Capabilities, Resulting, Analytics and Revenue Capture: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Cram, Dawn; Roth, Christopher J; Towbin, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    The decision to implement an orders-based versus an encounters-based imaging workflow poses various implications to image capture and storage. The impacts include workflows before and after an imaging procedure, electronic health record build, technical infrastructure, analytics, resulting, and revenue. Orders-based workflows tend to favor some imaging specialties while others require an encounters-based approach. The intent of this HIMSS-SIIM white paper is to offer lessons learned from early adopting institutions to physician champions and informatics leadership developing strategic planning and operational rollouts for specialties capturing clinical multimedia. PMID:27417208

  3. Orders- Versus Encounters-Based Image Capture: Implications Pre- and Post-Procedure Workflow, Technical and Build Capabilities, Resulting, Analytics and Revenue Capture: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Cram, Dawn; Roth, Christopher J; Towbin, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    The decision to implement an orders-based versus an encounters-based imaging workflow poses various implications to image capture and storage. The impacts include workflows before and after an imaging procedure, electronic health record build, technical infrastructure, analytics, resulting, and revenue. Orders-based workflows tend to favor some imaging specialties while others require an encounters-based approach. The intent of this HIMSS-SIIM white paper is to offer lessons learned from early adopting institutions to physician champions and informatics leadership developing strategic planning and operational rollouts for specialties capturing clinical multimedia.

  4. INTRODUCTION: Award of the 2004 Hannes Alfvén Prize of the European Physical Society to J W Connor, R J Hastie and J B Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Jo, Dr

    2004-12-01

    Jack Connor, Jim Hastie and Bryan Taylor The Hannes Alfvén Prize of the European Physical Society for Outstanding Contributions to Plasma Physics (2004) has been awarded to Jack Connor, Jim Hastie and Bryan Taylor `for their seminal contributions to a wide range of issues of fundamental importance to the success of magnetic confinement fusion, including: the development of gyro-kinetic theory; the prediction of the bootstrap current; dimensionless scaling laws; pressure-limiting instabilities, and micro-stability and transport theory'. Jack Connor, Jim Hastie and Bryan Taylor form one of the most successful teams of theoretical physicists in the history of magnetic confinement fusion. They have made important contributions individually, but their greatest discoveries have mostly been accomplished jointly, either in pairs or as a team involving all three. Their early work, in the 1960s, included the development of the gyro-kinetic theory for fine-scale plasma instabilities, which today forms the basis of the most advanced turbulence simulation codes in tokamak and stellarator research. The theoretical prediction of the bootstrap current, made in 1970-71 was not confirmed experimentally for over a decade but is now regarded as crucial to the success of the tokamak as a steady-state fusion power source. Their work on collisional transport also included the prediction of impurity ion accumulation, which is observed in internal transport barriers and is a key concern for long-pulse tokamak operation. The relativistic threshold for runaway electrons, identified in 1975, forms the basis of the most recent tokamak disruption mitigation schemes. In the late 1970s, the team developed the theory for ballooning instabilities, which provided an important ingredient in the `Troyon-Sykes' β-limit—an expression that is still used as a guide to the performance of tokamaks and in the design of ITER. Ballooning mode theory has also contributed to the understanding of

  5. 129I from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (U.K.) and La Hague (France); potential as an oceanographie tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raisbeck, G. M.; Yiou, F.; Zhou, Z. Q.; Kilius, L. R.

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of measurements made on archived seaweed samples, together with available release data, we tentatively estimate that the input of 129I (half-life 16 m.y.) to the oceans from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at La Hague, France and Sellafield, Great Britain, during the past 25 years has been ~ 5 X 10 27 atoms, or ~ 1.2 ton of 129I. This is an order of magnitude larger than the total estimated 129I in the pre-nuclear era ocean, approximately 25 times the input due to nuclear weapons testing, and several hundred times that released by Chernobyl. Most of this 129I is transported up the West European coastline and into the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is capable of measuring 10 6 atoms of 129I, thus offering an extremely sensitive method of tracing this isotope in the oceans. We show, for example, that one can detect the reprocessing signal in 11 seawater samples from virtually anywhere in the North Atlantic. It thus should be possible to monitor not only surface circulation but also deep water formation in this latter area, which is believed to have considerable climatic influence. Given its high sensitivity for detection, and the well defined temporal and spatial distribution of its source function, 129I is a potentially attractive addition to the available suite of oceanographie tracers. We also discuss the potential of using this isotope to trace other possible intentional or accidental releases of fission products in the oceans.

  6. Bringing its results and benefits. Mozambique. The Hague Forum.

    PubMed

    Martins, Z

    1999-01-01

    In the wake of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), and given the country's high rate of population growth, Mozambique developed a national population policy to facilitate the implementation of the ICPD program of action at the national level, and to contribute to a smoother economic growth and better human development in the country. A fresh approach was used to create this population policy, although introducing a reproductive health perspective was a major challenge. The policy is already yielding some positive results, such as an increase in the level of school enrollment. Moreover, since 1994, the government has continually and gradually increased the percentage of financial resources allocated to social sectors; the percentage of expenditures upon health and education sectors increased from 14% in 1994 to 28% in 1999. The implementation of many of the country's related programs and efforts is the fruit of the partnership developed by various governmental institutions, civil society, the international community, and donors. UNFPA was a key donor for population-related programs in Mozambique.

  7. 22 CFR 97.2 - Application for a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... official copy of the order of the adoption court finding that the child is eligible for adoption and that the adoption or proposed adoption is in the child's best interests and granting the adoption or... days of the Secretary's request, the Secretary may consider the application abandoned....

  8. 22 CFR 97.2 - Application for a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... official copy of the order of the adoption court finding that the child is eligible for adoption and that the adoption or proposed adoption is in the child's best interests and granting the adoption or... days of the Secretary's request, the Secretary may consider the application abandoned....

  9. 22 CFR 97.2 - Application for a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... official copy of the order of the adoption court finding that the child is eligible for adoption and that the adoption or proposed adoption is in the child's best interests and granting the adoption or... days of the Secretary's request, the Secretary may consider the application abandoned....

  10. 22 CFR 97.2 - Application for a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... official copy of the order of the adoption court finding that the child is eligible for adoption and that the adoption or proposed adoption is in the child's best interests and granting the adoption or... days of the Secretary's request, the Secretary may consider the application abandoned....

  11. 22 CFR 97.2 - Application for a Hague Adoption Certificate or a Hague Custody Declaration (outgoing Convention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... official copy of the order of the adoption court finding that the child is eligible for adoption and that the adoption or proposed adoption is in the child's best interests and granting the adoption or... days of the Secretary's request, the Secretary may consider the application abandoned....

  12. Enterprise Imaging Governance: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Lannum, Louis M; Joseph, Carol L

    2016-10-01

    Enterprise imaging governance is an emerging need in health enterprises today. This white paper highlights the decision-making body, framework, and process for optimal enterprise imaging governance inclusive of five areas of focus: program governance, technology governance, information governance, clinical governance, and financial governance. It outlines relevant parallels and differences when forming or optimizing imaging governance as compared with other established broad horizontal governance groups, such as for the electronic health record. It is intended for CMIOs and health informatics leaders looking to grow and govern a program to optimally capture, store, index, distribute, view, exchange, and analyze the images of their enterprise.

  13. Metastability of collisionless current sheets. Hannes Alfven Lecture on behalf of Albert Galeev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, L.; Galeev, A.

    2009-04-01

    Complicated magnetic configurations containing numerous magnetic field reversals are widespread in nature. Each of such reversals is supported by corresponding current sheet (CS) which could often have very small thickness comparable to ion skin depth. Since the beginning of Space Age "in situ" investigations of current sheets in the Earth's magnetosphere (magnetopause and magnetotail) acquired one of the highest priorities in national space programs and became one of the cornerstones of various international activities, like ISTP, IACG, and ILWS, which appeared to be very effective. Intense theoretical efforts were undertaken by theorists all over the world to develop both equilibrium models of current sheets and analyze its stability and further nonlinear evolution. Lack of collisions and smallness of many characteristic scales in comparison with ion Larmor radius made an application of straightforward MHD approach dramatically questionable. Professor Alfven was one of the first who suggested in 1968 simple but very physical self-consistent particle model of CS. One of the most intriguing features of current sheets in collisionless plasma is their ability to accumulate tremendous amounts of magnetic energy (1015 J for magnetospheric substorms , 1024 J for solar flare associated sheets) and then suddenly sometimes almost explosively release them. We will demonstrate in this talk that such METASTABILITY is a principal intrinsic feature of current sheets in hot plasma. Very intense theoretical debates of 80-ies and late 90-ies resulted in some consensus that current sheets with the small component of magnetic field normal to their plane become overstable for spontaneous reconnection (i.e. versus the development of ion tearing mode). Analysis of INTERBALL and especially 4- point CLUSTER data have shown that real current sheets observed in the Earth's magnetotail very rarely resemble simplistic HARRIS current sheets which have been used for an early stability calculations. Realistic effects taken into account (anisotropy, embedding, layering, bifurcations) already produce picture consistent with observations. Metastable sheets acquire narrow, but finite windows of instability, which once started produces at its nonlinear stage irreversible modification of magnetic topology resulting finally to the release of a stored magnetic energy. Satellite observations could verify this concept potentially very important for other applications in space and laboratory. This work was supported by HUMBOLDT Foundation and Russian Foundation for basic research (N 07 02 00319) and Russian Ministry of Science program (HIII-472.2008.2)

  14. Issues of onset in space plasma activity (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Advances in space plasma dynamics have led to a picture in which major phenomena such as the magnetospheric/ionospheric substorm are viewed as the interplay of a number of processes of a more elementary nature (elements), details depending on the selected focus. The lecture first gives a brief characterization of a set of substorm elements, among them energy transfer into and release from the magnetotail, formation of thin current sheets, magnetic reconnection, current wedge, ballooning instability and auroral phenomena. (This list does not devaluate the classical substorm phases, but a subdivision is called for.) A detailed picture based on observation, theory and simulation, which is required to fully disentangle the interaction of substorm elements, is not yet available. Several aspects that did become reasonably clear in recent times are reviewed. It seems that some of the substorm elements have their own onset scenarios, so that the popular notion of a single substorm onset mechanism needs to be reconsidered. Regarding energy release from the magnetotail, linear stability analysis and numerical simulations point at a crucial role of breakdown of electron gyrotropy leading to instability for sufficient stretching of the magnetotail. The onset of that instability is to be distinguished from the onset of magnetic reconnection. The occurrence of the ballooning instability is discussed in terms of magnetic flux tube entropy. Several interpretations exist about the onset of the instability of the stretched tail. Particular attention is paid to diverging views about causation. To what extent is the ongoing cause-and-effect debate on substorm dynamics based on differences in authors' intuition rather than on irrefutable facts?

  15. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission development and initial results (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuselier, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    The MMS mission is a 4 spacecraft NASA mission designed to unlock the mysteries of magnetic reconnection. The spacecraft measure the ion and electron distributions and the electric and magnetic fields inside the electron and ion diffusion regions in the Earth's magnetosphere. In many ways, this mission is a natural follow-on to the highly successful European Space Agency Cluster mission. This talk focuses on the development of the MMS mission concept with emphasis on the connections to the Cluster mission. Preliminary results from the first phase of the MMS mission will be presented.

  16. Alfvén Waves and the Aurora (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysak, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The most compelling visual evidence of plasma processes in the magnetosphere of Earth as well as the other magnetized planets is the aurora. Over 40 years of research have indicated that the aurora is a consequence of the acceleration of charged particles toward the neutral atmosphere, where the excitation of neutral atoms and their subsequent relaxation to the ground state produces the auroral light. Much of this acceleration can be described by acceleration in a quasi-static electric field parallel to the geomagnetic field, producing nearly monoenergetic beams of electrons. While a variety of quasi-static models to describe such parallel electric fields have been developed, the dynamics of how these fields evolve is still an open question. Satellite measurements have indicated that a primary source of energy to support these fields is the Poynting flux associated with shear Alfvén waves propagating along auroral field lines. These Alfvén waves are generated in the magnetosphere and reflect from the ionosphere. On closed field lines, Alfvén waves bouncing between conjugate ionospheres produce field line resonances that have be observed both in space and by ground magnetometers. However, some auroral emissions do not follow this scenario. In these cases, the accelerated electrons are observed to have a broad energy spectrum, rather than a monoenergetic peak. Such a spectrum is suggestive of a time-dependent acceleration process that operates on a time scale of a few seconds, comparable to the electron transit time across the acceleration region. While field line resonances have a time scale on the order of minutes, waves with periods of a few seconds can be produced by partial reflections in the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator, a resonant cavity formed by the rapid decrease of the plasma density and increase of the Alfvén speed above the ionosphere. In order to develop a parallel electric field that can accelerate auroral particles, these Alfvén waves must develop small spatial scales, where MHD theory breaks down. In this regime, the waves are called kinetic Alfvén waves. These small scales can be produced most simply be phase mixing, although ionospheric feedback and nonlinear effects may also be important. Since kinetic Alfvén waves require perpendicular wavelengths the order of a few kilometers, this model also provides a natural explanation of the narrow scales of discrete auroral arcs. These interactions between magnetosphere and ionosphere and the development of parallel electric fields have been described by means of numerical simulations that serve to illustrate these complex processes.

  17. 78 FR 71869 - Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    .... Section 1.14(a)(1)(ii) is proposed to be amended to replace the reference to ``abandoned application that has been published as a patent application publication'' with a reference to ``abandoned published... abandoned application where the application is identified in the publication of an...

  18. To implement the provisions of the Hague Agreement and the Patent Law Treaty.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Lamar [R-TX-21

    2012-09-19

    09/19/2012 Referred to the House Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3486, which became Public Law 112-211 on 12/18/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Optical interconnections and networks; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 14, 15, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartelt, Hartmut (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The conference presents papers on interconnections, clock distribution, neural networks, and components and materials. Particular attention is given to a comparison of optical and electrical data interconnections at the board and backplane levels, a wafer-level optical interconnection network layout, an analysis and simulation of photonic switch networks, and the integration of picosecond GaAs photoconductive devices with silicon circuits for optical clocking and interconnects. Consideration is also given to the optical implementation of neural networks, invariance in an optoelectronic implementation of neural networks, and the recording of reversible patterns in polymer lightguides.

  20. Population mixing and leukaemia in young people around the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant

    PubMed Central

    Boutou, O; Guizard, A-V; Slama, R; Pottier, D; Spira, A

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate for an association between population mixing and the occurrence of leukaemia in young people (less than 25 years), a geographical study was conducted, for the years 1979 to 1998, in Nord Cotentin (France). This area experienced between the years 1978 and 1992 a major influx of workers for the construction of a nuclear power station and a new nuclear waste reprocessing unit. A population mixing index was defined on the basis of the number of workers born outside the French department of ‘La Manche’ and living in each ‘commune’, the basic geographical unit under study. The analyses were done with indirect standardisation and Poisson regression model allowing or not for extra-Poisson variation. Urban ‘communes’ were considered as the reference population. The Incidence Rate Ratio was 2.7 in rural ‘communes’ belonging to the highest tertile of population mixing (95% Bayesian credible interval, 95%BCI=1.2–5.9). A positive trend was observed among rural strata with increasing population mixing index (IRR for trend=1.4, 95%BCI=1.1–1.8). The risk became stronger for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in children 1–6 years old in the highest tertile of population mixing (IRR=5.5, 95%BCI=1.4–23.3). These findings provide further support for a possible infective basis of childhood leukaemia. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 740–745. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600529 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12232757

  1. Novel optoelectronic devices; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 31-Apr. 2, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael J. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The present conference on novel optoelectronics discusses topics in the state-of-the-art in this field in the Netherlands, quantum wells, integrated optics, nonlinear optical devices and fiber-optic-based devices, ultrafast optics, and nonlinear optics and optical bistability. Attention is given to the production of fiber-optics for telecommunications by means of PCVD, lifetime broadening in quantum wells, nonlinear multiple quantum well waveguide devices, tunable single-wavelength lasers, an Si integrated waveguiding polarimeter, and an electrooptic light modulator using long-range surface plasmons. Also discussed are backward-wave couplers and reflectors, a wavelength-selective all-fiber switching matrix, the impact of ultrafast optics in high-speed electronics, the physics of low energy optical switching, and all-optical logical elements for optical processing.

  2. Technical Challenges of Enterprise Imaging: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Clunie, David A; Dennison, Don K; Cram, Dawn; Persons, Kenneth R; Bronkalla, Mark D; Primo, Henri Rik

    2016-10-01

    This white paper explores the technical challenges and solutions for acquiring (capturing) and managing enterprise images, particularly those involving visible light applications. The types of acquisition devices used for various general-purpose photography and specialized applications including dermatology, endoscopy, and anatomic pathology are reviewed. The formats and standards used, and the associated metadata requirements and communication protocols for transfer and workflow are considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of metadata capture in both order- and encounter-based workflow. The benefits of using DICOM to provide a standard means of recording and accessing both metadata and image and video data are considered, as is the role of IHE and FHIR.

  3. A Foundation for Enterprise Imaging: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Lannum, Louis M; Persons, Kenneth R

    2016-10-01

    Care providers today routinely obtain valuable clinical multimedia with mobile devices, scope cameras, ultrasound, and many other modalities at the point of care. Image capture and storage workflows may be heterogeneous across an enterprise, and as a result, they often are not well incorporated in the electronic health record. Enterprise Imaging refers to a set of strategies, initiatives, and workflows implemented across a healthcare enterprise to consistently and optimally capture, index, manage, store, distribute, view, exchange, and analyze all clinical imaging and multimedia content to enhance the electronic health record. This paper is intended to introduce Enterprise Imaging as an important initiative to clinical and informatics leadership, and outline its key elements of governance, strategy, infrastructure, common multimedia content, acquisition workflows, enterprise image viewers, and image exchange services.

  4. The Current State and Path Forward For Enterprise Image Viewing: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Lannum, Louis M; Dennison, Donald K; Towbin, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    Clinical specialties have widely varied needs for diagnostic image interpretation, and clinical image and video image consumption. Enterprise viewers are being deployed as part of electronic health record implementations to present the broad spectrum of clinical imaging and multimedia content created in routine medical practice today. This white paper will describe the enterprise viewer use cases, drivers of recent growth, technical considerations, functionality differences between enterprise and specialty viewers, and likely future states. This white paper is aimed at CMIOs and CIOs interested in optimizing the image-enablement of their electronic health record or those who may be struggling with the many clinical image viewers their enterprises may employ today.

  5. The Current State and Path Forward For Enterprise Image Viewing: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Lannum, Louis M; Dennison, Donald K; Towbin, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    Clinical specialties have widely varied needs for diagnostic image interpretation, and clinical image and video image consumption. Enterprise viewers are being deployed as part of electronic health record implementations to present the broad spectrum of clinical imaging and multimedia content created in routine medical practice today. This white paper will describe the enterprise viewer use cases, drivers of recent growth, technical considerations, functionality differences between enterprise and specialty viewers, and likely future states. This white paper is aimed at CMIOs and CIOs interested in optimizing the image-enablement of their electronic health record or those who may be struggling with the many clinical image viewers their enterprises may employ today. PMID:27473474

  6. Technical Challenges of Enterprise Imaging: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Clunie, David A; Dennison, Don K; Cram, Dawn; Persons, Kenneth R; Bronkalla, Mark D; Primo, Henri Rik

    2016-10-01

    This white paper explores the technical challenges and solutions for acquiring (capturing) and managing enterprise images, particularly those involving visible light applications. The types of acquisition devices used for various general-purpose photography and specialized applications including dermatology, endoscopy, and anatomic pathology are reviewed. The formats and standards used, and the associated metadata requirements and communication protocols for transfer and workflow are considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of metadata capture in both order- and encounter-based workflow. The benefits of using DICOM to provide a standard means of recording and accessing both metadata and image and video data are considered, as is the role of IHE and FHIR. PMID:27576909

  7. Excerpt from "The Voice of THIMUN [The Hague International Model United Nations] Youth": Action Papers from the Annual Session of the THIMUN Youth Assembly (1st, The Hague, The Netherlands, January 21-26, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Hague International Model United Nations (Netherlands). Youth Assembly.

    The education systems that are in place throughout the world were created for a society different from the one that exists now. These outdated educational systems lead to a lack of motivation on the part of teacher and student and stifle new initiatives. Actions to improve this situation include the following: (1) revising the current amount and…

  8. Innovative optics and phase conjugate optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 13-15, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Rolf-Juergen; Tschudi, Theo T.

    The state of the art and future trends in the field of innovative optics are examined in reviews and reports. Emphasis is placed on phase conjugate optics and industrial applications of innovative optics. Particular attention is given to high-fidelity fast-response phase conjugators for visible and ultraviolet applications, nonlinear optic frequency converters with lowered sensitivity to the spectral width of laser radiation, optical profilometry using spatial heterodyne interferometric methods, surface defect detection and classification with light scattering, measurement of color and scattering phenomena of translucent materials, absorbing materials in multilayer mirrors, a fiber optic solution for digital imaging of aircraft dynamic seals, phase synthesis of elongated holographic diffraction gratings, synthesis of large-aperture interference fields, and nonlinear optical components with liquid crystals.

  9. 77 FR 73731 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application Under the Hague Convention on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... organizations. The purpose of this Notice is to allow 30 days for public comment. DATES: Submit comments directly to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) up to January 10, 2013. ADDRESSES: Direct comments...

  10. 22 CFR 97.5 - Certification of Hague Convention Compliance in an incoming convention case where final adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) A copy of the certificate issued by a consular officer pursuant to 22 CFR 42.24(j) certifying that the granting of custody of the child has occurred in compliance with the Convention; (2) An official... Department may consider the request abandoned. (d) The Secretary may issue the certification if the...

  11. 22 CFR 97.5 - Certification of Hague Convention Compliance in an incoming convention case where final adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) A copy of the certificate issued by a consular officer pursuant to 22 CFR 42.24(j) certifying that the granting of custody of the child has occurred in compliance with the Convention; (2) An official... Department may consider the request abandoned. (d) The Secretary may issue the certification if the...

  12. 22 CFR 97.5 - Certification of Hague Convention Compliance in an incoming convention case where final adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) A copy of the certificate issued by a consular officer pursuant to 22 CFR 42.24(j) certifying that the granting of custody of the child has occurred in compliance with the Convention; (2) An official... Department may consider the request abandoned. (d) The Secretary may issue the certification if the...

  13. 22 CFR 97.5 - Certification of Hague Convention Compliance in an incoming convention case where final adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) A copy of the certificate issued by a consular officer pursuant to 22 CFR 42.24(j) certifying that the granting of custody of the child has occurred in compliance with the Convention; (2) An official... Department may consider the request abandoned. (d) The Secretary may issue the certification if the...

  14. 22 CFR 97.5 - Certification of Hague Convention Compliance in an incoming convention case where final adoption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) A copy of the certificate issued by a consular officer pursuant to 22 CFR 42.24(j) certifying that the granting of custody of the child has occurred in compliance with the Convention; (2) An official... Department may consider the request abandoned. (d) The Secretary may issue the certification if the...

  15. Town of Hague landfill reclamation study: Research ways to increase waste heating value and reduce waste volume. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Salerni, E.

    1997-01-01

    Monitored composing was studied as a method for reducing the quantity of waste requiring disposed from a landfill reclamation project. After each of two re-screening steps, composted {open_quotes}soil{close_quotes} from a single long windrow of varying depths and moisture content was subjected to analytical testing to determine its suitability to remain as backfill in a reclaimed landfill site. The remaining uncomposted waste was combusted at a waste-to-energy facility to determine if Btu values were improved. Results indicate that a full-scale composting operation could result in a net decrease of approximately 11 percent in disposal costs. The Btu value of the reclaimed waste was calculated to be 4,500 to 5,000 Btu/lb. The feasibility of composting reclaimed waste at other landfill reclamation projects will depend upon site-specific technical and economic factors, including size and nature of the organic fraction of the waste mass, local processing costs, and the cost of waste disposal alternatives.

  16. Postgraduate Training in Clinical Oncology. Report on a WHO Working Group (The Hague, The Netherlands, December 6-8, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The 1978 report of the Working Group of Postgraduate Training in Clinical Oncology, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe in collaboration with the government of The Netherlands, is presented. The groups analyzed models of postgraduate training in clinical oncology and evaluated their suitability in relation to…

  17. 77 FR 51102 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application Under the Hague Convention on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... to October 22, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by any of the following methods: Web: Persons with access to the Internet may use the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) to comment on this... control number in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Direct requests for...

  18. Considerations for Exchanging and Sharing Medical Images for Improved Collaboration and Patient Care: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Vreeland, Amy; Persons, Kenneth R; Primo, Henri Rik; Bishop, Matthew; Garriott, Kimberley M; Doyle, Matthew K; Silver, Elliott; Brown, Danielle M; Bashall, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The need for providers and patients to exchange and share imaging has never been more apparent, yet many organizations are only now, as a part of a larger enterprise imaging initiative, taking steps to streamline an important process that has historically been facilitated with the use of CDs or insecure methods of communication. This paper will provide an introduction to concepts and common-use cases for image exchange, outline challenges that have hindered adoption to date, and describe standards for image exchange that show increasing promise of being adopted by vendors and providers.

  19. Considerations for Exchanging and Sharing Medical Images for Improved Collaboration and Patient Care: HIMSS-SIIM Collaborative White Paper.

    PubMed

    Vreeland, Amy; Persons, Kenneth R; Primo, Henri Rik; Bishop, Matthew; Garriott, Kimberley M; Doyle, Matthew K; Silver, Elliott; Brown, Danielle M; Bashall, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The need for providers and patients to exchange and share imaging has never been more apparent, yet many organizations are only now, as a part of a larger enterprise imaging initiative, taking steps to streamline an important process that has historically been facilitated with the use of CDs or insecure methods of communication. This paper will provide an introduction to concepts and common-use cases for image exchange, outline challenges that have hindered adoption to date, and describe standards for image exchange that show increasing promise of being adopted by vendors and providers. PMID:27351992

  20. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... described in paragraph (n), for purposes of this section, the definitions in 22 CFR 96.2 apply. (b) On or after the Convention effective date, as defined in 22 CFR 96.17, a child habitually resident in a... cannot take place unless the waiver is approved, and therefore the consular officer, pursuant to 8...

  1. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... described in paragraph (n), for purposes of this section, the definitions in 22 CFR 96.2 apply. (b) On or after the Convention effective date, as defined in 22 CFR 96.17, a child habitually resident in a... cannot take place unless the waiver is approved, and therefore the consular officer, pursuant to 8...

  2. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section, the definitions in 22 CFR 96.2 apply. (b) On or after the Convention effective date, as defined in 22 CFR 96.17, a child habitually resident in a Convention country who is adopted by a United... therefore the consular officer, pursuant to 8 CFR 204.313(i)(3) and 8 CFR 212.7, will forward the...

  3. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, the definitions in 22 CFR 96.2 apply. (b) On or after the Convention effective date, as defined in 22 CFR 96.17, a child habitually resident in a Convention country who is adopted by a United... therefore the consular officer, pursuant to 8 CFR 204.313(i)(3) and 8 CFR 212.7, will forward the...

  4. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... described in paragraph (n), for purposes of this section, the definitions in 22 CFR 96.2 apply. (b) On or after the Convention effective date, as defined in 22 CFR 96.17, a child habitually resident in a... cannot take place unless the waiver is approved, and therefore the consular officer, pursuant to 8...

  5. CO2 lasers and applications II; Proceedings of the Third European Congress on Optics, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 12-14, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opower, Hans (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in CO2 laser technology and its applications are examined. Topics discussed include the excitation of CO2 lasers by microwave discharge, a compact RF-excited 12-kW CO2 laser, a robotic laser for three-dimensional cutting and welding, three-dimensional CO2-laser material processing with gantry machine systems, and a comparison of hollow metallic waveguides and optical fibers for transmitting CO2-laser radiation. Consideration is given to an aerodynamic window with a pump cavity and a supersonic jet, cutting and welding Al using a high-repetition-rate pulsed CO2 laser, speckle reduction in CO2 heterodyne laser radar systems, high-power-laser float-zone crystal growth, melt dynamics in surface processing with laser radiation, laser hardfacing, surface melting of AlSi10Mg with CO2 laser radiation, material processing with Cu-vapor lasers, light-induced flow at a metal surface, and absorption measurements in high-power CW CO2-laser processing of materials.

  6. Innovation in Geographical Education. Netherlands Geographic Studies 208. Proceedings of the International Geographic Congress (38th, The Hague, Netherlands, August 5-10, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schee, Joop van der, Ed.; Schoenmaker, Gerard, Ed.; Trimp, Henk, Ed.; Westrhenen, Hans van, Ed.

    This book examines trends in current educational literature and how they impact geography instruction. The volume contains 22 articles divided into 5 sections addressing geography innovation and educational research in geography. The introduction by Hans van Westrhenen and Gerard Schoenmaker delineates the foundation for the book and the theme…

  7. Adaptive optics and optical structures; Proceedings of the Meeting, European Congress on Optics, 3rd, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 12-14, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, Robert K. (Editor); Schulte In Den Baeumen, J. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on adaptive optics (AO) and optical structures addresses AO systems and controls, AO components, nonlinear optics applications to AO, astronomical applications of AO, large telescopes and optical alignment, as well as the wavefront control experiment for the use of AO in beam propagation. Specific references are made to applications of electromagnetic theory in optics, theoretical studies of system performance and design parameters, Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing, the use of ray-based techniques in cophasing segmented mirrors, the use of a phase-conjugating mirror for real-time phase visualization, and the absolute instability of oppositely directed waves with respect to a high-reflectivity phase-conjugate mirror. Also addressed are automatic control systems, precision segmented reflectors, AO system creation, the VLT's 8.2-m primary mirrors, an optical 12-m telescope, alignment optimization via the Talbot effect, and a combination of interferometry and ray-tracing analysis.

  8. Global change and relevant space observations; Proceedings of Symposium 1 of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellous, J. L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Topics discussed include the middle-atmosphere change, the detection of an enhanced greenhouse effect, large-scale biological/physical processes in the ocean and at the ocean/atmosphere interface, global to regional energy and water-balance parameters, physical/biological processes at the soil/atmosphere interface, and space systems' capabilities. Papers presented are on complications in determining trends in the stratosphere, changes in characteristics of planetary waves at 80-100 km over central and southern Europe since 1980, the 30-yr trend of observed greenhouse clouds over the tropical oceans, possible causes of enhanced greeenhouse effect as due to natural and anthropogenic phenomena, and advances in modeling ocean primary production and its role in the global carbon cycle. Attention is also given to a climatological analysis of rainfall for the wet pampa and northwest of the Buenos Aires province; the use of thermal IR remote sensing for water budget studies; hydrometeorological, oceanographic, and earth-resources satellite systems operated by USSR, and the NASA ocean data system at the JPL.

  9. 76 FR 6171 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Conference on Private International Law on the 1980 Hague Child Abduction Convention and the 1996 Hague Child... Abduction Convention. In that regard, the Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference has circulated to member... questionnaire asks whether member States believe that the a protocol to the Abduction Convention should...

  10. High power lasers: Sources, laser-material interactions, high excitations, and fast dynamics in laser processing and industrial applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 31-Apr. 3, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz, E. W. (Editor); Quenzer, Alain (Editor); Schuoecker, Dieter (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of high-power lasers for industrial applications are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include the status of optical technology in the Netherlands, laser design, the deposition of optical energy, laser diagnostics, nonmetal processing, and energy coupling and plasma formation. Consideration is given to laser-induced damage to materials, fluid and gas flow dynamics, metal processing, and manufacturing. Graphs, diagrams, micrographs, and photographs are provided.

  11. Active experiments in space; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission D (Meeting D3) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R.

    1992-12-01

    The present volume on active experiments in space discusses dynamic trapping of electrons in the Porcupine ionospheric ion beam experiment, plasma wave observations during electron gun experiments on ISEE-1, spatial coherence and electromagnetic wave generation during electron beam experiments in space, and recent experimental measurements of space platform charging at LEO altitudes. Attention is given to high voltage spheres in an unmagnetized plasma, energetic ion emission for active spacecraft control, the collective gyration of a heavy ion cloud in a magnetized plasma, and remote sensing of artificial luminous clouds by lidars. Topics addressed include modulation of the background flux of energetic particles by artificial injection, wave measurements in active experiments on plasma beam injection, field formation around negatively biased solar arrays in the LEO-plasma, and the registration of ELF waves in rocket-satellite experiments with plasma injection.

  12. Space dust and debris; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission B (Meetings B2, B3, and B5) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Editor); Zarnecki, J. C. (Editor); Matson, D. L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on space dust and debris encompasses orbital debris, in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of space-dust particles, comparative studies of comets, asteroids, and dust, the protection and maneuvering of spacecraft in space-debris environments, and the out-of-elliptic distribution of interplanetary dust derived from near-earth flux. Specific issues addressed include asteroid taxonomy, the optical properties of dust from cometary and interplanetary grains, light scattering by rough surfaces on asteroidal/lunar regoliths, and the first results of particulate impacts and foil perforations on the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Also addressed are collision probability and spacecraft disposition in the geostationary orbit, a flash on the moon caused by orbital debris, the limits of population growth in low earth orbit due to collisional cascading, and the simulation of cosmic man-made dust effects on space-vehicle elements in rocket and laboratory experiments.

  13. Migration and Health: Towards an Understanding of the Health Care Needs of Ethnic Minorities. Proceedings of a Consultative Group on Ethnic Minorities (The Hague, Netherlands, November 28-30, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colledge, M., Ed.; And Others

    This book addresses the research and policy issues that emerge from the interface of different cultures as a consequence of migration. It includes articles on the following issues: (1) the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of migrant health needs; (2) health care across cultural boundaries; (3) health care for labor…

  14. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... area? Other Names for This Condition PDGFRA-associated myeloproliferative neoplasm Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ... Disorders Hanns A. Pielenz Clinical Research Center for Myeloproliferative Neoplasia, MD Anderson Cancer ... Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Idiopathic hypereosinophilic ...

  15. Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sujay; Wahile, Atul; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bishnu Pada; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2006-04-01

    Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds (HANN) was studied using in vitro and in vivo models. Total phenolic content in HANN was found to be 7.61 +/- 0.04% (w/w). Characteristic HPTLC fingerprints of HANN were also made using different solvent systems. The HANN exhibited strong free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by the low IC(50) values in both DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) (6.12 +/- 0.41 microg/ml) and nitric oxide (84.86 +/- 3.56 microg/ml) methods. The values were found to be less than those of rutin, the standard used. Acute toxicity of HANN was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice, no signs of toxicity were observed up to the oral dose of 1,000 mg/kg body weight. Administration of HANN to Wistar rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) treatment caused a significant dose dependent increase (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) in the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and a significant decrease (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), when compared to CCl(4) treated control in both liver and kidney. These changes observed at 100 mg/kg body weight treatment were comparable to those observed for standard Vitamin E at 50 mg/kg treatment. Nelumbo nucifera seeds contain alkaloids, saponins, phenolics and carbohydrates. The results support significant antioxidant nature of HANN.

  16. Life sciences and space research XXIV(1) - Gravitational biology; Proceedings of Symposia 10 and 13 of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F (Meetings F1 and F2) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S. (Editor); Cogoli, A. (Editor); Planel, H. (Editor); Ubbels, G. A. (Editor); Sievers, A. (Editor); Oser, H. (Editor); Horneck, G. (Editor); Wagner, H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Topics presented include an introduction to theories and models of biological response to gravity, gravity effects on biological systems, the function of calcium in plant graviperception, developmental biology on unmanned spacecraft, and the effect of microgravity on the development of plant protoplasts flown on Biocosmos 9. Also presented are the mechanism by which an asymmetric distribution of plant growth hormone is attained, the perception of gravity by plants, an animal research facility for Space Station Freedom, the long-term effects of microgravity and possible countermeasures, and an experimental system for determining the influence of microgravity on B lymphocyte activation and cell fusion.

  17. Life sciences and space research XXIV(4) - Natural and artificial ecosystems; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F (Meetings F10, F11, F1 and F12) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Averner, M. M. (Editor); Tibbits, T. W. (Editor); Bugbee, B. B. (Editor); Horneck, G. (Editor); Dunlop, E. H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present conference on natural and artificial ecosystems and their application to space research encompasses both in-flight and ground-based issues of recycling and control in regenerative life support, the relationships of productivity and facility design in higher plant growth, life-support systems for manned missions to Mars, and biochemical engineering applications in space. Specific issues addressed include interface problems between material recycling systems and plants, temperature and humidity control on a lunar base, the CELSS Test-Facility Project, achieving closure in plant-growth facilities, and life-support systems for Mars transit. Also addressed are a closed equilibrated biological aquatic system, a simulated Mars outpost in the Antarctica dry valleys, analyses of human kidney-cell populations separated on the space shuttle, and the evolution of a phase-separated gravity-independent bioreactor.

  18. New Automated System Available for Reporting Safety Concerns | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    A new system has been developed for reporting safety issues in the workplace. The Environment, Health, and Safety’s (EHS’) Safety Inspection and Issue Management System (SIIMS) is an online resource where any employee can report a problem or issue, said Siobhan Tierney, program manager at EHS.

  19. Hair Zinc Level in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenigun, Ayse; Ozkinay, Ferda; Cogulu, Ozgur; Coker, Canan; Cetiner, Nurten; Ozden, Gonca; Aksu, Oguz; Ozkinay, Cihangir

    2004-01-01

    Immunological, endocrinological, and haematological abnormalities are relatively common in people with Down syndrome (Cuadrado & Barrena, 1996; Decoq & Vincker, 1995; Hestnes et al., 1991; Sustrova & Strbak, 1994; Nespoli, Burgio, Ugazio & Maccario, 1993; Kempski, Chessells & Reeves, 1997; Kivivuori, Rajantie, & Siimes, 1996; David et al., 1996;…

  20. 22 CFR 96.82 - The Secretary's response to actions by the accrediting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... International Law. When informed by an accrediting entity that it has taken an adverse action that impacts an... inform the Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference on Private International Law....

  1. 22 CFR 96.82 - The Secretary's response to actions by the accrediting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... International Law. When informed by an accrediting entity that it has taken an adverse action that impacts an... inform the Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference on Private International Law....

  2. 22 CFR 96.82 - The Secretary's response to actions by the accrediting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... International Law. When informed by an accrediting entity that it has taken an adverse action that impacts an... inform the Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference on Private International Law....

  3. 22 CFR 96.82 - The Secretary's response to actions by the accrediting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... International Law. When informed by an accrediting entity that it has taken an adverse action that impacts an... inform the Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference on Private International Law....

  4. 22 CFR 96.82 - The Secretary's response to actions by the accrediting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... International Law. When informed by an accrediting entity that it has taken an adverse action that impacts an... inform the Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference on Private International Law....

  5. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  6. 45 CFR 1626.10 - Special eligibility questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child abduction and the Federal implementing statute, the International Child Abduction Remedies Act, 42 U.S.C. 11607(b), provided that they...

  7. 45 CFR 1626.10 - Special eligibility questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child abduction and the Federal implementing statute, the International Child Abduction Remedies Act, 42 U.S.C. 11607(b), provided that they...

  8. 45 CFR 1626.10 - Special eligibility questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assistance pursuant to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction and the Federal implementing statute, the International Child Abduction Remedies Act, 42 U.S.C. 11607(b),...

  9. 45 CFR 1626.10 - Special eligibility questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child abduction and the Federal implementing statute, the International Child Abduction Remedies Act, 42 U.S.C. 11607(b), provided that they...

  10. 45 CFR 1626.10 - Special eligibility questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child abduction and the Federal implementing statute, the International Child Abduction Remedies Act, 42 U.S.C. 11607(b), provided that they...

  11. Transforming the radiological interpretation process: TRIP - Where are we now?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice

    2010-03-01

    In 2003, the Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine (SIIM) recognized the problem of rapidly increasing number of images in a radiology study as well as the growing number of studies per patient and the increasing number of patients. This produces a developing issue for radiologists, there was simply no way to efficiently manage the number of images that were produced per day with the available tools. SIIM members organized to help encourage research and development in areas that would transform the radiological interpretation process and trademarked the initiative TRIP™. Since the initiative was started, technology and development has advanced, but has it solved the problem? This paper reviews the literature published in the Journal of Digital Imaging from 2003 until now and analyzes the advances that have been made and what still needs to be done.

  12. Efficient computational methods to study new and innovative signal detection techniques in SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Stanley R.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the research reported here is to provide a rapid computational method for computing various statistical parameters associated with overlapped Hann spectra. These results are important for the Targeted Search part of the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Microwave Observing Project.

  13. 6. PRELIMINARY SKETCH FOR A NEW REDSTONE ARSENAL HEADQUARTERS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PRELIMINARY SKETCH FOR A NEW REDSTONE ARSENAL HEADQUARTERS AND ENGINEERING AREA. (PRESENT DAY MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER), INCLUDING TEST AREA NUMBER 2 (MSFC, EAST TEST AREA). SEPTEMBER 1951, HANNES LUEHRSEN COLLECTION, MSFC MASTER PLANNING OFFICE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. 4. PROPOSED C1 ASSEMBLY AND TESTING FACILITIES FOR THE ORDINANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PROPOSED C-1 ASSEMBLY AND TESTING FACILITIES FOR THE ORDINANCE GUIDED MISSILE CENTER AT REDSTONE ARSENAL, NEAR THE SOUTH END OF MADKIN MOUNTAIN. OCTOBER 1950, HANNES LUEHRSEN COLLECTION, MSFC MASTER PLANNING OFFICE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. 5. PRELIMINARY SKETCH OF THE GUIDED MISSILE TEST FACILITIES FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PRELIMINARY SKETCH OF THE GUIDED MISSILE TEST FACILITIES FOR TEST AREA NUMBER 2. TODAY IR IS KNOWN AS MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER'S EAST TEST AREA. HANNES LUEHRSEN COLLECTION, MSFC MASTER PLANNING OFFICE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. "Parallel Leadership in an "Unparallel" World"--Cultural Constraints on the Transferability of Western Educational Leadership Theories across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin

    2009-01-01

    With the global economy becoming more integrated, the issues of cross-cultural relevance and transferability of leadership theories and practices have become increasingly urgent. Drawing upon the concept of parallel leadership in schools proposed by Crowther, Kaagan, Ferguson, and Hann as an example, the purpose of this paper is to examine the…

  17. Facilitators and barriers to the successful implementation of a protocol to detect child abuse based on parental characteristics.

    PubMed

    Diderich, Hester M; Dechesne, Mark; Fekkes, Minne; Verkerk, Paul H; Pannebakker, Fieke D; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Sorensen, Peggy J G; Buitendijk, Simone E; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2014-11-01

    To determine the critical facilitating and impeding factors underlying successful implementation of a method to detect child abuse based on parental rather than child characteristics known as the Hague Protocol. The original implementation region of the protocol (The Hague) was compared to a new implementation region (Friesland), using analysis of referrals, focus group interviews (n=6) at the Emergency departments (ED) and at the Reporting Centers for Child abuse and Neglect (RCCAN) as well as questionnaires (n=76) at the EDs. Implementation of the Hague Protocol substantially increased the number of referrals to the RCCAN in both regions. In Friesland, the new implementation region, the number of referrals increased from 2 out of 92,464 patients (three per 100,000) to 108 out of 167,037 patients (62 per 100,000). However in Friesland, child abuse was confirmed in a substantially lower percentage of cases relative to the initial implementation region (62% vs. 91%, respectively). Follow-up analyses suggest that this lower positive predictive value may be due to the lack of training for RCCAN professionals concerning the Hague Protocol. The focus group interviews and questionnaires point to time limitations as the main impediment for implementation, whereas an implementation coach has been mentioned as the most important facilitating factor for success. The Hague Protocol can be used to detect child abuse beyond the initial implementation region. However, training is essential in order to assure a consistent evaluation by the RCCAN. PMID:25192959

  18. Facilitators and barriers to the successful implementation of a protocol to detect child abuse based on parental characteristics.

    PubMed

    Diderich, Hester M; Dechesne, Mark; Fekkes, Minne; Verkerk, Paul H; Pannebakker, Fieke D; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Sorensen, Peggy J G; Buitendijk, Simone E; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2014-11-01

    To determine the critical facilitating and impeding factors underlying successful implementation of a method to detect child abuse based on parental rather than child characteristics known as the Hague Protocol. The original implementation region of the protocol (The Hague) was compared to a new implementation region (Friesland), using analysis of referrals, focus group interviews (n=6) at the Emergency departments (ED) and at the Reporting Centers for Child abuse and Neglect (RCCAN) as well as questionnaires (n=76) at the EDs. Implementation of the Hague Protocol substantially increased the number of referrals to the RCCAN in both regions. In Friesland, the new implementation region, the number of referrals increased from 2 out of 92,464 patients (three per 100,000) to 108 out of 167,037 patients (62 per 100,000). However in Friesland, child abuse was confirmed in a substantially lower percentage of cases relative to the initial implementation region (62% vs. 91%, respectively). Follow-up analyses suggest that this lower positive predictive value may be due to the lack of training for RCCAN professionals concerning the Hague Protocol. The focus group interviews and questionnaires point to time limitations as the main impediment for implementation, whereas an implementation coach has been mentioned as the most important facilitating factor for success. The Hague Protocol can be used to detect child abuse beyond the initial implementation region. However, training is essential in order to assure a consistent evaluation by the RCCAN.

  19. When children seek asylum from their parents: a Canadian case study.

    PubMed

    Bossin, Michael; Demirdache, Laïla

    2012-01-01

    When children seek asylum from alleged abuse by a custodial parent, the notion that family reunification is always in the best interests of independent child migrants is undermined. In this chapter, the authors discuss the legal tensions between the Refugee Convention, the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (the "Hague Convention"), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child that arise in such cases. They recommend that the principle of expediency underlying the Hague Convention should not override the time and due process requirements necessary to adequately assess the best interests of the child involved.

  20. Salt disposal effects found small

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Brine discharges into the Gulf of Mexico averaging more than 600,000 barrels per day for the past year have had ‘few significant effects‘ on the marine environment off the Texas coast, according to a preliminary analysis by scientists and engineers at the Texas A&M University. The brine, 8 times saltier than the surrounding seawater, is produced when salt from underground deposits on shore is dissolved and pumped into the Gulf as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program.Lead by Roy Hann, Jr., of the Texas Engineering Experiment Station, the team is analyzing discharge from Bryan Mound at Freeport, Tex., and from the West Hackberry site near Cameron, La. After a year of discharge off Freeport, the researchers found ‘no brine-caused differences in sediment temperatures and bottom-water dissolved-oxygen levels which accompany increased salinity,’ Hann said. In addition, overall compositions of fish and shrimp remained stable.

  1. Diatoms as food of larval sea lampreys in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The food and food preferences of sea lamprey ammocoetes have not been investigated. The food of the larval American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei, in the Great Lakes region consisted mainly of diatoms and desmids according to Creaser and Hann. Schroll discussed the biology of feeding of ammocoetes of Lampetra planeri and Eudontomyzon danfordi in Europe. This report presents data on the availability and use of diatoms by sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, ammocoetes in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan.

  2. Instruments of Science and Citizenship: Science Education for Dutch Orphans during the Late Eighteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the two most extensive instrument collections in the Netherlands during the second half of the eighteenth century--rivaling the much better known collection at the University of Leiden--belonged to an orphanage in The Hague that was specially established to mold hand-picked orphans into productive citizens. (The other was housed at the…

  3. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  4. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  5. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  6. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  7. 22 CFR 97.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 97.1 Section 97.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ISSUANCE OF ADOPTION CERTIFICATES AND CUSTODY DECLARATIONS IN HAGUE CONVENTION ADOPTION CASES § 97.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Adoption...

  8. Revisiting the "Trans-Human" Gestalt: Discussing "Nature" and "Development" with Students of Sustainable Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnina, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the perceptions of development through metaphor use by students of International Business Management Studies at The Hague University. Students' reflections upon the concepts of nature and development before and after educational intervention are examined through discourse analysis and narrative analysis. Results show…

  9. [Karl Landsteiner (1868–1943) and the discovery of blood groups].

    PubMed

    Aymard, J-P

    2012-11-01

    Karl Landsteiner, a Viennese M.D. and pathologist, discovered in the years 1900–1901 the first human blood groups, ABO groups. Furthermore, he made numerous significant contributions to various fields of the biomedical science. In this paper I report on his life and work in Vienna, The Hague and New York.

  10. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  11. The "Truth" about Idiocy: Revisiting Files of Children in the Dutch "School for Idiots" in the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Drenth, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    In 1855 the Revd C. E. Van Koetsveld established his "School for Idiots" in The Hague. Within two years, he had also opened a boarding facility that accommodated many of his pupils. Legal regulations demanded authorisation for a child to be placed in this asylum. This procedure included a questionnaire on the condition of the child. The…

  12. The behaviour of ¹²⁹I released from nuclear fuel reprocessing factories in the North Atlantic Ocean and transport to the Arctic assessed from numerical modelling.

    PubMed

    Villa, M; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Min, Byung-Il; Periáñez, R

    2015-01-15

    A quantitative evaluation of the fate of (129)I, released from the European reprocessing plants of Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France), has been made by means of a Lagrangian dispersion model. Transport of radionuclides to the Arctic Ocean has been determined. Thus, 5.1 and 16.6 TBq of (129)I have been introduced in the Arctic from Sellafield and La Hague respectively from 1966 to 2012. These figures represent, respectively, 48% and 55% of the cumulative discharge to that time. Inventories in the North Atlantic, including shelf seas, are 4.4 and 13.8 TBq coming from Sellafield and La Hague respectively. These figures are significantly different from previous estimations based on field data. The distribution of these inventories among several shelf seas and regions has been evaluated as well. Mean ages of tracers have been finally obtained, making use of the age-averaging hypothesis. It has been found that mean ages for Sellafield releases are about 3.5 year larger than for La Hague releases.

  13. Six Species of Signs: Some Propositions and Strictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebeok, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with the relationship existing between the signifier and the signified components of signs, and with problems in the definition of signs. It is also concerned with recognizing the relationship of semiotics to developmental psychology and ethology. (Available from Semiotica, Co-Libri, P.O. Box 482, The Hague 2076, The Netherlands)

  14. Violation of International Conventions Relatively to the Treatment of Prisoners of War during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokebayeva, Gulzhaukhar; Smagulov, Kadyrzhan; Mussabalina, Gulnara

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to address the issue of prisoners of war through the prism of international law. The object of research is the work of the Commission to investigate the Entente's complaints of violation of Hague Convention on Treatment of Prisoners of War by German authorities. After the armistice, the governments of the Entente sent notes…

  15. 75 FR 58465 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... developments in a number of areas, e.g., federalism issues in implementing private international law conventions (including the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements, the UNCITRAL E-Commerce and Letter... http://www.nccusl.org . We may, by e-mail, supplement those with additional documents. Please advise...

  16. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of disputes between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. 560.510... between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. (a) Except as otherwise... with awards, decisions or orders of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague,...

  17. Under Which Conditions Does ICT Have a Positive Effect on Teaching and Learning? A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.; Cox, M.; Knezek, D.; ten Brummelhuis, A.

    2013-01-01

    "Under which conditions does ICT have a positive effect on teaching and learning?" This was the leading question of the International EDUsummIT in The Hague, the Netherlands. The bases for the discussion were the scholarly findings of the International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education, a synthesis of research…

  18. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with awards, decisions or orders of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague, the International Court of Justice, or other international tribunals (collectively, “tribunals”); agreements settling claims brought before tribunals; and awards, orders, or decisions of an administrative,...

  19. Internal Quality Assurance--Facing Common Challenges. ENQA Workshop Report 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstock, Douglas; Harvey, Lee; Szanto, Tibor; Pyykko, Riitta; Aelterman, Guy; Lopez-Benitez, Mariano; Vera-Toscano, Esperanza; Fereres, Elias; Cassagne, Claude; Dhainaut, Jean-Francois; Lykova, Viktoriya; Babyn, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The annual meeting of the ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) IQA (internal quality assurance) Group gathered some 60 participants in the premises of the Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders (NVAO) in The Hague in June 2009. This seminar was a successful follow-up to the first ENQA IQA…

  20. The behaviour of ¹²⁹I released from nuclear fuel reprocessing factories in the North Atlantic Ocean and transport to the Arctic assessed from numerical modelling.

    PubMed

    Villa, M; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Min, Byung-Il; Periáñez, R

    2015-01-15

    A quantitative evaluation of the fate of (129)I, released from the European reprocessing plants of Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France), has been made by means of a Lagrangian dispersion model. Transport of radionuclides to the Arctic Ocean has been determined. Thus, 5.1 and 16.6 TBq of (129)I have been introduced in the Arctic from Sellafield and La Hague respectively from 1966 to 2012. These figures represent, respectively, 48% and 55% of the cumulative discharge to that time. Inventories in the North Atlantic, including shelf seas, are 4.4 and 13.8 TBq coming from Sellafield and La Hague respectively. These figures are significantly different from previous estimations based on field data. The distribution of these inventories among several shelf seas and regions has been evaluated as well. Mean ages of tracers have been finally obtained, making use of the age-averaging hypothesis. It has been found that mean ages for Sellafield releases are about 3.5 year larger than for La Hague releases. PMID:25487086

  1. 22 CFR 98.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, done at The Hague on May 29, 1993. (b... Registry), a photograph, an audio or video tape, or any other information storage medium of any type... function. (c) Such other terms as are defined in 22 CFR 96.2 shall have the meaning given to them therein....

  2. 22 CFR 98.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, done at The Hague on May 29, 1993. (b... Registry), a photograph, an audio or video tape, or any other information storage medium of any type... function. (c) Such other terms as are defined in 22 CFR 96.2 shall have the meaning given to them therein....

  3. 22 CFR 98.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, done at The Hague on May 29, 1993. (b... Registry), a photograph, an audio or video tape, or any other information storage medium of any type... function. (c) Such other terms as are defined in 22 CFR 96.2 shall have the meaning given to them therein....

  4. 22 CFR 98.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, done at The Hague on May 29, 1993. (b... Registry), a photograph, an audio or video tape, or any other information storage medium of any type... function. (c) Such other terms as are defined in 22 CFR 96.2 shall have the meaning given to them therein....

  5. 22 CFR 98.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, done at The Hague on May 29, 1993. (b... Registry), a photograph, an audio or video tape, or any other information storage medium of any type... function. (c) Such other terms as are defined in 22 CFR 96.2 shall have the meaning given to them therein....

  6. Sharing Experiences within AREVA D and D Project Portfolio: Four Illustrations - 13049

    SciTech Connect

    Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Varet, Thierry; AREVA Site Value Development Business Unit, La Hague Site

    2013-07-01

    Over the past ten years, AREVA has performed D and D operations on a wide range of nuclear sites, such as Marcoule and La Hague recycling plants, to Cadarache MOX fuel fabrication plant or Veurey and Annecy metallic Uranium machining plants. Each site is different from the other but some lessons can be shared through this D and D portfolio. In that respect, knowledge management is one of AREVA D and D Technical Department main missions. Four illustrations demonstrate the interest of knowledge share. Waste management is one of the key activities in D and D; It requires a specific characterization methodology, adapted logistics, and optimized waste channels, all of which have been developed over the years by AREVA teams on the site of Marcoule while they are rather new to La Hague, whose main activity remains fuel reprocessing despite the launch of UP2 400 D and D program. The transfer of know how has thus been organized over the past two years. Plasma cutting has been used extensively in Marcoule for years, while prohibited on the site of La Hague following questions raised about the risks associated wit Ruthenium sublimation. La Hague Technical Department has thus developed an experimental protocol to quantify and contain the Ruthenium risk, the result of which will then be applied to Marcoule where the Ruthenium issue has appeared in recent operations. Commissioning and operating fission products evaporators is a rather standard activity on UP2 800 and UP3, while the associated experience has been decreasing in Marcoule following final shutdown in 1998. When the French atomic Energy commission decided to build and operate a new evaporator to concentrate rinsing effluents prior to vitrification in 2009, AREVA La Hague operators were mobilized to test and commission the new equipment, and train local operators. Concrete scabbling is the final stage prior to the free release of a nuclear facility. In the context of Veurey and Annecy final cleanup and declassification

  7. The 1922 Einstein Film: Cinematic Innovation and Public Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wazeck, Milena

    2010-06-01

    In 1922 Hanns Walter Kornblum produced a long and comprehensive educational film on Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity that made extensive use of trick shots. His film was considered to be a milestone in the history of film and also in the popularization of science. Although the original film has been lost, I have reconstructed its content and its reception by members of the German film industry and cultural sector, laymen, scientists and academics, and politically motivated opponents based upon the large collection of newspaper clippings that was assembled by the antirelativist physicist Ernst Gehrcke.

  8. Trapped particle absorption by the ring of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, W.

    1985-01-01

    The ring systems of Jupiter and Saturn, and their interaction with the magnetosphere were studied. Opportunities to improve the understanding of the sweeping effect of orbiting material on trapped radiation, and the use of this process to gain insight on both the trapped radiation and the target material are outlined. Within the cosmogony of Hannes Alfven, this mechanism is also the key to understanding the formation of many of the features of the Saturnian rings. A better understanding of the sweeping effect would also help to clarify this process.

  9. Comments on cladocerans of crater lakes of the Nevado de Toluca Volcano (Central Mexico), with the description of a new species, Alona manueli sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sinev, Artem Y; Zawisza, Edyta

    2013-01-01

    Cladoceran communities of two lakes of Nevado de Toluca Volcano, Central Mexico, were studied. A new species of Aloninae, Alona manueli sp. nov., is described. It was previously confused with Palearctic Alona intermedia Sars, 1862, but clearly differs from it in the morphology of postabdomen, head shield and head pores, and thoracic limbs. Position of Alona manueli sp. nov. within the genus is unclear, it did not belong to any species-group within Alona s. lato. Other species recorded in the studied lakes are Alona ossiani Sinev, 1998, Alonella pulchella Herrick, 1884, Chydorus belonging to sphaericus-group, Eurycercus longirostris Hann, 1982 and Pleuroxus cf. denticulatus Birge, 1879.

  10. Trapped particle absorption by the ring of Jupiter

    SciTech Connect

    Fillius, W.

    1985-08-01

    The ring systems of Jupiter and Saturn and their interaction with the magnetosphere were studied. Opportunities to improve the understanding of the sweeping effect of orbiting material on trapped radiation and the use of this process to gain insight on both the trapped radiation and the target material are outlined. Within the cosmogony of Hannes Alfven, this mechanism is also the key to understanding the formation of many of the features of the Saturnian rings. A better understanding of the sweeping effect would also help to clarify this process.

  11. Comments on cladocerans of crater lakes of the Nevado de Toluca Volcano (Central Mexico), with the description of a new species, Alona manueli sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sinev, Artem Y; Zawisza, Edyta

    2013-01-01

    Cladoceran communities of two lakes of Nevado de Toluca Volcano, Central Mexico, were studied. A new species of Aloninae, Alona manueli sp. nov., is described. It was previously confused with Palearctic Alona intermedia Sars, 1862, but clearly differs from it in the morphology of postabdomen, head shield and head pores, and thoracic limbs. Position of Alona manueli sp. nov. within the genus is unclear, it did not belong to any species-group within Alona s. lato. Other species recorded in the studied lakes are Alona ossiani Sinev, 1998, Alonella pulchella Herrick, 1884, Chydorus belonging to sphaericus-group, Eurycercus longirostris Hann, 1982 and Pleuroxus cf. denticulatus Birge, 1879. PMID:26295115

  12. Adoption policy and evidence-based domestic adoption practice: a comparison of Romania, Ukraine, India, Guatemala, and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Groza, Victor; Bunkers, Kelley M

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (The Hague Permanent Bureau, 1993), and the Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children (2009) have provided a comprehensive, rights-based framework and guidance for developing domestic adoption and alternative, family based care programs. Domestic adoption is a critical component of any child-protection system and a core part of the range of alternative care options that the United Nations and other international organizations recommend be developed, resourced, and made accessible to children without parental care. This article uses data collected from adoptive parents' postadoption and governmental data in Romania, Ukraine, India, Guatemala, and Ethiopia to focus on domestic adoption in each of these countries. The article highlights both promising practices in domestic adoption as well as policies and practices that require additional research.

  13. [Thomas Schwencke and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart].

    PubMed

    Hillen, Harry F P

    2010-01-01

    Thomas Schwencke (1694-1767) was Professor of Anatomy and Surgery and Lecturer in Obstetrics at the Surgical School in The Hague, the Netherlands. In 1743 he published the very first textbook on haematology. Furthermore, he described his observations on the variolation of smallpox, and published the design of a new obstetric instrument. Schwencke was physician of the city of The Hague and also physician at the court of the princes van Nassau-Weilburg. In 1765 Princess Caroline of Nassau-Weilburg invited the young Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to perform concerts. During his Dutch tour the young Mozart fell seriously ill, probably from typhoid fever. At the request of the court Mozart was seen for a second opinion and thereafter successfully treated by Schwencke. Mozart could continue his concert tour and Schwencke's reputation as Mozart's physician was established.

  14. New developments in RTR fuel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lelievre, F.; Brueziere, J.; Domingo, X.; Valery, J.F.; Leroy, J.F.; Tribout-Maurizi, A.

    2013-07-01

    As most utilities in the world, Research and Test Reactors (RTR) operators are currently facing two challenges regarding the fuel, in order to comply with local safety and waste management requirements as well as global non-proliferation obligation: - How to manage used fuel today, and - How fuel design changes that are currently under development will influence used fuel management. AREVA-La-Hague plant has a large experience in used fuel recycling, including traditional RTR fuel (UAl). Based on that experience and deep knowledge of RTR fuel manufacturing, AREVA is currently examining possible options to cope with both challenges. This paper describes the current experience of AREVA-La-Hague in UAl used fuels recycling and its plan to propose recycling for various types of fuels such as U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel or UMo fuel on an industrial scale. (authors)

  15. ART-SCIENCE OF THE SPACE AGE: towards a platform for art-science collaborations at ESTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnitch, E.; Gelfand, D.

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, in collaboration with ESTEC scientist Bernard Foing and the ArtScience Interfaculty (Royal Academy of the Arts, The Hague), Synergetica Lab (Amsterdam) developed a course, which was repeated in 2015, for bachelor's and master's students aimed at seeding interactions with ESA researchers. The participants created artworks investigating space travel, radio astronomy, microgravity, ecosynthesis as well as extraterrestrial physics and architecture [1] [2]. After their initial presentation at the Royal Academy, these artworks were shown at ESTEC, TodaysArt Festival (The Hague), and TEC ART (Rotterdam). These presentations prompted diverse future collaborations and outreach opportunities, including the European Planetary Science Congress 2014 (Cascais) and the AxS Festival (Los Angeles).

  16. [Karl Landsteiner].

    PubMed

    Gröger, H

    2001-10-30

    Karl Landsteiner received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1930. He worked in Vienna, The Hague and New York, making fundamental contributions in the field of immune hematology (blood groups and Rhesus factor), syphilis (visualising spirochetes in the dark field) and poliomyelitis (viral genesis). In particular, his findings in the general field of serology and immunology (haptens, specificity of antigens) have not lost any of their significance and are valid to this day.

  17. [Two Dutch sisters in analysis with Freud].

    PubMed

    Stroeken, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The author provides persuasive or at least plausible data for the identity of two patients recorded by Freud in his working season of 1910/11. They were two sisters, living in The Hague/Leiden, who came from a rich banker's family, the van der Lindens. Whereas the treatment does not seem to have led to any decisive improvement for the older of the two, it may have encouraged the younger sister to seek divorce.

  18. Nondestructive assay of small PuO{sub 2} samples by neutron-gamma counting-expectations and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, H.; Schubert, A.; Cromboom, O.; Eberle, H.

    1995-12-31

    The accurate determination of the plutonium content in samples of plutonium oxide powders will constitute an important part of the analytical work at future on-site laboratories (OSL) to be installed at the Sellafield and the La Hague reprocessing plants. In this concept, the major part of the work has been assigned to neutron-gamma counter combining the techniques of passive neutron-coincidence counting and high-resolution gamma spectrometry. This paper reviews the development of this technique.

  19. [Two Dutch sisters in analysis with Freud].

    PubMed

    Stroeken, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The author provides persuasive or at least plausible data for the identity of two patients recorded by Freud in his working season of 1910/11. They were two sisters, living in The Hague/Leiden, who came from a rich banker's family, the van der Lindens. Whereas the treatment does not seem to have led to any decisive improvement for the older of the two, it may have encouraged the younger sister to seek divorce. PMID:20503771

  20. Highlights of the Dallas ACS Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeman, Thomas R.; Freilich, Mark; Kelter, Paul B.

    1998-06-01

    Without a doubt, a primary feature of the 1998 Spring National Meeting in Dallas was the High School Program, which was organized by George Hague, and the impact that the Texas teachers had on other participants. Over 150 teachers registered for the meeting and participated in the program. Their organizational skills were used to reinstitute the High School/College Interface Luncheon. (The High School/College Interface Luncheon will also be held at the Fall ACS Meeting in Boston.)

  1. "Cairo-Plus-Five" review is finding political will strong -- but funds lacking.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S A

    1999-04-01

    Last year, the UN Population Fund initiated a 5-year review of progress in attaining the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The review included a series of meetings, including a forum in The Hague involving 2000 people, and will culminate in a special session of the UN General Assembly that will endorse the Secretary-General's progress report. The message that has emerged from these meetings is that countries have made a political commitment to implement the ICPD agenda but some of the largest donor countries, including the US, have failed to fulfill their pledges. The final report from the Hague Forum focuses on progress and constraints in: 1) creating an enabling environment for achieving sustainable development; 2) achieving gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women; 3) promoting reproductive health and rights; 4) strengthening partnerships; and 5) mobilizing and monitoring resources. The Hague Forum was marked by a lack of controversy even though it recommended that: 20% of all donor allocations for reproductive health be earmarked for adolescent-oriented initiatives, postcoital contraception be promoted to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion, and laws punishing women for undergoing illegal abortions be reviewed. The most significant obstacle to implementing the ICPD goals is the fact that total funding is only half of the $17 billion promised for the year 2000. To date, the US has provided only about a third of its pledged amount.

  2. UN assesses the success of ICPD.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    In 1999, the international community will begin its first 5-year review of progress made in implementing the 20-year Programme of Action (POA) of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The POA signals the revolutionary agreement of 180 nations that human development and the empowerment of women are vital to stabilizing world population and achieving sustainable development. Delegates to the February 1999 Hague Forum will make recommendations for review by the March meeting of the UN Commission on Population and Development, which will serve as a preparatory committee meeting for a special session of the UN General Assembly. This special session will decide the next steps to be taken to foster implementation of the POA and will issue a report in July. Credit for achieving consensus on the POA is given to the 1200 representatives of nongovernmental organization (NGO) in attendance and to those who prepared for the ICPD by insuring that the voices of grassroots organizations were heard. Participation of NGO representatives at the Hague Forum will be limited to 800 in official sessions, but a 2-day NGO Forum will precede the Hague Forum. In the US, an NGO Coalition in Support of the Cairo Consensus will use its task force network to improve assessment and implementation activities while lobbying for sustained leadership and funding from the US. The POA includes 243 proposed actions and specific goals for the year 2015.

  3. High titer gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger from dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover without detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongsen; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study reported a high titer gluconic acid fermentation using dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover (DDAP) hydrolysate without detoxification. The selected fermenting strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M276 was capable of inhibitor degradation thus no detoxification on pretreated corn stover was required. Parameters of gluconic acid fermentation in corn stover hydrolysate were optimized in flasks and in fermentors to achieve 76.67 g/L gluconic acid with overall yield of 94.91%. The sodium gluconate obtained from corn stover was used as additive for extending setting time of cement mortar and similar function was obtained with starch based sodium gluconate. This study provided the first high titer gluconic acid production from lignocellulosic feedstock with potential of industrial applications.

  4. Virioplankton distribution and activity in a tropical eutrophicated bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettarel, Yvan; Arfi, Robert; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvy, Marc; Briand, Enora; Colombet, Jonathan; Corbin, Daniel; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2008-11-01

    The study of lysogeny in aquatic systems is an often overlooked aspect of microbial ecology, especially in tropical environments. Herein, the fraction of lysogenized cells (FLC) was detected in the surface waters of 20 coastal stations distributed from the eutrophicated shoreline to seaward waters of Hann Bay (Senegal). Concurrently, viral lytic infection rates were extrapolated from the frequency of visibly infected bacterial cells (FVIC), as determined from transmission electron microscopy observations. The experimental induction of prophage was observed in less than 3% of indigenous marine bacteria, suggesting that lysogenic stages of infection are rare in Hann Bay. Similarly, only 0.5-4.7% of bacteria showed visible signs of lytic infection. However, the positive correlation between the fraction of lysogenic and lytic cells ( r = 0.67, p < 0.05, n = 20) may actually indicate that the coexistence of both lifestyles may be due to the massive and rapid induction of lysogens, potentially from the high levels of local UV radiation. Overall, we suggest that the determination of FVIC and FLC to examine the predominance of one type of cycle versus the other may be a source of misinterpretation in some particular aquatic environments.

  5. COGEMA Experience in Uranous Nitrate Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Tison, E.; Bretault, Ph.

    2006-07-01

    Separation and purification of plutonium by PUREX process is based on a sequence of extraction and back extraction which requires reducing plutonium Pu IV (extractable form) into Pu III (inextractable form) Different reducers can be used to reduce Pu IV into Pu III. Early plants such as that for Magnox fuel at Sellafield used ferrous sulfamate while UP 1 at Marcoule used uranous sulfamate. These reducers are efficient and easy to prepare but generates ferric and/or sulphate ions and so complicates management of the wastes from the plutonium purification cycle. Recent plants such as UP3 and UP2 800 at La Hague, THORP at Sellafield, and RRP at Rokkasho Mura (currently under tests) use uranous nitrate (U IV) stabilized by hydrazinium nitrate (N{sub 2}H{sub 5}NO{sub 3}) and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN). In the French plants, uranous nitrate is used in U-Pu separation and alpha barrier and HAN is used in Pu purification. Compared to sulfamate, U IV does not generate extraneous chemical species and uranyl nitrate (U VI) generated by reducing Pu IV follows the main uranium stream. More over uranous nitrate is prepared from reprocessed purified uranyl nitrate taken at the outlet of the reprocessing plant. Hydrazine and HAN offer the advantage to be salt-free reagents. Uranous nitrate can be generated either by electrolysis or by catalytic hydrogenation process. Electrolytic process has been implemented in early plant UP 1 at Marcoule (when changing reducer from uranous sulfamate to uranous nitrate) and was used again in UP2 plant at La Hague. However, the electrolytic process presented several disadvantages such as a low conversion rate and problems associated with the use of mercury. Electrolysis cells with no mercury were developed for the Eurochemic plant in Belgium and then implemented in the first Japanese reprocessing plant in Tokai-Mura. But finally, in 1975, the electrolytic process was abandoned in favor of the catalytic hydrogenation process developed at La

  6. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-31

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation`s electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study`s methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared.

  7. FMCW radar for the sense function of sense and avoid systems onboard UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itcia, Eric; Wasselin, Jean-Philippe; Mazuel, Sébastien; Otten, Matern; Huizing, Albert

    2013-10-01

    Rockwell Collins France (RCF) radar department is currently developing, in close collaboration with TNO in The Hague, The Netherlands, a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar sensor dedicated to Obstacle Warning function and potentially to air traffic detection. The sensor combines flood light illumination and digital beam forming to accommodate demanding detection and coverage requirements. Performances have been evaluated in flight tests and results prove that such a radar sensor is a good candidate for the Sense Function of Sense and Avoid Systems onboard UAV.

  8. Plutonium purification cycle in centrifugal extractors: from flowsheet design to industrial operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, P.; Dinh, B.; Duhamet, J.; Drain, F.; Meze, F.; Lavenu, A.

    2008-07-01

    The extension of the UP2 plant at La Hague includes a new plutonium purification cycle using multistage centrifugal extractors to replace the previous cycle that used mixer/settler banks. This type of extractor is suitable for the treatment of fuel containing a high proportion of plutonium-238, as its short residence time limits solvent degradation. This paper deals with the research done to devise its flowsheet, the centrifugal extractors in which it is operated, as well as the feedback of six years of industrial operation.

  9. Vitrification assistance program: international co-operation on vitrification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penrice, Ch.; McGowan, B.; Garth, B.; Reed, J.; Prod'homme, A.; Sartelet, S.; Guerif, H.N.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2008-07-01

    With 10 vitrification lines in operation (3 on WVP in Sellafield, 1 on AVM in Marcoule and 6 on AVH in La Hague), Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC benefit from the most in-depth experience worldwide in the vitrification of highly active liquors within a framework of commercial operations. Based on the two-step process design, using a calciner and an induction-heated hot melter, which was initially deployed in Marcoule in 1978, core vitrification equipment has been continuously improved by the independent development programmes of the two companies. In March 2005, Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC signed the Vitrification Assistance Program (hereafter referred to as VAP); a co-operative project lasting 4 years during which Areva NC is to share some areas of their experience and expertise with Sellafield Ltd. Now at the halfway point of this project, this paper summarises the work performed by the VAP team to date, highlighting the early benefits and lessons learned. The following points will be developed: - Equipment delivery and preparation for implementation on WVP - Training organization and dissemination to WVP teams - Lessons learned from the early changes implemented in operations (Calciner, Melter, Dust Scrubber and Primary off gas system), and initial feedback from the first campaign using a VAP equipped line. In conclusion: The vitrification process and technology implemented at Sellafield and at La Hague, based on the two-step process, have proved to be efficient in treating high active liquor of various types. Ten lines based on this principle have been successfully operated for more than 15 years in France and in the UK. The process has also been demonstrated to be sufficiently versatile to benefit from continuous improvement and development programmes. VAP, as a complete package to support vitrification technology and knowledge transfer from AREVA NC to Sellafield Ltd, has provided the framework for fruitful technical exchanges and discussions between the two

  10. Astronomers gossip about the (cosmic) neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Jayawardhana, R

    1994-09-01

    The Hague, Netherlands, last month welcomed 2000 astronomers from around the world for the 22nd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From 15 to 27 August, they participated in symposia and discussions on topics ranging from the down-to-Earth issue of light and radio-frequency pollution to the creation of elements at the farthest reaches of time and space, in the big bang. Some of the most striking news, however, came in new findings from our galaxy and its immediate surroundings. PMID:17801522

  11. On the negligible role of manned missions for the geological exploration of Mars: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Jessberger, E K

    1992-01-01

    At the 28th Plenary Meeting of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) in The Hague, The Netherlands, there was on June 28, 1990, a session of commission MF.1 on Impact of Human Expeditions to Mars, in which, among others, the benefits of manned Mars missions for the geological survey of Mars were discussed. The present commentary does not intend to discuss the pros and cons of manned space flight or of Mars exploration at large, but will reiterate some of the points made in that discussion concerning the justification of manned versus automated Mars exploration in the context of geologic sciences. PMID:11538162

  12. SAVING KYOTO: Can the Kyoto Climate Treaty Be Saved From Itself?

    PubMed

    Kerr, R A

    2000-11-01

    The climate treaty being hammered out this month at The Hague may be doomed to failure, as numerous observers say the United States simply won't ratify any treaty that requires such wrenching reductions in carbon emissions, and if the United States bails out, the protocol is in very deep trouble. Some policy analysts think that by tweaking the rules, the United States could eventually sign on, but if they are tweaked too much, other countries may balk. The key, some say, will be keeping the treaty going now and rethinking its controversial goals later.

  13. COGEMA Experience on Retrieving and Automatically Remote Cutting Large Metallic Structures Using Special Saw During Nuclear Decommissioning Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, F.; Barandas, C.

    2002-02-26

    Used spent fuel baskets have been stored in the La Hague North-West concrete-lined pits until decommissioning. In 1998, COGEMA decided to retrieve, cut and condition these spent fuel baskets. This paper describes the experience gained, since the start up of this operation in 1999, discusses resulting dosimetry and waste produced, during retrieving and remotely cutting of LL activity large metallic structures. This process result in significantly lower exposures to workers in the D and D operations. In addition the work was carried out in an environmentally safe manner with reasonable financial costs.

  14. 40 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE WITH LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION EQUIPMENT IN THE NUCLEAR INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Drain, F.; Vinoche, R.; Duhamet, J.

    2003-02-27

    Three types of liquid-liquid extraction equipment are used in industrial reprocessing plants. Each is described below, with a special focus on pulsed columns and centrifugal extractors, which have been the subject of an extensive R&D program by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Various models have been developed to simulate equipment behavior and flowsheets. The excellent results obtained during industrial operation of the UP3 and UP2-800 plants in La Hague have confirmed the validity of the choices made during the design phases and pave the way for future improvement of the reprocessing process, from a technical and a financial standpoint.

  15. Molecular markers reveal only two mud crab species of genus Scylla (Brachyura: Portunidae) in Indian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Anup; Varkey, Mathews; Sobhanan, Sobha Pindaniyil; Mani, Anjali Kottayil; Gopalakrishnan, Achamveetil; Kumaran, Ganesh; Sethuramalingam, Arulraj; Srinivasan, Pandiarajan; Samraj, Yohannan Chellema Thampi

    2014-08-01

    The taxonomic ambiguity of the Indian mud crab (genus Scylla de Hann 1833) is still a cause of concern as several papers have been published with misleading identification. This is the first attempt to resolve the taxonomic uncertainty of the mud crab commonly available in Indian coastal waters using molecular genetic markers (ITS-1 and sequencing of COI gene) combined with traditional morphometry. Additionally, we developed a PCR method by which Indian mud crab species can be identified rapidly and effectively. The results clearly indicate that the green morph of the Indian mud crab is Scylla serrata and the brown morph is S. olivacea. The S. serrata commonly mentioned in the literature from India is S. olivacea; the S. tranquebarica noted by many Indian researchers should belong to S. serrata. Caution should be taken when interpreting or implementing the biological, molecular, and aquaculture data in the literature.

  16. Lip Repair Surgery for Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate in a Patient Diagnosed with Trisomy 13 and Holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Tadashi; Hanai, Ushio; Nakajima, Serina; Kobayashi, Megumi; Miyasaka, Muneo; Matsuda, Shinichi; Ikegami, Mariko

    2015-06-20

    We report a case of lip repair surgery performed for bilateral cleft lip and palate in a patient diagnosed with trisomy 13 and holoprosencephaly. At the age of 2 years and 7 months, the surgery was performed using a modified De Hann design under general anesthesia. The operation was completed in 1 h and 21 min without large fluctuations in the child's general condition. The precise measurement of the intraoperative design was omitted, and the operation was completed using minimal skin sutures. It is possible to perform less-invasive and short surgical procedures after careful consideration during the preoperative planning. Considering the recent improvements in the life expectancy of patients with trisomy 13, we conclude that surgical treatments for non-life threatening malformations such as cleft lip and palate should be performed for such patients.

  17. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Nordita, the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, was founded in 1957 by Niels Bohr and Torsten Gustafsson at Blegdamsvej in Copenhagen, joint to Bohr's legendary Institute. Today, memories of Bohr and his famous visitors -- Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, Lev Landau and many others -- strongly contribute to Nordita's genius loci and inspire next generations of her visitors. Nordita awards ``Nordic Project'' grants to individual Nordic physicists to help conduct a world-class research in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Island, Norway, and Sweden). Research reported here was generously supported by the Nordic Project "Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Black Hole and Neutron Star sources" awarded in 2005 to Marek Abramowicz. The Project supported the ``Nordita Workdays on QPO" (March 25 -- April 1, 2005) organized by Marek Abramowicz, Axel Brandenburg and Juri Poutanen with help of Hanne Bergen, Helle http://www.nordita.dk/positions/norproject.html

  18. Hepatic encephalopathy: historical remarks.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Piero

    2015-03-01

    The history of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is briefly reviewed since the beginning of western medicine by Hippocrates. For about 2000 years the main evidence was the mere association between jaundice, fever and delirium. A clear link between delirium and cirrhosis was proven in the 17th century by Morgagni. In subsequent times the focus was manly the descriptions of symptoms and the only pathophysiological improvement was the evidence that jaundice, per se, does not alter brain function. Only at the end of the 19th century Hann et al proved the role of portal-systemic shunt and pf nitrogenous derivates in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. A terrific development of knowledge occurred in the last 60 years, after the works of Sherlock in London. Nowadays some consensus about HE was reached, so that new developments will likely occur. PMID:26041956

  19. Forecasting SPEI and SPI Drought Indices Using the Integrated Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Maca, Petr; Pech, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper compares forecast of drought indices based on two different models of artificial neural networks. The first model is based on feedforward multilayer perceptron, sANN, and the second one is the integrated neural network model, hANN. The analyzed drought indices are the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI) and were derived for the period of 1948-2002 on two US catchments. The meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from MOPEX experiment. The training of both neural network models was made by the adaptive version of differential evolution, JADE. The comparison of models was based on six model performance measures. The results of drought indices forecast, explained by the values of four model performance indices, show that the integrated neural network model was superior to the feedforward multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer of neurons.

  20. Forecasting SPEI and SPI Drought Indices Using the Integrated Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Maca, Petr; Pech, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper compares forecast of drought indices based on two different models of artificial neural networks. The first model is based on feedforward multilayer perceptron, sANN, and the second one is the integrated neural network model, hANN. The analyzed drought indices are the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI) and were derived for the period of 1948–2002 on two US catchments. The meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from MOPEX experiment. The training of both neural network models was made by the adaptive version of differential evolution, JADE. The comparison of models was based on six model performance measures. The results of drought indices forecast, explained by the values of four model performance indices, show that the integrated neural network model was superior to the feedforward multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer of neurons. PMID:26880875

  1. Forecasting SPEI and SPI Drought Indices Using the Integrated Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Maca, Petr; Pech, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper compares forecast of drought indices based on two different models of artificial neural networks. The first model is based on feedforward multilayer perceptron, sANN, and the second one is the integrated neural network model, hANN. The analyzed drought indices are the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI) and were derived for the period of 1948-2002 on two US catchments. The meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from MOPEX experiment. The training of both neural network models was made by the adaptive version of differential evolution, JADE. The comparison of models was based on six model performance measures. The results of drought indices forecast, explained by the values of four model performance indices, show that the integrated neural network model was superior to the feedforward multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer of neurons. PMID:26880875

  2. Citizen Personas: Exploring Challenges of Citizen-Centric eHealth.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lone Stub; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of eHealth, there is a shift towards a patient perspective. However, the focus on the patient often fails to acknowledge and achieve a citizen-centric perspective because there is a lack of understanding of the context and complexities of the person and her relations, interests and activities. In this paper we use the persona of 'Citizen Hanne' for two purposes. Firstly, to highlight and provide detail in the understanding of the citizen perspective and thereby facilitate a shift towards a citizen-centric perspective, which is advanced by many in the field of eHealth. Secondly, we want to further nourish a critical goal of highlighting the challenges in doing citizen-centric eHealth and pointing out the barriers for reaching this goal.

  3. Beam Tomography in Longitudinal Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, V.; Wei, J.; Peggs, S.

    1997-05-01

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitored by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in 2-D phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. In this paper, we discuss a filtered backprojection algorithm, with a high pass ramp or Hann filter, for phase space reconstruction. The algorithm uses several projections of the beam at equally spaced angles over half a synchrotron period. A computer program RADON has been developed to process digitized mountain range data and do the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Analysis has been performed to determine the sensitivity to machine parameters and data acquisition errors. During the Sextant test of RHIC in early 1997, this program has been successfully employed to reconstruct the motion of Au^77+ beam in the AGS.

  4. A revision of the subgenus Eurycercus (Teretifrons) Frey, 1975 (Crustacea: Cladocera) in the Holarctic with description of a new species from Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Eugeniya I; Kotov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    Our study is aimed at a taxonomic revision of the subgenus Eurycercus (Teretifrons) Frey, 1975 (Crustacea: Cladocera: Eurycercidae) in the Holarctic based on the morphology of parthenogenetic females. Three species were revealed and described: (1) E. glacialis Lilljeborg, 1887 which is relatively widely distributed in the north portion of Atlantic and Pacific regions; (2) E. nigracanthus Hann, 1990 which is apparently present in Labrador and Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia and (3) Eurycercus chernovi sp. nov. from Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia, Russia. Main differences of the latter taxon from other species are: (1) more proximal position of sensory seta on the antenna I and (2) surface of cuticle of major head pore forms a low projection in middle. A revision of this subgenus in Arctic Siberia and Canada needs to be continued. PMID:27515623

  5. Significance of GABA(A) receptor heterogeneity: clues from developing neurons.

    PubMed

    Fritschy, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Briefly after the landmark discovery by Hanns Möhler that GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R) are the site of action of benzodiazepine site ligands, their distribution in the rodent CNS during development was mapped by autoradiography, demonstrating early and widespread expression of GABA(A)R in the brain and spinal cord. Ten years later, the first studies using subunit-specific antibodies revealed unsuspected heterogeneity in the subunit composition of GABA(A)R in developing brain, with striking regional specificity and rapid changes in expression and subcellular localization correlating with the maturation of neuronal circuits. These data contributed to the wealth of evidence that GABAergic neurotransmission, acting both synaptically and extrasynaptically, modulates major steps of neuronal development (proliferation, migration, differentiation, and circuit formation). In immature neurons, GABA(A)R activation leads to neuronal depolarization and activation of Ca(2+) signals, which mediate many of the developmental effects of GABA. Therefore, GABA(A)R heterogeneity might be essential to fine-tune GABA actions in the dynamics of CNS maturation. Furthermore, since a disturbance of GABAergic function during ontogeny can potentially affect many aspects of CNS maturation and contribute to the etiology of major brain disorders, GABA(A)R heterogeneity provides a substrate for the development of a tailored pharmacology targeting specific receptor subtypes. This chapter provides a brief overview of these issues with a special focus on the seminal contributions of Hanns Möhler to the emergence of these concepts of fundamental relevance in today's neuroscience research and pharmacological developments. PMID:25637436

  6. New insights on the role of sea ice in intercepting atmospheric pollutants using (129)I.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Cámara-Mor, P; Suzuki, T; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Mas, J L; Masqué, P; Moran, S B; Smith, J N

    2014-12-15

    Measurements of (129)I carried out on sea ice samples collected in the central Arctic Ocean in 2007 revealed relatively high levels in the range of 100-1400×10(7) at L(-1) that are comparable to levels measured in the surface mixed layer of the ocean at the same time. The (129)I/(127)I ratio in sea ice is much greater than that in the underlying water, indicating that the (129)I inventory in sea ice cannot be supported by direct uptake from seawater or by iodine volatilization from proximal (nearby) oceanic regimes. Instead, it is proposed that most of the (129)I inventory in the sea ice is derived from direct atmospheric transport from European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at Sellafield and Cap La Hague. This hypothesis is supported by back trajectory simulations indicating that volume elements of air originating in the Sellafield/La Hague regions would have been present at arctic sampling stations coincident with sampling collection.

  7. CESAR: A Code for Nuclear Fuel and Waste Characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, J.M.; Grouiller, J.P.; Launay, A.; Berthion, Y.; Marc, A.; Toubon, H.

    2006-07-01

    CESAR (Simplified Evolution Code Applied to Reprocessing) is a depletion code developed through a joint program between CEA and COGEMA. In the late 1980's, the first use of this code dealt with nuclear measurement at the Laboratories of the La Hague reprocessing plant. The use of CESAR was then extended to characterizations of all entrance materials and for characterisation, via tracer, of all produced waste. The code can distinguish more than 100 heavy nuclides, 200 fission products and 100 activation products, and it can characterise both the fuel and the structural material of the fuel. CESAR can also make depletion calculations from 3 months to 1 million years of cooling time. Between 2003-2005, the 5. version of the code was developed. The modifications were related to the harmonisation of the code's nuclear data with the JEF2.2 nuclear data file. This paper describes the code and explains the extensive use of this code at the La Hague reprocessing plant and also for prospective studies. The second part focuses on the modifications of the latest version, and describes the application field and the qualification of the code. Many companies and the IAEA use CESAR today. CESAR offers a Graphical User Interface, which is very user-friendly. (authors)

  8. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel. Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, are also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/integraal Luchthaven Competitie Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  9. New insights on the role of sea ice in intercepting atmospheric pollutants using (129)I.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Cámara-Mor, P; Suzuki, T; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Mas, J L; Masqué, P; Moran, S B; Smith, J N

    2014-12-15

    Measurements of (129)I carried out on sea ice samples collected in the central Arctic Ocean in 2007 revealed relatively high levels in the range of 100-1400×10(7) at L(-1) that are comparable to levels measured in the surface mixed layer of the ocean at the same time. The (129)I/(127)I ratio in sea ice is much greater than that in the underlying water, indicating that the (129)I inventory in sea ice cannot be supported by direct uptake from seawater or by iodine volatilization from proximal (nearby) oceanic regimes. Instead, it is proposed that most of the (129)I inventory in the sea ice is derived from direct atmospheric transport from European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at Sellafield and Cap La Hague. This hypothesis is supported by back trajectory simulations indicating that volume elements of air originating in the Sellafield/La Hague regions would have been present at arctic sampling stations coincident with sampling collection. PMID:25457809

  10. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel, Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, arc also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/Integral Luchthaven Competitive Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  11. Impacts of (14)C discharges from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant on surrounding vegetation: Comparison between grass field measurements and TOCATTA-χ and SSPAM(14)C model computations.

    PubMed

    Limer, Laura M C; Le Dizès-Maurel, Séverine; Klos, Ryk; Maro, Denis; Nordén, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This article compares and discusses the ability of two different models to reproduce the observed temporal variability in grass (14)C activity in the vicinity of AREVA-NC La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in France. These two models are the TOCATTA-χ model, which is specifically designed for modelling transfer of (14)C (and tritium) in the terrestrial environment over short to medium timescales (days to years), and SSPAM(14)C, which has been developed to model the transfer of (14)C in the soil-plant-atmosphere with consideration over both short and long timescales (days to thousands of years). The main goal of this article is to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the models studied, and to investigate if modelling could be improved through consideration of a much higher level of detail of plant physiology and/or higher number of plant compartments. These models have been applied here to the La Hague field data as it represents a medium term data set with both short term variation and a sizeable time series of measurements against which to compare the models. The two models have different objectives in terms of the timescales they are intended to be applied over, and thus incorporate biological processes, such as photosynthesis and plant growth, at different levels of complexity. It was found that the inclusion of seasonal dynamics in the models improved predictions of the specific activity in grass for such a source term of atmospheric (14)C. PMID:26063400

  12. Impacts of (14)C discharges from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant on surrounding vegetation: Comparison between grass field measurements and TOCATTA-χ and SSPAM(14)C model computations.

    PubMed

    Limer, Laura M C; Le Dizès-Maurel, Séverine; Klos, Ryk; Maro, Denis; Nordén, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This article compares and discusses the ability of two different models to reproduce the observed temporal variability in grass (14)C activity in the vicinity of AREVA-NC La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in France. These two models are the TOCATTA-χ model, which is specifically designed for modelling transfer of (14)C (and tritium) in the terrestrial environment over short to medium timescales (days to years), and SSPAM(14)C, which has been developed to model the transfer of (14)C in the soil-plant-atmosphere with consideration over both short and long timescales (days to thousands of years). The main goal of this article is to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the models studied, and to investigate if modelling could be improved through consideration of a much higher level of detail of plant physiology and/or higher number of plant compartments. These models have been applied here to the La Hague field data as it represents a medium term data set with both short term variation and a sizeable time series of measurements against which to compare the models. The two models have different objectives in terms of the timescales they are intended to be applied over, and thus incorporate biological processes, such as photosynthesis and plant growth, at different levels of complexity. It was found that the inclusion of seasonal dynamics in the models improved predictions of the specific activity in grass for such a source term of atmospheric (14)C.

  13. Dismantling of the 904 Cell at the HAO/Sud Facility - 13466

    SciTech Connect

    Vaudey, C.E.; Crosnier, S.; Renouf, M.; Gaspard, N.; Pinot, L.

    2013-07-01

    La Hague facility, in France, is the spent fuel recycling plant wherein a part of the fuel coming from some of the French, German, Belgian, Swiss, Dutch and Japanese nuclear reactors is reprocessed before being recycled in order to separate certain radioactive elements. The facility has been successively handled by the CEA (1962-1978), Cogema (1978-2006), and AREVA NC (since 2006). La Hague facility is composed of 3 production units: The UP2-400 production unit started to be operated in 1966 for the reprocessing of UNGG metal fuel. In 1976, following the dropout of the graphite-gas technology by EDF, an HAO workshop to reprocess the fuel from the light water reactors is affiliated and then stopped in 2003. - UP2-400 is partially stopped in 2002 and then definitely the 1 January 2004 and is being dismantled - UP2-800, with the same capacity than UP3, started to be operated in 1994 and is still in operation. And UP3 - UP3 was implemented in 1990 with an annual reprocessing capacity of 800 tons of fuel and is still in operation The combined licensed capacity of UP2-800 and UP3 is 1,700 tons of used fuel. (authors)

  14. Estimate of European 129I releases supported by 129I analysis in an Alpine ice core.

    PubMed

    Reithmeier, Herbert; Lazarev, Vitali; Rühm, Werner; Schwikowski, Ti Margit; Gäggeler, Heinz W; Nolte, Eckehart

    2006-10-01

    129I in the European environment originates predominantly from the industrial nuclear fuel reprocessing plants Sellafield (Great Britain), Marcoule, and La Hague (both France). While reliable data on 129I releases from La Hague exist for the whole period of operation, less is known about the contributions from Sellafield and Marcoule. For those periods where no data are available, i.e., for the first 16 years of the Sellafield operation and for the first 3 decades of the Marcoule operation, we estimated releases into the atmosphere of 118 GBq and 825 GBq, respectively. Hence, Marcoule was the major European source of airborne 129I, contributing about 45% to the total airborne 129I releases from all the European reprocessing facilities, until it was decommissioned in 1997. The estimated total emissions were compared with 129I deposition fluxes for the time period 1970-2002, obtained from the analysis of an ice core from Fiescherhorn glacier, Swiss Alps (46 degrees 33'N, 08 degrees 04'E; 3900 m asl). The temporal evolution of the 129I deposition agrees well with the total 129I releases into the atmosphere from the European reprocessing facilities and from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, supporting our estimated release rates. However,the 129I concentrations and deposition fluxes at Fiescherhorn glacier were a factor of 6 lower than values obtained from the analysis of rainwater collected near Zurich (408 m asl) in Switzerland in the years 1994-97. This suggests a strong vertical concentration gradient of 129I, typical for water-soluble atmospheric trace species which are removed from the atmosphere in the course of days by precipitation scavenging, and must be taken into account if glaciers are used as an archive for a retrospective quantification of 129I deposition fluxes. In addition, the temporal evolution of the contribution of 129I re-emitted from the ocean's surface for the 129I inventory in the atmosphere was quantified for the first time. Although the

  15. CESAR5.3: An Industrial Tool for Nuclear Fuel and Waste Characterization with Associated Qualification - 12067

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, Jean-Marc; Eschbach, Romain; Launay, Agnes; Binet, Christophe; THRO, Jean-Francois

    2012-07-01

    CEA and AREVA-NC have developed and used a depletion code named CESAR for 30 years. This user-friendly industrial tool provides fast characterizations for all types of nuclear fuel (PWR / UOX or MOX or reprocess Uranium, BWR / UOX or MOX, MTR and SFR) and the wastes associated. CESAR can evaluate 100 heavy nuclides, 200 fission products and 150 activation products (with Helium and Tritium formation). It can also characterize the structural material of the fuel (Zircalloy, stainless steel, M5 alloy). CESAR provides depletion calculations for any reactor irradiation history and from 3 months to 1 million years of cooling time. CESAR5.3 is based on the latest calculation schemes recommended by the CEA and on an international nuclear data base (JEFF-3.1.1). It is constantly checked against the CEA referenced and qualified depletion code DARWIN. CESAR incorporates the CEA qualification based on the dissolution analyses of fuel rod samples and the 'La Hague' reprocessing plant feedback experience. AREVA-NC uses CESAR intensively at 'La Hague' plant, not only for prospective studies but also for characterizations at different industrial facilities all along the reprocessing process and waste conditioning (near 150 000 calculations per year). CESAR is the reference code for AREVA-NC. CESAR is used directly or indirectly with other software, data bank or special equipment in many parts of the La Hague plants. The great flexibility of CESAR has rapidly interested other projects. CESAR became a 'tool' directly integrated in some other softwares. Finally, coupled with a Graphical User Interface, it can be easily used independently, responding to many needs for prospective studies as a support for nuclear facilities or transport. An English version is available. For the principal isotopes of U and Pu, CESAR5 benefits from the CEA experimental validation for the PWR UOX fuels, up to a burnup of 60 GWd/t and for PWR MOX fuels, up to 45 GWd/t. CESAR version 5.3 uses the CEA

  16. Samuel Goudsmit - Early Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudsmit, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Samuel Goudsmit, born in 1902 in The Hague, Netherlands, earned his Ph.D. at the University of Leiden in 1926 with Paul Ehrenfest. The present talk will describe some aspects of his background and early formative years in order to provide context for the broad range of his professional life. Sam belonged to a large tribe of paternal and maternal uncles, aunts and first cousins; including his parents, grandparents and sister Ro, they numbered forty. Sam was the first of the tribe to be educated beyond high school. Early interests as a child and later as a university student in the Netherlands prefigured his significant and diverse contributions in several realms including not only physics but also teaching, Egyptology and scientific Intelligence. Bibliographic sources will include: The American Institute of Physics' Oral History Transcripts and photographs from the Emilio Segre visual archives, memoirs and conversations of those who knew Sam and also letters to his daughter, Esther.

  17. The Countess Margaret of Henneberg and her 365 children.

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J; Molenkamp, A

    1996-01-01

    According to an obscure medieval legend, the Countess Margaret of Henneberg, a notable Dutch noblewoman, gave birth to 365 children in the year 1276. The haughty Countess had insulted a poor beggar woman carrying twins, since she believed that a pair of twins must have different fathers, and that their mother must be an adultress. She was punished by God, and gave birth to 365 minute children on Good Friday, 1276. The Countess died shortly after, together with her offspring, in the village of Loosduinen near The Hague. The Countess and her numerous brood were frequently described in historical and obstetrical works. To this day, a memorial tablet and two basins, representing those in which the 365 children were baptized, are to be seen in the church of Loosduinen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9014889

  18. Bidloo's and De Lairesse's early illustrations of the anatomy of the arm (1690): a successful collaboration between a prominent physician and a talented artist.

    PubMed

    Ijpma, F F A; van Gulik, T M

    2013-01-01

    Govard Bidloo (1649-1713) was trained as a surgeon at the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, and later in his career, he became a professor of anatomy in The Hague and Leiden. At the end of the 17th century, he performed dissections on the corpses of executed criminals to teach and study anatomy. Based on his findings, he published a magnificent anatomical atlas in 1690, entitled Ontleding des Menschelijken Lichaams (Dissection of the Human Body). The talented painter Gerard De Lairesse, a pupil of Rembrandt, made the drawings of the anatomical dissections for the atlas in close collaboration with the dissector. The drawings of Bidloo and De Lairesse represent, in a unique and artistic way, an early series of anatomical preparations of the arm and hand from more than 300 years ago.

  19. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  20. Commercial surrogacy: how provisions of monetary remuneration and powers of international law can prevent exploitation of gestational surrogates.

    PubMed

    Ramskold, Louise Anna Helena; Posner, Marcus Paul

    2013-06-01

    Increasing globalisation and advances in artificial reproductive techniques have opened up a whole new range of possibilities for infertile couples across the globe. Inter-country gestational surrogacy with monetary remuneration is one of the products of medical tourism meeting in vitro fertilisation embryo transfer. Filled with potential, it has also been a hot topic of discussion in legal and bioethics spheres. Fears of exploitation and breach of autonomy have sprung from the current situation, where there is no international regulation of surrogacy agreements--only a web of conflicting national laws that generates loopholes and removes safeguards for both the surrogate and commissioning couple. This article argues the need for evidence-based international laws and regulations as the only way to resolve both the ethical and legal issues around commercial surrogacy. In addition, a Hague Convention on inter-country surrogacy agreements is proposed to resolve the muddled state of affairs and enable commercial surrogacy to demonstrate its full potential.

  1. Implementation fidelity of Multidimensional Family Therapy in an international trial.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Cynthia; Rigter, Henk; Henderson, Craig; Gantner, Andreas; Mos, Kees; Nielsen, Philip; Phan, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Implementation fidelity, a critical aspect of clinical trials research that establishes adequate delivery of the treatment as prescribed in treatment manuals and protocols, is also essential to the successful implementation of effective programs into new practice settings. Although infrequently studied in the drug abuse field, stronger implementation fidelity has been linked to better outcomes in practice but appears to be more difficult to achieve with greater distance from model developers. In the INternational CAnnabis Need for Treatment (INCANT) multi-national randomized clinical trial, investigators tested the effectiveness of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) in comparison to individual psychotherapy (IP) in Brussels, Berlin, Paris, The Hague, and Geneva with 450 adolescents with a cannabis use disorder and their parents. This study reports on the implementation fidelity of MDFT across these five Western European sites in terms of treatment adherence, dose and program differentiation, and discusses possible implications for international implementation efforts.

  2. Modeling and validating tritium transfer in a grassland ecosystem in response to {sup 3}H releases

    SciTech Connect

    Le Dizes, S.

    2015-03-15

    In this paper a radioecological model (TOCATTA) for tritium transfer in a grassland ecosystem developed on an hourly time-step basis is proposed and compared with the first data set obtained in the vicinity of the AREVA-NC reprocessing plant of La Hague (France). The TOCATTA model aims at simulating dynamics of tritium transfer in agricultural soil and plant ecosystems exposed to time-varying HTO concentrations in air water vapour and possibly in irrigation and rain water. In the present study, gaseous releases of tritium from the AREVA NC nuclear reprocessing plant in normal operation can be intense and intermittent over a period of less than 24 hours. A first comparison of the model predictions with the field data has shown that TOCATTA should be improved in terms of kinetics of tritium transfer.

  3. Division D Commission 44: Space and High-Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christine; Brosch, Noah; Hasinger, Günther; Baring, Matthew G.; Barstow, Martin Adrian; Braga, Joao; Churazov, Evgenij M.; Eilik, Jean; Kunieda, Hideyo; Murthy, Jayant; Pagano, Isabella; Quintana, Hernan; Salvati, Marco; Singh, Kulinder Pal; Worrall, Diana Mary

    2016-04-01

    Division XI, the predecessor to Division D until 2012, was formed in 1994 at the IAU General Assembly in The Hague by merging Commission 44 Astronomy from Space and Commission 48 High Energy Astrophysics. Historically, space astrophysics started with the high energy wavelengths (far UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray astronomy) which are only accessible from space. However, in modern astronomy, to study high energy astrophysical processes, almost all wavelengths are used (including gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, infrared, submillimeter and radio). In addition other ground-based facilities, including gravitational wave antennas, neutrino detectors and high-energy cosmic ray arrays are joining in this era of multi-messenger astrophysics, as well as space missions with the primary goals to discover and study exoplanets, are under the umbrella of Division XI.

  4. The Third World Water Forum: to translate visions into concrete actions and commitments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hideaki; Toyama, Masato

    2002-08-01

    Water is vital for the life and health of people and ecosystems and a basic requirement for the development of countries, but many people lack access to adequate and safe water to meet their most basic needs. Water resources, and the related ecosystems, are now under threat from pollution, unsustainable use, climate change, and many other forces.The World Water Forum series has been likened to a series of stepping stones towards the solution of the world's pressing water problems. Each step constitutes a new phase. The third World Water Forum takes up the World Water Vision created at the second World Water Forum in The Hague in 2000, and sets out to see that vision realized in concrete actions.

  5. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  6. From the 1996 groundwater action programme to the 2006 groundwater directive--what have we done, what have we learnt, what is the way ahead?

    PubMed

    Quevauviller, Philippe

    2008-04-01

    The need for action to avoid long term deterioration of fresh water quantity and quality was recognised by the Ministerial Seminar on groundwater held at The Hague in November 1991, which underlined the need to establish a programme of actions to be implemented by the year 2000 at national and Community level, aiming at sustainable management and protection of water resources. These discussions resulted in a communication from the European Commission in 1996 about a "Groundwater Action Programme" (GWAP). In parallel, a wide consultation had started on the need to streamline EU water policies, which led to the adoption of the Water Framework Directive in December 2000, later complemented by a "daughter" groundwater directive adopted in December 2006. This paper recalls the orientations of the GWAP and studies whether and how recommended actions have been tackled by the actual EU regulatory framework.

  7. UP2 400 High Activity Oxide Legacy Waste Retrieval Project Scope and Progress-13048

    SciTech Connect

    Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Varet, Thierry

    2013-07-01

    The High Activity Oxide facility (HAO) reprocessed sheared and dissolved 4500 metric tons of light water reactor fuel the fuel of the emerging light water reactor spent fuel between 1976 and 1998. Over the period, approximately 2200 tons of process waste, composed primarily of sheared hulls, was produced and stored in a vast silo in the first place, and in canisters stored in pools in subsequent years. Upon shutdown of the facility, AREVA D and D Division in La Hague launched a thorough investigation and characterization of the silos and pools content, which then served as input data for the definition of a legacy waste retrieval and reconditioning program. Basic design was conducted between 2005 and 2007, and was followed by an optimization phase which lead to the definition of a final scenario and budget, 12% under the initial estimates. The scenario planned for the construction of a retrieval and reconditioning cell to be built on top of the storage silo. The retrieved waste would then be rinsed and sorted, so that hulls could subsequently be sent to La Hague high activity compacting facility, while resins and sludge would be cemented within the retrieval cell. Detailed design was conducted successfully from 2008 until 2011, while a thorough research and development program was conducted in order to qualify each stage of the retrieval and reconditioning process, and assist in the elaboration of the final waste package specification. This R and D program was defined and conducted as a response and mitigation of the major project risks identified during the basic design process. Procurement and site preparatory works were then launched in 2011. By the end of 2012, R and D is nearly completed, the retrieval and reconditioning process have been secured, the final waste package specification is being completed, the first equipment for the retrieval cell is being delivered on site, while preparation works are allowing to free up space above and around the silo, to

  8. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of concrete sewer pipe condition.

    PubMed

    Stanić, N; de Haan, C; Tirion, M; Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R

    2013-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management. Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection by closed circuit television (CCTV) and core sampling are among the methods mostly applied to assess sewer pipe condition. This paper compares visual inspection and drill core analysis in order to enhance further understanding of the limitations and potentials of both methods. Both methods have been applied on a selected sewer reach in the city of The Hague, which was reportedly subject to pipe corrosion. Results show that both methods, visual inspection and core sampling, are associated with large uncertainties and that there is no obvious correlation between results of visual inspection and results of drill core analysis.

  9. Results of the European Commission MARINA II study: part I--general information and effects of discharges by the nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Betti, M; Aldave de las Heras, L; Janssens, A; Henrich, E; Hunter, G; Gerchikov, M; Dutton, M; van Weers, A W; Nielsen, S; Simmonds, J; Bexon, A; Sazykina, T

    2004-01-01

    From the collated data relevant to discharges by the nuclear industry, it results that the input of beta activity (excluding Chernobyl fallout and tritium) into the OSPAR region decreased by a factor of 4 from 1986 to 1991, reaching by this date the same level as in the early 1950s. Over the same period the discharges of the alpha activity into the OSPAR region also decreased by a factor 3, the same trend has been seen also for tritium. Since 1986 the effective dose to members of the critical group in the vicinity of Sellafield and Cap de La Hague was consistently below the ICRP and EU limit of 1 mSv per year to members of the general public. The overall radiological impact from nuclear industry on the population of the European Union from the OSPAR area has decreased from 280 manSv y(-1) in 1978 to 14 manSv y(-1) in 2000. PMID:15063552

  10. Experiences of citizen-based reporting of rainfall events using lab-generated videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Leonardo; Chacon, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic studies rely on the availability of good-quality precipitation estimates. However, in remote areas of the world and particularly in developing countries, ground-based measurement networks are either sparse or nonexistent. This creates difficulties in the estimation of precipitation, which limits the development of hydrologic forecasting and early warning systems for these regions. The EC-FP7 WeSenseIt project aims at exploring the involvement of citizens in the observation of the water cycle with innovative sensor technologies, including mobile telephony. In particular, the project explores the use of a smartphone applications to facilitate the reporting water-related situations. Apart from the challenge of using such information for scientific purposes, the citizen engagement is one of the most important issues to address. To this end effortless methods for reporting need to be developed in order to involve as many people as possible in these experiments. A potential solution to overcome these drawbacks, consisting on lab-controlled rainfall videos have been produced to help mapping the extent and distribution of rainfall fields with minimum effort [1]. In addition, the quality of the collected rainfall information has also been studied [2] by means of different experiments with students. The present research shows the latest results of the application of this method and evaluates the experiences in some cases. [1] Alfonso, L., J. Chacón, and G. Peña-Castellanos (2015), Allowing Citizens to Effortlessly Become Rainfall Sensors, in 36th IAHR World Congress edited, The Hague, the Netherlands [2] Cortes-Arevalo, J., J. Chacón, L. Alfonso, and T. Bogaard (2015), Evaluating data quality collected by using a video rating scale to estimate and report rainfall intensity, in 36th IAHR World Congress edited, The Hague, the Netherlands

  11. Iodine-129 and iodine-127 in European seawaters and in precipitation from Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Michel, R; Daraoui, A; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Tosch, L; Nies, H; Goroncy, I; Herrmann, J; Synal, H-A; Stocker, M; Alfimov, V

    2012-03-01

    In order to obtain a comprehensive survey on the consequences of the marine (129)I discharges from the European reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield, the distribution of (129)I and (127)I in surface waters of the North Sea, the English Channel, the Irish Sea, and the Northeast Atlantic was studied using accelerator mass spectrometry for (129)I and ICP-MS for (127)I. Samples of seawater were taken in the German Bight in May, September, and November 2005 and in the entire North Sea and the English Channel in August 2005. Further samples were obtained from the Irish Sea in June and August 2006 and from Arctic waters between Spitsbergen and Southern Norway in September 2005. (129)I is a conservative tracer in seawater. The concentrations of (127)I are relatively constant with exceptions of coastal areas with high biological activity and of areas influenced by influx from rivers and the Baltic Sea. The variability of the (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios is exclusively determined by admixture of (129)I released from the reprocessing facilities Sellafield and La Hague to the seawater. The (129)I/(127)I ratios were between 4 × 10(-9)and 3 × 10(-6): at least 3 orders of magnitude higher than the natural equilibrium isotopic ratio 1.5 × 10(-12). (129)I/(127)I ratios of a few times 10(-10) were only found in seawater from the Indian Ocean and from the Pacific at Hawaii. Comparison of the results obtained for seawater with those of a measurement of airborne iodine species and with iodine isotopes in precipitation in Northern Germany demonstrates the transfer of (129)I and (127)I from the sea into the atmosphere and the dominating role of the marine discharges for the atmospheric fallout of (129)I in Western Europe. The results are discussed with the goal to estimate the relevance of the marine discharges for the contamination of the continental areas.

  12. Influence of releases of (129)I and (137)Cs from European reprocessing facilities in Fucus vesiculosus and seawater from the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Niagolova, N; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Pinto-Gómez, A R; Abril, J A; García-León, M

    2014-08-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T1/2=15.7×10(6) years) that is present in the environment because of natural and anthropogenic sources. Compared to the pre-nuclear era, large amounts of (129)I have been released to the marine environment, especially as liquid and gaseous discharges from two European reprocessing facilities located at Sellafield (England) and La Hague (France). The marine environment, i.e., the oceans, is the major source of iodine. Brown seaweed accumulates iodine at high levels up to 1.0% of dry weigh, and therefore they are ideal bioindicators for studying levels of (129)I. In this work, (129)I concentrations have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and seawater collected in the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas in July 2007. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (44-575)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seaweed and (5.4-51)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seawater, with an enhancement in the Skagerrak area in comparison to the Kattegat area. Iodine-129 concentrations in both seaweed and seawater were used to determine the concentration factor of iodine in brown seaweed F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios in the Skagerrak area and their gradually decreasing trend to the Kattegat indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in those areas comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants.

  13. Malformation of true bug (Heteroptera): a phenotype field study on the possible influence of artificial low-level radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Hesse-Honegger, Cornelia; Wallimann, Peter

    2008-04-01

    The results of extensive field studies on the malformation of Western European true bugs (Heteroptera) are reviewed. More than 16,000 individuals were collected over two decades, and subjected to detailed visual inspection. Various types of disturbances were found and illustrated in detail. Depending on country, region, as well as local influences, severe disturbances and high degrees of malformation were noticed, especially in the sphere of nuclear-power installations in Switzerland (Aargau), France (La Hague), and Germany (Gundremmingen). Malformation reached values as high as 22 and 30% for morphological (MD) and total disturbance (TD), respectively. This is far above the values expected for natural populations (ca. 1%) or those determined for true bugs living in biotopes considered as relatively 'intact' (1-3%). A detailed chi-square test of the malformation data obtained for 650 true bugs from 13 collection sites near the nuclear-reprocessing plant La Hague showed a highly significant correlation (p=0.003) between malformation and wind exposure/local topography. Similar observations were made for other study sites. Currently, our data are best rationalized by assuming a direct influence between the release of anthropogenic radionuclides such as tritium ((3)H), carbon-14 ((14)C), or iodine-131 ((131)I), constantly emitted by nuclear-power and nuclear-reprocessing plants, as well as by Chernobyl and bomb-testing fallout, which is rich in caesium-137 ((137)Cs) and other long-lived noxious isotopes that have entered the food chain. The present work supports the growing evidence that low-level radiation, especially in the form of randomly scattered 'hot' alpha- and beta-particles, mainly transported via aerosols, puts a heavy burden on the biosphere in general, and on true bugs in particular. These insects could, thus, serve as sensitive 'bio-indicators' for future studies.

  14. Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

    2002-02-26

    COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and

  15. Influence of releases of (129)I and (137)Cs from European reprocessing facilities in Fucus vesiculosus and seawater from the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Niagolova, N; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Pinto-Gómez, A R; Abril, J A; García-León, M

    2014-08-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T1/2=15.7×10(6) years) that is present in the environment because of natural and anthropogenic sources. Compared to the pre-nuclear era, large amounts of (129)I have been released to the marine environment, especially as liquid and gaseous discharges from two European reprocessing facilities located at Sellafield (England) and La Hague (France). The marine environment, i.e., the oceans, is the major source of iodine. Brown seaweed accumulates iodine at high levels up to 1.0% of dry weigh, and therefore they are ideal bioindicators for studying levels of (129)I. In this work, (129)I concentrations have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and seawater collected in the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas in July 2007. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (44-575)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seaweed and (5.4-51)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seawater, with an enhancement in the Skagerrak area in comparison to the Kattegat area. Iodine-129 concentrations in both seaweed and seawater were used to determine the concentration factor of iodine in brown seaweed F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios in the Skagerrak area and their gradually decreasing trend to the Kattegat indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in those areas comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. PMID:24875915

  16. Surface Decontamination Using Laser Ablation Process - 12032

    SciTech Connect

    Moggia, Fabrice; Lecardonnel, Xavier; Damerval, Frederique

    2012-07-01

    A new decontamination method has been investigated and used during two demonstration stages by the Clean-Up Business Unit of AREVA. This new method is based on the use of a Laser beam to remove the contaminants present on a base metal surface. In this paper will be presented the type of Laser used during those tests but also information regarding the efficiency obtained on non-contaminated (simulated contamination) and contaminated samples (from the CEA and La Hague facilities). Regarding the contaminated samples, in the first case, the contamination was a quite thick oxide layer. In the second case, most of the contamination was trapped in dust and thin grease layer. Some information such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray scattering spectroscopy and decontamination factors (DF) will be provided in this paper. Laser technology appears to be an interesting one for the future of the D and D applications. As shown in this paper, the results in terms of efficiency are really promising and in many cases, higher than those obtained with conventional techniques. One of the most important advantages is that all those results have been obtained with no generation of secondary wastes such as abrasives, chemicals, or disks... Moreover, as mentioned in introduction, the Laser ablation process can be defined as a 'dry' process. This technology does not produce any liquid waste (as it can be the case with chemical process or HP water process...). Finally, the addition of a vacuum system allows to trap the contamination onto filters and thus avoiding any dissemination in the room where the process takes place. The next step is going to be a commercial use in 2012 in one of the La Hague buildings. (authors)

  17. Protection of Cultural Heritage in Urban Areas during Peace and Conflict Times from Threats to Risk Preparedness as a Shared Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimino, C.

    2013-07-01

    In times of economic hardship, the support given by specialized civil society organisations to public institutions in the protection of cultural heritage has often proved very useful, and there is evidence that their contribution is essential in times of conflicts and natural disasters, if well-designed plans and measures are organized efficiently, thoroughly tested and properly implemented. The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (HC), its two Protocols and other international juridical instruments address these situations since decades, however, they remained widely not-applied in absence of proper regulatory instruments. In 2004, the Second Protocol of the Hague Convention (1999HP) entered into force and the Committee of the State Parties was formed. It became clear that a new trend started when, in 2009, draft Guidelines for the implementation of the 1999HP were issued. Meanwhile, WATCH, in partnership with the Council of the United Municipalitities of Jbail (Lebanon) and the Head of the Municipality of Mtskheta (Georgia) prepared a project proposal aimed to set a precedent in the governance of urban sites that are registered in the World Heritage List which are at risk of armed conflict. The project War Free World Heritage Listed Cities http://www.warfreeheritage.net/ was co-financed in 2010 with a grant within the framework of the EC CIUDAD programme and it is currently at an advanced level of implementation. This presentation will focus on achievements and contingencies faced during implementation as well as lessons learned that could be surely useful for pers pective applicants.

  18. COEX - process: cross-breeding between innovation and industrial experience

    SciTech Connect

    Drain, F.; Emin, J.L.; Vinoche, R.; Baron, P.

    2008-07-01

    Recycling used nuclear fuel at an industrial scale has been a reality for over 40 years. Since it was founded in 1976, AREVA has designed and built two used fuel treatment plants in La Hague, France. These plants, named UP2-800 and UP3, use the PUREX process. UP3 began operations at the end of the 80's and UP2-800 in the mid 90's. The plutonium extracted in UP2-800 and UP3 is then processed in MELOX plant which started operation in 1995, to be recycled under the form of MOX fuel in LWR. This technology has been selected by JNFL for its reprocessing and recycling plants. Rokkasho-Mura reprocessing plant incorporates also some Japanese technologies and is being commissioned soon. Over 23,000 tons of LWR used fuels have been treated in La Hague plants and over 1200 tons of MOX fuels have been produced by MELOX plant. Innovations have been constantly incorporated to these plants to improve process efficiency and to reduce the activity and volume of waste. During these years, AREVA has acquired an invaluable experience in industrializing processes and technologies developed in the laboratory. In the frame of its continuous improvement policy, AREVA has developed jointly with CEA (French Atomic Energy Agency) a new process, COEX{sup TM} process, offering significant improvement in term of proliferation resistance, process performance and investment and operating cost. The present paper recalls the process principles applied in French and Japanese recycling plants. Then it describes the main steps of COEX{sup TM} process, the status of its development and the improvements compared to PUREX process. The possible evolution of COEX{sup TM} process to cope with needs of future nuclear fuel cycles using fast reactors and possible recycling of minor actinides is presented. (authors)

  19. Temporal variation of iodine isotopes in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring temporal variability of (129)I in the North Sea, a relatively large reservoir of radioactive discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, is vital for the environmental situation in the region. New information on concentration levels and distribution of (129)I and (127)I and their species forms (iodide and iodate) are gained here through sampling of surface water in 2010. The results show generally large spatial and temporal (compared to data from 2005) fluctuations of total (129)I and (127)I, and iodide and iodate. In samples south of 53°N, the level of (127)I(-) in 2010 was generally comparable or higher than in 2005. The results also show total (129)I concentrations comparable in the south, but 2-8 times lower in the north, to the analyses made in 2005. Different from total (129)I, the (129)I(-)/(129)IO3(-) values in the northern part were 2 times higher in 2010 than values observed in 2005. These variations in total (129)I and (127)I and their species are related to coastal water offshore propagation and surface currents that are linked to long-term and seasonal climatic changes over the North Atlantic and North Sea. Inventory estimation shows that >90% of (129)I resides in the Southern and German Bights, which also suggests negligible contribution from the Sellafield facility discharges when compared with that from the La Hague. Variability in discharge rate from La Hague may also affect the distribution patterns of (129)I in the North Sea on the monthly scale.

  20. Affinity Density: a novel genomic approach to the identification of transcription factor regulatory targets

    PubMed Central

    Hazelett, Dennis J.; Lakeland, Daniel L.; Weiss, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    Methods: A new method was developed for identifying novel transcription factor regulatory targets based on calculating Local Affinity Density. Techniques from the signal-processing field were used, in particular the Hann digital filter, to calculate the relative binding affinity of different regions based on previously published in vitro binding data. To illustrate this approach, the complete genomes of Drosophila melanogaster and D.pseudoobscura were analyzed for binding sites of the homeodomain proteinc Tinman, an essential heart development gene in both Drosophila and Mouse. The significant binding regions were identified relative to genomic background and assigned to putative target genes. Valid candidates common to both species of Drosophila were selected as a test of conservation. Results: The new method was more sensitive than cluster searches for conserved binding motifs with respect to positive identification of known Tinman targets. Our Local Affinity Density method also identified a significantly greater proportion of Tinman-coexpressed genes than equivalent, optimized cluster searching. In addition, this new method predicted a significantly greater than expected number of genes with previously published RNAi phenotypes in the heart. Availability: Algorithms were implemented in Python, LISP, R and maxima, using MySQL to access locally mirrored sequence data from Ensembl (D.melanogaster release 4.3) and flybase (D.pseudoobscura). All code is licensed under GPL and freely available at http://www.ohsu.edu/cellbio/dev_biol_prog/affinitydensity/. Contact: hazelett@ohsu.edu PMID:19401399

  1. The Berlin Poliklinik: psychoanalytic innovation in Weimar Germany.

    PubMed

    Danto, E A

    1999-01-01

    After Freud proposed in 1918 the creation of "institutions or out-patient clinics [where] treatment will be free," Max Eitingon, Ernst Simmel, and other progressive psychoanalysts founded the Berlin Poliklinik, a free outpatient clinic. Guided by Weimar Republic principles of "radical functionalism," the Poliklinik and its companion inpatient service, the Schloss Tegel Sanatorium, pioneered treatment and training methodologies still used--and still debated--today. Their funding strategies, statistics, and approaches to clinical problems like length of treatment tell the history of an innovative psychoanalytic institute where men and women were generally treated in equal numbers and patients (ranging in occupational status from unemployed to professional) of all ages were treated free. Franz Alexander, Karl Abraham, Theresa Benedek, Paul Federn, Otto Fenichel, Edith Jacobson, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Helene Deutsch, Hanns Sachs, Sándor Radó, Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, Wilhelm Reich, Annie Reich, and Melanie Klein all worked at the Poliklinik, and from there initiated decades of original clinical theory, practice, and education.

  2. The Solar Wind as a Laboratory for the Study of Magnetofluid Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    The solar wind is the Sun's exosphere. As the solar atmosphere expands into interplanetary space, it is accelerated and heated. Data from spacecraft located throughout the heliosphere have revealed that this exosphere has velocities of several hundred kilometers/sec, densities at Earth orbit of about 5 particles/cm(exp 3), and an entrained magnetic field that at Earth orbit that is about 5 X 10(exp 5) Gauss. A fascinating feature of this magnetized plasma, which is a gas containing both charged particles and magnetic field, is that the magnetic field fluctuates in a way that is highly reminiscent of "Alfven waves", first defined by Hannes Alfven in 1942. Such waves have the defining property that the fluctuating magnetic fields are aligned with fluctuations in the velocity of the plasma and that, when properly normalized, the fluctuations have equal magnitudes. The observed alignment is not perfect and the resulting mismatch leads to a variety of complex interactions. In many respects, the flow patterns appear to be an example of fully developed magnetofluid turbulence. Recently, the dissipation range of this turbulence has been revealed by Search Coil magnetometer data from the four Cluster spacecraft. This tutorial will describe some of the properties of the large-scale and small-scale turbulence.

  3. Development and applications of an interactive digital filter design program.

    PubMed

    Woo, H W; Kim, Y M; Tompkins, W J

    1985-10-01

    We have implemented an interactive digital filter design program in the HP 1000 computer at the Department of Electrical Engineering of the University of Washington. This program allows users to design different types of filters interactively with both amplitude and phase responses displayed on graphic devices. The performance of each designed filter can be evaluated conveniently before the best one is chosen and implemented for any particular application. This program can design recursive filters, e.g. Butterworth, Chebyshev and elliptic, or nonrecursive filters with one out of six different windows, i.e. rectangular, triangular, Hann, Hamming, Blackman and Kaiser. The main outputs from this program are coefficients of a transfer function of an analog filter, a digital filter, or both. Therefore, the design of both analog and digital filters is facilitated by using this program. The program is very simple to use and does not require background in analog or digital filter principles in order to run it. The program is written in standard FORTRAN and is about 30 kbytes in size excluding the graphics display routines. Since it uses standard FORTRAN, it can be easily transported to minicomputer and microcomputer systems that have a FORTRAN compiler and minimal graphics capabilities. This program is available for distribution to interested institutions and laboratories.

  4. Chapman and Alfvén: A Rigorous Mathematical Physicist Versus an Inspirational Experimental Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, Syun

    Modern magnetospheric physics owes its initial development to two great pioneers' Sydney Chapman and Hannes Alfvén, who took very different and contrasting approaches for their research activities; Figure 1. This caused one of the most memorable controversies in space physics during the 20th century. The controversy was initiated formally by Alfvén (1951) when he criticized a paper by D.F. Martyn entitled, ``The Theory of Magnetic Storms and Auroras,'' published in Nature in 1951. Alfvén stated: ``Dr. Martyn's treatment is founded on Chapman-Ferraro's theory of magnetic storms. It is not my intention to review here the objections to this theory, objections which I believe to be fatal- nor is it worthwhile to discuss the curious super structure which Dr. Martyn tried to erect on this weak ground.'' Alfvén's objections will be described after briefly providing the background on which the Chapman-Ferraro theory was constructed. It may be mentioned at the outset that Chapman, together with T.G. Cowling, was well recognized by his publication of a classical treatise ``The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases'' in 1953 and also, with J. Bartels, of ``Geomagnetism'' in 1940, while Alfvén established himself by the publication of an inspirational book ``Cosmical Electrodynamics'' in 1950.

  5. Sagebrush Ecosystems Under Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, Janelle L.

    2014-12-30

    Since settlement of the western United States began, sagebrush (Artemisia L. spp.) ecosystems have decreased both in quantity and quality. Originally encompassing up to 150 million acres in the West, the “interminable fields” of sage described by early explorers (Fremont 1845) have been degraded and often eliminated by conversion to agriculture, urbanization, livestock grazing, invasion by alien plants, and alteration of wildfire cycles (Hann et al. 1997; West 1999). More than half of the original sagebrush steppe ecosystems in Washington have been converted to agriculture and many of the remaining stands of sagebrush are degraded by invasion of exotic annuals such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.). Today, sagebrush ecosystems are considered to be one of the most imperiled in the United States (Noss, LeRoe and Scott 1995), and more than 350 sagebrush-associated plants and animals have been identified as species of conservation concern (Suring et al. 2005; Wisdom et al. 2005). The increasing frequency of wildfire in sagebrush-dominated landscapes is one of the greatest threats to these habitats and also presents one of the most difficult to control.

  6. Validation of MTF measurement for CBCT system using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ting; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhou, Zhongxing

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the spatial resolution performance of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system, accurate measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) is required. This accuracy depends on the MTF measurement method and CBCT reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the accuracy of MTF measurement of CBCT system using wire phantom is validated by Monte Carlo simulation. A Monte Carlo simulation software tool BEAMnrc/EGSnrc was employed to model X-ray radiation beams and transport. Tungsten wires were simulated with different diameters and radial distances from the axis of rotation. We adopted filtered back projection technique to reconstruct images from 360° acquisition. The MTFs for four reconstruction kernels were measured from corresponding reconstructed wire images, while the ram-lak kernel increased the MTF relative to the cosine, hamming and hann kernel. The results demonstrated that the MTF degraded radially from the axis of rotation. This study suggested that an increase in the MTF for the CBCT system is possible by optimizing scanning settings and reconstruction parameters.

  7. Nucleotide sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Schad, P A; Iglewski, B H

    1988-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-E64 is a mutant which produces parental levels of elastase antigen but has no elastolytic activity at 37 degrees C. The lesion (lasA1) in PAO-E64 is not a mutation in the structural gene for P. aeruginosa elastase (P.A. Schad, R.A. Bever, T.I. Nicas, F. Leduce, L.F. Hanne, and B.H. Iglewski, J. Bacteriol. 169: 2691-2696, 1987). A 1.7-kilobase segment of DNA that complements the lasA1 lesion was sequenced. Computer analysis of the DNA sequence showed that it contained an open reading frame which encoded a 41,111-dalton protein. The lasA gene was expressed under an inducible PT-7 promoter, and a 40,000-dalton protein was detected in Escherichia coli lysates. The lasA protein was localized in the outer membrane fraction of E. coli. This lasA protein produced in E. coli activated the extracellular elastase produced by the P. aeruginosa mutant, PAO-E64. Images PMID:2836371

  8. INVITED SPEAKERS Invited Speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Alain AspectPalaiseau Markus AspelmeyerVienna Vanderlei BagnatoSão Paulo Victor BalykinMoscow Kristian BaumannZürich Jim BergquistNIST, Boulder Frédéric ChevyENS, Paris John CloseCanberra Claude Cohen-TannoudjiENS, Paris Jean DalibardENS, Paris Eugene DemlerHarvard Michael DoserCERN Markus DrescherHamburg Francesca FerlainoInnsbruck Victor FlambaumSydney Chiara FortFlorence Elisabeth GiacobinoENS, Paris Philippe GrangierPalaiseau Chris GreeneJILA, Boulder Markus GreinerHarvard Eric HesselsToronto Hidetoshi KatoriTokyo Wolfgang KetterleMIT Michael KohlCambridge Wu-Ming LiuBeijing Francesco MinardiFlorence Holger MüllerBerkeley Karim MurrGarching Hanns-Christoph NägerlInnsbruck Jeremy O'BrienBristol Silke OspelkausJILA, Boulder Krzysztof PachuckiWarsaw Bill PhillipsGaithersburg Randolf PohlGarching Eugene PolzikCopenhagen Cindy RegalJILA, Boulder Jakob ReichelENS, Paris Helmut RitschInnsbruck Christian RoosInnsbruck Mark SaffmanWisconsin Christophe SalomonENS, Paris Gora ShlyapnikovOrsay Richard TaiebParis Masahito UedaTokyo Chris ValeMelbourne Andreas WallraffZürich Matthias WeidemüllerHeidelberg Martin WeitzBonn Artur WideraBonn David WinelandNIST, Boulder

  9. Angular momentum partitioning in the impulsive excitation of the intermediately coupled 4P(5)5P manifold of krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, Benjamin Grant

    We have determined that the dynamics of the polarized electron impact excitation of the 4p55p manifold of krypton can be characterized using 12 relative multipoles of angular momentum. This set of relative multipoles is restricted by the assumption that the spin- and orbital-degrees of freedom are conserved separately during the collision. In this system, relativistic spin-orbit effects produce intermediately-coupled states where L and S are indistinct quantum numbers, fulfilling conditions presented in Bartschat and Blum [K. Bartschat, K. Blum, G. F. Hanne and J. Kessler, J. Phys. B 14 (1981), 3761--76] for observing the integrated Stokes parameter P2 in the subsequent resonance fluorescence. These non-zero values of P2 were observed experimentally, but to predict them using the formalism of relative multipoles it was necessary to include "non-diagonal" elements which describe coherent excitation of more than one L or S state simultaneously. Special attention is given to the physics and interpretation of "non-diagonal" multipoles and the importance of intermediate-coupling in producing P2.

  10. Angular Momentum Partitioning in the Kr 4p^55p Manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, B. G.; Gay, T. J.

    2002-05-01

    We have determined that the dynamics of the polarized electron impact excitation of the 4p^55p manifold of Kr can be characterized using 12 relative multipoles of angular momentum. The set of relative multipoles is restricted by the assumption that the spin and orbital degrees of freedom are conserved separately during the collision. In this system, relativistic spin-orbit effects produce intermediately-coupled states where L and S are indistinct quantum numbers, fulfilling conditions presented in Bartschat and Blum (K. Bartschat, K. Blum, G.F. Hanne and J. Kessler, J. Phys. B 14)(1981), 3761-76. for observing the integrated Stokes parameter P2 in the subsequent resonance fluorescence. These non-zero values of P2 were observed experimentally, but to predict them using the formalism of relative multipoles it was necessary to include ``non-diagonal'' elements which describe coherent excitation of more than one L or S state simultaneously. Special attention will be given to the physics of ``non-diagonal'' multipoles and the importance of intermediate-coupling in producing P_2.

  11. The measurement of the presampled MTF of a high spatial resolution neutron imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Raymond Lei.; Biegalski, Steven R.

    2007-11-01

    A high spatial resolution neutron imaging device was developed at the Mark II TRIGA reactor at The University of Texas at Austin. As the modulation transfer function (MTF) is recognized as a well-established parameter for evaluation of imaging system resolution, the aliasing associated with digital sampling adds complexity to its measurement. Aliasing is especially problematic when using a high spatial resolution micro-channel plate (MCP) neutron detector that has a pixel grid size similar to that of a CCD array. To compensate for the aliasing an angulated edge method was used to evaluate the neutron imaging facility, overcoming aliasing by obtaining an oversampled edge spread function (ESF). Baseline correction was applied to the ESF to remove the noticeable trends and the LSF was multiplied by Hann window to obtain a smoothed version of presampled MTF. The computing procedure is confirmed by visual inspection of a testing phantom; in addition, it is confirmed by comparison to the MTF measurement of a scintillation screen with a known MTF curve.

  12. The Berlin Poliklinik: psychoanalytic innovation in Weimar Germany.

    PubMed

    Danto, E A

    1999-01-01

    After Freud proposed in 1918 the creation of "institutions or out-patient clinics [where] treatment will be free," Max Eitingon, Ernst Simmel, and other progressive psychoanalysts founded the Berlin Poliklinik, a free outpatient clinic. Guided by Weimar Republic principles of "radical functionalism," the Poliklinik and its companion inpatient service, the Schloss Tegel Sanatorium, pioneered treatment and training methodologies still used--and still debated--today. Their funding strategies, statistics, and approaches to clinical problems like length of treatment tell the history of an innovative psychoanalytic institute where men and women were generally treated in equal numbers and patients (ranging in occupational status from unemployed to professional) of all ages were treated free. Franz Alexander, Karl Abraham, Theresa Benedek, Paul Federn, Otto Fenichel, Edith Jacobson, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Helene Deutsch, Hanns Sachs, Sándor Radó, Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, Wilhelm Reich, Annie Reich, and Melanie Klein all worked at the Poliklinik, and from there initiated decades of original clinical theory, practice, and education. PMID:10650563

  13. R and D Programs and Policy within the CEA-AREVA Joint Vitrification Lab (LCV) - 13592

    SciTech Connect

    Piroux, Jean Christophe; Paradis, Luc; Ladirat, Christian; Brueziere, Jerome; Chauvin, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Waste management is a key issue for the reprocessing industry; furthermore, vitrification is considered as the reference for nuclear waste management. In order to further improve and strengthen their historical cooperation in high temperature waste management, the CEA, R and D organization, and AREVA, Industrial Operator, decided, in September 2010, to create a Joint Vitrification Laboratory within the framework of a strategic partnership. The main objectives of the CEA-AREVA Joint Vitrification Laboratory (LCV) are (i) support AREVA's activities, notably in its La Hague plants and for new projects, (ii) strengthen the CEA's lead as a reference laboratory in the field of waste conditioning. The LCV is mandated to provide strong, innovative solutions through the performance of R and D on processes and materials for vitrification, fusion and incineration, for high, intermediate and low level waste. The activities carried out in the LCV include academic research on containment matrices (formulation, long-term behaviour), and the improvement of current technologies/development of new ones in lab-scale to full-scale pilot facilities, in non-radioactive and radioactive conditions, including modelling and experimental tools. This paper focuses on the programs and policy managed within the LCV, as well as the means employed by the CEA and AREVA to meet common short-,mid- and long-term challenges, from a scientific and industrial point of view. Among other things, we discuss the technical support provided for the La Hague vitrification facilities on hot melter and CCIM technologies, the start-up of new processes (decommissioning effluents, UMo FP) with CCIM, the preparation of future processes by means of an assessment of new technologies and containment matrices (improved glasses, ceramics, etc.), as well as incineration/vitrification for organic and metallic mixed waste or metallic fusion. The close relationship between the R and D teams and industrial operators enables

  14. SiC based MOSFET transistors for high temperature industrial gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd Spetz, Anita

    2000-03-01

    Field effect sensors based on silicon carbide have been demonstrated for industrial applications at high temperatures and in rough environments. Metal insulator silicon carbide, MISiC, Schottky diode devices as well as FET transistor devices that can be operated up to 700°C are presented. For high operation temperatures the sensors respond within milliseconds to a change between an oxidizing and reducing atmosphere, and cylinder specific monitoring of a combustion engine has been demonstrated. Changing the temperature and the type of gate metal gives sensors with diverse response patterns to different components in e.g. exhaust gases and flue gases. Sensor devices operating around 300°C with some selectivity to nitric oxide in synthetic diesel exhaust gases are presented. At a higher temperature, about 500°C, some selectivity to HC is found in synthetic petrol exhausts. Boilers of the size 0.5 - 5 MW constitute a potential market for combustion monitoring sensors. We have demonstrated MISiC devices with high selectivity to carbon monoxide in flue gases. References: Fast responding air/fuel sensor for individual cylinder control, A. Baranzahi, P. Tobias, A. Lloyd Spetz, I Lundström, P. Mårtensson, M. Glavmo, A. Göras, J. Nytomt, P. Salomonsson, and H. Larsson, SAE Technical Paper Series 972940, Combustion and Emisson Formation in SI Engines, (SP-1300) (1997) 231-240. MISiC Schottky Diodes as NOx sensors in simulated exhausts, H. Svenningstorp, P. Tobias, C. Wijk, I. Lundström, P. Salomonsson, L.-G. Ekedahl, and A. Lloyd Spetz, proc. Eurosensors XIII, The Hague, The Netherlands, September 12-15, pp. 501-504, 1999. Measurements with MISiC and MOS sensors in flue gases, L. Unéus, P. Ljung, M. Mattsson, P. Mårtenssson, R. Wigren, P. Tobias, I. Lundström, L-G. Ekedahl and A. Lloyd Spetz, proc. Eurosensors XIII, The Hague, The Netherlands, September 12-15, pp. 521-524, 1999.

  15. A new protocol for screening adults presenting with their own medical problems at the Emergency Department to identify children at high risk for maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Diderich, Hester M; Fekkes, Minne; Verkerk, Paul H; Pannebakker, Fieke D; Velderman, Mariska Klein; Sorensen, Peggy J G; Baeten, Paul; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2013-12-01

    Identifying child abuse and neglect solely on the grounds of child characteristics leaves many children undetected. We developed a new approach (Hague protocol) based on characteristics of parents who attend the Emergency Department (ED) because they have the following problems: (1) intimate partner violence, (2) substance abuse, or (3) suicide attempt or other serious psychiatric problems. The goal of this protocol is to enable the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN) to rapidly assess family problems and offer voluntary community based support to these parents. The aim of this study is to assess whether this protocol for screening adults presenting for care in the Emergency Department can identify children at high risk for maltreatment. A before and after study was conducted at 9 EDs in 3 regions in the Netherlands (one intervention region and 2 control regions). During the period January 2006 to November 2007, prior to the introduction of the Hague protocol, from a total of 385,626 patients attending the ED in the intervention region 4 parents (1 per 100,000) were referred to the RCCAN. In the period after introduction of the protocol (December 2007 to December 2011), the number rose to 565 parents from a total of 885,301 patients attending the ED (64 per 100,000). In the control region, where the protocol was not implemented, these figures were 2 per 163,628 (1 per 100,000) and 10 per 371,616 (3 per 100,000) respectively (OR=28.0 (95 CI 4.6-170.7)). At assessment, child abuse was confirmed in 91% of referred cases. The protocol has a high positive predictive value of 91% and can substantially increase the detection rate of child abuse in an ED setting. Parental characteristics are strong predictors of child abuse. Implementing guidelines to detect child abuse based on parental characteristics of parents attending the adult section of the ED can increase the detection rate of child abuse and neglect allowing appropriate aid to be initiated for

  16. Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2003-02-25

    The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed

  17. Preliminary volcano hazard assessment for the Emmons Lake volcanic center, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher; Miller, Thomas P.; Mangan, Margaret T.

    2006-01-01

    The Emmons Lake volcanic center is a large stratovolcano complex on the Alaska Peninsula near Cold Bay, Alaska. The volcanic center includes several ice- and snow-clad volcanoes within a nested caldera structure that hosts Emmons Lake and truncates a shield-like ancestral Mount Emmons edifice. From northeast to southwest, the main stratovolcanoes of the center are: Pavlof Sister, Pavlof, Little Pavlof, Double Crater, Mount Hague, and Mount Emmons. Several small cinder cones and vents are located on the floor of the caldera and on the south flank of Pavlof Volcano. Pavlof Volcano, in the northeastern part of the center, is the most historically active volcano in Alaska (Miller and others, 1998) and eruptions of Pavlof pose the greatest hazards to the region. Historical eruptions of Pavlof Volcano have been small to moderate Strombolian eruptions that produced moderate amounts of near vent lapilli tephra fallout, and diffuse ash plumes that drifted several hundreds of kilometers from the vent. Cold Bay, King Cove, Nelson Lagoon, and Sand Point have reported ash fallout from Pavlof eruptions. Drifting clouds of volcanic ash produced by eruptions of Pavlof would be a major hazard to local aircraft and could interfere with trans-Pacific air travel if the ash plume achieved flight levels. During most historical eruptions of Pavlof, pyroclastic material erupted from the volcano has interacted with the snow and ice on the volcano producing volcanic mudflows or lahars. Lahars have inundated most of the drainages heading on the volcano and filled stream valleys with variable amounts of coarse sand, gravel, and boulders. The lahars are often hot and would alter or destroy stream habitat for many years following the eruption. Other stratocones and vents within the Emmons Lake volcanic center are not known to have erupted in the past 300 years. However, young appearing deposits and lava flows suggest there may have been small explosions and minor effusive eruptive activity

  18. Financing and budgetary impact of landslide losses for highways and urban infrastructures in NW Germany - an economic analysis using landslide database information and cost survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurischat, Philipp; Klose, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that landslides cause even in low mountain areas of Central and Western Europe millions of dollars in annual losses (Klose et al., 2012; Vranken et al., 2013). The objective of this study has therefore been to model landslide disaster financing and to assess budgetary impacts of landslide losses for highways and urban infrastructures in the Lower Saxon Uplands, NW Germany. The present contribution includes two case studies on the financial burden of landslides for public budgets using the examples of the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation and the city of Hann. Münden. The basis of this research is a regional subset of a landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany. Using a toolset for landslide cost modeling based on landslide databases (Klose et al., 2013), the direct costs of more than 30 landslide damage events to highways in a local case study area were determined. The annual average landslide maintenance, repair, and mitigation costs for highways in this case study area are estimated at 0.76 million between 1980 and 2010. Alternatively, a cost survey based on expert interviews has been conducted to collect landslide loss data for urban infrastructures. This cost survey for the city of Hann. Münden shows annual landslide losses of up to 3.4 million during the previous 10 years. Further expert interviews at city and highway agency level were focused on identifying procedure, resources, and limits of financing landslide damage costs. The information on landslide disaster financing and cost survey data on annual maintenance and construction budgets for highways, city sewer lines, and urban roads were used to evaluate the fiscal significance of estimated landslide losses. The results of this economic impact assessment prove variable financial burdens of analyzed public budgets. Thus, in costly years with landslide losses of more than 7 million, the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation is required to shift up to 19% of its

  19. Transconvolution and the virtual positron emission tomograph-A new method for cross calibration in quantitative PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Prenosil, George A.; Weitzel, Thilo; Hentschel, Michael; Klaeser, Bernd; Krause, Thomas

    2013-06-15

    with a Gaussian distribution were introduced. Furthermore, simulation of a virtual PET system provided a standard imaging system with clearly defined properties to which the real PET systems were to be matched. A Hann window served as the modulation transfer function for the virtual PET. The Hann's apodization properties suppressed high spatial frequencies above a certain critical frequency, thereby fulfilling the above-mentioned boundary conditions. The determined point spread functions were subsequently used by the novel Transconvolution algorithm to match different PET/CT systems onto the virtual PET system. Finally, the theoretically elaborated Transconvolution method was validated transforming phantom images acquired on two different PET systems to nearly identical data sets, as they would be imaged by the virtual PET system. Results: The proposed Transconvolution method matched different PET/CT-systems for an improved and reproducible determination of a normalized activity concentration. The highest difference in measured activity concentration between the two different PET systems of 18.2% was found in spheres of 2 ml volume. Transconvolution reduced this difference down to 1.6%. In addition to reestablishing comparability the new method with its parameterization of point spread functions allowed a full characterization of imaging properties of the examined tomographs. Conclusions: By matching different tomographs to a virtual standardized imaging system, Transconvolution opens a new comprehensive method for cross calibration in quantitative PET imaging. The use of a virtual PET system restores comparability between data sets from different PET systems by exerting a common, reproducible, and defined partial volume effect.

  20. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan, Waters, Dede, Michaud, & Reddy, 2007; Haarmann, Just, & Carpenter, 1997) propose that the underlying structural representations are unimpaired, but sentence comprehension is affected by processing deficits, such as slow lexical activation, reduction in memory resources, slowed processing and/or intermittent deficiency, among others. We test the claims of two processing accounts, slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, and two versions of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH), in a computational framework for sentence processing (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) implemented in ACT-R (Anderson, Byrne, Douglass, Lebiere, & Qin, 2004). The assumption of slowed processing is operationalized as slow procedural memory, so that each processing action is performed slower than normal, and intermittent deficiency as extra noise in the procedural memory, so that the parsing steps are more noisy than normal. We operationalize the TDH as an absence of trace information in the parse tree. To test the predictions of the models implementing these theories, we use the data from a German sentence-picture matching study reported in Hanne, Sekerina, Vasishth, Burchert, and De Bleser (2011). The data consist of offline (sentence-picture matching accuracies and response times) and online (eye fixation proportions) measures. From among the models considered, the model assuming that both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency are present emerges as the best model of sentence processing difficulty in aphasia. The modeling of individual differences suggests that, if we assume that patients have both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, they

  1. Comparative Analysis of Reproductive Traits in Black-Chinned Tilapia Females from Various Coastal Marine, Estuarine and Freshwater Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Kantoussan, Justin; Ndiaye, Papa; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Albaret, Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron is a marine teleost characterised by an extreme euryhalinity. However, beyond a certain threshold at very high salinity, the species exhibits impaired growth and precocious reproduction. In this study, the relationships between reproductive parameters, environmental salinity and condition factor were investigated in wild populations of this species that were sampled in two consecutive years (2003 and 2004) from three locations in Senegal with different salinities: Guiers lake (freshwater, 0 psu), Hann bay (seawater, 37 psu) and Saloum estuary (hypersaline water, 66–127 psu). The highest absolute fecundity and spawning weight were recorded in seawater by comparison to either freshwater or hypersaline water whereas the poorest condition factors were observed in the most saline sampling site. These results reflect higher resource allocation to the reproduction due to the lowest costs of adaptation to salinity in seawater (the natural environment of this species) rather than differences in food resources at sites and/or efficiency at foraging and prey availability. Fecundities, oocyte size as well as spawning weight were consistent from year to year. However, the relative fecundity in the Saloum estuary varied significantly between the dry and rainy raisons with higher values in the wet season, which seems to reflect seasonal variations in environmental salinity. Such a reproductive tactic of producing large amounts of eggs in the rainy season when the salinity in the estuary was lower, would give the fry a better chance at survival and therefore assures a high larval recruitment. An inverse correlation was found between relative fecundity and oocyte size at the two extreme salinity locations, indicating that S. melanotheron has different reproductive strategies in these ecosystems. The adaptive significance of these two reproductive modes is discussed in regard to the heavy osmotic constraint imposed by extreme

  2. Increased range of ultrasonic guided wave testing of overhead transmission line cables using dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Legg, Mathew; Yücel, Mehmet K; Kappatos, Vassilios; Selcuk, Cem; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2015-09-01

    Overhead Transmission Line (OVTL) cables can experience structural defects and are, therefore, inspected using Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques. Ultrasonic Guided Waves (UGW) is one NDT technique that has been investigated for inspection of these cables. For practical use, it is desirable to be able to inspect as long a section of cable as possible from a single location. This paper investigates increasing the UGW inspection range on Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cables by compensating for dispersion using dispersion curve data. For ACSR cables, it was considered to be difficult to obtain accurate dispersion curves using modelling due to the complex geometry and unknown coupling between wire strands. Group velocity dispersion curves were, therefore, measured experimentally on an untensioned, 26.5m long cable and a method of calculating theoretical dispersion curves was obtained. Attenuation and dispersion compensation were then performed for a broadband Maximum Length Sequence (MLS) excitation signal. An increase in the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of about 4-8dB compared to that of the dispersed signal was obtained. However, the main benefit was the increased ability to resolve the individual echoes from the end of the cable and an introduced defect in the form of a cut, which was 7 to at least 13dB greater than that of the dispersed signal. Five echoes were able to be clearly detected using MLS excitation signal, indicating the potential for an inspection range of up to 130m in each direction. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the longest inspection range for ACSR cables reported in the literature, where typically cables, which were only one or two meter long, have been investigated previously. Narrow band tone burst and Hann windowed tone burst excitation signal also showed increased SNR and ability to resolve closely spaced echoes. PMID:25991388

  3. [José Juan Verocay, "el patólogo de Praga" (on occasion of the 100th anniversary of his habilitation in Prague)].

    PubMed

    Čech, P

    2012-04-01

    José Juan Verocay was born on June 16, 1876 in Paysandú, Uruguay to Italian immigrants; in 1887 they sent him to Cortina d'Ampezzo to learn languages first; he then graduated from the high school in Trento (1897) and from the German Medical Faculty in Prague (1904) where he, a disciple of Hanns Chiari, became the 1st demonstrator (1902), 3rd (1904) to 1st assistant (1905), and volunteer (from 1908) at the Department of Pathological Anatomy. He repeatedly substituted the professors Chiari (until 1906), Kretz (1907-1910), and Ghon (from 1910) during their absence. Anomalies and neoplasms prevailed among his research subjects. In the paper "Zur Kenntnis der »Neurofibrome«" (1910) he introduced the term "neurinoma" for a tumor with characteristic structures later named "Verocay bodies". On the basis of the paper he was habilitated for pathological anatomy as private docent at the German Medical Faculty in Prague (1911). During World War I he served for the Austro-Hungarian army at military hospitals in Chrudim (Bohemia) and Vienna. After the war he returned to Uruguay to work as a general practitioner in his native region (1919-1921), thereafter in Montevideo as head of pathological laboratories at the military hospital (1921-1925), at the Dental School (1925-1927), and at the Medical Faculty Department of Neurology (from March 19, 1927). As early as on May 3, 1927, however, he had to retire due to rapid worsening of his pulmonary tuberculosis. The renowned scientist remained a stranger in his own country ("el patólogo de Praga"); he never gained professorship except for a symbolic proclamation by devoted students on August 24, 1927, two days before he left for Europe to undergo treatment. On December 26, 1927 he died in Dubí (a spa near Teplice in Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, now Czech Republic).

  4. The choice of the concept of magnetic field lines or of electric current lines: Alfvén medal lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    2011-07-01

    In 1967, at the Birkeland Symposium in Sandefjord, Norway, Professor Hannes Alfvén stated that the second approach (in solving unsolved problems by the standard MHD theory) to cosmic electrodynamics is to "thaw" the "frozen-in" magnetic field lines. "We can illustrate essential properties of the electromagnetic state of space either by depicting the magnetic field lines or by depicting electric current lines," he said. There has been much progress in space physics since the Birkeland Symposium more than 40 years ago, but unfortunately our scientific community has not really succeeded in thawing the frozen-in field lines. Instead, it has pursued magnetic reconnection, a concept that Alfvén had been critical of. It is shown here that we have to study many unsolved problems and problems thought to be solved in terms of both the magnetic field line concept and the current system concept. In taking Alfvén's approach, we must consider the whole system, including the power supply (dynamo process) and its transmission and distribution (electric currents) and observed phenomena (power dissipation processes). Such a consideration can provide physical insight into many of our unsolved problems and problems thought to be solved. In this paper, we consider substorm onset processes, the substorm current system, sunspots, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, the interplanetary current sheet, and the magnetic field configuration of the heliosphere in terms of the current system concept. In particular, it is shown that a study of the current system is essential in substorm studies, more than changes of the magnetic field configuration in the magnetotail.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges, potential vectors of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses in the Niayes area of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African horse sickness epizootic in Senegal in 2007 caused considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major economic losses. The vectors involved in the transmission of this arbovirus have never been studied specifically in Senegal. This first study of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species, potential vectors of African horse sickness in Senegal, was conducted at five sites (Mbao, Parc Hann, Niague, Pout and Thies) in the Niayes area, which was affected by the outbreak. Methods Two Onderstepoort light traps were used at each site for three nights of consecutive collection per month over one year to measure the apparent abundance of the Culicoides midges. Results In total, 224,665 specimens belonging to at least 24 different species (distributed among 11 groups of species) of the Culicoides genus were captured in 354 individual collections. Culicoides oxystoma, Culicoides kingi, Culicoides imicola, Culicoides enderleini and Culicoides nivosus were the most abundant and most frequent species at the collection sites. Peaks of abundance coincide with the rainy season in September and October. Conclusions In addition to C. imicola, considered a major vector for the African horse sickness virus, C. oxystoma may also be involved in the transmission of this virus in Senegal given its abundance in the vicinity of horses and its suspected competence for other arboviruses including bluetongue virus. This study depicted a site-dependent spatial variability in the dynamics of the populations of the five major species in relation to the eco-climatic conditions at each site. PMID:24690198

  6. 3-D imaging using row-column-addressed arrays with integrated apodization - part i: apodization design and line element beamforming.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of transducerintegrated apodization in row-column-addressed arrays and presents a beamforming approach specific for such arrays. Row-column addressing 2-D arrays greatly reduces the number of active channels needed to acquire a 3-D volume. A disadvantage of row-column-addressed arrays is an apparent ghost effect in the point spread function caused by edge waves. This paper investigates the origin of the edge waves and the effect of introducing an integrated apodization to reduce the ghost echoes. The performance of a λ/2-pitch 5-MHz 128 + 128 row-column-addressed array with different apodizations is simulated. A Hann apodization is shown to decrease imaging performance away from the center axis of the array because of a decrease in main lobe amplitude. Instead, a static roll-off apodization region located at the ends of the line elements is proposed. In simulations, the peak ghost echo intensity of a scatterer at (x,y, z) = (8, 3, 30) mm was decreased by 43 dB by integrating roll-off apodization into the array. The main lobe was unaffected by the apodization. Simulations of a 3-mm-diameter anechoic blood vessel at 30 mm depth showed that applying the transducer-integrated apodization increased the apparent diameter of the vessel from 2.0 mm to 2.4 mm, corresponding to an increase from 67% to 80% of the true vessel diameter. The line element beamforming approach is shown to be essential for achieving correct time-of-flight calculations, and hence avoid geometrical distortions. In Part II of this work, experimental results from a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer with integrated roll-off apodization are given to validate the effect of integrating apodization into the line elements. PMID:25974918

  7. Missing head and color banding in low-count SPECT reconstructions.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Robin; Jensen, Björn Neumann; Mortensen, Jann

    2014-12-01

    Due to low counts in an (111)In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan, a large part of the head was missing in the reconstructed images on Philips Extended Brilliance Workspace (EBW) and IntelliSpace Portal (ISP) workstations. This problem occurred for the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with and without resolution recovery (Astonish), but not for filtered backprojection (FBP) or maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM). There were also underflow problems because the images are stored as integers resulting in a loss of intensity resolution and color banding.Philips EBW2.0 and ISP5.02 workstations upscale low-count images, but the result is not always optimal, for example, in the case of low counts in one part and more counts in another part of an image. On these workstations, the missing head artefact problem could be resolved by applying a Hann pre-filter (with a cutoff at the Nyquist frequency, which only influences the filtering) in the reconstruction process. Upscaling of the projection data prior to reconstruction did not recover the head in the images, neither did limiting the reconstructed volume to the low-count part of interest.Underflow problems were partially solved by the new version 2.0 of the Philips EBW and ISP stations, although situations could arise where underflow still poses a problem. A solution for the underflow problems is to upscale the raw projection data before reconstruction. While this results in a pure upscaling of the FBP reconstruction, the effect in iterative statistical reconstruction is not only upscaling of the intensities because the assumption of Poisson statistics of the data is violated. However, the influence of this last matter seems limited.Reconstruction of studies with low counts in relevant areas should be performed with care. Reconstruction artefacts and scaling issues can easily arise.

  8. Weber's law in tactile grasping and manual estimation: feedback-dependent evidence for functionally distinct processing streams.

    PubMed

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2014-04-01

    The goal of the present investigation was to test the somatosensory processing model's (SPM) assertion that tactile actions and perceptions are mediated via egocentric and allocentric frames of reference, respectively (Dijkerman & de Hann's 2007: Behavioral and Brain Sciences). To accomplish that objective, Experiment 1 required that participants use their right hand to grasp and manually estimate differently sized objects placed on the forearm and palm of their left hand. Following each manual estimation trial, participants grasped the target object to equate tasks (i.e., grasping vs. manual estimation) for terminal tactile feedback. Notably, the different object locations (i.e., forearm and palm) were used to examine whether location-specific differences in mechanoreceptor density impacts the percept of object size (i.e., Weber's illusion). In addition, we computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) scores to determine whether grasping and manual estimations adhere to, or violate, the allocentric principles of Weber's law. Results for the grasping task elicited a null expression of Weber's illusion and JNDs for this task violated Weber's law. Results for the manual estimation task similarly exhibited a null expression of Weber's illusion; however, JNDs for the palm but not the forearm condition adhered to Weber's law. Experiment 2 showed that withdrawing terminal tactile feedback during forearm condition manual estimations resulted in responses that adhered to Weber's law. Thus, results provide some support for the SPM's contention that grasping and manual estimations are mediated via ego- and allocentric frames of reference, respectively. However, results further indicate that the dissociation is not complete and is, in part, influenced by the sensory consequences (i.e., terminal tactile feedback) associated with the response.

  9. MOA - The Magnetic Field Amplified Thruster, a Novel Concept for a Pulsed Plasma Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Grassauer, Andreas; Bartusch, Tobias; Koudelka, Otto

    2008-01-21

    More than 60 years after the later Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept is MOA - Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Based on computer simulations, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA Thruster R and D activities at QASAR (www.qasar.at), the company in Vienna, which has been set up to further develop and test the Alfven wave technology and its applications.

  10. The dietary intake of a group of vegetarian children aged 7-11 years compared with matched omnivores.

    PubMed

    Nathan, I; Hackett, A F; Kirby, S

    1996-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the diet of vegetarian children. The present study compared the dietary intake of fifty vegetarian children, aged 7-11 years, with fifty matched omnivores. Three 3 d food records were completed by each child at intervals of 6 months. The day after completing the record each child was interviewed to clarify food items and assess portion sizes. Food records were analysed using Microdiet (University of Salford). Finger-prick cholesterol and haemoglobin measurements were taken from a subsample of the group. Only one child's family was a member of the Vegetarian Society and almost one-third of vegetarian children had omnivorous parents (seventeen of fifty subjects). The energy intake (MJ) of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores, 7.6 (SD 1.05) and 8.0 (SD 1.36) respectively; there were no significant differences in Fe or fat intakes. For the vegetarians polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio (P:S 0.7 (SD 0.04)) and NSP intake (13.8 (SD 0.7) g/d) were significantly higher than those of the omnivores (P:S 0.5 (SD 0.02), NSP 10.3 (SD 0.4) g/d). There was no significant difference in cholesterol measurements (mmol/l) between the two groups: vegetarian 3.5 (SD 0.12), omnivores 3.7 (SD 0.15). The haemoglobin level (g/l) of the vegetarians (11.8 (SD 0.2)) was significantly below that of the omnivores (12.4 (SD 0.2)); 47.5% of the vegetarian children fell below the third percentile of the Dallman reference curves (Dallman & Siimes, 1979). The intake of the vegetarians more closely resembled current recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), although they need to be as aware as omnivores of the need to reduce fat intake. The haemoglobin levels of vegetarian children suggest that they need dietary advice to ensure optimal absorption of Fe.

  11. Ethnic and adoption attitudes among Guatemalan University students.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Judith L; González-Oliva, Ana Gabriela; Mylonas, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Intercountry adoptions from Guatemala were highly controversial, because of the large numbers of children being adopted to the USA, along with evidence of corruption and child theft. Since the implementation of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption in 2008, Guatemala's central authority for adoption has prioritized domestic placements for children over intercountry adoption. A possible attitudinal barrier to domestic adoption in Guatemala-negative attitudes and prejudice against Indigenous people-was investigated through questionnaires measuring attitudes toward adoption and attitudes toward and social distance from the two major ethnic groups (Ladino and Indigenous). Guatemalan university students (N = 177, 61 % men) were recruited from basic required courses at a private university. Results showed that attitudes toward adoption in general were more favorable than toward interethnic adoption, with the most negative attitudes toward adoption of Ladino children by Indigenous parents. Multiple regression and analysis of covariance models revealed that female gender, experience with adoption and more positive attitudes about Indigenous persons were associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption. The findings imply that negative attitudes toward Indigenous persons are associated with negative attitudes toward adoption, and serve as barriers to promoting domestic adoption in Guatemala. PMID:26702374

  12. Waste Estimates for a Future Recycling Plant in the US Based Upon AREVA Operating Experience - 13206

    SciTech Connect

    Foare, Genevieve; Meze, Florian; Bader, Sven; McGee, Don; Murray, Paul; Prud'homme, Pascal

    2013-07-01

    Estimates of process and secondary wastes produced by a recycling plant built in the U.S., which is composed of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing facility and a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility, are performed as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study [1]. In this study, a set of common inputs, assumptions, and constraints were identified to allow for comparison of these wastes between different industrial teams. AREVA produced a model of a reprocessing facility, an associated fuel fabrication facility, and waste treatment facilities to develop the results for this study. These facilities were divided into a number of discrete functional areas for which inlet and outlet flow streams were clearly identified to allow for an accurate determination of the radionuclide balance throughout the facility and the waste streams. AREVA relied primarily on its decades of experience and feedback from its La Hague (reprocessing) and MELOX (MOX fuel fabrication) commercial operating facilities in France to support this assessment. However, to perform these estimates for a U.S. facility with different regulatory requirements and to take advantage of some technological advancements, such as in the potential treatment of off-gases, some deviations from this experience were necessary. A summary of AREVA's approach and results for the recycling of 800 metric tonnes of initial heavy metal (MTIHM) of LWR UNF per year into MOX fuel under the assumptions and constraints identified for this DOE study are presented. (authors)

  13. Social justice and intercountry adoptions: the role of the U.S. social work community.

    PubMed

    Roby, Jini L; Rotabi, Karen; Bunkers, Kelley M

    2013-10-01

    Using social justice as the conceptual foundation, the authors present the structural barriers to socially just intercountry adoptions (ICAs) that can exploit and oppress vulnerable children and families participating in ICAs. They argue that such practices threaten the integrity of social work practice in that arena and the survival of ICA as a placement option. Government structures, disparity of power between countries and families on both sides, perceptions regarding poverty, cultural incompetence, misconceptions about orphans and orphanages, lack of knowledge about the impact of institution-based care, and the profit motive are driving forces behind the growing shadow of unethical ICAs. The U.S. social work community has a large role and responsibility in addressing these concerns as the United States receives the most children adopted through ICAs of all receiving countries. In addition to the centrality of social justice as a core value of the profession, the responsibility to carry out ethical and socially just ICA has recently increased as a matter of law, under the implementation legislation to the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption. While acknowledging that these issues are complex, authors provide suggestions for corrective policy and practice measures.

  14. The eastern maritime boundary between the United States and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David A.

    1984-04-01

    The easternmost part of the United States is separated from Canada by an imaginary line in the ocean. The oceanic boundary is evidence of the extensive marine heritage of the state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The International Court of Justice at The Hague (the "World Court") recently handed down a decision which extended the boundary line across the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank. The action was intended to resolve a long-standing controversy our fishing rights on Georges Bank (Eos, 65, (45), p. 801, 1984). The extension of the line adds a modern chapter to a maritime boundary dispute which is older than the government of either nation. The controversy is rooted in imprecise language used in the Treaty of Paris, which officially separated the nascent United States from Great Britain in 1783. Faced with sorting out the implications of the recent boundary decision, it is well to recall and perhaps benefit from the long history of related events, most of which had serious economic and personal consequences for residents on each side of the border.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide and odor removal by field-scale biotrickling filters: influence of seasonal variations of load and temperature.

    PubMed

    Lafita, Carlos; Penya-Roja, Josep M; Sempere, Feliu; Waalkens, Albert; Gabaldón, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Two biotrickling filters were set up at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in The Netherlands to investigate their effectiveness for treatment of odorous waste gases from different sources. One biotrickling filter was installed at Nieuwe Waterweg WWTP in Hook of Holland to study the hydrogen sulfide removal from headworks waste air. The other reactor was installed at Harnaschpolder WWTP (treating wastewater of the city of The Hague) to remove mercaptans and other organic compounds (odor) coming from the emissions of the anaerobic tanks of the biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge. The performance of both units showed a stable and highly efficient operation under seasonal variations of load and temperature over nearly one year of monitoring. The Nieuwe Waterweg unit achieved removals of up to 99%, corresponding to a maximum daily average elimination capacity (EC) of 55.8 g H(2)S/m(3)/h at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) as short as 8.5 s. Odor reduction at the Harnaschpolder unit was 95% at an EBRT of 18.9 s, with average outlet concentration lower than the objective value which was established as 1000 European Odor Units (OU(E)/m(3)).

  16. Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C W

    2001-03-01

    While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda. PMID:11333205

  17. Update and improvement of the global krypton-85 emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Ahlswede, Jochen; Hebel, Simon; Ross, J Ole; Schoetter, Robert; Kalinowski, Martin B

    2013-01-01

    Krypton-85 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors by fission of uranium and plutonium and released during chopping and dissolution of spent fuel rods in nuclear reprocessing facilities. As noble gas it is suited as a passive tracer for evaluation of atmospheric transport models. Furthermore, research is ongoing to assess its quality as an indicator for clandestine reprocessing activities. This paper continues previous efforts to compile a comprehensive historic emission inventory for krypton-85. Reprocessing facilities are the by far largest emitters of krypton-85. Information on sources and calculations used to derive the annual krypton-85 emission is provided for all known reprocessing facilities in the world. In addition, the emission characteristics of two plants, Tokai (Japan) and La Hague (France), are analysed in detail using emission data with high temporal resolution. Other types of krypton-85 sources are power reactors, naval reactors and isotope production facilities. These sources contribute only little or negligible amounts of krypton-85 compared to the large reprocessing facilities. Taking the decay of krypton-85 into account, the global atmospheric inventory is estimated to about 5500 PBq at the end of 2009. The correctness if the inventory has been proven by meteorological simulations and its error is assumed to be in the range of a few percent. PMID:22858641

  18. Commercial surrogacy: how provisions of monetary remuneration and powers of international law can prevent exploitation of gestational surrogates.

    PubMed

    Ramskold, Louise Anna Helena; Posner, Marcus Paul

    2013-06-01

    Increasing globalisation and advances in artificial reproductive techniques have opened up a whole new range of possibilities for infertile couples across the globe. Inter-country gestational surrogacy with monetary remuneration is one of the products of medical tourism meeting in vitro fertilisation embryo transfer. Filled with potential, it has also been a hot topic of discussion in legal and bioethics spheres. Fears of exploitation and breach of autonomy have sprung from the current situation, where there is no international regulation of surrogacy agreements--only a web of conflicting national laws that generates loopholes and removes safeguards for both the surrogate and commissioning couple. This article argues the need for evidence-based international laws and regulations as the only way to resolve both the ethical and legal issues around commercial surrogacy. In addition, a Hague Convention on inter-country surrogacy agreements is proposed to resolve the muddled state of affairs and enable commercial surrogacy to demonstrate its full potential. PMID:23443211

  19. [Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) and the specificity of serological reactions, one hundred years ago and now].

    PubMed

    de Meer, K

    2002-03-23

    One hundred years after his discovery of the AB0 blood groups, the monumental work of Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943, Nobel Prize 1930) on the specificity of serological reactions is widely recognised. His work on isoantigen reactions included the discovery, together with Levine and Wiener, of the Rhesus factor. Landsteiner did much to develop our understanding of autoantibody reactions and also contributed insights into the aetiology of infectious diseases that were rampant in his time. His work in immunochemistry included the discovery of hapten antigenicity. However, most of all he wanted to be remembered for his theory on the specificity of serological reactions, which he had strongly substantiated with his own work. Landsteiner suffered from the shortages in Vienna at the end of World War I. He and his family moved to the Netherlands in 1919. There he worked as pathologist at the Red Cross Hospital in The Hague until his move to the Rockefeller Institute in New York in 1923. Nowadays, his work is celebrated for its numerous excellent contributions to the fields of transfusion and transplantation medicine, population genetics, immunology, and infectiology.

  20. Ethnic and adoption attitudes among Guatemalan University students.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Judith L; González-Oliva, Ana Gabriela; Mylonas, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Intercountry adoptions from Guatemala were highly controversial, because of the large numbers of children being adopted to the USA, along with evidence of corruption and child theft. Since the implementation of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption in 2008, Guatemala's central authority for adoption has prioritized domestic placements for children over intercountry adoption. A possible attitudinal barrier to domestic adoption in Guatemala-negative attitudes and prejudice against Indigenous people-was investigated through questionnaires measuring attitudes toward adoption and attitudes toward and social distance from the two major ethnic groups (Ladino and Indigenous). Guatemalan university students (N = 177, 61 % men) were recruited from basic required courses at a private university. Results showed that attitudes toward adoption in general were more favorable than toward interethnic adoption, with the most negative attitudes toward adoption of Ladino children by Indigenous parents. Multiple regression and analysis of covariance models revealed that female gender, experience with adoption and more positive attitudes about Indigenous persons were associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption. The findings imply that negative attitudes toward Indigenous persons are associated with negative attitudes toward adoption, and serve as barriers to promoting domestic adoption in Guatemala.

  1. Prevention of Pu(IV) polymerization in a PUREX-based process

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Senentz, Gerald

    2007-07-01

    The US Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) is being designed to produce MOX fuel assemblies for use in domestic, commercial nuclear power reactors, as part of the U.S. DOE efforts to dispose of surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The feed material is plutonium dioxide from surplus weapon grade plutonium. PuO{sub 2}, issued from a pit disassembly and conversion facility (PDCF), will be processed using a flowsheet derived from the La Hague reprocessing plant to remove impurities. The purified PuO{sub 2} will be blended with UO{sub 2} to form mixed oxide pellets, and loaded into fuel rods, to create MOX fuel assemblies based on the process and technology of the MELOX plant in France,. Safety studies are necessary to support the development of the design basis per regulation 10 CFR Part 70 to complete an integrated safety analysis for the MFFF facility. The formation of tetravalent plutonium polymers in certain process vessels of the aqueous polishing (AP) process has been identified as a potential hazard. Based on scientific literature, the following paper demonstrates that within the AP process units, the polymerization of Pu(IV) will not occur and/or will not create a criticality issue even where the acidity may drop below 0.5 N HNO{sub 3}. We will identify and control the conditions under which plutonium (IV) will not polymerize. (authors)

  2. Influence of releases of I-129 from reprocessing plants on the marine environment of the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Osterc, Andrej; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2012-03-01

    Compared to the pre-nuclear era, large amounts of (129)I have been released to the marine environment, especially as liquid and gaseous discharges from two European reprocessing plants located at Sellafield and La Hague. Their liquid discharges influence Northern Europe and most research was conducted in the area of the North Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. In this article data on (129)I content and (129)I/(127)I ratios observed in the North Adriatic Sea, which is a rather enclosed basin of the Mediterranean Sea, are presented. To the best of our knowledge no data on (129)I in the Mediterranean Sea have previously been reported. As this area is isolated from direct liquid discharges, the main transport pathway is probably gaseous releases from reprocessing plants. Surface sea water, the marine alga Fucus virsoides, an iodine accumulator, and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in 2009 and 2010, and marine sediment collected in 2005 and 2009 were analysed. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios observed were in the range from 0.8 to 3.0×10(-08) for seawater, from 0.06 to 0.35×10(-08) for marine sediment, from 0.05 to 0.10×10(-08) for F. virsoides and from 0.3 to 0.9×10(-08) for M. galloprovincialis.

  3. ON THE GENERALISED FANT EQUATION

    PubMed Central

    Howe, M. S.; McGowan, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis is made of the fluid-structure interactions involved in the production of voiced speech. It is usual to avoid time consuming numerical simulations of the aeroacoustics of the vocal tract and glottis by the introduction of Fant’s ‘reduced complexity’ equation for the glottis volume velocity Q (G. Fant, Acoustic Theory of Speech Production, Mouton, The Hague 1960). A systematic derivation is given of Fant’s equation based on the nominally exact equations of aerodynamic sound. This can be done with a degree of approximation that depends only on the accuracy with which the time-varying flow geometry and surface-acoustic boundary conditions can be specified, and replaces Fant’s original ‘lumped element’ heuristic approach. The method determines all of the effective ‘source terms’ governing Q. It is illustrated by consideration of a simplified model of the vocal system involving a self-sustaining single-mass model of the vocal folds, that uses free streamline theory to account for surface friction and flow separation within the glottis. Identification is made of a new source term associated with the unsteady vocal fold drag produced by their oscillatory motion transverse to the mean flow. PMID:21603054

  4. Mental incapacity defenses at the War Crimes Tribunal: questions and controversy.

    PubMed

    Sparr, Landy F

    2005-01-01

    Following a report from the Secretary General in May 1993, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 827 and its Statute establishing an International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) located in The Hague, The Netherlands. Although such action has been discussed in the past, this is the first time the international community has established a tribunal to indict and try individuals for war crimes. The crimes had been previously "created" by multilateral international treaties. The ICTY Rules of Procedure and Evidence allowed for "any special defense, including that of diminished or lack of mental responsibility." Precise legal parameters of the defense were not specified. In 1998, a defendant at the ICTY "Celebici" Trial named Esad Landzo raised the defense of diminished mental responsibility. The Celebici Trial Chamber thus became the first legal body to consider reduced mental capacity as it applies to international criminal law. This article is an examination of the application of the affirmative defense of diminished responsibility at the ICTY and relates the process to the need for further definition of mental incapacity defenses at the newly established International Criminal Court (ICC). At the ICC preparatory commission, drafting material elements of crimes was emphasized, with less consideration given to mental elements. That diminished capacity and diminished-responsibility defenses have often confused scholars and practitioners alike is explored in this article with suggestions for further directions.

  5. Status of 236U analyses at ETH Zurich and the distribution of 236U and 129I in the North Sea in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christl, Marcus; Casacuberta, Nuria; Lachner, Johannes; Maxeiner, Sascha; Vockenhuber, Christof; Synal, Hans-Arno; Goroncy, Ingo; Herrmann, Jürgen; Daraoui, Abdelouahed; Walther, Clemens; Michel, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    Compact, low energy accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has evolved over the past years as one of the most sensitive, selective, and robust techniques for the analysis of heavy and long lived radionuclides. In this study, we will first focus on the analytical capabilities of the compact AMS system TANDY, mainly for 236U analyses, and then present a new dual tracer approach, that combines 129I and 236U. The measured 129I/236U ratios of samples collected in the North Sea in 2009 are in reasonable agreement with the expectations from documented or estimated releases from the two major nuclear reprocessing plants located at Sellafield (GB) and La Hague (F), suggesting that the 129I/236U ratio can be used as a water mass tag in the North Atlantic region. However, our results indicate that, in contrast to 129I, additional contributions of bomb produced 236U cannot be neglected in the North Sea region. This complicates the simple and straight forward use of the 129I/236U ratio as a quantitative tool for the calculation of transport times of North Sea water in the Arctic Ocean.

  6. (129)I record of nuclear activities in marine sediment core from Jiaozhou Bay in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Guangshan

    2016-04-01

    Iodine-129 has been used as a powerful tool for environmental tracing of human nuclear activities. In this work, a sediment core collected from Jiaozhou Bay, the east coast of China, in 2002 was analyzed for (129)I to investigate the influence of human nuclear activities in this region. Significantly enhanced (129)I level was observed in upper 70 cm of the sediment core, with peak values in the layer corresponding to 1957, 1964, 1974, 1986, and after 1990. The sources of (129)I and corresponding transport processes in this region are discussed, including nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, global fallout from a large numbers of nuclear weapon tests in 1963, the climax of Chinese nuclear weapons testing in the early 1970s, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and long-distance dispersion of European reprocessing derived (129)I. The very well (129)I records of different human nuclear activities in the sediment core illustrate the potential application of (129)I in constraining ages and sedimentation rates of the recent sediment. The releases of (129)I from the European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) were found to dominate the inventory of (129)I in the Chinese sediments after 1990, not only the directly atmospheric releases of these reprocessing plants, but also re-emission of marine discharged (129)I of these reprocessing plants in the highly contaminated European seas. PMID:26821329

  7. On the generalised Fant equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M. S.; McGowan, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    An analysis is made of the fluid-structure interactions involved in the production of voiced speech. It is usual to avoid time consuming numerical simulations of the aeroacoustics of the vocal tract and glottis by the introduction of Fant's 'reduced complexity' equation for the glottis volume velocity Q [G. Fant, Acoustic Theory of Speech Production, Mouton, The Hague 1960]. A systematic derivation is given of Fant's equation based on the nominally exact equations of aerodynamic sound. This can be done with a degree of approximation that depends only on the accuracy with which the time-varying flow geometry and surface-acoustic boundary conditions can be specified, and replaces Fant's original 'lumped element' heuristic approach. The method determines all of the effective 'source terms' governing Q. It is illustrated by consideration of a simplified model of the vocal system involving a self-sustaining single-mass model of the vocal folds, that uses free streamline theory to account for surface friction and flow separation within the glottis. Identification is made of a new source term associated with the unsteady vocal fold drag produced by their oscillatory motion transverse to the mean flow.

  8. [The Helvetius dynasty].

    PubMed

    Van Heiningen, Teunis Willem

    2014-01-01

    The Helvetius dynasty originates from the Principality of Anhalt, in Germany. George Vigelius, one of its ancestors, was born in the Palatinate (Germany) and studied theology in the town of Basel (Switzerland), after which he was given the surname Swietser. In 1649, his eldest son, Johann Friedrich Swietser, moved to the United Provinces and changed his name into Johan Frederik Helvétius. In 1656, he took his doctorate of medicine at the university of Harderwyck Guelderland). He settled in Amsterdam and moved later to The Hague, where he had a lightning career. Three of his four sons studied medicine in Leyden: Jean-Balthasar, Philippe-Maximilien, and Joseph-Jean. Jean-Adrien, the second son of Johann-Friedrich, settled in Paris and took his doctorate of medicine at the university of Reims, using the pseudonym of Christian-Lebrecht Helvétius. He had a prosperous career. He was the father of Jean-Claude-Adrien Helvétius, who became also a successful physician and first physician to the queen of France. His grandson was Claude-Adrien Helvétius, who became a leading philosopher and writer. PMID:25962212

  9. Dynamic compressive behavior of Pr-Nd alloy at high strain rates and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huanran; Cai Canyuan; Chen Danian; Ma Dongfang

    2012-07-01

    Based on compressive tests, static on 810 material test system and dynamic on the first compressive loading in split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests for Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens at high strain rates and temperatures, this study determined a J-C type [G. R. Johnson and W. H. Cook, in Proceedings of Seventh International Symposium on Ballistics (The Hague, The Netherlands, 1983), pp. 541-547] compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy. It was recorded by a high speed camera that the Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens fractured during the first compressive loading in SHPB tests at high strain rates and temperatures. From high speed camera images, the critical strains of the dynamic shearing instability for Pr-Nd alloy in SHPB tests were determined, which were consistent with that estimated by using Batra and Wei's dynamic shearing instability criterion [R. C. Batra and Z. G. Wei, Int. J. Impact Eng. 34, 448 (2007)] and the determined compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy. The transmitted and reflected pulses of SHPB tests for Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens computed with the determined compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy and Batra and Wei's dynamic shearing instability criterion could be consistent with the experimental data. The fractured Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens of compressive tests were investigated by using 3D supper depth digital microscope and scanning electron microscope.

  10. Wastes associated with recycling spent MOX fuel into fast reactor oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Foare, G.; Meze, F.; McGee, D.; Murray, P.; Bader, S.

    2013-07-01

    A study sponsored by the DOE has been performed by AREVA to estimate the process and secondary wastes produced from an 800 MTIHM/yr (initial metric tons heavy metal a year) recycling plant proposed to be built in the U.S. utilizing the COEX process and utilized some DOE defined assumptions and constraints. In this paper, this plant has been analyzed for a recycling campaign that included 89% UO{sub x} and 11% MOX UNF to estimate process and secondary waste quantities produced while manufacturing 28 MTIHM/yr of SFR fuel. AREVA utilized operational data from its backend facilities in France (La Hague and MELOX), and from recent advances in waste treatment technology to estimate the waste quantities. A table lists the volumes and types of the different final wastes for a recycling plant. For instance concerning general fission products the form of the final wastes is vitrified glass and its volume generation rate is 135 l/MTHM, concerning Iodine 129 waste its final form is synthetic rock and its volume generation rate is 0.625 l/MTIHM.

  11. Development and validation of the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Tracy A.; Modi, Avani C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate a measure of antiepileptic drug (AED) side effects in children with a variety of seizure types, treatments, and therapy durations. Methods: Content for an initial 44-item measure was developed using the previously published Hague Scale and expert opinion from recognized pediatric epileptologists (n = 12) and caregivers of children with epilepsy (n = 21). The measure was completed by caregivers during routine clinic visits. Demographic and medical data were collected through chart reviews. Factor analysis was conducted and internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were assessed. Results: Questionnaires were analyzed from 495 children with epilepsy (Mage = 10.1 years; range 2–21 years; 42% female; 14% African American; 32% new onset vs 68% chronic epilepsy). The final questionnaire, the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire (PESQ), is a 19-item measure with 5 subscales (i.e., cognitive, motor, behavioral, general neurological, and weight) that accounts for 99% of the variance. Internal consistency coefficients and test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.72 to 0.93 and 0.74 to 0.97, respectively. Construct validity was demonstrated by increasing side effects as the number of drugs increased. Participants on valproic acid had significantly higher scores on the Weight Scale compared to those on carbamazepine. Conclusions: The PESQ is a reliable and valid measure of AED side effects in children across the epilepsy spectrum that can be used in both clinical and research settings. PMID:22875082

  12. Military and Civilian Burn Injuries During Armed Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.S.; Gunn, S.W.A.; Hayek, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment, and war burns have been described for more than 5,000 years of written history. Fire was probably utilized as a weapon long before that. With the ever-increasing destructive power and efficiency of modern weapons, casualties, both fatal and non-fatal, are reaching new highs, particularly among civilians who are becoming the major wartime targets in recent wars, accounting for most of the killed and wounded. Even though medical personnel usually believe that a knowledge of weaponry has little relevance to their ability to effectively treat injuries and that it may in some way be in conflict with their status, accorded under the Geneva and Hague treaties, it is imperative that they know how weapons are used and understand their effects on the human body. The present review explores various categories of weapons of modern warfare that are unfamiliar to most medical and paramedical personnel responsible for burn treatment. The mechanisms and patterns of injury produced by each class of weapons are examined so that a better understanding of burn management in a warfare situation may be achieved. PMID:21991098

  13. Assessment of crew operations during internal servicing of the Columbus Free-Flyer by Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winisdoerffer, F.; Lamothe, A.; Bourdeau'hui, J. C.

    The Hermes system has been adopted as a European programme at the Hague ministerial level meeting. The primary mission of the Hermes spaceplane will be the servicing of the Columbus Free-Flyer (CFF) in order to bring new experiments in orbit, recover the results of old ones, and refurbish/maintain the various subsystems. This mission will be based on the extensive use of the 3 crewmembers on-board Hermes in order to perform either the Intra-Vehicular (IVA) and/or the Extra-Vehicular (EVA) activities. This paper focuses on the internal operations and the dimensions of the various payload of the basic reference cargo set are presented. The main constraints associated with their manipulation are also assessed independently of the configuration. During the spaceplane definition process, various configurations were developed. The operations were simulated using the CAD CATIA software with representative anthropometric models of the potential Hermes users population. These simulations helped to assess the various configurations and to refine the general concept of the spaceplane. The geometrical feasibility is demonstrated through those simulations. However full-scale tests are required to confirm data and assess the duration of the operations.

  14. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof. PMID:20812795

  15. Social justice and intercountry adoptions: the role of the U.S. social work community.

    PubMed

    Roby, Jini L; Rotabi, Karen; Bunkers, Kelley M

    2013-10-01

    Using social justice as the conceptual foundation, the authors present the structural barriers to socially just intercountry adoptions (ICAs) that can exploit and oppress vulnerable children and families participating in ICAs. They argue that such practices threaten the integrity of social work practice in that arena and the survival of ICA as a placement option. Government structures, disparity of power between countries and families on both sides, perceptions regarding poverty, cultural incompetence, misconceptions about orphans and orphanages, lack of knowledge about the impact of institution-based care, and the profit motive are driving forces behind the growing shadow of unethical ICAs. The U.S. social work community has a large role and responsibility in addressing these concerns as the United States receives the most children adopted through ICAs of all receiving countries. In addition to the centrality of social justice as a core value of the profession, the responsibility to carry out ethical and socially just ICA has recently increased as a matter of law, under the implementation legislation to the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption. While acknowledging that these issues are complex, authors provide suggestions for corrective policy and practice measures. PMID:24450016

  16. [Criminology and victimology of rape in context with war-like conflicts using the example of the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda].

    PubMed

    Nittmann, Christian; Franke, Barbara; Augustin, Christa; Püschel, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this article is sexual violence in context with war-like conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The fundamental categories of sexual violence in war-like conflicts are described. The authors discuss the types of sexual violence as defined in the report of the UN Commission of Experts on the war-like conflicts in the former Yugoslavia. Four criminal trials were evaluated: three held before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague/Netherlands and one before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in Arusha/Tansania. The defendants were found guilty of torture, crime against humanity and genocide. Potential procedures with respect to similar crimes in current or prospective conflicts are discussed. An alternative may be the assignment of medical personnel (for example of the German Federal Armed Forces). Finally, the post-war cooperation between the Institute of Legal Medicine at the University Medical Centre of Hamburg-Eppendorf as well as the medical and government institutions in Rwanda is presented, which has been going on since 2005.

  17. Validity of physical activity monitors during daily life in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Roberto A; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Raste, Yogini; Langer, Daniel; Van Remoortel, Hans; Giavedoni, Santiago; Burtin, Chris; Regueiro, Eloisa M G; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Polkey, Michael I; Wilson, Frederick J; Macnee, William; Westerterp, Klaas R; Troosters, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    Symptoms during physical activity and physical inactivity are hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim was to evaluate the validity and usability of six activity monitors in patients with COPD against the doubly labelled water (DLW) indirect calorimetry method. 80 COPD patients (mean ± sd age 68 ± 6 years and forced expiratory volume in 1 s 57 ± 19% predicted) recruited in four centres each wore simultaneously three or four out of six commercially available monitors validated in chronic conditions for 14 consecutive days. A priori validity criteria were defined. These included the ability to explain total energy expenditure (TEE) variance through multiple regression analysis, using TEE as the dependent variable with total body water (TBW) plus several physical activity monitor outputs as independent variables; and correlation with activity energy expenditure (AEE) measured by DLW. The Actigraph GT3X (Actigraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA), and DynaPort MoveMonitor (McRoberts BV, The Hague, the Netherlands) best explained the majority of the TEE variance not explained by TBW (53% and 70%, respectively) and showed the most significant correlations with AEE (r=0.71, p<0.001 and r=0.70, p<0.0001, respectively). The results of this study should guide users in choosing valid activity monitors for research or for clinical use in patients with chronic diseases such as COPD.

  18. Experiment for Integrating Dutch 3d Spatial Planning and Bim for Checking Building Permits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Berlo, L.; Dijkmans, T.; Stoter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a research project in The Netherlands in which several SMEs collaborated to create a 3D model of the National spatial planning information. This 2D information system described in the IMRO data standard holds implicit 3D information that can be used to generate an explicit 3D model. The project realized a proof of concept to generate a 3D spatial planning model. The team used the model to integrate it with several 3D Building Information Models (BIMs) described in the open data standard Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). Goal of the project was (1) to generate a 3D BIM model from spatial planning information to be used by the architect during the early design phase, and (2) allow 3D checking of building permits. The team used several technologies like CityGML, BIM clash detection and GeoBIM to explore the potential of this innovation. Within the project a showcase was created with a part of the spatial plan from the city of The Hague. Several BIM models were integrated in the 3D spatial plan of this area. A workflow has been described that demonstrates the benefits of collaboration between the spatial domain and the AEC industry in 3D. The research results in a showcase with conclusions and considerations for both national and international practice.

  19. Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, C W

    2001-01-01

    While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda. PMID:11333205

  20. Identification of a mutation associated with permethrin resistance in the para-type sodium channel of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia U; Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2011-02-01

    The insect sodium channel is of particular interest for evaluating resistance to pyrethroids because it is the target molecule for this major class of neurotoxic insecticides. The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), sodium channel coding sequence representing domains IS6 through IVS6 was isolated, and the sequence encoding domain II was compared among individuals of a laboratory strain selected for resistance to permethrin and the unselected, parental generation. A point mutation resulting in a leucine-to-histidine amino acid change was identified (Leul014His), and its location corresponded with that observed for knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in other insects. As a result, the allele was designated kdr-his. A molecular assay was developed to assess the frequency of this mutation in genomic DNA of individual stable flies from the laboratory selections, which provided further evidence that the kdr-his allele accounts for the observed level ofpermethrin resistance in the selected strain. The assay was then used to evaluate the frequency of the mutation from five field-collected populations originating from three horse farms near Ocala, FL; one horse farm near Gainesville, FL; and one dairy farm near Hague, FL. Frequency of the kdr-his allele ranged from 0.46 to 0.78, supporting further investigation of allele prevalence throughout the stable fly season and in response to field insecticide application. PMID:21404865

  1. Mental incapacity defenses at the War Crimes Tribunal: questions and controversy.

    PubMed

    Sparr, Landy F

    2005-01-01

    Following a report from the Secretary General in May 1993, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 827 and its Statute establishing an International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) located in The Hague, The Netherlands. Although such action has been discussed in the past, this is the first time the international community has established a tribunal to indict and try individuals for war crimes. The crimes had been previously "created" by multilateral international treaties. The ICTY Rules of Procedure and Evidence allowed for "any special defense, including that of diminished or lack of mental responsibility." Precise legal parameters of the defense were not specified. In 1998, a defendant at the ICTY "Celebici" Trial named Esad Landzo raised the defense of diminished mental responsibility. The Celebici Trial Chamber thus became the first legal body to consider reduced mental capacity as it applies to international criminal law. This article is an examination of the application of the affirmative defense of diminished responsibility at the ICTY and relates the process to the need for further definition of mental incapacity defenses at the newly established International Criminal Court (ICC). At the ICC preparatory commission, drafting material elements of crimes was emphasized, with less consideration given to mental elements. That diminished capacity and diminished-responsibility defenses have often confused scholars and practitioners alike is explored in this article with suggestions for further directions. PMID:15809241

  2. Speciation of 129I and 127I in seawater and implications for sources and transport pathways in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Nielsen, Sven P; Possnert, Göran; Nies, Hartmut; Hedfors, Jim

    2007-09-01

    Surface seawater samples collected from the North Sea and English Channel were analyzed for total 129I and 127I, as well as for iodide and iodate. Relatively high 129I concentrations (2-3 x 10(11) atoms/L) were observed in the northern part of the English Channel and in the southeastern North Sea. The atomic ratio of 129I/127I decreases from the eastern (1.0-1.9 x 10(-6)) to the western (4-6 x 10(-8)) parts of the North Sea and from the northeastern (1.5 x 10(-6)) to southwestern (1-5 x 10(-8)) parts of the English Channel. The ratios of iodide to iodate are 0.1-0.5 and 0.5-1.6 for 127I and 129I, respectively, in open seawaters, whereas these ratios range from 0.6 to 1.3 and 0.8 to 2.2, respectively, in coastal waters. The results suggest that (1) imprints of the La Hague facility dominates the 129I distribution in the surface water of the North Sea, (2) reduction of iodate to iodide is relatively fast during the transport to the European continental coast, (3) oxidation of newly produced 129I- to (129)IO3- is insignificant during water exchange between the coastal area and open sea, (4) reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in the open sea seems to be a slow process. PMID:17937272

  3. The Glaciation of the Yellowstone Valley North of the Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weed, Walter Harvey

    1893-01-01

    The local glaciers of Quaternary times, of which evidences abound throughout the highest portions of the Rocky mountain cordillera, attained an unusually extensive development in that broad elevated region known as the Yellowstone Park. It was indeed the center of a considerable ice sheet whose glaciers spread out and down the valleys leading from this mountain region in all directions. In the northern part of the park two streams of ice found an outlet for their united flow northward down the valley of the Yellowstone, and they have left impressive memorials of the power and size of this stream that at once attract the attention of the observant traveler on the way to the famous geyser basins of the park. The number and size of the erratic bowlders scattered so abundantly over the valley floor and perched high up on the mountain slopes, can not fail to impress the beholder, while the second canyon of the Yellowstone, known as Yankee Jim canyon, through which the river has cut its way to the broad mountain encircled lower valley, is a grand and perfect piece of ice sculpture that affords striking proof of the power and magnitude of the glacier which once filled the valley. While studying and mapping the geology of a portion of the country north of the Yellowstone Park, under the direction of Mr. Arnold Hague, and for the United States Geological Survey, I found a long desired opportunity to study the glaciation of this interesting region.

  4. Value of a DNA probe assay (Gen-Probe) compared with that of culture for diagnosis of gonococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Vlaspolder, F; Mutsaers, J A; Blog, F; Notowicz, A

    1993-01-01

    The Gen-Probe PACE 2 system for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GP), which uses a chemiluminescently labeled DNA probe, was compared with conventional culture as the method of reference. A total of 1,750 specimens were collected from 496 females and 623 males visiting the outpatient clinic of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Department of the Westeinde Hospital, The Hague, The Netherlands, during the year 1991. The prevalences of gonorrhea culture-positive men and women were 14.9 and 7.7%, respectively. The overall positive rate was 8.7%. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of GP were 97.1, 99.1, 90.6, and 99.8%, respectively. A total of 12 of 13 patients with positive GP results and negative cultures may have had a gonococcal infection, a conclusion based on clinical symptoms, positive methylene blue smears, and high relative light unit ratios. The DNA probe test can be useful as a suitable screening and diagnostic test for gonorrheal infection in men and women. An advantage of using this DNA probe technique is that simultaneous testing for Chlamydia trachomatis of the same specimen is possible. We also examined whether (all) rRNA had disappeared after adequate treatment for gonococcal and/or chlamydial infection in 30 patients. None of those positive patients showed a positive result in the DNA probe assay after treatment.

  5. Lethal Lullabies: A History of Opium Use in Infants.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Poppy extract accompanied the human infant for more than 3 millenia. Motives for its use included excessive crying, suspected pain, and diarrhea. In antiquity, infantile sleeplessness was regarded as a disease. When treatment with opium was recommended by Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna, baby sedation made its way into early medical treatises and pediatric instructions. Dabbing maternal nipples with bitter substances and drugging the infant with opium were used to hasten weaning. A freerider of gum lancing, opiates joined the treatment of difficult teething in the 17th century. Foundling hospitals and wet-nurses used them extensively. With industrialization, private use was rampant among the working class. In German-speaking countries, poppy extracts were administered in soups and pacifiers. In English-speaking countries, proprietary drugs containing opium were marketed under names such as soothers, nostrums, anodynes, cordials, preservatives, and specifics and sold at the doorstep or in grocery stores. Opium's toxicity for infants was common knowledge; thousands of cases of lethal intoxication had been reported from antiquity. What is remarkable is that the willingness to use it in infants persisted and that physicians continued to prescribe it for babies. Unregulated trade, and even that protected by governments, led to greatly increased private use of opiates during the 19th century. Intoxication became a significant factor in infant mortality. As late as 1912, the International Hague Convention forced governments to implement legislation that effectively curtailed access to opium and broke the dangerous habit of sedating infants.

  6. Division Iv: Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, Christopher; D'Antona, Francesca; Spite, Monique; Asplund, Martin; Charbonnel, Corinne; Docobo, Jose Angel; Gray, Richard O.; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2012-04-01

    This Division IV was started on a trial basis at the General Assembly in The Hague 1994 and was formally accepted at the Kyoto General Assembly in 1997. Its broad coverage of ``Stars'' is reflected in its relatively large number of Commissions and so of members (1266 in late 2011). Its kindred Division V, ``Variable Stars'', has the same history of its beginning. The thinking at the time was to achieve some kind of balance between the number of members in each of the 12 Divisions. Amid the current discussion of reorganizing the number of Divisions into a more compact form it seems advisable to make this numerical balance less of an issue than the rationalization of the scientific coverage of each Division, so providing more effective interaction within a particular field of astronomy. After all, every star is variable to a certain degree and such variability is becoming an ever more powerful tool to understand the characteristics of every kind of normal and peculiar star. So we may expect, after hearing the reactions of members, that in the restructuring a single Division will result from the current Divisions IV and V.

  7. Integration of uncertainties into internal contamination monitoring.

    PubMed

    Davesne, E; Casanova, P; Chojnacki, E; Paquet, F; Blanchardon, E

    2010-10-01

    Potential internal contaminations of workers are monitored by periodic bioassays interpreted in terms of intake and committed effective dose through biokinetic and dosimetric models. After a prospective evaluation of exposure at a workplace, a suitable monitoring program can be defined by the choice of measurement techniques and frequency of measurements. However, the actual conditions of exposure are usually not well defined and the measurements are subject to errors. In this study we took into consideration the uncertainties associated with a routine monitoring program in order to evaluate the minimum intake and dose detectable for a given level of confidence. Major sources of uncertainty are the contamination time, the size distribution and absorption into blood of the incorporated particles, and the measurement errors. Different assumptions may be applied to model uncertain knowledge, which lead to different statistical approaches. The available information is modeled here by classical or Bayesian probability distributions. These techniques are implemented in the OPSCI software under development. This methodology was applied to the monitoring program of workers in charge of plutonium purification at the AREVA NC reprocessing facility (La Hague, France). A sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the important parameters for the minimum detectable dose. The methods presented here may be used for assessment of any other routine monitoring program through the comparison of the minimum detectable dose for a given confidence level with dose constraints. PMID:20838093

  8. Education in acoustics and speech science using vocal-tract models.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takayuki

    2012-03-01

    Several vocal-tract models were reviewed, with special focus given to the sliding vocal-tract model [T. Arai, Acoust. Sci. Technol. 27(6), 384-388 (2006)]. All of the models have been shown to be excellent tools for teaching acoustics and speech science to elementary through university level students. The sliding three-tube model is based on Fant's three-tube model [G. Fant, Acoustic Theory of Speech Production (Mouton, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2006)] and consists of a long tube with a slider simulating tongue constriction. In this article, the design of the sliding vocal-tract model was reviewed. Then a science workshop was discussed where children were asked to make their own sliding vocal-tract models using simple materials. It was also discussed how the sliding vocal-tract model compares to our other vocal-tract models, emphasizing how the model can be used to instruct students at higher levels, such as undergraduate and graduate education in acoustics and speech science. Through this discussion the vocal-tract models were shown to be a powerful tool for education in acoustics and speech science for all ages of students.

  9. World first in high level waste vitrification - A review of French vitrification industrial achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Brueziere, J.; Chauvin, E.; Piroux, J.C.

    2013-07-01

    AREVA has more than 30 years experience in operating industrial HLW (High Level radioactive Waste) vitrification facilities (AVM - Marcoule Vitrification Facility, R7 and T7 facilities). This vitrification technology was based on borosilicate glasses and induction-heating. AVM was the world's first industrial HLW vitrification facility to operate in-line with a reprocessing plant. The glass formulation was adapted to commercial Light Water Reactor fission products solutions, including alkaline liquid waste concentrates as well as platinoid-rich clarification fines. The R7 and T7 facilities were designed on the basis of the industrial experience acquired in the AVM facility. The AVM vitrification process was implemented at a larger scale in order to operate the R7 and T7 facilities in-line with the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants. After more than 30 years of operation, outstanding record of operation has been established by the R7 and T7 facilities. The industrial startup of the CCIM (Cold Crucible Induction Melter) technology with enhanced glass formulation was possible thanks to the close cooperation between CEA and AREVA. CCIM is a water-cooled induction melter in which the glass frit and the waste are melted by direct high frequency induction. This technology allows the handling of highly corrosive solutions and high operating temperatures which permits new glass compositions and a higher glass production capacity. The CCIM technology has been implemented successfully at La Hague plant.

  10. Multilateral perspective on malaria begins to take shape.

    PubMed

    1998-02-01

    13 funding bodies collaborated in January 1997 to create the Africa-targeted Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM). African scientists have been deeply involved in the MIM from its inception in Dakar, Senegal. The immediate goal of the initiative is to facilitate collaboration between governments, control programs, scientists and supporting agencies. Both the public and private sectors are actively involved. It is possible that in the long term the MIM will function as a global forum for malaria-related discussions, creating political awareness and a political context for concerted action by parties which usually work separately. With follow-up meetings held in the Hague in July and in London in November, the MIM is moving ahead quickly with a varied and full agenda of research objectives. In the short term, improvements will be sought in the way existing tools are used, while results from studies of epidemiology, pathogenesis, the malaria genome project, and the genetic engineering of mosquitoes will be applied over the medium and long terms. The UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) will help assess the scientific needs and strengthen the research capacities of malaria endemic countries in Africa, providing approximately US$3 million annually to support 10-15 projects for periods of 1-3 years. Training will be a component of all research.

  11. New hospital-based policy for children whose parents present at the ER due to domestic violence, substance abuse and/or a suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; van der Lee, Johanna H; Teeuw, Arianne H

    2013-02-01

    Child maltreatment is a major social problem with many adverse consequences, and a substantial number of maltreated children are not identified by health care professionals. In 2010, in order to improve the identification of maltreated children in hospitals, a new hospital-based policy was developed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This policy was adapted from another policy that was developed in The Hague, the Netherlands, in 2007. In the new Amsterdam policy, all adults presenting at the emergency department due to domestic violence, substance abuse, and/or a suicide attempt are asked whether they have any children in their care. If this is the case, parents are urged to visit the outpatient pediatric department together with all of their children. During this visit, problems are evaluated and voluntary referrals can be arranged to different care organizations. If parents refuse to cooperate, their children are reported to the Dutch Child Abuse Counseling and Reporting Centre. The two aims of this study are to describe (1) characteristics of the identified families and (2) the referrals made to different voluntary and involuntary care organizations during the first 2 years after implementation of the policy. Data were collected from medical records. One hundred and six children from 60 households were included, of which 68 children because their mother was a victim of domestic violence. Referrals to care organizations were arranged for 99 children, of which 67 on a voluntary basis. The Amsterdam policy seems successful in arranging voluntary support for the majority of identified children.

  12. Modeling fallout of anthropogenic 129I.

    PubMed

    Englund, Edvard; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Haltia-Hovi, Eeva; Hou, Xiaolin; Renberg, Ingmar; Saarinen, Timo

    2008-12-15

    Despite the relatively well-recognized emission rates of the anthropogenic 129I, there is little knowledge about the temporal fallout patterns and magnitude of fluxes since the start of the atomic era atthe early 1940s. We here present measurements of annual 129I concentrations in sediment archives from Sweden and Finland covering the period 1942-2006. The results revealed impression of 129I emissions from the nuclear reprocessing facility at Sellafield and La Hague and a clear Chernobyl fallout enhancement during 1986. In order to estimate relative contributions from the different sources, a numerical model approach was used taking into accountthe emission rates/estimated fallout, transport pathways, and the sediment system. The model outcomes suggest a relatively dominating marine source of 129I to north Europe compared to direct gaseous releases. A transfer rate of 129I from sea to atmosphere is derived for pertinent sea areas (English Channel, Irish Sea, and North Sea), which is estimated at 0.04 to 0.21 y(-1).

  13. (129)I record of nuclear activities in marine sediment core from Jiaozhou Bay in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Guangshan

    2016-04-01

    Iodine-129 has been used as a powerful tool for environmental tracing of human nuclear activities. In this work, a sediment core collected from Jiaozhou Bay, the east coast of China, in 2002 was analyzed for (129)I to investigate the influence of human nuclear activities in this region. Significantly enhanced (129)I level was observed in upper 70 cm of the sediment core, with peak values in the layer corresponding to 1957, 1964, 1974, 1986, and after 1990. The sources of (129)I and corresponding transport processes in this region are discussed, including nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, global fallout from a large numbers of nuclear weapon tests in 1963, the climax of Chinese nuclear weapons testing in the early 1970s, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and long-distance dispersion of European reprocessing derived (129)I. The very well (129)I records of different human nuclear activities in the sediment core illustrate the potential application of (129)I in constraining ages and sedimentation rates of the recent sediment. The releases of (129)I from the European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) were found to dominate the inventory of (129)I in the Chinese sediments after 1990, not only the directly atmospheric releases of these reprocessing plants, but also re-emission of marine discharged (129)I of these reprocessing plants in the highly contaminated European seas.

  14. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof.

  15. Methodology of Qualification of CCIM Vitrification Process Applied to the High- Level Liquid Waste from Reprocessed Oxide Fuels - 12438

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonnier, S.; Labe, V.; Ledoux, A.; Nonnet, H.; Godon, N.

    2012-07-01

    The vitrification of high-level liquid waste from reprocessed oxide fuels (UOX fuels) by Cold Crucible Induction Melter is planed by AREVA in 2013 in a production line of the R7 facility at La Hague plant. Therefore, the switch of the vitrification technology from the Joule Heated Metal Melter required a complete process qualification study. It involves three specialties, namely the matrix formulation, the glass long-term behavior and the vitrification process development on full-scale pilot. A new glass frit has been elaborated in order to adapt the redox properties and the thermal conductivity of the glass suitable for being vitrified with the Cold Crucible Induction Melter. The role of cobalt oxide on the long term behavior of the glass has been described in the range of the tested concentrations. Concerning the process qualification, the nominal tests, the sensitivity tests and the study of the transient modes allowed to define the nominal operating conditions. Degraded operating conditions tests allowed to identify means of detecting incidents leading to these conditions and allowed to define the procedures to preserve the process equipments protection and the material quality. Finally, the endurance test validated the nominal operating conditions over an extended time period. This global study allowed to draft the package qualification file. The qualification file of the UOX package is currently under approval by the French Nuclear Safety Authority. (authors)

  16. Lethal Lullabies: A History of Opium Use in Infants.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Poppy extract accompanied the human infant for more than 3 millenia. Motives for its use included excessive crying, suspected pain, and diarrhea. In antiquity, infantile sleeplessness was regarded as a disease. When treatment with opium was recommended by Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna, baby sedation made its way into early medical treatises and pediatric instructions. Dabbing maternal nipples with bitter substances and drugging the infant with opium were used to hasten weaning. A freerider of gum lancing, opiates joined the treatment of difficult teething in the 17th century. Foundling hospitals and wet-nurses used them extensively. With industrialization, private use was rampant among the working class. In German-speaking countries, poppy extracts were administered in soups and pacifiers. In English-speaking countries, proprietary drugs containing opium were marketed under names such as soothers, nostrums, anodynes, cordials, preservatives, and specifics and sold at the doorstep or in grocery stores. Opium's toxicity for infants was common knowledge; thousands of cases of lethal intoxication had been reported from antiquity. What is remarkable is that the willingness to use it in infants persisted and that physicians continued to prescribe it for babies. Unregulated trade, and even that protected by governments, led to greatly increased private use of opiates during the 19th century. Intoxication became a significant factor in infant mortality. As late as 1912, the International Hague Convention forced governments to implement legislation that effectively curtailed access to opium and broke the dangerous habit of sedating infants. PMID:26163533

  17. Green trees for greenhouse gases: a fair trade-off?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C W

    2001-03-01

    While forests retain carbon in plants, detritus, and soils, utility companies spew it into the air as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas behind global warming. Industrial carbon dioxide emissions aren't currently regulated by federal law, but a number of companies are trying to address the problem voluntarily by launching carbon sequestration programs in heavily forested countries, where carbon is contained in so-called sinks. But the November 2000 meeting of the Kyoto Protocol delegates in The Hague collapsed over the issue of the acceptability of carbon sinks as a source of carbon pollution credits, delivering what many see as a deathblow to the concept. At issue are a host of ecological and statistical questions, differing local land use practices, cultural factors, issues of verifiability, and even disagreement over definitions of basic terms such as "forest" Kyoto negotiators are gearing up for another round of discussions in Bonn in May 2001, and it is likely that the continuing debate over carbon sinks will dominate the agenda.

  18. Update and improvement of the global krypton-85 emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Ahlswede, Jochen; Hebel, Simon; Ross, J Ole; Schoetter, Robert; Kalinowski, Martin B

    2013-01-01

    Krypton-85 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors by fission of uranium and plutonium and released during chopping and dissolution of spent fuel rods in nuclear reprocessing facilities. As noble gas it is suited as a passive tracer for evaluation of atmospheric transport models. Furthermore, research is ongoing to assess its quality as an indicator for clandestine reprocessing activities. This paper continues previous efforts to compile a comprehensive historic emission inventory for krypton-85. Reprocessing facilities are the by far largest emitters of krypton-85. Information on sources and calculations used to derive the annual krypton-85 emission is provided for all known reprocessing facilities in the world. In addition, the emission characteristics of two plants, Tokai (Japan) and La Hague (France), are analysed in detail using emission data with high temporal resolution. Other types of krypton-85 sources are power reactors, naval reactors and isotope production facilities. These sources contribute only little or negligible amounts of krypton-85 compared to the large reprocessing facilities. Taking the decay of krypton-85 into account, the global atmospheric inventory is estimated to about 5500 PBq at the end of 2009. The correctness if the inventory has been proven by meteorological simulations and its error is assumed to be in the range of a few percent.

  19. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition. PMID:26939494

  20. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition.

  1. Comparison of RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, ADMS atmospheric dispersion model outputs, using emergency response procedures, with (85)Kr measurements made in the vicinity of nuclear reprocessing plant.

    PubMed

    Connan, Olivier; Smith, Kilian; Organo, Catherine; Solier, Luc; Maro, Denis; Hébert, Didier

    2013-10-01

    The Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN) performed a series of (85)Kr air sampling campaigns at mesoscale distances (18-50 km) from the AREVA NC La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (North West France) between 2007 and 2009. The samples were collected in order to test and optimise a technique to measure low krypton-85 ((85)Kr) air concentrations and to investigate the performance of three atmospheric dispersion models (RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, and ADMS), This paper presents the (85)Kr air concentrations measured at three sampling locations which varied from 2 to 8000 Bq m(-3), along with the (85)Kr air concentrations output by the dispersion models. The dispersion models made reasonable estimates of the mean concentrations of (85)Kr field measurements during steady wind conditions. In contrast, the models failed to accurately predict peaks in (85)Kr air concentration during periods of rapid and large changes in wind speed and/or wind direction. At distances where we made the comparisons (18-50 km), in all cases, the models underestimated the air concentration activities.

  2. Problems of the Modern Romanian Astronomy: TELEROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Valentin; Minti, Harry; Vaduvescu, Ovidiu

    2011-06-01

    The TV broadcast discusses problems of the modernization of the Romanian astronomical infrastructure, the worst in Eastern Europe. It presents the TELEROM project which proposed to establish a new EU-funded robotic 1,3 m telescope, a project finally rejected by the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy mainly due to the incompetence of the director of this Institute, Dr. Vasile Mioc. It is mentioned that this was the second very promising project failed under the same director, after the project ASTEROS in value of 15 million Euro to establish two modern telescopes was also lost in the recent years. The total cost of the TELEROM project was 1,5 million Euro, according to the agreement with the EU foundation for Regional Development (director Hanns Ruder Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen, Germany - the TELEROM auto-dimissed project director). The facilities from this implementation were very promising in observations of Solar system objects (asteroids, near Earth asteroids, comets), few hundred millions of faint stars, quasars, exoplanets and galaxies. Initially, the director Vasile Mioc and the governing body of the Romanian Astronomical Institute intended to place the telescope in Romania in very bad astroclimatic conditions, namely in the old Feleac observatory, very close to the very highly polluted and quite clouded city of Cluj-Napoca. Many opposite considerations (Dr. Marian Doru Suran from Bucharest, many Romanian astronomers from the Diaspora and a group of 68 astronomers, professors, public outreach people and students from Romania and Diaspora supporting TELEROM) were totally disregarded! Due to refuse to place the telescope in very good astroclimatic conditions (in Canary Islands or Chile) and also due to the impossibility to establish a decent national astronomical observatory in Romania by the direction of the Institute in agreement with the State body of Romania ("Academia Romana" and "Autoritatea Nationala pentru

  3. Plane-Wave Compounding in Automated Breast Volume Scanning: A Phantom-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Holländer, Branislav; Hendriks, Gijs A G M; Mann, Ritse M; Hansen, Hendrik H G; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to assess whether it is viable to implement plane-wave imaging in the Automated Breast Volume Scanner (ABVS) to speed up the acquisition process. This would allow breath-hold examinations, thus reducing breathing artifacts without loss of imaging quality. A calibration phantom was scanned in an Automated Breast Volume Scanner-mimicking setup using both dynamic receive focusing with a fixed transmit focus and unfocused plane-wave compounding. Contrast-to-noise ratio and lateral resolution were compared using two beamforming schemes, delay-and-sum and Stolt's f-k algorithm. Plane-wave compounding using only 11 compounding angles and Stolt's f-k algorithm provided image quality similar to that of focused transmission with dynamic receive focusing (contrast-to-noise ratios = 10.3 and 10.8 dB for Stolt's f-k migration with Hann apodization and focused transmission, respectively; full width at half-maximum = 0.38 and 0.4 mm, respectively; all at 30-mm depth with transmit focus at 30 mm) with a higher signal-to-noise ratio at all depths. Furthermore, a full 3-D volume of a breast-mimicking phantom was scanned using this optimal set of compounding angles and different speeds (10, 20 and 50 mm/s) to assess the impact of scanning time on image quality. Only minor differences in contrast-to-noise ratio were found (cyst 1: 6.0 ± 0.3 dB, cyst 2: 5.5 ± 0.2 dB, cyst 3: 5.7 ± 0.5 dB). These differences could not be correlated to the movement speeds, indicating that acquisition speed does not significantly affect image quality. Our results suggest that plane-wave imaging will enable breath-hold automated breast volume scanning examinations, eliminating breathing artifacts while otherwise preserving similar image quality.

  4. Two N-myc polypeptides with distinct amino termini encoded by the second and third exons of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, T P; Saksela, K; Alitalo, K

    1989-01-01

    The N-myc and c-myc genes encode closely related nuclear phosphoproteins. We found that the N-myc protein from human tumor cell lines appears as four closely migrating polypeptide bands (p58 to p64) in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. This and the recent finding that the c-myc protein is synthesized from two translational initiation sites located in the first and second exons of the gene (S. R. Hann, M. W. King, D. L. Bentley, C. W. Anderson, and R. N. Eisenman, Cell 52:185-195, 1988) prompted us to study the molecular basis of the N-myc protein heterogeneity. Dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase reduced the four polypeptide bands to a doublet with an electrophoretic mobility corresponding to the two faster-migrating N-myc polypeptides (p58 and p60). When expressed transiently in COS cells, an N-myc deletion construct lacking the first exon produced polypeptides similar to the wild-type N-myc protein, indicating that the first exon of the N-myc gene is noncoding. Furthermore, mutants deleted of up to two thirds of C-terminal coding domains still retained the capacity to produce a doublet of polypeptides, suggesting distinct amino termini for the two N-myc polypeptides. The amino-terminal primary structure of the N-myc protein was studied by site-specific point mutagenesis of the 5' end of the long open reading frame and by N-terminal radiosequencing of the two polypeptides. Our results show that the N-myc polypeptides are initiated from two alternative in-phase AUG codons located 24 base pairs apart at the 5' end of the second exon. Both of these polypeptides are phosphorylated and localized to the nucleus even when expressed separately. Interestingly, DNA rearrangements activating the c-myc gene are often found in the 1.7-kilobase-pair region between the two c-myc translational initiation sites and correlate with the loss of the longer c-myc polypeptide. Thus the close spacing of the two N-myc initiation codons could explain the relative resistance

  5. In Situ Observations of an Ionospheric Critical Velocity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Charles Merrill

    1992-01-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect (CIV), proposed by Hannes Alfven, may play a major role in the formation, shaping, and distribution of matter in the universe. It is a mechanism whereby the kinetic energy of a neutral cloud relative to a magnetized plasma is used for self -ionization of the neutral cloud. The magnetized plasma through which the neutral cloud passes acts as a type of catalyst, promoting a reaction that would not otherwise occur. For the past 30 years the question of whether a magnetized plasma can act as such a catalyst for the ionization of a streaming gas has been studied in the laboratory where the basic concept has been proven correct. In this thesis we report on a set of rocket borne CIV experiments, CRIT I & II, which were conducted in the ionosphere with barium. We present measurements of the plasma density, electric fields, magnetic fields, energetic electrons, and energetic ions within the ionizing barium stream. Plasma density enhancements were observed and are shown to be signatures of a CIV process albeit one which is less efficient than theory suggests. Other signatures of CIV such as scattering and slowing of the newly created barium ions, heating of electrons, and the emission of an Alfven waves from the ionization region were also detected. We have found that waves within the region where CIV is active are not the classical lower hybrid waves as predicted by current theories. Since waves of some sort are required by all conceivable theories linking the beam energy to the electron gas, this result is quite important. Instead we find a low-frequency long-wavelength mode that is in resonance with the barium ion beam (omega ~ vec k cdotvec V_{ rm beam}). Through an interferometric analysis of the electric field data we show that the wave vector vec k of these waves is aligned with the barium beam (57^circ to vec B_0) while the electric field of the waves is almost perpendicular to vec B_0. Therefore, the wave appears to be a mixed

  6. Practical considerations for noise power spectra estimation for clinical CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Dolly, Steven; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Anastasio, Mark; Mutic, Sasa; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Local noise power spectra (NPS) have been commonly calculated to represent the noise properties of CT imaging systems, but their properties are significantly affected by the utilized calculation schemes. In this study, the effects of varied calculation parameters on the local NPS were analyzed, and practical suggestions were provided regarding the estimation of local NPS for clinical CT scanners. The uniformity module of a Catphan phantom was scanned with a Philips Brilliance 64 slice CT simulator with varied scanning protocols. Images were reconstructed using FBP and iDose4 iterative reconstruction with noise reduction levels 1, 3, and 6. Local NPS were calculated and compared for varied region of interest (ROI) locations and sizes, image background removal methods, and window functions. Additionally, with a predetermined NPS as a ground truth, local NPS calculation accuracy was compared for computer simulated ROIs, varying the aforementioned parameters in addition to ROI number. An analysis of the effects of these varied calculation parameters on the magnitude and shape of the NPS was conducted. The local NPS varied depending on calculation parameters, particularly at low spatial frequencies below ~ 0.15 mm-1. For the simulation study, NPS calculation error decreased exponentially as ROI number increased. For the Catphan study the NPS magnitude varied as a function of ROI location, which was better observed when using smaller ROI sizes. The image subtraction method for background removal was the most effective at reducing low-frequency background noise, and produced similar results no matter which ROI size or window function was used. The PCA background removal method with a Hann window function produced the closest match to image subtraction, with an average percent difference of 17.5%. Image noise should be analyzed locally by calculating the NPS for small ROI sizes. A minimum ROI size is recommended based on the chosen radial bin size and image pixel

  7. Practical considerations for noise power spectra estimation for clinical CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Dolly, Steven; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Anastasio, Mark; Mutic, Sasa; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Local noise power spectra (NPS) have been commonly calculated to represent the noise properties of CT imaging systems, but their properties are significantly affected by the utilized calculation schemes. In this study, the effects of varied calculation parameters on the local NPS were analyzed, and practical suggestions were provided regarding the estimation of local NPS for clinical CT scanners. The uniformity module of a Catphan phantom was scanned with a Philips Brilliance 64 slice CT simulator with varied scanning protocols. Images were reconstructed using FBP and iDose4 iterative reconstruction with noise reduction levels 1, 3, and 6. Local NPS were calculated and compared for varied region of interest (ROI) locations and sizes, image background removal methods, and window functions. Additionally, with a predetermined NPS as a ground truth, local NPS calculation accuracy was compared for computer simulated ROIs, varying the aforementioned parameters in addition to ROI number. An analysis of the effects of these varied calculation parameters on the magnitude and shape of the NPS was conducted. The local NPS varied depending on calculation parameters, particularly at low spatial frequencies below ~ 0.15 mm-1. For the simulation study, NPS calculation error decreased exponentially as ROI number increased. For the Catphan study the NPS magnitude varied as a function of ROI location, which was better observed when using smaller ROI sizes. The image subtraction method for background removal was the most effective at reducing low-frequency background noise, and produced similar results no matter which ROI size or window function was used. The PCA background removal method with a Hann window function produced the closest match to image subtraction, with an average percent difference of 17.5%. Image noise should be analyzed locally by calculating the NPS for small ROI sizes. A minimum ROI size is recommended based on the chosen radial bin size and image pixel

  8. Detecting small geothermal features at Northern Pacific volcanoes with ASTER thermal infrared data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, R.; Senyukov, S.; Tranbenkova, A.; Ramsey, M. S.; Schneider, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitor the eruptive state of volcanoes throughout the Aleutian, Kamchatkan, and Kurile arcs. This is accomplished in part by analyzing thermal infrared (TIR) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors at least twice per day for major thermal anomalies. The AVHRR and MODIS 1-km spatial resolution data have been very useful for detecting large and/or high-temperature thermal signatures such as Strombolian activity as well as lava and pyroclastic flows. Such anomalies commonly indicate a major eruptive event is in progress. However, in order to observe and quantify small and/or lower temperature thermal features such as fumaroles and lava domes, higher spatial resolution data with better radiometric and spectral resolution are required. We have reviewed 2600 available night and day time TIR scenes acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) over the volcanoes of the northern Pacific. The current archive spans from March, 2000 to present. ASTER is the only instrument that routinely acquires high spatial resolution (30 - 90 m) night time data over volcanic targets. These data sets typically contain 5 TIR (8-12 microns) with 90 meter spatial resolution and 6 shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands (1-3 microns) with 30 meter spatial resolution. After the general survey of the volcanic arcs, we have focused our efforts on several targets. Mt. Hague, in the Emmons Lake complex on the Alaska Peninsula, has had mostly cloud-free ASTER observations for twenty night time TIR and six daytime TIR since August 2000. A small lake in the lower crater of Mt. Hague has had a history of appearing and disappearing over the last few years. The ASTER data combined with several recent field observations allow us to track the changes in lake area and associated temperatures

  9. AREVA Back-End Possibilities for the Used Fuel of Research Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Auziere, P.; Emin, J.L.; Louvet, T.; Ohayon, D.; Hunter, I.

    2006-07-01

    One of the major issues faced by the Research and Test Reactor (RTR) operators is the back end management of the used fuel elements. RTR used fuel for both HEU and LEU types are problematic for storing and disposal as their Aluminium cladding degrades leading to activity release, possible loss of containment and criticality concerns. Thus, direct disposal of RTR used fuel, (without prior treatment and conditioning) is in this respect hardly suitable. In the same manner, long term interim storage of RTR used fuel has to take into account the issue of fuel corrosion. Treating RTR used fuel allows separating the content into recyclable materials and residues. It offers many advantages as compared to direct disposal such as the retrieval of valuable fissile material, the reduction of radio-toxicity and a very significant reduction of the volume of the ultimate waste package (reduction factor between 30 and 50). In addition, the vitrification of the residues provides a package that has been specifically designed to ensure long term durability for long term interim storage as well as final disposal (99% of the activity is encapsulated into a stable matrix). RTR fuel treatment process was developed several decades ago by AREVA with now thirty years of experience at an industrial level. The treatment process consists in dissolving the whole assembly (including the Al cladding) in nitric acid and then diluting it with standard Uranium Oxide fuel dissolution liquor prior to treatment with the nominal Tributylphosphate solvent extraction process. A wide range of RTR spent fuel has already been treated in the AREVA facilities. First, at the Marcoule plant over 18 tons of U-Al type RTR fuel from 21 reactors in 11 countries was processed. The treatment activities are now undertaken at the La Hague plant where 17 tons of RTR used fuel from Australia Belgium, and France aligned for treatment. In June 2005, AREVA started to treat at La Hague ANSTO's Australian RTR used fuel from

  10. Characterization of the deterioration of bone black in the 17 th century Oranjezaal paintings using electron-microscopic and micro-spectroscopic imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Annelies; Boon, Jaap J.

    2004-10-01

    A whitish deterioration product was observed on the dark paint in a number of large-scale oil paintings that are part of the Oranjezaal interior decoration in the Royal Palace Huis ten Bosch (The Hague). The whitened areas of a painting by Pieter Soutman dating from 1648 were micro-sampled and compared with "healthy" black paint using different analytical imaging techniques. The dark paint was identified as bone black in linseed oil with a lead drier added. Microscopic images of the cross-section revealed a white top layer of 10-20 μm in the black paint layer. Imaging the cross-section surface with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and specular reflection Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) showed homogeneous distributions of phosphate, phosphorus and calcium over the black and the white degraded bone black. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the presence of calcium phosphate hydrate (Ca 3(PO 4) 2· xH 2O), monetite (CaHPO 4) with possibly some poorly crystalline or amorphous hydroxyapatite (Ca 5(OH)(PO 4) 3). The EDX maps of lead and carbon, however, showed some discontinuity between the degraded and non-degraded bone black. There was an increase in the lead concentration in the white top layer, and a slight decrease of carbon. Transmission FTIR demonstrated that aromatic network polymers from the carbon black are markedly diminished in the white deterioration product. It is proposed that the carbonized organic matter in the bone black is vulnerable to photo bleaching in the presence of a lead catalyst under these circumstances.

  11. ICSH: on board for new projects.

    PubMed

    Zini, G; Kern, W; Brereton, M; Stephens, A D

    2014-06-01

    The International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) is a not-for-profit organization aimed at improving global quality and harmonization of analytical methods, and achieving reliable and reproducible results in diagnostic hematology. ICSH co-ordinates Working Groups of experts to examine laboratory methods and instruments for hematological analyses, and co-operates with different international organizations which have similar scientific goals. Among seven ongoing approved projects, three ICSH projects have been selected and will be presented in the ICSH session at the XXVIIth ISLH International Symposium on Technological Innovations in Laboratory Hematology in The Hague, on May 2014. The project on 'Guideline for flow cytometric evaluation of patients with suspected acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)' covers different aspects of the application of immunophenotyping by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) in the diagnosis of AML and MDS including integration into multimodal diagnostic workflow, quality control, antibody selection, interpretation of findings, reporting, and personnel. Data from the pilot study of the project for 'International Standardization of Hematology Reporting Units' suggest that there is a wide variation in reporting units for the routine blood cell count and highlights the areas of nomenclature and units of measurement where standardization is necessary and feasible, such as units for cell counts, white cell differentials, and hemoglobin concentration. The project on 'Standardization of HbA2 measurement and its implications for clinical practice' starts from the observation that different instruments give different results for hemoglobin A2; it is aimed at producing recommendations as to how instrument manufacturers and laboratories should assess their equipment before using it to analyze patient samples. These projects are examples of how the ICSH represents a great opportunity for scientists

  12. The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Cosgrove, W.; Rijsberman, F.; Strzepek, K.; Strzepek, K.

    2001-05-01

    The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be participatory in nature, including input from both developed and developing regions, with a special focus on the needs of the poor, women, youth, children and the environment. Three overall objectives were to: (i)raise awareness of water issues among both the general population and decision-makers so as to foster the necessary political will and leadership to tackle the problems seriously and systematically; (ii) develop a vision of water management for 2025 that is shared by water sector specialists as well as international, national and regional decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society; and (iii) provide input to a Framework for Action to be elaborated by the Global Water Partnership, with steps to go from vision to action, including recommendations to funding agencies for investment priorities. This exercise was characterized by the principles of: (i) a participatory approach with extensive consultation; (ii) Innovative thinking; (iii) central analysis to assure integration and co-ordination; and (iv) emphasis on communication with groups outside the water sector. The primary activities included, developing global water scenarios that fed into regional consultations and sectoral consultations as water for food, water for people - water supply and sanitation, and water and environment. These consultations formulated the regional and sectoral visions that were synthesized to form the World Water Vision. The findings from this exercise were reported and debated at the Second World Water Forum and the Ministerial Conference held in The Hague, The Netherlands during April 2000. This paper

  13. Iodine-129, iodine-127 and caesium-137 in the environment: soils from Germany and Chile.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Michel, R; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Synal, H-A; Alfimov, V

    2012-10-01

    Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for (129)I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for (127)I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for (137)Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of (137)Cs in soils from Bavaria was (41×1.5(±1)) kBq m(-2) (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of (129)I in these soils was (109×1.5(±1)) mBq m(-2). The dominant sources of (129)I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10(-7) and 10(-10), i.e. 10(2)-10(5) times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The (129)I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m(-2) and 2 mBq m(-2). In these soils, the observed (129)I/(127)I ratios were about 10(-12). The soils from Chile allow the determination of the (129)I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral (129)I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27°S) is about 1 mBq m(-2). Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of (137)Cs, (127)I and of (129)I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of (127)I, (129)I, and (137)Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for (137)Cs.

  14. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in

  15. Distribution and behaviour of transuranic elements in the physical and biological compartments of the channel french shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germain, P.; Miramand, P.

    1984-06-01

    Biological samples (algae, suspension feeders molluscs living in contact with sediments, annelids), sediments and sea water were taken at 5 stations along the Channel shore from 1978 to 1981 in order to determine 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am and 244Cm levels. In Northern Cotentin, radioactivity levels for 239+240Pu, 238Pu and 241Am were respectively about 1-10, 0.5-7 and 1-19 pCi kg -1 fresh weight in biological samples, 24-90, 11-28 and 24-31 pCi kg -1 dry weight in sediments, 1-7, 5-40 and 2-15 fCi 1 -1 in sea water. For stations far from the La Hague outlet (Seine river and Mont Saint Michel bays) levels for 239+240Pu, 238Pu and 241Am were respectively about 0.3-5, 0.1-2 and 0.2-3 pCi kg -1 fresh weight in biological samples, 30-80, 5-26 and 14-40 pCi kg -1 dry weight in sediments, and 1-, 3-4 and 3-8 fCi 1 -1 in sea water. Labelling of industrial wastes was demonstrated by the values of the 238Pu/ 239+240Pu ratios. The evolution of plutonium isotopes in sea water and in the other environmental compartments and the bio-availability of americium are discussed. Sediment-animal transfers are quantified and their processes specified. An assessment of plutonium and americium hazards from ingestion of molluscs shows that the ingested activity represents 1.1×10 -4 only of the ALI (ingestion) recommended by ICRP for members of the public.

  16. Temporal variations in 13C and 14C concentrations in particulate organic matter from the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megens, L.; van der Plicht, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.

    2001-09-01

    As a new approach for the characterization and determination of the origin of particulate organic matter (POM) in coastal waters, we measured the 14C activity and 13C/ 12C isotope ratios and applied molecular analysis by means of AMS, IRMS and pyrolysis-GCMS for both bulk samples and isolated fractions of POM from the North Sea off the Dutch coast. The fractions were obtained by a sequence of chemical treatments separating polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and non-hydrolysable resistant compounds. The 13C/ 12C and 14C/ 12C isotope ratios, the 14C activities and the polysaccharide/protein contents were high in the spring and summer samples and significantly lower in the autumn and winter samples. This is explained by the high amount of marine phytoplankton in summer and spring, and the presence of detrital material in autumn and winter. It was noted that phytoplankton as found in the spring and summer samples was ca. 20% enriched in 14C with respect to natural values, very likely caused by 14C contamination of the water from the English Channel by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague, Normandy, France. The 13C/ 12C isotope ratios and 14C activity data show that the winter sample was not a simple mixture of relatively recent marine phytoplankton and POM from the rivers Rhine and Meuse. The main source of both terrestrial and marine organic matter in POM in winter is resuspended organic matter derived from eroded sea floor deposits with relatively low contributions of polysaccharides and proteins.

  17. Iodine-129, iodine-127 and caesium-137 in the environment: soils from Germany and Chile.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Michel, R; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Synal, H-A; Alfimov, V

    2012-10-01

    Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for (129)I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for (127)I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for (137)Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of (137)Cs in soils from Bavaria was (41×1.5(±1)) kBq m(-2) (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of (129)I in these soils was (109×1.5(±1)) mBq m(-2). The dominant sources of (129)I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10(-7) and 10(-10), i.e. 10(2)-10(5) times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The (129)I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m(-2) and 2 mBq m(-2). In these soils, the observed (129)I/(127)I ratios were about 10(-12). The soils from Chile allow the determination of the (129)I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral (129)I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27°S) is about 1 mBq m(-2). Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of (137)Cs, (127)I and of (129)I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of (127)I, (129)I, and (137)Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for (137)Cs. PMID:22484471

  18. Marine radioactivity in the Arctic: a retrospect of environmental studies in Greenland waters with emphasis on transport of 90Sr and 137Cs with the East Greenland Current.

    PubMed

    Aarkrog, A; Dahlgaard, H; Nielsen, S P

    1999-09-30

    The waters around Greenland have received radioactive contamination from three major sources: Global fallout, discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant Sellafield in the UK, and the Chernobyl accident in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The global fallout peaked in the early 1960s. The radiologically most important radionuclides from this source are 90Sr and 137Cs. The input of global fallout to arctic waters was direct deposition from the atmosphere and indirect delivery through river run off and advection from the Atlantic Ocean via the north-east Atlantic current system. The waterborne discharges from Sellafield which were at their peak between 1974 and 1981 contributed primarily 137Cs, although some 90Sr was also discharged. The Chernobyl accident in 1986 was characterised by its substantial atmospheric release of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs). Other sources may, however, also have contributed to the radioactivity in the Greenland waters. Examples include La Hague, France, and radioactive discharges to the great Siberian rivers (Ob, Yenisey and Lena) from nuclear activities in the Former Soviet Union or the local fallout from the Novaya Zemlya nuclear weapons test site. Dumping of nuclear waste in the Kara and Barents Seas may be another, although minor source. From measurements in Greenland waters carried out since 1962 the transport of radionuclides with the East Greenland Current is calculated and compared with the estimated inputs of 90Sr and 137Cs to the Arctic Ocean. This study focus on 90Sr and 137Cs because the longest time series are available for these two radionuclides.

  19. A study of the atmospheric dispersion of a high release of krypton-85 above a complex coastal terrain, comparison with the predictions of Gaussian models (Briggs, Doury, ADMS4).

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Rozet, M; Le Cavelier, S; Connan, O

    2010-11-01

    Atmospheric releases of krypton-85, from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the AREVA NC facility at La Hague (France), were used to test Gaussian models of dispersion. In 2001-2002, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) studied the atmospheric dispersion of 15 releases, using krypton-85 as a tracer for plumes emitted from two 100-m-high stacks. Krypton-85 is a chemically inert radionuclide. Krypton-85 air concentration measurements were performed on the ground in the downwind direction, at distances between 0.36 and 3.3 km from the release, by neutral or slightly unstable atmospheric conditions. The standard deviation for the horizontal dispersion of the plume and the Atmospheric Transfer Coefficient (ATC) were determined from these measurements. The experimental results were compared with calculations using first generation (Doury, Briggs) and second generation (ADMS 4.0) Gaussian models. The ADMS 4.0 model was used in two configurations; one takes account of the effect of the built-up area, and the other the effect of the roughness of the surface on the plume dispersion. Only the Briggs model correctly reproduced the measured values for the width of the plume, whereas the ADMS 4.0 model overestimated it and the Doury model underestimated it. The agreement of the models with measured values of the ATC varied according to distance from the release point. For distances less than 2 km from the release point, the ADMS 4.0 model achieved the best agreement between model and measurement; beyond this distance, the best agreement was achieved by the Briggs and Doury models.

  20. The additional value of a night splint to eccentric exercises in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, R J; Weir, A; Visser, R J A; de Winter, ThC; Tol, J L

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess whether the use of a night splint is of added benefit on functional outcome in treating chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Methods This was a single‐blind, prospective, single centre, randomised controlled trial set in the Sports Medical Department, The Hague Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Inclusion criteria were: age 18–70 years, active participation in sports, and tendon pain localised at 2–7 cm from distal insertion. Exclusion criteria were: insertional disorders, partial or complete ruptures, or systemic illness. 70 tendons were included and randomised into one of two treatment groups: eccentric exercises with a night splint (night splint group, n = 36) or eccentric exercises only (eccentric group, n = 34). Interventions Both groups completed a 12‐week heavy‐load eccentric training programme. One group received a night splint in addition to eccentric exercises. At baseline and follow‐up at 12 weeks, patient satisfaction, Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment–Achilles questionnaire (VISA‐A) score and reported compliance were recorded by a single‐blind trained researcher who was blinded to the treatment. Results After 12 weeks, patient satisfaction in the eccentric group was 63% compared with 48% in the night splint group. The VISA‐A score significantly improved in both groups; in the eccentric group from 50.1 to 68.8 (p = 0.001) and in the night splint group from 49.4 to 67.0 (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in VISA‐A score (p = 0.815) and patient satisfaction (p = 0.261). Conclusion A night splint is not beneficial in addition to eccentric exercises in the treatment of chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:17178774

  1. An Anthropogenic Radioisotope, Iodine 129, As A Tracer For Studying The Northern Limb of The Meridional Overturning Circulation (moc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascard, J. C.; Raisbeck, G.; Yiou, F.; Sequeira, S.; Mork, K. A.

    A number of observations taken during the 1990s, seem to corroborate the fact that the northern limb of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (the so-called MOC), is undergoing large scale variability. Arctic Sea-Ice thinning, Overflows slackening, Labrador and Greenland Seas Deep Convection weakening, have recently been re- ported. Can this large scale variability be interpreted as a natural variability of the MOC or is it more related to global changes due to anthropogenic effects like green- house gases enhancing Global Warming at High Latitudes ? Iodine 129 resulting from reprocessing nuclear wastes at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK), has penetrated through all the various parts of the MOC from the Source: the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) collecting Iodine 129 from the North Sea, to the Sink: the Greenland- Iceland-Scotland Overflows and ultimately to the North Atlantic Deep Waters via the Deep Western Boundary Current. During recent years, discharges of Iodine 129 have increased drastically and peaks in Iodine 129 concentrations have already been ob- served all along the coast of Norway. In this talk, we will first present the most recent results showing the transfer of Iodine 129 through the various parts of the MOC from the NCC down to the North Atlantic Overflows (Denmark Strait), and second, explain how this results allow us to improve our understanding of the MOC system and in particular its variability. This is an important issue for improving reliability of actual numerical simulations of past, present and future behavior of the MOC, which has strong implications for climate related problems.

  2. Chemical interaction matrix between reagents in a Purex based process

    SciTech Connect

    Brahman, R.K.; Hennessy, W.P.; Paviet-Hartmann, P.

    2008-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is the responsible entity for the disposal of the United States excess weapons grade plutonium. DOE selected a PUREX-based process to convert plutonium to low-enriched mixed oxide fuel for use in commercial nuclear power plants. To initiate this process in the United States, a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) is under construction and will be operated by Shaw AREVA MOX Services at the Savannah River Site. This facility will be licensed and regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A PUREX process, similar to the one used at La Hague, France, will purify plutonium feedstock through solvent extraction. MFFF employs two major process operations to manufacture MOX fuel assemblies: (1) the Aqueous Polishing (AP) process to remove gallium and other impurities from plutonium feedstock and (2) the MOX fuel fabrication process (MP), which processes the oxides into pellets and manufactures the MOX fuel assemblies. The AP process consists of three major steps, dissolution, purification, and conversion, and is the center of the primary chemical processing. A study of process hazards controls has been initiated that will provide knowledge and protection against the chemical risks associated from mixing of reagents over the life time of the process. This paper presents a comprehensive chemical interaction matrix evaluation for the reagents used in the PUREX-based process. Chemical interaction matrix supplements the process conditions by providing a checklist of any potential inadvertent chemical reactions that may take place. It also identifies the chemical compatibility/incompatibility of the reagents if mixed by failure of operations or equipment within the process itself or mixed inadvertently by a technician in the laboratories. (aut0010ho.

  3. ESTEC/GEOVUSIE/ILEWG Planetary Student Designer Workshop: a Teacher Training Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusterink, J.; Foing, B. H.; Kaskes, P.

    2014-04-01

    An important role for education is to inform and create the right skills for people to develop their own vision, using their talents to the utmost and inspire others to learn to explore in the future. Great effort has been taken to prepare this interactive design workshop thoroughly. Three days in a row, starting with presentations of Artscience The Hague to ESA colleagues, followed by a Planetary research Symposium in Amsterdam and a student design workshop at the end complemented a rich environment with the focus on Planetary exploration. The design workshop was organised by GeoVUsie students, with ESTEC and ILEWG support for tutors and inviting regional and international students to participate in an interactive workshop to design 5 Planetary Missions, with experts sharing their expertise and knowhow on specific challenging items: 1. Mercury - Post BepiColombo (with Sebastien Besse, ESA) 2. Moon South Pole Mission (with Bernard Foing, ESA) 3. Post-ExoMars - In search for Life on Mars (with Jorge Vago, ESA) 4. Humans in Space - Mars One investigated(with Arno Wielders, Space Horizon) 5. Europa - life on the icy moon of Jupiter? (with Bert Vermeersen, TU Delft. Lectures were given for more than 150 geology students at the symposium "Moon, Mars and More" at VU university, Amsterdam (organized by GeoVUsie earth science students). All students were provided with information before and at start for designing their mission. After the morning session there was a visit to the exhibition at The Erasmus Facility - ESTEC to inspire them even more with real artifacts of earlier and future missions into space. After this visit they prepared their final presentations, with original results, with innovative ideas and a good start to work out further in the future. A telescope session for geology students had been organized indoor due to rain. A follow-up visit to the nearby public Copernicus observatory was planned for another clear sky occasion.

  4. Frederik Ruysch's Fascination With Urolithiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Frederik Ruysch was born on March 23, 1638, in The Hague, and studied at the University of Leiden, where he graduated in 1664. He married a daughter of a famous architect and became a praelector of the Amsterdam surgeon's guild in 1665. In 1666, his rise continued, as he became elected as the Professor of the Anthenaeum Illustre. In 1668, Ruysch became the chief instructor to the midwives and by 1679 was the forensics advisor to Amsterdam's courts. His anatomical knowledge was second to none, and he gained worldwide notoriety for his discovery of the valves in lymphatics and the vomeronasal organ. Ruysch was keenly interested in dissection and anatomy, and developed his own methods for preservation of specimens. His secret was called liquor balsamicum. Over 300 years ago, Ruysch developed all of his talents to the point of creating a menagerie, of sorts, out of his specimens. The popularity of his rather morbid exhibits attracted such dignitaries as Peter The Great in 1697. Ruysch had several children from his marriage, and his daughter Rachel helped him illustrate many of his collections. Frederik Ruysch became an intriguing historical figure, worthy of some attention at kidney stone meetings, precisely because he chose these concretions to serve as one of the "finishing elements" in several of his collections. The purpose of this presentation is to present to a knowledgeable stone group, the artistic license of one of the first entrepreneurial surgeons and anatomists of the 17th century. Ruysch was a skilled surgeon, obstetrician, and anatomist, keenly interested in the science of anatomy, especially infant and fetal anatomy. In addition, he exhibited his fine collection of urinary stones in a rather unique way, in his "anatomical pieces."

  5. Anthropogenic 129I in the North Pacific, Bering and Chukchi Seas, and Arctic Ocean in 2012-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, H.; Hasegawa, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kumamoto, Y.; Nishino, S.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2015-10-01

    Most of anthropogenic 129I in marine environment are due to discharge from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (U.K.) and La Hague (France) for past few decades. The discharge raised 129I concentration in seawaters in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans to more than 109 atoms L-1, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that in other region. Recently, in March 2011, a large quantity of 129I was released into the western North Pacific due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. To evaluate the influence of these events, we have measured 129I concentration in seawaters in the northern North Pacific Ocean, Bering and Chukchi Seas, and Arctic Ocean in 2012-2013. The 129I concentrations were 1.0-1.8 × 107 atoms L-1 in the surface waters in the vicinity of 47°N 150°E-130°W North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea (<74°N), which are equal to or lower than the 129I concentration level in surface water in the North Pacific Ocean before the F1NPP accident. The vertical profiles in the North Pacific were almost same as that observed in the western North Pacific before the F1NPP accident. The 129I distribution in seawater in the North Pacific to the Chukchi Sea revealed no significant increase of 129I concentration caused by the F1NPP accident. The 129I concentrations were 13-14 × 107 atoms L-1 in surface waters and 80 × 107 atoms L-1 at depths of 300 and 800 m in the Arctic Ocean.

  6. The use of forensic botany and geology in war crimes investigations in NE Bosnia.

    PubMed

    Brown, A G

    2006-11-22

    From 1997 to 2002 the United Nations International Criminal Tribune for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) undertook the exhumation of mass graves in NE Bosnia as part of the war crimes investigations aimed at providing evidence for the prosecution of war criminals in The Hague. This involved the location and exhumation of seven former mass graves (primary sites) dug following the fall of Srebrenica in July 1995. These primary mass graves were secretly and hurriedly exhumed three months later and most of the bodies or body parts transported and reburied in a large number of secondary sites many of which were subsequently exhumed by ICTY. The aim of the pollen and soil/sediment studies was to provide an 'environmental profile' of the original site of the samples and use this to match the relocated bodies to the original mass graves. This was part of completing the chain of evidence, providing evidence of the scale and organization of the original atrocities and the subsequent attempts to conceal the evidence related to them. All the primary sites were located in areas of contrasting geology, soils and vegetation, and this allowed matching of the sediment transported in intimate contact with the bodies to the original burial sites, which in some cases were also the execution sites. In all, over 24 sites were investigated, over 240 samples collected and analyzed under low power microscopy and 65 pollen sub-samples fully analyzed. The pollen and sediment descriptions were used in conjunction with the mineralogy (using XRD) of primary and secondary sites in order to provide matches. These matches were then compared with matching evidence from ballistic studies and clothing. The evidence has been used in court and is now in the public domain. It is believed this is the first time 'environmental profiling' techniques have been used in a systematic manner in a war crimes investigation.

  7. Seasonal changes in mRNA encoding for cell stress markers in the oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to radioactive discharges in their natural environment.

    PubMed

    Farcy, Emilie; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Fievet, Bruno

    2007-03-15

    The North Cotentin area (Normandy, France) hosts several nuclear facilities among which the AREVA reprocessing plant of La Hague is responsible for controlled discharges of liquid radioactive wastes into the marine environment. The resulting increase in radioactivity is very small compared to natural radioactivity. However, concerns about environment protection prompted the scientific community to focus on the effects of the chronic exposure to low concentrations of radionuclides in non-human biota. This study contributes to the evaluation of the possible impact of radioactive discharges on the oyster Crassostrea gigas in the field. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression levels of genes involved in cell stress in the oyster. They included members of the heat shock protein family (Hsp70, Hsc72, Hsp90), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and metallothionein (MT). Times series measurements were built from periodic samplings in the natural environment in order to characterize the natural variability as well as possible seasonal fluctuations. The genes studied exhibited a general seasonal expression pattern with a peak value in winter. The data inversely correlated with seawater temperature and the nature of the relationship between gene expression and temperature is discussed. In parallel, oysters were collected in four locations on the French shores, exposed or not to radioactive liquid wastes from the nuclear facilities hosted in the North Cotentin. The comparison of data obtained in the reference location on the Atlantic coast (not exposed) and data from oysters of the English Channel (exposed) gave no evidence for any statistical difference. However, because of the complexity of the natural environment, we cannot rule out the possibility that other parameters may have masked the impact of radioactive discharges. This dense set of data is a basis for the use of the expression levels of those genes as biomarkers to address the question of the

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis

    2004-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2004 through June 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 4Q 2004 or later. Smith International's hammer was tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek re-tested the ''optimized'' fluid hammer provided by Smith International during April 2004. Many improvements in mud hammer rates of penetration were noted over Phase 1 benchmark testing from November 2002. (2) Shell Exploration and Production in The Hague was briefed on various drilling performance projects including Task 8 ''Cutter Impact Testing''. Shell interest and willingness to assist in the test matrix as an Industry Advisor is appreciated. (3) TerraTek participated in a DOE/NETL Review meeting at Morgantown on April 15, 2004. The discussions were very helpful and a program related to the Mud Hammer optimization project was noted--Terralog modeling work on percussion tools. (4) Terralog's Dr. Gang Han witnessed some of the full-scale optimization testing of the Smith International hammer in order to familiarize him with downhole tools. TerraTek recommends that modeling first start with single cutters/inserts and progress in complexity. (5) The final equipment problem on the impact testing task was resolved through the acquisition of a high data rate laser based displacement instrument. (6) TerraTek provided Novatek much engineering support for the future re-testing of their optimized tool. Work was conducted on slip ring [electrical] specifications and tool collar sealing in the testing vessel with a reconfigured flow system on Novatek's collar.

  9. Pre- and post-Chernobyl accident levels of 129I and 137Cs in the Southern Baltic Sea by brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Enamorado-Báez, S M; Abril, J A; Pinto-Gómez, A R; López-Gutiérrez, J M; García-León, M

    2013-01-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T(1/2) = 15.7 × 10(6) years) that is present in the environment both because of natural and anthropogenic sources. In this work (129)I concentration and (129)I/(127)I ratio have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus collected in the Southern Baltic Sea during 1982 and 1986 (post-Chernobyl accident). The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations, (129)I/(127)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (0.82-5.89) × 10(9) atoms g(-1) in 1982 and (1.33-38.83) × 10(9) atoms g(-1) in 1986. The (129)I/(127)I ratios ranged from (22.7-87.8) × 10(-10) for seaweed collected in 1982 and from (26.1-305.5) × 10(-10) for seaweed collected in 1986. Also a linear relationship was established for (127)I concentrations in seawater and salinity in this area, enabling the estimation of concentration factors for (127)I in F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(127)I in the Kattegat and their gradually decreasing trend to the Baltic Sea indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in the Baltic Sea area comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. With respect to Chernobyl accident, (129)I concentrations in samples collected in 1986 were not much higher than those expected in less contaminated samples from 1982. This supports the view that the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to (129)I in the Baltic region was not significant. PMID:22939948

  10. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  11. DOE/SOUTF/KEURP Kansas State University, Pushing technology to satisfy real world applications. First quarter report, July 1--September 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hague, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    K-State has concluded the first quarter of the third year, demonstrating and evaluating electric vehicle technology. The G-Van has failed to operate during this period. Although plans are being made to install new batteries in the G-Van, the vehicle has little to prove or demonstrate in the way of advanced technologies. As such, there was an agreement by the Site Operator Users Task Force that no additional federal funding would be spent to maintain or operate the G-Vans. The DSEP van, received from DOE during the latter part of January remains idle. The DSEP vehicle may never be refurbished and used in the Site Operator Program as an operational vehicle. It may be used as a lab vehicle or in a special projects capacity. The cost of operating or maintaining this one-of-a-kind vehicle is high and the value of the vehicle to the program is questionable. Kansas State University is using and pleased with its first Soleq`s EVcort. The vehicle has been used on a routine basis around campus, at the Nebraska State Fair, the Kansas State Fair, and other specific functions. The vehicle continues to operate in an efficient manner, is well received by the public, and clearly demonstrates what is possible in EV technology. Professor Hague continued to serve as the Chairman of the Site Operator Users Task Force. As such, K-State is involved at all levels in promoting electric vehicle legislation and technology. The electric vehicle technology continues to be debated and discussed at all levels of government. The next year should bring incremental improvements for funding. The SOUTF has established an effort to ``push`` the EV technology forward with the development of a common specification to be used in the purchase of electric vehicles during the next year.

  12. Accelerator mass spectrometry of iodine-129 and its applications in natural water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buraglio, Nadia

    During recent decades, huge amount of radioactive waste has been dumped into the earth's surface environments. 129I (T1/2 = 15.6 My) is one of the radioactive products that has been produced through a variety of processes, including atomic weapon testing, reprocessing of nuclear fact and nuclear accidents. This thesis describes development of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) ultra-sensitive atom counting technique at Uppsala Tandem Laboratory to measure 129I and discusses investigations of its distribution in the hydrosphere (marine and fresh water) and precipitation. The AMS technique provides a method for measuring long-lived radioactive isotopes in small samples, relative to other conventional techniques, and thus opens a now line of research. The optimization of the AMS system at Uppsala included testing a time of flight detector, evaluation of the most appropriate charge-state, reduction of molecular interference and improvement of the detection limit. Furthermore, development of a chemical procedure for separation of iodine from natural water samples has been accomplished. The second part of the thesis reports investigations of 129I in natural waters and indicates that high concentrations of 129I (3-4 orders of magnitude higher than in the prenuclear era) are found in most of the considered natural waters. Inventory calculations and results of measurements suggest that the major sources of radioactive iodine are the two main European nuclear reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (U.K.) and La Hague (France). This information provides estimates of the transit time and vertical mixing of water masses in the central Arctic Ocean. Results from precipitation, lakes and runoff are used to elucidate mechanisms of transport of 129I from the point sources and its pathways in the hydrological environment. This study also shows the need for continuous monitoring of the 129I level in the hydrosphere and of its future variability.

  13. Adapting Dismantling and Decommissioning Strategies to a Variety of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities - 12237

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Frederic; Clement, Gilles

    2012-07-01

    AREVA has accumulated over 20 years of experience in managing and operating fuel cycle facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) projects of many different types and a variety of scales, both as facility owner (at La Hague for example) and as prime contractor to external customers such as the French Atomic Energy Commission (at Marcoule). A specific Business Unit was created in 2008 to capitalize on this experience and to concentrate - in one division - the specific skills required to be successful and cost effective in decommissioning projects. Indeed one of the key lessons learned in the past decades is that decommissioning is a significantly different business as compared to normal operations of a nuclear facility. Almost all the functions of a project need to be viewed from a different angle, challenged and adapted consequently in order to optimize costs and schedule. Three examples follow to illustrate the point: Safety management needs to take into account the ever changing configuration of a plant under D and D (a quite new situation for the authorities). Production of waste is significantly different in term of volume, activities, conditioning and disposal path. Technology is important but technical issues are often less critical than good management and planning. Further examples and lessons learned are developed through reviewing the projects experience basis. AREVA has a long and vast experience in the cleanup and dismantling of a number of very large and complex nuclear facilities. This effort focused initially on AREVA's own plants and is expanding now to other customers. The setup of a specific Business Unit in 2008 to takeover this business allowed concentration of the skills and the lessons learned in a dedicated division so as to provide the best means to optimize safety, performance, costs and schedules. Indeed transitioning from operations to D and D of a nuclear facility is a quantum leap. The assistance from specialized teams can

  14. Painted or printed? Correlation analysis of the brickwork in Jan van der Heyden's View of Oudezijds Voorburgwal with the Oude Kerke in Amsterdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, David G.; Meador, Sean; Nobel, Petria

    2009-02-01

    The title painting, in the Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis in The Hague, is remarkable in that every figure and every part of every building is clearly discernible in the minutest detail: decorations, weathercock, bells in the church tower, and so on. Thousands of individual bricks are visible in the buildings at the left and the question has been posed by art scholars as to whether these bricks were laboriously painted individually or instead more efficiently pressed to the painting by some form of template, for instance by pressing a wet print against the painting. Close inspection of the painting in raking light reveals that the mortar work is rendered in thick, protruding paint, but such visual analysis, while highly suggestive, does not prove van der Heyden employed counterproofing; as such evidence must be sought in order to corroborate this hypothesis. If some form of counterproofing was employed by the artist, there might be at least some repeated patterns of the bricks, as the master print master was shifted from place to place in the painting. Visual search for candidate repeated passages of bricks by art scholars has proven tedious and unreliable. For this reason, we instead used a method based on computer forensics for detecting nearly identical repeated patterns within an image: discrete crosscorrelation. Specifically, we preprocessed a high-resolution photograph of the painting and used thresholding and image processing to enhance the brickwork. Then we convolved small portions of this processed image of the brickwork with all areas of brickwork throughout the painting. Our results reveal only small regions of moderate cross-correlation. Most importantly, the limited spatial extent of matching regions shows that the peaks found are not significantly higher than would occur by chance in a hand-executed work or in one created using a single counterproof. To our knowledge, ours is the first use of cross-correlation to search for repeated patterns in a

  15. Pushing technology to satisfy world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hague, J. R.

    K-State has concluded the first quarter of the third year, demonstrating and evaluating electric vehicle technology. The G-Van has failed to operate during this period. Although plans are being made to install new batteries in the G-Van, the vehicle has little to prove or demonstrate in the way of advanced technologies. As such, there was an agreement by the Site Operator Users Task Force that no additional federal funding would be spent to maintain or operate the G-Vans. The DSEP van, received from DOE during the latter part of January remains idle. The DSEP vehicle may never be refurbished and used in the Site Operator Program as an operational vehicle. It may be used as a lab vehicle or in a special projects capacity. The cost of operating or maintaining this one-of-a-kind vehicle is high and the value of the vehicle to the program is questionable. Kansas State University is using and is pleased with its first Soleq's EVcort. The vehicle has been used on a routine basis around campus, at the Nebraska State Fair, the Kansas State Fair, and other specific functions. The vehicle continues to operate in an efficient manner, is well received by the public, and clearly demonstrates what is possible in EV technology. Professor Hague continued to serve as the Chairman of the Site Operator Users Task Force. As such, K-State is involved at all levels in promoting electric vehicle legislation and technology. The electric vehicle technology continues to be debated and discussed at all levels of government. The next year should bring incremental improvements for funding. The SOUTF has established an effort to 'push' the EV technology forward with the development of a common specification to be used in the purchase of electric vehicles during the next year.

  16. Clinical and legal significance of fragmentation of bullets in relation to size of wounds: retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between fragmentation of bullets and size of wounds clinically and in the context of the Hague Declaration of 1899. Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on hospital admissions. Setting Hospitals of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Subjects 5215 people wounded by bullets in armed conflicts (5933 wounds). Main outcome measures Grade of wound computed from the Red Cross wound classification and presence of bullet fragments on radiography. Results Of the 347 wounds with fragmentation of bullets, 251 (72%) were large wounds (grade 2 or 3)—that is, those with a clinically detectable cavity. Of the 5586 wounds without fragmentation of bullets, 2915 (52.1%) were large wounds. Only 7.9% (251/3166) of large wounds were associated with fragmentation of bullets. Conclusions Fragmentation of bullets is associated with large wounds, but most large wounds do not contain bullet fragments. In addition, bullet fragments may occur in wounds that are not defined as large. Fragmentation of bullets is neither a necessary nor sufficient cause of large wounds, and surgeons should not diagnose extensive tissue damage because of the presence of fragments on radiography. Such findings also do not necessarily represent the use of bullets which contravene the law of war. Future legislation should take into account not only the construction of bullets but also their potential to transfer energy to the human body. Key messagesThe use of certain bullets has been prohibited in warWounds from bullets are caused by transfer of kinetic energy from the bullet to the tissuesThe relation between size of wound and fragmentation of bullets can be examined using the Red Cross wound classification system Fragments of bullets seen on radiographs of wounds sustained in wars do not necessarily represent large wounds or the use of illegal bulletsExisting legislation on the construction of bullets should be supplemented by legislation on

  17. Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention national authority provisions. Workshop I: The National Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1995-05-09

    This seminar is an excellent opportunity for all attendees to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author discusses legal aspects of implementing the CWC`s national authority provisions. These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. As a result, the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention late last year and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. Here the author discusses progress among several States in actually developing implementing measures for the Convention`s national authority requirements. CWC legislation from Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available at this writing in English through the PTS. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation. The author hopes that his brief review will give delegations a flavor of the choices that exist for national implementation of the CWC.

  18. Pre- and post-Chernobyl accident levels of 129I and 137Cs in the Southern Baltic Sea by brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Enamorado-Báez, S M; Abril, J A; Pinto-Gómez, A R; López-Gutiérrez, J M; García-León, M

    2013-01-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T(1/2) = 15.7 × 10(6) years) that is present in the environment both because of natural and anthropogenic sources. In this work (129)I concentration and (129)I/(127)I ratio have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus collected in the Southern Baltic Sea during 1982 and 1986 (post-Chernobyl accident). The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations, (129)I/(127)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (0.82-5.89) × 10(9) atoms g(-1) in 1982 and (1.33-38.83) × 10(9) atoms g(-1) in 1986. The (129)I/(127)I ratios ranged from (22.7-87.8) × 10(-10) for seaweed collected in 1982 and from (26.1-305.5) × 10(-10) for seaweed collected in 1986. Also a linear relationship was established for (127)I concentrations in seawater and salinity in this area, enabling the estimation of concentration factors for (127)I in F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(127)I in the Kattegat and their gradually decreasing trend to the Baltic Sea indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in the Baltic Sea area comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. With respect to Chernobyl accident, (129)I concentrations in samples collected in 1986 were not much higher than those expected in less contaminated samples from 1982. This supports the view that the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to (129)I in the Baltic region was not significant.

  19. Concentrations of iodine isotopes ((129)I and (127)I) and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Riebe, B; Walther, C; Wershofen, H; Schlosser, C; Vockenhuber, C; Synal, H-A

    2016-04-01

    New data about (129)I, (127)I concentrations and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from the trace survey station of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Northern Germany, are presented and discussed in this paper. The investigated samples were collected on a weekly basis during the years 2011 to 2013. Iodine was extracted from aerosol filters using a strong basic solution and was separated from the matrix elements with chloroform and was analysed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for (129)I and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for (127)I. The concentrations of (127)I and (129)I in aerosol filters ranged from 0.31 to 3.71 ng m(-3) and from 0.06 to 0.75 fg m(-3), respectively. The results of (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios were in the order 10(-8) to 10(-7). The (129)I originated directly from gaseous emissions and indirectly from liquid emissions (via sea spray) from the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and La Hague. In comparison with the results of (131)I after the Fukushima accident, no contribution of (129)I from this accident was detectable in Central Europe due to the high background originating from the (129)I releases of the European reprocessing plants. (129)I atmospheric activity concentrations were compared with those of an anthropogenic radionuclide ((85)Kr). We did not find any correlation between (129)I and (85)Kr, both having nuclear reprocessing plant as the main source. PMID:26867099

  20. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  1. INCANT: a transnational randomized trial of Multidimensional Family Therapy versus treatment as usual for adolescents with cannabis use disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2003, the governments of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland agreed that there was a need in Europe for a treatment programme for adolescents with cannabis use disorders and other behavioural problems. Based on an exhaustive literature review of evidence-based treatments and an international experts meeting, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) was selected for a pilot study first, which was successful, and then for a joint, transnational randomized controlled trial named INCANT (INternational CAnnabis Need for Treatment). Methods/design INCANT is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with an open-label, parallel group design. This study compares MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU) at and across sites in Brussels, Berlin, Paris, The Hague and Geneva. Assessments are at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after randomization. A minimum of 450 cases in total is required; sites will recruit 60 cases each in Belgium and Switzerland, and a maximum of 120 each in France, Germany and the Netherlands. Eligible for INCANT are adolescents from 13 through 18 years of age with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse), with at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. Randomization is concealed to, and therefore beyond control by, the researcher/site requesting it. Randomization is stratified as to gender, age and level of cannabis consumption. Assessments focus on substance use; mental function; behavioural problems; and functioning regarding family, school, peers and leisure time. For outcome analyses, the study will use state of the art latent growth curve modelling techniques, including all randomized participants according to the intention-to-treat principle. INCANT has been approved by the appropriate ethical boards in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. INCANT is funded by the (federal) Ministries of Health of Belgium, Germany, the

  2. Netherlands Antilles.

    PubMed

    1983-10-01

    of the highest in the Western Hemisphere. Almost all agricultural and commercial goods are imported. As an integral part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Antilles does not have direct relations with any foreign country except as authorized specifically by the Dutch government in The Hague. The US wants to maintain and expand the traditionally friendly official and commercial relations that have existed since 1776.

  3. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Hofstede's (1983) cultural dimensions, of which uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation are of particular relevance for our analysis. Our conclusions comment on the suitability of approaches in Adaptive Delta Management rooted in different management theories are more suitable for specific delta countries than others. The most striking conclusion is the unsuitability of rational policy analytic approaches for The Netherlands. Although surprising this conclusion finds some support in the process dominated approach taken in the Dutch Delta Program. In addition, the divergence between Vietnam, Bangladesh and Myanmar, all located in South East Asia, is striking. References Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of international business studies, 75-89. Jos Timmermans, Marjolijn Haasnoot, Leon Hermans, Jan Kwakkel, Martine Rutten and Wil Thissen (2015). Adaptive Delta Management: Roots and Branches, IAHR The Hague 2015.

  4. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  5. Intra-Rater, Inter-Rater and Test-Retest Reliability of an Instrumented Timed Up and Go (iTUG) Test in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Hobert, Markus A.; Maetzler, Walter; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Terwee, Caroline B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The “Timed Up and Go” (TUG) is a widely used measure of physical functioning in older people and in neurological populations, including Parkinson’s Disease. When using an inertial sensor measurement system (instrumented TUG [iTUG]), the individual components of the iTUG and the trunk kinematics can be measured separately, which may provide relevant additional information. Objective The aim of this study was to determine intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the iTUG in patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Methods Twenty eight PD patients, aged 50 years or older, were included. For the iTUG the DynaPort Hybrid (McRoberts, The Hague, The Netherlands) was worn at the lower back. The device measured acceleration and angular velocity in three directions at a rate of 100 samples/s. Patients performed the iTUG five times on two consecutive days. Repeated measurements by the same rater on the same day were used to calculate intra-rater reliability. Repeated measurements by different raters on the same day were used to calculate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Repeated measurements by the same rater on different days were used to calculate test-retest reliability. Results Nineteen ICC values (15%) were ≥ 0.9 which is considered as excellent reliability. Sixty four ICC values (49%) were ≥ 0.70 and < 0.90 which is considered as good reliability. Thirty one ICC values (24%) were ≥ 0.50 and < 0.70, indicating moderate reliability. Sixteen ICC values (12%) were ≥ 0.30 and < 0.50 indicating poor reliability. Two ICT values (2%) were < 0.30 indicating very poor reliability. Conclusions In conclusion, in patients with Parkinson’s disease the intra-rater, inter-rater, and test-retest reliability of the individual components of the instrumented TUG (iTUG) was excellent to good for total duration and for turning durations, and good to low for the sub durations and for the kinematics of the SiSt and StSi. The results of this fully

  6. Netherlands Antilles.

    PubMed

    1983-10-01

    of the highest in the Western Hemisphere. Almost all agricultural and commercial goods are imported. As an integral part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Antilles does not have direct relations with any foreign country except as authorized specifically by the Dutch government in The Hague. The US wants to maintain and expand the traditionally friendly official and commercial relations that have existed since 1776. PMID:12178087

  7. What more can plant scientists do to help save the green stuff?

    PubMed

    McNeely, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was the first such effort under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and had gone through a 3-year process to reach the level of maturity that enabled it to be approved by consensus by all Governments present at the key session in The Hague in April 2002. It provided a model for subsequent CBD workplans, with targets, and undoubtedly contributed to the 2010 target of reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. In the event, few of the targets were achieved, because of numerous constraints at both policy and implementation levels. Even so, the GSPC stands as an important milestone in the global effort to conserve biodiversity. However, few plant scientists can be satisfied that the essential steps are being taken to ensure the conservation of plants, although, of course, plant scientists are only one part of the complex effort that will be required. This paper offers some suggestions that might be worth consideration, building on the basic principle in politics that a strong constituency is necessary to victory. In other words, although plant scientists play a crucial role, plant conservation is too important to leave in their hands alone; far broader support is required, including from the private sector, agriculture, forestry, trade, economics, tourism and even the military. Although botanical science provides a solid foundation, other branches of science are also important, ranging from anthropology to zoology. The legal profession also has important contributions to make (as well as the ability to hamper progress – for example through using issues such as access and benefit sharing to limit the exchange of genetic materials for even noncommercial use). 2010 was the United Nations Year of Biodiversity, and the GSPC targets reached their due date. It therefore seems timely to add some additional perspectives to the effort to update the GSPC. This paper suggests ways to reach a far broader constituency

  8. A Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theobald, D.M.; Baron, J.S.; Newman, P.; Noon, B.; Norman, J. B.; Leinwand, I.; Linn, S.E.; Sherer, R.; Williams, K.E.; Hartman, M.

    2010-01-01

    strong restoration opportunities: Big Thompson River West, Cache la Poudre South, Colorado River North, and Onahu Creek. Ten watersheds were found to have substantial near-term issues: Aspen Brook, Big Thompson River West, Black Canyon Creek, Cabin Creek, Cache la Poudre South, Fall River, Hague Creek, La Poudre Pass Creek, North Fork Big Thompson (East), and Colorado River North.

  9. TOCATTA: a dynamic transfer model of ¹⁴C from the atmosphere to soil-plant systems.

    PubMed

    Dizès, S Le; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Gonze, M-A; Aulagnier, C

    2012-02-01

    Many nuclear facilities release ¹⁴C into the environment, mostly as ¹⁴CO₂, which mixes readily with stable CO₂. This complete isotopic mixing (equilibrium) is often used as the basis for dose assessment models. In this paper, a dynamic compartment model (TOCATTA) has been investigated to describe ¹⁴C transfer in agricultural systems exposed to atmospheric ¹⁴C releases from nuclear facilities under normal operating or accidental conditions. The TOCATTA model belongs to the larger framework of the SYMBIOSE modelling and simulation platform that aims to assess the fate and transport of a wide range of radionuclides in various environmental systems. In this context, the conceptual and mathematical models of TOCATTA have been designed to be relatively simple, minimizing the number of compartments and input parameters required, appropriate to its use in an operational mode. This paper describes in detail ¹⁴C transfer in agricultural plants exposed to time-varying concentrations of atmospheric ¹⁴C, with a consideration also of the transfer pathways of ¹⁴C in soil. The model was tested against in situ data for ¹⁴C activity concentration measured over two years on a grass field plot located 2 km downwind of the AREVA NC La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant. The first results showed that the model roughly reproduced the observed month-to-month variability in grass ¹⁴C activity, but under-estimated (by about 33%) most of the observed peaks in the ¹⁴C activity concentration of grass. This tends to prove that it is not suitable to simulate intra-monthly variability, and a fortiori, the response of vegetation to accidental releases that may occur during the day. The need to increase the temporal resolution of the model has been identified in order to simulate the impact of intermittent ¹⁴C releases occurring either the day or night, such as those recorded by the AREVA NC plant.

  10. What are Journals for?

    PubMed

    Rallison, S P

    2015-03-01

    hard work and, through this series, I hope the reader will get some useful insight into this service industry for academia. Jyoti Shah Commissioning Editor Reference 1. Ware M, Mabe M. The STM Report. 3rd edn. The Hague: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers; 2012.

  11. What are Journals for?

    PubMed

    Rallison, S P

    2015-03-01

    hard work and, through this series, I hope the reader will get some useful insight into this service industry for academia. Jyoti Shah Commissioning Editor Reference 1. Ware M, Mabe M. The STM Report. 3rd edn. The Hague: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers; 2012. PMID:25723682

  12. What more can plant scientists do to help save the green stuff?

    PubMed

    McNeely, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was the first such effort under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and had gone through a 3-year process to reach the level of maturity that enabled it to be approved by consensus by all Governments present at the key session in The Hague in April 2002. It provided a model for subsequent CBD workplans, with targets, and undoubtedly contributed to the 2010 target of reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. In the event, few of the targets were achieved, because of numerous constraints at both policy and implementation levels. Even so, the GSPC stands as an important milestone in the global effort to conserve biodiversity. However, few plant scientists can be satisfied that the essential steps are being taken to ensure the conservation of plants, although, of course, plant scientists are only one part of the complex effort that will be required. This paper offers some suggestions that might be worth consideration, building on the basic principle in politics that a strong constituency is necessary to victory. In other words, although plant scientists play a crucial role, plant conservation is too important to leave in their hands alone; far broader support is required, including from the private sector, agriculture, forestry, trade, economics, tourism and even the military. Although botanical science provides a solid foundation, other branches of science are also important, ranging from anthropology to zoology. The legal profession also has important contributions to make (as well as the ability to hamper progress – for example through using issues such as access and benefit sharing to limit the exchange of genetic materials for even noncommercial use). 2010 was the United Nations Year of Biodiversity, and the GSPC targets reached their due date. It therefore seems timely to add some additional perspectives to the effort to update the GSPC. This paper suggests ways to reach a far broader constituency

  13. Implementation strategies of internet-based asthma self-management support in usual care. Study protocol for the IMPASSE cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Internet-based self-management (IBSM) support cost-effectively improves asthma control, asthma related quality of life, number of symptom-free days, and lung function in patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma. The current challenge is to implement IBSM in clinical practice. Methods/design This study is a three-arm cluster randomized trial with a cluster pre-randomisation design and 12 months follow-up per practice comparing the following three IBSM implementation strategies: minimum strategy (MS): dissemination of the IBSM program; intermediate strategy (IS): MS + start-up support for professionals (i.e., support in selection of the appropriate population and training of professionals); and extended strategy (ES): IS + additional training and ongoing support for professionals. Because the implementation strategies (interventions) are primarily targeted at general practices, randomisation will occur at practice level. In this study, we aim to evaluate 14 primary care practices per strategy in the Leiden-The Hague region, involving 140 patients per arm. Patients aged 18 to 50 years, with a physician diagnosis of asthma, prescription of inhaled corticosteroids, and/or montelukast for ≥3 months in the previous year are eligible to participate. Primary outcome measures are the proportion of referred patients that participate in IBSM, and the proportion of patients that have clinically relevant improvement in the asthma-related quality of life. The secondary effect measures are clinical outcomes (asthma control, lung function, usage of airway treatment, and presence of exacerbations); self-management related outcomes (health education impact, medication adherence, and illness perceptions); and patient utilities. Process measures are the proportion of practices that participate in IBSM and adherence of professionals to implementation strategies. Cost-effective measurements are medical costs and healthcare consumption. Follow-up is six months

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2002-07-01

    (Task 5.0). A paper entitled ''Integrated Process Simulation and CFD for Improved Process Engineering'' was presented at the European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering-12, May 26-29, 2002, The Hague, The Netherlands (Task 7.0).

  15. Phonological dyslexia and phonological impairment: an exception to the rule?

    PubMed

    Tree, Jeremy J; Kay, Janice

    2006-01-01

    The condition known as phonological dyslexia involves very poor reading of non-words, with otherwise good word reading performance [e.g. Derouesné & Beauvois, 1979; Sartori, G., Barry, C., & Job, R. (1984). Phonological dyslexia: A review. In R. N. Malatesha & H. A. Whitaker (Eds.), Dyslexia: A global issue. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers]. Theoretical accounts of this non-word reading impairment suggest disruption to either a component of a non-lexical orthographic-phonological reading route [that is specifically involved in reading non-words; Coltheart, M., Rastle, K., Perry, C., Langdon, R., & Zeigler, J. (2001). A dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review, 108, 204-256] or to generalised phonological processes on which novel reading is heavily dependent [Farah, M., Stowe, R. M., & Levinson, K. L. (1996). Phonological dyslexia: Loss of a reading-specific component of cognitive architecture? Cognitive Neuropsychology, 13, 849-868; Harm, M. W., & Seidenberg, M. S. (1999). Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: Insights from connectionist models. Psychological Review, 106, 491-528]. The present paper questions the latter hypothesis: that phonological dyslexia always occurs in connection with some other form of phonologically based disruption (i.e. in a 'cluster' of impairments that are not necessarily reading-specific). Contrary to this view, several recent studies have reported that phonological dyslexia can occur without corresponding generalised phonological impairment [e.g. Caccappolo-van Vliet, E., Miozzo, M., & Stern, Y. (2004a). Phonological dyslexia without phonological impairment? Cognitive Neuropsychology, 21, 820-839; Caccappollo-van Vliet, E., Miozzo, M., & Stern, Y. (2004b). Phonological dyslexia: A test case for reading models. Psychological Science, 15, 583-590]. However, the work is subject to a number of criticisms. The following study examines performance of a phonological dyslexic

  16. MOA2—an R&D paradigm buster enabling space propulsion by commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Koudelka, Otto; Löb, Horst

    2012-04-01

    More than 60 years after the late Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfvén waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. Consequently improved since then, the name of the latest concept, relying on magneto-acoustic waves to accelerate electric conductive matter, is MOA2—Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified Accelerator. Based on computer simulations, which were undertaken to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA2 is a corrosion free and highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted in operation, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable of delivering a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. First tests—that are further described in this paper—have been conducted successfully with a 400 W prototype system at an ambient pressure of 0.20 Pa, delivered 9.24 mN of thrust at 1472 s ISP, thereby underlining the feasibility of the concept. Based on these results, space propulsion is expected to be a prime application for MOA2—a claim that is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion. However, MOA2 has so far seen most of its R&D impetus from terrestrial applications, like coating, semiconductor implantation and manufacturing as well as steel cutting. Based on this observation, MOA2 resembles an R&D paradigm buster, as it is the first space propulsion system, whose R&D is driven primarily by its terrestrial applications. Different terrestrial applications exist, but

  17. Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainstein, Pablo D.; Lima, Marco Aurelio P.; Miraglia, Jorge E.; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2006-11-01

    ionization of fixed in space deuterium molecules / T. Weber ... [et al.]. Coherence and intramolecular scattering in molecular photoionization / U. Becker. Experimental observation of interatomic coulombic decay in neon dimers / T. Jahnke ... [et al.]. Ionization by short UV laser pulses: secondary ATI peaks of the electron spectrum / V. D. Rodríguez, E. Cormier and R. Gayet. Molecular frame photoemission in photoionization of H[symbol] and D[symbol]: the role of dissociation on autoionization of the Q[symbol] and Q[symbol] doubly excited states / D. Dowek, M. Lebech and J. C. Houver. 3p photoemission of 3d transition metals - atoms, molecules and clusters / M. Martins -- Collisions involving electrons. Spin-resolved collisions of electrons with atoms and molecules / G. F. Hanne. Calculation of ionization and excitation processes using the convergent close-coupling method / D. V. Fursa, I. Bray and A. T. Stelbovics. The B-spline R-matrix method for electron and photon collisions with atoms and ions / O. Zatsarinny and K. Bartschat. Absolute angle-differential cross sections for excitation of neon atoms electrons of energy 16.6-19.2 eV / M. Allan ... [et al.]. Studies of QED and nuclear size effects with highly charged ions in an EBIT / J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia ... [et al.]. Recombination of astrophysically relevant ions: Be-like C, N, and O / M. Fogle ... [et al.]. Dissociation and excitation of molecules and molecular ions by electron impact / A. E. Orel and J. Royal state-selective X-ray study of the radiative recombination of U[symbol] ions with cooling electrons / M. Pajek ... [et al.]. Electron collisions with trapped, metastable helium / L. J. Uhlmann ... [et al.]. Non-dipole effects in electron and photon impact ionization / N. L. S. Martin. Electron driven processes in atmospheric behaviour / L. Campbell, M. J. Brunger and P. J. 0. Teubner. Calculation of excitation and ionization for electron-molecule collisions at intermediate energies / J. D. Gorfinkiel

  18. PREFACE: International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics & 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas L. S.; deHarak, Bruno A.

    2010-01-01

    44 submitted posters covered recent advances in these topics. These proceedings present papers on 35 of the invited talks. The Local Organizers gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the University of Kentucky College of Arts and Sciences, and the University of Kentucky Department of Physics and Astronomy. We also thank Carol Cotrill, Eva Ellis, Diane Yates, Sarah Crowe, and John Nichols, of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky for their invaluable assistance in the smooth running of the conferences; Oleksandr Korneta for taking the group photograph; and Emily Martin for helping accompanying persons. Nicholas L S Martin University of Kentucky Bruno A deHarak Illinois Wesleyan University International Scientific Organizing Committee Co-Chairs Don Madison (USA)Klaus Bartschat (USA) Members Lorenzo Avaldi (Italy)Nils Andersen (Denmark) Jamal Berakdar (Germany)Uwe Becker (Germany) Michael Brunger (Australia)Igor Bray (Australia) Greg Childers (USA)Nikolay Cherepkov (Russia) JingKang Deng (China)Albert Crowe (UK) Alexander Dorn (Germany)Danielle Dowek (France) Jim Feagin (USA)Oscar Fojon (Argentina) Nikolay Kabachnik (Russia)Tim Gay (USA) Anatoli Kheifets (Australia)Alexei Grum-Grzhimailo (Russia) George King (UK)Friedrich Hanne (Germany) Tom Kirchner (Germany)Alan Huetz (France) Azzedine Lahmam-Bennani (France)Morty Khakoo (USA) Julian Lower (Australia)Birgit Lohmann (Australia) William McCurdy (USA)Bill McConkey (Canada) Andrew Murray (UK)Rajesh Srivastava (India) Bernard Piraux (Belgium)Al Stauffer (Canada) Tim Reddish (Canada)Jim Williams (Australia) Roberto Rivarola (Argentina)Akira Yagishita (Japan) Michael Schulz (USA)Peter Zetner (Canada) Anthony Starace (USA)Joachim Ullrich (Germany) Giovanni Stefani (Italy)Erich Weigold (Australia) Masahiko Takahashi (Japan) Conference photograph

  19. Ambient in-situ immersion freezing measurements - findings from the ZAMBIS 2014 field campaign for three ice nucleation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Monika; Atkinson, James D.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2015-04-01

    well as a droplet freezing method on aerosol particles either collected in a suspension or on PM10-filters to obtain atmospheric IN concentrations based on the measured ambient aerosol. Investigation of physical properties (number and size distribution) and chemical composition as well as the meteorological conditions provide supplementary information that help to understand the nature of particles and air masses that contribute to immersion freezing. Acknowledgements We thank Hannes Wydler and Hansjörg Frei from ETH Zurich for their technical support. Furthermore, the authors want thank Franz Conen from the University of Basel for sharing equipment and training in the drop freezing experiment. References [1] Chou et al. (2011), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4725-4738. [2] Nicolet et al. (2010), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 313-325. [3] Conen et al. (2012), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 321-327. [4] Stopelli et al. (2014), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 129-134.

  20. Reconstruction of Holocene palaeoclimate and environment in the Khatanga region, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrykh, Ludmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    Arctic regions are highly sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation, and their Late Quaternary environmental history is very important for understanding of present and past climate trends. Though the timing of Holocene climate change is well established for wide parts of the Northern Hemisphere, suitable palaeoenvironmental records are still scarce in the Russian Siberian Arctic. Taimyr Peninsula (74oN, 100oE) is the northernmost part of Russia. Thus, this area is probably one of the most promising regions for the reconstruction of the Late Quaternary environment in dependence on changes in global and regional climate and the atmospheric circulation. (Andreev et al., 2004).The area is characterized by a continental climate with long, severe winters, and short summers. The modern temperatures are about 10-14oC in July, and - 32 to 34oC in January. Annual precipitation ranges from about 300-400 mm at low elevations to about 600-800 mm on the western slopes of the Putorana Plateau (Atlas Arktiki, 1985). The frost-free period is ca. 35 days. Almost all the territory is underlain by continues permafrost. Periglacial landscape is dominated by tundra and taiga vegetation. Aquatic organisms such as chironomids (Insecta: Diptera) are recognized as the best biological indicators for quantifying past changes in air temperature or lake chemistry (Letter et al., 1997; Brooks and Birks, 2000; Battarbee, 2000; Massaferro and Brooks, 2002; Solovieva et al., 2005). Chironomids belong to the most abundant group of fresh-water bottom-dwelling macroinvertebrates. Because of their short life cycle, chironomids quickly adapt to environmental changes and in global scale the distribution and abundance of chironomids are mostly limited by temperature (Walker and Mathewes, 1987; Warwick, 1989; Hann et al., 1992; Walker et al., 1992). Larval head capsules of chironomids preserved in lake sediment as subfossils are abundant, identifiable and serve as indicators of the

  1. EDITORIAL 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Tito; Hidalgo, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    . In this way the EPS PPD seeks to reinforce excellence in science. The Plasma Physics Hannes Alfvén Prize 2010 The Hannes Alfvén Prize is awarded to Allen Boozer (Professor, Columbia University) and Jürgen Nührenberg (Professor, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik and Greifswald University) for the formulation and practical application of criteria allowing stellarators to have good fast-particle and neoclassical energy confinement. Photo of Boozer and Nuhrenberg Jürgen Nührenberg (left) and Allen Boozer. The tokamak and the stellarator are two major candidate concepts for magnetically confining fusion plasmas. They were both conceived in the early 1950s, but the tokamak developed more rapidly because of its intrinsically favourable confinement properties. Indeed, the stellarator seemed fundamentally unable to confine energy and collisionless alpha-particle orbits well enough for a fusion reactor. In the 1980s, however, Allen Boozer and Jürgen Nührenberg developed methods for tailoring stellarator magnetic fields so as to guarantee confinement comparable to that in tokamaks. Allen Boozer introduced a set of magnetic coordinates, now named after him, in which the description of three-dimensionally shaped magnetic fields is particularly simple. He went on to show that if the magnetic field strength |B| is symmetric in these coordinates (so-called quasisymmetry) then the guiding-centre orbits and the neoclassical confinement properties are equivalent to those in a tokamak. In pioneering calculations a few years later, Jürgen Nührenberg showed that such magnetic fields can indeed be realized in practice, as can other configurations which have equally good confinement without being quasisymmetric. There is an unexpected vastness of configurational possibilities for toroidal plasma confinement, where the limit is likely to be set by turbulence rather than neoclassical losses. In addition, quasisymmetry should facilitate the development of strongly sheared

  2. Effect of electrical stimulation of the lower esophageal sphincter in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients refractory to proton pump inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Soffer, Edy; Rodríguez, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Patricia; Gómez, Beatriz; Neto, Manoel G; Crowell, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of lower esophageal sphincter (LES)-electrical stimulation therapy (EST) in a subgroup of patients that reported only partial response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) therapy, compared to a group of patient with complete response. METHODS: Bipolar stitch electrodes were laparoscopically placed in the LES and connected to an implantable pulse generator (EndoStim BV, the Hague, the Netherlands), placed subcutaneously in the anterior abdominal wall. Stimulation at 20 Hz, 215 μsec, 3-8 mAmp in 30 min sessions was delivered starting on day 1 post-implant. Patients were evaluated using gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-HRQL, symptom diaries; esophageal pH and esophageal manometry before and up to 24 mo after therapy and results were compared between partial and complete responders. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with GERD on LES-EST were enrolled and received continuous per-protocol stimulation through 12 mo and 21 patients completed 24 mo of therapy. Of the 23 patients, 16 (8 male, mean age 52.1 ± 12 years) had incomplete response to PPIs prior to LES-EST, while 7 patients (5 male, mean age 52.7 ± 4.7) had complete response to PPIs. In the sub-group with incomplete response to PPIs, median (IQR) composite GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 9.5 (9.0-10.0) at baseline on-PPI and 24.0 (20.8-26.3) at baseline off-PPI to 2.5 (0.0-4.0) at 12-mo and 0.0 (0.0-2.5) at 24-mo follow-up (P < 0.05 compared to on-and off-PPI at baseline). Median (IQR) % 24-h esophageal pH < 4.0 at baseline in this sub-group improved significantly from 9.8% (7.8-11.5) at baseline to 3.0% (1.9-6.3) at 12 mo (P < 0.001) and 4.6% (2.0-5.8) at 24 mo follow-up (P < 0.01). At their 24-mo follow-up, 9/11 patients in this sub-group were completely free of PPI use. These results were comparable to the sub-group that reported complete response to PPI therapy at baseline. No unanticipated implantation or stimulation-related adverse events, or any untoward sensation

  3. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  4. Special Issue "Impact of Natural Hazards on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" in the Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2009-04-01

    This special issue includes selected papers on the topic of earthquake impact from the sessions held in 2004 in Nice, France and in 2005 in Vienna, Austria at the first and respectivelly the second European Geosciences Union General Assembly. Since its start in 1999, in the Hague, Netherlands, the hazard of earthquakes has been the most popular of the session. The respective calls in 2004 was for: Nature's forces including earthquakes, floods, landslides, high winds and volcanic eruptions can inflict losses to urban settlements and man-made structures such as infrastructure. In Europe, recent years have seen such significant losses from earthquakes in south and south-eastern Europe, floods in central Europe, and wind storms in western Europe. Meanwhile, significant progress has been made in understanding disasters. Several scientific fields contribute to a holistic approach in the evaluation of capacities, vulnerabilities and hazards, the main factors on mitigating urban disasters due to natural hazards. An important part of the session is devoted to assessment of earthquake shaking and loss scenarios, including both physical damage and human causalities. Early warning and rapid damage evaluation are of utmost importance for addressing the safety of many essential facilities, for emergency management of events and for disaster response. In case of earthquake occurrence strong motion networks, data processing and interpretation lead to preliminary estimation (scenarios) of geographical distribution of damages. Factual information on inflicted damage, like those obtained from shaking maps or aerial imagery permit a confrontation with simulation maps of damage in order to define a more accurate picture of the overall losses. Most recent developments towards quantitative and qualitative simulation of natural hazard impacts on urban areas, which provide decision-making support for urban disaster management, and success stories of and lessons learned from disaster

  5. Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park, rimmed by a crescent of older mountainous terrain, has at its core the Quaternary Yellowstone Plateau, an undulating landscape shaped by forces of volcanism, tectonism, and later glaciation. Its spectacular hydrothermal systems cap this landscape. From 1997 through 2003, the United States Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program conducted a multidisciplinary project of Yellowstone National Park entitled Integrated Geoscience Studies of the Greater Yellowstone Area, building on a 130-year foundation of extensive field studies (including the Hayden survey of 1871, the Hague surveys of the 1880s through 1896, the studies of Iddings, Allen, and Day during the 1920s, and NASA-supported studies starting in the 1970s - now summarized in USGS Professional Paper 729 A through G) in this geologically dynamic terrain. The project applied a broad range of scientific disciplines and state-of-the-art technologies targeted to improve stewardship of the unique natural resources of Yellowstone and enable the National Park Service to effectively manage resources, protect park visitors from geologic hazards, and better educate the public on geologic processes and resources. This project combined a variety of data sets in characterizing the surficial and subsurface chemistry, mineralogy, geology, geophysics, and hydrothermal systems in various parts of the park. The sixteen chapters presented herein in USGS Professional Paper 1717, Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem, can be divided into four major topical areas: (1) geologic studies, (2) Yellowstone Lake studies, (3) geochemical studies, and (4) geophysical studies. The geologic studies include a paper by Ken Pierce and others on the influence of the Yellowstone hotspot on landscape formation, the ecological effects of the hotspot, and the human experience and human geography of the greater

  6. Coupling of WRF meteorological model to WAM spectral wave model through sea surface roughness at the Balearic Sea: impact on wind and wave forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosana-Delgado, R.; Soret, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2012-04-01

    scope of the 7th EU FP Project FIELD_AC, assesses the impact of coupling WAM and WRF on wind and wave forecasts on the Balearic Sea, and compares it with other possible improvements, like using available high-resolution circulation information from MyOcean GMES core services, or assimilating altimeter data on the Western Mediterranean. This is done in an ordered fashion following statistical design rules, which allows to extract main effects of each of the factors considered (coupling, better circulation information, data assimilation following Lionello et al., 1992) as well as two-factor interactions. Moreover, the statistical significance of these improvements can be tested in the future, though this requires maximum likelihood ratio tests with correlated data. Charnock, H. (1955) Wind stress on a water surface. Quart.J. Row. Met. Soc. 81: 639-640 Donelan, M. (1982) The dependence of aerodynamic drag coefficient on wave parameters. Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Meteorology and Air-Sea Interactions of teh Coastal Zone. The Hague (Netherlands). AMS. 381-387 Janssen, P.A.E.M., Doyle, J., Bidlot, J., Hansen, B., Isaksen, L. and Viterbo, P. (1990) The impact of oean waves on the atmosphere. Seminars of the ECMWF. Lionello, P., Günther, H., and Janssen P.A.E.M. (1992) Assimilation of altimeter data in a global third-generation wave model. Journal of Geophysical Research 97 (C9): 453-474. Warner, J., Armstrong, B., He, R. and Zambon, J.B. (2010) Development of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System. Ocean Modelling 35: 230-244.

  7. [Outlooks of Bogdan Suchodolski on the issue of popularizing the history of science].

    PubMed

    Lietz, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    The author of the present article proves the veracity of the postulate, which was formulated by Bogdan Suchodolski and concerned the necessity of popularizing the history of science. The stipulation is still greatly important for many fields of human activity. Bogdan Suchodolski was not the first and the only thinker, who revealed the unquestionable significance of disseminating the history of science as scientific branch: For the first time the problem was noticed in 1900 during International Congress of Comparative History in Paris and in 1903 during International Congress of Historical Sciences in Rome, when the idea of universalizing the history of science was put forward, among others, by: Paul Tannery, Carre de Vaux, Gino Ioria and Karl Sudhoff. All the mentioned participants declared then the necessity of teaching the history of science both in the secondary schools and in the universities. In the article was also included a detailed description of conceptions formulated by Paul Tannery and Michel Lhéritier in the inter-war period that concerned popularizing the history of science, and differed much from each other. Unlike Paul Tannery, Michel Lhéritier advised against separating history of science from the whole of history. On the occasion of describing the inter-war period the author is paying a special attention to the role, which was played by International Conference of Teaching History in Hague in 1932. In that time a representative of International Committee on the History of Sciences and International Academy of the History of Sciences--Aldo Mieli--presented the idea of disseminating the history of science, which resulted in a resolution saying that the discussed branch should be taught in the primary and secondary schools, and in the universities as well. Further, the paper includes the description of the detailed conceptions that were put forward after World War II by the members of Committee on Teaching within International Academy of the

  8. Records of radionuclide deposition in two salt marshes in the United Kingdom with contrasting redox and accumulation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, J.; Dyer, F. M.; Croudace, I. W.

    2002-03-01

    Single cores from two salt marshes in the United Kingdom located near different nuclear facilities were investigated to compare chronostratigraphic estimates derived from the natural radionuclide 210Pb excess with estimates from the known times of introduction of artificial radionuclides to the environment. Both cores selected had clear visual indications of redox zonation, and evidence for diagenetic redox perturbation of the radionuclide records was also sought. In the core from Beaulieu Marsh on the south coast of England, the redox zonation was revealed by the profiles of the redox-sensitive elements Mn + I, Fe + P + As, and S, and the records of nuclear discharges were entirely contained within oxidized conditions in the upper 40 cm. The constant flux/constant sedimentation 210Pb excess accumulation estimate was 76% of that derived from the 1963 fallout 137Cs level (0.35 vs. 0.46 g cm -2 yr -1 dry mass), but the constant flux 210Pb excess method indicated that accumulation rates were lower at Beaulieu before ˜1950. On any timescale, 137Cs appears earlier in the sediment record than its introduction to the environment, but although downward diffusion of 137Cs relative to 241Am has clearly occurred, the 137Cs peak still appeared in place and there was negligible penetration of 137Cs into underlying reduced conditions. This core also contained a peak of the 60Co discharges from either or both the Winfrith and La Hague nuclear plants that peaked in 1980 and 1984, respectively. The sediments in the core from Wyre Marsh on the eastern coast of the Irish Sea had accumulated more rapidly than those at Beaulieu, and in this case the redox zonation could be established only from Mn and S profiles. Here, the constant initial activity 210Pb excess accumulation rate estimate was 125% of that derived from the 137Cs peak correlated with the 1975 Sellafield discharge maximum (0.79 vs. 0.64 g cm -2 yr -1). Sellafield discharge 137Cs swamps fallout or Chernobyl 137Cs signals

  9. Determination of Groundwater Velocity and Dispersion Parameters by Borehole Wall Multielectrode Geoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    measurements and vertical four point electrode interpretations. The transport equation for NaCl-tracered water is the basic rule to determine the groundwater transport velocity. Numerical calculations to simulate the measurement are carried out with the program FEFLOW. Due to the density contrast, the tracer undergoes vertical movement. Kessels, W., Zoth, G.(1998): Doppelmantel - Packer mit geoelektrischer Meßtechnik zur Bestimmung der Abstandsgeschwindigkeit des Grundwassers, Patent Az:19855048.0, GGA-Institut, Germany, Hannover. KESSELS, W., RIFAI, H., THORENZ, C., ZOTH, G.(2002): Multi Electrode Geoelectric on the Borehole Wall- Determination of groundwater velocity and dispersion parameters, AGU spring meeting, Washington KESSELS, W., ZOTH, G., WONIK, T., FULDA, C. (1999): THE USE OF SALT CARTRIDGES FOR FLUID LOGGING. XXIV GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF E.G.S. THE HAGUE, THE NETHERLANDS PANTELEIT,B., KESSELS, W., BINOT, F (2006): MUD TRACER TEST DURING SOFT ROCK DRILLING; W.R.R., VOL. 42, W11415, DOI:10.1029/2005WR004487

  10. ESTEC/Geovusie/ILEWG planetary student design workshop: a teacher training perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusterink, Jolanda; Foing, Bernard H.; Kaskes, Pim

    An important role for education is to inform and create the right skills for people to develop their own vision, using their talents to the utmost and inspire others to learn to explore in the future. Great effort has been taken to prepare this interactive design workshop thoroughly. Three days in a row, starting with presentations of Artscience The Hague to ESA colleagues, followed by a Planetary research Symposium in Amsterdam and a student design workshop at the end complemented a rich environment with the focus on Planetary exploration. The design workshop was organised by GeoVUsie students, with ESTEC and ILEWG support for tutors and inviting regional and international students to participate in an interactive workshop to design 5 Planetary Missions, with experts sharing their expertise and knowhow on specific challenging items: 1. Mercury - Post BepiColombo (with Sébastien Besse, ESA) 2. Moon South Pole Mission (with Bernard Foing, ESA) 3. Post-ExoMars - In search for Life on Mars (with Jorge Vago, ESA) 4. Humans in Space - Mars One investigated(with Arno Wielders, Space Horizon) 5. Europa - life on the icy moon of Jupiter? (with Bert Vermeersen, TU Delft) Lectures were given for more than 150 geology students at the symposium “Moon, Mars and More” at VU university, Amsterdam (organized by GeoVUsie earth science students). All students were provided with information before and at start for designing their mission. After the morning session there was a visit to the exhibition at The Erasmus Facility - ESTEC to inspire them even more with real artifacts of earlier and future missions into space. After this visit they prepared their final presentations, with original results, with innovative ideas and a good start to work out further in the future. A telescope session for geology students had been organized indoor due to rain. A follow-up visit to the nearby public Copernicus observatory was planned for another clear sky occasion. The interactive character

  11. Sediment transport dynamics in response to large-scale human intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eelkema, Menno; Wang, Zheng Bing

    2010-05-01

    large quantities of sediment towards sea through its inlet. This export was estimated to be roughly 2 to 3 million m3 per year, and was observable as deepening channels inside the basin, and a growing ebb-tidal delta. The implementation of the dams caused a significant increase in tidal prism, while at the same time they stopped the residual flow of water from the Eastern Scheldt towards the northern basins. The increase in tidal prism was observable in the response of bathymetry; the rates of channel deepening and ebb-tidal delta growth both increased. Analysis of tidal flow measurements and model output show a persistent trend for sediment transport towards and out of the Eastern Scheldt's inlet. This export is caused by both the strong ebb-directed asymmetry in the tidal flow as well as higher sediment concentrations during ebb. The construction of the back-barrier dams only amplified this export by cutting off the residual import of flow and by causing the basin to be out of equilibrium even more than it apparently already was. References Van den Berg, J.H., 1986. Aspects of Sediment- and Morphodynamics of Subtidal Deposits of the Oosterschelde (the Netherlands). Rijkswaterstaat Communications, no. 43/1986, The Hague.

  12. Sources and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Ob River system, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, J. Kirk; Moran, S. Bradley; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Beasley, Thomas M.; Kelley, James M.

    2000-06-01

    , with the likely addition of inputs from reprocessing facilities and reactor operations. As with Pu/Cs ratios, Np/Pu ratios could be modified by differential geochemical behaviors of Np and Pu. Dissolved 129I only weakly interacts with particles in the Ob; size-fractionated sampling shows that the colloidal 129I fraction (defined as 1 kDa-0.2 μm) contains generally <5% relative to that passing a 0.2 μm filter. Iodine-129 concentrations decrease from 8.3×10 9 to 0.65×10 9 atoms l -1 through the Ob system toward the Kara Sea, with highest values in the Tobal River and lowest in the Taz River. The likely source of the elevated 129I in the Tobal is release from the production-reprocessing facilities at Mayak, and decreases downriver are predominantly due to dilution as the various tributaries with low 129I join the system. Fluxes of 129I to the lower Ob at Salekhard are <1% of the releases of this radionuclide from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield, UK and La Hague, France.

  13. A Rinsing Effluent Evaporator for Dismantling Operations - 13271

    SciTech Connect

    Rives, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    foam were produced, affecting the evaporator operation, and creating the risk of a reduction in its capacity and throughput performance. A task force of AREVA process, operations, and safety experts from Marcoule and the La Hague reprocessing complex was assembled. New operating parameters were defined and tested to improve the process. Since then, the evaporator has performed very satisfactorily. The foam buildup phenomenon has been brought under complete control. All the different types of effluents produced during cleanup operations have been concentrated, and the results obtained in terms of quality and throughput, have ensured a consistent supply to the vitrification unit. The evaporator was operated until the end of April 2012, and enabled the production of 500 cubic meters of very high activity effluent, concentrating the fission products rinsed from the storage tanks. The evaporator will now be deactivated and decommissioned, with the first rinsing and cleanup operations scheduled to begin in 2014. (authors)

  14. A comparison of specific surface area and crystallization kinetics in compact and porous amorphous solid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, V. J.; Mate, B.; Roriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Galvez, O.; Moreno, M. A.; Escribano, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    -16455. RE acknowledges Sabbatical grant PR2010-0012 from the same Ministry, at Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z1, Canada. YRL acknowledges also funding from the CSIC JAE-doc program and OG from the CSIC JAE-doc and MCINN RyC programs. [1] a) Kouchi, A., Yamamoto, 1195, Progr. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 83, b) Baragiola R. A. 2003, Planet. Space Sci., 51, 953, c) Raut, U. et al. 2008, ApJ, 687, 1070. [2] a) Maté, B. et al. 2009, ApJL, 703, L178. b) Gálvez, O. et al., 2010, ApJ, 724, 539 [3] Loerting, T. et al. 2011 PCCP, 13, 8783. [4] Hague, W. et al. 1994, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 2743.

  15. HLW Return from France to Germany - 15 Years of Experience in Public Acceptance and Technical Aspects - 12149

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Wilhelm

    2012-07-01

    Since in 1984 the national reprocessing concept was abandoned the reprocessing abroad was the only existing disposal route until 1994. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 2001 spent fuel management changed completely since from 1 June 2005 any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited and the direct disposal of spent fuel became mandatory. Until 2005 the total amount of spent fuel to be reprocessed abroad added up to 6080 t HM, 5309 t HM thereof in France. The waste generated from reprocessing - alternatively an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin according to the commercial contracts signed between the German utilities and COGEMA, now AREVA NC, in France and BNFL, now INS in UK. In addition the German and the French government exchanged notes with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents to Germany. The return of high active vitrified waste from La Hague to the interim storage facility at Gorleben was demanding from the technical view i. e. the cask design and the transport. Unfortunately the Gorleben area served as a target for nuclear opponents from the first transport in 1996 to the latest one in 2011. The protection against sabotage of the railway lines and mass protests needed highly improved security measures. In France and Germany special working forces and projects have been set up to cope with this extraordinary situation. A complex transport organization was established to involve all parties in line with the German and French requirements during transport. The last transport of vitrified residues from France has been completed successfully so far thus confirming the efficiency of the applied measures. Over 15 years there was and still is worldwide no comparable situation it is still unique. Summing up, the exceptional project handling challenge that resulted from the continuous anti-nuclear civil disobedience in

  16. Artistic Research on Freedom in Space and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.; Schelfhout, Ronald; Gelfand, Dmitry; Van der Heide, Edwin; Preusterink, Jolanda; Domnitch, Evelina

    which light manipulating machines continuously alter the projected image. Development: In order to delve deeper into the subject of freedom in space and science this setup can serve as a vantage point. And it can offer an interactive environment to explore notions of freedom in space and science. The addition of a specific environment around and above the installation, referring to the fabric of space would highly increase the impact it has on an audience. You would then be able to immerse yourself in the world of this settlement, somewhere in outer space. Sound, light and projection screens will orbit the table changing the projections even more. Triggering the imagination with every movement. Results: Freedome has been exhibited at TecArt in Rotterdam, at ILEWG/Artscience day and the Lunar conference at ESTEC in February 2014. The images underneath (courtesy J. Preusterink BH Foing) depict the installation in some ways it can be experienced http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qn8DHARrlU (images: Jolanda Preusterink and Bernard Foing, from ILEWG/ESTEC/ArtScience-The Hague workshop Space Science in the Arts) Authors: Ronald Schelfhout, Bernard Foing, Evelina Domnitch, Dmitry Gelfand, Edwin van der Heide, Jolanda Preusterink

  17. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Couvert, B Georgeot and D Guéry-Odelin Analysis of the entanglement between two individual atoms using global Raman rotations A Gaëtan, C Evellin, J Wolters, P Grangier, T Wilk and A Browaeys Spin polarization transfer in ground and metastable helium atom collisions D Vrinceanu and H R Sadeghpour A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse D Hunger, T Steinmetz, Y Colombe, C Deutsch, T W Hänsch and J Reichel Atomic wave packets in amplitude-modulated vertical optical lattices A Alberti, G Ferrari, V V Ivanov, M L Chiofalo and G M Tino Atom interferometry with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates: impact of atom-atom interactions Julian Grond, Ulrich Hohenester, Igor Mazets and Jörg Schmiedmayer Storage of protonated water clusters in a biplanar multipole rf trap C Greve, M Kröner, S Trippel, P Woias, R Wester and M Weidemüller Single-atom detection on a chip: from realization to application A Stibor, H Bender, S Kühnhold, J Fortágh, C Zimmermann and A Günther Ultracold atoms as a target: absolute scattering cross-section measurements P Würtz, T Gericke, A Vogler and H Ott Entanglement-assisted atomic clock beyond the projection noise limit Anne Louchet-Chauvet, Jürgen Appel, Jelmer J Renema, Daniel Oblak, Niels Kjaergaard and Eugene S Polzik Towards the realization of atom trap trace analysis for 39Ar J Welte, F Ritterbusch, I Steinke, M Henrich, W Aeschbach-Hertig and M K Oberthaler Resonant superfluidity in an optical lattice I Titvinidze, M Snoek and W Hofstetter Interference of interacting matter waves Mattias Gustavsson, Elmar Haller, Manfred J Mark, Johann G Danzl, Russell Hart, Andrew J Daley and Hanns-Christoph Nägerl Magnetic trapping of NH molecules with 20 s lifetimes E Tsikata, W C Campbell, M T Hummon, H-I Lu and J M Doyle Imprinting patterns of neutral atoms in an optical lattice using magnetic resonance techniques Michal Karski, Leonid Förster, Jai-Min Choi, Andreas Steffen, Noomen Belmechri, Wolfgang Alt, Dieter Meschede and Artur Widera

  18. The role of the mantle in Variscan post-collisional magmatism - insights from Muntele Mic and Culmea Cernei plutons (Romanian Southern Carpathians)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stremtan, Ciprian; Balica, Constantin; Savov, Ivan; Ryan, Jeffrey; Balintoni, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    /Eu* ratios (average of 0.67 for MM and 0.84 for CC), indicate that feldspar fractionation effects were somewhat different in the two plutons. Radiogenic (on bulk-rock) and stable isotope (on quartz separates) data for these two plutons support chemically distinct source regions. Overall, MM granitoids have lower 87Sr/86Sr (average of 0.70769), 143Nd/144Nd (average of 0.51233), and δ18O (7.1‰) values (CC averages: 87Sr/86Sr: 0.70917, 143Nd/144Nd: 0.51240, and δ18O: 8.9‰) arguing for the involvement of strongly unradiogenic and possibly mantle-derived components in the MM protolith, and of more crustal sources for the CC protolith. Ti-in-quartz thermometry yielded higher temperatures in the MM pluton (775 to 810°C) compared to the CC pluton (680 to 750°C). The involvement of mantle suggested by these geochemical data, in plutons emplaced at two distinct moments in the Variscan orogeny within the Danubian domain, argues that the mantle is a significant player in the post-collisional magmatism, and those delamination scenarios that juxtapose mantle and crustal components may be more common than traditionally believed. Alternatively, the hypothesis of extreme fractionation of metasomatically enriched mantle domains trapped in collisional setting may not be completely ruled out. [1] Balica, C., Hann, H.P., Chen, F., Balintoni, I., Zaharia, L., 2007. The Age of the intra-Danubian Suture (Southern Carpathians, Romania). Eos Transactions AGU, 88, Abstract T31B-0476. [2] Campeanu, M., Balica, C., Stremtan, C, Balintoni, I. 2012. Age of post-collisional events in the Danubian Domain (South Carpathians, Romania): Motru dyke swarm. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica. 7, 23. [3] Balica, C., Stremtan, C., Balintoni, I. Post-collisional late Variscan magmatism in the Danubian Domain (South Carpathians, Romania) documented by zircon U/Pb LA-ICP-MS. (in prep.)

  19. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Couvert, B Georgeot and D Guéry-Odelin Analysis of the entanglement between two individual atoms using global Raman rotations A Gaëtan, C Evellin, J Wolters, P Grangier, T Wilk and A Browaeys Spin polarization transfer in ground and metastable helium atom collisions D Vrinceanu and H R Sadeghpour A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse D Hunger, T Steinmetz, Y Colombe, C Deutsch, T W Hänsch and J Reichel Atomic wave packets in amplitude-modulated vertical optical lattices A Alberti, G Ferrari, V V Ivanov, M L Chiofalo and G M Tino Atom interferometry with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates: impact of atom-atom interactions Julian Grond, Ulrich Hohenester, Igor Mazets and Jörg Schmiedmayer Storage of protonated water clusters in a biplanar multipole rf trap C Greve, M Kröner, S Trippel, P Woias, R Wester and M Weidemüller Single-atom detection on a chip: from realization to application A Stibor, H Bender, S Kühnhold, J Fortágh, C Zimmermann and A Günther Ultracold atoms as a target: absolute scattering cross-section measurements P Würtz, T Gericke, A Vogler and H Ott Entanglement-assisted atomic clock beyond the projection noise limit Anne Louchet-Chauvet, Jürgen Appel, Jelmer J Renema, Daniel Oblak, Niels Kjaergaard and Eugene S Polzik Towards the realization of atom trap trace analysis for 39Ar J Welte, F Ritterbusch, I Steinke, M Henrich, W Aeschbach-Hertig and M K Oberthaler Resonant superfluidity in an optical lattice I Titvinidze, M Snoek and W Hofstetter Interference of interacting matter waves Mattias Gustavsson, Elmar Haller, Manfred J Mark, Johann G Danzl, Russell Hart, Andrew J Daley and Hanns-Christoph Nägerl Magnetic trapping of NH molecules with 20 s lifetimes E Tsikata, W C Campbell, M T Hummon, H-I Lu and J M Doyle Imprinting patterns of neutral atoms in an optical lattice using magnetic resonance techniques Michal Karski, Leonid Förster, Jai-Min Choi, Andreas Steffen, Noomen Belmechri, Wolfgang Alt, Dieter Meschede and Artur Widera

  20. EDITORIAL: Focus on Visualization in Physics FOCUS ON VISUALIZATION IN PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Barry C.; Senden, Tim; Springel, Volker

    2008-12-01

    the following features highlighting work in this collection and other novel uses of visualization techniques: 'A feast of visualization' Physics World December 2008 pp 20 23 'Seeing the quantum world' by Barry Sanders Physics World December 2008 pp 24 27 'A picture of the cosmos' by Mark SubbaRao and Miguel Aragon-Calvo Physics World December 2008 pp 29 32 'Thinking outside the cube' by César A Hidalgo Physics World December 2008 pp 34 37 Focus on Visualization in Physics Contents Visualization of spiral and scroll waves in simulated and experimental cardiac tissue E M Cherry and F H Fenton Visualization of large scale structure from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey M U SubbaRao, M A Aragón-Calvo, H W Chen, J M Quashnock, A S Szalay and D G York How computers can help us in creating an intuitive access to relativity Hanns Ruder, Daniel Weiskopf, Hans-Peter Nollert and Thomas Müller Lagrangian particle tracking in three dimensions via single-camera in-line digital holography Jiang Lu, Jacob P Fugal, Hansen Nordsiek, Ewe Wei Saw, Raymond A Shaw and Weidong Yang Quantifying spatial heterogeneity from images Andrew E Pomerantz and Yi-Qiao Song Disaggregation and scientific visualization of earthscapes considering trends and spatial dependence structures S Grunwald Strength through structure: visualization and local assessment of the trabecular bone structure C Räth, R Monetti, J Bauer, I Sidorenko, D Müller, M Matsuura, E-M Lochmüller, P Zysset and F Eckstein Thermonuclear supernovae: a multi-scale astrophysical problem challenging numerical simulations and visualization F K Röpke and R Bruckschen Visualization needs and techniques for astrophysical simulations W Kapferer and T Riser Flow visualization and field line advection in computational fluid dynamics: application to magnetic fields and turbulent flows Pablo Mininni, Ed Lee, Alan Norton and John Clyne Splotch: visualizing cosmological simulations K Dolag, M Reinecke, C Gheller and S Imboden Visualizing a silicon

  1. PREFACE: 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Lebedev, S.

    2003-12-01

    , Helsinki University, Finland B Sharkov, ITEP Moscow, Russian Federation V Smirnov, Kurchatov Institute Moscow, Russian Federation W Suttrop, IPP Garching, Germany C Varandas, IST Lisbon, Portugal F Wagner, Chair EPS-PPD, IPP Greifswald, Germany H R Wilson, UKAEA Abingdon, UK This committee selected 30 invited talks, in which the speakers were asked to address the general audience of plasma physicists and to exert their didactic skills. Out of the contributed papers, in total, 92 oral presentations were selected and distributed over parallel topical sessions. The other contributed papers (743) were presented as posters. The conference was attended by more than 700 participants from 41 countries. A major event during the conference was the award of the Hannes Alfv\\'en Prize to Professor V E Fortov who gave a spectacular lecture on non-ideal plasmas. The associated paper is included in this special issue. Following the tradition of this conference series, four-page summaries of the contributed papers are published as the Europhysics Conference Abstracts series, volume 27A. The publication is in the form of a CD-ROM sent free of charge to all participants and is also accessible via the website: http://www.ioffe.ru/EPS2003/. This special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion contains papers of the invited talks at this conference. These papers have been assessed according to the standards of the journal and examined by referees selected from or by the members of the International Programme Committee. We are proud to provide, in this special issue, an overview of the forefront research in all major fields of plasma physics, through a set of papers accessible to the general audience of plasma physicists. The selection of this set of papers has been the work of the Programme Committee, and we would like to express our gratitude to all of its members for this successful selection. We are grateful to all authors for their efforts in providing high quality papers combining

  2. Special issue on current research in astrophysical magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, Alexander; Lundstedt, Henrik; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-06-01

    Much of what Hannes Alfvén envisaged some 70 years ago has now penetrated virtually all branches of astrophysical research. Indeed, magnetic fields can display similar properties over a large range of scales. We have therefore been able to take advantage of the transparency of galaxies and the interstellar medium to obtain measurements inside them. On the other hand, the Sun is much closer, allowing us to obtain a detailed picture of the interaction of flows and magnetic fields at the surface, and more recently in the interior by helioseismology. Moreover, the solar timescales are generally much shorter, making studies of dynamical processes more direct. This special issue on current research in astrophysical magnetism is based on work discussed during a one month Nordita program Dynamo, Dynamical Systems and Topology and comprises papers that fall into four different categories (A)-(D). (A) Papers on small-scale magnetic fields and flows in astrophysics 1. E M de Gouveia Dal Pino, M R M Leão, R Santos-Lima, G Guerrero, G Kowal and A Lazarian Magnetic flux transport by turbulent reconnection in astrophysical flows 2. Philip R Goode, Valentyna Abramenko and Vasyl Yurchyshyn New solar telescope in Big Bear: evidence for super-diffusivity and small-scale solar dynamos? 3. I N Kitiashvili, A G Kosovichev, N N Mansour, S K Lele and A A Wray Vortex tubes of turbulent solar convection The above collection of papers begins with a review of astrophysical reconnection and introduces the concept of dynamos necessary to explain the existence of contemporary magnetic fields both on galactic and solar scales (paper 1). This is complemented by observations with the new Big Bear Solar Observatory telescope, allowing us to see magnetic field amplification on small scales (paper 2). This in turn is complemented by realistic simulations of subsurface and surface flow patterns (paper 3). (B) Papers on theoretical approaches to turbulent fluctuations 4. Nathan Kleeorin and Igor

  3. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-06-01

    to plan on attending an outstanding program put together by Lillie Tucker Akin and her committee. Watch the Journal for program and registration information. Glenn Seaborg Memorial Periodic Table Quilt Raffle Harvey Gendreau of Framingham High School, MA, reports that Barbara McCarty, award-winning quilter and president of the Wayside Quilters Guild, has made a wall-sized periodic table quilt to honor the memory of Glenn Seaborg. The quilt will be raffled at ChemEd99 and funds from the raffle will be used to defray conference costs. The quilt is 2.5 meters wide by 1.5 meters high and the element squares are 13 cm on each side. Each of the 109 element squares contains the appliqué of the symbol and has stenciling for its atomic number and mass. The major periodic families are color coded and the border fabric has an eye-catching symbolic atom design. Nine colors for the elements include royal blue, deep purple, lilac, pink, burgundy and gold. The element square for seaborgium, atomic number 106, has been autographed by Glenn T. Seaborg. A certificate of authenticity will accompany the quilt. This is a unique opportunity to win a classroom (or home) art treasure. Each ticket is 2 or a book of 3 is 5. Tickets may be purchased on the ChemEd99 registration form and will be included in your conference packet. The quilt will be on display at the exposition hall and additional tickets can be purchased at the Unlimited Potential booth. Drawing will be on Wednesday, August 4th, in the expo area when door prizes are announced. You need not be present to win. Information about ChemEd99 may be obtained online at http://www.sacredheart.edu/chemed/. 1999 CMA Catalyst Awards Special congratulations to the High School and Pre-High School award recipients. National Winners are George R. Hague, Dallas, TX, and Wayne Goates, Goddard, KS. Regional winners are Rhonda Lynn Reist, Olathe, KS, and Anne Marie Holbrook, Cincinnati, OH. A complete list of the awardees, including the post

  4. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-06-01

    to plan on attending an outstanding program put together by Lillie Tucker Akin and her committee. Watch the Journal for program and registration information. Glenn Seaborg Memorial Periodic Table Quilt Raffle Harvey Gendreau of Framingham High School, MA, reports that Barbara McCarty, award-winning quilter and president of the Wayside Quilters Guild, has made a wall-sized periodic table quilt to honor the memory of Glenn Seaborg. The quilt will be raffled at ChemEd99 and funds from the raffle will be used to defray conference costs. The quilt is 2.5 meters wide by 1.5 meters high and the element squares are 13 cm on each side. Each of the 109 element squares contains the appliqué of the symbol and has stenciling for its atomic number and mass. The major periodic families are color coded and the border fabric has an eye-catching symbolic atom design. Nine colors for the elements include royal blue, deep purple, lilac, pink, burgundy and gold. The element square for seaborgium, atomic number 106, has been autographed by Glenn T. Seaborg. A certificate of authenticity will accompany the quilt. This is a unique opportunity to win a classroom (or home) art treasure. Each ticket is 2 or a book of 3 is 5. Tickets may be purchased on the ChemEd99 registration form and will be included in your conference packet. The quilt will be on display at the exposition hall and additional tickets can be purchased at the Unlimited Potential booth. Drawing will be on Wednesday, August 4th, in the expo area when door prizes are announced. You need not be present to win. Information about ChemEd99 may be obtained online at http://www.sacredheart.edu/chemed/. 1999 CMA Catalyst Awards Special congratulations to the High School and Pre-High School award recipients. National Winners are George R. Hague, Dallas, TX, and Wayne Goates, Goddard, KS. Regional winners are Rhonda Lynn Reist, Olathe, KS, and Anne Marie Holbrook, Cincinnati, OH. A complete list of the awardees, including the post

  5. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emory Howell, J.

    1999-11-01

    many of our readers. The High School/College Interface Luncheon was part of the very rich day-long High School Program at the New Orleans ACS Meeting. Shown here (from left) are Glenn Crosby, the luncheon speaker; Lillie Tucker-Akin, the High School Day program chair; and Fred Johnson, Assistant Superintendent of Shelby County (TN) schools and Immediate Past President of NSTA. The recipient of the James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching is Frank G. Cardulla, who taught for many years at Niles North High School, Skokie, Illinois. His extensive record of service to fellow teachers includes editing the JCE "View from My Classroom" feature for several years and writing several articles, as well as his recent appointment to the JCE Board of Publication. The recipient of the George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education is Jerry A. Bell of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC. An author of numerous articles appearing in JCE and a member of the JCE Board of Publication for several years, he currently serves as Board Chair. The 16th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education Readers who attended the 15th BCCE in Waterloo, Ontario, know that much of the programming at these conferences is of interest to high school teachers. Many work shops, papers, and demonstrations are presented by high school teachers. There are many other outstanding papers and posters, plenary speakers, and exciting demonstrations. The 16th BCCE will be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, July 30-August 3, 2000. Among the high school teachers already scheduled to present workshops at the 16th BCCE are George Hague, Lynn Hershey, and Jack Randall, and there will be many more before the program is completed. The High School Chemistry Program Chair is Tim Graham, Roosevelt High School (MI). The Organizing Committee is seeking the assistance of local sections of the American Chemical Society

  6. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emory Howell, J.

    1999-11-01

    many of our readers. The High School/College Interface Luncheon was part of the very rich day-long High School Program at the New Orleans ACS Meeting. Shown here (from left) are Glenn Crosby, the luncheon speaker; Lillie Tucker-Akin, the High School Day program chair; and Fred Johnson, Assistant Superintendent of Shelby County (TN) schools and Immediate Past President of NSTA. The recipient of the James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching is Frank G. Cardulla, who taught for many years at Niles North High School, Skokie, Illinois. His extensive record of service to fellow teachers includes editing the JCE "View from My Classroom" feature for several years and writing several articles, as well as his recent appointment to the JCE Board of Publication. The recipient of the George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education is Jerry A. Bell of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC. An author of numerous articles appearing in JCE and a member of the JCE Board of Publication for several years, he currently serves as Board Chair. The 16th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education Readers who attended the 15th BCCE in Waterloo, Ontario, know that much of the programming at these conferences is of interest to high school teachers. Many work shops, papers, and demonstrations are presented by high school teachers. There are many other outstanding papers and posters, plenary speakers, and exciting demonstrations. The 16th BCCE will be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, July 30-August 3, 2000. Among the high school teachers already scheduled to present workshops at the 16th BCCE are George Hague, Lynn Hershey, and Jack Randall, and there will be many more before the program is completed. The High School Chemistry Program Chair is Tim Graham, Roosevelt High School (MI). The Organizing Committee is seeking the assistance of local sections of the American Chemical Society

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Cryptography: Theory and Practice FOCUS ON QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    superconducting single-photon detectors Lijun Ma, S Nam, Hai Xu, B Baek, Tiejun Chang, O Slattery, A Mink and Xiao Tang Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes Z L Yuan, A R Dixon, J F Dynes, A W Sharpe and A J Shields Simple security proof of quantum key distribution based on complementarity M Koashi Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution C Bonato, A Tomaello, V Da Deppo, G Naletto and P Villoresi Programmable instrumentation and gigahertz signaling for single-photon quantum communication systems Alan Mink, Joshua C Bienfang, Robert Carpenter, Lijun Ma, Barry Hershman, Alessandro Restelli and Xiao Tang Experimental polarization encoded quantum key distribution over optical fibres with real-time continuous birefringence compensation G B Xavier, N Walenta, G Vilela de Faria, G P Temporão, N Gisin, H Zbinden and J P von der Weid Feasibility of free space quantum key distribution with coherent polarization states D Elser, T Bartley, B Heim, Ch Wittmann, D Sych and G Leuchs A fully automated entanglement-based quantum cryptography system for telecom fiber networks Alexander Treiber, Andreas Poppe, Michael Hentschel, Daniele Ferrini, Thomas Lorünser, Edwin Querasser, Thomas Matyus, Hannes Hübel and Anton Zeilinger Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments N A Peters, P Toliver, T E Chapuran, R J Runser, S R McNown, C G Peterson, D Rosenberg, N Dallmann, R J Hughes, K P McCabe, J E Nordholt and K T Tyagi Clock synchronization by remote detection of correlated photon pairs Caleb Ho, Antía Lamas-Linares and Christian Kurtsiefer Megabits secure key rate quantum key distribution Q Zhang, H Takesue, T Honjo, K Wen, T Hirohata, M Suyama, Y Takiguchi, H Kamada, Y Tokura, O Tadanaga, Y Nishida, M Asobe and Y Yamamoto Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels D Rosenberg, C G Peterson, J W Harrington, P R Rice, N Dallmann, K T Tyagi, K P

  8. General geology and ground-water resources of the island of Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.; Macdonald, Gordon Andrew

    1942-01-01

    . The hydrology of East and West Maui is conspicuously different in many respects, mainly because of the difference in the stage of dissection, the extensive veneer of very permeable Hann lavas on East Maui, and the comparatively small area of the Lahaina lavas of similar age on West Maui. The only thermal water known in the Hawaiian Islands, except on the active volcano of Kilauea, is in a well in West Maui.The Nahiku area has been mapped and studied in detail. The upper part of the Honomanu volcanic series, exposed in the sea cliffs, in petrographic character is transitional into the overlying Kula lavas, Kula and Hana time were characterized by a long succession of valley-cutting episodes, each valley being filled by lava erupted from the east rift zone. The lavas include olivine basalts, picritic basalts, and basaltic andesites,In the Nahiku area basal ground water occurs largely in the Honomanu basalts. Perched water occurs in many of the later lavas, generally following the axes of buried valleys. The members which perch the water are mostly ashy soil beds, although an unusually extensive, thick layer of much decomposed clinker also appears to be a supporting member. Most of the water travels through the basal clinker members of aa lavas. Artesian water is encountered in the upper, transitional part of the Honomanu volcanic series. The aquifer is permeable porphyritic pahoehoe; the confining members are relatively impermeable nonporphyritic aa.The lavas of East Maui are described according to stratigraphic groups. The oldest or Honomanu lavas are olivine basalts like the primitive lavas in other Hawaiian volcanoes. The later or Kula and Hana lavas include basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites, and picritic basalts. The normative nepheline of analyzed East Maui lavas has not been identified in the mode. The degree of differentiation is inversely proportional to the frequency of eruptions.The lavas of West Maui volcano are divided into the Wailuku volcanic series

  9. Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainstein, Pablo D.; Lima, Marco Aurelio P.; Miraglia, Jorge E.; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2006-11-01

    ionization of fixed in space deuterium molecules / T. Weber ... [et al.]. Coherence and intramolecular scattering in molecular photoionization / U. Becker. Experimental observation of interatomic coulombic decay in neon dimers / T. Jahnke ... [et al.]. Ionization by short UV laser pulses: secondary ATI peaks of the electron spectrum / V. D. Rodríguez, E. Cormier and R. Gayet. Molecular frame photoemission in photoionization of H[symbol] and D[symbol]: the role of dissociation on autoionization of the Q[symbol] and Q[symbol] doubly excited states / D. Dowek, M. Lebech and J. C. Houver. 3p photoemission of 3d transition metals - atoms, molecules and clusters / M. Martins -- Collisions involving electrons. Spin-resolved collisions of electrons with atoms and molecules / G. F. Hanne. Calculation of ionization and excitation processes using the convergent close-coupling method / D. V. Fursa, I. Bray and A. T. Stelbovics. The B-spline R-matrix method for electron and photon collisions with atoms and ions / O. Zatsarinny and K. Bartschat. Absolute angle-differential cross sections for excitation of neon atoms electrons of energy 16.6-19.2 eV / M. Allan ... [et al.]. Studies of QED and nuclear size effects with highly charged ions in an EBIT / J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia ... [et al.]. Recombination of astrophysically relevant ions: Be-like C, N, and O / M. Fogle ... [et al.]. Dissociation and excitation of molecules and molecular ions by electron impact / A. E. Orel and J. Royal state-selective X-ray study of the radiative recombination of U[symbol] ions with cooling electrons / M. Pajek ... [et al.]. Electron collisions with trapped, metastable helium / L. J. Uhlmann ... [et al.]. Non-dipole effects in electron and photon impact ionization / N. L. S. Martin. Electron driven processes in atmospheric behaviour / L. Campbell, M. J. Brunger and P. J. 0. Teubner. Calculation of excitation and ionization for electron-molecule collisions at intermediate energies / J. D. Gorfinkiel

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cold and Ultracold Molecules FOCUS ON COLD AND ULTRACOLD MOLECULES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Ye, Jun

    2009-05-01

    Robin Côté Single-photon molecular cooling Edvardas Narevicius, S Travis Bannerman and Mark G Raizen Quantum simulations of extended Hubbard models with dipolar crystals M Ortner, A Micheli, G Pupillo and P Zoller Collisional and molecular spectroscopy in an ultracold Bose-Bose mixture G Thalhammer, G Barontini, J Catani, F Rabatti, C Weber, A Simoni, F Minardi and M Inguscio Multi-channel modelling of the formation of vibrationally cold polar KRb molecules Svetlana Kotochigova, Eite Tiesinga and Paul S Julienne Formation of ultracold, highly polar X1Σ+ NaCs molecules C Haimberger, J Kleinert, P Zabawa, A Wakim and N P Bigelow Quantum polarization spectroscopy of correlations in attractive fermionic gases T Roscilde, M Rodríguez, K Eckert, O Romero-Isart, M Lewenstein, E Polzik and A Sanpera Inelastic semiclassical collisions in cold dipolar gases Michael Cavagnero and Catherine Newell Quasi-universal dipolar scattering in cold and ultracold gases J L Bohn, M Cavagnero and C Ticknor Stark deceleration of lithium hydride molecules S K Tokunaga, J M Dyne, E A Hinds and M R Tarbutt Molecular vibrational cooling by optical pumping with shaped femtosecond pulses D Sofikitis, S Weber, A Fioretti, R Horchani, M Allegrini, B Chatel, D Comparat and P Pillet Deeply bound ultracold molecules in an optical lattice Johann G Danzl, Manfred J Mark, Elmar Haller, Mattias Gustavsson, Russell Hart, Andreas Liem, Holger Zellmer and Hanns-Christoph Nägerl Toward the production of quantum degenerate bosonic polar molecules, 41K87Rb K Aikawa, D Akamatsu, J Kobayashi, M Ueda, T Kishimoto and S Inouye Influence of a Feshbach resonance on the photoassociation of LiCs J Deiglmayr, P Pellegrini, A Grochola, M Repp, R Côté, O Dulieu, R Wester and M Weidemüller The kinematic cooling of molecules with laser-cooled atoms Ken Takase, Larry A Rahn, David W Chandler and Kevin E Strecker Coherent collapses of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates for different trap geometries J Metz, T Lahaye, B Fr