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Sample records for hans-dieter pilz siegfried

  1. The contributions of Hans-Dieter Rösler: pioneer of digit ratio (2D:4D) research.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Dressler, Stefan G; Loibl, Lisa Mariella

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal androgens on the human brain, body, and behavior, has received extensive research attention in psychology. This account makes more widely accessible the contributions of the German psychologist, Hans-Dieter Rösler, an early, for a long time unnoticed, predecessor of modern 2D:4D research. In the mid-1950s, Rösler collected a massive sample of hand outline drawings, totalling nearly 7,000 individuals, ranging in age from 1 mo. to 70 yr. With regard to the distal finger-extent pattern, Rösler differentiated radial (longer index than ring finger), ulnar (reversed pattern), and intermediate hand types, which reflect higher (more female-typical), lower (more male-typical), and intermediate 2D:4D, respectively. Here is summarized Rösler's research. In a series of investigations into the hand types, he reported on their anatomical bases, unsuitability for paternity testing, developmental changes, heritability, sex, side, and occupational group differences, and associations with left-handedness, manual dexterity, mental retardation, and clinodactyly. Based on new data from 313 male and 316 female adults, hand type is further shown to be only a weak proxy of actual 2D:4D, leaving 75% of the interindividual variation in 2D:4D unexplained. Notwithstanding these shortcomings of the hand-type method, Rösler's work from the 1950s still has the potential to inform modern 2D:4D research, as it contains a multitude of testable hypotheses not yet picked up by current research.

  2. Portrait of Siegfried Ramler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the career and professional accomplishments of Siegfried Ramler, from his job as translator at the Nuremberg trials to his current role as administrator at Punahou School in Hawaii. The most powerful expression of Ramler's internationalism is the 20-year-old Pan Pacific Program, now firmly rooted in Hawaiian educational life. (MLH)

  3. A Novel Tetrameric PilZ Domain Structure from Xanthomonads

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tso-Ning; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Fung, Kit-Man; Yang, Ming-Te; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2011-01-01

    PilZ domain is one of the key receptors for the newly discovered secondary messenger molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). To date, several monomeric PilZ domain proteins have been identified. Some exhibit strong c-di-GMP binding activity, while others have barely detectable c-di-GMP binding activity and require an accessory protein such as FimX to indirectly respond to the c-di-GMP signal. We now report a novel tetrameric PilZ domain structure of XCC6012 from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). It is one of the four PilZ domain proteins essential for Xcc pathogenicity. Although the monomer adopts a structure similar to those of the PilZ domains with very weak c-di-GMP binding activity, it is nevertheless interrupted in the middle by two extra long helices. Four XCC6012 proteins are thus self-assembled into a tetramer via the extra heptad repeat α3 helices to form a parallel four-stranded coiled-coil, which is further enclosed by two sets of inclined α2 and α4 helices. We further generated a series of XCC6012 variants and measured the unfolding temperatures and oligomeric states in order to investigate the nature of this novel tetramer. Discovery of this new PilZ domain architecture increases the complexity of c-di-GMP-mediated regulation. PMID:21760949

  4. 78 FR 5500 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA... 19, 2012, Siegfried (USA), 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application...

  5. 78 FR 46613 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC... 10, 2013, Siegfried (USA), LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070,...

  6. 78 FR 32458 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried USA, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried USA, LLC... April 18, 2013, Siegfried USA, LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070,...

  7. 77 FR 70825 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC... November 5, 2012, Siegfried (USA) LLC, 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070,...

  8. 78 FR 30333 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (Usa), Llc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (Usa), Llc... 70825, Siegfried (USA), LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by... determined that the registration of Siegfried (USA), LLC., to manufacture the listed basic classes...

  9. 78 FR 64020 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried USA, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried USA, LLC..., Siegfried USA, LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by letter to... Siegfried USA, LLC., to manufacture the listed basic class of controlled substance is consistent with...

  10. 78 FR 64015 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Siegfried (USA), LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Siegfried (USA), LLC By..., Siegfried USA, LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by letter to... that the registration of Siegfried USA, LLC., to import the basic classes of controlled substances...

  11. 78 FR 64020 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Siegfried USA, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Siegfried USA, LLC..., page 18338, Siegfried (USA), LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, applied for... August 6, 2013, Siegfried (USA), LLC., subsequently withdrew this request for drug code Opium, raw...

  12. The Structural Basis of Cyclic Diguanylate Signal Transduction by PilZ Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Benach,J.; Swaminathan, S.; Tamayo, R.; Handelman, S.; Folta-Stogniew, E.; Ramos, J.; Forouhar, F.; Neely, H.; Seetharaman, J.; et al

    2007-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) controls the transition between motile and sessile growth in eubacteria, but little is known about the proteins that sense its concentration. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that PilZ domains bind c-di-GMP and allosterically modulate effector pathways. We have determined a 1.9 Angstroms crystal structure of c-di-GMP bound to VCA0042/PlzD, a PilZ domain-containing protein from Vibrio cholerae. Either this protein or another specific PilZ domain-containing protein is required for V. cholerae to efficiently infect mice. VCA0042/PlzD comprises a C-terminal PilZ domain plus an N-terminal domain with a similar beta-barrel fold. C-di-GMP contacts seven of the nine strongly conserved residues in the PilZ domain, including three in a seven-residue long N-terminal loop that undergoes a conformational switch as it wraps around c-di-GMP. This switch brings the PilZ domain into close apposition with the N-terminal domain, forming a new allosteric interaction surface that spans these domains and the c-di-GMP at their interface. The very small size of the N-terminal conformational switch is likely to explain the facile evolutionary diversification of the PilZ domain.

  13. 78 FR 49546 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried USA, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried USA, LLC This is notice that on June 10, 2013, Siegfried USA, LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New...

  14. 77 FR 30027 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (USA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (USA) By..., Siegfried (USA), 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by renewal to the... (USA), to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances is consistent with the...

  15. The riddle of Siegfried: exploring methods and psychological perspectives in analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Marco Heleno

    2016-02-01

    Jung's dream of the killing of Siegfried poses a riddle: why did the unconscious choose precisely Siegfried as the hero to be murdered? Jung himself declares that he does not know. This paper attempts to decipher this riddle using three distinct methodological approaches accepted by Jung, two of them in fact grounded in his theories of dream interpretation. Besides presenting some possible answers to the riddle of Siegfried, this interpretative reflection brings to light the discrepancy of the psychological perspectives created by the heterogeneity of methods within analytical psychology.

  16. Invite the Magic of Siegfried and Roy into Your Torts Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlum, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Magic is exciting, but dangerous. David Copperfield explained "of all the performers on stage, no one courts disaster, no one flirts with danger as much as the magician." On October 3, 2003, Siegfried and Roy experienced that danger firsthand when Roy was attacked by one of his tigers while performing before a live audience. This tragic event can…

  17. Molekulare Methoden zum Nachweis, zur Quantifizierung und zum Monitoring der Mykotoxinbildung lebensmittelrelevanter Pilze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisen, Rolf

    Schimmelpilze kommen ubiquitär vor und spielen besonders bei pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln und Rohprodukten eine besondere Rolle als Verderbsorganismen. Es wird geschätzt, dass 20-25 % der jährlichen Produktion an pflanzlichen Produkten durch Schimmelpilze verdorben werden (Smith et al., 1994). Viele der lebensmittelrelevanten Schimmelpilze sind zudem in der Lage, Mykotoxine, toxische Sekundärmetabolite, zu bilden, was das Ausmaß des Problems deutlich macht. Die wichtigsten mykotoxinbildenden Spezies gehören zu den Fusarien (Trichothecene, Fumonisine, Zearalenon), Aspergillen (Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, Cyclopiazonsäure) und Penicillien (Patulin, Ochratoxin). Für viele Mykotoxine, wie die Aflatoxine, Ochratoxin, Fumonisine und Trichothecene sind Grenzwerte erlassen worden, die die Verkehrsfähigkeit betroffener Produkte regeln. Die Einhaltung der Grenzwerte kann sehr genau durch offizielle chemisch-analytische Methoden, wie HPLC, GC-MS etc. kontrolliert werden. Diese analytischen Methoden sind aber für die Anwendung eines HACCP-Ansatzes zur Kontrolle der Mykotoxinbildung nur bedingt geeignet, da sie Endpunktkontrollen darstellen und nur das über eine längere Zeit gebildete Mykotoxin bestimmen. Sie sagen daher nichts über die biologischen Bedingungen zur Zeit der Bildung durch den Pilz aus.

  18. The Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PilZ Domain Proteins Function Differentially in Cyclic di-GMP Binding and Regulation of Virulence and Motility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fenghuan; Tian, Fang; Chen, Huamin; Hutchins, William; Yang, Ching-Hong; He, Chenyang

    2015-07-01

    The PilZ domain proteins have been demonstrated to be one of the major types of receptors mediating cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling pathways in several pathogenic bacteria. However, little is known about the function of PilZ domain proteins in c-di-GMP regulation of virulence in the bacterial blight pathogen of rice Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Here, the roles of PilZ domain proteins PXO_00049 and PXO_02374 in c-di-GMP binding, regulation of virulence and motility, and subcellular localization were characterized in comparison with PXO_02715, identified previously as an interactor with the c-di-GMP receptor Filp to regulate virulence. The c-di-GMP binding motifs in the PilZ domains were conserved in PXO_00049 and PXO_02374 but were less well conserved in PXO_02715. PXO_00049 and PXO_02374 but not PXO_02715 proteins bound to c-di-GMP with high affinity in vitro, and the R(141) and R(10) residues in the PilZ domains of PXO_00049 and PXO_02374, respectively, were crucial for c-di-GMP binding. Gene deletion of PXO_00049 and PXO_02374 resulted in significant increases in virulence and hrp gene transcription, indicating their negative regulation of virulence via type III secretion system expression. All mutants showed significant changes in sliding motility but not exopolysaccharide production and biofilm formation. In trans expression of the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of each gene in the relevant mutants led to restoration of the phenotype to wild-type levels. Moreover, PXO_00049 and PXO_02374 displayed mainly multisite subcellular localizations, whereas PXO_02715 showed nonpolar distributions in the X. oryzae pv. oryzae cells. Therefore, this study demonstrated the different functions of the PilZ domain proteins in mediation of c-di-GMP regulation of virulence and motility in X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  19. Siegfried the Dragonslayer Meets the Web: Using Digital Media for Developing Historical Awareness and Advanced Language and Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate, German-language course that aimed to improve students' language skills, critical thinking, and declarative knowledge of German history and culture by studying multiple manifestations of the legend of Siegfried the Dragonslayer. The course used web-based e-learning tools to address two major learning…

  20. Structures of the activator of K. pneumonia biofilm formation, MrkH, indicates PilZ domains involved in c-di-GMP and DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Maria A.; Zeng, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Klebsiella pneumonia is linked to the bacteria’s ability to form biofilms. Mannose-resistant Klebsiella-like (Mrk) hemagglutinins are critical for K. pneumonia biofilm development, and the expression of the genes encoding these proteins is activated by a 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP)–regulated transcription factor, MrkH. To gain insight into MrkH function, we performed structural and biochemical analyses. Data revealed MrkH to be a monomer with a two-domain architecture consisting of a PilZ C-domain connected to an N domain that unexpectedly also harbors a PilZ-like fold. Comparison of apo- and c-di-GMP–bound MrkH structures reveals a large 138° interdomain rotation that is induced by binding an intercalated c-di-GMP dimer. c-di-GMP interacts with PilZ C-domain motifs 1 and 2 (RxxxR and D/NxSxxG) and a newly described c-di-GMP–binding motif in the MrkH N domain. Strikingly, these c-di-GMP–binding motifs also stabilize an open state conformation in apo MrkH via contacts from the PilZ motif 1 to residues in the C-domain motif 2 and the c-di-GMP–binding N-domain motif. Use of the same regions in apo structure stabilization and c-di-GMP interaction allows distinction between the states. Indeed, domain reorientation by c-di-GMP complexation with MrkH, which leads to a highly compacted structure, suggests a mechanism by which the protein is activated to bind DNA. To our knowledge, MrkH represents the first instance of specific DNA binding mediated by PilZ domains. The MrkH structures also pave the way for the rational design of inhibitors that target K. pneumonia biofilm formation. PMID:27551088

  1. Identification of flgZ as a Flagellar Gene Encoding a PilZ Domain Protein That Regulates Swimming Motility and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Nieto, Miguel; González de Heredia, Elena; Baena, Irene; Martín-Martín, Irene; Rivilla, Rafael; Martín, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase enzymatic activities control c-di-GMP levels modulating planktonic versus sessile lifestyle behavior in bacteria. The PilZ domain is described as a sensor of c-di-GMP intracellular levels and the proteins containing a PilZ domain represent the best studied class of c-di-GMP receptors forming part of the c-di-GMP signaling cascade. In P. fluorescens F113 we have found two diguanylate cyclases (WspR, SadC) and one phosphodiesterase (BifA) implicated in regulation of swimming motility and biofilm formation. Here we identify a flgZ gene located in a flagellar operon encoding a protein that contains a PilZ domain. Moreover, we show that FlgZ subcellular localization depends on the c-di-GMP intracellular levels. The overexpression analysis of flgZ in P. fluorescens F113 and P. putida KT2440 backgrounds reveal a participation of FlgZ in Pseudomonas swimming motility regulation. Besides, the epistasis of flgZ over wspR and bifA clearly shows that c-di-GMP intracellular levels produced by the enzymatic activity of the diguanylate cyclase WspR and the phosphodiesterase BifA regulates biofilm formation through FlgZ. PMID:24504373

  2. Aftermath: the implicit processes of integrating traumatic experience in the poetry of Siegfried Sassoon.

    PubMed

    Saks, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    The creation of narratives often allows individuals to bear witness to traumatic events. This study looked at connections between the processing of traumatic, affect laden experience and levels of symbolization and symmetry within the context of poetic expression. The sample for this pilot study is composed of selected works by Siegfried Sassoon (1886-1967), a British soldier-poet of the Great War. The language of the poems reflected the deepening trauma of the war experience by showing a progression toward paranoid (concrete)/symmetrical experiences. As the years passed and the poet was able to process the memory of the events, the poetry reflected a more balanced shift toward integration of depressive (symbolic)/asymmetrical experience. In terms of affect, the most significant changes were seen after Sassoon left the front and witnessed the flagrant dichotomy between civilian and military life. The results suggest a way in which traumatic events are processed. The routine horror and brutality of the Western Front initially lay outside of the realm of language and symbols and were thus highly concrete and unprocessed experiences. Time, place, and identity collapsed in on itself, leading to the increase of symmetrical experience, while the extreme "us versus them experience" of the trenches can be seen in the balance of asymmetrical experience. The study has implications for the treatment of war trauma, suggesting that writing provides a vehicle through which events can be processed and an internal sense of balance can be approached.

  3. PilZ Domain Protein FlgZ Mediates Cyclic Di-GMP-Dependent Swarming Motility Control in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Amy E.; Diepold, Andreas; Kuchma, Sherry L.; Scott, Jessie E.; Ha, Dae Gon; Orazi, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is an important regulator of motility in many bacterial species. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, elevated levels of c-di-GMP promote biofilm formation and repress flagellum-driven swarming motility. The rotation of P. aeruginosa's polar flagellum is controlled by two distinct stator complexes, MotAB, which cannot support swarming motility, and MotCD, which promotes swarming motility. Here we show that when c-di-GMP levels are elevated, swarming motility is repressed by the PilZ domain-containing protein FlgZ and by Pel polysaccharide production. We demonstrate that FlgZ interacts specifically with the motility-promoting stator protein MotC in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner and that a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FlgZ fusion protein shows significantly reduced polar localization in a strain lacking the MotCD stator. Our results establish FlgZ as a c-di-GMP receptor affecting swarming motility by P. aeruginosa and support a model wherein c-di-GMP-bound FlgZ impedes motility via its interaction with the MotCD stator. IMPORTANCE The regulation of surface-associated motility plays an important role in bacterial surface colonization and biofilm formation. c-di-GMP signaling is a widespread means of controlling bacterial motility, and yet the mechanism whereby this signal controls surface-associated motility in P. aeruginosa remains poorly understood. Here we identify a PilZ domain-containing c-di-GMP effector protein that contributes to c-di-GMP-mediated repression of swarming motility by P. aeruginosa. We provide evidence that this effector, FlgZ, impacts swarming motility via its interactions with flagellar stator protein MotC. Thus, we propose a new mechanism for c-di-GMP-mediated regulation of motility for a bacterium with two flagellar stator sets, increasing our understanding of surface-associated behaviors, a key prerequisite to identifying ways to control the formation of biofilm communities. PMID

  4. Dynamic complex formation between HD-GYP, GGDEF and PilZ domain proteins regulates motility in Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert P; McCarthy, Yvonne; Kiely, Patrick A; O'Connor, Rosemary; Farah, Chuck S; Armitage, Judith P; Dow, J Maxwell

    2012-11-01

    RpfG is a member of a class of wide spread bacterial two-component regulators with an HD-GYP cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase domain. In the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris, RpfG together with the sensor kinase RpfC regulates multiple factors as a response to the cell-to-cell Diffusible Signalling Factor (DSF). A dynamic physical interaction of RpfG with two diguanylate cyclase (GGDEF) domain proteins controls motility. Here we show that, contrary to expectation, regulation of motility by the GGDEF domain proteins does not depend upon their cyclic di-GMP synthetic activity. Furthermore we show that the complex of RpfG and GGDEF domain proteins recruits a specific PilZ domain 'adaptor' protein, and this complex then interacts with the pilus motor proteins PilU and PiIT. The results support a model in which DSF signalling influences motility through the highly regulated dynamic interaction of proteins that affect pilus action. A specific motif that we identify to be required for HD-GYP domain interaction is conserved in a number of GGDEF domain proteins, suggesting that regulation via interdomain interactions is of broad relevance.

  5. Attic perfection in anatomy: Bernhard Siegfried Albinus (1697-1770) and Samuel Thomas Soemmerring (1755-1830).

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Reinhard

    2005-11-01

    In Albrecht von Haller's history of anatomy (1777), the period of "Anatomes perfectio" starts with Bernhard Siegfried Albinus. This great anatomist from Leyden was convinced of his concept of a "homo perfectus", an ideal which was rooted in philosophy and which he attempted to bring to life in anatomical illustration through a synthesis of objectivity, symmetry and vitality. Over a generation later, this pursuit of perfection stood as a model for Samuel Thomas Soemmerring who strove to emulate Albinus in his own illustrations and text books. Rejecting the naturalistic alternative, he followed Albinus in attempting to visualize the ideal and invariable norm in anatomy--which in his eyes corresponded to ideal beauty--in such a way that all parts of the body were depicted as though they were alive. This classical approach to what Soemmerring called attic perfection in anatomy aimed at a unity stemming from both science and art. While he admired it in Albinus' atlases and writings, the term may be applied to his own works as well. In my article, these aspects are discussed against the background of the alternative naturalistic style in anatomy as championed by Govard Bidloo, Albrecht von Haller and William Hunter.

  6. Bacterial Morphologies Supporting Cometary Panspermia: a Reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    It is nearly 30 years since the first decisive evidence of microbial morphologies in carbonaceous chondrites was discovered and reported by Hans Dieter Pflug. In addition to morphology other data, notably laser mass spectroscopy, served to confirm the identification of such structures as putative bacterial fossils. Recent examinations of cometary dust collected in the stratosphere and further studies of carbonaceous meteorites reaffirm the presence of putative microbial fossils. Since carbonaceous chondrites (particularly Type 1 chondrites) are thought to be extinct comets the data reviewed in this article provide strong support for theories of cometary panspermia.

  7. Bacterial morphologies supporting cometary panspermia: a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    It is nearly 30 years since the first decisive evidence of microbial morphologies in carbonaceous chondrites was discovered and reported by Hans Dieter Pflug. In addition to morphology, other data, notably laser mass spectroscopy, served to confirm the identification of such structures as putative bacterial fossils. Recent examinations of cometary dust collected in the stratosphere and further studies of carbonaceous meteorites reaffirm the presence of putative microbial fossils. Since carbonaceous chondrites (particularly Type 1 chondrites) are thought to be extinct comets the data reviewed in this article provide strong support for theories of cometary panspermia.

  8. Can Vitamins Help Prevent a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduced myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2015;25:354. Pilz S, et al. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease prevention. Nature Reviews. Cardiology. 2016;13:405. Heart ...

  9. Bacterial morphologies in carbonaceous meteorites and comet dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wallis, Max K.; Gibson, Carl H.; Wallis, Jamie; Al-Mufti, Shirwan; Miyake, Nori

    2010-09-01

    Three decades ago the first convincing evidence of microbial fossils in carbonaceous chondrites was discovered and reported by Hans Dieter Pflug and his collaborators. In addition to morphology, other data, notably laser mass spectroscopy, confirmed the identification of such structures as putative bacterial fossils. Balloon-borne cryosampling of the stratosphere enables recovery of fragile cometary dust aggregates with their structure and carbonaceous matter largely intact. SEM studies of texture and morphology of particles in the Cardiff collection, together with EDX identifications, show two main types of putative bio-fossils - firstly organic-walled hollow spheres around 10μm across, secondly siliceous diatom skeletons similar to those found in carbonaceous chondrites and terrestrial sedimentary rocks and termed 'acritarchs'. Since carbonaceous chondrites (particularly Type 1 chondrites) are thought to be extinct comets the data reviewed in this article provide strong support for theories of cometary panspermia.

  10. Increment of fatigue, depression, and stage fright during the first year of high-level education in music students.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Damián H

    2012-03-01

    In a recent Letter to the Editor, Grant and Pilz propose the hypothesis of a contribution of very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to provoke Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's death. Mozart died on the 5th of December, 1791, aged 35, probably due to an infection which, very likely, had low vitamin D levels as an important risk factor. According to Grant and Pilz, the lack of vitamin D is to be attributed, in the case of Mozart's, to insufficient exposure to sunlight, because he "did much of his composing at night, so would have slept during much of the day." Historical evidence, however, disproves the nocturnal habits of the Austrian composer.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Cockayne syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... AV, Elsayed SM, Gibson L, Goodship JA, Jackson AP, Keng WT, King MD, McCann E, Motojima T, Murray JE, Omata T, Pilz D, Pope K, Sugita K, White SM, Wilson IJ. The Cockayne Syndrome Natural History (CoSyNH) study: clinical findings in 102 individuals and ...

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-31

    Siegfried Schmidt, worker in the Gommern GDR Railroad Repair Yard: Hannelore Pauls, cooperative peasant, Brandhusen, Wismar Kreis: Juergen Hopf...declared that they want a nuclear-free zone, that the problems are no longer being denied , that the international climate is better, and the fact that

  13. Stockpile Stewardship's 20th Anniversary

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried; Gottemoeller, Rose; Reis, Victor H.; McMillan, Charles; Rohlfing, Joan; Hurricane, Omar; Hagengruber, Roger; Taylor, John

    2015-10-22

    A short oral history of the NNSA's Stockpile Stewardship Program, produced in association with the 20th anniversary of the program. It features Siegfried Hecker, Rose Gottemoeller, Victor Reis, Charles McMillan, Joan Rohlfing, Omar Hurricane, Roger Hagengruber, and John Taylor.

  14. Behavior Principles Structural Model of a Follow Through Program, Dayton, Ohio: Model Programs. Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    Prepared for a White House Conference on Children (December 1970), this report describes a program in which first- through third-graders in three schools in Dayton, Ohio, participate in a model of a Follow Through program sponsored by Siegfried Engelmann and Wesley Becker of the University of Oregon at Eugene. All teachers chose to participate,…

  15. Our Youngest Learners: The Bereiter-Engelmann Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grade Teacher, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Method of instruction developed by Carl Bereiter and Siegfried Engelmann which is based upon "repetitive drills in language development. Part of a longer special report available from: Grade Teacher Reprints, 23 Leroy Ave., Darien, Conn. 06820. (No. 91291, 75J) (Author/AP)

  16. 76 FR 21916 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... 2550 (glutethimide) have been withdrawn from the application for registration at the request of the...) and determined that the registration of Siegfried (USA), Inc. to manufacture the listed basic...

  17. Trends in Undergraduate Economics Degrees, 1991-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John J.

    2016-01-01

    The number of undergraduate economics degrees awarded by colleges and universities in the United States rose by 18 percent from 2007 to 2010. The upward trend ended abruptly in 2010 and was followed by three years of virtual stagnation (Siegfried 2014). In 2013-14, undergraduate economics degrees began to accelerate again, rising about 5 percent…

  18. On Contextuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    This exploration of what feminism has to contribute to pragmatism, and vice versa, considers the idea of contextuality through an examination of the role of current pragmatists, such as Cornel West and Richard Rorty, and current feminists, including Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Maxine Greene, and Seyla Benhabib. To set the stage historically for…

  19. The Link: Connecting Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare. Volume 4, Number 1, Spring 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Welfare League of America (NJ-L1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This issue of "The Link" newsletter contains the following articles: (1) "King County System Integration Initiative: Reform to Impact Dual Jurisdiction Youth and Families"; (2) "Children of Prisoners, Children of Promise" (Arlene F. Lee); and (3) "Addressing Child Trauma in Juvenile Justice and Residential Settings" (Christine Siegfried and Susan…

  20. Engaging Undergraduates in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajwani, Kiran; Miron, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Siegfried and Stock (2007) explore the undergraduate training of PhD economists. Their findings show that among U.S. undergraduate economics programs, the Harvard University Economics Department produces many eventual economics PhD recipients. In this article, the authors discuss Harvard's undergraduate economics program and highlight some key…

  1. Stockpile Stewardship's 20th Anniversary

    ScienceCinema

    Hecker, Siegfried; Gottemoeller, Rose; Reis, Victor H.; McMillan, Charles; Rohlfing, Joan; Hurricane, Omar; Hagengruber, Roger; Taylor, John

    2016-07-12

    A short oral history of the NNSA's Stockpile Stewardship Program, produced in association with the 20th anniversary of the program. It features Siegfried Hecker, Rose Gottemoeller, Victor Reis, Charles McMillan, Joan Rohlfing, Omar Hurricane, Roger Hagengruber, and John Taylor.

  2. Further Development of a Model for Rod Ricochet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    2110 SALT LAKE CITY UT 84112-9208 1 VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INST COLLEGE OF ENGRG DEPT ENGRG SCI & MECHS R C BATRA BLACKSBURG VA 24061...T FARRAND M FERMEN -COKER E KENNEDY K KIMSEY L MAGNESS B PETERSON D SCHEFFLER S SCHRAML A SIEGFRIED B SORENSEN

  3. Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of PilZ(XAC1133) from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Cristiane R; Farah, Chuck S

    2009-03-01

    Proteins containing PilZ domains are widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and have recently been shown to be involved in the control of biofilm formation, adherence, aggregation, virulence-factor production and motility. Furthermore, some PilZ domains have recently been shown to bind the second messenger bis(3'-->5')cyclic diGMP. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of PilZ(XAC1133), a protein consisting of a single PilZ domain from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, is reported. The closest PilZ(XAC1133) homologues in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neisseria meningitidis control type IV pilus function. Recombinant PilZ(XAC1133) containing selenomethionine was crystallized in space group P6(1). The unit-cell parameters were a = 62.125, b = 62.125, c = 83.543 A. These crystals diffracted to 1.85 A resolution and a MAD data set was collected at a synchrotron source. The calculated Matthews coefficient suggested the presence of two PilZ(XAC1133) molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  4. Adaptive Motivation Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    the Psychoanalytic school, and psycho-social development by Erikson (1968). The simple statement of this developmental principle is hardly earth... Erikson , E. H. Identity, youth, and crisis. New York: Norton, 1968. Gagne, R. M. The conditions of learning. New York: Holt, Rinheart, and Winston, 1965...NAVTRAEQUIPCEN Orlando, FL 32813 Dr. Siegfried Streufert The Pennsylvania State University Department of Behavioral Science Milton S. Hershey Medical

  5. MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIESL: Operation Rosselsprung and the Elimination of Tito, 25 May 1944: A Failure in Planning and Intelligence Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    39 Otto Kumm, Prinz Eugen: The History of the 7. SS-Mountain Division ( Winnipeg : J.J. Fedorowicz... Division . Winnipeg : J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing, 1995. Kunzmann, Adolf, and Siegfried Milius. Fallschirmjäger der Waffen-SS im Bild. Osnabruck: Munin...seize abandoned Italian supply dumps on the Adriatic coast and were able to equip themselves with more than 10 divisions worth of equipment.5 One of

  6. Technical Evaluation Report on the Flight Mechanics Panel Symposium on the Use of Computers as a Design Tool.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    by Professor Dr- gfrie r Hochschule der Bundeswehr Minchen Werner - Heisenberg -Weg 39 8014 Neubiberg, Germany DTI Tl sJUN . This Advisory Report was...Wagner March 1980 10. Author’s/Editor’s Address II. Pages Hochschule der Bundeswehr MUnchen Werner - Heisenberg -Weg 39 21 8014 Neubiberg, Germany 12...SYMPOSIUM ON THE USE OF COMPUTERS AS A DESIGN TOOL by Professor Dr.-Ing. Siegfried N. Wagner Luftfahrttechnik Hochschule der Bundeswehr Mflnchen Werner

  7. Mécanique de Nonéquilibre à la Californienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.

    1997-02-01

    Academic freedom, combined with generous travel grants and tax-supported computing, made possible my 35 years' study of many-body problems. Here I first review some of the many high points of those years. I then describe recent work - with Harald Posch, Oyeon Kum, my wife Carol, Siegfried Hess, and Vic Castillo - which links together particle and continuum mechanics through “SPAM”, Smooth Particle Applied Mechanics.

  8. Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance. Phase 2. Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Industrial Engineering at the University of Buffalo. BioTechnology , Inc. prepared Chapter Six and worked with Galaxy Scientific to conduct the Human...shooting. Computers in Industr ’, pp. 187-202. Miller, F. D., Rowland, J. R., & Siegfried, E. M. (1986, January). ACE: An expert system for preventive...knowledge based expert system for maintenance trouble shooting. Compilers in Industr ’, pp. 187-202. Describes an expert system for diagnosis of the

  9. Integration of clinical decision support with on-line encounter documentation for well child care at the point of care.

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, P. J.; Lobach, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Electronic medical record systems and clinical practice guideline (CPG) support applications are emerging in the clinical environment to document and support care. Applications which integrate online documentation with CPG are often complex systems bound to a proprietary infrastructure and as such, can be difficult to adapt to changing care guidelines. This paper describes integration of point-of-care clinical documentation to an Internet-based CPG system that was easily modified, utilized available software resources, and separated patient information from CPG. The system combined a text-based encounter documentation tool, Inbox, with a web-based CPG system, SIEGFRIED (System for Interactive Electronic Guidelines with Feedback and Resources for Instructional and Educational Development), which interactively presented care guidelines to providers. Age-specific well child care documentation templates were developed using Inbox for point-of-care documentation. SIEGFRIED contained the knowledge base of child safety education guidelines and executed independent of the program presenting the guidelines. The CPG were accessed from within the documentation template via an Internet hyperlink. Patient chart evaluation indicated that 77% of safety topics were reviewed and 32% of the charts contained documentation indicating all the safety topics were reviewed. Last, routine use of the Inbox-SIEGFRIED system was not realized due to the clinical time constraints and workload of the medical providers, and lack of data entry experience. A user survey indicated time cost (network access and software execution) were negative aspects of the system. However, the system function was highly regarded and the Internet-based patient education materials were described as useful and accurate. In summary, the system was functional, met original development goals, and provided valuable patient education materials; however, routine system use was prevented by time requirements. We recommend

  10. ERG (Electroretinogram) Implicit Time: An Exploration of High Frequency Wavelets Recorded in the Human Visual System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-15

    than lights which stimulate the middle and long wave- length sensitive mechanisms. The current research deals with a further elucida- DO I F 173 U...and 94 S.G. WHITTAKER. J.B. SIEGFRIED trolands Narrow Filter o Broad Filter r log [0.5 pV 5 )JV 2.40 2.90 3.40 C - 3.90 4.40 f 4.90 ) , 1 OOms 100 ms...clearly photopic spec- Certain properties of the cortical wavelets indi- tral sensitivity, as do VEP slow waves recorded at cate their potential as

  11. Rearrangement of 3-Membered 1,1,2-Trifluorobromonium and Iodonium Ions and Comparison of Trifluorochloronium to Fluorocarbeniuim Ions (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    The steric effect and repulsive forces from the lone-pair electrons on the fluorine atoms of 5 shield the carbon nucleus, rendering it resistant to... Electrophilic addition of Cl2 to alkene 2 gives 2% of rearranged product (Table 3, run 5). Intermediate 5 (Scheme 1, X ) Y ) Cl; Z ) Br) is 22.1 kcal...71 and 190. Chambers, R. D. Fluorine in Organic Chemistry; Wiley: New York, 1973; p 98. (4) (a) Heine, H. W.; Siegfried, W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1954

  12. Kafka's uncle: scenes from a world of trust infected by suspicion.

    PubMed

    Bamforth, I

    2000-12-01

    What happens when we heed a call? Few writers have been as suspicious of their vocation as Franz Kafka (1883-1924). His story, A Country Doctor, (1919) ostensibly about a night visit to a patient that goes badly wrong, suggests a modern writer's journey to the heart of his work. There he discovers that trust, like the tradition which might sustain him, is blighted. This essay also examines Kafka's attitude to illness and the medical profession, and his close relationship with his uncle, Siegfried Löwy (1867-1942), a country doctor in Moravia.

  13. ["Dr Breuer will care for him with utmost attention." A plan for Nietzsche's neuropathological treatment in Vienna].

    PubMed

    Müller-Buck, Renate

    2007-01-01

    This essay is about a plan for the treatment of Friedrich Nietzsche by Josef Breuer in the spring of 1878. The plan was developed by Siegfried Lipiner, a philosphy student from Galicia and an admirer of Nietzsche, who was acquainted with Breuer as well as with Freud. Lipiner was convinced that Nietzsche could be treated by the Viennese specialists and tried his best to arrange this. However all his endeavors were frustrated by the opposition of Nietzsche's advisors in Basel, as well as his docters, and ultimately of Nietzsche himself who preferred the cold-water therapy in Baden-Baden.

  14. Predicting the Operating Behavior of Ceramic Filters from Thermo-Mechanical Ash Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmer, G.; Kasper, G.

    2002-09-19

    Stable operation, in other words the achievement of a succession of uniform filtration cycles of reasonable length is a key issue in high-temperature gas filtration with ceramic media. Its importance has rather grown in recent years, as these media gain in acceptance due to their excellent particle retention capabilities. Ash properties have been known for some time to affect the maximum operating temperature of filters. However, softening and consequently ''stickiness'' of the ash particles generally depend on composition in a complex way. Simple and accurate prediction of critical temperature ranges from ash analysis--and even more so from coal analysis--is still difficult without practical and costly trials. In general, our understanding of what exactly happens during break-down of filtration stability is still rather crude and general. Early work was based on the concept that ash particles begin to soften and sinter near the melting temperatures of low-melting, often alkaline components. This softening coincides with a fairly abrupt increase of stickiness, that can be detected with powder mechanical methods in a Jenicke shear cell as first shown by Pilz (1996) and recently confirmed by others (Kamiya et al. 2001 and 2002, Kanaoka et al. 2001). However, recording {sigma}-{tau}-diagrams is very time consuming and not the only off-line method of analyzing or predicting changes in thermo-mechanical ash behavior. Pilz found that the increase in ash stickiness near melting was accompanied by shrinkage attributed to sintering. Recent work at the University of Karlsruhe has expanded the use of such thermo-analytical methods for predicting filtration behavior (Hemmer 2001). Demonstrating their effectiveness is one objective of this paper. Finally, our intent is to show that ash softening at near melting temperatures is apparently not the only phenomenon causing problems with filtration, although its impact is certainly the ''final catastrophe''. There are other

  15. GIL, a new c-di-GMP-binding protein domain involved in regulation of cellulose synthesis in enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin; Ahmad, Irfan; Blanka, Andrea; Schottkowski, Marco; Cimdins, Annika; Galperin, Michael Y; Römling, Ute; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to numerous enzymes involved in c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation in enterobacteria, only a handful of c-di-GMP receptors/effectors have been identified. In search of new c-di-GMP receptors, we screened the Escherichia coli ASKA overexpression gene library using the Differential Radial Capillary Action of Ligand Assay (DRaCALA) with fluorescently and radioisotope-labelled c-di-GMP. We uncovered three new candidate c-di-GMP receptors in E. coli and characterized one of them, BcsE. The bcsE gene is encoded in cellulose synthase operons in representatives of Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The purified BcsE proteins from E. coli, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae bind c-di-GMP via the domain of unknown function, DUF2819, which is hereby designated GIL, GGDEF I-site like domain. The RxGD motif of the GIL domain is required for c-di-GMP binding, similar to the c-di-GMP-binding I-site of the diguanylate cyclase GGDEF domain. Thus, GIL is the second protein domain, after PilZ, dedicated to c-di-GMP-binding. We show that in S. enterica, BcsE is not essential for cellulose synthesis but is required for maximal cellulose production, and that c-di-GMP binding is critical for BcsE function. It appears that cellulose production in enterobacteria is controlled by a two-tiered c-di-GMP-dependent system involving BcsE and the PilZ domain containing glycosyltransferase BcsA.

  16. Analysis of the HD-GYP Domain Cyclic Dimeric GMP Phosphodiesterase Reveals a Role in Motility and the Enzootic Life Cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Syed Z.; Pitzer, Joshua E.; Boquoi, Tristan; Hobbs, Gerry; Miller, Michael R.; Motaleb, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    HD-GYP domain cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) phosphodiesterases are implicated in motility and virulence in bacteria. Borrelia burgdorferi possesses a single set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes, including a putative HD-GYP domain protein, BB0374. Recently, we characterized the EAL domain phosphodiesterase PdeA. A mutation in pdeA resulted in cells that were defective in motility and virulence. Here we demonstrate that BB0374/PdeB specifically hydrolyzed c-di-GMP with a Km of 2.9 nM, confirming that it is a functional phosphodiesterase. Furthermore, by measuring phosphodiesterase enzyme activity in extracts from cells containing the pdeA pdeB double mutant, we demonstrate that no additional phosphodiesterases are present in B. burgdorferi. pdeB single mutant cells exhibit significantly increased flexing, indicating a role for c-di-GMP in motility. Constructing and analyzing a pilZ pdeB double mutant suggests that PilZ likely interacts with chemotaxis signaling. While virulence in needle-inoculated C3H/HeN mice did not appear to be altered significantly in pdeB mutant cells, these cells exhibited a reduced ability to survive in Ixodes scapularis ticks. Consequently, those ticks were unable to transmit the infection to naïve mice. All of these phenotypes were restored when the mutant was complemented. Identification of this role of pdeB increases our understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling network in motility regulation and the life cycle of B. burgdorferi. PMID:21670168

  17. Analysis of the HD-GYP domain cyclic dimeric GMP phosphodiesterase reveals a role in motility and the enzootic life cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Syed Z; Pitzer, Joshua E; Boquoi, Tristan; Hobbs, Gerry; Miller, Michael R; Motaleb, M A

    2011-08-01

    HD-GYP domain cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) phosphodiesterases are implicated in motility and virulence in bacteria. Borrelia burgdorferi possesses a single set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes, including a putative HD-GYP domain protein, BB0374. Recently, we characterized the EAL domain phosphodiesterase PdeA. A mutation in pdeA resulted in cells that were defective in motility and virulence. Here we demonstrate that BB0374/PdeB specifically hydrolyzed c-di-GMP with a K(m) of 2.9 nM, confirming that it is a functional phosphodiesterase. Furthermore, by measuring phosphodiesterase enzyme activity in extracts from cells containing the pdeA pdeB double mutant, we demonstrate that no additional phosphodiesterases are present in B. burgdorferi. pdeB single mutant cells exhibit significantly increased flexing, indicating a role for c-di-GMP in motility. Constructing and analyzing a pilZ pdeB double mutant suggests that PilZ likely interacts with chemotaxis signaling. While virulence in needle-inoculated C3H/HeN mice did not appear to be altered significantly in pdeB mutant cells, these cells exhibited a reduced ability to survive in Ixodes scapularis ticks. Consequently, those ticks were unable to transmit the infection to naïve mice. All of these phenotypes were restored when the mutant was complemented. Identification of this role of pdeB increases our understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling network in motility regulation and the life cycle of B. burgdorferi.

  18. Analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi Cyclic-di-GMP-Binding Protein PlzA Reveals a Role in Motility and Virulence ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pitzer, Joshua E.; Sultan, Syed Z.; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Hobbs, Gerry; Miller, Michael R.; Motaleb, Md A.

    2011-01-01

    The cyclic-dimeric-GMP (c-di-GMP)-binding protein PilZ has been implicated in bacterial motility and pathogenesis. Although BB0733 (PlzA), the only PilZ domain-containing protein in Borrelia burgdorferi, was reported to bind c-di-GMP, neither its role in motility or virulence nor it's affinity for c-di-GMP has been reported. We determined that PlzA specifically binds c-di-GMP with high affinity (dissociation constant [Kd], 1.25 μM), consistent with Kd values reported for c-di-GMP-binding proteins from other bacteria. Inactivation of the monocistronically transcribed plzA resulted in an opaque/solid colony morphology, whereas the wild-type colonies were translucent. While the swimming pattern of mutant cells appeared normal, on swarm plates, mutant cells exhibited a significantly reduced swarm diameter, demonstrating a role of plzA in motility. Furthermore, the plzA mutant cells were significantly less infectious in experimental mice (as determined by 50% infectious dose [ID50]) relative to wild-type spirochetes. The mutant also had survival rates in fed ticks lower than those of the wild type. Consequently, plzA mutant cells failed to complete the mouse-tick-mouse infection cycle, indicating plzA is essential for the enzootic life cycle of B. burgdorferi. All of these defects were corrected when the mutant was complemented in cis. We propose that failure of plzA mutant cells to infect mice was due to altered motility; however, the possibility that an unidentified factor(s) contributed to interruption of the B. burgdorferi enzootic life cycle cannot yet be excluded. PMID:21357718

  19. A short history of neuroendocrine tumours and their peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    de Herder, Wouter W; Rehfeld, Jens F; Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas started in 1870, when Rudolf Heidenhain discovered the neuroendocrine cells, which can lead to the development of these tumours. Siegfried Oberndorfer was the first to introduce the term carcinoid in 1907. The pancreatic islet cells were first described in 1869 by Paul Langerhans. In 1924, Seale Harris was the first to describe endogenous hyperinsulinism/insulinoma. In 1942 William Becker and colleagues were the first to describe the glucagonoma syndrome. The first description of gastrinoma by Robert Zollinger and Edwin Ellison dates from 1955. The first description of the VIPoma syndrome by John Verner and Ashton Morrison dates from 1958. In 1977, the groups of Lars-Inge Larsson and Jens Rehfeld, and of Om Ganda reported the first cases of somatostatinoma. But only in 2013, Jens Rehfeld and colleagues described the CCK-oma syndrome. The most recently updated WHO classification for gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours dates from 2010.

  20. Fluctuations in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection: The role of plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Detlef

    2004-03-01

    Our unifying theory of turbulent thermal convection (Grossmann and Lohse, J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000); Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3316 (2001); Phys. Rev. E 66, 016305 (2002)) is revisited, stressing the role of the thermal plumes for the thermal dissipation rate and solving a problem on the local distribution of the thermal dissipation rate, which had been addressed by Verzicco and Camussi. We moreover make predictions for temperature and velocity fluctuation as function of Rayleigh and Prandtl number and show that the thermal plumes also play an important role for the fluctuations. We conclude with a list of detailed suggestions for measurements to verify or falsify our present understanding of heat transport and fluctuation in turbulent thermal convection. -- This is joint work with Siegfried Grossmann, Marburg.

  1. Science fiction and the history of the astro-department of Carl Zeiss Jena (German Title: Science Fiction und die Geschichte der Astroabteilung von Carl Zeiss Jena)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Hans G.

    This contribution uses the literary form of science fiction in retrospect, in order to display the initial conditions given in the run-up of the founding of the astro-department of the Zeiss factory. Written minutes (supposedly found during restoration works in the people's house in Jena) introduce the participants of a sort of founding party of the main actors Ernst Abbe, Otto Schott, Siegfried Czapski, Hans Harting, Albert König, Franz Meyer and Walter Villiger. Their contributions to the discussion yield a market analysis, based on the past development of the technology of astronomical instruments, the international competitors' state of the art, and the assessment of the future development in astronomy and especially of astrophysics. The contribution presents a piece of modern history of the year 1987; it was presented as a talk on May 13 of the same year, when Rolf Riekher celebrated his 65th birthday.

  2. Evolution of one-handed piano compositions.

    PubMed

    Drozdov, Ignat; Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M

    2008-01-01

    Electronic searches were performed to investigate the evolution of one-handed piano compositions and one-handed music techniques, and to identify individuals responsible for the development of music meant for playing with one hand. Particularly, composers such as Liszt, Ravel, Scriabin, and Prokofiev established a new model in music by writing works to meet the demands of a variety of pianist-amputees that included Count Géza Zichy (1849-1924), Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), and Siegfried Rapp (b. 1915). Zichy was the first to amplify the scope of the repertoire to improve the variety of one-handed music; Wittgenstein developed and adapted specific and novel performance techniques to accommodate one-handedness; and Rapp sought to promote the stature of one-handed pianists among a musically sophisticated public able to appreciate the nuances of such maestros.

  3. David against Goliath, or Lyttelton against Maule; why is the near-field so challenging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupazzini, M.; Smerzini, C.; Allmann, A.; Guidotti, R.; Käser, M.; Paolucci, R.; Pilz, M.; Smolka, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Maule (Mw8.8 27/02/2010), Darfield (Mw7.1 04/09/2010), Lyttelton (Mw6.3 22/02/2011) and Tohoku (Mw9.0 06/04/2011) events proved that, even if earthquake engineering, and all the related research fields, tackle efficiently the challenge of earthquake catastrophes, nonetheless the fragility of modern society is still quite high. How to work toward building an earthquake resilient society seems to be the next defiance. Furthermore, the major events of the last two years reminded us dramatically that the reliable assessment of earthquake-induced damages and losses is a problem of paramount importance. The comparison between extremely different events, both in size of the event and in insurance penetration condition, allows us to further reflect on the way how risk is presently addressed. In this contribution we will first summarize our recent findings on the Maule event and on the Christchurch seismic sequence (September 2010 - June 2011), partly based on 3D numerical modeling of earthquake ground shaking, with particular consideration of the comparison between observed and simulated waveforms (Guidotti et al.). Taking advantage of the lessons learnt from the Maule event in terms of vulnerability of the Chilean building stock, we will then show the numerical results obtained for a set of 3D deterministic fault rupture scenarios, occurring along the San Ramon fault, located on the eastern margin of the city of Santiago de Chile (Pilz et al.). Notwithstanding their low probability, "Christchurch-like" seismic events are not isolated cases. They deserve special attention and form an important element in overall risk management approach, allowing us to draw some conclusions about the future development of this topic and about the role of numerical simulations in seismic hazard assessment studies. Guidotti R., Stupazzini M., Smerzini C., Paolucci R., Ramieri R., " Numerical study on the role of basin geometry and kinematic seismic source in 3D ground motion simulation

  4. Cyclic Di-GMP Regulates Multiple Cellular Functions in the Symbiotic Alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Schäper, Simon; Krol, Elizaveta; Skotnicka, Dorota; Kaever, Volkhard; Hilker, Rolf; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sinorhizobium meliloti undergoes major lifestyle changes between planktonic states, biofilm formation, and symbiosis with leguminous plant hosts. In many bacteria, the second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP, or cdG) promotes a sessile lifestyle by regulating a plethora of processes involved in biofilm formation, including motility and biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS). Here, we systematically investigated the role of cdG in S. meliloti Rm2011 encoding 22 proteins putatively associated with cdG synthesis, degradation, or binding. Single mutations in 21 of these genes did not cause evident changes in biofilm formation, motility, or EPS biosynthesis. In contrast, manipulation of cdG levels by overproducing endogenous or heterologous diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) or phosphodiesterases (PDEs) affected these processes and accumulation of N-Acyl-homoserine lactones in the culture supernatant. Specifically, individual overexpression of the S. meliloti genes pleD, SMb20523, SMb20447, SMc01464, and SMc03178 encoding putative DGCs and of SMb21517 encoding a single-domain PDE protein had an impact and resulted in increased levels of cdG. Compared to the wild type, an S. meliloti strain that did not produce detectable levels of cdG (cdG0) was more sensitive to acid stress. However, it was symbiotically potent, unaffected in motility, and only slightly reduced in biofilm formation. The SMc01790-SMc01796 locus, homologous to the Agrobacterium tumefaciens uppABCDEF cluster governing biosynthesis of a unipolarly localized polysaccharide, was found to be required for cdG-stimulated biofilm formation, while the single-domain PilZ protein McrA was identified as a cdG receptor protein involved in regulation of motility. IMPORTANCE We present the first systematic genome-wide investigation of the role of 3′,5′-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP, or cdG) in regulation of motility, biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and symbiosis in a

  5. Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry - A Powerful Tool to Identify Novel c-di-GMP Effector Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Laventie, Benoît-Joseph; Nesper, Jutta; Ahrné, Erik; Glatter, Timo; Schmidt, Alexander; Jenal, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made during the last decade towards the identification and characterization of enzymes involved in the synthesis (diguanylate cyclases) and degradation (phosphodiesterases) of the second messenger c-di-GMP. In contrast, little information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms and cellular components through which this signaling molecule regulates a diverse range of cellular processes. Most of the known effector proteins belong to the PilZ family or are degenerated diguanylate cyclases or phosphodiesterases that have given up on catalysis and have adopted effector function. Thus, to better define the cellular c-di-GMP network in a wide range of bacteria experimental methods are required to identify and validate novel effectors for which reliable in silico predictions fail. We have recently developed a novel Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry (CCMS) based technology as a powerful tool to biochemically identify and characterize c-di-GMP binding proteins. This technique has previously been reported to be applicable to a wide range of organisms1. Here we give a detailed description of the protocol that we utilize to probe such signaling components. As an example, we use Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen in which c-di-GMP plays a critical role in virulence and biofilm control. CCMS identified 74% (38/51) of the known or predicted components of the c-di-GMP network. This study explains the CCMS procedure in detail, and establishes it as a powerful and versatile tool to identify novel components involved in small molecule signaling. PMID:25867682

  6. Dimeric c-di-GMP is required for post-translational regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Whitney, John C; Whitfield, Gregory B; Marmont, Lindsey S; Yip, Patrick; Neculai, A Mirela; Lobsanov, Yuri D; Robinson, Howard; Ohman, Dennis E; Howell, P Lynne

    2015-05-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZ domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. These results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa.

  7. Dimeric c-di-GMP Is Required for Post-translational Regulation of Alginate Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa*

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, John C.; Whitfield, Gregory B.; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Yip, Patrick; Neculai, A. Mirela; Lobsanov, Yuri D.; Robinson, Howard; Ohman, Dennis E.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZ domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. These results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa. PMID:25817996

  8. Exploring the relationship between object realism and object-based attention effects.

    PubMed

    Roque, Nelson; Boot, Walter R

    2015-09-01

    Visual attention prioritizes processing of locations in space, and evidence also suggests that the benefits of attention can be shaped by the presence of objects (object-based attention). However, the prevalence of object-based attention effects has been called into question recently by evidence from a large-sampled study employing classic attention paradigms (Pilz et al., 2012). We conducted two experiments to explore factors that might determine when and if object-based attention effects are observed, focusing on the degree to which the concreteness and realism of objects might contribute to these effects. We adapted the classic attention paradigm first reported by Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994) by replacing abstract bar stimuli in some conditions with objects that were more concrete and familiar to participants: items of silverware. Furthermore, we varied the realism of these items of silverware, presenting either cartoon versions or photo-realistic versions. Contrary to predictions, increased realism did not increase the size of object-based effects. In fact, no clear object-based effects were observed in either experiment, consistent with previous failures to replicate these effects in similar paradigms. While object-based attention may exist, and may have important influences on how we parse the visual world, these and other findings suggest that the two-object paradigm typically relied upon to study object-based effects may not be the best paradigm to investigate these issues.

  9. Dimeric c-di-GMP is required for post-translational regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, John C.; Robinson, Howard; Whitfield, Gregory B.; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Yip, Patrick; Neculai, A. Mirela; Lobsanov, Yuri D.; Ohman, Dennis E.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-05-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZ domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Moreover, calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. Our results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa.

  10. Making a political statement or refusing to grow up--reflections on the situation of the academic youth in postwar British literature.

    PubMed

    Schlüssel, Angelika

    2005-12-01

    The author attempts to apply the psychoanalytic concept of "prolonged adolescence" to two literary works, both of which are embedded in England's postwar social and political climate. The discussion of John Wain's Hurry on Down ([1953] 1979) and John Osborne's Look Back in Anger ([1956] 1989), by necessity, involves a look at those factors responsible for shaping the cultural "mood" in those days. However, the author's primary concern lies with how two particular (fictional) individuals, or antiheroes, deal with the frustration, which, although generally felt among contemporary academia, in their cases seems to hide a much deeper layer of mental insecurity and instability. In fact, we come to feel that the characters have not achieved a proper sense of identity ("self") and are, from the point of view of maturity, delayed and, hence, "unfitted" to cope adequately with the external world. Having long achieved formal adulthood, they seem to have gotten "stuck" somewhere along the passage of growing up. Essential papers by Sigmund Freud and his daughter Anna, as well as a very early paper on the topic by Siegfried Bernfeld, are, among others, taken into account, as is the profound research done by Peter Blos on the subject in question.

  11. Correalism and Equipoise: Kiesler and Giedion on the sustainable

    SciTech Connect

    Braham, W.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper inquires about standards for the sustainable that are not strictly bound to the principles of conservation or scarcity. In particular, two earlier contributions to this discussion offer alternate views of sustainability: the architect Frederick Kiesler and the critic-historian Siegfried Giedion both explored the human and social consequences of technological constructions. Their work participates in the long, nineteenth- and twentieth-century discourse about mechanization, that examined the many consequences of industrialization. In a sequence of published and unpublished works in the 1930`s Kieler evolved a theory about the relationship between buildings and nature that he called Correalism. While at the end Mechanization Takes Command of 1948, Giedion examined the loss of public and regenerative bathing habits and the rise of the private, forms of cleansing still largely practiced today. He concluded that work with a plea for a dynamic balance that he called Equipoise. Both works develop from ideas of interconnection that he now associates with systems theory and which are properly integral to modern ecology. Their critical questions revolve around the social dimensions of everyday constructions like buildings and bathtubs. The distinction between instrumental criteria and social ones is everywhere present in modern environmentalism, which can be traced to fundamental concerns about either resource use or about health. These two issues are wholly intertwined in most environmental practices, but the assumptions on which they rest are themselves historically changeable. The complex interaction between measurable environmental features and human concerns or desires is the subject of Kiesler`s Correalism.

  12. ['Anatomia actuosa et apta'. The mechanist 'proto'-physiology of B.S. Albinus].

    PubMed

    van der Korst, J K

    1993-01-01

    Already during his tenure as professor of anatomy and surgery (1721-1746) and before he became a professor of physiology and medicine at the University of Leiden, Bernard Siegfried Albinus held private lecture courses on physiology. In these lectures he pleaded for a separation of physiology from theoretical medicine, which was still its customary place in the medical curriculum of the first half of the eighteenth century. According to Albinus, physiology was a science in its own right and should be solely based on the careful observation of forms and structures of the human body. From the 'fabrica', the function ('aptitudo') could be derived by careful reasoning. As shown by a set of lecture notes, which recently came to light, Albinus adhered, initially, to a strictly mechanistic explanatory model, which was almost completely based on the physiological concepts of Herman Boerhaave. However, in contrast to the latter, he even rejected the involvement of chemical processes in digestion. Although his lectures were highly acclaimed as demonstrations of minute anatomy, Albinus met with little or no direct response in regard to his concept of physiology.

  13. PSHAe (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard enhanced): the case of Istanbul.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupazzini, Marco; Allmann, Alexander; Infantino, Maria; Kaeser, Martin; Mazzieri, Ilario; Paolucci, Roberto; Smerzini, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    The Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) only relying on GMPEs tends to be insufficiently constrained at short distances and data only partially account for the rupture process, seismic wave propagation and three-dimensional (3D) complex configurations. Given a large and representative set of numerical results from 3D scenarios, analysing the resulting database from a statistical point of view and implementing the results as a generalized attenuation function (GAF) into the classical PSHA might be an appealing way to deal with this problem (Villani et al., 2014). Nonetheless, the limited amount of computational resources or time available tend to pose substantial constrains in a broad application of the previous method and, furthermore, the method is only partially suitable for taking into account the spatial correlation of ground motion as modelled by each forward physics-based simulation (PBS). Given that, we envision a streamlined and alternative implementation of the previous approach, aiming at selecting a limited number of scenarios wisely chosen and associating them a probability of occurrence. The experience gathered in the past year regarding 3D modelling of seismic wave propagation in complex alluvial basin (Pilz et al., 2011, Guidotti et al., 2011, Smerzini and Villani, 2012) allowed us to enhance the choice of simulated scenarios in order to explore the variability of ground motion, preserving the full spatial correlation necessary for risk modelling, on one hand and on the other the simulated losses for a given location and a given building stock. 3D numerical modelling of scenarios occurring the North Anatolian Fault in the proximity of Istanbul are carried out through the spectral element code SPEED (http://speed.mox.polimi.it). The results are introduced in a PSHA, exploiting the capabilities of the proposed methodology against a traditional approach based on GMPE. References Guidotti R, M Stupazzini, C Smerzini, R Paolucci, P Ramieri

  14. Genomic analysis of cyclic-di-GMP-related genes in rhizobial type strains and functional analysis in Rhizobium etli.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shanjun; Romdhane, Samir Ben; Beullens, Serge; Kaever, Volkhard; Lambrichts, Ivo; Fauvart, Maarten; Michiels, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Rhizobia are soil bacteria that can fix nitrogen in symbiosis with leguminous plants or exist free living in the rhizosphere. Crucial to their complex lifestyle is the ability to sense and respond to diverse environmental stimuli, requiring elaborate signaling pathways. In the majority of bacteria, the nucleotide-based second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is involved in signal transduction. Surprisingly, little is known about the importance of c-di-GMP signaling in rhizobia. We have analyzed the genome sequences of six well-studied type species (Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti, Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Sinorhizobium fredii, and Sinorhizobium meliloti) for proteins possibly involved in c-di-GMP signaling based on the presence of four domains: GGDEF (diguanylate cyclase), EAL and HD-GYP (phosphodiesterase), and PilZ (c-di-GMP sensor). We find that rhizobia possess a high number of these proteins. Conservation analysis suggests that c-di-GMP signaling proteins modulate species-specific pathways rather than ancient rhizobia-specific processes. Two hybrid GGDEF-EAL proteins were selected for functional analysis, R. etli RHE_PD00105 (CdgA) and RHE_PD00137 (CdgB). Expression of cdgA and cdgB is repressed by the alarmone (p)ppGpp. cdgB is significantly expressed on plant roots and free living. Mutation of cdgA, cdgB, or both does not affect plant root colonization, nitrogen fixation capacity, biofilm formation, motility, and exopolysaccharide production. However, heterologous expression of the individual GGDEF and EAL domains of each protein in Escherichia coli strongly suggests that CdgA and CdgB are bifunctional proteins, possessing both diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase activities. Taken together, our results provide a platform for future studies of c-di-GMP signaling in rhizobia.

  15. The influence of object similarity and orientation on object-based cueing.

    PubMed

    Hein, Elisabeth; Blaschke, Stefan; Rolke, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Responses to targets that appear at a noncued position within the same object (invalid-same) compared to a noncued position at an equidistant different object (invalid-different) tend to be faster and more accurate. These cueing effects have been taken as evidence that visual attention can be object based (Egly, Driver, & Rafal, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 161-177, 1994). Recent findings, however, have shown that the object-based cueing effect is influenced by object orientation, suggesting that the cueing effect might be due to a more general facilitation of attentional shifts across the horizontal meridian (Al-Janabi & Greenberg, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 1-17, 2016; Pilz, Roggeveen, Creighton, Bennet, & Sekuler, PLOS ONE, 7, e30693, 2012). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the object-based cueing effect is influenced by object similarity and orientation. According to the object-based attention account, objects that are less similar to each other should elicit stronger object-based cueing effects independent of object orientation, whereas the horizontal meridian theory would not predict any effect of object similarity. We manipulated object similarity by using a color (Exp. 1, Exp. 2A) or shape change (Exp. 2B) to distinguish two rectangles in a variation of the classic two-rectangle paradigm (Egly et al., 1994). We found that the object-based cueing effects were influenced by the orientation of the rectangles and strengthened by object dissimilarity. We suggest that object-based cueing effects are strongly affected by the facilitation of attention along the horizontal meridian, but that they also have an object-based attentional component, which is revealed when the dissimilarity between the presented objects is accentuated.

  16. Costs and deaths of landslides in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Ubydul; Blum, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Landslides cause human and large economic losses worldwide and also in Europe. However, the quantification of associated costs and deaths is highly underestimated and still incomplete, thus the estimation of landslide costs and risk is still rather ambitious. Hence, in this study a spatio-temporal analysis of fatal landslides is presented for 27 European countries from 1995-2014. These landslides are mainly concentrated in mountainous areas. A total of 1370 fatalities are reported resulting from 476 landslides. The highest fatalities with 335 are observed in Turkey. In general, an increasing trend of fatal landslides is recognized starting in 2008. The latter is almost certainly triggered by an increase in natural extreme events such as storms (i.e. heavy rainfall) and floods. The highest annual economic loss is observed in Italy with 3.9 billion Euro per year. In contrast, in Germany the annual total loss is only about 0.3 billion Euro. The results of this study serves as an initial baseline information for further risk studies integrating landslide locations, local land use data, cost data, and will therefore certainly support the studied countries to better protect their citizens and assets. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions by Paula F. da Silva, Peter Andersen, Jürgen Pilz, Ali Ardalan, Sergey R. Chalov, Jean-Philippe Malet, Mateja Jemec Auflič, Norina Andres, Eleftheria Poyiadji, Pedro C. Lamas, Wenyi Zhang, Igor Pesevski, Halldór G. Pétursson, Tayfun Kurt, Nikolai Dobrev, Juan Carlos García Davalillo, Matina Halkia, Stefano Ferri, George Gaprindashvili, Johanna Engström and David Keellings.

  17. Impact of a Cross-Kingdom Signaling Molecule of Candida albicans on Acinetobacter baumannii Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Kostoulias, Xenia; Murray, Gerald L.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Kong, Jason B.; Bantun, Farkad; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Khoo, Chen Ai

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic human pathogen that has become highly problematic in the clinical environment. Novel therapies are desperately required. To assist in identifying new therapeutic targets, the antagonistic interactions between A. baumannii and the most common human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, were studied. We have observed that the C. albicans quorum-sensing molecule, farnesol, has cross-kingdom interactions, affecting the viability of A. baumannii. To gain an understanding of its mechanism, the transcriptional profile of A. baumannii exposed to farnesol was examined. Farnesol caused dysregulation of a large number of genes involved in cell membrane biogenesis, multidrug efflux pumps (AcrAB-like and AdeIJK-like), and A. baumannii virulence traits such as biofilm formation (csuA, csuB, and ompA) and motility (pilZ and pilH). We also observed a strong induction in genes involved in cell division (minD, minE, ftsK, ftsB, and ftsL). These transcriptional data were supported by functional assays showing that farnesol disrupts A. baumannii cell membrane integrity, alters cell morphology, and impairs virulence characteristics such as biofilm formation and twitching motility. Moreover, we showed that A. baumannii uses efflux pumps as a defense mechanism against this eukaryotic signaling molecule. Owing to its effects on membrane integrity, farnesol was tested to see if it potentiated the activity of the membrane-acting polymyxin antibiotic colistin. When coadministered, farnesol increased sensitivity to colistin for otherwise resistant strains. These data provide mechanistic understanding of the antagonistic interactions between diverse pathogens and may provide important insights into novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26482299

  18. The Anatomische Gesellschaft and National Socialism: an analysis based on newly available archival material.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The newly available scientific estate of Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), long-time secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG), allows a more profound analysis of how this scientific association went through the period of the "Third Reich". At the first meeting under the new rulers in 1934, von Eggeling and Siegfried Mollier prevented their board colleague Martin Heidenhain from giving an introductory talk because they (not unjustly) feared anti-Jewish protests, but also because many anatomy professors, like other German scholars, were fervent nationalists who welcomed Hitler and largely accepted the expulsion of Jewish and other colleagues as 'inevitable' for national renewal. Many persecuted members nevertheless remained on the membership lists and the AG never officially introduced anti-Jewish bylaws. Eggeling and his like-minded colleagues successfully defended the international status of the AG, though not so much against the Nazi authorities but against a younger generation of anatomists who were willing to benefit from the new political situation and strived for their own German anatomical association. The available archival material suggests that the motivation of the established leading members of the AG to take this specific path was not rooted in opposition to the new rulers but rather in defence of their traditional status of reputed professors running a time-honoured, world leading society. This made international reputation an important guideline for many decisions. While they did ward off attempts by the younger generation to politicise the AG, their post-war calls for an apolitical science remain ambivalent, as their own stance had not always been apolitical.

  19. Systematic Identification of Cyclic-di-GMP Binding Proteins in Vibrio cholerae Reveals a Novel Class of Cyclic-di-GMP-Binding ATPases Associated with Type II Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Xiaoran; Orr, Mona W.; Goodson, Jonathan R.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.; Lee, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule that regulates a variety of complex processes through a diverse set of c-di-GMP receptor proteins. We have utilized a systematic approach to identify c-di-GMP receptors from the pathogen Vibrio cholerae using the Differential Radial Capillary Action of Ligand Assay (DRaCALA). The DRaCALA screen identified a majority of known c-di-GMP binding proteins in V. cholerae and revealed a novel c-di-GMP binding protein, MshE (VC0405), an ATPase associated with the mannose sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) type IV pilus. The known c-di-GMP binding proteins identified by DRaCALA include diguanylate cyclases, phosphodiesterases, PilZ domain proteins and transcription factors VpsT and VpsR, indicating that the DRaCALA-based screen of open reading frame libraries is a feasible approach to uncover novel receptors of small molecule ligands. Since MshE lacks the canonical c-di-GMP-binding motifs, a truncation analysis was utilized to locate the c-di-GMP binding activity to the N-terminal T2SSE_N domain. Alignment of MshE homologs revealed candidate conserved residues responsible for c-di-GMP binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of these candidate residues revealed that the Arg9 residue is required for c-di-GMP binding. The ability of c-di-GMP binding to MshE to regulate MSHA dependent processes was evaluated. The R9A allele, in contrast to the wild type MshE, was unable to complement the ΔmshE mutant for the production of extracellular MshA to the cell surface, reduction in flagella swimming motility, attachment to surfaces and formation of biofilms. Testing homologs of MshE for binding to c-di-GMP identified the type II secretion ATPase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14_29490) as a c-di-GMP receptor, indicating that type II secretion and type IV pili are both regulated by c-di-GMP. PMID:26506097

  20. Structure of the Cellulose Synthase Complex of Gluconacetobacter hansenii at 23.4 Å Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Vepachedu, Venkata; Cho, Sung Hyun; Kumar, Manish; Nixon, B. Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial crystalline cellulose is used in biomedical and industrial applications, but the molecular mechanisms of synthesis are unclear. Unlike most bacteria, which make non-crystalline cellulose, Gluconacetobacter hansenii extrudes profuse amounts of crystalline cellulose. Its cellulose synthase (AcsA) exists as a complex with accessory protein AcsB, forming a 'terminal complex' (TC) that has been visualized by freeze-fracture TEM at the base of ribbons of crystalline cellulose. The catalytic AcsAB complex is embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane. The C-terminal portion of AcsC is predicted to form a translocation channel in the outer membrane, with the rest of AcsC possibly interacting with AcsD in the periplasm. It is thus believed that synthesis from an organized array of TCs coordinated with extrusion by AcsC and AcsD enable this bacterium to make crystalline cellulose. The only structural data that exist for this system are the above mentioned freeze-fracture TEM images, fluorescence microscopy images revealing that TCs align in a row, a crystal structure of AcsD bound to cellopentaose, and a crystal structure of PilZ domain of AcsA. Here we advance our understanding of the structural basis for crystalline cellulose production by bacterial cellulose synthase by determining a negative stain structure resolved to 23.4 Å for highly purified AcsAB complex that catalyzed incorporation of UDP-glucose into β-1,4-glucan chains, and responded to the presence of allosteric activator cyclic diguanylate. Although the AcsAB complex was functional in vitro, the synthesized cellulose was not visible in TEM. The negative stain structure revealed that AcsAB is very similar to that of the BcsAB synthase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a non-crystalline cellulose producing bacterium. The results indicate that the crystalline cellulose producing and non-crystalline cellulose producing bacteria share conserved catalytic and membrane translocation components, and support the

  1. Application of Synthetic Peptide Arrays To Uncover Cyclic Di-GMP Binding Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Düvel, Juliane; Bense, Sarina; Möller, Stefan; Bertinetti, Daniela; Schwede, Frank; Morr, Michael; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Jänsch, Lothar; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Frank, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High levels of the universal bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) promote the establishment of surface-attached growth in many bacteria. Not only can c-di-GMP bind to nucleic acids and directly control gene expression, but it also binds to a diverse array of proteins of specialized functions and orchestrates their activity. Since its development in the early 1990s, the synthetic peptide array technique has become a powerful tool for high-throughput approaches and was successfully applied to investigate the binding specificity of protein-ligand interactions. In this study, we used peptide arrays to uncover the c-di-GMP binding site of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa protein (PA3740) that was isolated in a chemical proteomics approach. PA3740 was shown to bind c-di-GMP with a high affinity, and peptide arrays uncovered LKKALKKQTNLR to be a putative c-di-GMP binding motif. Most interestingly, different from the previously identified c-di-GMP binding motif of the PilZ domain (RXXXR) or the I site of diguanylate cyclases (RXXD), two leucine residues and a glutamine residue and not the charged amino acids provided the key residues of the binding sequence. Those three amino acids are highly conserved across PA3740 homologs, and their singular exchange to alanine reduced c-di-GMP binding within the full-length protein. IMPORTANCE In many bacterial pathogens the universal bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP governs the switch from the planktonic, motile mode of growth to the sessile, biofilm mode of growth. Bacteria adapt their intracellular c-di-GMP levels to a variety of environmental challenges. Several classes of c-di-GMP binding proteins have been structurally characterized, and diverse c-di-GMP binding domains have been identified. Nevertheless, for several c-di-GMP receptors, the binding motif remains to be determined. Here we show that the use of a synthetic peptide array allowed the identification of a c-di-GMP binding motif of a putative c

  2. Science versus News: On the Cutting Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, A. L.; French, V.; Villard, R.; Maran, S. P.

    1998-12-01

    Washington, Mr. Thomas Siegfried, from The Dallas Daily News, Ms. Kathy Sawyer, from The Washington Post, Mr. John Noble Wilford from The New York Times, and Ms. Ann Kellan from CNN.

  3. Functional Characterization of TNNC1 Rare Variants Identified in Dilated Cardiomyopathy*

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Jose Renato; Siegfried, Jill D.; Parvatiyar, Michelle S.; Li, Duanxiang; Norton, Nadine; Jones, Michelle A.; Liang, Jingsheng; Potter, James D.; Hershberger, Ray E.

    2011-01-01

    TNNC1, which encodes cardiac troponin C (cTnC), remains elusive as a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) gene. Here, we report the clinical, genetic, and functional characterization of four TNNC1 rare variants (Y5H, M103I, D145E, and I148V), all previously reported by us in association with DCM (Hershberger, R. E., Norton, N., Morales, A., Li, D., Siegfried, J. D., and Gonzalez-Quintana, J. (2010) Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 3, 155–161); in the previous study, two variants (Y5H and D145E) were identified in subjects who also carried MYH7 and MYBPC3 rare variants, respectively. Functional studies using the recombinant human mutant cTnC proteins reconstituted into porcine papillary skinned fibers showed decreased Ca2+ sensitivity of force development (Y5H and M103I). Furthermore, the cTnC mutants diminished (Y5H and I148V) or abolished (M103I) the effects of PKA phosphorylation on Ca2+ sensitivity. Only M103I decreased the troponin activation properties of the actomyosin ATPase when Ca2+ was present. CD spectroscopic studies of apo (absence of divalent cations)-, Mg2+-, and Ca2+/Mg2+-bound states indicated that all of the cTnC mutants (except I148V in the Ca2+/Mg2+ condition) decreased the α-helical content. These results suggest that each mutation alters the function/ability of the myofilament to bind Ca2+ as a result of modifications in cTnC structure. One variant (D145E) that was previously reported in association with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and that produced results in vivo in this study consistent with prior hypertrophic cardiomyopathy functional studies was found associated with the MYBPC3 P910T rare variant, likely contributing to the observed DCM phenotype. We conclude that these rare variants alter the regulation of contraction in some way, and the combined clinical, molecular, genetic, and functional data reinforce the importance of TNNC1 rare variants in the pathogenesis of DCM. PMID:21832052

  4. Web-based interactive access, analysis and comparison of remotely sensed and in situ measured temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Jonas; Urban, Marcel; Hüttich, Christian; Schmullius, Christiane

    2014-05-01

    Temperature from Meteorological Stations on the Pan-Arctic Scale." Remote Sens. 5, no. 5: 2348-2367. Further materials: Eberle, Jonas; Clausnitzer, Siegfried; Hüttich, Christian; Schmullius, Christiane. 2013. "Multi-Source Data Processing Middleware for Land Monitoring within a Web-Based Spatial Data Infrastructure for Siberia." ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2, no. 3: 553-576.

  5. Mining Subsidence-generated legacy sediments in a Mid-European low-order stream floodplain as an archive for historic human activity and flooding events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchty-Lemke, Michael; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Frings, Roy; Henkel, Sebastian; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Legacy sediments, which were deposited as a consequence of mining subsidence in a floodplain area, can be used as an archive for human activity and past flooding. The morphodynamics of the Wurm River, a low-order stream in the Lower Rhine Embayment at the border between Germany and the Netherlands, is significantly influenced by a long colliery history, which caused alterations in the natural river landscape. In addition, substances which are transported via municipal wastewaters as well as contaminants emitted by specific regional industries were deposited in the floodplain sediments. This study aims at the reconstruction of human activity and past flooding events derived from geochemical and sedimentological data for different time slices within the 20st century. The spatial and chronological distribution of contaminants is investigated on the basis of several sections and drilling cores along the middle reaches of the Wurm River. Sections within mining subsidence areas and outside of those are compared regarding their sedimentation rates and element contents. Additional information is gathered from digital terrain models, historical documents such as the Tranchot map (early 19th century), and interviews of contemporary witnesses. Sedimentation rates derived from Cs-137 measurements allow a temporal assignment of the legacy sediments. A section within a segment of the Siegfried Line (Westwall), constructed in 1939, that crosses the Wurm River shows a significant increase in sedimentation rates in contrast to the floodplain area that is unaffected by subsidence processes. Furthermore, source-specific contaminants can be used to refine the stratigraphy, since source and period of emission are known. The evaluation of past flooding events is supported by numerical modeling of flood scenarios, which provides detailed information about flooded areas depending on the discharge, particularly for the areas which are under influence of mining subsidence. Besides the

  6. The use of historical maps for reconstructing landforms before river damming. The case of the Swiss Rhone River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, E.; Laigre, L.; Baud, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Swiss Rhone River was systematically embanked during the period 1864-1893. The Swiss Rhone River valley is a glacial valley filled by glaciolacustrine, fluvioglacial and fluvial sediments. Torrential tributaries contribute to a large extent to the sedimentation in the valley and have built large alluvial fans in the main valley. The period before the river damming corresponds to the Little Ice Age, and it is supposed that the torrential behaviour of the river and its tributaries was very active during that period. In parallel to a large hydraulic project (Third Rhone River Correction), aiming at enlarging the river for security and environmental reasons, this project aims at reconstructing the palaeogeomorphology of the river floodplain before and also during the 30-year long embankment project developed during the last decades of the 19th century. The objective is to better know the geomorphological behaviour of the river, and also to localize palaolandforms (meanders, braided patterns, sandstone dunes, wetlands, etc.), present in the floodplain in the first part of the 19th century and that have now totally disappeared. The project is carried out in close collaboration with the Cantonal Archives of Valais and with a group of historians working on the relations between the river and the communities. It should contribute to a better knowledge of the Swiss Rhone River history (Reynard et al., 2009). Both published official maps (Dufour maps, Siegfried maps) and unpublished maps and plans are systematically collected, digitized, and organised in a database managed by a Geographical Information System. Other data are collected (place names, geomorphological, hydrological and hydraulic data, information about land-use and vegetation, paintings and photographs, etc.) and localised. A high-resolution digital terrain model and areal photographs are also used and allow us to map palaeolandforms (meanders, filled oxbow lakes, former channels, etc.). In a second step

  7. Activation Mechanism and Cellular Localization of Membrane-Anchored Alginate Polymerase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Moradali, M Fata; Ghods, Shirin; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2017-03-03

    The exopolysaccharide, alginate, produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a survival advantage by contributing to formation of characteristic biofilms during infection. Membrane anchored proteins Alg8 (catalytic subunit) and Alg44 (co-polymerase) constitute the alginate polymerase which is being activated by the second messenger molecule c-di-GMP, but the mechanism of activation remains elusive. To shed light on the c-di-GMP mediated activation of alginate polymerization in vivo, an in silico structural model of Alg8 fused to the c-di-GMP binding PilZ domain informed by the structure of cellulose synthase, BcsA, was developed. This structural model was probed by site-specific mutagenesis and different cellular levels of c-di-GMP. Results suggested that c-di-GMP-mediated activation of alginate polymerization involves amino acids residing at two loops including H323 (loop A), T457 and E460 (loop B) surrounding the catalytic site in the predicted model. Activity of respective Alg8 variants suggested that c-di-GMP-mediated control of substrate access to the catalytic site of Alg8 is dissimilar to the known activation mechanism of BcsA. Alg8 variants responded differently to various c-di-GMP levels while MucR imparted c-di-GMP for activation of alginate polymerase. Furthermore, we showed that Alg44 co-polymerase constituted a stable dimer, with its periplasmic domains required for protein localization, alginate polymerization and modification. Superfolder GFP fusions of Alg8 and Alg44 showed a non-uniform, punctuate and patchy arrangement of both proteins surrounding the cell. Overall, this study provides insights into the c-di-GMP mediated activation of alginate polymerization while assigning functional roles to Alg8 and Alg44 including their subcellular localization and distribution.IMPORTANCE The exopolysaccharide, alginate, is an important biofilm component of the opportunistic human pathogen P. aeruginosa and the principle

  8. An Extended Cyclic Di-GMP Network in the Predatory Bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Or; Nesper, Jutta; Borovok, Ilya; Gorovits, Rena; Kolot, Mikhail; Pasternak, Zohar; Shin, Irina; Glatter, Timo; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Jenal, Urs

    2015-01-01

    specificity to c-di-GMP binding were confirmed using microscale thermophoresis with a hypothetical protein bearing a PilZ domain, an acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, and a two-component system response regulator, indicating that additional c-di-GMP binding candidates may be bona fide novel effectors. IMPORTANCE In this study, 84 putative c-di-GMP binding proteins were identified in B. bacteriovorus, an obligate predatory bacterium whose lifestyle and reproduction are dependent on c-di-GMP signaling, using a c-di-GMP capture compound precipitation approach. This predicted complement covers metabolic, energy, transport, motility and regulatory pathways, and most of it is phase specific, i.e., 62 candidates bind the capture compound at defined modes of B. bacteriovorus lifestyle. Three of the putative binders further demonstrated specificity and high affinity to c-di-GMP via microscale thermophoresis, lending support for the presence of additional bona fide c-di-GMP effectors among the pulled-down protein repertoire. PMID:26324450

  9. Geodiversity and the natural history of landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian

    2014-05-01

    For a long time, landforms were studied according to the criteria exposed in the theory of the geographical cycle, at least for geomorphologists claiming a Davisian approach. In this context, particular importance was attached, concerning landforms, to the remains of "peneplains". At this point, it must be remembered that Davis has never been followed unanimously, including the United States, but it was the German geomorphologists who by far developed the strongest criticism of Davisian ideas: scientists such as Albrecht Penck, Siegfried Passarge or Johannes Walther could not be satisfied with views so different of concepts and methods used by German naturalists in geology, geography and geomorphology. This intellectual opposition, however, leads Davis to constantly improve the model of the geographical cycle depending on climatic conditions (arid cycle, glacial cycle…), thick formations of limestones (karstic cycle), or a peculiar geographical position (coastal cycle, coral reef problem). After 1950, Davisian conceptions were, either abruptly given up (Strahler), or severely criticized (Tricart, Hack, Chorley), or deeply modified (King, Baulig, Klein), in particular to make them compatible with situations where it is not possible to identify in the topography the remains of several geographic cycles. For example, in the case of the Appalachians, Hack's originality is to reason exactly at the opposite to Davis and Johnson. Where the latter would select in the topographic continuum supposed elements of successive cycles, in order to interpret current landscape with the hypothetical lights of a theoretical past, Hack starts by a comprehensive analysis of landforms, patterned reliefs and soils of the present mountain chain, leading to the famous conclusion that the Appalachians are not evolving under decay conditions but are in situation of steady state through dynamic equilibrium. So the question becomes now to understand how far it is relevant and how it is

  10. STEM Education in Jordan Applicable to Developing Future Geophysicists: An Example Combining Electrical Engineering and Medical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraiwan, A.; Khadra, L.; Shahab, W.; Olgaard, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    the three arrhythmias used a Back-propagation neural network whose input is the energy level calculated from the wavelet transform. The network was trained using 13 different patterns (3 for AF, 5 for VT and 5 for VF) and blind tested on 25 records. The classification scheme correctly identified all 9 VF records, 5 of 6 VT records, and 9 of 10 AF records. Manual interpretation of time-frequency seismic data is computationally intensive because large volumes of data are generated during the time-frequency analysis process. The proposed NWA method has the potential to partially automate the interpretation of seismic data. Also, a relatively straight-forward adaptation of the proposed NWA-based classification scheme may help identify hydrocarbon-laden reservoirs, which have been observed to contain enhanced low-frequency content in the time-frequency domain (Castagna, Sun, & Siegfried, 2003).

  11. Mercury: a final prediction for internal thermal and physical structure, prior to MESSENGER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, A. J.

    2008-05-01

    The confirmation by the NASA MESSENGER spacecraft that Mercury has an internal magnetic field that is well described by a dipole nearly aligned with the spin axis strongly suggests that the planet may have an outer core of molten metal (S. Solomon, MESSENGER news release of 30 January 2008). The existence of an internal layer of liquid has also been invoked to explain radar measurements of the large amplitude of the longitudinal libration of Mercury relative to the value expected for a wholly solid planet (J.L. Margot et al 2007 Science 316 710). The existence of molten metal in the planet`s interior is surprising since previous numerical models for the thermal evolution of the planet, calculated on the basis of the heat released by the decay of the radioactive isotopes of U and Th, indicated that the present temperature at the edge of the metal core is only ~ 1200 K (cf. Siegfried & Solomon 1974 Icarus 23 192) . This value is well below the melting temperature Tm = 2030 K of Fe-Ni alloy at the core/mantle boundary (CMB) pressure of ~ 70 kbar. Those earlier thermal calculations were, however, based on low abundances of U and Th found in lunar samples. Prentice (2008 LPSC 2008 abs. # 1945.pdf - see URL below) has put forward a new model for the bulk chemical composition of Mercury. It is based on the idea that this planet condensed from a gas ring that was cast off by the protosolar cloud close to the planet`s present orbit. The temperature of the gas ring Tn at the moment of detachment from the cloud is 1628 K and the pressure on the mean orbit of the ring is 0.168 bar. Because Tn is so high, the condensate contains a much reduced proportion of magnesium silicates relative to metals. This is because metals have a much lower vapour pressure than those silicates. The condensate consists mostly of Fe-Ni-Cr-Co-V (mass fraction 0.671), gehlenite (0.190) and Mg-silicates (0.081). What is really important in the gas ring model of solar system origin, however, is that the

  12. LFSTAT - Low-Flow Analysis in R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffler, Daniel; Laaha, Gregor

    2013-04-01

    objects are usual R-data-frames including date, flow, hydrological year and possibly baseflow information. Once these objects are created, analysis can be performed by mouse-click and a script can be saved to make the analysis easily reproducible. At the moment we are offering implementation of all major methods proposed in the WMO manual on Low-flow Estimation and Predictions [1]. Future plans include a dynamic low flow report in odt-file format using odf-weave which allows automatic updates if data or analysis change. We hope to offer a tool to ease and structure the analysis of stream flow data focusing on low-flows and to make analysis transparent and communicable. The package can also be used in teaching students the first steps in low-flow hydrology. The software packages can be installed from CRAN (latest stable) and R-Forge: http://r-forge.r-project.org (development version). References: [1] Gustard, Alan; Demuth, Siegfried, (eds.) Manual on Low-flow Estimation and Prediction. Geneva, Switzerland, World Meteorological Organization, (Operational Hydrology Report No. 50, WMO-No. 1029).

  13. PREFACE: EmQM13: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    these proceedings represent the talks of the invited speakers as written immediately after the symposium. The volume starts with a contribution by organizers Jan Walleczek and Gerhard Grössing, essentially explaining why emergent quantum mechanics, and other deterministic approaches to quantum theory, must be considered viable approaches in quantum foundations today. This is followed by the exposition of Stephen Adler's talk who introduced to a general audience key questions at the current frontiers of quantum mechanics during the opening evening (with the contents of his conference talk appearing elsewhere). The conference proceedings then continues with the presentations as given in their chronological order i.e. starting with the opening talk of the scientific program by Gerard 't Hooft. While the page number was restricted for all invited speakers, the paper by Jeff Tollaksen was given more space, as his invited collaborator Yakir Aharonov was unable to deliver a separate talk, in order to represent both contributions in one paper. Note that the talks of all speakers, including the talks of those who could not be represented in this volume (M. Arndt, B. Braverman, C. Brukner, S. Colin, Y. Couder, B. Poirier, A. Steinberg, G. Weihs and H. Wiseman) are freely available on the conference website as video presentations (http://www.emqm13.org). The organizers wish to express their gratitude to Siegfried Fussy and Herbert Schwabl from AINS for the organizational support. The organizers also wish to thank Bruce Fetzer, President and CEO, John E. Fetzer Memorial Trust, and the Members of the Board of Trustees, for their strong support and for funding this symposium. We also wish to thank the Austrian Academy of Sciences for allowing the symposium to be held on their premises, and Anton Zeilinger, President of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, for his welcome address. The expertise of the Members of the Scientific Advisory Board of the EmQM13 symposium, Ana Maria Cetto

  14. PREFACE: EmerQuM 11: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2011 (Heinz von Foerster Congress)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grössing, Gerhard

    2012-05-01

    These proceedings comprise the plenary lectures and poster contributions of the 'Heinz von Foerster Conference 2011' on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmerQuM11), which was held at the University of Vienna, 11-13 November 2011. With the 5th International Heinz von Foerster Conference convened at the occasion of von Foerster's 100th birthday, the organizers opted for a twin conference to take place at the Large and Small Ceremonial Halls of the University's main building, respectively. The overall topic was chosen as 'Self-Organization and Emergence', a topic to which von Foerster was an early contributor. While the first conference ('Self-Organization and Emergence in Nature and Society') addressed a more general audience, the second one ('Emergent Quantum Mechanics') was intended as a specialist meeting with a contemporary topic that could both serve as an illustration of von Foerster's intellectual heritage and, more generally, point towards future directions in physics. We thus intended to bring together many of those physicists who are interested in or are working on attempts to understand quantum mechanics as emerging from a suitable classical (or, more generally, deeper level) physics. EmerQuM11 was organized by the Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies (AINS), with essential support from the Wiener Institute for Social Science Documentation and Methodology (WISDOM), the Department of Contemporary History at the University of Vienna, and the Heinz von Foerster-Gesellschaft. There were a number of individuals who contributed to the smooth course of our meeting and whom I would like to sincerely thank: Christian Bischof, Thomas Elze, Marianne Ertl, Gertrud Hafner, Werner Korn, Angelika Krawanja, Florian Krug and his team, Sonja Lang, Albert Müller, Ilse Müller, Irene Müller, Karl Müller, Armin Reautschnig, Marion Schirrmacher, Anton Staudinger, Roman Zlabinger, and, last but not least, my AINS colleagues Siegfried Fussy, Herbert Schwabl and Johannes Mesa

  15. Limits to the availability of groundwater in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmunds, W. Mike

    2012-06-01

    recharge in semi-arid and arid regions Hydrol. Process. 20 3335-70 Zammouri M, Siegfried T, El-Fahem T, Kriâa S and Kinzelbach W 2007 Salinization of groundwater in the Nefzawaoases region, Tunisia: results of a regional-scale hydrogeologic approach Hydrogeol. J. 15 1357-75