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  1. Reply to Hansen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibert, Todd W.

    2012-01-01

    Hansen (2012a) and the author are both concerned about trends in the counseling culture toward oversimplification. Their disagreement is, principally, about the locus of debate. The author responds to Hansen's counterarguments with the ultimate hope of transferring the focus from scientific ideology to economic realities pervading professional…

  2. Implementing Hansen's Proficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, J. Lon; Cohn, Raymond L.; Ramsey, David D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an economics department framework that incorporates the William Lee Hansen curriculum proficiencies. Identifies tools students should be able to use to complete specific activities, significant prerequisite changes for upper division courses, and the development of a capstone project to employ student skills and knowledge. (JEH)

  3. Rejoinder to Hansen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthakaran, V.

    2012-01-01

    Hansen (2012b) reiterates his view that the humanities should form the ideological foundation of the counseling profession by challenging the validity of the central premises for the author's argument that the humanities and science should have equal ideological standing. The author attempts to explain the reasons for their conflicting ideas on…

  4. National Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... its facility at the Ochsner Medical Center in Baton Rouge. Oversees an ambulatory care network with clinics throughout ... National Hansen's Disease Programs 1770 Physicians Park Drive Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70816 1-800-642-2477 Online Courses ...

  5. Ocular manifestations of Hansen's disease.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, G C; Vance, G; Otton, S; Kumar, S V; Stanley, J N; Rao, G N

    1994-01-01

    A detailed ophthalmic evaluation including slitlamp biomicroscopy, measurement of corneal sensitivity using Cochet and Bonnet aesthesiometer, Schirmer's test and Goldmann applanation tonometry was carried out in 89 patients of Hansen's disease attending the leprosy clinic with or without ocular symptoms and willing to undergo eye evaluation. Thirty-one patients had lepromatous leprosy (8 with erythema nodosum leprosum), 56 patients had borderline disease (13 with reversal reactions) and 2 had tuberculoid disease. In addition to the well documented changes of lagophthalmos (6.7%), uveitis (7.3%) and cataracts (19%), we noted prominent corneal nerves in 133 eyes (74.7%), beaded corneal nerves in 19 eyes (10.7%), corneal scarring in 10 eyes (5.6%), corneal hypoaesthesia in 51 eyes (28%) and dry eye in 18 eyes (13%). Beaded corneal nerves and/or stomal infiltrates occurred mainly in the lepromatous group (75%). Ocular hypotony (IOP less than 12 mm Hg) was not seen more frequently in Hansen's as compared to age and sex matched controls with refractive errors or cataracts (33.7%, vs. 37.8%, p = 0.33). Our study highlights the primary corneal involvement with corneal neuropathy as the predominant feature of Hansen's disease.

  6. A Reply to Hansen's Cultural Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemberger, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    Hansen (2012b) responds to the author's (Lemberger, 2012) critique of his humanistic vision by dividing their arguments as either individual or cultural in design. In this reply, the author contends that the individual cannot be extracted from her or his culture and, therefore, what is sufficient for a humanistic counseling culture must also be…

  7. Hansen receives 2001 Roger Revelle Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Michael J.; Hansen, James E.

    James E. Hansen received the Roger Revelle Medal at the 2001 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on 12 December in San Francisco, California. The medal is given for outstanding contributions toward an understanding of the Earth's atmospheric processes, including its dynamics, chemistry, and radiation; the roles of atmosphere, atmosphere-ocean coupling, or atmosphere-land coupling in determining the climate, biogeochemical cycles, or other key elements of the integrated climate system.

  8. Peter Andreas Hansen und die astronomische Gemeinschaft - eine erste Auswertung des Hansen-Nachlasses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, O.; Strumpf, M.

    The literary assets of Peter Andreas Hansen are deposited in the Staatsarchiv Hamburg, the Forschungs- und Landesbibliothek Gotha and the Thüringer Staatsarchiv Gotha. They were never systematically investigated. The authors present here some results of a first evaluation. It was possible to reconstruct the historical events with regard to the maintenance of the Astronomische Nachrichten and the Altona observatory in 1854. Hansen was a successful teacher for many young astronomers. His way of stimulating the evolution of astronomy followed Zach's tradition.

  9. W. W. Hansen, Microwave Physics, and Silicon Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeson, David

    2009-03-01

    The Stanford physicist W. W. Hansen (b. 1909, AB '29 and PhD '32, MIT post-doc 1933-4, Prof. physics '35-'49, d. 1949) played a seminal role in the development of microwave electronics. His contributions underlay Silicon Valley's postwar ``microwave'' phase, when numerous companies, acknowledging their unique scientific debt to Hansen, flourished around Stanford University. As had the prewar ``radio'' companies, they furthered the regional entrepreneurial culture and prepared the ground for the later semiconductor and computer developments we know as Silicon Valley. In the 1930's, Hansen invented the cavity resonator. He applied this to his concept of the radio-frequency (RF) linear accelerator and, with the Varian brothers, to the invention of the klystron, which made microwave radar practical. As WWII loomed, Hansen was asked to lecture on microwaves to the physicists recruited to the MIT Radiation Laboratory. Hansen's ``Notes on Microwaves,'' the Rad Lab ``bible'' on the subject, had a seminal impact on subsequent works, including the Rad Lab Series. Because of Hansen's failing health, his postwar work, and MIT-Stanford rivalries, the Notes were never published, languishing as an underground classic. I have located remaining copies, and will publish the Notes with a biography honoring the centenary of Hansen's birth. After the war, Hansen founded Stanford's Microwave Laboratory to develop powerful klystrons and linear accelerators. He collaborated with Felix Bloch in the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance. Hansen experienced first-hand Stanford's evolution from its depression-era physics department to corporate, then government funding. Hansen's brilliant career was cut short by his death in 1949, after his induction in the National Academy of Sciences. His ideas were carried on in Stanford's two-mile long linear accelerator and the development of Silicon Valley.

  10. 42 CFR 32.91 - Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.91 Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients....

  11. 42 CFR 32.91 - Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.91 Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients....

  12. 42 CFR 32.91 - Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.91 Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients....

  13. 42 CFR 32.91 - Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.91 Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients....

  14. 42 CFR 32.91 - Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.91 Purchase of services for Hansen's disease patients....

  15. Von Tondern nach Gotha. Der Astronom Peter Andreas Hansen, 1795 - 1874.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strumpf, M.; Pehlemann, E.; Wolfschmidt, G.

    This companion booklet to an exposition in honor of Peter Andreas Hansen's 200th birthday contains three papers. Contents: 1. Peter Andreas Hansen - Leben und Wirken in Gotha (M. Strumpf). 2. Peter Andreas Hansens wissenschaftliches Werk (E. Pehlemann). 3. Beobachtungsinstrumente der Sternwarte Gotha zur Zeit Hansens (G. Wolfschmidt).

  16. Peter Andreas Hansen and the astronomical community - a first investigation of the Hansen papers. (German Title: Peter Andreas Hansen und die astronomische Gemeinschaft - eine erste Auswertung des Hansen-Nachlasses. )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Oliver; Strumpf, Manfred

    The literary assets of Peter Andreas Hansen are deposited in the Staatsarchiv Hamburg, the Forschungs- und Landesbibliothek Gotha and the Thüringer Staatsarchiv Gotha. They were never systematically investigated. We present here some results of a first evaluation. It was possible to reconstruct the historical events with regard to the maintenance of the Astronomische Nachrichten and the Altona observatory in 1854. Hansen was a successful teacher for many young astronomers. His way of stimulating the evolution of astronomy followed Zach's tradition.

  17. Hansen's Oral Life Histories and Healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Lee

    2013-08-01

    The individual oral statement is human story based on experience. The personal experience forms unconsciousness which appears in a form of oral statement by ego that doesn't want to lose existence. Thus, the process which exposes a tormented hearts is the objectification of oneself. Through this step, oral person attains a healing. If this sort of individual oral is accrued, the undeserved personal affairs could be a history. In case of Hansen's disease patient, She could escape from negative understanding about herself and the world. Furthermore, She kept formating her values about meaningful life and future oriented value. Also, She wants to keep a record of her life. She comes to know that what she denied is actually what she should surmount over oral statement. As a result, She could attains a healing for oneself through oral statement. The oral statement made her look into she's problems. Therefore, oral statement is a self-realization. Through this, person could know what the problem is and solution. This research is about only one person, so there is need for more cases and studies. If this sort of individual oral statement is accrued, there could be a curative narration. This can suggest an curative alternative when we suffer from problem of life. The merit of this research is rendering this possibility. PMID:24005645

  18. Problems of millipound thrust measurement. The "Hansen Suspension"

    SciTech Connect

    Carta, David G.

    2014-03-31

    Considered in detail are problems which led to the need and use of the 'Hansen Suspension'. Also discussed are problems which are likely to be encountered in any low level thrust measuring system. The methods of calibration and the accuracies involved are given careful attention. With all parameters optimized and calibration techniques perfected, the system was found capable of a resolution of 10 {mu} lbs. A comparison of thrust measurements made by the 'Hansen Suspension' with measurements of a less sophisticated device leads to some surprising results.

  19. HOBSON V. HANSEN--WHAT IS LAW FOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    INGER, MORTON; AND OTHERS

    JUDGE JAMES SKELLY WRIGHT'S DECISION IN THE HOBSON V. HANSEN SCHOOL SEGREGATION CASE IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA IS EXAMINED IN SEVERAL SHORT ARTICLES. JUDGE WRIGHT HELD THAT THE 1954 SUPREME COURT SCHOOL DESEGREGATION DECREE EXTENDS TO DE FACTO AS WELL AS TO DE JURE SEGREGATION. HE RULED THAT SUBSTANDARD EDUCATION OF THE POOR IS DISCRIMINATORY,…

  20. Hansen's disease and HIV coinfection with facial nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Nidhi; Kar, Sumit; Madke, Bhushan; Gangane, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    There are very few published reports of HIV leprosy co infection in India in spite of having a large burden of both leprosy and HIV. Herein we are reporting a case of co-infection of Hansen's disease and HIV with facial nerve palsy. PMID:25883486

  1. Peroneus longus transfer for drop foot in Hansen disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jose Carlos; de Freitas Cabral, Elifaz

    2012-09-01

    Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae. Nerve injury is a central feature of the pathogenesis of leprosy that results in autonomic, sensory and motor neuropathy. One of the most common secondary disabilities caused by Hansen's disease is the drop foot and it is found in 2% to 5% of newly-diagnosed leprosy patients. Unlike the clinical picture of traumatic injury of the common peroneal nerve where both of its branches (the deep peroneal nerve and the superficial peroneal nerve) are involved, in leprosy there is the possibility of isolated involvement of the deep peroneal nerve branch, sparing the superficial peroneal branch. The article discusses the advantages of using the peroneus longus tendon transfer to the dorsum of the foot instead of the posterior tibial tendon for the correction of dropfoot in selected cases where the peroneals tendons are intact. PMID:22938641

  2. Hansen's disease in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Anju; Vidyadharan, Suja

    2016-01-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is characterized by a paradoxical worsening of an existing infection or disease process, soon after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The first case of leprosy presenting as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was published in 2003. Here we report a case of Hansen's disease borderline tuberculoid presenting with type 1 lepra reaction 5 months after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26955584

  3. Hansen's disease in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    George, Anju; Vidyadharan, Suja

    2016-01-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is characterized by a paradoxical worsening of an existing infection or disease process, soon after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The first case of leprosy presenting as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was published in 2003. Here we report a case of Hansen's disease borderline tuberculoid presenting with type 1 lepra reaction 5 months after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26955584

  4. A Return to the Human in Humanism: A Response to Hansen's Humanistic Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemberger, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    In his extension of the humanistic vision, Hansen (2012) recommends that counseling practitioners and scholars adopt operations that are consistent with his definition of a multiple-perspective philosophy. Alternatively, the author of this article believes that Hansen has reduced the capacity of the human to interpret meaning through quantitative…

  5. The Value of Social Constructionism for the Counseling Profession: A Reply to Hansen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudes, James; Guterman, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    The authors reply to J. T. Hansen's (2005) call for the profession to revalue the inner subjective experiences (ISE) of clients. Hansen argued that social constructionism has influenced the decline of the counseling profession by obscuring its unique focus on ISE. The authors maintain that social constructionism is a useful framework for…

  6. Extending the Dialogue about Science and Humanities in Counseling: A Reply to Hansen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Clayton V.; Guterman, Jeffrey T.; Kopp, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This is a reply to Hansen's (2012b) rejoinder to the authors (Guterman, Martin, & Kopp, 2012), which is a response to Hansen's (2012a) keystone article about the relationship between humanities and science in counseling. In this reply, the authors provide remaining clarifications, points of disagreement, and suggestions for future directions in…

  7. [Hansen's disease in the northern region of Brazil--1986].

    PubMed

    Britto, R da S

    1989-12-01

    Some general facts about Hansen's Disease are presented: in the world, in the Americas, in 1986, with the purpose to focalize on the Northern Region of Brazil (Amazon Valley) where an attempt is made to specify, State, the clinical forms in the active registry, the respective coefficients of Prevalence, about the cases detected during the year, by clinical forms and the correspondent Coefficient of Incidence, the age range of less than 15 years, and above 15 years; and to analyze according to the township in the State of Amazonas in a series of 8 years, from 1979 to 1986, the registered cases under control and also without control, the new cases, by clinical form and Coefficient of Incidence, the positive cases among students in the capital and also in the country, and with more details, still by township and by Public Health Registry, in 1986, with the population, new cases, and Coefficient of Incidence, cases of the active registry, cases under control, Coefficient of Incidence, the relationship between patients/inhabitants, cases according to the decreasing intensity as far as the Prevalence and Health Department Regions: all this to give an idea, in detail, inclusive statistics, of the real position of Hansen's Disease in the Northern Region (Amazon Valley), with the highest figures of Prevalence and even of Incidence, in comparison with other Regions of the country, and to stress the grave situation of the endemic proportions of the disease, in Brazil in general and in that Regions, in particular.

  8. [Hansen's disease in the northern region of Brazil--1986].

    PubMed

    Britto, R da S

    1989-12-01

    Some general facts about Hansen's Disease are presented: in the world, in the Americas, in 1986, with the purpose to focalize on the Northern Region of Brazil (Amazon Valley) where an attempt is made to specify, State, the clinical forms in the active registry, the respective coefficients of Prevalence, about the cases detected during the year, by clinical forms and the correspondent Coefficient of Incidence, the age range of less than 15 years, and above 15 years; and to analyze according to the township in the State of Amazonas in a series of 8 years, from 1979 to 1986, the registered cases under control and also without control, the new cases, by clinical form and Coefficient of Incidence, the positive cases among students in the capital and also in the country, and with more details, still by township and by Public Health Registry, in 1986, with the population, new cases, and Coefficient of Incidence, cases of the active registry, cases under control, Coefficient of Incidence, the relationship between patients/inhabitants, cases according to the decreasing intensity as far as the Prevalence and Health Department Regions: all this to give an idea, in detail, inclusive statistics, of the real position of Hansen's Disease in the Northern Region (Amazon Valley), with the highest figures of Prevalence and even of Incidence, in comparison with other Regions of the country, and to stress the grave situation of the endemic proportions of the disease, in Brazil in general and in that Regions, in particular. PMID:2562591

  9. Indigenous Cases of Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) in Southern Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Luis A; Dobbs, Thomas; Walker, Sue; Waller, William; Stryjewska, Barbara M

    2015-07-01

    Hansen's disease or leprosy is a chronic infection of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae. In the U.S., leprosy is mainly reported in immigrants, but indigenous leprosy cases have been also reported in this country, especially in semitropical southern states (i.e., Texas, Louisiana). The objective of this series of cases is to describe indigenous leprosy cases reported in southern Mississippi (MS) during the period 2012-2014. Information was collected from medical records at Hattiesburg Clinic and the MS Department of Health. Four cases were reported during the period of study (3 Caucasian males, 1 African-American woman). Non of visited endemic leprosy country. The age ranged from 60 to 83 years (median: 75.5 years). Of the four cases, three presented with a slowly progressive erythematous rash disseminated mainly on the thorax and abdomen, with a lesser degree on the extremities. The time between onset of rash until the diagnosis ranged from 5 to 16 months (median: 7 months). Only one case had direct contact with armadillos (blood exposure). Non of these patients had a history of immunosuppression. The most common symptoms were neuropathic pain (n=2), generalized pruritus (n=2) and loss of sensation in extremities (n=2). One case had severe peripheral neuropathy with muscle weakness, atrophy in left arm, and wasting on left hand. Skin biopsies showed diffuse granulomatous infiltrate with foamy histiocytes along with acid fast bacilli by Fite stain. By Ridley-Jopling classification system, three cases were diagnosis as lepromatous leprosy, and one, borderline lepromatous. Treatment included clofazimine, dapsone and rifampin that was offered free of charge by the National Hansen's Diseases Program, Baton Rouge, L.A. One patient did not tolerate therapy. In conclusion, a slowly progressive disseminated erythematous skin rash on the trunk should raise suspicion for leprosy in the elderly population in south MS. PMID:26434167

  10. Truth and opinion in climate change discourse: the Gore-Hansen disagreement.

    PubMed

    Russill, Chris

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, I discuss the "inconvenient truth" strategy of Al Gore. I argue that Gore's notion of truth upholds a conception of science and policy that narrows our understanding of climate change discourse. In one notable exchange, Gore and NASA scientist, James Hansen, disagreed about whether scientific statements based on Hansen's computer simulations were truth or opinion. This exchange is featured in An Inconvenient Truth, yet the disagreement is edited from the film and presented simply as an instance of Hansen speaking "inconvenient truth". In this article, I compare the filmic representation of Hansen's testimony with the congressional record. I place their exchange in a broader historical perspective on climate change disputation in order to discuss the implications of Gore's perspective on truth.

  11. Hansen solubility parameter analysis on the dispersion of zirconia nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sho-Hsun; Liu, Jia-Hong; Pai, Chin-Tung; Chen, Chien-Wei; Chung, Pao-Tang; Chiang, Anthony Shiaw-Tseh; Chang, Shinn-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Nanoparticle dispersible in a broad range of solvents is desirable when preparing an organic/inorganic nanocomposite. In this report, the dispersion behavior of carboxylate-grafted zirconia nanoparticle in 25 solvents covering a wide range of polarity was analyzed based on their Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). Particles grafted with alkyl-chain longer than four carbons could only be dispersed in non-polar solvents, while that grafted with acetic acid was dispersible in polar ones. However, particle modified with methacrylic acid (MA) was compatible with both types of solvents, which was rather unexpected. Further NMR analysis showed that the carboxylate-grafted samples contained a trace amount of triethanolamine (TEA) due to the particular ZrO2 synthesis process employed. The combination of the hydrophilic TEA ligand with the short hydrophobic tail of methacrylate broadened the range of compatible solvents from benzene to methanol. Such an extended solvent compatibility was observed previously only for nanoparticles covered with large polymer surfactants having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. Achieving this with two small molecules having separate functional groups is crucial when one needs to maximize the inorganic content in a composite.

  12. Chronicles of Gerhard-Henrik Armauer Hansen's Life and Work

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sangita; Chaudhuri, Soumik

    2015-01-01

    Gerhard-Henrik Armauer Hansen, a Norwegian scientist, discovered Mycobacterium leprae as the causative organism for leprosy, defying the hereditary affliction theory of the disease. He was born in Bergen, Norway in 1841 in a Danish family. After acquiring his medical degree in 1866 from the University of Oslo, he joined as an assistant physician in a leprosy hospital in Bergen. In 1873, he published his report claiming leprosy to be an infectious disease with a description of the infectious material in leprous tissue. His conviction of belief and an unstinted devotion to a lifetime of scientific research changed the way leprosy was approached as a disease. It was the fruit of his untiring work that the amended act of 1885 was passed, which resulted in steady decline in leprosy burden in Norway. In February 1912 he breathed his last, leaving behind an inspirational story of a brave heart scientist who fought all odds to unveil the truth for the benefit of mankind. PMID:26120145

  13. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  14. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  15. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  16. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  17. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  18. Surviving the "School of Slavery": Acculturation in Sharon Draper's "Copper Sun" and Joyce Hansen's "The Captive"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Karen Michele

    2016-01-01

    Although children's literature has long alluded to cultural connections between Africans and African Americans, very few texts establish clear lines of influence between particular African ethnic groups and African American characters and communities. Joyce Hansen's "The Captive" (1994) and Sharon Draper's "Copper Sun" (2006)…

  19. A Further Look at the Hansen-Weisbrod-Pechman Debate. Reprint 240.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlisk, John

    This paper reanalyzes the Hansen-Weisbrod-Pechman debate concerning the equity effects of subsidized tuition for higher education. It presents an intergeneration model of income distribution, including educational effects. This model is used to analyze issues in the debate over equity effects. It yields a measure (equity measure) of the…

  20. Further Extending the Humanistic Vision for the Future of Counseling: A Response to Hansen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    This article offers additional support for Hansen's (2012) position that humanism and a renewed respect for human complexity are essential to counseling. In the article, the author also speaks to the critical importance of continuing to ground the profession in art and science. Implications for the future of humanism and counseling are presented.

  1. Reaffirming the Role of Science and Diversity in Counseling: A Reply to Hansen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Overall, Hansen (2012a) and the author (Brady-Amoon, 2012) share a humanistic vision for the future of counseling. In this continued dialogue, the author argues that a broad-based philosophy of science that encompasses renewed respect for diversity remains essential for the future of the profession.

  2. A review of Elocomosta Hansen with a description of a new species with reduced eyes from China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Renchao; Jia, Fenglong; Fikáček, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Elocomosta Hansen, 1989 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini), Elocomosta lilizheni sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. It is compared in detail with the only other known species of the genus, Elocomosta nigra Hansen, 1989 from Borneo, and the genus is diagnosed from the remaining coelostomatine genera. The new species is unusual among Hydrophilidae by having extremely reduced eyes. PMID:27551232

  3. Hansen's disease control in the State of São Paulo: a historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Opromolla, Paula Araujo; Laurenti, Ruy

    2011-02-01

    Leprosy is an infectious contagious disease known since Biblical times. Global effort for disease control reveals intricate convergences of national history and of medical, governmental, and international policies. The study describes the history of Hansen's disease and control actions undertaken in the state of São Paulo starting in the 19th century and its connection with the development of public health in that state, by means of a bibliographic and documental analysis.

  4. A Modified Hansen's Theory as Applied to the Motion of Artificial Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musen, Peter

    1960-01-01

    This report presents a theory of oblateness perturbations of the orbits of artificial satellites based on Hansen's theory, with modification for adaptation to fast machine computation. The theory permits the easy inclusion of any gravitational terms and is suitable for the deduction of geo-physical and geodetic data from orbit observations on artificial satellites. The computations can be carried out to any desired order compatible with the accuracy of the geodetic parameters.

  5. Large retroperitoneal schwannoma mimicking a cystic ovarian mass in a patient with Hansen's disease.

    PubMed

    Surendrababu, Narayanam R S; Cherian, Sucy Rekha; Janakiraman, Rajinikanth; Walter, Noel

    2008-06-01

    We present a rare case of retroperitoneal cystic schwannoma of the pelvis in a patient with Hansen's disease that mimicked an ovarian cyst. Due to economic constraints and because the lesion was assumed to be of ovarian origin, the patient did not undergo any cross-sectional imaging other than sonography. Sonographically guided fine needle aspiration of the cystic lesion was inconclusive. A cystic schwannoma was diagnosed at laparotomy.

  6. Sleep, Hansen's disease and the immune system--a not so harmonic triad.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rachel Gimenes; Okazaki, Keity Mey; Hirotsu, Camila; Tomimori, Jane; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-05-01

    Hansen's disease is one of the oldest skin diseases in the world characterized by a spectrum of clinical manifestations that are associated with stigmatization and poor quality of life. It is also considered a model disease for investigating the human immune system because of its association with immune reactions, which are thought to be a reflection of the host's immunological response, promoting intense cellular activity or humoral secretion. This relationship between the cellular and microbial components of skin and their regulation by local immune responses may be modulated by a currently neglected behavior: sleep. Recent studies have demonstrated that sleep deprivation may aggravate the progression of chronic dermatological diseases, which in turn can lead to a non-restorative sleep pattern. Indeed, sleep is essential for immune and skin integrity. Thus, we propose here a hypothesis linking Hansen's disease, sleep and immunity in a bidirectional relationship. Hansen's disease patients may demonstrate a worse sleep quality than the general population through the modulation of immunological environment; and sleep restriction, a hallmark of modern society, being a possible predictor of the disease progression. PMID:25686506

  7. Validity of Hansen-Roach cross sections in low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.D. ); O'Dell, R.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Within the nuclear criticality safety community, the Hansen-Roach 16 group cross section set has been the standard'' for use in k{sub eff} calculations over the past 30 years. Yet even with its widespread acceptance, there are still questions about its validity and adequacy, about the proper procedure for calculating the potential scattering cross section, {sigma}{sub p}, for uranium and plutonium, and about the concept of resonance self shielding and its impact on cross sections. This paper attempts to address these questions. It provides a brief background on the Hansen-Roach cross sections. Next is presented a review of resonances in cross sections, self shielding of these resonances, and the use of {sigma}{sub p} to characterize resonance self shielding. Three prescriptions for calculating {sigma}{sub p} are given. Finally, results of several calculations of k{sub eff} on low-enriched uranium systems are provided to confirm the validity of the Hansen-Roach cross sections when applied to such systems.

  8. Hansen Neuropathy: Still a Possible Diagnosis in the Investigation of a Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Andreia; Costa, Alexandre; Taipa, Ricardo; Guimarães, António; Pires, Manuel Melo

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A lepra continua a ser uma das causas mais frequentes de neuropatia periférica. Apesar de tida como erradicada em Portugal, ainda se documenta no estudo neuropatológico de doentes com clínica de neuropatia periférica sem diagnóstico etiológico definido.Material e Métodos: Revisão dos casos neuropatia por doença de Hansen diagnosticados na Unidade de Neuropatologia do Centro Hospitalar do Porto no período de 1978 e 2013 atendendo ao género, idade, manifestações clínicas e achados neuropatológicos.Resultados: Foram identificados 21 doentes com diagnóstico neuropatológico de neuropatia por doença de Hansen, com predomínio do sexo masculino. A idade média ao diagnóstico foi de 52 anos, sendo a sintomatologia sensitiva predominante. O intervalo entre sintomatologia e diagnóstico oscilou entre 1 a 38 anos. Na maioria foi identificada forma tuberculoide em biópsia de nervo e detetados bacilos em pele e nervo em 44% dos casos.Discussão: A mononeurite é a forma mais comum de apresentação de hanseníase, podendo cursar com outras manifestações clínicas incluindo lesões cutâneas. A infeção pelo M. leprae lesiona fibras mielinizadas e não mielinizadas, com substituição do tecido nervoso por colagénio resultando em fibrose. O diagnóstico da lepra é apenas conseguido por estudo neuropatológico das lesões cutâneas e/ou nervo periférico, adjuvado pela identificação do bacilo.Conclusão: A doença de Hansen continua a ser um problema de saúde pública em áreas tropicais e, apesar de rara, ainda descrita em países ocidentais, devendo ser considerada como uma hipótese de diagnóstico na investigação de neuropatia periférica.

  9. First order post-Newtonian gravitational waveforms of binaries on eccentric orbits with Hansen coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikóczi, Balázs; Forgács, Péter; Vasúth, Mátyás

    2015-08-01

    The inspiral and merger of supermassive black hole binary systems with high orbital eccentricity are among the promising sources of the advanced gravitational wave observatories. In this paper we compute gravitational waveforms in the frequency domain to the first post-Newtonian order, emitted by compact binary systems with arbitrary eccentricity. Our results are fully analytic, ready-to-use expressions of the waveforms in terms of a suitable generalization of Hansen coefficients known from celestial mechanics. Secular terms induced by the eccentricity are eliminated by introducing a suitable phase shift. The obtained waveforms have a rather simple structure, greatly facilitating their use in applications.

  10. Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters from molecular dynamics with applications to electronic nose polymer sensors.

    PubMed

    Belmares, M; Blanco, M; Goddard, W A; Ross, R B; Caldwell, G; Chou, S-H; Pham, J; Olofson, P M; Thomas, Cristina

    2004-11-30

    We introduce the Cohesive Energy Density (CED) method, a multiple sampling Molecular Dynamics computer simulation procedure that may offer higher consistency in the estimation of Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters. The use of a multiple sampling technique, combined with a simple but consistent molecular force field and quantum mechanically determined atomic charges, allows for the precise determination of solubility parameters in a systematic way (sigma = 0.4 hildebrands). The CED method yields first-principles Hildebrand parameter predictions in good agreement with experiment [root-mean-square (rms) = 1.1 hildebrands]. We apply the CED method to model the Caltech electronic nose, an array of 20 polymer sensors. Sensors are built with conducting leads connected through thin-film polymers loaded with carbon black. Odorant detection relies on a change in electric resistivity of the polymer film as function of the amount of swelling caused by the odorant compound. The amount of swelling depends upon the chemical composition of the polymer and the odorant molecule. The pattern is unique, and unambiguously identifies the compound. Experimentally determined changes in relative resistivity of seven polymer sensors upon exposure to 24 solvent vapors were modeled with the CED estimated Hansen solubility components. Predictions of polymer sensor responses result in Pearson R2 coefficients between 0.82 and 0.99. PMID:15389751

  11. Two algorithms to compute Hansen-like coefficients with respect to the eccentric anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, G.; Métris, G.

    2013-01-01

    Considering a point of polar coordinates (r,ν) on an elliptic orbit of semi-major axis a, we set up and compare two algorithms based on recurrence relations to compute the Hansen-like coefficients Zsn,m, which are the coefficients of the expansion of (r/a)nexpimν in Fourier series of the eccentric anomaly. Both Hansen-like coefficients and their derivatives with respect to the eccentricity are considered, with a special focus on the case 0⩽|m|⩽n arising in the expression of the gravity potential due to a body external to the elliptic orbit. We provide two efficient algorithms to compute a table of coefficients with a simple recursive process. One algorithm uses some recurrence relations linking directly to the Zsn,m whereas the other algorithm involves the generalized Laplace coefficients bp,rk (Laskar, 2005). Numerical behavior of the algorithms is investigated for low and high eccentricities. Both algorithms provide a relative accuracy better than 10-14 for n⩽30. Also, they are at least 10 time faster than an algorithm based on the FFT method (Klioner et al., 1997).

  12. Annual Report of the School Programs of Ballet West, the Hansen Planetarium, the Utah Opera Company, and the Utah Symphony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Avery L.; And Others

    The document evaluates the impact of four special fine arts programs in Utah elementary schools, including presentations by the Utah Symphony, Ballet West, the Utah Opera Company, and the Hansen Planetarium. It is divided into two parts. Part I provides an introduction, brief descriptions of the method of the evaluation and basic statistical…

  13. From Paris to Lyon, and from simple to complex liquids: a view on Jean-Pierre Hansen's contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, Jean-Louis; Biben, Thierry; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-09-01

    We present a short perspective on some of the contributions made by Jean-Pierre Hansen to our theoretical understanding of soft matter static structure and dynamics, using the tools developed for simple liquids within the rigorous framework of statistical physics.

  14. Automatic computer evaluation of general perturbation for Flora asteroids. I. The Hansen method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Miao-fu; Zhang, Jie

    1990-09-01

    General perturbations of the asteroids of Flora group due to Jupiter have been automatically computed on IBM 4341 Computer according to Hansen's method using Broucke's Symbolic Poisson Series Processor. Previous results using Bohlin's method are compared. We conclude: 1. The computerized code is accurate and efficient. 2. In the 1000' < n< 1100' case, Strömberg's table is suitable for moderate eccentricities and inclinations, with maximum error less than 20'. 3. In the n˜1047' case, close to the 2/7 commensurability, the long period term (2-7) should be included, but de la Villemarque's formula for this term is insufficiently precise. 4. In the 975' < n< 1000' case, Strömberg's table is unsuitable, especially when both e and i are large, contrary to de la Villemarque's view. 5. In the n˜997' case, near to the 3/10 commensurability, the long period (3-10) term should be included.

  15. Primary Neuritic Hansen's Disease presenting as Ulnar Nerve Abscess in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Patient.

    PubMed

    Karjigi, S; Herakal, K; Murthy, S C; Bathina, A; Kusuma, M R; Nikhil, K R Y

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy has been increasingly known to have an enigmatic relationship with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Co-infection may result in atypical manifestations of leprosy. A 45-year old human immunodeficiency virus-positive male; agricultural laborer presented with a swelling over right elbow, right hand deformity, generalized itching and recurrent vesicles overthe perinasal area. Clinical and investigational findings were consistent with mononeuritic type of Hansen's disease with right sided silent ulnar nerve abscess, partial claw hand. CD4+ count of the patientwas 430 cells/cmm. This patient also hadherpes simplex labialis, with HIV-associated pruritus. To the best of our knowledge such an atypical presentation has not been reported earlier. PMID:26999990

  16. Morphologies in Solvent-Annealed Clotrimazole Thin Films Explained by Hansen-Solubility Parameters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The induction of different crystal morphologies is of crucial importance for many applications. In this work, the preparation of various crystal morphologies within clotrimazole films on glass substrates is demonstrated. Amorphous clotrimazole thin films were transformed via vapor annealing into crystalline structures; highly monodisperse/multidisperse crystallites, spherulite, or dendritic structures were obtained as the solvent was exchanged. X-ray diffraction experiments reveal that the same polymorph is present for all samples but with varying texture. The achieved morphologies are explained in terms of Hansen-solubility parameters and vapor pressures; thus, the different morphologies and crystal orientations can be explained by solvent—solid interaction strengths within the thin film samples. PMID:24624042

  17. Correlation of Paleocene Harmon and Hansen lignite beds, Adams, Billings, Bowman, Golden Valley, Hettinger, and Slope Counties, Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Keighin, C.W.; Flores, R.M.; Ochs, A.

    1998-12-31

    In southwestern North Dakota, minable lignite beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation include the Harmon and Hansen beds in the Bowman-Gascoyne area. Data from more than 700 drill holes penetrating these beds was used to construct stratigraphic cross sections. The Harmon and Hansen beds are the thickest and most laterally persistent lignites found under < 150 ft of overburden. The Harmon coal bed is as much as 34 ft thick, and is often split by claystone interbeds of variable thickness. The Hansen coal bed typically occurs 10--100 ft below the Harmon coal bed; it rarely attains a thickness of 15 ft, and averages 4 ft in thickness.

  18. The expanded Hansen approach to solubility parameters. Paracetamol and citric acid in individual solvents.

    PubMed

    Barra, J; Lescure, F; Doelker, E; Bustamante, P

    1997-07-01

    In this study two solubility-parameter models have been compared using as dependent variables the logarithm of the mole fraction solubility, lnX2e, and ln(alpha)/U (originally used in the extended Hansen method), where alpha is the activity coefficient and U is a function of the molar volume of the solute and the volume fraction of the solvent. The results show for the first time the proton-donor and -acceptor hydrogen-bonding capacities of paracetamol, as measured by the acidic and basic partial-solubility parameters. The influence of solvents on the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) pattern of the solid phases was also studied in relation to the solubility models tested. Citric acid was chosen as a test substance because of its high acidity and its proton donor capacity to form hydrogen bonds with basic solvents. The partial acidic and basic solubility parameters obtained from multiple regression were consistent with this property, validating the model chosen. The results show that the more direct lnX2e variable was more suitable for fitting both models, and the four-parameter model seemed better for describing the interactions between solvent and solute. PMID:9255705

  19. Hansen solubility parameters of surfactant-capped silver nanoparticles for ink and printing technologies.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jacob B; Meruga, Jeevan; Randle, James S; Cross, William M; Kellar, Jon J

    2014-12-30

    Optimal ink formulations, inclusive of nanoparticles, are often limited to matching the nanoparticle's capping agent or surface degree of polarity to the solvent of choice. Rather than relying on this single attribute, nanoparticle dispersibility was optimized by identifying the Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) of decanoic-acid-capped 5 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by broad spectrum dispersion testing and a more specific binary solvent gradient dispersion method. From the HSPs, solvents were chosen to disperse poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and nanoparticles, give uniform evaporation profiles, and yield a phase-separated microstructure of nanoparticles on PMMA via film formation by solvent evaporation. The goal of this research was to yield a film that is reflective or transparent depending on the angle of incident light (i.e., optically variable). The nanoparticle HSPs were very close to alkanes with added small polar and hydrogen-bonding components. This led to two ink formulations: one of 90:10 vol % toluene/methyl benzoate and one containing 80:10:10 vol % toluene/p-xylene/mesitylene, both of which yielded the desired final microstructure of a nanoparticle layer on a PMMA film. This approach to nanoparticle ink formulation allows one to obtain an ink that has desirable dispersive qualities, rheology, and evaporation to give a desired printed structure. PMID:25469943

  20. [Intraepidermal mass of M. leprae in a case of seborrheic keratosis due to Hansen's disease (LLs)].

    PubMed

    Yajima, M; Suzuki, K; Wen, M; Yamada, N; Asano, G

    1995-11-01

    A 67-year-old patient has had exanthema in the lower right limb since 51 years ago (16 years old at onset), which underwent repeated remission and recurrence. At present, he has bilateral symmetrical widespread infiltrating exanthema and asymmetrical marked neuralhypertrophy, and has been diagnosed typical LLs (His father had the same disease). The exanthema recurred several years ago, and the patient is being treated for Hansen's disease. He had a dark brown flat elevation with a rough surface and the size of a small finger tip in his right abdominal skin for approximately 20 years. A biopsy was performed, and the specimen was fixed in 10% formalin and paraffin sections were prepared for histopathologic examination. A part of the specimen was processed forscanning electron microscopic examination. Seborrheic keratosis was diagnosed by H & E staining. Acid-fast (FITE) staining, immunohistochemical staining (keratin, S-100 protein, anti-PGL antibody and anti-BCG antibody) and scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of bacteria (M. leprae) in the dermal foam cells, the matrix with a banded structure and the squamous epithelial cells which normally lack phagocytosis function. Compared to the basal cells of normal epidermis, the basal cells located adjacent to the dermis affected with seborrheic keratosis showed increased proliferation and more marked characteristics of a germinative cell. The degree of differentiation of the basal cells appeared regressed, and they probably possessed augmented phagocytic activity. The phagocytosed bacteria were probably carried by the epidermal cell cycle toward the surface layer. However, bacteria could not be found in the stratum corneum, probably due to an association with the lysosome.

  1. The link between a negative high resolution resist contrast/developer performance and the Flory-Huggins parameter estimated from the Hansen solubility sphere

    SciTech Connect

    StCaire, Lorri; Olynick, Deirdre L.; Chao, Weilun L.; Lewis, Mark D.; Lu, Haoren; Dhuey, Scott D.; Liddle, J. Alexander

    2008-07-01

    We have implemented a technique to identify candidate polymer solvents for spinning, developing, and rinsing for a high resolution, negative electron beam resist hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene to elicit the optimum pattern development performance. Using the three dimensional Hansen solubility parameters for over 40 solvents, we have constructed a Hansen solubility sphere. From this sphere, we have estimated the Flory Huggins interaction parameter for solvents with hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene and found a correlation between resist development contrast and the Flory-Huggins parameter. This provides new insights into the development behavior of resist materials which are necessary for obtaining the ultimate lithographic resolution.

  2. Delayed Diagnosis, Leprosy Reactions, and Nerve Injury Among Individuals With Hansen's Disease Seen at a United States Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Kristoffer E.; Jacob, Jesse T.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Kozarsky, Phyllis E.; Wu, Henry M.; Fairley, Jessica K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hansen's disease (HD), or leprosy, is uncommon in the United States. We sought to describe the characteristics of patients with HD in a US clinic, including an assessment of delays in diagnosis and HD reactions, which have both been associated with nerve damage. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients seen at an HD clinic in the southern United States between January 1, 2002 and January 31, 2014. Demographic and clinical characteristics were summarized, including delays in diagnosis, frequency of reactions, and other complications including peripheral neuropathy. Results. Thirty patients were seen during the study time period. The majority of patients were male (73%) and had multibacillary disease (70%). Brazil, Mexico, and the United States were the most frequent of the 14 countries of origin. Hansen's disease “reactions”, severe inflammatory complications, were identified among 75% of patients, and nerve damage was present at diagnosis in 36% of patients. The median length of time between symptom onset and diagnosis was long at 12 months (range, 1–96), but no single factor was associated with a delay in diagnosis. Conclusions. The diagnosis of HD was frequently delayed among patients referred to our US clinic. The high frequency of reactions and neuropathy at diagnosis suggests that further efforts at timely diagnosis and management of this often unrecognized disease is needed to prevent the long-term sequelae associated with irreversible nerve damage. PMID:27186586

  3. Application of Hansen Solubility Parameters to predict drug-nail interactions, which can assist the design of nail medicines.

    PubMed

    Hossin, B; Rizi, K; Murdan, S

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesised that Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSPs) can be used to predict drug-nail affinities. Our aims were to: (i) determine the HSPs (δD, δP, δH) of the nail plate, the hoof membrane (a model for the nail plate), and of the drugs terbinafine HCl, amorolfine HCl, ciclopirox olamine and efinaconazole, by measuring their swelling/solubility in organic liquids, (ii) predict nail-drug interactions by comparing drug and nail HSPs, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of these predictions using literature reports of experimentally-determined affinities of these drugs for keratin, the main constituent of the nail plate and hoof. Many solvents caused no change in the mass of nail plates, a few solvents deswelled the nail, while others swelled the nail to varying extents. Fingernail and toenail HSPs were almost the same, while hoof HSPs were similar, except for a slightly lower δP. High nail-terbinafine HCl, nail-amorolfine HCl and nail-ciclopirox olamine affinities, and low nail-efinaconazole affinities were then predicted, and found to accurately match experimental reports of these drugs' affinities to keratin. We therefore propose that drug and nail Hansen Solubility Parameters may be used to predict drug-nail interactions, and that these results can assist in the design of drugs for the treatment of nail diseases, such as onychomycosis and psoriasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of HSPs in ungual research.

  4. The rare mantis shrimp Areosquilla indica (Hansen, 1976) (Crustacea, Stomatopoda) from the Great Barrier Reef: first Australian records of the genus and species.

    PubMed

    Ahyong, Shane T; Wassenberg, Theodore J

    2015-08-18

    The rare mantis shrimp genus Areosquilla is recorded from Australia for the first time based on nine specimens of A. indica (Hansen, 1926) collected from the Great Barrier Reef. Morphological variation beyond that observed in previous accounts is reported. The present record and other recent discoveries bring the Australian stomatopod fauna to 152 species and 68 genera.

  5. The Function of Scientific and Humanistic Ideologies in the Counseling Profession from the Perspective of Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory: A Response to Hansen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthakaran, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this response, the author addresses Hansen's (2012) call for the counseling profession to substitute science with humanities as its primary ideology. The author uses Epstein's (1994) cognitive-experiential self-theory to show that an equal appreciation for science and humanities is more congruent with a holistic humanistic vision for…

  6. The rare mantis shrimp Areosquilla indica (Hansen, 1976) (Crustacea, Stomatopoda) from the Great Barrier Reef: first Australian records of the genus and species.

    PubMed

    Ahyong, Shane T; Wassenberg, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    The rare mantis shrimp genus Areosquilla is recorded from Australia for the first time based on nine specimens of A. indica (Hansen, 1926) collected from the Great Barrier Reef. Morphological variation beyond that observed in previous accounts is reported. The present record and other recent discoveries bring the Australian stomatopod fauna to 152 species and 68 genera. PMID:26623740

  7. Efficient Catalytic Electrode for CO2 Reduction Realized by Physisorbing Ni(cyclam) Molecules with Hydrophobicity Based on Hansen's Theory.

    PubMed

    Murase, Masakazu; Kitahara, Gaku; Suzuki, Tomiko M; Ohta, Riichiro

    2016-09-21

    An electrochemical electrode physisorbed with Ni(cyclam) complex molecules containing tetraphenylborate ions (BPh4(-)) as counteranions shows catalytic activity for the reduction reaction of CO2 to CO in an aqueous electrolyte, superior to that of an electrode physisorbed with conventional [Ni(cyclam)]Cl2 complex molecules. The BPh4(-)-containing Ni(cyclam) is inferred as having high hydrophobicity based on its Hansen solubility parameter (HSP), with an interaction sphere excluding HSPs of water in a three-dimensional vector space. The high hydrophobicity of BPh4(-)-containing Ni(cyclam) molecules inhibits their dissolution into aqueous electrolyte and retains their immobilization onto the electrode surface, which we believe to result in the improved catalytic activity of the electrode physisorbed with them. HSP analysis also provides an optimized mixing ratio of solvents dissolving BPh4(-)-containing Ni(cyclam) molecules. PMID:27606702

  8. Geographic Information Systems and Applied Spatial Statistics Are Efficient Tools to Study Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) and to Determine Areas of Greater Risk of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, José Wilton; Dias, Gutemberg H.; Nobre, Maurício Lisboa; De Sousa Dias, Márcia C.; Araújo, Sérgio F.; Barbosa, James D.; da Trindade-Neto, Pedro Bezerra; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Applied Spatial Statistics used in conjunction with geographic information systems (GIS) provide an efficient tool for the surveillance of diseases. Here, using these tools we analyzed the spatial distribution of Hansen's disease in an endemic area in Brazil. A sample of 808 selected from a universe of 1,293 cases was geocoded in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hansen's disease cases were not distributed randomly within the neighborhoods, with higher detection rates found in more populated districts. Cluster analysis identified two areas of high risk, one with a relative risk of 5.9 (P = 0.001) and the other 6.5 (P = 0.001). A significant relationship between the geographic distribution of disease and the social economic variables indicative of poverty was observed. Our study shows that the combination of GIS and spatial analysis can identify clustering of transmissible disease, such as Hansen's disease, pointing to areas where intervention efforts can be targeted to control disease. PMID:20134009

  9. Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Procedure for Accessing Lab Services Data Package Requirements AIDS Therapies Resource Guide In Vitro Efficacy Evaluations ... Assurances to Users Application and Approval Process User Requirements Malaria Vaccine Production Services Data Sharing and Release ...

  10. [Hansen disease in Mercosur].

    PubMed

    Vazquez, F A; Varela, N N; Antola, M C; Wand-Del-Rey, M L; Leguizamón, O R

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the important changes of a political economic, social and health order upon which the Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay have now embarked in the framework of the commitment undertaken to create instruments for the Common Market of the South America (MERCOSUR), the importance of leprosy for public health in this new region is analysed. In this connection a description is given of the background and reasons which led to the creation of the MERCOSUR Committee for technical cooperation on leprosy, composed of the heads of the national leprosy control programmes of the countries in question, for the purpose of implementing the Protocol of Intention signed by the representatives of the Ministers of member countries, with the object of establishing policies of technical cooperation in activities to control this disease, with a view to attaining the goal proposed by WHO of eliminating leprosy as a public health problem by the year 2000. Using the data contributed by the different programmes, the epidemiological situation existing in this region in December 1995 is outlined, with analysis of certain epidemiological, demographic and operational variables, showing that MERCOSUR has a prevalence of 6.03 per 10,000 population, one of the highest rates in comparison with other WHO regions; a high percentage of cases lost to view (abandons); and a low rate of coverage with multidrug therapy. In this region a total of 33,654 new cases were detected during 1995, of which more than 50% were multibacillary forms, while nearly 10% of them were youngsters of less of 15 years of age. The action carried out jointly among the four countries, the successes achieved and the results to be achieved in the short term are also described.

  11. Meeting the Privacy Requirements for the Development of a Multi-Centre Patient Registry in Canada: The Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Vanessa K.; Thorogood, Nancy P.; Joshi, Phalgun B.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Craven, B. Catharine; Linassi, Gary; Fourney, Daryl R.; Kwon, Brian K.; Bailey, Christopher S.; Tsai, Eve C.; Drew, Brian M.; Ahn, Henry; Tsui, Deborah; Dvorak, Marcel F.

    2013-01-01

    Privacy legislation addresses concerns regarding the privacy of personal information; however, its interpretation by research ethics boards has resulted in significant challenges to the collection, management, use and disclosure of personal health information for multi-centre research studies. This paper describes the strategy used to develop the national Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry (RHSCIR) in accordance with privacy statutes and benchmarked against best practices. An analysis of the regional and national privacy legislation was conducted to determine the requirements for each of the 31 local RHSCIR sites and the national RHSCIR office. A national privacy and security framework was created for RHSCIR that includes a governance structure, standard operating procedures, training processes, physical and technical security and privacy impact assessments. The framework meets a high-water mark in ensuring privacy and security of personal health information nationally and may assist in the development of other national or international research initiatives. PMID:23968640

  12. Early postoperative active mobilisation versus immobilisation following tibialis posterior tendon transfer for foot-drop correction in patients with Hansen's disease.

    PubMed

    Rath, Santosh; Schreuders, Ton A R; Selles, Ruud W

    2010-03-01

    After tibialis posterior tendon transfer surgery for foot-drop correction, the foot is traditionally immobilised for several weeks. To test the feasibility of early mobilisation after this procedure in patients with Hansen's disease, 21 consecutive patients received active mobilisation of the transfer starting on the 5th postoperative day. Transfer insertion strength was enhanced by Pulvertaft weave. The results were compared with a historical cohort of 21 patients receiving 4 weeks of immobilisation. The primary outcomes were active dorsiflexion, active plantar flexion and total active motion at the ankle, tendon-insertion pullout and time until discharge from rehabilitation with independent walking without aid. Assessments at discharge from rehabilitation and the last clinical follow-up at more than 1 year were compared between both groups. The Student's t-test was used to compare data between the groups, and 95% confidence interval of the difference between groups was determined. A p-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The average follow-up was 22 months for both groups. There was no incidence of insertion pullout of the tendon transfer in either group. In addition, there was no difference in active dorsiflexion angle between the groups at discharge (mean difference: 2.2 degrees, p=0.22) and final assessment (mean difference: 2.3 degrees, p=0.42). The plantar flexion angles were similar in both groups at discharge (mean difference: 0.5 degrees, p=0.86) and final assessment (mean difference: 0.5 degrees, p=0.57). In addition, there was no difference in total active motion between the groups at discharge (mean difference: 2 degrees, p=0.54) and final assessment (mean difference: 1 degrees, p=0.49). The patients were discharged from rehabilitation with independent walking at 44.04+/-7.9 days after surgery in the mobilisation group compared to 57.07+/-2.3 days in the immobilisation group. This indicates a significant difference in morbidity (mean

  13. Research ethics review practices: experiences of the Armauer Hansen Research Institute/All Africa Leprosy and Tuberculosis Rehabilitation and Training Center Ethics Review Committee, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wassie, Liya; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Gebre-Mariam, Senkenesh; Feleke, Yeweyenhareg; Temam, Fuad; Hailu, Abebe; Abay, Hiwot; Zerihun, Zeyin; Bussa, Solomon; Aberra, Lensa; Tarekegne, Geremew; Gebre-Yohannes, Asfawessen; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The need for ethics review committees (ERCs) is imperative in the conduct of research to ensure the protection of the rights, safety and well-being of research participants. However, the capacities of most ERCs in Africa are limited in terms of trained experts, competence, resources as well as standard operating procedures. The aim of this report is to share experiences of one of the local institutional ERCs, the Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI)/All Africa Leprosy and Tuberculosis Rehabilitation and Training Center (ALERT) Ethics Review Committee (AAERC), to other ERCs found in academic and research institutions in the Country. In this report, we used an empirical approach to review archived documents of the AAERC Secretariat to assess the Committee's strengths and weaknesses. The experiences of the AAERC in terms of its composition, routine work activities, learning practices and pitfalls that require general attention are summarized. In spite of this summary, the Committee strongly acknowledges the functions and roles of other ERCs in the Country. In addition, an independent assessment of the Committee's activity in general is warranted to evaluate its performance and further assess the level of awareness or oversights among researchers about the roles of ERCs. PMID:25816497

  14. Validation of the Monte Carlo criticality program KENO IV and the Hansen-Roach sixteen-energy-group-cross sections for high-assay uranium systems. [KENO IV criticality code

    SciTech Connect

    Handley, G. R.; Masters, L. C.; Stachowiak, R. V.

    1981-04-10

    Validation of the Monte Carlo criticality code, KENO IV, and the Hansen-Roach sixteen-energy-group cross sections was accomplished by calculating the effective neutron multiplication constant, k/sub eff/, of 29 experimentally critical assemblies which had uranium enrichments of 92.6% or higher in the uranium-235 isotope. The experiments were chosen so that a large variety of geometries and of neutron energy spectra were covered. Problems, calculating the k/sub eff/ of systems with high-uranium-concentration uranyl nitrate solution that were minimally reflected or unreflected, resulted in the separate examination of five cases.

  15. Late Holocene earthquake history of the Brigham City segment of the Wasatch fault zone at the Hansen Canyon, Kotter Canyon, and Pearsons Canyon trench sites, Box Elder County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DuRoss, Christopher B.; Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; McDonald, Greg N.; Briggs, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Of the five central segments of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) having evidence of recurrent Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes, the Brigham City segment (BCS) has the longest elapsed time since its most recent surface-faulting event (~2.1 kyr) compared to its mean recurrence time between events (~1.3 kyr). Thus, the BCS has the highest time-dependent earthquake probability of the central WFZ. We excavated trenches at three sites––the Kotter Canyon and Hansen Canyon sites on the north-central BCS and Pearsons Canyon site on the southern BCS––to determine whether a surface-faulting earthquake younger than 2.1 ka occurred on the BCS. Paleoseismic data for Hansen Canyon and Kotter Canyon confirm that the youngest earthquake on the north-central BCS occurred before 2 ka, consistent with previous north-central BCS investigations at Bowden Canyon and Box Elder Canyon. At Hansen Canyon, the most recent earthquake is constrained to 2.1–4.2 ka and had 0.6–2.5 m of vertical displacement. At Kotter Canyon, we found evidence for two events at 2.5 ± 0.3 ka and 3.5 ± 0.3 ka, with an average displacement per event of 1.9–2.3 m. Paleoseismic data from Pearsons Canyon, on the previously unstudied southern BCS, indicate that a post-2 ka earthquake ruptured this part of the segment. The Pearsons Canyon earthquake occurred at 1.2 ± 0.04 ka and had 0.1–0.8 m of vertical displacement, consistent with our observation of continuous, youthful scarps on the southern 9 km of the BCS having 1–2 m of late Holocene(?) surface offset. The 1.2-ka earthquake on the southern BCS likely represents rupture across the Weber–Brigham City segment boundary from the penultimate Weber-segment earthquake at about 1.1 ka. The Pearsons Canyon data result in a revised length of the BCS that has not ruptured since 2 ka (with time-dependent probability implications), and provide compelling evidence of at least one segment-boundary failure and multi-segment rupture on the central WFZ. Our

  16. The modified extended Hansen method to determine partial solubility parameters of drugs containing a single hydrogen bonding group and their sodium derivatives: benzoic acid/Na and ibuprofen/Na.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, P; Pena, M A; Barra, J

    2000-01-20

    Sodium salts are often used in drug formulation but their partial solubility parameters are not available. Sodium alters the physical properties of the drug and the knowledge of these parameters would help to predict adhesion properties that cannot be estimated using the solubility parameters of the parent acid. This work tests the applicability of the modified extended Hansen method to determine partial solubility parameters of sodium salts of acidic drugs containing a single hydrogen bonding group (ibuprofen, sodium ibuprofen, benzoic acid and sodium benzoate). The method uses a regression analysis of the logarithm of the experimental mole fraction solubility of the drug against the partial solubility parameters of the solvents, using models with three and four parameters. The solubility of the drugs was determined in a set of solvents representative of several chemical classes, ranging from low to high solubility parameter values. The best results were obtained with the four parameter model for the acidic drugs and with the three parameter model for the sodium derivatives. The four parameter model includes both a Lewis-acid and a Lewis-base term. Since the Lewis acid properties of the sodium derivatives are blocked by sodium, the three parameter model is recommended for these kind of compounds. Comparison of the parameters obtained shows that sodium greatly changes the polar parameters whereas the dispersion parameter is not much affected. Consequently the total solubility parameters of the salts are larger than for the parent acids in good agreement with the larger hydrophilicity expected from the introduction of sodium. The results indicate that the modified extended Hansen method can be applied to determine the partial solubility parameters of acidic drugs and their sodium salts.

  17. Comparison of the cohesion-adhesion balance approach to colloidal probe atomic force microscopy and the measurement of Hansen partial solubility parameters by inverse gas chromatography for the prediction of dry powder inhalation performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew D; Buckton, Graham

    2016-07-25

    The abilities of the cohesive-adhesive balance approach to atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the measurement of Hansen partial solubility parameters by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to predict the performance of carrier-based dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were compared. Five model drugs (beclometasone dipropionate, budesonide, salbutamol sulphate, terbutaline sulphate and triamcinolone acetonide) and three model carriers (erythritol, α-lactose monohydrate and d-mannitol) were chosen, giving fifteen drug-carrier combinations. Comparison of the AFM and IGC interparticulate adhesion data suggested that they did not produce equivalent results. Comparison of the AFM data with the in vitro fine particle delivery of appropriate DPI formulations normalised to account for particle size differences revealed a previously observed pattern for the AFM measurements, with a slightly cohesive AFM CAB ratio being associated with the highest fine particle fraction. However, no consistent relationship between formulation performance and the IGC data was observed. The results as a whole highlight the complexity of the many interacting variables that can affect the behaviour of DPIs and suggest that the prediction of their performance from a single measurement is unlikely to be successful in every case.

  18. Comparison of the cohesion-adhesion balance approach to colloidal probe atomic force microscopy and the measurement of Hansen partial solubility parameters by inverse gas chromatography for the prediction of dry powder inhalation performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew D; Buckton, Graham

    2016-07-25

    The abilities of the cohesive-adhesive balance approach to atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the measurement of Hansen partial solubility parameters by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to predict the performance of carrier-based dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were compared. Five model drugs (beclometasone dipropionate, budesonide, salbutamol sulphate, terbutaline sulphate and triamcinolone acetonide) and three model carriers (erythritol, α-lactose monohydrate and d-mannitol) were chosen, giving fifteen drug-carrier combinations. Comparison of the AFM and IGC interparticulate adhesion data suggested that they did not produce equivalent results. Comparison of the AFM data with the in vitro fine particle delivery of appropriate DPI formulations normalised to account for particle size differences revealed a previously observed pattern for the AFM measurements, with a slightly cohesive AFM CAB ratio being associated with the highest fine particle fraction. However, no consistent relationship between formulation performance and the IGC data was observed. The results as a whole highlight the complexity of the many interacting variables that can affect the behaviour of DPIs and suggest that the prediction of their performance from a single measurement is unlikely to be successful in every case. PMID:27265314

  19. [Researching documents on the history of hansen's disease in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Vicente Saul Moreira dos

    2003-01-01

    This article corresponds to part of the results of a research on leprosy-related sources developed in several institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro. At Real Gabinete Português de Leitura, Arquivo Nacional and Biblioteca Nacional, banks, indexes, official documents and photos on the administration of leprosaria and articles on the treatment of the disease have been investigated. At Centro de Pesquisa e Documentação de História Contemporânea do Brazil (CPDOC-FGV), several files have been researched, mainly those with information on the health policies of the first Vargas administration (1930-1945). This research is part of the International Leprosy Association Global Project on the History of Leprosy. Its results can be accessed at the site http://www.leprosyhistory.org

  20. Response to Hansen: Economic Pressures, Not Science, Undermine Humanistic Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibert, Todd W.

    2012-01-01

    The author contends that it was economic interests, not reductionist scientific methods, that displaced the humanities as the basis for counseling profession. Attacking scientific methods may inadvertently marginalize humanistic counselors. Instead, science in counseling should be viewed more broadly and thereby support the humanities as a basis…

  1. Comparing Family Counseling and Group Counseling: An Interview with George Gazda, James Hansen, and Alan Hovestadt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Contains edited excerpts from a panel discussion held at the 1984 American Association for Counseling and Development convention and sponsored by the Association for Specialists in Group Work. Focuses on the therapeutic process in family and group counseling and on the delineation of the similarities and differences in the group dynamics in the…

  2. Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Pilani, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, “de novo.” Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy. PMID:25396142

  3. Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease.

    PubMed

    Vora, Rita V; Pilani, Abhishek

    2014-10-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, "de novo." Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy. PMID:25396142

  4. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience

    PubMed Central

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Result: Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen — Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Conclusion: Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse. PMID:26729977

  5. Phosphate uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen wild type and phenotypes exposed to space flight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Berry, D; Volz, P A

    1979-10-01

    Rates of phosphate uptake were approximately twice as great for Saccharomyces cerevisiae single-cell phenotypic isolates exposed to space parameters as for the wild-type ground control. Quantitative determination of 32P was performed by liquid scintillation spectrometry utilizing Cerenkov radiation counting techniques. PMID:395899

  6. [Guidelines for the treatment of Hansen's disease in Japan (third edition)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Masamichi; Nogam, Reiko; Okano, Yoshiko; Gidoh, Masaichi; Yotsu, Rie; Ishida, Yutaka; Kitajima, Shinichi; Kai, Masanori; Ishii, Norihisa; Ozaki, Motoaki; Hatano, Kentaro

    2013-12-01

    ad hoc committee of Japanese Leprosy Association recommends revised standard treatment protocol of leprosy in Japan, which is a modification of World Health Organization's multidrug therapy (WHO/MDT, 2010). For paucibacillary (PB) leprosy, 6 months treatment by rifampicin and dapsone (MDT/PB) is enough. However, for high bacterial load multibacillary (MB) leprosy, 12 months treatment seems insufficient. Thus, (A) For MB with bacterial index (BI) > 3 before treatment, 2 years treatment by rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine (MDT/MB) is necessary. When BI becomes negative and active lesion is lost within 2 years, no maintenance therapy is necessary. When BI is still positive, one year of MDT/MB is added (3 years in total), followed by maintenance therapy by dapsone and clofazimine until BI negativity and loss of active lesions. (B) For MB with BI < 3 or fresh MB (less than 6 months after the onset of the disease) with BI > 3, 1 year treatment by MDT/MB is necessary. When BI becomes negative and active lesion is lost within one year, no maintenance therapy is necessary. When BI is still positive or active lesion is remaining, additional therapy with MDT/MB for one more year is recommended. Brief summary of diagnosis, purpose of therapy, character of drugs, and prevention of deformity is also described.

  7. Health evaluation of Columbian white-tailed deer on Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creekmore, Terry E.; Glaser, Linda C.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) gather baseline physiologic data on a subset of the population, (2) evaluate the data to determine the health of the animals sampled, (3) if possible, identify causes of poor health and, ( 4) provide refuge personnel with information that will aid them in managing the population.

  8. 75 FR 49516 - Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... the refuges. We started this process through a notice in the Federal Register (71 FR 55214; September... notice of availability in the Federal Register (75 FR 6694; February 10, 2010). The Lewis and Clark... observation and photography, ] and environmental education and interpretation. We will review and update...

  9. 76 FR 77247 - Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... process in a Federal Register notice (71 FR 55214; September 21, 2006). We released the draft CCP/EIS to... FR 6694; February 10, 2010). We announced the availability of the final CCP/EIS in the Federal Register (75 FR 49516) on August 13, 2010. The Lewis and Clark Refuge was established in 1972 to...

  10. 75 FR 6694 - Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Federal Register on September 21, 2006 (71 FR 55214), announcing our intention to complete a CCP/EIS for..., wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and interpretation. As part of a single..., including hunting, fishing, and wildlife observation and photography, would continue at current...

  11. A COMPARISON OF THE HOLM-HANSEN AND WELSHMEYER CHLOROPHYLL A METHODS IN WEST FLORIDA SHELF WATERS. (R827085)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. A new genus of Stenetriidae Hansen, 1905 (Asellota: Isopoda: Crustacea) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia and the southwestern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Niel L; Cumming, R L

    2015-04-02

    Onychatrium gen. nov. is described, with five included species: Onychatrium forceps sp. nov., the type species and Onychatrium torosus sp. nov., both from the Great Barrier Reef; Onychatrium entale (Nordenstam, 1946) comb. nov., from Tapateuen (= Tabiteue Island), Gilbert Islands; Onychatrium thomasi (Bolstad & Kensley, 1999) comb. nov., from Madang, Papua New Guinea; and Onychatrium echiurum (Nobili, 1906) comb. nov., and species inquirenda from the Tumaotu Islands, Eastern French Polynesia. The primary distinguishing characters for Onychatrium gen. nov. are a trapezoid pseudosrostrum, the male pereopod 1 with elongate dactylus (4.7-7.3 as long as proximal width), propodus with strongly produced and acute lobe, carpus with a distally acute, flat, ventrally directed process (except O. torosus sp. nov., which has a short and truncate process) and the merus with a distally directed inferodistal lobe. The genus is known only from the southern Pacific, from the Tuamotus (eastern French Polynesia) to the Great Barrier Reef and northern Papua New Guinea.

  13. Reconsolidation of Crushed Salt to 250°C Under Hydrostatic and Shear Stress Conditions Scott Broome, Frank Hansen, and SJ Bauer Sandia National Laboratories, Geomechanics Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    Design, analysis and performance assessment of potential salt repositories for heat-generating nuclear waste require knowledge of thermal, mechanical, and fluid transport properties of reconsolidating granular salt. Mechanical properties, Bulk (K) and Elastic (E) Moduli and Poisson's ratio (ν) are functions of porosity which decreases as the surrounding salt creeps inward and compresses granular salt within the rooms, drifts or shafts. To inform salt repository evaluations, we have undertaken an experimental program to determine K, E, and ν of reconsolidated granular salt as a function of porosity and temperature and to establish the deformational processes by which the salt reconsolidates. The experiments will be used to populate the database used in the reconsolidation model developed by Callahan (1999) which accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent on effective stress to account for the effects of porosity. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) was first dried at 105 °C for a few days. Undeformed right-circular cylindrical sample assemblies of unconsolidated granular salt with an initial porosity of ~ 40%, nominally 10 cm in diameter and 17.5 cm in length, are jacketed in lead. Samples are placed in a pressure vessel and kept at test temperatures of 100, 175 or 250 °C; samples are vented to the atmosphere during the entire test procedure. At these test conditions the consolidating salt is always creeping, the creep rate increases with increasing temperature and stress and decreases as porosity decreases. In hydrostatic tests, confining pressure is increased to 20 MPa with periodic unload/reload loops to determine K. Volume strain increases with increasing temperature. In shear tests at 2.5 and 5 MPa confining pressure, after confining pressure is applied, the crushed salt is subjected to a differential stress, with periodic unload/reload loops to determine E and ν. At predetermined differential stress levels the stress is held constant and the salt consolidates. Displacement gages mounted on the samples show little lateral deformation until the samples reach a porosity of ~10%. Interestingly, vapor is vented in tests at 250°C and condenses at the vent port. Release of water is not observed in the lower two test temperatures. It is hypothesized that the water originates from fluid inclusions, which were made accessible by intragranular deformational processes including decrepitation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (31st, Seoul, Korea, July 8-13, 2007). Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jeong-Ho, Ed.; Lew, Hee-Chan, Ed.; Park, Kyo-Sik Park, Ed.; Seo, Dong-Yeop, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This third volume of the 31st annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents research reports for author surnames beginning Han- through Miy-. Reports include: (1) Elementary Education Students' Memories of Mathematics in Family Context (Markku S. Hannula, Raimo Kaasila, Erkki…

  15. Bile pigments: newcomers to the cell signaling arena.

    PubMed

    Maines, Mahin D

    2003-01-01

    The article highlighted in this issue is "2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Accumulation of Biliverdin and Hepatic Peliosis in Rats," by Marjo Nittynen, Jouni T. Tuomisto, Seppo Auriola, Raimo Pohjanvirta, Paula Syrjälä, Ulla Simanainen, Matti Viluksela, and Jouko Tuomisto (pp. 112-123).

  16. "The Connoisseur of Pain: A Novel", and "A New and Sharper Vision": Sensuous Aesthetics as Theological Immersion in Terrence Malick's "The Tree of Life", Thomas Kinkade's Landscapes, and Ron Hansen's "Mariette in Ecstasy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busk, Michael Reid

    2013-01-01

    Creative Dissertation: "The Connoisseur of Pain" is a comic noir set in Hollywood in 1962, and its central conceit is that cartoons are real, live-action films starring anthropomorphic animals that cartoonists later replicate frame by frame in order to make the violent content palatable to children. The book's protagonist and narrator is…

  17. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.89 Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  18. 42 CFR 32.86 - Admissions to Service facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....86 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.86 Admissions to Service facilities. Any person with Hansen's disease who...

  19. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.89 Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  20. 42 CFR 32.86 - Admissions to Service facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....86 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.86 Admissions to Service facilities. Any person with Hansen's disease who...

  1. 78 FR 77549 - Revise Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement: State Route (SR) 95 Realignment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... and to broadly evaluate a range of potential environmental impacts and mitigation approaches in Tier 1..., and required mitigation and commitments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan Hansen, Team...

  2. History of Crested Wheatgrass (Agropyron) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crested wheatgrass is indigenous to the Steppe region of European Russia and southwestern Siberia. It was first introduced into North America in 1892, by N. E. Hansen of the South Dakota Experiment Station. Dr. Hansen obtained five accessions, designated Pls 835, 837, 838, 1010, and 1012, from Val...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 246 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Belknap, M. Paper recycling: a business perspective. Subcommittee on Solid Waste, New York Chamber of... p. Hansen, P. Residential paper recovery—a municipal implementation guide. Environmental Protection Publication SW-155. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. 26 p. Hansen, P. Solid waste...

  4. 78 FR 40738 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Double H Pesticide Burial Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Double H Pesticide Burial Site AGENCY... incurred for the Double H Pesticide Burial Site in Grandview, Yakima County, Washington. Under this proposed settlement, the settling parties are Double H, L.P.; James T. Hansen; Linda L. Hansen; George...

  5. Neural Computation as a Tool to Differentiate Perceptual from Emotional Processes: The Case of Anger Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermillod, Martial; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Lundqvist, Daniel; Niedenthal, Paula M.

    2009-01-01

    Research findings in social and cognitive psychology imply that it is easier to detect angry faces than happy faces in a crowd of neutral faces [Hansen, C. H., & Hansen, R. D. (1988). Finding the face in the crowd--An anger superiority effect. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," 54(6), 917-924]. This phenomenon has been held to have…

  6. 42 CFR 32.87 - Confirmation of diagnosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.87 Confirmation of diagnosis. At the earliest practicable date, after the...

  7. 42 CFR 32.90 - Notification to health authorities regarding discharged patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... discharged patients. 32.90 Section 32.90 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.90 Notification to health authorities regarding...

  8. 42 CFR 32.88 - Examinations and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.88 Examinations and treatment. Patients will be provided necessary...

  9. 42 CFR 32.90 - Notification to health authorities regarding discharged patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... discharged patients. 32.90 Section 32.90 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.90 Notification to health authorities regarding...

  10. 42 CFR 32.6 - Persons eligible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Beneficiaries § 32.6 Persons... hereinafter prescribed: (1) Persons afflicted with Hansen's disease; and (2) Non-beneficiaries for...

  11. 42 CFR 32.87 - Confirmation of diagnosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.87 Confirmation of diagnosis. At the earliest practicable date, after the...

  12. 42 CFR 32.88 - Examinations and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.88 Examinations and treatment. Patients will be provided necessary...

  13. Humanities and Science: A Necessary Unity for the Counseling Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Jeffrey T.; Martin, Clayton V.; Kopp, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a reply to Hansen's (2012) call for the counseling profession to embrace a purely humanistic ideology for counseling. The authors suggest the relationship between humanities and science set forth by Hansen does not emphasize the both-and aspects of these ideologies. An integrative framework is considered for counseling.

  14. 78 FR 77664 - Defense Policy Board (DPB); Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Wednesday, January 15, 2014, from 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. ADDRESSES: The Pentagon, 2000 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301- 2000. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Ann Hansen, 2000 Defense Pentagon... classified material. Committee's Designated Federal Officer or Point of Contact: Ann Hansen,...

  15. Convergence of Personality and Interests: Meta-Analysis of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire and the Strong Interest Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staggs, Gena D.; Larson, Lisa M.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2007-01-01

    Using meta-analysis, we revised Ackerman and Heggestad's (1997) identification of four trait complexes that propose personality and interest (P-I) linkages. Studies that had reported correlations between general and specific measures of vocational interests (Strong Interest Inventory [Strong; Hansen & Campbell, 1985; Harmon, Hansen, Borgen, &…

  16. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Prototype Lunar Excursion Module used for tests of the structural dynamics of lunar landing. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 318.

  17. Thalidomide

    MedlinePlus

    Thalidomide is used along with dexamethasone to treat multiple myeloma in people who have been recently found ... that occur in people with Hansen's disease [leprosy]). Thalidomide is in a class of medications called immunomodulatory ...

  18. Genetic Variation Within and Among Collections of Falata Alfalfas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow-flowered alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. falcata) persists in low precipitation rangeland and grassland environments. The origin of Medicago includes Russia, Mongolia, Scandinavia, and China (Hansen, 1909; Lesins and Lesins, 1979). The presence of legumes improves rangelands and grasslands ...

  19. Is Surgery Always Needed for Meniscal Tears of the Knee?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a team led by Nina Jullum Kise, an orthopedic surgeon at Martina Hansens Hospital in Sandvika, Norway, ... on the findings. Dr. Matthew Hepinstall is an orthopedic surgeon at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York ...

  20. HiRISE Observations of Dynamical Phenomena on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Candice; Thomas, Nicolas; McEwen, Alfred

    Candice Hansen, candice.j.hansen@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States Candice Hansen, candice.j.hansen@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States Nicolas Thomas, nicolas.thomas@space.unibe.ch University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Alfred McEwen, mcewen@pirl.lpl.arizona.edu Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona, United States The HiRISE Team Alan Delamere Eric Eliason John Grant Virginia Gulick Kenneth Herkenhoff Laszlo Keszthelyi Randolph Kirk Michael Mellon Steven Squyres Cathy Weitz Chris Okubo Shane Byrne Patrick Russell The presentation will provide a review of recent observations by the HiRISE imaging system onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Emphasis will be placed on dynamical phenomena such as avalanches, dune motion, and jet activity at the poles.

  1. Paraglider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Langley researchers layout of a 60 foot paraglider concept. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), pp. 380-387.

  2. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Wind tunnel model of Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory concept on sting. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  3. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    1/4 scale model of Apollo Heat Shield being prepared for testing. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 356.

  4. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Israel Taback (left) and Clifford H. Nelson, head of LOPO, ponder the intricacies of the spacecraft design. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 323.

  5. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Display model of space station concept--Manned Orbiting Research Laboratory in Saturn S-IVB Orbit configuration. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995).

  6. Space Station - early

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    'The MORL-Saturn IB launch combination undergoes aerodynamic testing in the 8-Foot Transonic Tunnel in October 1965.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 302.

  7. Sting Supported Bell XS-2 in the 9 Inch Supersonic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    A sting supported model of the Bell XS-2 was tested in the 9 Inch Supersonic Tunnel. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen. Page 316.

  8. Operation IceBridge Field Update On a Day Off

    NASA Video Gallery

    On a day off from flights in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, science writer Kathryn Hansen and video producer Jefferson Beck give an update on Operation IceBridge from the field. They interviewed NASA en...

  9. Lipid Class, Carotenoid, and Toxin Dynamics of Karenia Brevis (Dinophyceae) During Diel Vertical Migration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Karenia brevis’ (Hansen and Moestrup) internal lipid, carotenoid, and toxin concentrations are influenced by its ability to use ambient light and nutrients for growth and reproduction. This project investigated changes of K. brevis toxicity, lipid class and carotenoid concentrat...

  10. Leprosy in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    White, Cassandra; Franco-Paredes, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in leprosy (Hansen's disease) treatment and outlook for patients since the introduction of multidrug therapy (MDT) 3 decades ago, the global incidence remains high, and patients often have long-term complications associated with the disease. In this article, we discuss recent findings related to genetics, susceptibility, and disease reservoirs and the implications of these findings for Hansen's disease control and health outcomes for patients. We describe the continued difficulties associated with treatment of inflammatory episodes known as "leprosy reactions," which cause much of the disability associated with the disease and can affect people for many years after MDT is complete. We also discuss some of the contemporary challenges for physicians and patients, including international and internal migration of people affected by the disease. We suggest some important areas of focus for future Hansen's disease research. PMID:25567223

  11. Leprosy in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite significant improvements in leprosy (Hansen's disease) treatment and outlook for patients since the introduction of multidrug therapy (MDT) 3 decades ago, the global incidence remains high, and patients often have long-term complications associated with the disease. In this article, we discuss recent findings related to genetics, susceptibility, and disease reservoirs and the implications of these findings for Hansen's disease control and health outcomes for patients. We describe the continued difficulties associated with treatment of inflammatory episodes known as “leprosy reactions,” which cause much of the disability associated with the disease and can affect people for many years after MDT is complete. We also discuss some of the contemporary challenges for physicians and patients, including international and internal migration of people affected by the disease. We suggest some important areas of focus for future Hansen's disease research. PMID:25567223

  12. Nailfold capillaroscopy in leprosy*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Adma Silva; Pizzol, Vanessa Irusta dal; Fritsch, Scheila; Fonseca, Gabriela Poglia; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Muller, Carolina de Souza; Ottoboni, Vanessa Cristhine Dalombo

    2016-01-01

    Due to mounting evidences of interaction between Hansen's bacilli with endothelial cells and the paucity of studies addressing the presence of nailfold capillaroscopic alterations in patients with Hansen's disease, a study was carried out in order to verify the presence of capillaroscopic alterations in patients with leprosy in its various forms and its correlation with clinical parameters. Ten patients were evaluated at a specialized university service. Sixty percent of those had some capillaroscopic change, such as micro-hemorrhages, ectatic, bushy and corkscrew capillaries. Such changes were unspecific, which suggests there is not a specific pattern for this disease.

  13. Global temperature hits record again

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Climatologists cannot agree whether or not the world is experiencing a greenhouse warming. James Hansen is confidant that the warming is taking place. According to three major measures, 1990 was the hottest year on record (globe was 0.45{degrees}C warmer than normal) with Greenland being the only place below normal. Ocean surface temperatures were measured to be 0.39{degrees}C above normal, and air temperatures at altitudes of 1.5 and 9 kilometers were 0.02{degrees}C above the previous record set in 1988. Hansen claims that the surface temperature elevations measured roughly conform with projections made by his climate model.

  14. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  15. Understanding the behavior of miniaturized metamaterial-based dipole antennas in leaky wave regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Luyang; Ouslimani, Habiba Hafdallah; Priou, Alain; Ourir, Abdelwahab; Maas, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the frequency behavior of a half-wave dipole antenna placed very close over a 2LC uni-planar compact electromagnetic bandgap (UC-EBG) structure. A very compact and high-gain antenna is realized at 1 GHz. The air distance between the dipole element and the UC-EBG surface is ˜ λ 0/100. We analyse the structure by using the optical model of Hansen, full-wave electromagnetic simulations (EM) and experimental characterizations. The analytical model of Hansen describes accurately the UC-EBG phase contribution to the total radiated field below 1 GHz. Above this frequency, the Hansen analytical model is in discrepancy with the measurements and full-wave simulations, which show split in the radiation patterns. We show that this phenomenon is induced by the power leakage of the fast-wave UC-EBG surface excited by the dipole source inside its leaky wave region. We propose an original model based on the Hansen optical analysis that takes into account the overall phenomena. The model includes the contribution of the weighted fields radiated by the cells of the UC-EBG. This model leads to very good agreements with measurements and full-wave simulations.

  16. 76 FR 7907 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... AIMEE GOBLET DARWIN ANGELA MARY BRUCE DAVID CARY RICHARD DAVID-PELLERIN STEPHANIE DE CANDIA FABRIZIO DE... GRANT S FRAZER LINDA C FRENKEL SHARON FREY ELIZABETH U FUNG PASCALE N GIBSON MATTHEW CHARLES GIBSON... GUERLAIN MARIE HA PATRICIA HABOLDT BOB P HAJEK LINDA ANETTE HANSEN PAUL ROBERT HARDWICK III CHARLES...

  17. CONTINUOUS BLACK CARBON MEASUREMENTS INDOORS AND OUTDOORS AT AN OCCUPIED HOUSE FOR ONE YEAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Black carbon is one of the components of particulate matter, and is of importance because the only known source of aerosol black carbon in the atmosphere is the combustion of carbonaceous fuels (Hansen, 1997). Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formed in the combustion process ar...

  18. Collaborative Research in Allied Health. Proceedings of Collaborative Research in Allied Health Symposium (Columbus, Ohio, September 20, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, M. Rosita, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers are included: "Consortia and Collaborative Research: Getting Started" (Hansen); "Coordination of the Health Care System in the State of Michigan" (Burian, Boyden, Herbert); "Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in Allied Health" (Doiron, Douglas); "Interprofessional Collaboration in the Analysis of Public Policy" (Dunn);…

  19. Mechanisms of Innovation Diffusion under Information Abundance and Information Scarcity--On the Contribution of Social Networks in Group vs. Individual Extension Approaches in Semi-Arid Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Dietrich; Pretzsch, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of innovation diffusion under group-oriented and individual-oriented extension. Current theoretical notions of innovation diffusion in social networks shall be briefly reviewed, and the concepts of "search" and "innovation" vis-a-vis "transfer" and "imitation" mechanisms (Hansen,…

  20. THE WASHINGTON, D.C. SCHOOL CASE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WRIGHT, J. SKELLY

    THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS EXCERPTS FROM THE OPINION HANDED DOWN IN THE "HOBSON V. HANSEN" CASE. A SUIT HAD BEEN FILED IN 1966 IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS WHICH CHARGED THAT THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA WAS DISCRIMINATING UNCONSTITUTIONALLY AGAINST NEGROES AND POOR CHILDREN ON BOTH DE JURE AND DE FACTO GROUNDS. THE…

  1. Preliminary study of mysid community on seagrass bed of Pulau Tinggi, Johor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siang, Tan Hai; Rahim, Azman Abdul; Ross, Othman Haji

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to elucidate the abundance and species composition of the mysid community from seagrass bed of Pulau Tinggi. Samples were taken from July 2009 until October 2009 excluding September 2009 by using epibenthic sledge from Kampung Pasir Panjang and Kampug Sebirah Kecil. A greater abundance of mysids occurred in the seagrass area of Kampung Pasir Panjang (69.10%) compared to the Kampung Sebirah Kecil (30.90%). Maximum mysid abundance occurred during October at both study sites for the whole study period. A total of 1136 mysid individuals comprising 14 species from 5 subfamilies were identified. They were Erythrops minuta Hansen, 1910, Anchialina dentata Pillai, 1964, Haplostylus bengalensis (Hansen, 1910), Haplostylus sp. 1, Haplostylus sp. 2, Pseudanchialina inermis (Illig, 1906), Prionomysis aspera Ii, 1937, Acanthomysis longispina Fukuoka & Murano, 2002, Acanthomysis platycauda (Pillai, 1961), Acanthomysis quadrispinosa Nouvel, 1965, Anisomysis aikawai Ii, 1964, Lycomysis spinicauda Hansen, 1910 and Siriella vulgaris Hansen, 1910. Maximum species richness occurred in the Kampung Sebirah Kecil (10) during July 2009 followed by October 2009 (9) and August 2009 (8) while for Kampung Pasir Panjang highest species richness occurred during October 2009 (8), July 2009 (7) and August 2009 (6). Siriella vulgaris was the most dominant species consisting 41.20% (195ind/m3) of the total mysids sampled.

  2. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Sandy M. Stubbs, an engineer in the Impacting Structures Section (within the Structures Research Division), inspects a model of the Apollo command module before conducting a test of water landing characteristics in Langley's tow tank facility. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 361-366.

  3. Celebrate Your Freedom! May 1, Law Day 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Mike; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents seven brief articles on legal issues concerning young people. Addresses such topics as curfews, teen smoking, dress codes, and child labor. Some articles are student-written while others profile student activity. Student authors include Mike Michaud, Danny Rosen, Carrie Kendrick, and William Hansen. (MJP)

  4. 42 CFR 32.1 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Definitions § 32.1 Meaning of terms... Health Service; (c) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other officer...

  5. 42 CFR 32.111 - Conditions and extent of treatment; charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions and extent of treatment; charges. 32.111 Section 32.111 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN...

  6. Flying Boat Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    Technicians are pictured installing flaps and wiring on a flying-boat model, circa 1944 (page 47). Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz. Photograph also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 209).

  7. Work Values of University Students in Chinese Mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Shui Wai; Yuen, Mantak

    2012-01-01

    Leuty and Hansen ("Journal of Vocational Behavior" 79:379-390, 2011) identified six domains of work values in undergraduate students in the West. The review undertaken in this paper suggests that the factor structure of work values of university students in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong essentially matches these six domains, except for the…

  8. Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices, and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Michael J., Ed.

    The 26 articles in this book focus on lifelong learning policies, practices, and programs in 13 Asia Pacific countries. The following papers are included: "Half a Revolution: A Brief Survey of Lifelong Learning in New Zealand" (P. Methven and J. Hansen); "HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning" (M. Ogisu-Kamiya);…

  9. 77 FR 35368 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Bay, AK 99821, (907) 789-3196, pbibb@ak.net . i. FERC Contact: Ryan Hansen, 888 1st St. NE.../efiling.asp . Commenters can submit brief comments up to 6,000 characters, without prior registration, using the eComment system at http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/ecomment.asp . You must include your...

  10. Employment and Disability: Trends and Issues for the 1990's. A Report on the 14th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (Washington, D.C., May 7-9, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Leonard G., Ed.; Hansen, Carl E., Ed.

    This report on the 14th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar addresses trends and prospects for employment of persons with disabilities. The monograph begins with an introduction by Leonard G. Perlman and Carl E. Hansen, a foreword by Richard S. Materson, a list of seminar sponsors and Switzer scholars, a statement on the legacy of Mary Elizabeth…

  11. The Long Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles six educators who have taught for as long as two generations. These educators are the following: (1) Hazel Wilson--teaching 47 years; (2) Agnes Zeiger--teaching 61 years; Rose Gilbert--teaching 51 years; (4) Ellie Johnson--teaching 52 years; (5) Roy Clare--teaching 48 years; and (6) Carrie Hansen--54 years in education. These…

  12. Rejoinder to Guterman, Martin, and Kopp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James T.

    2012-01-01

    In their reply to the author's keystone article (Hansen, 2012), Guterman, Martin, and Kopp (2012) charge that the author's integrative framework was not sufficiently integrative. They also argue that his proposal results in logical contradictions and the mind-body problem. The author responds by noting that his proposal fully integrates the…

  13. New Directions for Learning Community Assessment and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th Annual National Learning Communities Conference in November 2007, Juan Carlos Huerta, Gale Stuart, Lauren Chism, and Michele Hansen participated in a panel discussion about new directions in learning communities assessment and research. The intent of the panel discussion was to hear from those involved in learning community assessment,…

  14. Second Language Acquisition by Low-Literate Learners: An Understudied Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Many adolescent and adult L2 learners in language classrooms, both in the US and other countries, have little or no alphabetic print literacy. Language teachers may turn to SLA research for assistance, yet almost all research on oral SLA has focused on educated, highly-literate learners (Bigelow & Tarone 2004; Tarone, Bigelow & Hansen 2009). The…

  15. The Grief Account: Dimensions of a Contemporary Bereavement Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2008-01-01

    The genre of the grief account is identified to include published narratives of surviving grief. Thematic analysis of Andrew Holleran's (2006) "Grief: A Novel," Lolly Winston's (2004) "Good Grief: A Novel," Joan Didion's (2005) "The Year of Magical Thinking," and J. Canfield and M. V. Hansen's (2003) "Chicken Soup for the Grieving Soul: Stories…

  16. When Talent Is Not Enough: Why Technologically Talented Women Are Not Studying Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autio, Ossi

    2013-01-01

    This article builds on two earlier studies. The first one defined and assessed technological competence among adolescents (Autio & Hansen, 2002). The second, traced three students who had achieved the best results in a measurement of technological competence given 15 years ago (Autio, 2011). This study showed that, in terms of technological…

  17. Scout Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Scout Launch. James Hansen wrote: 'As this sequence of photos demonstrates, the launch of ST-5 on 30 June 1961 went well; however, a failure of the rocket's third stage doomed the payload, a scientific satellite known as S-55 designed for micrometeorite studies in orbit.'

  18. Future Foreign Language Teachers' Social and Cognitive Collaboration in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Nike; Ducate, Lara

    2006-01-01

    Discussion boards provide an interactive venue where new and future language teachers can reflect, evaluate, solve problems or simply exchange ideas (e.g., Bonk, Hansen, Grabner-Hagen, Lazar, & Mirabelli, 1996; DeWert, Babinski, & Jones, 2003; Kumari, 2001; Pawan, Paulus, Yalcin, & Chang, 2003). In addition, encouraging future teachers to learn…

  19. "The Power to Develop Dispositions": Revisiting John Dewey's Democratic Claims for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, John

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews "John Dewey and Our Educational Prospect, A Critical Engagement with Dewey's Democracy and Education," edited and spearheaded by David T. Hansen, with contributions by Gert Biesta, Reba N. Page, Larry A. Hickman, Naoko Saito, Gary D. Fenstermacher, Herbert M. Kliebard, Sharon Fieman-Nemser and Elizabeth Minnich. This review…

  20. Vienna in the Early Twentieth Century: The Cultural Response to Modernization. Curriculum Units, NEH Institute, Summer 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene.

    These curriculum units were developed by participants in the National Endowment for the Humanities seminar at the University of Oregon in 1993. The lessons include: (1) "Schule, Freunde, Liebe: Wien um die Jahrhundertwende (School, Friends, Love: Vienna at the Turn of the Century)" (Linda Hansen; Glenn Tetterton-Opheim); (2) "Kultur in Wien um die…

  1. Focus: A Forum on Teaching and Learning in Utah Community and Technical Colleges, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Don A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    A series of articles is presented on teaching and learning in Utah community and technical colleges. After an editorial comment by J. Marvin Higbee on the goals and purposes of the Utah Association of Community Colleges, V. Lowell Hansen discusses the role of the technical instructor in the information society of the 1980's. Next, Ace G.…

  2. Photographic series: 1921 Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    Two mechanics measure and record wing ordinates on a Curtiss Jenny airplane. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 29), by James Schultz. Also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 (page 45), by James R. Hansen.

  3. Aircraft Wing Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    A LMAL carpenter prepares full scale wings for flight research, 1920. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 36), by James Schultz. Published in Engineer in Charge, NASA SP- 4305 (p. 82), by James R. Hansen.

  4. THE SEWAGE PROBLEM IN SMALL TOWNS

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Paul

    1916-01-01

    The small town, large enough to need a system of sewerage but small enough so that the expense per individual installation is greater than in large cities, presents one of the acute problems of sanitary engineering. Mr. Hansen discusses some of the means employed to dispose of the wastes of small communities. PMID:18009437

  5. Inner Subjective Experiences and Social Constructionism: A Response to Rudes and Guterman (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James T.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier article, the author argued that there had been a devaluation of inner subjective experiences by the counseling profession over the last several decades (J. T. Hansen, 2005). In their reply to this article, J. Rudes and J. T. Guterman (2007) advocated for a social constructionist position for the counseling profession. In the current…

  6. Scholarly Learning as Vocation: A Study of Community and Broad Access Liberal Arts College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terosky, Aimee LaPointe; Gonzales, Leslie D.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we extended Neumann's scholarly learning theory (2009)?and Hansen's theory on vocation (1994, 1995) to explore the scholarly learning of faculty members employed at institutional types not typically recognized for faculty work beyond teaching. Through interviews with 22 participants, we studied the content of and reasons for…

  7. Organization Development. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers on organization development and human resources. "Identification of Key Predictors of Rapid Change Adaptation in a Service Organization" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Carol Hansen) reports on the results of an exploratory study, which suggests that rapid change adaptation will be more likely to occur in an…

  8. Community Partners' Perspectives of Community-University Partnerships that Support Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witchger Hansen, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Community partner voices are important to understand because they provide the contexts in which occupational therapy students meet course objectives by applying clinical reasoning theory and developing clinical reasoning skills in a natural context (Witchger-Hansen et al., 2007; Provident, et al., 2011). To sustain these community-university…

  9. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 246 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Belknap, M. Paper recycling: a business perspective. Subcommittee on Solid Waste, New York Chamber of... Publication SW-155. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. 26 p. Hansen, P. Solid waste recycling... Printing Office, 1973. 284 p. Lingle, S. A. Paper recycling in the United States. Washington,...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 246 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Belknap, M. Paper recycling: a business perspective. Subcommittee on Solid Waste, New York Chamber of... Publication SW-155. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. 26 p. Hansen, P. Solid waste recycling... Printing Office, 1973. 284 p. Lingle, S. A. Paper recycling in the United States. Washington,...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 246 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Belknap, M. Paper recycling: a business perspective. Subcommittee on Solid Waste, New York Chamber of... Publication SW-155. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. 26 p. Hansen, P. Solid waste recycling... Printing Office, 1973. 284 p. Lingle, S. A. Paper recycling in the United States. Washington,...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 246 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Belknap, M. Paper recycling: a business perspective. Subcommittee on Solid Waste, New York Chamber of... Publication SW-155. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. 26 p. Hansen, P. Solid waste recycling... Printing Office, 1973. 284 p. Lingle, S. A. Paper recycling in the United States. Washington,...

  13. Ethnic Mongol Students and Cultural Recognition: Case Studies of Three Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenzhou, Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Cultural recognition is of growing interest in China, where ethnic identity has become an increasingly conspicuous issue (Gladney 1994, 1996; Hansen 1999; Harrell 1990, 2001; Lee 2001; Postiglione 1999; Postiglione, Zhu, and Ben 2004; Teng 2001). However, the role of institutions of Chinese higher education has received little attention, despite…

  14. Demographics of Adolescent Pregnancy in the United States. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Census and Population of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service and the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This document provides witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issue of adolescent pregnancy. Opening statements are given by Congressmen Henry A. Waxman, Robert Carcia, James Scheuer, and James V. Hansen. Witnesses include William Butz and Martin O'Connell from the Bureau of the Census who…

  15. Linking Leisure Interests to the RIASEC World of Work Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

    2008-01-01

    The present study presents an interpretive framework for linking leisure interests, measured by the Leisure Interest Questionnaire (LIQ), to J. L. Holland's (1997) circumplex model of the world of work. Published data representing correlations between the LIQ and Holland's RIASEC interest types were obtained from Hansen and Scullard (2002).…

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (76th, Kansas City, Missouri, August 11-14, 1993). Part VI: Media and Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media and Law section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 12 papers: "An Analysis of the Role of Insurance, Prepublication Review and Correction Policies in Threatened and Actual Libel Suits" (Elizabeth K. Hansen and Roy L. Moore); "Private Defamation Plaintiffs and Falsity since 'Philadelphia Newspapers, Inc.…

  17. Problems of Practice: Canadian Cases in Leadership and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Katina; Ryan, James

    2013-01-01

    One way to support aspiring and current administrators is through the use of case study teaching (Barnes, Christensen, & Hansen, 1994). Using case studies as a teaching and learning tool helps bring real-life situations into principal preparation and support programs. Case study approaches provide students with time to interrogate contemporary…

  18. Each Belongs: The Remarkable Story of the First School System to Move to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The Hamilton-Wentworth Catholic District School Board has just celebrated 30 Years of Fully Inclusive Education for All. Their mission statement: "EACH BELONGS". This remarkable book by Jim Hansen collects the history--including an extensive collection of documents and letters from teachers and families--that tell the stories of the struggles from…

  19. From PE Experiences to PE Teaching Practices? Insights from Scottish Primary Teachers' Experiences of PE, Teacher Education, School Entry and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Dely L.; Atencio, Matthew; Campbell, Theresa; Jess, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Morgan and Hansen suggest that further research is needed to explore how non-specialist primary teachers approach and teach physical education (PE) based on their personal school PE backgrounds, teacher education experiences and ongoing professional development. This paper adopts Lawson's socialisation model, a theoretical framework…

  20. 104. View of TR antenna, workers on "hanging garden," official ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. View of TR antenna, workers on "hanging garden," official photograph BMEWS Project by Hansen, 11 February 1981, clear as negative no. A-17701. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  1. Annual NASSGP/NCHELP Conference on Student Financial Aid Research (3rd, Chicago, Illinois, May 28-30, 1986). The Proceedings, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Scholarship Commission, Deerfield.

    The National Association of State Scholarship and Grant Programs/National Council of Higher Education Loan Programs conference on student aid is reported. Following the conference agenda and lists of registrants and conference speakers, the following papers are presented: (1) "Reinterpretation of Hansen's Census Data" (John B. Lee); (2)…

  2. Notes of a Progressive Educator from the Academy and the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semel, Susan F.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of three chapters in "Part III, Section F: Inquiring into Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Reenvisioning the Progressive Tradition in Curriculum" (David T. Hansen, Rodino F. Anderson, Jeffrey…

  3. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Lunar Orbiter's 'Typical Flight sequence of Events' turned out to be quite typical indeed, as all five spacecraft performed exactly as planned. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 340.

  4. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Mock-up of Manned Space Laboratory. 'Two Langley engineers test an experimental air lock between an arriving spacecraft and a space station portal in January 1964.' : Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 299.

  5. Scout Project - portrait of Eugene D. Schult

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Portrait of Eugene D. Schult who became head of Scout project in June 1963. Schult was part of the original nine members of the Scout Project Office. He, C.T. Brown, Jr., and William M. Moore were the project's three engineers. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 202, 211.

  6. Project Echo Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'A technician assigned to the Project Echo Task Group separates the two hemispheres of the Echo 1 container for inspection. The charge that freed the balloon was placed inside of a ring encircling the canister at its equator.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 181.

  7. Apollo Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Artist rendering of the Lunar Orbiter, the most successful of the pre-Apollo probes, which mapped the equatorial regions of the moon and gave NASA the data it needed to pinpoint ideal landing spots. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 314.

  8. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    'Langley's Otto Trout suggested as early as 1963 that zero-gravity activities could be simulated by immersing astronauts in a large tank of water. Years later, Marshall Space Flight Center turned Trout's abortive idea into a major component of NASA's astronaut training program.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 303.

  9. Scout Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Dress rehearsal in the control room. Controllers were practicing for the launch of S-159C which would be launched October 19, 1967. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 208.

  10. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'William N. Gardner, head of the MORL Studies Office, explains the interior design of the space station at the 1964 NASA inspection.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 300.

  11. Space Station - early concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'A Langley engineer takes a walk-in simulated zero gravity around a mock-up of a full-scale, 24-foot-diameter space station.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 282.

  12. Accelerated Program in Elementary-School Mathematics--The Fourth Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Ihrke, Constance

    Reported is the description of the fourth year (1966-67) of a longitudinal study of the accelerated program involving 30 bright students in elementary school mathematics. This report was written to be as homogeneous as possible with earlier reports by Suppes and Hansen (1965), Suppes (1966), and Suppes and Ihrke (1967). Tables and figures in this…

  13. Lattice-Boltzmann methods for suspensions of solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, dedicated to Prof. Jean-Pierre Hansen, I will summarise the development of lattice-Boltzmann methods for simulating the dynamics of colloidal suspensions. I will describe the main ideas and subsequent improvements, and place them in the wider context of particle-based methods for fluid dynamics.

  14. Mycobacteria

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials.gov . ​ Related Links Tuberculosis Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ... coats that can be found throughout the world. Tuberculosis and leprosy (Hansen’s disease) are the best known ...

  15. Individual Differences in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on individual differences in learning. "Creek Women's Perceptions of Work: A Qualitative Study" (Barbara Bussell Kawulich, Carol D. Hansen), which is an ethnographic study, discusses differences between the value systems held by Creek women and those of the mainstream population. "Subordinates'…

  16. NSCLC metastasis: going with ELMO3.

    PubMed

    Goyette, Marie-Anne; Côté, Jean-François

    2014-08-15

    Comment on: Signe Søes, Iben Lyster Daugaard, Brita Singers Sørensen, Andreas Carus, Manuel Mattheisen, Jan Alsner, Jens Overgaard, Henrik Hager, Lise Lotte Hansen, and Lasse Sommer Kristensen. Hypomethylation and increased expression of the putative oncogene ELMO3 are associated with lung cancer development and metastases formation. Oncoscience. 2014; 1(5): 367-7. PMID:25146334

  17. Conducting Needs Assessment in a Student--Family Housing Environment. The Process and Results of a Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Gene; Buchan, Rena

    This report concerns an assessment of the quality of life in Family Housing villages at the University of Florida (UF) which was conducted in April 1986. Section I presents survey particulars such as number of respondents (N=1,551) and rate of survey return (85.7%). Section II contains Hansen's Seven-Step Model for needs assessment which was…

  18. Ulcerating type 1 lepra reaction mimicking lazarine leprosy: an unusual presentation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh; Pinto, Malcolm; Dandakeri, Sukumar; Kambil, Srinath

    2013-12-01

    Leprosy maybe "unmasked" in the context of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and treating dermatologists, particularly in highly endemic areas for Hansen's disease, need to be cognizant to this possibility. It may also reflect emergence of a previously clinically silent infection in the course of immunologic restoration. PMID:24216029

  19. Type II lepra reaction--an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ray, Avas Chandra; Sen, Sumit; Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2012-06-01

    Type II lepra reaction usually present with skin lesions. We report a 23 years old male patient presented with fever for two weeks with no visible skin lesion suggestive of leprosy and with no history of either completion or concurrent anti leprosy drug treatment was eventually turned out to be a case of Hansen's presenting with type II lepra reaction. PMID:23409423

  20. 42 CFR 32.88 - Examinations and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examinations and treatment. 32.88 Section 32.88... Hansen's Disease § 32.88 Examinations and treatment. Patients will be provided necessary clinical examinations which may be required for the diagnosis of primary or secondary conditions, and such treatment...

  1. 42 CFR 32.88 - Examinations and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examinations and treatment. 32.88 Section 32.88... Hansen's Disease § 32.88 Examinations and treatment. Patients will be provided necessary clinical examinations which may be required for the diagnosis of primary or secondary conditions, and such treatment...

  2. 42 CFR 32.88 - Examinations and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examinations and treatment. 32.88 Section 32.88... Hansen's Disease § 32.88 Examinations and treatment. Patients will be provided necessary clinical examinations which may be required for the diagnosis of primary or secondary conditions, and such treatment...

  3. Aging, Disability, and the Nation's Productivity. A Report on the Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (15th, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Leonard G., Ed.; Hansen, Carl E., Ed.

    This monograph contains proceedings of a seminar focusing on the enhancement of the lives and independence of older Americans with disabilities. Introductory materials include: an Introduction (Leonard Perlman, Carl Hansen); Seminar Greeting (Richard Materson); Welcome (Harry Smith, Martin Sicker); a foreword, "Meeting the Changing Needs of an…

  4. Investigation of a redox-sensitive predictive model of mouse embryonic stem cells differentiation using quantitative nuclease protection assays and glutathione redox status

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of a redox-sensitive predictive model of mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation via quantitative nuclease protection assays and glutathione redox status Chandler KJ,Hansen JM, Knudsen T,and Hunter ES 1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  5. The Precise Time Course of Lexical Activation: MEG Measurements of the Effects of Frequency, Probability, and Density in Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Linnaea; Stringfellow, Andrew; Marantz, Alec

    2004-01-01

    Visually presented letter strings consistently yield three MEG response components: the M170, associated with letter-string processing (Tarkiainen, Helenius, Hansen, Cornelissen, & Salmelin, 1999); the M250, affected by phonotactic probability, (Pylkkanen, Stringfellow, & Marantz, 2002); and the M350, responsive to lexical frequency (Embick,…

  6. Extending the Principles of Intensive Writing to Large Macroeconomics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, Peter; Tse, Harry; Forman, Ross; McKenzie, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the design and implementation of a pilot program to extend the principles of intensive writing outlined by W. Lee Hansen (1998), Murray S. Simpson and Shireen E. Carroll (1999) and David Carless (2006) to large macroeconomics classes. The key aspect of this program was its collaborative nature, with staff from two specialist…

  7. Rejoinder to Lemberger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Lemberger (2012) argues that the author (Hansen, 2012) has no basis for recommending differential weightings or priorities to humanism and science, because those ideologies are only meaningful as they are subjectively interpreted within the counseling encounter. The author responds that their positions are completely compatible, but his focus was…

  8. Erratum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Erratum to ‘Possible interactions between dietary fibres and 5-aminosalicyclic acid’ by C Henriksen, S Hansen, I Nordgaard-Lassen, J Rikardt Anderson and P Madsen. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology (2010) 3(1) 5–9 [DOI: 10.1177/ 1756283X09347810] PMID:22973420

  9. Erratum for PMID 21180585.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    Erratum to 'Possible interactions between dietary fibres and 5-aminosalicyclic acid' by C Henriksen, S Hansen, I Nordgaard-Lassen, J Rikardt Anderson and P Madsen. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology (2010) 3(1) 5-9 [DOI: 10.1177/ 1756283X09347810][This corrects the article on p. 5 in vol. 3.].

  10. A Review of Physical Activity Levels during Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, Stuart J.; Stratton, Gareth

    2006-01-01

    Regular physical activity participation throughout childhood provides benefits to physical (Malina, Bouchard, & Bar-Or, 2004), physiological (Andersen, Wedderkopp, Hansen, Cooper, & Froberg, 2003), and psychological health (Mutrie & Parfitt, 1998). In recognition of these benefits, guidelines have been published in the United States (Corbin &…

  11. Organization Values. Symposium 10. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on organizational values. "Understanding the Work Beliefs of Nonprofit Executives through Organizational Stories" (Ava S. Wilensky, Carol D. Hansen) reports on a study during which qualitative interviews featuring a story component established that nonprofit executives constitute a diffuse managerial subculture…

  12. Portrait of Antonia Ferri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    After fighting the Nazis as chief of a partisan brigade, Antonio Ferri brought important new information to Langley in 1944 about current German and Italian research in high speed aerodynamics. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen. Page 319.

  13. Cosmopolitanism as Communication? On Conditions for Educational Conversations in a Globalized Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlström, Ninni

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I explore the question of how a cosmopolitan perspective on education could be understood from curriculum-based activities in classrooms. Assuming that there is a cosmopolitan potential in curriculum content as such, I draw on David Hansen, Anthony Kwame Appiah and Donald Davidson to argue that cosmopolitanism at the classroom…

  14. 42 CFR 32.1 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Meaning of terms. 32.1 Section 32.1 Public Health... FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Definitions § 32.1 Meaning of terms. All terms not defined herein shall have the same meaning as given them in the Act. (a) Act means...

  15. 42 CFR 32.1 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Meaning of terms. 32.1 Section 32.1 Public Health... FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Definitions § 32.1 Meaning of terms. All terms not defined herein shall have the same meaning as given them in the Act. (a) Act means...

  16. Evidence of Construct Validity of the Interest Scales on the Campbell Interest and Skill Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Brandon A.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored evidence of the construct validity of the interest scales on the Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (CISS; Campbell, Hyne, & Nilsen, 1992) by testing evidence for convergent validity with the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; Hansen & Campbell, 1985). Two hypotheses were formulated. First, matching CISS and SII scales were…

  17. Specificity in Interest Measurement: Basic Interest Scales and Major Field of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Chistopher A.; Borgen, Fred H.; Rottinghaus, Patrick J.; Donnay, David A. C.

    2004-01-01

    The Basic Interest Scales (BISs) of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; Harmon, Hansen, Borgen, & Hammer, 1994) have a 35-year history. The BISs are the specific content scales of the SII, as opposed to the SII general content scales, the General Occupational Themes (GOTs), which measure the six Holland (1997) RIASEC themes. Using 17,074…

  18. Psychometric Evidence for the Leisure Interest Questionnaire and Analyses of the Structure of Leisure Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Scullard, Mark G.

    2002-01-01

    This study provides evidence of reliability and validity for the Leisure Interest Questionnaire (LIQ; J. C. Hansen, 1998). Undergraduate students completed the LIQ and Strong Interest Inventory (SII; E. K. Strong Jr., 1927) at Time 1 and the LIQ 5 weeks later. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the LIQ scales were calculated.…

  19. The Influence of Career Indecision on the Strong Interest Inventory and the Self-Directed Search: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, R. Kevin

    A pilot study was conducted with 48 adults to determine if career indecision/dissatisfaction as indicated by flat Strong Interest Inventory (SII) (L. Harmon, J. Hansen, F. Borgen, and A. Hammer, 1994) profiles corresponded with flat profiles on the Self-Directed Search (SDS) and to determine if indecision affected scores on SII Personal Style…

  20. Accuracy in Recalling Interest Inventory Information at Three Time Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jane L.; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Leuwerke, Wade; D'Achiardi, Catalina; Edwards, Jorie Hitch; Edwards, Jared

    2006-01-01

    Rates of accurate recall of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; L. W. Harmon, J. C. Hansen, F. H. Borgen, & A. L. Hammer, 1994) profile information varied with the amount of time elapsed since the interpretation, the type of SII scale, and whether immediate recall was elicited, but rates did not vary with the strategy used to provide the…

  1. The Relationship between First-Generation Students' Educational Background and Selected Academic and Non-Academic Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerville, Bernadette M.

    2009-01-01

    The door to college is open for increasing numbers of students for whom adapting to college may be a great challenge (Kamphoff, Hutson, Amundsen, & Atwood, 2007). Hansen (1998) noted that the overall academic preparation level has declined for students entering college and that academic disengagement in college has increased among many students.…

  2. Becoming Educultural: Collaborative Projects in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    Manurewa Intermediate students were given an experience only the arts can provide as they collaboratively researched, responded to and celebrated a school mural project. The mural project was initiated by Shane Hansen through the Principal Iain Taylor and coordinated by Dianne Macdonald, a Professional Learning Leader at Manurewa Intermediate…

  3. Benjamin's Angel of History and the Work of Mourning in Ethical Remembrance: Understanding the Effect of W.G. Sebald's Novels in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2014-01-01

    The paper develops a conceptual framework for understanding the work of ethical remembrance in the classroom. Using David Hansen's recent example of using Sebald's novels in his classroom to do the work or remembrance, the paper argues that the effect of Sebald's novels is best understood using Walter Benjamin's figure of the…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). More Miscellaneous Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The More Miscellaneous Studies section of the proceedings contains the following 34 papers: "The Louisville Courier-Journal's News Content after Purchase by Gannett" (Hansen and Coulson); "Reflection of Cultural Values in Advertising: A Comparative Analysis of Taiwan and U.S. Advertising" (Zandpour and Qian); "Sex, Violence and…

  5. The Curse of the Nine-Banded Armadillo: Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Galal; Elsayed, Mohammed; Clincea, Radu; Talley, James; Ignacio, Melissa; Thompson, Jennifer C

    2015-07-01

    Hansen's disease (leprosy) is an ancient condition characterized by hypopigmented patches that progress to become plaques with hypoesthesia. Several case reports suggest that armadillos may be a source of Mycobacterium leprae for clinical cases, and contact with armadillos has been shown to be a significant risk factor in several case-control studies. Early diagnosis and treatment result in an excellent prognosis and provide an effective means to prevent complications of peripheral nerve injury, social stigma, and disability. We present a case of Hansen's disease in a previously healthy veteran and provide an overview of the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of the condition. Clinicians should consider leprosy in the differential diagnosis when confronted with chronic skin lesions in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:26126264

  6. On asymptotic flatness and Lorentz charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Dehouck, François; Virmani, Amitabh

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we establish two results concerning four-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes at spatial infinity. First, we show that the six conserved Lorentz charges are encoded in two unique, distinct, but mutually dual symmetric divergence-free tensors that we construct from the equations of motion. Second, we show that the integrability of Einstein's equations in the asymptotic expansion is sufficient to establish the equivalence between counter-term charges defined from the variational principle and charges defined by Ashtekar and Hansen. These results clarify earlier constructions of conserved charges in the hyperboloid representation of spatial infinity. In showing this, the parity condition on the mass aspect is not needed. Along the way in establishing these results, we prove two lemmas on tensor fields on three-dimensional de Sitter spacetime stated by Ashtekar-Hansen and Beig-Schmidt and state and prove three additional lemmas. A la mémoire de notre ami et professeur Laurent Houart.

  7. Developing a computational model of human hand kinetics using AVS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowitz, Mark S.

    1996-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop a finite element model of the human hand at the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR), this project extended existing computational tools for analyzing and visualizing hand kinetics. These tools employ a commercial, scientific visualization package called AVS. FORTRAN and C code, originally written by David Giurintano of the Gillis W. Long Hansen`s Disease Center, was ported to a different computing platform, debugged, and documented. Usability features were added and the code was made more modular and readable. When the code is used to visualize bone movement and tendon paths for the thumb, graphical output is consistent with expected results. However, numerical values for forces and moments at the thumb joints do not yet appear to be accurate enough to be included in ISCR`s finite element model. Future work includes debugging the parts of the code that calculate forces and moments and verifying the correctness of these values.

  8. Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Marull, J.; Pinochet, J.; Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Soler, A.

    1991-01-01

    Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible. PMID:19283164

  9. Marshallese COFA Migrants in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2016-05-01

    Arkansas is home to one of the largest populations of Marshallese in the world. Marshallese communities suffer from a disproportionate incidence of chronic diseases, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and infectious diseases, such as Hansen's disease (leprosy), tuberculosis, and types of hepatitis. There are a number of structural, legal, economic, and social issues that must be addressed in order to reduce health disparities and increase access to health care for Marshallese living in Arkansas. PMID:27263176

  10. The phase function of Venus cloud particles from Mariner 10 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.

    1978-01-01

    Mariner 10 images of Venus taken at several phase angles were photometrically reduced. The analysis shows that the phase function of the cloud particles is not isotropic, as had been deduced earlier from the brightness distribution on spacecraft images taken at a single phase angle, but has a broad minimum near 60 deg and is forward-scattering. The scattering properties are in quantitative agreement with previous deductions from earth-based polarization measurements by Hansen and his associates.

  11. Marshallese COFA Migrants in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2016-05-01

    Arkansas is home to one of the largest populations of Marshallese in the world. Marshallese communities suffer from a disproportionate incidence of chronic diseases, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and infectious diseases, such as Hansen's disease (leprosy), tuberculosis, and types of hepatitis. There are a number of structural, legal, economic, and social issues that must be addressed in order to reduce health disparities and increase access to health care for Marshallese living in Arkansas.

  12. Fast algorithm for computing the Abel inversion integral in broadband reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, F.D.

    1995-10-01

    The application of the Hansen--Jablokow recursive technique is proposed for the numerical computation of the Abel inversion integral which is used in ({ital O}-mode) frequency-modulated broadband reflectometry to evaluate plasma density profiles. Compared to the usual numerical methods the recursive algorithm allows substantial time savings that can be important when processing massive amounts of data aiming to control the plasma in real time. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Langley Laboratory Annual Picnic, Buckroe Beach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Wheelbarrow Race. Series of three photographs of barrel jousting competition. On the barrel to the left is Edward R. Ray Sharp, a future engineer in charge of the NACA's Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 417). Also published in in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz (page 19).

  14. Magnetoplasmadynamcis (MPD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Test section of a later coaxial version of a Hall-current plasma accelerator. The technician is wearing goggles to protect his eyes against the intense light created by the very bright, high-velocity plume from the MPD arc-jet exhausting into a vacuum tank. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 137.

  15. Lunar Orbiter I - Moon & Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    First view of the earth and moon from space. Published in: Spaceflight Revolution: Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, by James R. Hansen. NASA History Series. NASA SP ; 4308. p ii. Caption: 'The picture of the century was this first view of the earth from space. Lunar Orbiter I took the photo on 23 August 1966 on its 16th orbit just before it passed behind the moon. The photo also provided a spectacular dimensional view of the lunar surface.'

  16. Space Station - early

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    'North American selected this space station design in 1962 for final systems analysis. Incorporating all the advantages of a wheel configuration, it had rigid cylindrical modules arranged in a hexagonal shape with three rigid telescoping spokes. This configuration eliminated the need for exposed flexible fabric.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 284.

  17. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Langley and Boeing signed the Lunar Orbiter contract on 16 April 1964 and sent it to NASA headquarters for final review. Three weeks later, on 7 May, Administrator James E. Webb approved the $80-million incentives contract to build five Lunar Orbiter spacecraft. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 331.

  18. Charles Lindburgh and Fred Weick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    'In early 1930, Charles Lindburgh was pruning his new Lockheed Sirius for an attempt to break the cross-country record from Los Angeles to New York.' Quote from the book Engineer In Charge by James R. Hansen (page 52). This photograph is a copy and was originally photographed the early 1930's: NACA engineer Fred Weick is shown in the rear cockpit. Lindbergh in front. Tom Hamilton is standing.

  19. An alternative scheme to find glass state solutions using integral equation theory for the pair structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Pastore, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    We propose and discuss a straightforward search protocol for the glass-like solutions of the integral equations of the two-replica approach to the random first-order transition theory of the liquid-glass transition. The new numerical strategy supplements those recently introduced by Jean-Pierre Hansen and ourselves. A few results for inverse power (1/r12) fluid are discussed and critically compared with results from other approaches.

  20. An unusual case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Sanjeev; Borde, Priyanka

    2012-08-01

    Cranial nerve involvement is not common in leprosy. The fifth and seventh cranial nerves are the most commonly affected in leprosy. Herein we present a patient with Hansen disease (BL) with type I reaction who developed isolated involvement of the sixth cranial nerve leading to lateral rectus muscle palsy. He responded to timely anti-reactional therapy and it produced a good response. Careful observation of patients with lepra reaction is needed to avoid damage to important organs. PMID:22948066

  1. Radiation Chemistry of Potential Europa Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudipati, M. S.; Henderson, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent detection of atomic hydrogen and atomic oxygen and their correlation to potential water plumes on Europa [Roth, Saur et al. 2014] invoked significant interest in further understanding of these potential/putative plumes on Europa. Unlike on Enceladus, Europa receives significant amount of electron and particle radiation. If the plumes come from trailing hemisphere and in the high radiation flux regions, then it is expected that the plume molecules be subjected to radiation processing. Our interest is to understand to what extent such radiation alterations occur and how they can be correlated to the plume original composition, whether organic or inorganic in nature. We will present laboratory studies [Henderson and Gudipati 2014] involving pulsed infrared laser ablation of ice that generates plumes similar to those observed on Enceladus [Hansen, Esposito et al. 2006; Hansen, Shemansky et al. 2011] and expected to be similar on Europa as a starting point; demonstrating the applicability of laser ablation to simulate plumes of Europa and Enceladus. We will present results from electron irradiation of these plumes to determine how organic and inorganic composition is altered due to radiation. Acknowledgments:This research was enabled through partial funding from NASA funding through Planetary Atmospheres, and the Europa Clipper Pre-Project. B.L.H. acknowledges funding from the NASA Postdoctoral Program for an NPP fellowship. Hansen, C. J., L. Esposito, et al. (2006). "Enceladus' water vapor plume." Science 311(5766): 1422-1425. Hansen, C. J., D. E. Shemansky, et al. (2011). "The composition and structure of the Enceladus plume." Geophysical Research Letters 38. Henderson, B. L. and M. S. Gudipati (2014). "Plume Composition and Evolution in Multicomponent Ices Using Resonant Two-Step Laser Ablation and Ionization Mass Spectrometry." The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 118(29): 5454-5463. Roth, L., J. Saur, et al. (2014). "Transient Water Vapor at Europa's South

  2. Strut Supported Bell XS-2 in 7 x 10 Foot Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    The strut system used conventionally into the 1940s to support models in large wind tunnels disturbed airflow so much that many test results were questionable, especially at higher Mach numbers. In this photo from August 1946, a strut-supported model of the Bell XS-2 is being tested in the 7x10 Foot Tunnel. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen. Page 313.

  3. IMPLICATIONS OF FISH MOVEMENT AND SEASONAL HABITAT DYNAMICS FOR RESTORATION PLANNING AND PRIORITIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    J. L. Ebersole1*, S.G. Leibowitz1, P.J. Wigington Jr. 1, J.P. Baker1, M.A. Cairns1, M.R. Church1, J. Compton1, B. Hansen2, B. Miller3 1 Environmental Protection Agency, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333, 541-754-4775 (w), 541-754-4799 (f), ebersole.joe@epa.gov 2 USDA, Fo...

  4. Test Pilots with P-47 Thunderbolt Fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Langley test pilots (from left) Mel Gough, Herb Hoover, Jack Reeder, Steve Cavallo and Bill Gray stand in front of a P-47 Thunderbolt Fighter in this 1945 photo. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz (page 44). Also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 498).

  5. 101. View of transmitter building no. 102, missile warning operation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. View of transmitter building no. 102, missile warning operation center, close up view of DRED (detection radar environmental display) console in operation showing target. Official photograph BMEWS Project by Hansen, 14 March 1963, clear as negative no. A-8803. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  6. Dislocated interests and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Steven J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2016-06-01

    The predicted effects of climate change on surface temperatures are now emergent and quantifiable. The recent letter by Hansen and Sato (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 034009) adds to a growing number of studies showing that warming over the past four decades has shifted the distribution of temperatures higher almost everywhere, with the largest relative effects on summer temperatures in developing regions such as Africa, South America, southeast Asia, and the Middle East (e.g., Diffenbaugh and Scherer 2011 Clim. Change 107 615-24 Anderson 2011 Clim. Change 108 581; Mahlstein et al 2012 Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 L21711). Hansen and Sato emphasize that although these regions are warming disproportionately, their role in causing climate change—measured by cumulative historical CO2 emissions produced—is small compared to the US and Europe, where the relative change in temperatures has been less. This spatial and temporal mismatch of climate change impacts and the burning of fossil fuels is a critical dislocation of interests that, as the authors note, has ‘substantial implications for global energy and climate policies.’ Here, we place Hansen and Sato’s ‘national responsibilities’ into a broader conceptual framework of problematically dislocated interests, and briefly discuss the related challenges for global climate mitigation efforts.

  7. Dislocated interests and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Steven J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2016-06-01

    The predicted effects of climate change on surface temperatures are now emergent and quantifiable. The recent letter by Hansen and Sato (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 034009) adds to a growing number of studies showing that warming over the past four decades has shifted the distribution of temperatures higher almost everywhere, with the largest relative effects on summer temperatures in developing regions such as Africa, South America, southeast Asia, and the Middle East (e.g., Diffenbaugh and Scherer 2011 Clim. Change 107 615–24 Anderson 2011 Clim. Change 108 581; Mahlstein et al 2012 Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 L21711). Hansen and Sato emphasize that although these regions are warming disproportionately, their role in causing climate change—measured by cumulative historical CO2 emissions produced—is small compared to the US and Europe, where the relative change in temperatures has been less. This spatial and temporal mismatch of climate change impacts and the burning of fossil fuels is a critical dislocation of interests that, as the authors note, has ‘substantial implications for global energy and climate policies.’ Here, we place Hansen and Sato’s ‘national responsibilities’ into a broader conceptual framework of problematically dislocated interests, and briefly discuss the related challenges for global climate mitigation efforts.

  8. Oropharyngeal leprosy in art, history, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Scollard, D M; Skinsnes, O K

    1999-04-01

    Advanced lesions of the face, nasopharynx, and oropharynx have played an important role in the medical and social history of Hansen's disease. Renaissance artists included detailed portrayals of these lesions in some of their paintings, a testimony not only to their artistic skill and powers of observation but also to the common presence of these patients in European cities and towns of the period. The disease is now understood as a broad immunologic spectrum of host responses to Mycobacterium leprae, with a variety of clinical and pathologic manifestations in nerve, soft tissues, and bone. This review incorporates the findings of 2 extraordinary studies (one from Europe and the other from Japan) of pharyngeal and facial lesions. In the 1950s, studies of skeletal remains from the churchyard of a Danish leprosarium revealed a triad of maxillofacial lesions unique to leprosy and designated facies leprosa. In pre-World War II Japan, before effective treatment had been discovered, a prominent otorhinolaryngologist studying oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal lesions prepared watercolor illustrations of the natural progression of untreated Hansen's disease. As a result of effective antimicrobial therapy, such advanced lesions are now rarely seen, but the presenting signs and symptoms of leprosy still occasionally arise in the nasal and oral mucosa. The nasopharynx and oropharynx may be important early sites of inoculation and infection by M leprae, and they require additional emphasis in worldwide efforts toward early diagnosis and treatment of Hansen's disease.

  9. A three-dimensional solubility parameter approach to nonaqueous enzymology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L V

    1991-03-25

    Widespread commercial application of enzymes as catalysts for specialty or commodity chemical synthesis will require their use in nonaqueous systems. While a number of non-aqueous enzyme applications have been demonstrated, the lack of useful rules for predicting enzyme-solvent interactions has hindered the development of this technology. Both Hildebrand and solvent hydrophobicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) parameters have been used previously to correlate and predict enzyme activity in nonaqueous systems, with some success, but any single-parameter approach is inherently limited in its ability to reflect the spectrum of possible enzyme-solvent interactions. Therefore, this study evaluates the three-dimensional solubility parameter space, as proposed by Hansen, to correlate and predict enzyme activity in microaqueous, miscible, and biphasic nonaqueous systems. Preliminary results suggest that Hansen parameters may be useful for correlating nonaqueous enzyme activity, and that the dispersive and polar parameters may be disproportionately important in single-phase microaqueous systems. The Hansen hydrogen-bonding parameter appears to be the only parameter yet evaluated capable of correlating the water requirement for enzyme activity in microaqueous systems, suggesting that water affects protein structure through enthalpic rather than entropic processes in nonaqueous systems. Insufficient data are available for miscible and biphasic systems, but it is proposed that enzyme activity may correlate with the average solubility parameters of miscible systems and of the aqueous phase in biphasic systems.

  10. Oropharyngeal leprosy in art, history, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Scollard, D M; Skinsnes, O K

    1999-04-01

    Advanced lesions of the face, nasopharynx, and oropharynx have played an important role in the medical and social history of Hansen's disease. Renaissance artists included detailed portrayals of these lesions in some of their paintings, a testimony not only to their artistic skill and powers of observation but also to the common presence of these patients in European cities and towns of the period. The disease is now understood as a broad immunologic spectrum of host responses to Mycobacterium leprae, with a variety of clinical and pathologic manifestations in nerve, soft tissues, and bone. This review incorporates the findings of 2 extraordinary studies (one from Europe and the other from Japan) of pharyngeal and facial lesions. In the 1950s, studies of skeletal remains from the churchyard of a Danish leprosarium revealed a triad of maxillofacial lesions unique to leprosy and designated facies leprosa. In pre-World War II Japan, before effective treatment had been discovered, a prominent otorhinolaryngologist studying oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal lesions prepared watercolor illustrations of the natural progression of untreated Hansen's disease. As a result of effective antimicrobial therapy, such advanced lesions are now rarely seen, but the presenting signs and symptoms of leprosy still occasionally arise in the nasal and oral mucosa. The nasopharynx and oropharynx may be important early sites of inoculation and infection by M leprae, and they require additional emphasis in worldwide efforts toward early diagnosis and treatment of Hansen's disease. PMID:10225629

  11. The equivalent fundamental-mode source

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G.D.; Busch, R.D.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Okajima, Shigeaki

    1997-02-01

    In 1960, Hansen analyzed the problem of assembling fissionable material in the presence of a weak neutron source. Using point kinetics, he defined the weak source condition and analyzed the consequences of delayed initiation during ramp reactivity additions. Although not clearly stated in Hansen`s work, the neutron source strength that appears in the weak source condition corresponds to the equivalent fundamental-mode source. In this work, we describe the concept of an equivalent fundamental-mode source and we derive a deterministic expression for a factor, g*, that converts any arbitrary source distribution to an equivalent fundamental-mode source. We also demonstrate a simplified method for calculating g* in subcritical systems. And finally, we present a new experimental method that can be employed to measure the equivalent fundamental-mode source strength in a multiplying assembly. We demonstrate the method on the zero-power, XIX-1 assembly at the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  12. Lack of negative slope in I-V plots for BK channels at positive potentials in the absence of intracellular blockers.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Magleby, Karl L

    2013-04-01

    Large-conductance, voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels display near linear current-voltage (I-V) plots for voltages between -100 and +100 mV, with an increasing sublinearity for more positive potentials. As is the case for many types of channels, BK channels are blocked at positive potentials by intracellular Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). This fast block progressively reduces single-channel conductance with increasing voltage, giving rise to a negative slope in the I-V plots beyond about +120 mV, depending on the concentration of the blockers. In contrast to these observations of pronounced differences in the magnitudes and shapes of I-V plots in the absence and presence of intracellular blockers, Schroeder and Hansen (2007. J. Gen. Physiol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.200709802) have reported identical I-V plots in the absence and presence of blockers for BK channels, with both plots having reduced conductance and negative slopes, as expected for blockers. Schroeder and Hansen included both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the intracellular solution rather than a single blocker, and they also studied BK channels expressed from α plus β1 subunits, whereas most previous studies used only α subunits. Although it seems unlikely that these experimental differences would account for the differences in findings between previous studies and those of Schroeder and Hansen, we repeated the experiments using BK channels comprised of α plus β1 subunits with joint application of 2.5 mM Ca(2+) plus 2.5 mM Mg(2+), as Schroeder and Hansen did. In contrast to the findings of Schroeder and Hansen of identical I-V plots, we found marked differences in the single-channel I-V plots in the absence and presence of blockers. Consistent with previous studies, we found near linear I-V plots in the absence of blockers and greatly reduced currents and negative slopes in the presence of blockers. Hence, studies of conductance mechanisms for BK channels should exclude intracellular Ca(2+)/Mg(2

  13. High-Resolution Modelling of Health Impacts from Air Pollution for Denmark using the Integrated Model System EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla

    2015-04-01

    , J., J. D. Silver, L. M. Frohn, C. Geels, A. Gross, A. B. Hansen, K. M. Hansen, G. B. Hedegaard, C. A. Skjøth, H. Villadsen, A. Zare, and J. H. Christensen, 2012: An integrated model study for Europe and North America using the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model with focus on intercontinental transport. Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, pp. 156-176, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.011 Brandt, J., J. D. Silver, J. H. Christensen, M. S. Andersen, J. Bønløkke, T. Sigsgaard, C. Geels, A. Gross, A. B. Hansen, K. M. Hansen, G. B. Hedegaard, E. Kaas and L. M. Frohn, 2013a: "Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe to the Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution using the EVA Model System - an integrated modelling approach". Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, pp. 7725-7746, 2013. www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/7725/2013/, doi:10.5194/acp-13-7725-2013. Brandt, J., J. D. Silver, J. H. Christensen, M. S. Andersen, J. Bønløkke, T. Sigsgaard, C. Geels, A. Gross, A. B. Hansen, K. M. Hansen, G. B. Hedegaard, E. Kaas and L. M. Frohn, 2013b: "Assessment of Past, Present and Future Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA Model System". Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Vol. 13, pp. 7747-7764, 2013. www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/7747/2013/. doi:10.5194/acp-13-7747-2013. Plejdrup, M.S., Gyldenkærne, S., 2011. Spatial distribution of pollutants to air - the SPREAD model. NERI Technical Report No. 823.

  14. Cretaceous magmatism in the High Canadian Arctic: Implications for the nature and age of Alpha Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, Richard; Tarduno, John; Singer, Brad

    2013-04-01

    Cretaceous magmatism in the High Arctic, best expressed on Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere Island, can provide clues to the nature and age of the adjacent Alpha Ridge, which is in turn a key to understanding the tectonic evolution of the Arctic Ocean. Although the incorporation of some continental crust cannot be excluded, the prevailing view is that Alpha Ridge is dominantly thickened oceanic crust, analogous to oceanic plateaus of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Together with the on-land volcanic exposures, Alpha Ridge composes the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (LIP), but the physical processes responsible for the magmatism remain unclear. Here we focus on two volcanic formations found on the Canadian Arctic margin. The Strand Fiord Formation is composed of a series of classic continental flood basalt flows, and represents the most voluminous expression of volcanism that has survived erosion. These basalts yield a 40Ar/39Ar age of ~95 Ma (Tarduno et al., Science, 1998) but this comes from the distant edge of the flood basalt exposures. The Hansen Point Volcanics consist of felsic and mafic rocks; previous age assignments range from the Maastrichtian (on the basis of palynomorphs, Falcon-Lang et al., Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 2004) to 80 Ma (Rb/Sr isochron, Estrada and Henjes-Kunst, Z. dt. Geol. Ges, 2004). Here we report new 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic and paleomagnetic data from the Hansen Point Volcanics. In contrast to the latest Cretaceous/Paleogene dates, we find ages of ~95 Ma and 88-90 Ma. Because of the proximity of the landward extension of Alpha Ridge to Hansen Point, these new ages suggest that volcanism that contributed to the construction of Alpha Ridge may have extended over at least a 7 million interval (although it could have occurred in pulses). We will discuss the implications of these new data for candidate mantle processes that could have been responsible for the emplacement of Alpha Ridge and the High Arctic LIP.

  15. The effects of a STEM professional development intervention on elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, Deborah D.

    To improve and sustain science teaching and learning in the elementary grades, experts recommended school districts afford time in the day for science instruction, secure the necessary resources for an investigative classroom, and provide teachers with increased professional development opportunities that target content knowledge, pedagogical skills, and confidence in teaching science (e.g. Buczynski & Hansen, 2010; Brand & Moore, 2011; NSB, 2010). In particular, researchers recommended teachers receive quality professional development that is sustained over time and embedded in the real world of the classroom (e.g. Buczynski & Hansen, 2010; Cotabish & Robinson, 2012). The purpose of this dissertation was to examine changes in elementary teachers' science teaching perceptions, concerns, and science process skills during and after participation in a STEM-focused professional development intervention involving embedded support using peer coaching. The positive effects of sustained, embedded professional development programs on science instruction have been documented by multiple research studies (e.g. Buczynski & Hansen, 2010; Cotabish, Dailey, Hughes, & Robinson, 2011; Duran & Duran, 2005; Levitt, 2011); however, few studies have investigated the effects after removal of the professional development support (Johnson, Kahle, & Fargo, 2007; Shymansky, Yore, & Anderson, 2004). By examining the changes across three years (including one year after the conclusion of the professional development intervention), the researcher in the present study considered the dosage of intervention needed to bring about and preserve significant changes in the participant teachers. To measure the impact of the intervention on teachers, the researcher used quantitative data supported by qualitative interviews. Results indicated that changes in science teaching perceptions were realized after one year or 60 hours of intervention; however, it took two years or 120 hours of intervention to see

  16. Morphology changes in stacking-disordered ice Ich as a function of time and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhs, Werner F.; Falenty, Andrzej; Hansen, Thomas C.

    2015-04-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown that ice I crystallizing from water vapour [1] or undercooled liquid water [2] under atmospheric conditions initially forms a stacking disordered arrangement of high complexity; the stacking arrangement is different depending on the starting phase[1]. Both cubic and hexagonal components are locally present and various names of this form of ice have been proposed recently: so-called ice Ic or 'ice Ic'[1], ice Isd [2] or ice Ich[3]. It is has been shown that ice Ich undergoes a progressive transformation of cubic into hexagonal stackings with time and/or increasing temperature [1]. As a mechanisms for this annealing we had proposed the cooperative action of Bjerrrum defects and moving dislocations which become active on a time-scale of minutes at temperatures close to 240K [4]. Here we show from electron-microscopic images that the presence of stacking faults is linked to numerous kinks on the prismatic faces of the trigonal ice crystals of ice Ich [1]. We present details on the annealing kinetics in the temperature range between 170 and 240K and suggest that the kinks of ice Ich crystals may be responsible for the roughness deduced from some air-borne light-scattering experiments, an increased reactivity in particular at temperatures below ~ 200K as well as curvature-induced higher vapour pressures of ice Ich as compared to normal ice Ih. [1] W.F.Kuhs, C.Sippel, T.C.Hansen (2012) PNAS 109:21259-21264 [2] T.Malkin, B.J.Murray, A.V.Brukhno, J.Anwar, C.G.Salzmann (2012) PNAS 109: 1041-1045 [3] T.C.Hansen, C.Sippel, W.F.Kuhs (2014) Z.Krist. DOI 10.1515/zkri-2014-1780 [4] W.F.Kuhs, G.Genov, D.K.Staykova, T.Hansen (2004) 6:4917-4920

  17. Biblical leprosy: an anachronism whose time has come.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D L

    1993-03-01

    Although there is a growing consensus that biblical leprosy was indeed not Hansen's disease, there has been no agreement as to the disease or diseases described in the Bible. Biblical scholars have recently provided valuable insights regarding the interpretation of the original text on the cutaneous diseases described in Leviticus, chapter 13. It is suggested by the author that no particular cutaneous disease was meant to be implicated. Rather the passages were written to exonerate persons whose only "sin" was to have an obvious cutaneous disorder.

  18. Associated Da Vinci and magellan robotic systems for successful treatment of nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thaveau, Fabien; Nicolini, Philippe; Lucereau, Benoit; Georg, Yannick; Lejay, Anne; Chakfe, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman suffering from nutcracker syndrome with concurrent disabling pelvic congestion syndrome. She was given the minimally invasive treatment of left renal vein transposition with the Da Vinci(®) robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), followed the next day by a gonadal vein and pelvic varicose embolization using a robotic intraluminal navigation with the Magellan™ robotic system (Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA). The procedure was uneventful, and the patient had good results at 6 months of follow-up, including a patent left renal vein and complete relief of symptoms.

  19. Redescription and lectotype designation of Chasmogenus abnormalis (Sharp), with notes on its distribution.

    PubMed

    Devi, M Bhubaneshwari; Devi, O Sandhyarani; Fikáček, Martin; Minoshima, Yûsuke N; Wanghengbam, Leiphon

    2016-01-01

    Chasmogenus Sharp, 1882 is a relatively small genus of 43 described species of aquatic beetles assigned to the subfamily Acidocerinae of Hydrophilidae (Hansen 1999; Short & Hebauer 2006; Short & Fikáček 2011, 2013; Clarkson & Ferreira-Jr. 2014). It is distributed in all zoogeographic regions except the Nearctic, with the highest species richness known from the Afrotropical (18 spp.) and Neotropical (15 spp.) Regions. Only four species have been described from the Oriental Region: C. abnormalis (Sharp, 1890), C. rubricollis (Régimbart, 1903), C. larsi Hebauer, 1995, and C. cattienus Hebauer, 2002. Of these, only C. abnormalis was recorded multiple times after its description. PMID:27470857

  20. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Industrial Forest Clearcuts in the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, L. Z.; Boschetti, L.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing has been widely used for mapping and characterizing changes in forest cover, but the available remote sensing forest change products are not discriminating between deforestation (permanent transition from forest to non forest) and industrial forest management (logging followed by regrowth, with no land cover/ land use class change) (Hansen et al, 2010). Current estimates of carbon-equivalent emissions report the contribution of deforestation as 12% of total anthropogenic carbon emissions (van der Werf et al., 2009), but accurate monitoring of forest carbon balance should discriminate between land use change related to forest natural disturbances, and forest management. The total change in forest cover (Gross Forest Cover Loss, GFLC) needs to be characterized based on the cause (natural/human) and on the outcome of the change (regeneration to forest/transition to non/forest)(Kurtz et al, 2010). This paper presents the methodology used to classify the forest loss detected by the University of Maryland Global Forest Change product (Hansen, 2013) into deforestation, disturbances (fires, insect outbreaks) and industrial forest clearcuts. The industrial forest clearcuts were subsequently analysed by converting the pixel based detections into objects, and applying patch level metrics (e.g. size, compactness, straightness of boundaries) and contextual measures. The analysis is stratified by region and by dominant forest specie, to highlight changes in the rate of forest resource utilization in the 2003-2013 period covered by the Maryland Forest Cover Change Product. References Hansen, M.C., Stehman, S.V., & Potapov, P.V. (2010). Reply to Wernick et al.: Global scale quantification of forest change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, E148-E148 Hansen, M.C., Potapov, P.V., Moore, R et al., (2013), "High resolution Global Maps for the 21stCentury Forest Cover Change", Science 342: 850-853 Kurz, W.A. (2010). An ecosystem context for global

  1. Autochthonous borderline tuberculoid leprosy in a man from Florida.

    PubMed

    Villada, Gabriel; Zarei, Mina; Romagosa, Ricardo; Forgione, Patrizia; Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Romanelli, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is a chronic contagious granulomatous disease principally affecting the skin and peripheral nervous system, caused by Mycobacterium leprae. In this report, we present a case of autochthonous leprosy in a man from Florida as the first human case reported from this region. Authors believe dermatologists need to be aware of the possibility of autochthonous transmission of leprosy in the Eastern-Southern United States, and should consider leprosy in any patient with atypical skin lesions, even when a history of contact with armadillo is missing. PMID:27255063

  2. Analytical methods and apparatus for measuring the oil content of sponge core

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; DiFoggio, R.; Tutunjian, P.N.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a method for use in determining the oil saturation of an earth formation by means of sponge coring, using polyurethane sponge. It comprises: dissolving substantially all of the oil and substantially none of the sponge, in a sponge core sample, into a solvent having a Hansen solubility parameter of different than that of the sponge and selected from the class consisting of: solvents having no protons in their structure, deuterated solvents, and solvents having no C-H bonds in their structure; extracting the solvent and solutes from the core sample; and measuring the resultant oil concentration in the solvent and solutes extracted from the core sample.

  3. The long and winding road from the research laboratory to industrial applications of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Martin Bastian; Iversen, Stig Lykke; Sørensen, Kim Ib; Johansen, Eric

    2005-08-01

    Research innovations are constantly occurring in universities, research institutions and industrial research laboratories. These are reported in the scientific literature and presented to the scientific community in various congresses and symposia as well as through direct contacts and collaborations. Conversion of these research results to industrially useful innovations is, however, considerably more complex than generally appreciated. The long and winding road from the research laboratory to industrial applications will be illustrated with two recent examples from Chr. Hansen A/S: the implementation in industrial scale of a new production technology based on respiration by Lactococcus lactis and the introduction to the market of L. lactis strains constructed using recombinant DNA technology.

  4. Pinatubo global cooling on target

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1993-01-29

    When Pinatubo blasted millions of tons of debris into the stratosphere in June 1991, Hansen of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies used his computer climate model to predict that the shade cost by the debris would cool the globe by about half a degree C. Year end temperature reports for 1992 are now showing that the prediction was on target-confirming the tentative belief that volcanos can temporarily cool the climate and validating at least one component of the computer models predicting a greenhouse warming.

  5. Fast time-series prediction using high-dimensional data: Evaluating confidence interval credibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Yoshito

    2014-05-01

    I propose an index for evaluating the credibility of confidence intervals for future observables predicted from high-dimensional time-series data. The index evaluates the distance from the current state to the data manifold. I demonstrate the index with artificial datasets generated from the Lorenz'96 II model [Lorenz, in Proceedings of the Seminar on Predictability, Vol. 1 (ECMWF, Reading, UK, 1996), p. 1], the Lorenz'96 I model [Hansen and Smith, J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 2859 (2000), 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2859:TROOCI>2.0.CO;2], and the coupled map lattice, and a real dataset for the solar irradiation around Japan.

  6. Explorer 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'This satellite, Explorer 24, was a 12-foot-diameter inflatable sphere developed by an engineering team at Langley. It provided information on complex solar radiation/air-density relationships in the upper atmosphere.' Explorer satellites were inflatable satellites--or satelloons, like Echo, and were developed as a follow-on program. They were intended as a vehicle to study the density of air in the upper atmosphere. Explorer 24 was launched in November 1964. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 191-192.

  7. Test pilot and engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Goggles at the ready, this Langley test pilot and engineer conducted research business high above the ground. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz (page 24). This photograph is also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 163). In the early years the flight research team was usually made up of a test pilot (Thomas Carroll, front cockpit) and an engineer (John W. Gus Crowley,Jr.).

  8. 103. View of transmitter building no. 102, missile warning operation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. View of transmitter building no. 102, missile warning operation center, overall view of center in operation with staff at consoles. Note defcon (defense condition) display panel (upper right) showing "simulated status"activity level. Also note fiber optic display panel at upper right-center. Official photograph BMEWS Project by Hansen 30 September, 1976, clear as negative no. A-14568. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  9. Current concepts review: ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Arastu, M H; Demcoe, R; Buckley, R E

    2012-01-01

    Ankle fractures are common injuries that require meticulous technique in order to optimise outcome. The Lauge-Hansen and Danis-Weber classifications in addition to careful evaluation of the injury mechanism can help guide treatment but surgeons must be aware that there are injury patterns that will not always fit the afore mentioned patterns. The principles of atraumatic soft tissue handling, rigid internal fixation and early range of motion exercises are critical for successfully treating these injuries. There are still areas of treatment uncertainty and future directed research is needed in order to address some of these questions.

  10. Effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reps, A.; Kuźmicka, M.; Wiśniewska, K.

    2008-07-01

    The research concerned the effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci, present in two cheese-making commercial inocula produced by Christian-Hansen. Water solutions of inocula were pressurized at 50-800 MPa, at room temperature, for 30-120 min. Pressurization at 50-100 MPa slightly increased or reduced the number of lactic streptococci, depending on the inoculum and pressurization time. Pressurization at 200 MPa caused a reduction in the number of streptococci by over 99.9%, whereas the pressure of 400 MPa and above almost completely inactivated streptococci. Pressurization also reduced the dynamics of microorganism growth and acidification, to the degree depending on the pressure.

  11. Analysis of a semiclassical model for rotational transition probabilities. [in highly nonequilibrium flow of diatomic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, G. S.; Yoshikawa, K. K.

    1975-01-01

    A semiclassical model proposed by Pearson and Hansen (1974) for computing collision-induced transition probabilities in diatomic molecules is tested by the direct-simulation Monte Carlo method. Specifically, this model is described by point centers of repulsion for collision dynamics, and the resulting classical trajectories are used in conjunction with the Schroedinger equation for a rigid-rotator harmonic oscillator to compute the rotational energy transition probabilities necessary to evaluate the rotation-translation exchange phenomena. It is assumed that a single, average energy spacing exists between the initial state and possible final states for a given collision.

  12. 102. Interior view of utilidor passageway link between building nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Interior view of utilidor passageway link between building nos. 101 and 102 showing waveguides on left and cable tray system on right sides. Note fire suppression water supply piping (upper center). Small maintenance 3-wheel vehicle at center (Note: similar vehicles still in use in 2001.) Official photograph BMEWS Project by Hansen, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-101123. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  13. A new Amazonian species of Cryptocellus (Arachnida, Ricinulei), with descriptions of its integumental structures and all free-living life stages.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Ana Lúcia; Lo-Man-Hung, Nancy França; Salvatierra, Lidianne

    2014-06-06

    A new species of Cryptocellus Westwood, 1874 is described, based on males, females and all free-living immature stages. Cryptocellus muiraquitan sp. nov. from Juruti, Pará, Brazil, is a member of the foedus group of species and probably closely related to Cryptocellus icamiabas Tourinho & Azevedo, 2007, C. abaporu Bonaldo & Pinto-da-Rocha, 2003 and C. simonis Hansen & Sørensen, 1904. The new species is illustrated using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The large diversity of integumental structures of the new species is described and compared to that of previously studied species of Cryptocellus and Pseudocellus Platnick, 1980.

  14. [Diverticulitis and indication for surgery--are there new data?].

    PubMed

    Weimann, A; Hirsch, W D; Schiefke, I

    2013-12-01

    The treatment in acute diverticulitis has undergone a considerable shift from an offensive to a more restrictive and individual indication for surgery. This review of the very recent literature with special regard to long-term observation of conservatively treated patients clearly shows that surgery is not required in any case of a first episode of severe diverticulitis, but should be recommended in high-risk patients under immunosuppression or chronic renal failure. In all other groups of patients the indication for surgery should be weighed on an individual basis after each episode, again aiming for the laparoscopic procedure. A therapeutic algorithm is proposed according to the Hansen-Stock classification.

  15. Carbon dioxide and climate: the greenhouse effect. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment and the Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, March 25, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Dr. Melvin Calvin of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, James Hansen of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, George Kukla of the Lamon-Doherty Geological Observatory, and James Kane and Frederick Koomanoff of DOE testified at a one-day hearing on the environmental impacts from the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The testimony focused on the greenhouse effect and its potential for disrupting the world environment. Witnesses presented data which underscore the need for continued research, but which the Reagan administration has reduced in its budget cuts. (DCK)

  16. New records of Helophoridae, Hydrochidae, and Hydrophilidae (Coleoptera) from New Brunswick, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The following three species of Helophoridae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada: Helophorus (Kyphohelophorus) turberculatus Gyllenhal, Helophorus (Rhopaleloporus) oblongus LeConte, Helophorus (Rhopaleloporus) marginicollis Smetana. Hydrochus subcupreus Randall, family Hydrochidae, and the following 15 species of Hydrophilidae are newly reported for the province: Berosus fraternus LeConte, Berosus peregrinus (Herbst), Berosus sayi Hansen, Paracymus despectus (LeConte), Chaetarthria atra (LeConte), Cymbiodyta acuminata Fall, Cymbiodyta blanchardi Horn, Cymbiodyta minima Notman, Enochrus (Lumetus) hamiltoni Horn, Enochrus (Methydrus) consors (LeConte), Enochrus (Methydrus) consortus Green, Enochrus (Methydrus) pygmaeus nebulosus (Say), Cercyon (Cercyon) cinctus Smetana, Cercyon (Cercyon) herceus frigidus Smetana, Cercyon (Dicyrtocercyon) ustulatus (Preyssler). PMID:27110166

  17. Experiments in monthly mean simulation of the atmosphere with a coarse-mesh general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R. J.; Spar, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Hansen atmospheric model was used to compute five monthly forecasts (October 1976 through February 1977). The comparison is based on an energetics analysis, meridional and vertical profiles, error statistics, and prognostic and observed mean maps. The monthly mean model simulations suffer from several defects. There is, in general, no skill in the simulation of the monthly mean sea-level pressure field, and only marginal skill is indicated for the 850 mb temperatures and 500 mb heights. The coarse-mesh model appears to generate a less satisfactory monthly mean simulation than the finer mesh GISS model.

  18. Grammatical sensitivity and working memory in children with language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Farkas, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    Children with primary language impairment (LI) show a deficit in processing different grammatical structures, verb inflections, and syntactically complex sentences among other things (Clahsen–Hansen 1997; Leonard et al. 1997). Cross-linguistic research has shown that the pattern of performance is language-specific. We examined grammatical sensitivity to word order and agreement violations in 50 Hungarian-speaking children with and without LI. The findings suggest a strong association between sensitivity to grammatical violations and working memory capacity. Variations in working memory performance predicted grammatical sensitivity. Hungarian participants with LI exhibited a weakness in detecting both agreement and word order violations. PMID:23440891

  19. New service rig operates with two-man crew

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Two Bakersfield, California, entrepreneurs have developed a partially automated and remote-controlled workover rig that can complete tubing and rod jobs on relatively shallow, singles-rig type wells with a total crew of two people on the ground. The system, called Autorig, was developed by Louis Witte, president of Witte Enterprise, and James Hansen, Paragon Engineering, Bakersfield. Initial field tests in E and B Natural Resources Management Corp.`s Blackwells Corner oil field culminated two years of development work. The new system is described in this paper using photographs from a testwell demonstration.

  20. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, T.A.; Hansen, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors.

  1. A back-pack shocker for collecting lamprey ammocoetes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braem, Robert A.; Ebel, Wesley J.

    1961-01-01

    IN 1958, THE BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES began to use specific larvicides for sea lamprey control in streams tributary to the Great Lakes. The successful application of larvicides required treatment of all areas of the streams infested by sea lamprey ammocoetes. Intensive surveys were needed to determine distribution of the larvae. The use of electrical methods to determinelarval distribution has been described (Stauffer and Hansen 1958). A light portable shocker was needed for these surveys because of the difficulty of access to some of the watersheds tributary to Lake Superior.

  2. A retrospective comparison of cervical intervertebral disk disease in nonchondrodystrophic large dogs versus small dogs.

    PubMed

    Cherrone, Karen L; Dewey, Curtis W; Coates, Joan R; Bergman, Robert L

    2004-01-01

    Medical records of 144 small-breed dogs (< or =15 kg) and 46 medium- to large-breed dogs (>15 kg) with surgically confirmed, Hansen type I, cervical intervertebral disk extrusions were reviewed. The most common clinical presentation was cervical hyperesthesia. The most common sites affected were the second (C(2)) to third (C(3)) cervical intervertebral disk space in small-breed dogs and the sixth (C(6)) to seventh (C(7)) cervical intervertebral disk space in the larger dogs. Following surgery, 99% of the dogs had resolution of cervical hyperesthesia and were able to ambulate unassisted. Seven (4%) dogs required a second surgery; four of these were large-breed dogs.

  3. Brownian friction coefficient of Kr/graphite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutchko, R.

    1998-03-01

    Calculations of the Brownian friction coefficient of fluid Kr/graphite are described. The phonon frequencies and polarization vectors are calculated for a thick graphite slab using the Benedek-Onida bond charge model(G. Benedek and G. Onida, Phys. Rev. B 47), 16471 (1993). The fluctuating forces on the adatom from the substrate are expressed in terms of the graphite fluctuation spectrum. The friction coefficient is expressed in terms of a spectral density to be derived from the slab calculations. The relation of the results to diffusive processes in monolayer fluids(F. Y. Hansen, L. W. Bruch, and H. Taub, Phys. Rev. B 54), 14077 (1996). is discussed.

  4. Multipole moments of bumpy black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Vigeland, Sarah J.

    2010-11-15

    General relativity predicts the existence of black holes, compact objects whose spacetimes depend only on their mass, spin, and charge in vacuum (the 'no-hair' theorem). As various observations probe deeper into the strong fields of black hole candidates, it is becoming possible to test this prediction. Previous work suggested that such tests can be performed by measuring whether the multipolar structure of black hole candidates has the form that general relativity demands, and introduced a family of 'bumpy black hole' spacetimes to be used for making these measurements. These spacetimes have generalized multipoles, where the deviation from the Kerr metric depends on the spacetime's 'bumpiness'. In this paper, we show how to compute the Geroch-Hansen moments of a bumpy black hole, demonstrating that there is a clean mapping between the deviations used in the bumpy black hole formalism and the Geroch-Hansen moments. We also extend our previous results to define bumpy black holes whose current moments, analogous to magnetic moments of electrodynamics, deviate from the canonical Kerr value.

  5. Use of Non-invasive Methods for Evaluating the Testicular Biometry in Collared Peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Lima, G L; Campos, L B; Paiva, A L C; Paula, V V; Ricarte, A R F; Silva, A R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two methods used to estimate testicular volume in the collared peccary. Calliper and ultrasonographic measurements of testicular dimensions (length, width and height) of both testes were taken on five adult collared peccaries. The testicular volume was calculated by Lambert's empiric formula: length (L) × width (W) × height (H) × 0.71, the formula of an ellipsoid L × W × H × 0.52, and Hansen's formula: L × W(2)  × 0.52. The calculated volumes were then compared with the actual ones, which were estimated by water displacement. The mean of true testicular volume was 22.65 ± 1.52 ml. Lambert's formula estimated testicular volume more accurately when ultrasound measurements were taken. However, when the calliper was the methodology used, the results were closest to the true volume, especially when Ellipsoid formula and Hansen's formula were applied, and underestimated the true volumes by 1.53 ± 1.75 ml and 1.53 ± 1.65 ml, respectively. This specific application of technologies in wild animals has the potential to revolutionize the selection process for the collared peccary entering artificial insemination or natural breeding programmes.

  6. DROMO Propagator Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutxua, H.; Sanjurjo-Rivo, M.; Peláez, J.

    2013-12-01

    In year 2000 a house-made orbital propagator was developed by the SDGUPM (former Grupo de Dinámica de Tethers) based in a set of redundant variables including Euler parameters. This propagator was called DROMO. and it was mainly used in numerical simulations of electrodynamic tethers. It was presented for the first time in the international meeting V Jornadas de Trabajo en Mecánica Celeste, held in Albarracín, Spain, in 2002 (see reference 1). The special perturbation method associated with DROMO can be consulted in the paper.2 In year 1975, Andre Deprit in reference 3 proposes a propagation scheme very similar to the one in which DROMO is based, by using the ideal frame concept of Hansen. The different approaches used in references 3 and 2 gave rise to a small controversy. In this paper we carried out a different deduction of the DROMO propagator, underlining its close relation with the Hansen ideal frame concept, and also the similarities and the differences with the theory carried out by Deprit in 3. Simultaneously we introduce some improvements in the formulation that leads to a more synthetic propagator.

  7. A threat-detection advantage in those with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Krysko, Kristen M; Rutherford, M D

    2009-04-01

    Identifying threatening expressions is a significant social perceptual skill. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are impaired in social interaction, show deficits in face and emotion processing, show amygdala abnormalities and display a disadvantage in the perception of social threat. According to the anger superiority hypothesis, angry faces capture attention faster than happy faces in individuals with a history of typical development [Hansen, C. H., & Hansen, R. D. (1988). Finding the face in the crowd: An anger superiority effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 917-924]. We tested threat detection abilities in ASD using a facial visual search paradigm. Participants were asked to detect an angry or happy face image in an array of distracter faces. A threat-detection advantage was apparent in both groups: participants showed faster and more accurate detection of threatening over friendly faces. Participants with ASD showed similar reaction time, but decreased overall accuracy compared to controls. This provides evidence for less robust, but intact or learned implicit processing of basic emotions in ASD.

  8. Determination of Solubility Parameters of Ibuprofen and Ibuprofen Lysinate.

    PubMed

    Kitak, Teja; Dumičić, Aleksandra; Planinšek, Odon; Šibanc, Rok; Srčič, Stanko

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in formulating solid dispersions, which purposes mainly include solubility enhancement, sustained drug release and taste masking. The most notable problem by these dispersions is drug-carrier (in)solubility. Here we focus on solubility parameters as a tool for predicting the solubility of a drug in certain carriers. Solubility parameters were determined in two different ways: solely by using calculation methods, and by experimental approaches. Six different calculation methods were applied in order to calculate the solubility parameters of the drug ibuprofen and several excipients. However, we were not able to do so in the case of ibuprofen lysinate, as calculation models for salts are still not defined. Therefore, the extended Hansen's approach and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) were used for evaluating of solubility parameters for ibuprofen lysinate. The obtained values of the total solubility parameter did not differ much between the two methods: by the extended Hansen's approach it was δt = 31.15 MPa(0.5) and with IGC it was δt = 35.17 MPa(0.5). However, the values of partial solubility parameters, i.e., δd, δp and δh, did differ from each other, what might be due to the complex behaviour of a salt in the presence of various solvents.

  9. Polarimetric study of Venus' cloud layers with SPICAV/VEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, L.; Marcq, E.; Montmessin, F.; Fedorova, A.; Stam, D.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Korablev, O.

    2014-04-01

    The study of Venus' cloud layers is important in order to understand the structure, radiative balance and dynamics of the Venusian atmosphere. Polarization measurements have given important constraints for the determination of the constituents of the clouds and haze. From ground based observations, Hansen and Hovenier[3], using a radiative transfer model with polarization, found that the main cloud layers between 50 and 70 km consist of r - 1 μm radius spherical droplets of a H2SO4-H2O solution. In the early 1980s, Kawabata[4] used the polarization data from the OCPP instrument on the spacecraft Pioneer Venus to constrain the properties of the haze. They found that the haze layer is composed of smaller particles r - 0.25 μm with similar refractive indices. Our work reproduces the method used by Hansen and Kawabata[3, 4]. We applied a radiative transfer model with polarization on the so far unexploited polarization data of the SPICAV-IR instrument on-board ESA's Venus Express. Our aim is to better constrain haze and cloud particles at the top of Venus's clouds, as well as their spatial and temporal variability.

  10. Erythema nodosum leprosum associated with minocycline.

    PubMed

    Travassos, Ana Rita; Antunes, Joana; Pacheco, David; Almeida, Luís Soares; Filipe, Paulo; Marques, Manuel Sacramento

    2012-01-01

    Erythema nodosum leprosum is defined by the appearance of tender skin nodules, which can be accompanied by fever, joint pain, neuritis, edema, malaise and/or lymphadenopathy. The authors describe the case of a 19-year-old Angolan black woman, resident in Portugal for the last 10 years, diagnosed with Hansen's disease at the age of 12, irregular with follow-up and non-compliant with treatment. She was referred to our clinic with painful nodules and pustules on the upper limbs, diffuse facial infiltration with pustules and fever, after initiating minocycline with the intention of treating acne. Diagnosis of erythema nodosum leprosum was confirmed by the presence of acid-fast bacilli in the skin smear and also in skin biopsy. Minocycline was suspended and the patient was treated with systemic steroids, with prompt clinical improvement. Our case is reported to alert clinicians to this unusual presentation of erythema nodosum leprosum in a patient treated with highly bactericidal drugs that were not intended to treat Hansen's disease.

  11. Pliocene and Pleistocene geologic and climatic evolution in the San Luis Valley of south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, K.L.; Larson, E.E.; Smith, G.; Katzman, D.; Smith, G.R.; Cerling, T.; Wang, Y.; Baker, R.G.; Lohmann, K.C.; Repenning, C.A.; Patterson, P.; Mackie, G.

    1992-01-01

    Sediments of the Alamosa Formation spanning the upper part of the Gauss and most of the Matuyama Chrons were recovered by coring in the high (2300 m) San Luis Valley of south-central Colorado. The study site is located at the northern end of the Rio Grande rift. Lithologic changes in the core sediments provide evidence of events leading to integration of the San Luis drainage basin into the Rio Grande. The section, which includes the Huckleberry Ridge Ash (2.02 Ma) and spans the entire Matuyama Chron, contains pollen, and invertebrate and vertebrate fossils. Stable isotope analyses of inorganic and biogenic carbonate taken over most of the core indicate substantially warmer temperatures than occur today in the San Luis Valley. At the end of the Olduvai Subchron, summer precipitation decreased, summer pan evaporation increased, and temperatures increased slightly compared to the earlier climate represented in the core. By the end of the Jaramillo Subchron, however, cold/wet and warm/dry cycles become evident and continue into the cold/wet regime associated with the deep-sea oxygen-isotope Stage 22 glaciation previously determined from outcrops at the same locality. Correspondence between the Hansen Bluff climatic record and the deep-sea oxygen-isotope record (oxygen-isotope stages from about 110-18) is apparent, indicating that climate at Hansen Bluff was responding to global climatic changes. ?? 1992.

  12. Ionic microgels as model systems for colloids with an ultrasoft electrosteric repulsion: Structure and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, D.; Likos, C. N.; Kahl, G.; Löwen, H.

    2005-02-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the structural properties and phase behavior of spherical, loosely cross-linked ionic microgels that possess a low monomer concentration. The analysis is based on the recently derived effective interaction potential between such particles [A. R. Denton, Phys. Rev. E 67, 011804 (2003)]. By employing standard tools from the theory of the liquid state, we quantitatively analyze the pair correlations in the fluid and find anomalous behavior above the overlap concentration, similar to the cases of star-branched neutral and charged polymers. We also employ an evolutionary algorithm in order to predict the crystalline phases of the system without any a priori assumptions regarding their symmetry class. A very rich phase diagram is obtained, featuring two reentrant melting transitions and a number of unusual crystal structures. At high densities, both the Hansen-Verlet freezing criterion [J.-P. Hansen and L. Verlet, Phys. Rev. 184, 151 (1969)] and the Lindemann melting criterion [F. A. Lindemann, Phys. Z. 11, 609 (1910)] lose their validity. The topology of the phase diagram is altered when the steric interactions between the polymer segments become strong enough, in which case the lower-density reentrant melting disappears and the region of stability of the fluid is split into two disconnected domains, separated by intervening fcc and bcc regions.

  13. Questa Baseline and Pre-mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation, 7. A Pictorial Record of Chemical Weathering, Erosional Processes, and Potential Debris-flow Hazards in Scar Areas Developed on Hydrothermally Altered Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ludington, Steve; Vincent, Kirk R.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Livo, K. Eric

    2009-01-01

    Erosional scar areas developed along the lower Red River basin, New Mexico, reveal a complex natural history of mineralizing processes, rapid chemical weathering, and intense physical erosion during periodic outbursts of destructive, storm-induced runoff events. The scar areas are prominent erosional features with craggy headwalls and steep, denuded slopes. The largest scar areas, including, from east to west, Hottentot Creek, Straight Creek, Hansen Creek, Lower Hansen Creek, Sulfur Gulch, and Goat Hill Gulch, head along high east-west trending ridges that form the northern and southern boundaries of the lower Red River basin. Smaller, topographically lower scar areas are developed on ridge noses in the inner Red River valley. Several of the natural scar areas have been modified substantially as a result of large-scale open-pit and underground mining at the Questa Mine; for example, much of the Sulfur Gulch scar was removed by open pit mining, and several scars are now partially or completely covered by mine waste dumps.

  14. Echo 1 container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Echo 1 container: The design of this container was one of the most difficult technical tasks. Hansen writes: 'After several weeks of examining potential solutions to this problem, the Langley engineers narrowed the field of ideas to five. They then built working models of these five container designs, and 12-foot-diameter models of the satellite for simulation studies. With help from Langley's Engineering Service and Mechanical Service divisions, the Echo group built a special 41-foot-diameter spherical vacuum chamber equipped with pressure-proof windows. There the dynamics of opening the container and inflating the satelloon could be studies as the satelloon fell to the bottom of the tank.' 'The container-opening mechanism that eventually resulted from these vacuum tests was surely one of the oddest explosive devices ever contrived. The container was a sphere that opened at its equator into top and bottom hemispheres. the top half fit on the bottom half much like a lid fits snugly atop a kitchen pot. The joint between the two hemispheres, therefore, formed a sliding valve. The halves had to move apart an inch or two before the canister was actually open. It was in this joint between the hemispheres that the charge was placed.' The whole whole system was laced together with fishing line which resulted in many disdainful comments from visiting scientists and engineers but the system worked. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 180.

  15. Volatile Transport Implications from the New Horizons Flyby of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Leslie; Grundy, William M.; Binzel, RIchard P.; Earle, Alissa M.; Linscott, Ivan R.; Hinson, David P.; Zangari, Amanda M.; McKinnon, William B.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Gladstone, G. Randall; Summers, Michael E.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Spencer, John R.

    2015-11-01

    The New Horizons flyby of Pluto has revealed a striking range of terrains, from the very bright region informally named Sputnik Planum, to very dark regions such as the informally named Cthulhu Regio. Such a variety was beyond the scope of recent models of Pluto's seasonal volatile cycle (Young 2013, ApJL 766, L22; Hansen, Paige and Young 2015, Icarus 246, 183), which assumed globally uniform substrate albedos. The "Exchange with Pressure Plateau (EPP)" class of models in Young (2013) and the favored runs from Hansen et al (2015) had long periods of exchange of volatiles between northern and southern hemispheres. In these models, the equators were largely devoid of volatiles; even though the equatorial latitudes received less insolation than the poles over a Pluto year, they were never the coldest place on the icy world. New models that include a variety of substrate albedos can investigate questions such as whether Sputnik Planum has an albedo that is high enough to act as a local cold trap for much of Pluto's year. We will present the implications of this and other assumption-busting revelations from the New Horizons flyby. This work was supported by NASA’s New Horizons project.

  16. Magnetoplasmadynamics (MPD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. Marc Feix: Dr. Marc Feix was a French nuclear scientist who worked a few years at Langley during the mid-1960s. 'Feix was nominally assigned to Robert Hess's Plasma Physics Section, but he actually worked with various people throughout the branch.' James Hansen stated: 'Most notable of [the new research fields] was magnetoplasmadynamics (MPD)--a genuine product of the space age and an esoteric field of scientific research for an engineering- and applications-oriented place like Langley. If any 'mad scientist' were working at Langley in the 1960s, they were the plasma physicists, nuclear fusion enthusiasts, and space-phenomena researchers found in the intense and, for a while, rather glamourous little group investigating MPD. No group of researchers in NASA moved farther away from classical aerodynamics or from the NACA's traditional focus on the problems of airplanes winging their way through the clouds than those involved with MPD.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 121.

  17. Polarisation of Planets and Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jeremy; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bott, Kimberly; Cotton, Daniel V.

    2015-11-01

    We present observations of the linear polarisation of several hot Jupiter systems with our new high-precision polarimeter HIPPI (HIgh Precision Polarimetric Instrument). By looking at the combined light of the star and planet we aim to detect the polarised light reflected from the planet's atmosphere. This can provide information on the presence of, and nature of clouds in the atmosphere, and constrain the geometric albedo of the planet. The method is applicable to both transitting and non-transitting planets, and can also be used to determine the inclination of the system, and thus the true mass for radial velocity detected planets.To predict and interpret the polarisation from such observations, we have also developed an advanced polarimetric modelling capability, by incoroporating full polarised radiative transfer into our atmospheric modelling code VSTAR. This is done using the VLIDORT vector radiative transfer solver (Spurr, 2006). The resulting code allows us to predict disc-resolved, phase-resolved, and spectrally-resolved intensity and linear polarisation for any planet, exoplanet, brown dwarf or cool star atmosphere that can be modelled with VSTAR. We have tested the code by reproducing benchmark calculations in polarised radiative transfer, and by Solar System test cases, including reproducing the classic Hansen and Hovenier (1974) calculation of the polarisation phase curves of Venus.Hansen, J.E., & Hovenier, J.W., 1974, J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1137Spurr, R., 2006, JQSRT, 102, 316.

  18. Regulatory false positives: true, false, or uncertain?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Hansen et al. (2007) recently assessed the historical performance of the precautionary principle in 88 specific cases, concluding that "applying our definition of a regulatory false positive, we were able to identify only four cases that fit the definition of a false positive." Empirically evaluating how prone the precautionary principle is to classify nonproblems as problems ("false positives") is an excellent idea. Yet, Hansen et al.'s implementation of this idea applies a diverse set of questionable criteria to label many highly uncertain risks as "real" even when no real or potential harm has actually been demonstrated. Examples include treating each of the following as reasons to categorize risks as "real": considering that a company's actions contaminated its own product; lack of a known exposure threshold for health effects; occurrence of a threat; treating deliberately conservative (upper-bound) regulatory assumptions as if they were true values; treating assumed exposures of children to contaminated soils (by ingestion) as evidence that feared dioxin risks are real; and treating claimed (sometimes ambiguous) epidemiological associations as if they were known to be true causal relations. Such criteria can classify even nonexistent and unknown risks as "real," providing an alternative possible explanation for why the authors failed to find more false positives, even if they exist.

  19. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1995-05-01

    Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation.

  20. Myth or reality; Some data dispute global warming theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.W.

    1991-04-01

    Science in March 1990 published a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) analysis of data collected from 1979 through 1988 by the TIROS-N series of weather satellites. The data include the most precise global temperature measurements ever taken. The study found no evidence of global warming from the greenhouse effect during that period. If anything, the short-term trend was toward cooling, since the average of the first five years, 1979 to 1983, was warmer than the most recent five. The NASA findings can be added to a burgeoning body of scientific data seriously questioning the contention that Earth is threatened by global warming resulting from a greenhouse effect primarily instigated by man. Ironically, James Hansen, director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, has been the nation's most outspoken advocate of the thesis that, because concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other greenhouse gases, such as methane, have risen by 30 percent in the last 100 years and are expected to rise another 40 percent by 2050, the planet eventually will warm by about 4 degrees Celsius. According to this hypothesis, the warming will cause major coastal flooding, inland droughts and sundry other catastrophes. But Reid Bryson, founder of the Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin, contends Hansen's thesis cannot be accepted, and Michael Schlesinger, professor of meteorology at the University of Illinois, asserts the chance that global warming has already been detected is pretty close to zero.

  1. [Leprosy and human rights: trends in Japan and in the world].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yozo

    2014-12-01

    Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, has long been regarded as an incurable and dreadful contagious disease. The patients have been forcefully hospitalized and deprived of many basic human rights. Their family members have often been discriminated against due to stigma associated with this disease. Soon after the Second World War, a specific remedy called "multi-drug therapy" (MDT) was discovered and leprosy became a relatively easily curable disease. Despite this medical development, it took time to change the policy and legislation of forceful hospitalization of leprosy patients. The stigma surrounding leprosy and consequent discrimination have continued. In Japan, it was only in 1996 that the legislation requiring forceful hospitalization of leprosy patients was repealed. The Government decided to provide remedies to the former patients who had suffered from this policy. At the United Nations, the General Assembly adopted a resolution to eradicate discrimination against persons affected by leprosy and their family members. It is hoped that discrimination associated with Hansen's disease will soon be overcome by the efforts of all concerned, particularly doctors and nurses who are specialists of this disease.

  2. Strapping field profile to reproduce transition from slow rise to fast eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Bao Nguyen Quoc; Bellan, Paul

    2009-11-01

    In solar coronal loop experiments at Caltech, the hoop force causes plasma loops to expand unless additional forces are applied. By applying a strapping magnetic field of proper polarity, Hansen and Bellan [1] slowed and even inhibited this expansion. Kliem and Torok [2] predicted that a transition from slow rise to fast eruption occurs if the magnetic field's rate of decay with increasing altitude meets an instability criterion. If the restoring force due to the strapping field decays faster than the hoop force, then the plasma will move from a region where its expansion is decelerated to one where its expansion is accelerated. We have calculated magnetic profiles which attain the instability criterion within the length scale of the Caltech experiment and are constructing an auxiliary coil with independent power supply designed to match the calculated profiles. [4pt] [1] J. F. Hansen and P. M. Bellan, Astrophys. J. Lett. 563, L183 (2001)[0pt] [2] B. Kleim and T. Torok, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 255002 (2006)

  3. Effects of different strapping field profiles on plasma loop expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Bao Nguyen Quoc; Bellan, Paul

    2012-10-01

    The hoop force causes arched, current-carrying plasma loops to expand unless additional forces are applied. This expansion was slowed and even inhibited by a magnetic field of proper polarity in previous solar coronal loop experiments [1] but there was no attempt to characterize the strapping field's spatial profile. We have reproduced the Hansen results by mounting the coils producing the strapping field on two ports of the vacuum chamber. We plan to enhance the setup by mounting coils on 3 axis adjustable stands that provide precision placement of the coil relative to the plasma. This precise placement allows us to adjust the altitude decay profile of the strapping field which is predicted to determine the slow rise to fast eruption behavior of plasma loops on the sun [2]. Preliminary data on the interaction between the plasma and specified strapping field profiles will be presented. We have also developed 3-axis Hall sensors capable of generating vector maps of the strapping field. [4pt] [1] J. F. Hansen and P. M. Bellan, Astrophys. J. Lett. 563, L183 (2001)[0pt] [2] B. Kliem and T. Torok, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 255002 (2006)

  4. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were

  5. Threshold expansion of the three-particle quantization condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Maxwell T.; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2016-05-01

    We recently derived a quantization condition for the energy of three relativistic particles in a cubic box [M. T. Hansen and S. R. Sharpe, Phys. Rev. D 90, 116003 (2014); M. T. Hansen and S. R. Sharpe, Phys. Rev. D 92, 114509 (2015)]. Here we use this condition to study the energy level closest to the three-particle threshold when the total three-momentum vanishes. We expand this energy in powers of 1 /L , where L is the linear extent of the finite volume. The expansion begins at O (1 /L3), and we determine the coefficients of the terms through O (1 /L6). As is also the case for the two-particle threshold energy, the 1 /L3, 1 /L4 and 1 /L5 coefficients depend only on the two-particle scattering length a . These can be compared to previous results obtained using nonrelativistic quantum mechanics [K. Huang and C. N. Yang, Phys. Rev. 105, 767 (1957); S. R. Beane, W. Detmold, and M. J. Savage, Phys. Rev. D 76, 074507 (2007); S. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 78, 013636 (2008)], and we find complete agreement. The 1 /L6 coefficients depend additionally on the two-particle effective range r (just as in the two-particle case) and on a suitably defined threshold three-particle scattering amplitude (a new feature for three particles). A second new feature in the three-particle case is that logarithmic dependence on L appears at O (1 /L6). Relativistic effects enter at this order, and the only comparison possible with the nonrelativistic result is for the coefficient of the logarithm, where we again find agreement. For a more thorough check of the 1 /L6 result, and thus of the quantization condition, we also compare to a perturbative calculation of the threshold energy in relativistic λ ϕ4 theory, which we have recently presented in [M. T. Hansen and S. R. Sharpe, Phys. Rev. D 93, 014506 (2016)]. Here, all terms can be compared, and we find full agreement.

  6. Deriving the Structure and Composition of Enceladus’ Plume from Cassini UVIS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Candice; Esposito, Larry; Colwell, Josh; Hendrix, Amanda; Portyankina, Ganna; Shemansky, Don; West, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Cassini’s Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has observed 4 stellar and one solar occultation by Enceladus’ water vapor plume. The July 2005 occultation observation established that water is the primary constituent of the plume [1], and allowed us to calculate the flux of water coming from the plume; the 2007 occultation showed super-sonic jets of gas imbedded within the plume [2]. The solar occultation observation set upper limits for N2 as a constituent of the plume and provided higher resolution data on the jets [3]. On 19 October 2011, epsilon and zeta Orionis were simultaneously occulted by the plume. The stars were in separate pixels on the detector, separated by 24 mrad, or ~20 km, with the lower altitude star (epsilon Orionis) 18 km above the limb at its closest point. The profile at two altitudes shows evidence for a new gas jet location, possibly between dust jet #50 and #51 identified in [4].Results from the assemblage of these data sets, with implications for the composition and vertical structure of the plume and jets, will be described. Gas being expelled from the “tiger stripe” fissures is largely on a vertical escape trajectory away from Enceladus. Upper limits are set for water vapor near the limb at latitudes well away from the south pole at 3 x 1015 cm-2. Upper limits are set for the amount of ethylene and H2 in the plume, two species of interest to the chemistry of the plume [5]. No hydrogen or oxygen emission features have been observed from Enceladus’ water vapor plume, in contrast to the purported plumes at Europa, probably due to the very different plasma environment at Saturn. Data have now been processed consistently for all occultations with slightly different results for water vapor supply to the Saturn magnetosphere than previously reported. Overall, eruptive activity has been steady to within ~20% from 2005 to 2011.References: [1] Hansen, C. J. et al., Science 311:1422 (2006). Hansen, C. J. et al., Nature 456:477 (2008

  7. Modeling of the Enceladus water vapor jets for interpreting UVIS star and solar occultation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portyankina, Ganna; Esposito, Larry W.; Aye, Klaus-Michael; Hansen, Candice J.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most spectacular discoveries of the Cassini mission is jets emitting from the southern pole of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. The composition of the jets is water vapor and salty ice grains with traces of organic compounds. Jets, merging into a wide plume at a distance, are observed by multiple instruments on Cassini. Recent observations of the visible dust plume by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) identified as many as 98 jet sources located along “tiger stripes” [Porco et al. 2014]. There is a recent controversy on the question if some of these jets are “optical illusion” caused by geometrical overlap of continuous source eruptions along the “tiger stripes” in the field of view of ISS [Spitale et al. 2015]. The Cassini’s Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed occultations of several stars and the Sun by the water vapor plume of Enceladus. During the solar occultation separate collimated gas jets were detected inside the background plume [Hansen et al., 2006 and 2011]. These observations directly provide data about water vapor column densities along the line of sight of the UVIS instrument and could help distinguish between the presence of only localized or also continuous sources. We use Monte Carlo simulations and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to model the plume of Enceladus with multiple (or continuous) jet sources. The models account for molecular collisions, gravitational and Coriolis forces. The models result in the 3-D distribution of water vapor density and surface deposition patterns. Comparison between the simulation results and column densities derived from UVIS observations provide constraints on the physical characteristics of the plume and jets. The specific geometry of the UVIS observations helps to estimate the production rates and velocity distribution of the water molecules emitted by the individual jets.Hansen, C. J. et al., Science 311:1422-1425 (2006); Hansen, C. J. et al, GRL 38:L11202 (2011

  8. How does the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme support statistical consistent nitrate trend analyses in groundwater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Thorling, Lærke; Sørensen, Brian; Dalgaard, Tommy; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2013-04-01

    The overall aim of performing nitrate trend analyses in oxic groundwater is to document the effect of regulation of Danish agriculture on N pollution. The design of the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme is presented and discussed in relation to performance of statistical consistence nitrate trend analyses. Three types of data are crucial. Firstly, long and continuous time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 from Denmark Statistics is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge age determination are performed in order to allow linking of the first two dataset. Recent results published in Hansen et al. (2011 & 2012) will be presented. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen) management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30-55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg/l. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988-2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N

  9. A new pan-tropical estimate of carbon loss in natural and managed forests in 2000-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyukavina, A.; Baccini, A.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Stehman, S. V.; Houghton, R. A.; Krylov, A.; Turubanova, S.; Goetz, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Clearing of tropical forests, which includes semi-permanent conversion of forests to other land uses (deforestation) and more temporary forest disturbances, is a significant source of carbon emissions. The previous estimates of tropical forest carbon loss vary among studies due to the differences in definitions, methodologies and data inputs. The best currently available satellite-derived datasets, such as a 30-m forest cover loss map by Hansen et al. (2013), may be used to produce methodologically consistent carbon loss estimates for the entire tropical region, but forest cover loss area derived from maps is biased due to classification errors. In this study we produced an unbiased estimate of forest cover loss area from a validation sample, as suggested by good practice recommendations. Stratified random sampling was implemented with forest carbon stock strata defined based on Landsat-derived tree canopy cover, height, intactness (Potapov et al., 2008) and forest cover loss (Hansen et al., 2013). The largest difference between the sample-based and Hansen et al. (2013) forest loss area estimates occurred in humid tropical Africa. This result supports the earlier finding (Tyukavina et al., 2013) that Landsat-based forest cover loss maps may significantly underestimate loss area in regions with small-scale forest dynamics while performing well in regions with large industrial forest clearing, such as Brazil and Indonesia (where differences between sample-based and map estimates were within 10%). To produce final carbon loss estimates, sample-based forest loss area estimates for each stratum were related to GLAS-lidar derived forest biomass (Baccini et al., 2012). Our sample-based results distinguish gross losses of aboveground carbon from natural forests (0.59 PgC/yr), which include primary, mature secondary forests and natural woodlands, and from managed forests (0.43 PgC/yr), which include plantations, agroforestry systems and areas of subsistence agriculture

  10. Comparing and correlating solubility parameters governing the self-assembly of molecular gels using 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol as the gelator.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yaqi; Corradini, Maria G; Liu, Xia; May, Tim E; Borondics, Ferenc; Weiss, Richard G; Rogers, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    Solvent properties play a central role in mediating the aggregation and self-assembly of molecular gelators and their growth into fibers. Numerous attempts have been made to correlate the solubility parameters of solvents and gelation abilities of molecular gelators, but a comprehensive comparison of the most important parameters has yet to appear. Here, the degree to which partition coefficients (log P), Henry's law constants (HLC), dipole moments, static relative permittivities (ε(r)), solvatochromic E(T)(30) parameters, Kamlet-Taft parameters (β, α, and π), Catalan's solvatochromic parameters (SPP, SB, and SA), Hildebrand solubility parameters (δ(i)), and Hansen solubility parameters (δ(p), δ(d), δ(h)) and the associated Hansen distance (R(ij)) of 62 solvents (covering a wide range of properties) can be correlated with the self-assembly and gelation of 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) gelation, a classic molecular gelator, is assessed systematically. The approach presented describes the basis for each of the parameters and how it can be applied. As such, it is an instructional blueprint for how to assess the appropriate type of solvent parameter for use with other molecular gelators as well as with molecules forming other types of self-assembled materials. The results also reveal several important insights into the factors favoring the gelation of solvents by DBS. The ability of a solvent to accept or donate a hydrogen bond is much more important than solvent polarity in determining whether mixtures with DBS become solutions, clear gels, or opaque gels. Thermodynamically derived parameters could not be correlated to the physical properties of the molecular gels unless they were dissected into their individual HSPs. The DBS solvent phases tend to cluster in regions of Hansen space and are highly influenced by the hydrogen-bonding HSP, δ(h). It is also found that the fate of this molecular gelator, unlike that of polymers, is influenced not only by

  11. Pymiedap: a versatile radiative transfer code with polarization for terrestrial (exo)planets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Loïc; Stam, Daphne; Hogenboom, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Polarimetry promises to be an important method to detect exoplanets: the light of a star is usually unpolarized te{kemp1987} while scattering by gas and clouds in an atmosphere can generate high levels of polarization. Furthermore, the polarization of scattered light contains information about the properties of the atmosphere and surface of a planet, allowing a possible characterization te{stam2008}, a method already validated in the solar system with Venus te{hansen1974,rossi2015}. We present here Pymiedap (Python Mie Doubling-Adding Program): a set of Python objects interfaced with Fortran radiative transfer codes that allows to define a planetary atmosphere and compute the flux and polarization of the light that is scattered. Several different properties of the planet can be set interactively by the user through the Python interface such as gravity, distance to the star, surface properties, atmospheric layers, gaseous and aerosol composition. The radiative transfer calculations are then computed following the doubling-adding method te{deHaan1987}. We present some results of the code and show its possible use for different planetary atmospheres for both resolved and disk-integrated measurements. We investigate the effect of gas, clouds and aerosols composition and surface properties for horizontally homogeneous and inhomogenous planets, in the case of Earth-like planets. We also study the effect of gaseous absorption on the flux and polarization as a marker for gaseous abundance and cloud top altitude. [1]{kemp1987} Kemp et al. The optical polarization of the sun measured at a sensitivity of parts in ten million. Nature, 1987, 326, 270-273 [2]{stam2008} Stam, D. M. Spectropolarimetric signatures of Earth-like extrasolar planets. A&A, 2008, 482, 989-1007 [3]{hansen1974} Hansen, J. E. & Hovenier, J. W. Interpretation of the polarization of Venus. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 1974, 31, 1137-1160 [4]{rossi2015} Rossi et al. Preliminary study of Venus cloud layers

  12. Comparing and Correlating Solubility Parameters Governing the Self-Assembly of Molecular Gels Using 1,3:2,4-Dibenzylidene Sorbitol as the Gelator

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Solvent properties play a central role in mediating the aggregation and self-assembly of molecular gelators and their growth into fibers. Numerous attempts have been made to correlate the solubility parameters of solvents and gelation abilities of molecular gelators, but a comprehensive comparison of the most important parameters has yet to appear. Here, the degree to which partition coefficients (log P), Henry’s law constants (HLC), dipole moments, static relative permittivities (εr), solvatochromic ET(30) parameters, Kamlet–Taft parameters (β, α, and π), Catalan’s solvatochromic parameters (SPP, SB, and SA), Hildebrand solubility parameters (δi), and Hansen solubility parameters (δp, δd, δh) and the associated Hansen distance (Rij) of 62 solvents (covering a wide range of properties) can be correlated with the self-assembly and gelation of 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) gelation, a classic molecular gelator, is assessed systematically. The approach presented describes the basis for each of the parameters and how it can be applied. As such, it is an instructional blueprint for how to assess the appropriate type of solvent parameter for use with other molecular gelators as well as with molecules forming other types of self-assembled materials. The results also reveal several important insights into the factors favoring the gelation of solvents by DBS. The ability of a solvent to accept or donate a hydrogen bond is much more important than solvent polarity in determining whether mixtures with DBS become solutions, clear gels, or opaque gels. Thermodynamically derived parameters could not be correlated to the physical properties of the molecular gels unless they were dissected into their individual HSPs. The DBS solvent phases tend to cluster in regions of Hansen space and are highly influenced by the hydrogen-bonding HSP, δh. It is also found that the fate of this molecular gelator, unlike that of polymers, is influenced not only by the

  13. More efficient evolutionary strategies for model calibration with watershed model for demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, J. S.; Skahill, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    Evolutionary strategies allow automatic calibration of more complex models than traditional gradient based approaches, but they are more computationally intensive. We present several efficiency enhancements for evolution strategies, many of which are not new, but when combined have been shown to dramatically decrease the number of model runs required for calibration of synthetic problems. To reduce the number of expensive model runs we employ a surrogate objective function for an adaptively determined fraction of the population at each generation (Kern et al., 2006). We demonstrate improvements to the adaptive ranking strategy that increase its efficiency while sacrificing little reliability and further reduce the number of model runs required in densely sampled parts of parameter space. Furthermore, we include a gradient individual in each generation that is usually not selected when the search is in a global phase or when the derivatives are poorly approximated, but when selected near a smooth local minimum can dramatically increase convergence speed (Tahk et al., 2007). Finally, the selection of the gradient individual is used to adapt the size of the population near local minima. We show, by incorporating these enhancements into the Covariance Matrix Adaption Evolution Strategy (CMAES; Hansen, 2006), that their synergetic effect is greater than their individual parts. This hybrid evolutionary strategy exploits smooth structure when it is present but degrades to an ordinary evolutionary strategy, at worst, if smoothness is not present. Calibration of 2D-3D synthetic models with the modified CMAES requires approximately 10%-25% of the model runs of ordinary CMAES. Preliminary demonstration of this hybrid strategy will be shown for watershed model calibration problems. Hansen, N. (2006). The CMA Evolution Strategy: A Comparing Review. In J.A. Lozano, P. Larrañga, I. Inza and E. Bengoetxea (Eds.). Towards a new evolutionary computation. Advances in estimation of

  14. RNAi-mediated gene knockdown and in vivo diuresis assay in adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Aguirre, Sarah E; Hansen, Immo A

    2012-07-14

    This video protocol demonstrates an effective technique to knockdown a particular gene in an insect and conduct a novel bioassay to measure excretion rate. This method can be used to obtain a better understanding of the process of diuresis in insects and is especially useful in the study of diuresis in blood-feeding arthropods that are able to take up huge amounts of liquid in a single blood meal. This RNAi-mediated gene knockdown combined with an in vivo diuresis assay was developed by the Hansen lab to study the effects of RNAi-mediated knockdown of aquaporin genes on Aedes aegypti mosquito diuresis. The protocol is setup in two parts: the first demonstration illustrates how to construct a simple mosquito injection device and how to prepare and inject dsRNA into the thorax of mosquitoes for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. The second demonstration illustrates how to determine excretion rates in mosquitoes using an in vivo bioassay.

  15. Solvent pre-wetting as an effective start-up method for point-of-use filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Toru; Sugiyama, Shinichi; Nakamura, Takashi; Momota, Makoto; Sevegney, Michael; Tsuzuki, Shuichi; Numaguchi, Toru

    2012-03-01

    An effective filter start-up method has been required by device manufacturers, mainly in order to reduce waste volume of lithography process chemicals, which become more expensive as lithography technology advances. Remaining air was monitored during static-pressure-driven filter start-up. As a result, 3500 ml of the resist was needed to eliminate remaining air. For improvement, cyclohexanone pre-wetting was applied prior to the resist introduction. As a result, the resist volume needed for the solvent displacement was 1900 ml, approximately half the volume required for staticpressure- driven start-up. Other solvents were evaluated for the pre-wetting start-up method. Results, in descending order of performance were PGME (best) < PGMEA = IPA < cyclohexanone (worst). Moreover, air displacement performance strongly correlated with Hansen solubility parameter distance between each solvent and nylon 6,6 material.

  16. Field testing of CP current requirements at depths down to 1300m on the Norwegian continental shelf from 63 to 67 {degree} N

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, K.P.

    1999-07-01

    On the Norwegian Continental Shelf exploration has started in the area of the shelf between 63 and 67 N for water depths down to 1,500m. A field-testing program has been performed at depths from 100m down to 1,300m, which covered exposures at the blocks Helland Hansen, Moere West, Ormen Lange, Vema/Nyk and Gjallar. Testing has been done to establish the CP current demand for C- steel, thermally sprayed aluminium, stainless steel (6 Mo) and titanium (grade 5). The initial current demand in the zone from 100m down to 200m was found to be especially high ({gt} 0.22 A/m{sup 2}). While at depths from 600m and down to 1,300m depth an initial design current density of 0.22 A/m{sup 2} resulted in a polarization to the protective potential on C-steel within a two-month period.

  17. Optimizing the surface density of polyethylene glycol chains by grafting from binary solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcot, Lokanathan; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Zhang, Shuai; Meyer, Rikke L.; Kingshott, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) brushes are very effective at controlling non-specific deposition of biological material onto surfaces, which is of paramount importance to obtaining successful outcomes in biomaterials, tissue engineered scaffolds, biosensors, filtration membranes and drug delivery devices. We report on a simple 'grafting to' approach involving binary solvent mixtures that are chosen based on Hansen's solubility parameters to optimize the solubility of PEG thereby enabling control over the graft density. The PEG thiol-gold model system enabled a thorough characterization of PEG films formed, while studies on a PEG silane-silicon system examined the versatility to be applied to any substrate-head group system by choosing an appropriate solvent pair. The ability of PEG films to resist non-specific adsorption of proteins was quantitatively assessed by full serum exposure studies and the binary solvent strategy was found to produce PEG films with optimal graft density to efficiently resist protein adsorption.

  18. Mathematical model of the seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) in non crystalline substances

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, L. C. C.; Yahya, N.; Daud, H.; Shafie, A.

    2012-09-26

    The mathematical model of seismic electromagnetic waves in non crystalline substances is developed and the solutions are discussed to show the possibility of improving the electromagnetic waves especially the electric field. The shear stress of the medium in fourth order tensor gives the equation of motion. Analytic methods are selected for the solutions written in Hansen vector form. From the simulated SEMS, the frequency of seismic waves has significant effects to the SEMS propagating characteristics. EM waves transform into SEMS or energized seismic waves. Traveling distance increases once the frequency of the seismic waves increases from 100% to 1000%. SEMS with greater seismic frequency will give seismic alike waves but greater energy is embedded by EM waves and hence further distance the waves travel.

  19. Stability of Water/Poly(ethylene oxide)43-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)14/Cyclohexanone Emulsions Involves Water Exchange between the Core and the Bulk.

    PubMed

    Flores, Mario E; Martínez, Francisco; Olea, Andrés F; Shibue, Toshimichi; Sugimura, Natsuhiko; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio

    2015-12-31

    The formation of emulsions upon reverse self-association of the monodisperse amphiphilic block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)43-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)14 in cyclohexanone is reported. Such emulsions are not formed in toluene, chloroform, or dichloromethane. We demonstrate by magnetic resonance spectroscopy the active role of the solvent on the stabilization of the emulsions. Cyclohexanone shows high affinity for both blocks, as predicted by the Hansen solubility parameters, so that the copolymer chains are fully dissolved as monomeric chains. In addition, the solvent is able to produce hydrogen bonding with water molecules. Water undergoes molecular exchange between water molecules associated with the polymer and water molecules associated with the solvent, dynamics of major importance for the stabilization of the emulsions. Association of polymeric chains forming reverse aggregates is induced by water over a concentration threshold of 5 wt %. Reverse copolymer aggregates show submicron average hydrodynamic diameters, as seen by dynamic light scattering, depending on the polymer and water concentration.

  20. Reactivity of vinyl ethers and vinyl ribosides in UV-initiated free radical copolymerization with acceptor monomers.

    PubMed

    Pichavant, Loic; Guillermain, Céline; Coqueret, Xavier

    2010-09-13

    The reactivity of various vinyl ethers and vinyloxy derivatives of ribose in the presence of diethyl fumarate or diethyl maleate was investigated for evaluating the potential of donor-acceptor-type copolymerization applied to unsaturated monomers derived from renewable feedstock. The photochemically induced polymerization of model monomer blends in the bulk state was monitored by infrared spectroscopy. The method allowed us to examine the influence of monomer pair structure on the kinetic profiles. The simultaneous consumption of both monomers was observed, supporting an alternating copolymerization mechanism. A lower reactivity of the blends containing maleates compared with fumarates was confirmed. The obtained kinetic data revealed a general correlation between the initial polymerization rate and the Hansen parameter δ(H) associated with the H-bonding aptitude of the donor monomer.

  1. Integrated hydrological SVAT model for climate change studies in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollerup, M.; Refsgaard, J.; Sonnenborg, T. O.

    2010-12-01

    In a major Danish funded research project (www.hyacints.dk) a coupling is being established between the HIRHAM regional climate model code from Danish Meteorological Institute and the MIKE SHE distributed hydrological model code from DHI. The linkage between those two codes is a soil vegetation atmosphere transfer scheme, which is a module of MIKE SHE. The coupled model will be established for the entire country of Denmark (43,000 km2 land area) where a MIKE SHE based hydrological model already exists (Henriksen et al., 2003, 2008). The present paper presents the MIKE SHE SVAT module and the methodology used for parameterising and calibrating the MIKE SHE SVAT module for use throughout the country. As SVAT models previously typically have been tested for research field sites with comprehensive data on energy fluxes, soil and vegetation data, the major challenge lies in parameterisation of the model when only ordinary data exist. For this purpose annual variations of vegetation characteristics (Leaf Area Index (LAI), Crop height, Root depth and the surface albedo) for different combinations of soil profiles and vegetation types have been simulated by use of the soil plant atmosphere model Daisy (Hansen et al., 1990; Abrahamsen and Hansen, 2000) has been applied. The MIKE SHE SVAT using Daisy generated surface/soil properties model has been calibrated against existing data on groundwater heads and river discharges. Simulation results in form of evapotranspiration and percolation are compared to the existing MIKE SHE model and to observations. To analyse the use of the SVAT model in climate change impact assessments data from the ENSEMBLES project (http://ensembles-eu.metoffice.com/) have been analysed to assess the impacts on reference evapotranspiration (calculated by the Makkink and the Penmann-Monteith equations) as well as on the individual elements in the Penmann-Monteith equation (radiation, wind speed, humidity and temperature). The differences on the

  2. Increased ocean heat transports and warmer climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Chandler, M.

    1991-01-01

    The impact of an increased ocean heat transport on climate is investigated in the framework of the GISS GMC model described by Hansen et al. (1983), using two scenarios: one starting from warmer polar temperatures/no sea ice and the other from the current ocean conditions. A 20-percent increase in cross-equatorial heat transport was sufficient to melt all sea ice; it resulted in a climate that was 2 C warmer for the global average, with values some 20-deg warmer at high altitudes and 1-deg warmer near the equator. It is suggested that the hydrological and dynamical changes associated with this different climate regime may be self-sustaining and, as such, would account for the high-latitude warmth of climates in the Mesozoic and Tertiary periods and the decadenal-scale climate fluctuations during the Holocene.

  3. Reciprocal relations for effective conductivities of anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevard, John; Keller, Joseph B.

    1985-11-01

    Any pair of two-dimensional anisotropic media with local conductivity tensors that are functions of position and that are related to one another in a certain reciprocal way are considered. It is proved that their effective conductivity tensors are related to each other in the same way for both spatially periodic media and statistically stationary random media. An inequality involving the effective conductivity tensors of two three-dimensional media that are reciprocally related is also proved. These results extend the corresponding results for locally isotropic media obtained by Keller, Mendelsohn, Hansen, Schulgasser, and Kohler and Papanicolau. They also yield a relation satisfied by the effective conductivity tensor of a medium reciprocal to a translated or rotated copy of itself.

  4. Detection of the greenhouse gas signal from space - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, T. P.; Haskins, R.; Chahine, M.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the expected changes in the atmospheric water vapor content and cloud cover, as predicted by the transient greenhouse gas (GHG) simulation of Hansen et al. (1988), are examined to determine whether the signals would be large enough and unique enough to be useful in a GHG detection study. The nature of the predicted GHG signal was first examined using the transient CO2 run from the GISS ocean/atmosphere general circulation model. Next, the remotely sensed irradiance characteristics data (as the measure of water vapor content) supplied by the HIRS/MSU sensors for the area of the equatorial cold tongue region (the region in which there are no measurement stations). It is shown that HIRS/MSU signals can provide data necessary for detecting GHS signals in atmospheric moisture for regions where ground observations are not possible.

  5. Wood Extractives Promote Cellulase Activity on Cellulosic Substrates.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Timo; Salas, Carlos; Kelley, Stephen S; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2015-10-12

    Deposition of hydrophobic wood extractives and representative model compounds, on the surface of cellulose prior to enzymatic hydrolysis was found to either enhance or inhibit the action of cellulase enzymes. The effect of these compounds was correlated with their chemical structure, which may in part explain the differential effects observed between softwood and hardwood extractives. Specifically, the addition of sterol, enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose by 54%, whereas the addition of a triglyceride could inhibit the hydrolysis by 49%. The effects of the different extractives' could be explained by considering their Hansen solubility parameters. The amphiphilic and/or hydrophobic character of model extractives was found to be the variable that affected the deposition of extractives on cellulose surfaces and the eventual adsorption of cellulolytic enzymes on it. The observed beneficial effects of extractives are likely related to a reduction in the irreversible binding of the enzymes on the cellulose surface.

  6. Tibiotarsal fracture repair in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) using an interlocking nail.

    PubMed

    Hollamby, Simon; Dejardin, Loic M; Sikarskie, James G; Haeger, Jennifer

    2004-03-01

    A 14-yr-old, 5.13-kg bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was hit by a car and presented to the Michigan State University Small Animal Clinic with an open, grade II, transverse, midshaft, Winquist-Hansen type-II-comminuted left tibiotarsal fracture. The fracture was reduced and fixation established with a 4.7-mm-diameter, 112-mm-long, four-hole veterinary intramedullary interlocking nail maintained in position by single 2-mm transcortical screws placed in the main proximal and distal fragments. The bird was weight bearing on the bandaged limb 48 hr postoperatively. Radiographs obtained 4 wk postoperatively revealed bridging callus over three of four cortices. The bird was released after 5 mo of rehabilitation.

  7. Two-dimensional freezing criteria for crystallizing colloidal monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziren; Alsayed, Ahmed M; Yodh, Arjun G; Han, Yilong

    2010-04-21

    Video microscopy was employed to explore crystallization of colloidal monolayers composed of diameter-tunable microgel spheres. Two-dimensional (2D) colloidal liquids were frozen homogenously into polycrystalline solids, and four 2D criteria for freezing were experimentally tested in thermal systems for the first time: the Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, the Lowen-Palberg-Simon dynamical freezing criterion, and two other rules based, respectively, on the split shoulder of the radial distribution function and on the distribution of the shape factor of Voronoi polygons. Importantly, these freezing criteria, usually applied in the context of single crystals, were demonstrated to apply to the formation of polycrystalline solids. At the freezing point, we also observed a peak in the fluctuations of the orientational order parameter and a percolation transition associated with caged particles. Speculation about these percolated clusters of caged particles casts light on solidification mechanisms and dynamic heterogeneity in freezing. PMID:20423183

  8. Two-dimensional freezing criteria for crystallizing colloidal monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ziren; Han Yilong; Alsayed, Ahmed M.

    2010-04-21

    Video microscopy was employed to explore crystallization of colloidal monolayers composed of diameter-tunable microgel spheres. Two-dimensional (2D) colloidal liquids were frozen homogenously into polycrystalline solids, and four 2D criteria for freezing were experimentally tested in thermal systems for the first time: the Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, the Loewen-Palberg-Simon dynamical freezing criterion, and two other rules based, respectively, on the split shoulder of the radial distribution function and on the distribution of the shape factor of Voronoi polygons. Importantly, these freezing criteria, usually applied in the context of single crystals, were demonstrated to apply to the formation of polycrystalline solids. At the freezing point, we also observed a peak in the fluctuations of the orientational order parameter and a percolation transition associated with caged particles. Speculation about these percolated clusters of caged particles casts light on solidification mechanisms and dynamic heterogeneity in freezing.

  9. Solubility studies of inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chakrabarty, Souvik; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Ben; Ober, Christopher; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

    2016-01-21

    The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists. PMID:26695121

  10. Diffraction profile synthesis applied to offset dual reflector antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, R. I.

    1985-05-01

    During the last 15 years, in work carried out at a research center, the physical optics method has been applied directly to the synthesis process itself. It is pointed out that the results of this method, known as Diffraction Profile Synthesis (DPS), are Cassegrain antennas with efficiencies superior to those of any ray optics design. Thus, the reflectors generated by this process realize the theoretical maximum efficiency for any given size of antenna. Attention is given to the diffraction profile synthesis, the extension of DPS, spherical wave expansions, the application to offset reflectors, the main reflector focussed field, the near-field feed pattern, reflector perturbations, profile smoothing, high efficiency offset Gregorian, the offset Gregorian with Hansen distribution, and the low sidelobe elliptical antenna.

  11. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  12. Enhanced concentration of dispersed carbon nanofibres in organic solvents through their functionalization by fluorination.

    PubMed

    Nomède-Martyr, Nadiège; Disa, Elodie; Guérin, Katia; Dubois, Marc; Frezet, Lawrence; Hamwi, André

    2013-06-15

    Covalent functionalization through pure molecular gaseous fluorination has been applied on carbon nanofibres. Nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal gravimetric analysis investigations have been performed on fluorinated carbon nanofibres in order to determine the chemical and thermal stability of the C-F bonding. The high covalency obtained allows no significant modification of the physicochemical nanostructure of fluorinated carbon nanofibres after sonification. Such modification of surface chemistry leads to a high increase in the limit concentration of dispersed carbon nanofibres in organic solvents without surfactant. An exciting maximum of 570 mg L(-1) of fluorinated nanofibres can be homogeneously dispersed in N-methylpyrrolidone, whereas 310 mg L(-1) is the maximum for non-fluorinated carbon nanofibres. In order to understand such dispersibility differences, Hildebrand and Hansen solubility theory has been used.

  13. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  14. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  15. Electron capture in carbon dwarf supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazurek, T. J.; Truran, J. W.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The rates of electron capture on heavier elements under the extreme conditions predicted for dwarf star supernovae have been computed, incorporating modifications that seem to be indicated by present experimental results. An estimate of the maximum possible value of such rates is also given. The distribution of nuclei in nuclear statistical equilibrium has been calculated for the range of expected supernovae conditions, including the effects of the temperature dependence of nuclear partition functions. These nuclide abundance distributions are then used to compute nuclear equilibrium thermodynamic properties. The effects of the electron capture on such equilibrium matter are discussed. In the context of the 'carbon detonation' supernova model, the dwarf central density required to ensure core collapse to a neutron star configuration is found to be slightly higher than that obtained by Bruenn (1972) with the electron capture rates of Hansen (1966).-

  16. Spectral measurements of asymmetrically irradiated capsule backlighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-11-01

    Capsule backlighters provide a quasi-continuum x-ray spectrum over a wide range of photon energies [J. F. Hansen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013504 (2008)]. Ideally one irradiates the capsule backlighter symmetrically, however, in complex experimental geometries, this is not always possible. In recent experiments we irradiated capsule backlighters asymmetrically and measured the x-ray spectrum from multiple directions. We will present time-integrated spectra over the photon energy range of 2-13 keV and time-resolved spectra over the photon energy range of 2-3 keV. We will compare the spectra from different lines of sight to determine if the laser asymmetry results in an angular dependence in the x-ray emission.

  17. MODEL AVERAGING BASED ON KULLBACK-LEIBLER DISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zou, Guohua; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a model averaging method based on Kullback-Leibler distance under a homoscedastic normal error term. The resulting model average estimator is proved to be asymptotically optimal. When combining least squares estimators, the model average estimator is shown to have the same large sample properties as the Mallows model average (MMA) estimator developed by Hansen (2007). We show via simulations that, in terms of mean squared prediction error and mean squared parameter estimation error, the proposed model average estimator is more efficient than the MMA estimator and the estimator based on model selection using the corrected Akaike information criterion in small sample situations. A modified version of the new model average estimator is further suggested for the case of heteroscedastic random errors. The method is applied to a data set from the Hong Kong real estate market.

  18. Intra-day Investigation of Pluto's Atmosphere with Stellar Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Person, Michael J.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Levine, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    To monitor Pluto's evolving atmosphere, and search for atmospheric variations on timescales shorter than one Pluto day, we propose to observe four Pluto stellar occultations all occurring in the last eight days of July. Two of the events are visible from Australia on the night of 23 July 2014 UT, and two are visible from Chile on 27 July and 31 July 2014. The coincidence of these occultations in time provides a rare opportunity to search for short-timescale changes in Pluto's atmosphere, in addition to allowing us to continue our annual monitoring of Pluto's atmospheric evolution. Recent transport models (Young 2013) have brought long-standing assertions about Pluto's atmospheric evolution into question, implying the possibility that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse for much of each revolution as previously thought (Hansen and Paige 1996). The current epoch is when these competing models begin to diverge and continuing data collection is necessary to distinguish among the various models.

  19. Nanocellular thermoplastic foam and process for making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Lingbo; Costeux, Stephane; Patankar, Kshitish A.; Moore, Jonathan D.

    2015-09-29

    Prepare a thermoplastic polymer foam having a porosity of 70% or more and at least one of: (i) an average cell size of 200 nanometers or less; and (ii) a nucleation density of at least 1.times.1015 effective nucleation sites per cubic centimeter of foamable polymer composition not including blowing agent using a foamable polymer composition containing a thermoplastic polymer selected from styrenic polymer and (meth)acrylic polymers, a blowing agent comprising at least 20 mole-percent carbon dioxide based on moles of blowing agent and an additive having a Total Hansen Solubility Parameter that differs from that of carbon dioxide by less than 2 and that is present at a concentration of 0.01 to 1.5 weight parts per hundred weight parts thermoplastic polymer.

  20. Silylesterification of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-coupling between carboxylic and hydrosilane functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffer, J.-F.; Detriche, S.; Nagy, J. B.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2014-06-01

    Surface modification of oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs) with silicon based anchoring groups (R-SiR3) is a relatively uncommon approach of the CNTs functionalization. Hydrosilane derivatives constitute an attractive subclass of compounds for silanization reactions on the CNTs surface. In this work, we report on the ZnCl2 catalytically controlled reaction (hydrosilane dehydrogenative cross-coupling, DHCC) of fluorinated hydrosilane probes with the carboxylic functions present on the surface of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with essentially alcohol groups are also used to compare the selectivity of zinc chloride toward carboxylic groups. To assess the efficiency of functionalization, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is used to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the different samples. Solubility tests on the oxidized and silanized MWNTs are also carried out in the framework of the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) theory to apprehend at another scale the effect of DHCC.

  1. Return migration of the elderly in the USA: 1955-1960 and 1965-1970.

    PubMed

    Serow, W J

    1978-03-01

    This paper reports on changes in the volume and rate of return migration among the population aged 65 and over in the USA for the periods 1955-1960 and 1965-1970. Based on the earlier findings of Long and Hansen and of Eldridge, it is not surprising to find that return migration is not primarily a movement of persons returning to their place of birth to retire. Only about 5% of all return migrants in the USA are of retirement age. Return migration is more important in the migration stream of the elderly than in the total migration stream, and the rate of return migration increased at a greater rate for older persons than it did for the population as a whole.

  2. Determination of the Sediment Carrying Capacity Based on Perturbed Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhi-hui; Zeng, Qiang; Li-chun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    According to the previous studies of sediment carrying capacity, a new method of sediment carrying capacity on perturbed theory was proposed. By taking into account the average water depth, average flow velocity, settling velocity, and other influencing factors and introducing the median grain size as one main influencing factor in deriving the new formula, we established a new sediment carrying capacity formula. The coefficients were determined by the principle of dimensional analysis, multiple linear regression method, and the least square method. After that, the new formula was verified through measuring data of natural rivers and flume tests and comparing the verified results calculated by Cao Formula, Zhang Formula, Li Formula, Engelung-Hansen Formula, Ackers-White Formula, and Yang Formula. According to the compared results, it can be seen that the new method is of high accuracy. It could be a useful reference for the determination of sediment carrying capacity. PMID:25136652

  3. Tinea Barbae: In Released from Treatment (RFT) Hansen’s Disease Patient

    PubMed Central

    Giri, VC; Singh, Hosanna; Kumar, Vinod; Ali, Showkath

    2014-01-01

    Hansen Disease (leprosy) is a chronic inflammatory infectious disease that primarily targets skin, nerves and other internal organs (testis, liver etc.) caused by the acid fast intracellular bacilli, Mycobacterium leprae. Clinical presentation occurs with a wide spectrum including hypo pigmented anaesthetic patches, raised erythematous plaques and nodules and thickened peripheral nerves showing tenderness. The most important complication is the disability and deformity. The diagnosis of leprosy is frequently delayed because of its similarity with other more common skin conditions prevailing in some non endemic areas. We present a rare case report of tinea barbae in an old treated case of leprosy. This case is one of the rarest fungal infection in leprosy patient searched in PUBMED as there were other more tinea infection involving various sites in body which sometimes misdiagnosed as leprosy. PMID:25177622

  4. Validation of KENO based criticality calculations at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Felsher, P.D.; McKamy, J.N.; Monahan, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of experimental data it is necessary to rely on computer based computational methods in evaluating the criticality condition of a nuclear system. The validity of the computer codes is established in a two part procedure as outlined in ANSI/ANS 8.1. The first step, usually the responsibility of the code developer, involves verification that the algorithmic structure of the code is performing the intended mathematical operations correctly. The second step involves an assessment of the codes ability to realistically portray the governing physical processes in question. This is accomplished by determining the code's bias, or systematic error, through a comparison of computational results to accepted values obtained experimentally. In this paper we discuss the validation process for KENO and the Hansen-Roach cross sections in use at EG G Rocky Flats.

  5. Hypopigmented macules: leprosy, atopy or pityriasis versicolor?

    PubMed

    Massone, C; Cavalchini, A; Clapasson, A; Nunzi, E

    2010-12-01

    Lepromatous leprosy (LL) represents the highest infective and multibacillary form of leprosy. Clinical manifestations are consequent to the haematogenous spread of bacilli and include macules, plaques and nodules in a symmetric distribution or a diffuse infiltration of the skin. LL may mimic many different inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases and in a small percentage of patients, skin manifestation may be atypical. This article reports the case of a South American child with LL presenting with symmetrically distributed hypopigmented macules previously misdiagnosed as pytiriasis alba, atopic dermatitis and pityriasis versicolor. Atopy and pityriasis versicolor are common skin conditions that can be also observed in leprosy patients and that can masquerade the diagnosis of LL, especially if occurring in dark skin. Dermatologists in Europe should be aware of this unusual form of presentation of leprosy and must take in mind Hansen disease in the differential diagnosis in patients coming from endemic areas.

  6. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Langley Center Director Floyd Thompson shows Ann Kilgore the 'picture of the century.' This was the first picture of the earth taken from space. From Spaceflight Revolution: 'On 23 August 1966 just as Lunar Orbiter I was about to pass behind the moon, mission controllers executed the necessary maneuvers to point the camera away from the lunar surface and toward the earth. The result was the world's first view of the earth from space. It was called 'the picture of the century' and 'the greatest shot taken since the invention of photography.' Not even the color photos of the earth taken during the Apollo missions superseded the impact of this first image of our planet as a little island of life floating in the black and infinite sea of space.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), pp. 345-346.

  7. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    From Spaceflight Revolution: 'Top NASA officials listen to a LOPO briefing at Langley in December 1966. Sitting to the far right with his hand on his chin is Floyd Thompson. To the left sits Dr. George Mueller, NASA associate administrator for Manned Space Flight. On the wall is a diagram of the sites selected for the 'concentrated mission.' 'The most fundamental issue in the pre-mission planning for Lunar Orbiter was how the moon was to be photographed. Would the photography be 'concentrated' on a predetermined single target, or would it be 'distributed' over several selected targets across the moon's surface? On the answer to this basic question depended the successful integration of the entire mission plan for Lunar Orbiter.' The Lunar Orbiter Project made systematic photographic maps of the lunar landing sites. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 337.

  8. Criticality safety evaluation for pathfinder fuel elements in model No. RA-3 shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.R.

    1986-11-01

    Pennsylvania State University presently processes approximately 415 Pathfinder fuel elements which will require shipment from their nuclear facility. Criticality safety calculations have been performed with the Monte Carlo code, KENO-IV, and 16-group Hansen-Roach cross sections for shipment of these fuel elements in Model No. RA-3 shipping containers. Except for a slightly higher U-235 enrichment in the UO/sub 2/ rods of the Pathfinder fuel elements, the parameters for the proposed shipment are within those limits currently approved in Certificate of Compliance No. 4986, Revision No. 17, for shipment of UO/sub 2/ fuel rods in the Model RA-3 shipping containers. The analysis in this report verifies an adequate margin of criticality safety for the Pathfinder fuel elements in Model RA-3 containers for a Fissile Class 1 shipment.

  9. Translating leprosy: the expert and the public in Stanley Stein's anti-stigmatization campaigns, 1931-60.

    PubMed

    John, Heather Varughese

    2013-10-01

    This article examines three campaigns through which patient activist Stanley Stein sought to combat the stigmatized connotations of the word "leprosy." In 1931, soon after starting the first patient newspaper at the U.S. national leprosy hospital at Carville, Stein became convinced of the necessity of finding an alternative to "leprosy." His ensuing campaign to promote the use of the words "Hansen's Disease" to describe the condition from which he and fellow Carville patients suffered became his most passionate and life-long project. In the 1950s, Stein became involved in efforts to change the translation of "leprosy" in the Bible. Finally, in 1960, he waged a campaign to de-stigmatize encyclopedia entries on leprosy. These campaigns illustrate how even elevation of the medical expert and a seeming disdain for the public can function as a protest of medical authority and reveal a presumption that a significant degree of authority actually resides with the public. PMID:24106217

  10. Model predicts global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    Global greenhouse warming will be clearly identifiable by the 1990s, according to eight scientists who have been studying climate changes using computer models. Researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, say that by the 2010s, most of the globe will be experiencing “substantial” warming. The level of warming will depend on amounts of trace gases, or greenhouse gases, in the atmosphere.Predictions for the next 70 years are based on computer simulations of Earth's climate. In three runs of the model, James Hansen and his colleagues looked at the effects of changing amounts of atmospheric gases with time.

  11. Cross sections for ionization of tetrahydrofuran by protons at energies between 300 and 3000 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingjie; Rudek, Benedikt; Bennett, Daniel; de Vera, Pablo; Bug, Marion; Buhr, Ticia; Baek, Woon Yong; Hilgers, Gerhard; Rabus, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Double-differential cross sections for ionization of tetrahydrofuran by protons with energies from 300 to 3000 keV were measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt ion accelerator facility. The electrons emitted at angles between 15∘ and 150∘ relative to the ion-beam direction were detected with an electrostatic hemispherical electron spectrometer. Single-differential and total ionization cross sections have been derived by integration. The experimental results are compared to the semiempirical Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht model as well as to the recently reported method based on the dielectric formalism. The comparison to the latter showed good agreement with experimental data in a broad range of emission angles and energies of secondary electrons. The scaling property of ionization cross sections for tetrahydrofuran was also investigated. Compared to molecules of different size, the ionization cross sections of tetrahydrofuran were found to scale with the number of valence electrons at large impact parameters.

  12. Migration of nuclear criticality safety software from a mainfram to a workstation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, L.J.; Robinson, R.C.; Cain, V.R. )

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear criticality safety department (NCSD), Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, has undergone the transition of executing the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Software (NCSS) on IBM mainframes to a Hewlett Packard (HP) 9000/730 workstation (NCSSHP). NCSSHP contains the following configuration-controlled modules and cross-section libraries: BONAMI, CSAS, GEOMCHK, ICE, KENO IV, KENO V.a, MODIFY, NITAWL, SCALE, SUBLIB, XSDRN, UNIXLIB, albedos library, weights library, 16-group HANSEN-ROACH master library, 27-group ENDF/B-IV master library, and standard composition library. This paper discusses the method used to choose the workstation, the hardware setup of the chosen workstation, an overview of Y-12 software quality assurance and configuration control methodology, code validation, difficulties encountered in migrating the codes, and advantages to migrating to a workstation environment.

  13. North American X-15 model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    A one-twentieth scale model of the X-15; originally suspended beneath the wing of a B-52 is observed by a scientist of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as it leaves the bomber model in tests to determine the release characteristics and drop motion of the research airplane. Caption: 'The aerodynamics of air launching the North American X-15 being investigated in the High Speed 7x10 FT Tunnel, about 1957.' Photograph and caption published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 366). Photograph also published in Sixty Years of Aeronautical Research 1917-1977 By David A. Anderton. A NASA publication (page 49).

  14. Selecting water-alcohol mixed solvent for synthesis of polydopamine nano-spheres using solubility parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yinling; Li, Maoguo

    2014-08-01

    The solvent plays an important role in a given chemical reaction. Since most reaction in nature occur in the mixed-solvent systems, a comprehensive principle for solvent optimization was required. By calculating the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) distance Ra, we designed a model experiment to explore the influence of mixed solvents on the chemical synthesis. The synthesis of polydopamine (PDA) in the water-alcohol system was chosen as model. As predicted, the well-dispersed PDA spheres were obtained in selected solvents with smaller Ra values: methanol/water, ethanol/water and 2-propanol/water. In addition, the mixed solvent with smaller Ra values gave a higher conversion of dopamine. The strategy for mixed solvent selection is might be useful to choose optimal reaction media for efficient chemical synthesis.

  15. Selecting water-alcohol mixed solvent for synthesis of polydopamine nano-spheres using solubility parameter

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yinling; Li, Maoguo

    2014-01-01

    The solvent plays an important role in a given chemical reaction. Since most reaction in nature occur in the mixed-solvent systems, a comprehensive principle for solvent optimization was required. By calculating the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) distance Ra, we designed a model experiment to explore the influence of mixed solvents on the chemical synthesis. The synthesis of polydopamine (PDA) in the water-alcohol system was chosen as model. As predicted, the well-dispersed PDA spheres were obtained in selected solvents with smaller Ra values: methanol/water, ethanol/water and 2-propanol/water. In addition, the mixed solvent with smaller Ravalues gave a higher conversion of dopamine. The strategy for mixed solvent selection is might be useful to choose optimal reaction media for efficient chemical synthesis. PMID:25317902

  16. Robotics in invasive cardiac electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Shurrab, Mohammed; Schilling, Richard; Gang, Eli; Khan, Ejaz M; Crystal, Eugene

    2014-07-01

    Robotic systems allow for mapping and ablation of different arrhythmia substrates replacing hand maneuvering of intracardiac catheters with machine steering. Currently there are four commercially available robotic systems. Niobe magnetic navigation system (Stereotaxis Inc., St Louis, MO) and Sensei robotic navigation system (Hansen Medical Inc., Mountain View, CA) have an established platform with at least 10 years of clinical studies looking at their efficacy and safety. AMIGO Remote Catheter System (Catheter Robotics, Inc., Mount Olive, NJ) and Catheter Guidance Control and Imaging (Magnetecs, Inglewood, CA) are in the earlier phases of implementations with ongoing feasibility and some limited clinical studies. This review discusses the advantages and limitations related to each existing system and highlights the ideal futuristic robotic system that may include the most promising features of the current ones.

  17. Artificial delta growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    A deltaic sedimentary system has a point source; sediment is carried over the delta plain by distributary channels away from the point source and deposited at the delta front by distributary mouth bars. The established methods to describe such a sedimentary system are "bedding analysis", "facies analysis", and "basin analysis". We shall call the ambient conditions "input" and the rock record "output". There exist a number of methods to deduce input from output, e.g. "Sequence stratigraphy" (a.o. Vail et al. 1977, Catuneanu et al. 2009), "Shoreline trajectory" (a.o. Helland-Hansen & Martinsen 1996, Helland-Hansen & Hampson 2009) on the one hand and the complex use of established techniques on the other (a.o. Miall & Miall 2001, Miall & Miall 2002). None of these deductive methods seems to be sufficient. I claim that the common errors in all these attempts are the following: (1) a sedimentary system is four-dimensional (3+1) and a lesser dimensional analysis is insufficient; (2) a sedimentary system is complex and any empirical/deductive analysis is non-unique. The proper approach to the problem is therefore the theoretical/inductive analysis. To that end we performed six scenarios of a scaled version of a passive margin delta in a flume tank. The scenarios have identical stepwise tectonic subsidence and semi-cyclic sealevel, but different supply curves, i.e. supply is: constant, highly-frequent, proportional to sealevel, inversely proportional to sealevel, lagging to sealevel, ahead of sealevel. The preliminary results are indicative. Lobe-switching occurs frequently and hence locally sedimentation occurs shortly and hiatuses are substantial; therefore events in 2D (+1) cross-sections don't correlate temporally. The number of sedimentary cycles disequals the number of sealevel cycles. Lobe-switching and stepwise tectonic subsidence cause onlap/transgression. Erosional unconformities are local diachronous events, whereas maximum flooding surfaces are regional

  18. Geologic controls of uranium mineralization in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Two important orebodies have been defined by drilling in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado, namely the Hansen and the Picnic Tree. Host rocks are respectively the upper Eocene Echo park Alluvium, and the lower Oligocene Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate. Average ore grade is about 0.08% U3O8. The principal source rock is the lower Oligocene Wall Mountain Tuff. Leaching and transportation of the uranium occurred in alkaline oxidizing ground water that developed during alteration of the ash in a semi-arid environment. The uranium was transported in the groundwater and deposited in a reducing environment controlled by carbonaceous material and associated pyrite. Localization of the ore was controlled by groundwater flow conditions and by the distribution of organic matter in the host rock. -from Author

  19. Thermodynamic approach to boron nitride nanotube solubility and dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiano, A. L.; Gibbons, L.; Tsui, M.; Applin, S. I.; Silva, R.; Park, C.; Fay, C. C.

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate dispersion of nanomaterials is a critical issue that significantly limits the potential properties of nanocomposites and when overcome, will enable further enhancement of material properties. The most common methods used to improve dispersion include surface functionalization, surfactants, polymer wrapping, and sonication. Although these approaches have proven effective, they often achieve dispersion by altering the surface or structure of the nanomaterial and ultimately, their intrinsic properties. Co-solvents are commonly utilized in the polymer, paint, and art conservation industries to selectively dissolve materials. These co-solvents are utilized based on thermodynamic interaction parameters and are chosen so that the original materials are not affected. The same concept was applied to enhance the dispersion of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) to facilitate the fabrication of BNNT nanocomposites. Of the solvents tested, dimethylacetamide (DMAc) exhibited the most stable, uniform dispersion of BNNTs, followed by N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), acetone, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Utilizing the known Hansen solubility parameters of these solvents in comparison to the BNNT dispersion state, a region of good solubility was proposed. This solubility region was used to identify co-solvent systems that led to improved BNNT dispersion in poor solvents such as toluene, hexane, and ethanol. Incorporating the data from the co-solvent studies further refined the proposed solubility region. From this region, the Hansen solubility parameters for BNNTs are thought to lie at the midpoint of the solubility sphere: 16.8, 10.7, and 9.0 MPa1/2 for δd, δp, and δh, respectively, with a calculated Hildebrand parameter of 21.8 MPa1/2.Inadequate dispersion of nanomaterials is a critical issue that significantly limits the potential properties of nanocomposites and when overcome, will enable further enhancement of material properties. The most common methods used to

  20. Migration of nuclear criticality safety software from a mainframe to a workstation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, L.J.; Robinson, R.C.; Cain, V.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD), Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has undergone the transition of executing the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Software (NCSS) on IBM mainframes to a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 9000/730 workstation (NCSSHP). NCSSHP contains the following configuration controlled modules and cross-section libraries: BONAMI, CSAS, GEOMCHY, ICE, KENO IV, KENO Va, MODIIFY, NITAWL SCALE, SLTBLIB, XSDRN, UNIXLIB, albedos library, weights library, 16-Group HANSEN-ROACH master library, 27-Group ENDF/B-IV master library, and standard composition library. This paper will discuss the method used to choose the workstation, the hardware setup of the chosen workstation, an overview of Y-12 software quality assurance and configuration control methodology, code validation, difficulties encountered in migrating the codes, and advantages to migrating to a workstation environment.

  1. Method for efficient recovery of high-purity polycarbonates from electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Weeden, George S; Soepriatna, Nicholas H; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2015-02-17

    More than one million tons of polycarbonates from waste electrical and electronic equipment are consigned to landfills at an increasing rate of 3-5% per year. Recycling the polymer waste should have a major environmental impact. Pure solvents cannot be used to selectively extract polycarbonates from mixtures of polymers with similar properties. In this study, selective mixed solvents are found using guidelines from Hansen solubility parameters, gradient polymer elution chromatography, and solubility tests. A room-temperature sequential extraction process using two mixed solvents is developed to recover polycarbonates with high yield (>95%) and a similar purity and molecular weight distribution as virgin polycarbonates. The estimated cost of recovery is less than 30% of the cost of producing virgin polycarbonates from petroleum. This method would potentially reduce raw materials from petroleum, use 84% less energy, reduce emission by 1-6 tons of CO2 per ton of polycarbonates, and reduce polymer accumulation in landfills and associated environmental hazards. PMID:25625790

  2. The first international leprosy conference, Berlin, 1897: the politics of segregation.

    PubMed

    Pandya, S S

    2004-01-01

    The present paper examines the first attempts to internationalise the problem of leprosy, a subject hitherto overlooked by historians of imperialism and disease. The last decade of the nineteenth century saw many in the civilised countries of the imperialist West gripped by a paranoia about an invasion of leprosy via germ-laden immigrants and returning expatriates who had acquired the infection in leprosy endemic colonial possessions. Such alarmists clamoured for the adoption of vigorous leper segregation policies in such colonies. But the contagiousness of leprosy did not go unquestioned by other westerners. The convocation in Berlin of the first international meeting on leprosy revealed the interplay of differing and sometimes incompatible views about the containment of leprosy by segregation. The roles of officials from several countries, as well as the roles of five protagonists (Albert Ashmead, Jules Goldschmidt, Edvard Ehlers. Armauer Hansen, and Phineas Abraham) in the shaping of the Berlin Conference are here examined.

  3. Thermophysical properties of liquid Ni around the melting temperature from molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas, R. E.; Demiraǧ, A. D.; Toledo, P. G.; Horbach, J.

    2016-08-01

    Thermophysical properties of liquid nickel (Ni) around the melting temperature are investigated by means of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, using three different embedded atom method potentials to model the interactions between the Ni atoms. Melting temperature, enthalpy, static structure factor, self-diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal diffusivity are compared to recent experimental results. Using ab initio MD simulation, we also determine the static structure factor and the mean-squared displacement at the experimental melting point. For most of the properties, excellent agreement is found between experiment and simulation, provided the comparison relative to the corresponding melting temperature. We discuss the validity of the Hansen-Verlet criterion for the static structure factor as well as the Stokes-Einstein relation between self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity. The thermal diffusivity is extracted from the autocorrelation function of a wavenumber-dependent temperature fluctuation variable.

  4. Ionic asymmetry and solvent excluded volume effects on spherical electric double layers: A density functional approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medasani, Bharat; Ovanesyan, Zaven; Thomas, Dennis G.; Sushko, Maria L.; Marucho, Marcelo

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we present a classical density functional theory for electrical double layers of spherical macroions that extends the capabilities of conventional approaches by accounting for electrostatic ion correlations, size asymmetry, and excluded volume effects. The approach is based on a recent approximation introduced by Hansen-Goos and Roth for the hard sphere excess free energy of inhomogeneous fluids [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 154506 (2006); Hansen-Goos and Roth, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 8413 (2006)]. It accounts for the proper and efficient description of the effects of ionic asymmetry and solvent excluded volume, especially at high ion concentrations and size asymmetry ratios including those observed in experimental studies. Additionally, we utilize a leading functional Taylor expansion approximation of the ion density profiles. In addition, we use the mean spherical approximation for multi-component charged hard sphere fluids to account for the electrostatic ion correlation effects. These approximations are implemented in our theoretical formulation into a suitable decomposition of the excess free energy which plays a key role in capturing the complex interplay between charge correlations and excluded volume effects. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in various scenarios to validate the proposed approach, obtaining a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost. We use the proposed computational approach to study the effects of ion size, ion size asymmetry, and solvent excluded volume on the ion profiles, integrated charge, mean electrostatic potential, and ionic coordination number around spherical macroions in various electrolyte mixtures. Our results show that both solvent hard sphere diameter and density play a dominant role in the distribution of ions around spherical macroions, mainly for experimental water molarity and size values where the counterion distribution is characterized by a tight binding to the macroion, similar to that

  5. Efficient and accurate local single reference correlation methods for high-spin open-shell molecules using pair natural orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Andreas; Liakos, Dimitrios G.; Neese, Frank

    2011-12-01

    A production level implementation of the high-spin open-shell (spin unrestricted) single reference coupled pair, quadratic configuration interaction and coupled cluster methods with up to doubly excited determinants in the framework of the local pair natural orbital (LPNO) concept is reported. This work is an extension of the closed-shell LPNO methods developed earlier [F. Neese, F. Wennmohs, and A. Hansen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114108 (2009), 10.1063/1.3086717; F. Neese, A. Hansen, and D. G. Liakos, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 064103 (2009), 10.1063/1.3173827]. The internal space is spanned by localized orbitals, while the external space for each electron pair is represented by a truncated PNO expansion. The laborious integral transformation associated with the large number of PNOs becomes feasible through the extensive use of density fitting (resolution of the identity (RI)) techniques. Technical complications arising for the open-shell case and the use of quasi-restricted orbitals for the construction of the reference determinant are discussed in detail. As in the closed-shell case, only three cutoff parameters control the average number of PNOs per electron pair, the size of the significant pair list, and the number of contributing auxiliary basis functions per PNO. The chosen threshold default values ensure robustness and the results of the parent canonical methods are reproduced to high accuracy. Comprehensive numerical tests on absolute and relative energies as well as timings consistently show that the outstanding performance of the LPNO methods carries over to the open-shell case with minor modifications. Finally, hyperfine couplings calculated with the variational LPNO-CEPA/1 method, for which a well-defined expectation value type density exists, indicate the great potential of the LPNO approach for the efficient calculation of molecular properties.

  6. Turbulent shock processing, relevant to shock-cloud interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. Freddy

    2008-04-01

    The evolution of interstellar clouds following the passage of a supernova shock is an important astrophysical phenomenon; the shock passage may trigger star formation and the post-shock flow surrounding the clouds will strip them of material, effectively limiting cloud life times. Experiments conducted at the Omega laser attempt to (a) quantify the mass-stripping of a single cloud, and (b) simulate the effects of nearby clouds interacting with each other. A strong shock is driven (using 5 kJ of the 30 kJ Omega laser) into a cylinder filled with low-density foam with embedded 120 μm Al spheres simulating interstellar clouds. The density ratio between Al and foam is ˜9. Material is continuously being stripped from a cloud at a rate which is inconsistent with laminar models for mass-stripping; the cloud is fully stripped by 80 ns-100 ns, ten times faster than the laminar model. A new model for turbulent mass-stripping is developed [1,2] that agrees with the observed rate and which should scale to astrophysical conditions. Two interacting spherical clouds are observed to turn their upstream sections to face each other, a result that is completely opposite of earlier work [3] on two interacting cylinders. The difference between these two cases is explained by the relative strength of shocks reflected from the clouds. [1] J.F. Hansen et al, ``Experiment on the Mass-Stripping of an Interstellar Cloud Following Shock Passage,'' Astrophys. J. 662, 379-388 (2007). [2] J.F. Hansen et al, ``Experiment on the mass-stripping of an interstellar cloud in a high Mach number post-shock flow,'' Phys. Plasmas 14, 056505 (2007). [3] C. Tomkins et al, ``A quantitative study of the interaction of two Richtmyer-Meshkov-unstable gas cylinders,'' Phys. Fluids. 15, 986 (2003).

  7. Silver Plume Granite; possible source of uranium in sandstone uranium deposits, Tallahassee Creek and High Park areas, Fremont and Teller counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hills, F.A.; Dickinson, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Anomalously high concentrations of thorium and of the light rare earth elements lanthanum and cerium suggest that the actinides and light lanthanides were enriched to an abnormal degree by the magmatic processes that formed the Proterozoic Y Silver Plume Granite in areas adjoining Tallahassee Creek and High Park. However, no such enrichment is found in the Proterozoic X Boulder Creek Granodiorite. Although uranium presently does not appear to be significantly enriched in sampled outcrops of Silver Plume Granite, a large part of the original uranium content of Silver Plume may have been removed by oxidizing ground waters, leaving behind mainly the uranium bound in resistate minerals such as zircon and monazite. Lead isotopic compositions of acid leachate from barren shale and sandstone associated with the Hansen uranium deposit (Tallahassee Creek area) indicate that (1) the predominant source of acid-soluble lead is 1410 m.y: old (Silver Plume age); (2) the source of the lead is characterized by Th/U around 1 (this ratio in the source may apply to soluble minerals only and may exclude thorium and uranium in resistate minerals), and the mean uranium content of this source may be as high as 30 ppm; and (3) at the time of sediment deposition, a paleohydrologic system existed that was capable of transporting Silver Plume lead and, therefore, Silver Plume uranium to the Hansen deposit. Although a significant contribution of uranium from Tertiary volcanic rocks cannot be ruled out and is even probable (Dickinson and Hills, 1982), it appears probable that some of the uranium in deposits of the Tallahassee Creek area was derived from Silver Plume Granite.

  8. Ionic asymmetry and solvent excluded volume effects on spherical electric double layers: a density functional approach.

    PubMed

    Medasani, Bharat; Ovanesyan, Zaven; Thomas, Dennis G; Sushko, Maria L; Marucho, Marcelo

    2014-05-28

    In this article, we present a classical density functional theory for electrical double layers of spherical macroions that extends the capabilities of conventional approaches by accounting for electrostatic ion correlations, size asymmetry, and excluded volume effects. The approach is based on a recent approximation introduced by Hansen-Goos and Roth for the hard sphere excess free energy of inhomogeneous fluids [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 154506 (2006); Hansen-Goos and Roth, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 8413 (2006)]. It accounts for the proper and efficient description of the effects of ionic asymmetry and solvent excluded volume, especially at high ion concentrations and size asymmetry ratios including those observed in experimental studies. Additionally, we utilize a leading functional Taylor expansion approximation of the ion density profiles. In addition, we use the mean spherical approximation for multi-component charged hard sphere fluids to account for the electrostatic ion correlation effects. These approximations are implemented in our theoretical formulation into a suitable decomposition of the excess free energy which plays a key role in capturing the complex interplay between charge correlations and excluded volume effects. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in various scenarios to validate the proposed approach, obtaining a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost. We use the proposed computational approach to study the effects of ion size, ion size asymmetry, and solvent excluded volume on the ion profiles, integrated charge, mean electrostatic potential, and ionic coordination number around spherical macroions in various electrolyte mixtures. Our results show that both solvent hard sphere diameter and density play a dominant role in the distribution of ions around spherical macroions, mainly for experimental water molarity and size values where the counterion distribution is characterized by a tight binding to the macroion, similar to that

  9. Geologic controls of uranium mineralization in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    Two important orebodies have been defined by drilling in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado. They are the Hansen orebody, which contains about 12 million kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and the Picnic Tree orebody, which contains about 1 million kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Host rock for the Hansen is the upper Eocene Echo Park Alluvium, and host rock for the Picnic Tree is the lower Oligocene Tallahassee Creek onglomerate. Average ore grade for both deposits is about 0.08 percent U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The principal source rock for the uranium depsoits is the lower Oligocene Wall Mountain Tuff, although a younger volcanic rock, the Oligocene Thirtynine Mile Andesite, and Precambrian granitic rocks probably also contributed some uranium. Leaching and transportation of the uranium occurred in alkaline oxidizing ground water that developed during alteration of the ash in a semi-arid environment. The uranium was transported in the ground water to favorable sites where it was deposited in a reducing environment controlled by carbonaceous material and associated pyrite. Localization of the ore was controlled by ground-water flow conditions and by the distribution of organic matter in the host rock. Ground-water flow, which was apparently to the southeast in Echo Park Alluvium that is confined in the Echo Park graben, was impeded by a fault that offsets the southern end of the graben. This offset prevented efficient discharge into the ancestral Arkansas River drainage, and protected chemically reducing areas from destruction by the influx of large amounts of oxidizing ground water. The location of orebodies in the Echo Park Alluvium also may be related to areas where overlying rocks of low permeability were breached by erosion during deposition of the fluvial Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate allowing localized entry of uranium-bearing water.

  10. Arthroscopic Assessment of Intra-Articular Lesion after Surgery for Rotational Ankle Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seung-Do; Gwak, Heui-Chul; Ha, Dong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Yup; Kim, Ui-Cheol; Jang, Yue-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to report findings of exploratory arthroscopic assessment performed in conjunction with removal of internal fixation device placed in the initial surgery for rotational ankle fracture. Methods A total of 53 patients (33 male, 20 female) who underwent surgery for rotational ankle fracture between November 2002 and February 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients gave consent to the exploratory arthroscopic surgery for the removal of internal fixation devices placed in the initial surgery. Lauge-Hansen classification system of ankle fractures was assessed for all patients. Intra-articular lesions (osteochondral lesion, loose body, and fibrosis) were evaluated via ankle arthroscopy. Comparative analysis was then performed between radiological classification of ankle fracture/patient's symptoms and arthroscopic findings. Results Lauge-Hansen classification system of ankle fractures included supination-external rotation type (n = 35), pronation-external rotation type (n = 9), and pronation-abduction type (n = 9). A total of 33 patients exhibited symptoms of pain or discomfort while walking whereas 20 exhibited no symptoms. Arthroscopic findings included abnormal findings around the syndesmosis area (n = 35), intra-articular fibrosis (n = 51), osteochondral lesions of the talus (n = 33), loose bodies (n = 6), synovitis (n = 13), and anterior bony impingement syndrome (n = 3). Intra-articular fibrosis was seen in 31 of symptomatic patients (93.9%). Pain or discomfort with activity caused by soft tissue impingement with meniscus-like intra-articular fibrosis were found in 19 patients. There was statistical significance (p = 0.02) between symptoms (pain and discomfort) and the findings of meniscus-like fibrosis compared to the group without any symptom. Conclusions Arthroscopic examination combined with treatment of intra-articular fibrosis arising from ankle fracture surgery may help improve surgical outcomes. PMID:26640633

  11. Ionic asymmetry and solvent excluded volume effects on spherical electric double layers: a density functional approach.

    PubMed

    Medasani, Bharat; Ovanesyan, Zaven; Thomas, Dennis G; Sushko, Maria L; Marucho, Marcelo

    2014-05-28

    In this article, we present a classical density functional theory for electrical double layers of spherical macroions that extends the capabilities of conventional approaches by accounting for electrostatic ion correlations, size asymmetry, and excluded volume effects. The approach is based on a recent approximation introduced by Hansen-Goos and Roth for the hard sphere excess free energy of inhomogeneous fluids [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 154506 (2006); Hansen-Goos and Roth, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 8413 (2006)]. It accounts for the proper and efficient description of the effects of ionic asymmetry and solvent excluded volume, especially at high ion concentrations and size asymmetry ratios including those observed in experimental studies. Additionally, we utilize a leading functional Taylor expansion approximation of the ion density profiles. In addition, we use the mean spherical approximation for multi-component charged hard sphere fluids to account for the electrostatic ion correlation effects. These approximations are implemented in our theoretical formulation into a suitable decomposition of the excess free energy which plays a key role in capturing the complex interplay between charge correlations and excluded volume effects. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in various scenarios to validate the proposed approach, obtaining a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost. We use the proposed computational approach to study the effects of ion size, ion size asymmetry, and solvent excluded volume on the ion profiles, integrated charge, mean electrostatic potential, and ionic coordination number around spherical macroions in various electrolyte mixtures. Our results show that both solvent hard sphere diameter and density play a dominant role in the distribution of ions around spherical macroions, mainly for experimental water molarity and size values where the counterion distribution is characterized by a tight binding to the macroion, similar to that

  12. Thermodynamic approach to boron nitride nanotube solubility and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Tiano, A L; Gibbons, L; Tsui, M; Applin, S I; Silva, R; Park, C; Fay, C C

    2016-02-21

    Inadequate dispersion of nanomaterials is a critical issue that significantly limits the potential properties of nanocomposites and when overcome, will enable further enhancement of material properties. The most common methods used to improve dispersion include surface functionalization, surfactants, polymer wrapping, and sonication. Although these approaches have proven effective, they often achieve dispersion by altering the surface or structure of the nanomaterial and ultimately, their intrinsic properties. Co-solvents are commonly utilized in the polymer, paint, and art conservation industries to selectively dissolve materials. These co-solvents are utilized based on thermodynamic interaction parameters and are chosen so that the original materials are not affected. The same concept was applied to enhance the dispersion of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) to facilitate the fabrication of BNNT nanocomposites. Of the solvents tested, dimethylacetamide (DMAc) exhibited the most stable, uniform dispersion of BNNTs, followed by N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), acetone, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Utilizing the known Hansen solubility parameters of these solvents in comparison to the BNNT dispersion state, a region of good solubility was proposed. This solubility region was used to identify co-solvent systems that led to improved BNNT dispersion in poor solvents such as toluene, hexane, and ethanol. Incorporating the data from the co-solvent studies further refined the proposed solubility region. From this region, the Hansen solubility parameters for BNNTs are thought to lie at the midpoint of the solubility sphere: 16.8, 10.7, and 9.0 MPa(1/2) for δd, δp, and δh, respectively, with a calculated Hildebrand parameter of 21.8 MPa(1/2). PMID:26839175

  13. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  14. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  15. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White described the simulator as follows: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  16. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  17. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 2. Technicians work on Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  18. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of Model 2 used in the LOLA simulator: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  19. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Track, Model 2 and Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966. 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379.

  20. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  1. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  2. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 3: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  3. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kokubo, Eiichiro

    2015-12-01

    Recent exoplanet observations are revealing the eccentricity and inclination distributions of exoplanets. Most of observed super-Earths have small eccentricities ~ 0.01 - 0.1 and small inclinations ~ 0.03 rad (e.g., Fabrycky et al., 2014). These distributions are results of their formation processes. N-body simulations have been used to investigate accretion of close-in super-Earths (e.g., Hansen & Murray 2012, Ogihara et al. 2015). Hansen & Murray (2013) showed that the averaged eccentricity of close-in super-Earths formed through giant impacts in gas-free and no planetesimal environment is around 0.1. In the giant impact stage, the eccentricities and inclinations are pumped up by gravitational scattering and damped by collisions. Matsumoto et al. (2015) found that the eccentricity damping rate by a collision depends on the eccentricity and inclination and thus affects the eccentricity and inclination of planets. We investigate the effect of initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on eccentricities and inclinations of planets. We perform N-body simulations with systematically changing initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets independently. We find that the eccentricities and inclinations of planets barely depend on the initial eccentricities of protoplanets although the collision timescale is changed. This means that initial eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through scattering and collisions. On the other hand, the initial inclinations of protoplanets affect the inclination of planets since they are not relaxed during the giant impact stage. Since the collisional timescale increases with inclinations, protoplanets with high inclinations tend to interact longer until they collide with each other. As a result, planets get large eccentricities, and the number of planets becomes small. The observed eccentricities and inclinations of super-Earths can be reproduced by giant impacts of protoplanets with inclinations ~ 10-3 -10

  4. Investigating the Dispersion Behavior in Solvents, Biocompatibility, and Use as Support for Highly Efficient Metal Catalysts of Exfoliated Graphitic Carbon Nitride.

    PubMed

    Ayán-Varela, M; Villar-Rodil, S; Paredes, J I; Munuera, J M; Pagán, A; Lozano-Pérez, A A; Cenis, J L; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2015-11-01

    The liquid-phase exfoliation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) to afford colloidal dispersions of two-dimensional flakes constitutes an attractive route to facilitate the processing and implementation of this novel material toward different technological applications, but quantitative knowledge about its dispersibility in solvents is lacking. Here, we investigate the dispersion behavior of exfoliated g-C3N4 in a wide range of solvents and evaluate the obtained results on the basis of solvent surface energy and Hildebrand/Hansen solubility parameters. Estimates of the three Hansen parameters for exfoliated g-C3N4 from the experimentally derived data yielded δD ≈ 17.8 MPa(1/2), δP ≈ 10.8 MPa(1/2), and δH ≈ 15.4 MPa(1/2). The relatively high δH value suggested that, contrary to the case of other two-dimensional materials (e.g., graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides), hydrogen-bonding plays a substantial role in the efficient interaction, and thus dispersibility, of exfoliated g-C3N4 with solvents. Such an outcome was attributed to a high density of primary and/or secondary amines in the material, the presence of which was associated with incomplete condensation of the structure. Furthermore, cell proliferation tests carried out on thin films of exfoliated g-C3N4 using murine fibroblasts suggested that this material is highly biocompatible and noncytotoxic. Finally, the exfoliated g-C3N4 flakes were used as supports in the synthesis of Pd nanoparticles, and the resulting hybrids exhibited an exceptional catalytic activity in the reduction of nitroarenes.

  5. PRISM 8 degrees X 10 degrees North Hemisphere paleoclimate reconstruction; digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Fleming, Farley R.; Holtz, Thomas R.; Ishman, Scott E.; Poore, Richard Z.; Thompson, Robert S.; Willard, Debra A.

    1994-01-01

    The PRISM 8?x10? data set represents several years of investigation by PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping) Project members. One of the goals of PRISM is to produce time-slice reconstructions of intervals of warmer than modern climate within the Pliocene Epoch. The first of these was chosen to be at 3.0 Ma (time scale of Berggren et al., 1985) and is published in Global and Planetary Change (Dowsett et al., 1994). This document contains the actual data sets and a brief explanation of how they were constructed. For paleoenvironmental interpretations and discussion of each data set, see Dowsett et al., in press. The data sets includes sea level, land ice distribution, vegetation or land cover, sea surface temperature and sea-ice cover matrices. This reconstruction of Middle Pliocene climate is organized as a series of datasets representing different environmental attributes. The data sets are designed for use with the GISS Model II atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) using an 8?x10? resolution (Hansen et al., 1983). The first step in documenting the Pliocene climate involves assigning an appropriate fraction of land versus ocean to each grid box. Following grid cell by grid cell, land versus ocean allocations, winter and summer sea ice coverage of ocean areas are assigned and then winter and summer sea surface temperatures are assigned to open ocean areas. Average land ice cover is recorded for land areas and then land areas not covered by ice are assigned proportions of six vegetation or land cover categories modified from Hansen et al. (1983).

  6. Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-03-01

    Rahmstorf et al 's (2012) conclusion that observed climate change is comparable to projections, and in some cases exceeds projections, allows further inferences if we can quantify changing climate forcings and compare those with projections. The largest climate forcing is caused by well-mixed long-lived greenhouse gases. Here we illustrate trends of these gases and their climate forcings, and we discuss implications. We focus on quantities that are accurately measured, and we include comparison with fixed scenarios, which helps reduce common misimpressions about how climate forcings are changing. Annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions have shot up in the past decade at about 3% yr-1, double the rate of the prior three decades (figure 1). The growth rate falls above the range of the IPCC (2001) 'Marker' scenarios, although emissions are still within the entire range considered by the IPCC SRES (2000). The surge in emissions is due to increased coal use (blue curve in figure 1), which now accounts for more than 40% of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Figure 1. Figure 1. CO2 annual emissions from fossil fuel use and cement manufacture, an update of figure 16 of Hansen (2003) using data of British Petroleum (BP 2012) concatenated with data of Boden et al (2012). The resulting annual increase of atmospheric CO2 (12-month running mean) has grown from less than 1 ppm yr-1 in the early 1960s to an average ~2 ppm yr-1 in the past decade (figure 2). Although CO2 measurements were not made at sufficient locations prior to the early 1980s to calculate the global mean change, the close match of global and Mauna Loa data for later years suggests that Mauna Loa data provide a good approximation of global change (figure 2), thus allowing a useful estimate of annual global change beginning with the initiation of Mauna Loa measurements in 1958 by Keeling et al (1973). Figure 2. Figure 2. Annual increase of CO2 based on data from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL 2012). CO2 change

  7. Implementing A Novel Cyclic CO2 Flood In Paleozoic Reefs

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan; A. Wylie

    2005-03-31

    Recycled CO{sub 2} is being used in this demonstration project to produce bypassed oil from the Silurian Dover 35 Niagaran pinnacle reef located in Otsego County, Michigan. CO{sub 2} injection in the Dover 35 field into the Salling-Hansen 4-35A well began on May 6, 2004. A second injection well, the Salling-Hansen 1-35, commenced injection in August 2004. Oil production in the Pomerzynski 5-35 producing well increased from 9 BOPD prior to operations to an average of 165 BOPD in December, 2004 and is presently producing 52 BOPD. The Salling-Hansen 4-35A also produced during this reporting period an average of 21 BOPD. These increases have occurred as a result of CO{sub 2} injection and the production rate appears to be stabilizing. CO{sub 2} injection volume has reached approximately 1.6 BCF. The CO{sub 2} injection phase of this project has been fully operational since December 2004 and most downhole mechanical issues have been solved and surface facility modifications have been completed. It is anticipated that filling operations will run for another 6-12 months from July 1, 2005. In most other aspects, the demonstration is going well and hydrocarbon production has been successfully increased to a stable rate of 73 BOPD. Our industry partners continue to experiment with injection rates and pressures, various downhole and surface facility mechanical configurations, and the huff-n-puff technique to develop best practices for these types of enhanced recovery projects. Subsurface characterization is being completed using well log tomography and 3D visualizations to map facies distributions and reservoir properties in the Belle River Mills, Chester 18, Dover 35, and Dover 36 Fields. The Belle River Mills and Chester 18 fields are being used as type-fields because they have excellent log and/or core data coverage. Amplitude slicing of the log porosity, normalized gamma ray, core permeability, and core porosity curves is showing trends that indicate significant

  8. IMPLEMENTING A NOVEL CYCLIC CO2 FLOOD IN PALEOZOIC REEFS

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; W. quinlan; A. Wylie

    2006-06-01

    Recycled CO2 is being used in this demonstration project to produce bypassed oil from the Silurian Dover 35 Niagaran pinnacle reef located in Otsego County, Michigan. CO2 injection in the Dover 35 field into the Salling-Hansen 4-35A well began on May 6, 2004. A second injection well, the Salling-Hansen 1-35, commenced injection in August 2004. Oil production in the Pomerzynski 5-35 producing well increased from 9 BOPD prior to operations to an average of 165 BOPD in December, 2004 and has produced at an average rate of 61 BOPD (Jan-Dec, 2005). The Salling-Hansen 4-35A also produced during this reporting period an average of 29 BOPD. These increases have occurred as a result of CO2 injection and the production rate appears to be stabilizing. CO2 injection volume has reached approximately 2.18 BCF. The CO2 injection phase of this project has been fully operational since December 2004 and most downhole mechanical issues have been solved and surface facility modifications have been completed. It is anticipated that filling operations will run for another 6-12 months from July 1, 2005. In most other aspects, the demonstration is going well and hydrocarbon production has been stabilized at an average rate of 57 BOPD (July-Dec, 2005). Our industry partners continue to experiment with injection rates and pressures, various downhole and surface facility mechanical configurations, and the huff-n-puff technique to develop best practices for these types of enhanced recovery projects. Subsurface characterization was completed using well log tomography and 3D visualizations to map facies distributions and reservoir properties in the Belle River Mills, Chester 18, Dover 35, and Dover 36 Fields. The Belle River Mills and Chester 18 fields are being used as type-fields because they have excellent log and/or core data coverage. Amplitude slicing of the log porosity, normalized gamma ray, core permeability, and core porosity curves are showing trends that indicate significant

  9. Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of the Lunar Landing Research Facility. Work is on the cross-member beam. James Hansen noted that 'it was conceived in 1962 by engineer Donald Hewes and built under the careful direction of his quiet but ingenious division chief, W. Hewitt Phillips, this gigantic facility designed to develop techniques for landing the rocket-powered LEM on the moon's surface.'(p. 373) Hansen further reports Hewitt Phillips' account of the construction: '*Since we knew that the moon's gravity is one-sixth that of the Earth's, we needed to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight to simulate the actual conditions on the moon.' Perhaps, some practical method could be devised to lower the apparent weight of a mock-up LEM to its lunar equivalent by a method of suspension using vertical cables attached to a traveling bridge crane. From this basic notion, the design evolved. A huge gantry structure was built that would dominate Langley's landscape for years to come. Phillips and Hewes wanted the supporting gantry to be even taller, but because of the heavy military air traffic from adjacent Langley AFB, the structure was limited to 200 feet. The completed facility, however, stood 240 feet 6 inches, excluding the top warning lights and antennae.' (p. 374) From A.W. Vigil, 'Piloted Space-Flight Simulation at Langley Research Center,' Paper presented at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1966 Winter Meeting, New York, NY, November 27 - December 1, 1966. 'Ground-based simulators are not very satisfactory for studying the problems associated with the final phases of landing. This is due primarily to the fact that the visual scene cannot be simulated with sufficient realism. For this reason it is preferable to go to some sort of flight-test simulator which can provide real-life visual cues. One research facility designed to study the final phases of lunar landing is in operation at Langley. ... The facility is an overhead crane structure about 250 feet tall and 400

  10. Modelling the circular polarisation of Earth-like exoplanets: constraints on detecting homochirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogenboom, Michael; Stam, Daphne; Rossi, Loic; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    The circular polarisation of light is a property of electromagnetic radiation from which extensive information can be extracted. It is oft-neglected due to its small signal relative to linear polarisation and the need for advanced instrumentation in measuring it. Additionally, numerical modelling is complex as the full Stokes vector must always be computed. Circular polarisation is commonly induced through the multiple scattering of light by aerosols te{hansen} and multiple reflections of light by rough surfaces te{circplanets}. Most interestingly, distinctive spectral circular polarimetric behaviour is exhibited by light reflected by organisms due to the homochiral molecular structure of all known organisms te{chiralbailey}. Especially fascinating is the unique circular polarimetric behaviour of light reflected by photosynthesising organisms at the absorption wavelength of the chlorophyll pigment te{circpolchar}. This presents the previously unexplored possibility of circular polarimetry as a method for identifying and characterising the presence of organisms, a method which could be applied in the hunt for extraterrestrial life. To date, few telescopes exist that measure circular polarisation and none that have been deployed in space. Observations of the circular polarisation reflected by other planets in the solar system have been made with ground-based telescopes, with significant results te{circplanets}. However, none of these observations have been made at the phase angles at which exoplanets will be observed. Also, none have been made of the Earth, which is the logical starting point for the study of biologically induced circular polarisation signals. This introduces the need for numerical modelling to determine the extent to which circular polarisation is present in light reflected by exoplanets or the Earth. In this study, we model the multiple scattering and reflection of light using the doubling-adding method te{dehaan}. We will present circular

  11. Modelling the circular polarisation of Earth-like exoplanets: constraints on detecting homochirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogenboom, Michael; Stam, Daphne; Rossi, Loic; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    The circular polarisation of light is a property of electromagnetic radiation from which extensive information can be extracted. It is oft-neglected due to its small signal relative to linear polarisation and the need for advanced instrumentation in measuring it. Additionally, numerical modelling is complex as the full Stokes vector must always be computed. Circular polarisation is commonly induced through the multiple scattering of light by aerosols te{hansen} and multiple reflections of light by rough surfaces te{circplanets}. Most interestingly, distinctive spectral circular polarimetric behaviour is exhibited by light reflected by organisms due to the homochiral molecular structure of all known organisms te{chiralbailey}. Especially fascinating is the unique circular polarimetric behaviour of light reflected by photosynthesising organisms at the absorption wavelength of the chlorophyll pigment te{circpolchar}. This presents the previously unexplored possibility of circular polarimetry as a method for identifying and characterising the presence of organisms, a method which could be applied in the hunt for extraterrestrial life. To date, few telescopes exist that measure circular polarisation and none that have been deployed in space. Observations of the circular polarisation reflected by other planets in the solar system have been made with ground-based telescopes, with significant results te{circplanets}. However, none of these observations have been made at the phase angles at which exoplanets will be observed. Also, none have been made of the Earth, which is the logical starting point for the study of biologically induced circular polarisation signals. This introduces the need for numerical modelling to determine the extent to which circular polarisation is present in light reflected by exoplanets or the Earth. In this study, we model the multiple scattering and reflection of light using the doubling-adding method te{dehaan}. We will present circular

  12. Reticence vs. Responsibility: Why Climate Scientists Sometimes Need to Think Like Emergency Room Doctors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.

    2013-12-01

    Hansen (2007), Brysse et al (2012), and Oreskes (2013) have drawn attention to the too-frequent reticence of climate scientists---the unwillingness to err on the side of predicting extreme outcomes or recommend strong action to prevent those outcomes. In Hansen's words, this may hinder 'communication with the public about dangers of global warming' and thereby lessen the chance of effective responses to this urgent threat. Scientists may be reticent about the kinds of extreme outcomes that could occur (ice sheet collapse, oceanic anoxia, killer heat waves, etc.), the probabilities of such outcomes, or the options for preventing or mitigating such outcomes. I will review the reasons, some understandable and some regrettable, for such reticence. (The latter could include the 'seepage' into professional discourse of the often-poisonous atmosphere of climate science denialism; Lewandowsky 2013.) My major aim will be to argue that scientists need a clearly defined ethical framework that coheres with the scientific ethos, and I will suggest that the place to look for such an ethical framework is in the realm of professional ethics. I will review key features of the learned professions such as medicine and engineering, where practitioners (such as emergency room physicians) are necessarily attuned to the imperative of making life-or-death decisions and recommendations in real time, under conditions of uncertainty. I hardly mean to suggest that pure science does not have a professional ethos of its own, but research science as such is not a legally constituted profession (like medicine) and it is focussed on the disinterested search for reliable knowledge above all other goals. Medicine and engineering depend upon and contribute to scientific knowledge but they are aimed at practical ends as well---the welfare of patients or protection of the public as a whole. Also, it is in the nature of engineering and other learned professions that (like pure science) they often

  13. Measurement of testicular volume in smaller testes: how accurate is the conventional orchidometer?

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Chieh; Huang, William J S; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods, including the Seager orchidometer (SO) and ultrasonography (US), for assessing testicular volume of smaller testes (testes volume less than 18 mL). Moreover, the equations used for the calculations--the Hansen formula (length [L] x width [W](2) x 0.52, equation A), the prolate ellipsoid formula (L x W x height [H] x 0.52, equation B), and the Lambert equation (L x W x H x 0.71, equation C)--were also examined and compared with the gold standard testicular volume obtained by water displacement (Archimedes principle). In this study, 30 testes from 15 men, mean age 75.3 (+/-8.3) years, were included. They all had advanced prostate cancer and were admitted for orchiectomy. Before the procedure, all the testes were assessed using SO and US. The dimensions were then input into each equation to obtain the volume estimates. The testicular volume by water displacement was 8.1 +/- 3.5 mL. Correlation coefficients (R(2)) of the 2 different methods (SO, US) to the gold standard were 0.70 and 0.85, respectively. The calculated testicular volumes were 9.2 +/- 3.9 mL (measured by SO, equation A), 11.9 +/- 5.2 mL (measured by SO, equation C), 7.3 +/- 4.2 mL (measured by US, equation A), 6.5 +/- 3.3 mL (measured by US, equation B) and 8.9 +/- 4.5 mL (measured by US, equation C). Only the mean size measured by US and volume calculated with the Hansen equation (equation A) and the mean size measured by US and volume calculated with the Lambert equation (equation C) showed no significant differences when compared with the volumes estimated by water displacement (mean difference 0.81 mL, P = .053, and 0.81 mL, P = .056, respectively). Based on our measurements, we categorized testicular volume by different cutoff values (7.0 mL, 7.5 mL, 8.0 mL, and 8.5 mL) to calculate a new constant for use in the Hansen equation. The new constant was 0.59. We then reexamined the equations using the new 0.59 constant, and found

  14. Semi-automatic measures of activity in selected south polar regions of Mars using morphological image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aye, Klaus-Michael; Portyankina, Ganna; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to monitor the seasonal evolution of several regions at high southern latitudes. Of particular interest have been jet-like activities that may result from the process described by Kieffer (2007), involving translucent CO2 ice. These jets are assumed to create fan-shaped ground features, as studied e.g. in Hansen et.al. (2010) and Portyankina et.al. (2010). In Thomas et.al. (2009), a small region of interest (ROI) inside the south polar Inca City region (81° S, 296° E) was defined for which the seasonal change of the number of fans was determined. This ROI was chosen for its strong visual variability in ground features. The mostly manual counting work showed, that the number of apparent fans increases monotonously for a considerable amount of time from the beginning of the spring time observations at Ls of 178° until approx. 230° , following the increase of available solar energy for the aforementioned processes of the Kieffer model. This fact indicates that the number of visual fan features can be used as an activity measure for the seasonal evolution of this area, in addition to commonly used evolution studies of surface reflectance. Motivated by these results, we would like to determine the fan count evolution for more south polar areas like Ithaca, Manhattan, Giza and others. To increase the reproducibility of the results by avoiding potential variability in fan shape recognition by human eye and to increase the production efficiency, efforts are being undertaken to automise the fan counting procedure. The techniques used, cleanly separated in different stages of the procedure, the difficulties for each stage and an overview of the tools used at each step will be presented. After showing a proof of concept in Aye et.al. (2010), for a ROI that is comparable to the one previously used for manual counting in Thomas et.al. (2009), we now will show

  15. How to use The National Gallery as a cross curricular approach to weather and climate studies at primary level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, P. J. K.

    2009-09-01

    How to use The National Gallery as a cross curricular approach to weather and climate studies at primary level. Pål J. Kirkeby Hansen Faculty of Education and International Studies, Oslo University College (PalKirkeby.Hansen@lui.hio.no) Weather and climate are topics in natural science and geography in primary and secondary education in most countries. The pupils are often doing own weather observations and measurements and are presenting the results oral, by posters or with digital aids. They also use the Internet with all its relevant resources in their studies to develop vocabulary, practical and conceptual knowledge. Knowledge about weather and climate is parts of liberal education and could be projected to other topics in science and to topics in other subjects, for instance: history, social geography, literature and arts. This article reports from a case study in grade 3 classes (age 9 year) during their Weather Week. Their science teacher was, quite untypical, also educated in art history. She arranged a visited to The National Gallery with the double agenda: 1. To introduce the pupils to Norwegian canon paintings from the national romantic period, our so-called "golden age”. 2. To look for and discuss weather elements in this paintings. For one hour the museum curator guided the pupils around the water cycle by using the paintings. While the pupils' own observations of weather, clouds and wind and measurements of temperature and precipitation during the Weather Week only are point checks, the guided tour in The National Gallery gave literally "the whole picture” of the Norwegian weather and climate and of the water cycle. During the tour, the curator constantly invited the pupils to tell about and discuss what weather and water elements they were looking at when standing in front of a painting. The pupils were responsive and interested all the time. Back at school, they demonstrated that they had learned much about both weather elements, the water

  16. Direct Monte Carlo Simulations of Gas Flow from Enceladus’ Nozzle-like Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Orenthal; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.

    2013-10-01

    Collective observations by the Cassini spacecraft indicate that the gas plumes emanating from Enceladus’ south pole contain micrometer sized ice grains that travel at speeds 50-80% lower than the bulk gas speed (Kempf et al., 2008, Hedman et al., 2009, Teolis et al., 2010). Previous studies indicate the difference in velocity originates below the surface, and the gas flow to the surface occurs supersonically suggestive of nozzle like vents (Schmidt et al., 2008, Hansen et al., 2011). Here we use a 2D Direct Monte Carlo Simulation (DSMC) technique (Bird, 1994) to model gas flow and grain acceleration in nozzle like fissures for Enceladus’ vent geometries. First, we use the DSMC technique to model the transition of the gas flow from inside the highly collisional vent to a couple of meters above the surface where the gas flow becomes essentially collisionless. Then the DSMC results for gas density, temperature and velocity are used with an equation of motion for the drag force on a grain entrenched in a gas. The flow is tracked in both the vertical direction from the vent opening, and the radial direction from the vent axis. It is impossible to consider every type of vent geometry, but using Cassini data for grain sizes and velocities within the plumes we consider a few vent geometries of different width, length, and opening angle with respect to the surface. The Enceladus vents are not likely to be axially symmetric, but the simulations provide insight into possible vent geometries, and the effect of the vent wall geometry on gas flow and grain acceleration for suggested plume water production rates (0.5 - 1×1028 s-1) inferred using Cassini data (Tenishev et al., 2010). We obtain density and velocity distributions at the vent exit for the gas and grains that can serve as parameters for plume models and be used as comparisons for interpretation of various Cassini measurements. Kempf, S., et al., 2008, Icarus 193, 2. Hedman, M.M., et al., 2009, AJ 693. Teolis, B

  17. Mapping faults and intrusions onshore Disko Island by use of Vibroseismic data, shallow marine seismic data and electromagnetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Ole R.; Nørmark, Egon; Gulbrandsen, Pelle; Sabra, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    The west Greenland margin is characterized by sedimentary basins containing high density of intrusions (dikes and sills) originating from the Cenozoic breakup and separation of Greenland and North American. The magmatic rocks have lately attracted interest due to observations of hydrocarbons associated to the intrusions but here due to the ore potential associated to the same intrusions. In 2000 a marine seismic campaign by GEUS in the coastal areas of West Greenland showed that it is possible to identify magmatic intrusions in the sedimentary succession as well as map normal faults, and that the intrusions are heterogeneous distributed and probably related to the normal faults. The presence of normal faults is known from the regional onshore geological mapping campaigns performed by GEUS. However, the marine seismic data indicate a much more complicated structural pattern than presented in the onshore maps, which is a well-known phenomenon (Marcussen et al., 2002). In 2012 and 2013 seismic data were acquired onshore on the northern coast of Disko as part of a research project funded by Avannaa Resources . The objective was initially to test whether it is possible to acquire data of a quality enabling the observation and mapping of intrusions in the subsurface. Later it was followed by a more extensive survey where it was attempted to map the depth to and geometry of the intrusions. The relatively dense seismic grid onshore -compared to the marine seismic data offshore west Greenland- enable the identification and more important the mapping of several intrusions. They show some of the same characteristics as intrusions observed at e.q. the Norwegian margin of the North Atlantic (Hansen et al., 2004). The preliminary results which integrate both marine and onshore seismic data revise the structural understanding of the area and indicate a close relation between the intrusions and the rift related normal faults. The results are consistent with remote sensing methods

  18. Paratrooper's Ankle Fracture: Posterior Malleolar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ki Won; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Seuk; Cho, Hun Ki; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the frequency and types of ankle fractures that frequently occur during parachute landings of special operation unit personnel and analyzed the causes. Methods Fifty-six members of the special force brigade of the military who had sustained ankle fractures during parachute landings between January 2005 and April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The injury sites and fracture sites were identified and the fracture types were categorized by the Lauge-Hansen and Weber classifications. Follow-up surveys were performed with respect to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, patient satisfaction, and return to preinjury activity. Results The patients were all males with a mean age of 23.6 years. There were 28 right and 28 left ankle fractures. Twenty-two patients had simple fractures and 34 patients had comminuted fractures. The average number of injury and fractures sites per person was 2.07 (116 injuries including a syndesmosis injury and a deltoid injury) and 1.75 (98 fracture sites), respectively. Twenty-three cases (41.07%) were accompanied by posterior malleolar fractures. Fifty-five patients underwent surgery; of these, 30 had plate internal fixations. Weber type A, B, and C fractures were found in 4, 38, and 14 cases, respectively. Based on the Lauge-Hansen classification, supination-external rotation injuries were found in 20 cases, supination-adduction injuries in 22 cases, pronation-external rotation injuries in 11 cases, tibiofibular fractures in 2 cases, and simple medial malleolar fractures in 2 cases. The mean follow-up period was 23.8 months, and the average follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was 85.42. Forty-five patients (80.36%) reported excellent or good satisfaction with the outcome. Conclusions Posterior malleolar fractures occurred in 41.07% of ankle fractures sustained in parachute landings. Because most of the ankle fractures in parachute injuries were

  19. Water use demand in the Crans-Montana-Sierre region (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonriposi, M.; Reynard, E.

    2012-04-01

    between the various uses. All this confirms the necessity of modelling the future demand of water, which would allow prediction of possible future use conflicts. In a second phase of the project, the collected data will be introduced into WEAP (the Water Evaluation And Planning system) model, in order to estimate the future water demand of the Crans-Montana-Sierre region. This hydrologic model is distinct from most similar models because of its ability to integrate climate and socio-economic scenarios (Hansen, 1994). Reference Hansen, E. 1994. WEAP - A system for tackling water resource problems. In Water Management Europe 1993/94: An Annual Review of the European Water and Wastewater Industry. Stockholm Environment Institute: Stockholm.

  20. GNSS Monitoring of Deformation within heavy civil infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montillet, Jean-Philippe; Melbourne, Timothy; Szeliga, Walter; Schrock, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    The steady increase in precision simultaneous with the decreasing of continuous GPS monitoring has enabled the deployment of receivers for a host of new activities. Here we discuss the precision obtained from several multi-station installations operated over a five-year period on several heavy civil-engineered structures, including two earthen-fill dams and subsiding highway overpass damaged by seismic shaking. In the past 5 years, the Cascadia Hazards Institute (Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array) at Central Washington University together with the Washington department of public utilities (Land Survey) have been monitoring several structures around Seattle area including two dams (Howard Hansen and Tolt). One aim of this study is to test the use of continuous GNSS in order to detect any deformations due to rapid pool level rises or to monitor the safety of a structure when an Earthquake strikes it. In this study, data is processed using Real Time Kinematic GPS with short baseline (d < 500 m) and GPS daily position (PPP). However, multipath is the most limiting factor on accuracy for very precise positioning applications with GPS. It is very often present indoors and outdoors, especially in narrow valleys with a limited view of the sky. As a result, multipath can amount to an error of a few centimetres. Unfortunately, the accuracy requirements of precision deformation monitoring are generally at the sub centimetre level, which is presently a big challenge on an epoch-by-epoch basis with regular, carrier phase techniques. Thus, it needs to be properly mitigated. In this study, several stations are set up on the dams (4 stations on the Tolt reservoir and 10 stations on the Howard Hansen dam), and spatial filtering can then be used to mitigate multipath. In addition, several signal processing techniques are also investigated (i.e. Empirical mode decomposition, sidereal filtering, adaptive filtering). RTK GPS should allow to monitor rapid deformations, whereas GPS daily

  1. Enceladus' Supersonic Gas Jets' Role in Diurnal Variability of Particle Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Candice; Esposito, Larry W.; Portyankina, Ganna; Hendrix, Amanda; Colwell, Joshua E.; Aye, Klaus-Michael

    2016-10-01

    particle flux observed at apokrone.References: [1] Hansen, C. J. et al. (2006) Science, 311, 1422–1425. [2] Hansen, C. J. et al. (2008) Nature, 456, 477-479. [3] Hedman, M. M. et al. (2013) Nature, 500, 182–184

  2. Study of Venus cloud layers with polarimetric data from SPICAV/VEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Loïc; Marcq, Emmanuel; Montmessin, Franck; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Fedorova, Anna; Stam, Daphne

    2014-05-01

    The study of Venus's cloud layers is important in order to understand the structure, radiative balance and dynamics of the Venusian atmosphere. The main cloud layers between 50 and 70km are thought to consist in ~ 1 μm radius droplets of a H2SO4-H2O solution. Nevertheless, the composition and the size distribution of the droplets are difficult to constrain more precisely. Polarization measurements have given great results in the determination of the constituents of the haze. In the early 1980s, Kawabata et al.(1980) used the polarization data from the OCPP instrument on the spacecraft Pioneer Venus to constrain the properties of the haze. They obtained a refractive index of 1.45 ± 0.04 at Λ = 550nm effective radius of 0.23 ± 0.04μm, with a normalized size distribution variance of 0.18 ± 0.1. We introduce here new polarimetric measurements from the SPICAV-IR spectrometer onboard ESA's Venus Express. Observing Venus in the visible and IR from 650 nm to 1625 nm with a good spatial and temporal converage, SPICAV gives us an opportunity to put better constraints on haze and cloud particles at Venus cloud top, as well as their spatial and temporal variability. Our analysis is based on a polarized radiative transfer code similar to the one used by Hansen and Hovenier (1974). Using the particle size distribution from Kawabata et al.(1980) and a simple two-layered cloud model, we try to retrieve particle size and refrative index from nadir observations. We are interested in particular by the glory which is also visible in polarization and whose linear degree of polarization as a function of observation geometry is dependent on the cloud parameters. The polarization measured at higher latitudes provides constrains on the hazes, in particular their optical thickness. We will discuss the first results of our modeling of the glory. In the future we aim to characterize the cloud droplets on the planet along with their temporal and spatial variability. A comparison with the

  3. Distribution of icy particles across Enceladus' surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Wagner, R.; Hansen, G. B.; Brown, R. H.; Cassini Vims Science Team

    crystallization and the growing of the particle. References: [1] Brown, R. B. et al. (2006) Science, in press. [2] Brown, R. B. et al. (2005) Space Science Rev. 115, 111. [3] Hansen, G. B. & McCord, T. B. (2004) JGR, 109. [4] Kargel, J. S. & Pozio, S. (1996) Icarus, 119, 385. [5] Porco, C. C. et al. (2006) Nature, in press. [6] Spencer, J. (2005) Eos Trans. AGU, 86 (52) Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract P32A-04. [7] Hansen, G. B. et al. (2005) Eos Trans. AGU, 86 (52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract P11B-0124.

  4. Subsurface Gas Flow and Ice Grain Acceleration within Enceladus and Europa Fissures: 2D DSMC Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, O. J.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.

    2014-12-01

    The ejection of material from geysers is a ubiquitous occurrence on outer solar system bodies. Water vapor plumes have been observed emanating from the southern hemispheres of Enceladus and Europa (Hansen et al. 2011, Roth et al. 2014), and N2plumes carrying ice and ark particles on Triton (Soderblom et al. 2009). The gas and ice grain distributions in the Enceladus plume depend on the subsurface gas properties and the geometry of the fissures e.g., (Schmidt et al. 2008, Ingersoll et al. 2010). Of course the fissures can have complex geometries due to tidal stresses, melting, freezing etc., but directly sampled and inferred gas and grain properties for the plume (source rate, bulk velocity, terminal grain velocity) can be used to provide a basis to constrain characteristic dimensions of vent width and depth. We used a 2-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to model venting from both axi-symmetric canyons with widths ~2 km and narrow jets with widths ~15-40 m. For all of our vent geometries, considered the water vapor source rates (1027­ - 1028 s-1) and bulk gas velocities (~330 - 670 m/s) obtained at the surface were consistent with inferred values obtained by fits of the data for the plume densities (1026 - 1028 s-1, 250 - 1000 m/s) respectively. However, when using the resulting DSMC gas distribution for the canyon geometries to integrate the trajectories of ice grains we found it insufficient to accelerate submicron ice grains to Enceladus' escape speed. On the other hand, the gas distributions in the jet like vents accelerated grains > 10 μm significantly above Enceladus' escape speed. It has been suggested that micron-sized grains are ejected from the vents with speeds comparable to the Enceladus escape speed. Here we report on these results including comparisons to results obtained from 1D models as well as discuss the implications of our plume model results. We also show preliminary results for similar considerations applied to Europa

  5. Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for in-flight experiments under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Unruh, Eckehardt

    Life Sciences as Related to Space (F) Influence of Spaceflight Environment on Biological Systems (F44) Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for In-flight experiments under microgravity Sensing approaches for ecosystem and human health Author: Peter D. Hansen Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, a Institute for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany Peter-diedrich.hansen@tu-berlin.de Eckehardt Unruh Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, Institute a for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany An immune response by mussel hemocytes is the selective reaction to particles which are identified as foreign by its immune system shown by phagocytosis. Phagocytotic activity is based on the chemotaxis and adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation. The attachment at the surface of the hemocytes and consequently the uptake of the particles or bacteria can be directly quantified in the format of a fluorescent assay. Another relevant endpoint of phagocytosis is oxidative burst measured by luminescence. Phagocytosis-related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonised zymosan. The hemocytes will be stored frozen at -80oC and reconstituted in-flight for the experiment. The assay system of the TRIPLELUX-B Experiment has been performed with a well-defined quantification and evaluation of the immune function phagocytosis. The indicator cells are the hemocytes of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). The signals of the immuno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The results expected will determine whether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation (change in permeability, endpoints in genotoxicity: DNA unwinding). The samples for genotoxicity will be processed after returning to earth. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The

  6. A closer look at United States and global surface temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Imhoff, M.; Lawrence, W.; Easterling, D.; Peterson, T.; Karl, T.

    2001-10-01

    We compare the United States and global surface air temperature changes of the past century using the current Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis and the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) record [Karl et al., 1990]. Changes in the GISS analysis subsequent to the documentation by Hansen et al. [1999] are as follows: (1) incorporation of corrections for time-of-observation bias and station history adjustments in the United States based on Easterling et al. [1996a], (2) reclassification of rural, small-town, and urban stations in the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico based on satellite measurements of night light intensity [Imhoff et al., 1997], and (3) a more flexible urban adjustment than that employed by Hansen et al. [1999], including reliance on only unlit stations in the United States and rural stations in the rest of the world for determining long-term trends. We find evidence of local human effects ("urban warming") even in suburban and small-town surface air temperature records, but the effect is modest in magnitude and conceivably could be an artifact of inhomogeneities in the station records. We suggest further studies, including more complete satellite night light analyses, which may clarify the potential urban effect. There are inherent uncertainties in the long-term temperature change at least of the order of 0.1°C for both the U.S. mean and the global mean. Nevertheless, it is clear that the post-1930s cooling was much larger in the United States than in the global mean. The U.S. mean temperature has now reached a level comparable to that of the 1930s, while the global temperature is now far above the levels earlier in the century. The successive periods of global warming (1900-1940), cooling (1940-1965), and warming (1965-2000) in the 20th century show distinctive patterns of temperature change suggestive of roles for both climate forcings and dynamical variability. The U.S. was warm in 2000 but cooler than

  7. Electrochemically enhanced oxidation reactions in sandy soil polluted with mercury

    PubMed

    Thoming; Kliem; Ottosen

    2000-10-16

    For remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals, the electrodialytic remediation (EDR) method is a highly relevant method, see e.g. Hansen et al. (Hansen HK, Ottosen LM, Kliem BK, Villumsen A. Electrodialytic remediation of soils polluted with Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Zn. J Chem Tech Biotechnol 1997;70:67-73). During the process the heavy metals are transferred to the pore water in dissolved form or attached to colloids and move within the applied electric field. The method is found to be useful in many soil types, but has its strength in fine-grained soils. It is exactly in such soils that other remediation methods fail. Four cell experiments were made in order to investigate how relevant the method is for a more sandy soil and if it is suitable for non-ionic heavy metals such as elemental mercury. The duration was 27 days for two of the experiments and two experiments lasted 54 days, and the mercury within the soil was initially 1200-1900 mg kg(-1), of which 84% was elemental Hg. To monitor the process the pseudo-total mercury concentration was distinguished between elemental mercury and non-metallic mercury species by thermodesorption. During the electrodialytic treatment an increase of the content of non-metallic mercury occurred and a corresponding decrease of the content of elemental mercury which indicates a transformation of the latter species into any other non-metallic species. Generally, oxidation of Hg by dissolved oxygen in a solution is kinetically inhibited and thus quite slow. The redistribution of Hg was closely connected to a decrease of soil pH during the experiments. This corresponds very well to the thermodynamic calculations from which it was found that a decrease in the pH of the soil will result in an increase in the oxidation rate of elemental Hg. Results from this investigation show that the electrodialytic remediation method alone is not efficient in situations with sandy soils containing elemental mercury. As a solution for this

  8. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and

  9. The effect of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Sichuan earthquake on regional landslide patterns between 2001 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Kerry; Krammel, Lisa; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Large earthquakes have a major impact on patterns of regional landsliding. Here, we utilise a twelve-year record of forest cover change in the region of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in order to assess geomorphic factors contributing to slope instability in years prior to, during, and after the earthquake. The satellite-based catalogue of forest cover change developed by Hansen et al. (2013) compares favourably with results from a study of earthquake-induced slope instability undertaken by Parker et al. (2011), indicating that our correlation of tree loss with regional landsliding is reasonable. While we cannot account for slope stability on unvegetated slopes, the temporal nature of the dataset allows us to account for the presence of pre-existing landslides or barren rock slopes which have complicated previous studies. We assess a number of geomorphic factors including slope, aspect, curvature, ruggedness, height and distance from river channels, and the hydrological slope (calculated using the downslope distance to river channels). In order to account for spatial distributions as a result of local seismicity, interpreted landslide locations were normalised against a randomly generated distribution of points seeded using observed landslide concentrations within 1 km x 1 km cells. We find that while few metrics allow us to distinguish the 2008 data from the random dataset, aspect played an important role in determining susceptibility, and slopes with a greater hydrological slope demonstrate a greater susceptibility for failure. In addition, we observe a notable decrease in the elevation of landslides in the year of the earthquake, and progressive increase in elevations in successive years following. This may either be a result of retrogressive slope failure, or a return to 'normal' stability conditions in the four years following the earthquake. Hansen, M. C., Potapov, P. V., Moore, R., Hancher, M., Turubanova, S. A., Tyukavina, A., Thau, D., Stehman, S. V., Goetz

  10. General circulation models of the dynamics of Pluto's volatile transport on the eve of the New Horizons encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, Anthony D.; French, Richard G.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Guzewich, Scott D.; Zhu, Xun; Richardson, Mark I.

    2015-07-01

    Pluto's atmospheric dynamics occupy an interesting regime in which the radiative time constant is quite long, the combined effects of high obliquity and a highly eccentric orbit can produce strong seasonal variations in atmospheric pressure, and the strong coupling between the atmosphere and volatile transport on the surface results in atmospheric flows that are quite sensitive to surface and subsurface properties that at present are poorly constrained by direct observations. In anticipation of the New Horizons encounter with the Pluto system in July 2015, we present a Pluto-specific three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM), PlutoWRF, incorporating the most accurate current radiative transfer models of Pluto's atmosphere, a physically robust treatment of nitrogen volatile transport, and the flexibility to accommodate richly detailed information about the surface and subsurface conditions as new data become available. We solve for a physically self-consistent, equilibrated combination of surface, subsurface, and atmospheric conditions to specify the boundary conditions and initial state values for each GCM run. This is accomplished using two reduced versions of PlutoWRF: a two-dimensional surface volatile exchange model to specify the properties of surface nitrogen ice and the initial atmospheric surface pressure, and a one-dimensional radiative-conductive-convective model that uses the two-dimensional model predictions to determine the corresponding global-mean atmospheric thermal profile. We illustrate the capabilities of PlutoWRF in predicting Pluto's general circulation, thermal state, and volatile transport of nitrogen by calculating the dynamical response of Pluto's atmosphere, based on four different idealized models of Pluto's surface ice distribution from Young (Young, L.A. [2013]. Astrophys. J. 766, L22) and Hansen et al. (Hansen, C.J., Paige, D.A., Young, L.A. [2015]. Icarus 246, 183). Our GCM runs typically span 30 years, from 1985 to 2015

  11. Apollo Project - LLRF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Looking down from the top of the gantry on to the simulated Lunar Surface. James Hansen writes: 'To make the simulated landings more authentic, [Donald] Hewes and his men filled the base of the huge eight-legged, red-and-white structure with dirt and modeled it to resemble the moon's surface. They erected floodlights at the proper angles to simulate lunar light and installed a black screen at the far end of the gantry to mimic the airless lunar 'sky.' Hewes personally climbed into the fake craters with cans of everyday black enamel to spray them so that the astronauts could experience the shadows that they would see during the actual moon landing.' (p. 375) From A.W. Vigil, 'Piloted Space-Flight Simulation at Langley Research Center,' Paper presented at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1966 Winter Meeting, New York, NY, November 27 - December 1, 1966. 'Ground-based simulators are not very satisfactory for studying the problems associated with the final phases of landing. This is due primarily to the fact that the visual scene cannot be simulated with sufficient realism. For this reason it is preferable to go to some sort of flight-test simulator which can provide real-life visual cues. One research facility designed to study the final phases of lunar landing is in operation at Langley. ... The facility is an overhead crane structure about 250 feet tall and 400 feet long. The crane system supports five-sixths of the vehicle's weight through servo-driven vertical cables. The remaining one-sixth of the vehicle weight pulls the vehicle downward simulating the lunar gravitational force. During actual flights the overhead crane system is slaved to keep the cable near vertical at all times. A gimbal system on the vehicle permits angular freedom for pitch, roll, and yaw. The facility is capable of testing vehicles up to 20,000 pounds. A research vehicle, weighing 10,500 pounds fully loaded, is being used and is shown [in this picture]. This vehicle is provided

  12. Apollo Project - LOLA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Test subject sitting at the controls: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966. 'A typical mission would start with the first cart positioned on model 1 for the translunar approach and orbit establishment. After starting the descent, the second cart is readied on model 2 and, at the proper time, when superposition occurs, the pilot's scene is switched from model 1 to model 2. then cart 1 is moved to and readied on model 3. The procedure continues until an altitude of 150 feet is obtained. The cabin of the LM vehicle has four windows which represent a 45 degree field of view. The projection screens in front of each window represent 65 degrees which allows limited head motion before the edges of the display can be seen. The lunar scene is presented to the pilot by rear projection on the screens with four Schmidt television

  13. Siegel[JMMM 7,312(`78)] FIRST EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERY of Giant-Magnetoresistance Decade Pre ``Fert'' and ``Gruenberg'' ['88 - `78] = 10-Years = One-Decade Sounds, for Nuclear-Power Naïve ``Panacea'' for Global-Warming/Climate-Chan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Masterace; Siegel, Edward

    Siegel[JMMM 7,312(`78); Monju (12/'95) LMFBR PREDICTION!!!] following: Wigner[JAP 17,857(`46)]-(Alvin)Weinberg(ANL/ORNL/ANS)-(Sidney)Siegel(ANL/ORNL/ANS)-Seitz-Overhauser-Rollnick-Pollard-Lofaro-Markey-Pringle[Nuclear-PowerFrom Physics to Politics(`79)] FIRST EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERY [Siegel<<<''Fert''-''Gruenberg'':2007-Physics-Nobel/2006:-Wolf/Japan-prizes:[`88 -`78] =10-years =1-decade precedence!!!] of granular giant-magnetoresistance(GMR) [Google: ``EDWARD SIEGEL GIANT-MAGNETORESISTANCE ICMAO 1977 FLICKER''] [Google: ``Ana Mayo If LEAKS`Could' KILL''] in austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe-based (so MIScalled)''super''alloy-182/82 transition-welds GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental (SYNONYMS): Wigner's-disease/Ostwald-ripening/spinodal-decompositio/OVERageing-EMBRITTLEMENT/THERMAL-leading-to-mechanical (TLTM)-INstability/``sensitization'' in: nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel dry-casks/refineries/jet/missile/rocket-engines/...SOUNDS A DIRE WARNING FOR NAIVE Hansen-Sommerville-Holdren-DOE-NRC-OSTP-WNA-NEI-AIP-APS-...calls/media-hype/P.R./spin-doctoring for carbon-``free'' nuclear-power as a SUPPOSED ``panacea'' for climate-change/global-warming: ``TRUST BUT VERIFY!!!'' ; a VERY LOUD CAVEAT EMPTOR!!!

  14. FTIR Imaging Coupled with Multivariate Analysis for Study of Initial Diffusion of Different Solvents in Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblad, M.S.; Keyes, B.; Gedvilas, L.; Kelley, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging was used to study the initial diffusion of different solvents in cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) films containing different amounts of acetyl and butyryl substituents. Different solvents and solvent/non-solvent mixtures were also studied. The FTIR imaging system allowed acquisition of sequential images of the CAB films as solvent penetration proceeded without disturbing the system. The interface between the non-swollen polymer and the initial swelling front could be identified using multivariate data analysis tools. For a series of ketone solvents the initial diffusion coefficients and diffusion rates could be quantified and were found to be related to the polar and hydrogen interaction parameters in the Hansen solubility parameters of the solvents. For the solvent/non-solvent system the initial diffusion rate decreased less than linearly with the weight-percent of non-solvent present in the solution, which probably was due to the swelling characteristic of the non-solvent. For a given solvent, increasing the butyryl content of the CAB increased the initial diffusion rate. Increasing the butyryl content from 17 wt.% butyryl to 37 wt.% butyryl produced a considerably larger increase in initial diffusion rate compared to an increase in butyryl content from 37 wt.% to 50 wt.% butyryl.

  15. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  16. Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF{sub 6} and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % {sup 235}U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

  17. Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO[sub 2]F[sub 2] and H[sub 2]O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF[sub 6] and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % [sup 235]U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

  18. [From The Origin of Species to Artenes Oprindelse].

    PubMed

    Lie, T

    2000-12-10

    The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin's most important work, was published in London in 1859. The first presentation in Norway, by P. Chr. Asbjørnsen, appeared in the journal Budstikken. About 30 years passed before it was translated into Norwegian, and it took some time before Darwin's theories were debated in Norway. The zoologist Michael Sars introduced them in the Scientific Society in Christiania (i.e., Oslo) in 1869, but he was not met with a great deal of interest. However, a new generation of scientist saw this differently, mainly the botanist Axel Blytt, the zoologist G.O. Sars and the geologist W.C. Brøgger. Two prominent professors of medicine were also involved in the debate, on different sides. The Darwinist Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen, who discovered the lepra bacillus, wrote several books and articles about Darwinism, while Professor Ernst Ferdinand Lochmann, though admiring Darwin as a prominent naturalist, strongly rejected Darwinism as a scientific theory. PMID:11215944

  19. Analysis of sea-surface polarization imagery of Hawaii environs obtained by the space shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidran, Miriam; Egan, Walter G.

    1992-12-01

    Polarimetric images of the earth have been obtained for the first time by means of the Space Shuttle. These depict the environs of Hawaii in three visible bands of polarized light. A transect drawn on each image, crossing only cloud-free ocean areas, has both positive and negative polarization values along its path. These results are compared with those of several models, and with aircraft measurements of a haze-free, hydrosol-free ocean area, regarded as `air truth.' Based on the models and the air truth, the negative percent polarization values are attributed to haze, even though haze is not visible in a photograph taken from space. This haze obscures the effects of wind-generated surface roughness, and suspended hydrosols, so that they cannot be separately distinguished. The Hansen-Travis radiative transfer model predicts that the haze must have a large optical depth. The air truth shows that in the absence of haze, the wind velocity can be characterized by polarimetric measurements. The effect of hydrosols on polarization is not yet clear.

  20. The Influence of Drug Physical State on the Dissolution Enhancement of Solid Dispersions Prepared Via Hot-Melt Extrusion: A Case Study Using Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Maria Fátima; Zhao, Min; Pinto, João F; Sousa, João J; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the relationship between the physical structure and dissolution behavior of olanzapine (OLZ) prepared via hot-melt extrusion in three polymers [polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30, polyvinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate (PVPVA) 6:4, and Soluplus® (SLP)]. In particular, we examine whether full amorphicity is necessary to achieve a favorable dissolution profile. Drug–polymer miscibility was estimated using melting point depression and Hansen solubility parameters. Solid dispersions were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. All the polymers were found to be miscible with OLZ in a decreasing order of PVP>PVPVA>SLP. At a lower extrusion temperature (160°C), PVP generated fully amorphous dispersions with OLZ, whereas the formulations with PVPVA and SLP contained 14%–16% crystalline OLZ. Increasing the extrusion temperature to 180°C allowed the preparation of fully amorphous systems with PVPVA and SLP. Despite these differences, the dissolution rates of these preparations were comparable, with PVP showing a lower release rate despite being fully amorphous. These findings suggested that, at least in the particular case of OLZ, the absence of crystalline material may not be critical to the dissolution performance. We suggest alternative key factors determining dissolution, particularly the dissolution behavior of the polymers themselves. PMID:24765654

  1. Global Bare Ground Gain in the First Decade of 21st Century from Landsat Data: the Preliminary Results on Estimation and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Q.; Potapov, P.; Wang, L.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bare ground gain (BGG) is one of the most intensive land surface transformation because of the complete alteration of ecosystem functioning, the complex nature of temporal nonlinearity and spatial heterogeneity, the fast growing trend along with the global population boom and urbanization. However, it is not yet clear that what are the global dynamics of BGG and how it is spatially distributed. It is therefore important to monitor BGG as an essential component of land cover change on a locally relevant and globally consistent base. In this study, we try to answer these questions using over-a-decade Landsat satellite observations. Recent developments in optical remote sensing hold tremendous promise for global BGG detection. One data source is the legacy of annual Landsat mosaics from the research of Hansen et al. on global forest dynamics. Following previous research by Hansen et al., BGG observed by Landsat data is defined as a process of land cover change featuring permanent or semi-permanent clearing of vegetation cover by human land use or natural disturbances at the 30-m Landsat pixel scale. A sophisticated method has been developed to capture the change signal from high dimension metrics derived from time series of Landsat spectral bands and continuous bare ground field. By examining the contribution of each metric to the effectiveness of BGG detection, 140 metrics were selected and put into a supervised machine learning algorithm, the bagged classification tree. A recursive strategy was adopted to complete training data and improve result. A global BGG training data set counting to around 27.5 million pixels was produced. Additional training was obtained from regional sources like the bare ground gain layer of Web-enabled Landsat data (WELD) and the impervious surface layer of National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Independent validation was performed by interpreting stratified samples on Google Earth high resolution images. The preliminary results of the

  2. The role of spatial cues in the probe-type serial memory task.

    PubMed

    Berch, D B

    1978-09-01

    2 experiments were carried out with the aim of clarifying the role of spatial cues in the probe-type serial memory task devised by Atkinson, Hansen, and Bernbach. In experiment 1, preventing the formation of specific items-location associations drastically reduced performance at the early to intermediate serial positions for a group of second graders; yet these children still exhibited a primancy effect (position 1 greater than position2). In experiment 2, the stimulus items were spaced farther apart than usual in an attempt to reduce the contextual uniqueness of the first (far left) item. Children aged 4 and 5 years who were administered this task produced a serial-position function that was essentially flat. It was concluded that (a) spatial cues serve as functional stimuli in the standard probe-type task, and (b) the contextual uniqueness of the first item is probably responsible for the occurrence of primacy in young children. Implications of this research for interpreting age-related differences in the shape of the serial-position curve were also discussed.

  3. Simulations of the fluid phase of nitrogen molecules adsorbed on the basal planes of graphite: structural and dynamical effects of the corrugation in the holding potential.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, F. Y.; Bruch, L. W.; Taub, H.

    1997-03-01

    A discrepancy between calculated (F. Y. Hansen, L.W. Bruch and H. Taub, Phys. Rev. B. 52), 8515 (1995) and experimental melting temperatures of submonolayer films was traced to the intermolecular potentials. These have been tested by comparing molecular dynamics simulations of isosteric heats of adsorption in fluid films with experimental measurements (J. Piper, J. A. Morrison, C. Peters and Y. Ozaki, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1, 79), 2863 (1983). The effect of the corrugation in the holding potential on the fluid phases has also been evaluated in a series of simulations. For films on a model uncorrugated graphite surface the melting temperature is lowered by 7 K. Contrary to what is found for films on the corrugated surface, these simulations show that there is a region of liquid--gas coexistence, demonstrating that this is a normal triple point system. Diffusion constants in these fluids are larger than for the fluids on the corrugated graphite surface. At low coverages, a crossover from activated diffusion to nonactivated diffusion is seen. The damping of the hydrodynamic modes causing the long--time tails in the velocity correlation function seems to be a little stronger on a corrugated surface than on a smooth surface.

  4. Screening method for solvent selection used in tar removal by the absorption process.

    PubMed

    Masurel, Eve; Authier, Olivier; Castel, Christophe; Roizard, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of the treatment of flue gas issued from a process of biomass gasification in fluidized bed. The flue gas contains tar which should be selectively removed from the fuel components of interest (e.g. H2, CO and light hydrocarbons) to avoid condensation and deposits in internal combustion engine. The chosen flue gas treatment is the gas-liquid absorption using solvents, which present specific physicochemical properties (e.g. solubility, viscosity, volatility and chemical and thermal stability) in order to optimize the unit on energetic, technico-economic and environmental criteria. The rational choice of the proper solvent is essential for solving the tar issue. The preselection of the solvents is made using a Hansen parameter in order to evaluate the tar solubility and the saturation vapour pressure of the solvent is obtained using Antoine law. Among the nine families of screened solvents (alcohols, amines, ketones, halogenates, ethers, esters, hydrocarbons, sulphured and chlorinates), acids methyl esters arise as solvents of interest. Methyl oleate has then been selected and studied furthermore. Experimental liquid-vapour equilibrium data using bubbling point and absorption cell measurements and theoretical results obtained by the UNIFAC-Dortmund model confirm the high potential of this solvent and the good agreement between experimental and theoretical results. PMID:25867082

  5. Dissolved organic phosphorus utilization and alkaline phosphatase activity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium impudicum isolated from the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seok Jin; Kwon, Hyeong Kyu; Noh, Il Hyeon; Yang, Han-Soeb

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity and dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus utilization by the harmful dinoflagellate Gymnodinium impudicum (Fraga et Bravo) Hansen et Moestrup isolated from the South Sea of Korea. Under conditions of limited phosphorus, observation of growth kinetics in batch culture yielded a maximum growth rate (μmax) of 0.41 /day and a half saturation constant (Ks) of 0.71 μM. In time-course experiments, APase was induced as dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations fell below 0.83 μM, a threshold near the estimated Ks; APase activity increased with further DIP depletion to a maximum of 0.70 pmol/cell/h in the senescent phase. Thus, Ks may be an important index of the threshold DIP concentration for APase induction. G. impudicum utilizes a wide variety of dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in addition to DIP. These results suggest that DIP limitation in the Southern Sea of Korea may have led to the spread of G. impudicum along with the harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in recent years.

  6. A middle Wisconsin pollen record from Hay Lake, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Bonnie Fine

    1985-07-01

    The lower part of a 5-m core from Hay Lake (34°N, 109° 25'W) at 2780 m in east-central Arizona provides a pollen record for the middle Wisconsin. Identification of fossil pines is based on a key modified from Hansen and Cushing (1973, Geological Society of America Bulletin84, 1181-1200). Pinus edulis and P. monophylla are similar in size and morphology but are significantly different from P. flexilis. Haploxylon pines dominate the pollen record. The abundance of pinyon pines during the middle Wisconsin is interpreted as indicating that this group was widespread at lower elevations. The local vegetation was mixed conifer forest consisting of Picea, P. aristata, P. flexilis and/or P. strobiformis, and with P. ponderosa and/or P. contorta after about 26,000 yr B.P. Tree line was above the elevation of Hay Lake. The middle Wisconsin climate is inferred to have been cooler than today and is marked by more available moisture that permitted pinyon pines to grow at low elevations.

  7. A label-free microfluidic biosensor for activity detection of single microalgae cells based on chlorophyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junsheng; Sun, Jinyang; Song, Yongxin; Xu, Yongyi; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2013-11-26

    Detection of living microalgae cells is very important for ballast water treatment and analysis. Chlorophyll fluorescence is an indicator of photosynthetic activity and hence the living status of plant cells. In this paper, we developed a novel microfluidic biosensor system that can quickly and accurately detect the viability of single microalgae cells based on chlorophyll fluorescence. The system is composed of a laser diode as an excitation light source, a photodiode detector, a signal analysis circuit, and a microfluidic chip as a microalgae cell transportation platform. To demonstrate the utility of this system, six different living and dead algae samples (Karenia mikimotoi Hansen, Chlorella vulgaris, Nitzschia closterium, Platymonas subcordiformis, Pyramidomonas delicatula and Dunaliella salina) were tested. The developed biosensor can distinguish clearly between the living microalgae cells and the dead microalgae cells. The smallest microalgae cells that can be detected by using this biosensor are 3 μm ones. Even smaller microalgae cells could be detected by increasing the excitation light power. The developed microfluidic biosensor has great potential for in situ ballast water analysis.

  8. Electron temperature measurements inside the ablating plasma of gas-filled hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, M. A.; Liedahl, D. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Jones, O.; Brown, G. V.; Regan, S. P.; Fournier, K. B.; Moore, A. S.; Ross, J. S.; Landen, O.; Kauffman, R. L.; Nikroo, A.; Kroll, J.; Jaquez, J.; Huang, H.; Hansen, S. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Bradley, D.; Moody, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    The first measurement of the electron temperature (Te) inside a National Ignition Facility hohlraum is obtained using temporally resolved K-shell X-ray spectroscopy of a mid-Z tracer dot. Both isoelectronic- and interstage-line ratios are used to calculate the local Te via the collisional-radiative atomic physics code SCRAM [Hansen et al., High Energy Density Phys 3, 109 (2007)]. The trajectory of the mid-Z dot as it is ablated from the capsule surface and moves toward the laser entrance hole (LEH) is measured using side-on x-ray imaging, characterizing the plasma flow of the ablating capsule. Data show that the measured dot location is farther away from the LEH in comparison to the radiation-hydrodynamics simulation prediction using HYDRA [Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2070 (1996)]. To account for this discrepancy, the predicted simulation Te is evaluated at the measured dot trajectory. The peak Te, measured to be 4.2 keV ± 0.2 keV, is ˜0.5 keV hotter than the simulation prediction.

  9. Mathematical modelling of leprosy and its control.

    PubMed

    Blok, David J; de Vlas, Sake J; Fischer, Egil A J; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    Leprosy or Hansen's disease is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. The annual number of new leprosy cases registered worldwide has remained stable over the past years at over 200,000. Early case finding and multidrug therapy have not been able interrupt transmission completely. Elimination requires innovation in control and sustained commitment. Mathematical models can be used to predict the course of leprosy incidence and the effect of intervention strategies. Two compartmental models and one individual-based model have been described in the literature. Both compartmental models investigate the course of leprosy in populations and the long-term impact of control strategies. The individual-based model focusses on transmission within households and the impact of case finding among contacts of new leprosy patients. Major improvement of these models should result from a better understanding of individual differences in exposure to infection and developing leprosy after exposure. Most relevant are contact heterogeneity, heterogeneity in susceptibility and spatial heterogeneity. Furthermore, the existing models have only been applied to a limited number of countries. Parameterization of the models for other areas, in particular those with high incidence, is essential to support current initiatives for the global elimination of leprosy. Many challenges remain in understanding and dealing with leprosy. The support of mathematical models for understanding leprosy epidemiology and supporting policy decision making remains vital. PMID:25765193

  10. Changes in the vertical temperature structure associated with carbonaceous aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Penner, J E; Chuang, C C; Santer, B D; Taylor, K

    2002-02-08

    Carbonaceous aerosols from anthropogenic activities act to both scatter and absorb solar radiation. It has been postulated that absorption by aerosols might significantly alter both the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere and cloud fraction [Hansen et al. 1997, Ackerman et al, 2000]. Since both effects may alter the assessment of climate change associated with human activities, it is very important to understand both the magnitude and the mechanism by which carbonaceous aerosols affect climate. In this paper, we used a coupled climate and chemistry transport model to estimate the effects of carbonaceous aerosols on the vertical temperature structure and their effects on cloud fraction. A series Of control simulations were also carried out to compare the results of the model in which carbonaceous aerosols interact with climate with those in which they do not. We will present the temperature difference between simulations that include the effect of black carbon on the radiation field and those that do not, both at the surface and in the free troposphere. We will also discuss the change of temperature lapse rate and changes of cloud fraction associated with black carbon.

  11. On the GIBBS thermodynamic potential of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, Rainer; Hagen, Eberhard

    Free Enthalpy, the GIBBS thermodynamic potential G(S,t,p) of seawater, has been recomputed including the sound speed equation of DEL GROSSO (1974), temperatures of maximum density (TMD) of CALDWELL (1978), freezing point depression measurements of DOHERTY and KESTER (1974), rederived limiting laws and ice properties, and an extended set of dilution heat data of BROMLEY (1968) and MILLERO, HANSEN and HOFF (1973). As a new reference state, the standard ocean state has been chosen. The resulting average deviations are 0.0006 kg m -3 for pure water density at 1 atm, 0.002 kg m -3 for seawater density at 1 atm, 0.02 m/s for sound speed, 0.01 J kgK -1 for heat capacity at 1 atm, 0.4 kJ kg -1 for dilution heats, 0.002°C for freezing points, and 0.04°C for TMDs. Resulting pressure-dependent freezing points are in good agreement with experiments and UNESCO (1978) formulas. Enthalpy as thermodynamic potential has been explicitly determined for easy computation of potential temperature, potential density, and sound speed. All functions are expressed in the new International Temperature Scale ITS-90.

  12. Two new species of the genus Anisomysis (Anisomysis) (Crustacea, Mysida, Mysidae) from coral reef waters in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Moriya, Mitsuyasu; Srinui, Khwanruan; Sawamoto, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Anisomysis Hansen, 1910 (Mysida, Mysidae), Anisomysis (Anisomysis) spinaintus sp. n. and Anisomysis (Anisomysis) phuketensis sp. n., from coral-reef waters in Thailand are described. Anisomysis (Anisomysis) spinaintus, collected in the Chaolao Beach, Chanthaburi Province, is distinguished from the closely allied species Anisomysis (Anisomysis) incisa Tattersall, 1936, and Anisomysis (Anisomysis) hawaiiensis Murano, 1995, by the presence of 6–9 spines on the apical cleft of telson, which are absent in the latter two allied species. The new species can also be distinguished from Anisomysis (Anisomysis) aikawai Ii, 1964, by the presence of a deep telson cleft and a large number of spines on the lateral margin of telson. Anisomysis (Anisomysis) phuketensis sp. n., collected in Ko Lon, Phuket, is distinguished from the allied species Anisomysis (Anisomysis) robustispina Panampunnayil, 1984, by having a short telson and a pair of long spines on the apical part of the telson. Keys to the subgenera and species of Anisomysis, including the two new species, are presented. PMID:26487820

  13. Double differential cross sections for proton induced electron emission from molecular analogues of DNA constituents for energies in the Bragg peak region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, Benedikt; Bennett, Daniel; Bug, Marion U.; Wang, Mingjie; Baek, Woon Yong; Buhr, Ticia; Hilgers, Gerhard; Champion, Christophe; Rabus, Hans

    2016-09-01

    For track structure simulations in the Bragg peak region, measured electron emission cross sections of DNA constituents are required as input for developing parameterized model functions representing the scattering probabilities. In the present work, double differential cross sections were measured for the electron emission from vapor-phase pyrimidine, tetrahydrofuran, and trimethyl phosphate that are structural analogues to the base, the sugar, and the phosphate residue of the DNA, respectively. The range of proton energies was from 75 keV to 135 keV, the angles ranged from 15° to 135°, and the electron energies were measured from 10 eV to 200 eV. Single differential and total electron emission cross sections are derived by integration over angle and electron energy and compared to the semi-empirical Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht (HKS) model and a quantum mechanical calculation employing the first Born approximation with corrected boundary conditions (CB1). The CB1 provides the best prediction of double and single differential cross section, while total cross sections can be fitted with semi-empirical models. The cross sections of the three samples are proportional to their total number of valence electrons.

  14. Integrative literature review of the reported uses of serological tests in leprosy management.

    PubMed

    Fabri, Angélica da Conceição Oliveira Coelho; Carvalho, Ana Paula Mendes; Vieira, Nayara Figueiredo; Bueno, Isabela de Caux; Rodrigues, Rayssa Nogueira; Monteiro, Thayenne Barrozo Mota; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Duthie, Malcolm S; Lana, Francisco Carlos Félix

    2016-04-01

    An integrative literature review was conducted to synthesize available publications regarding the potential use of serological tests in leprosy programs. We searched the databases Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Índice Bibliográfico Espanhol em Ciências da Saúde, Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Hanseníase, National Library of Medicine, Scopus, Ovid, Cinahl, and Web of Science for articles investigating the use of serological tests for antibodies against phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I), ML0405, ML2331, leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (LID-1), and natural disaccharide octyl-leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (NDO-LID). From an initial pool of 3.514 articles, 40 full-length articles fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Based on these papers, we concluded that these antibodies can be used to assist in diagnosing leprosy, detecting neuritis, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and monitoring household contacts or at-risk populations in leprosy-endemic areas. Thus, available data suggest that serological tests could contribute substantially to leprosy management.

  15. Aprotic solvents effect on the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Usman, Thamrin; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2014-10-01

    We describe here the effects of aprotic solvents on the spectroscopic characteristics of bixin. Bixin was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, dimethyl carbonate, cyclohexane and hexane, separately, and its spectra in the resulting solutions were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at normal pressure and room temperature. We analyzed the effect of aprotic solvents on λmax according to Onsager cavity model and Hansen theory, and determined the approximate absorption coefficient with the Beer-Lambert law. We found that the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin were found to be solvent dependent. The S0 → S2 transition energy of bixin in solution was dependent principally on the refractive index of the solvents and the bixin-solvent dispersion interaction. There was a small influence of the solvents dielectric constant, permanent dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding occurred between bixin and solvents. The absorbance of bixin in various solvents, with the exception of hexane, increased linearly with concentration.

  16. Aprotic solvents effect on the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin.

    PubMed

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Usman, Thamrin; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2014-10-15

    We describe here the effects of aprotic solvents on the spectroscopic characteristics of bixin. Bixin was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, dimethyl carbonate, cyclohexane and hexane, separately, and its spectra in the resulting solutions were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at normal pressure and room temperature. We analyzed the effect of aprotic solvents on λmax according to Onsager cavity model and Hansen theory, and determined the approximate absorption coefficient with the Beer-Lambert law. We found that the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin were found to be solvent dependent. The S0→S2 transition energy of bixin in solution was dependent principally on the refractive index of the solvents and the bixin-solvent dispersion interaction. There was a small influence of the solvents dielectric constant, permanent dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding occurred between bixin and solvents. The absorbance of bixin in various solvents, with the exception of hexane, increased linearly with concentration. PMID:24840486

  17. Structure and dynamics of monolayer films of squalane molecules adsorbed on a solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D. T Enevoldsen, A.; Hansen, F. Y.; Diama, A.; Taub, H.

    2003-03-01

    Squalane is a branched alkane (C_30H_62). It consists of a straight chain with 24 carbon atoms, as in tetracosane (C_24H_50), and has six methyl side groups. Branched polymers such as squalane are thought to be better lubricants than n-alkanes. At low temperature, our molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the molecules form an ordered monolayer which melts at approximately 325 K compared to the tetracosane monolayer melting point of ˜ 340 K. Our MD simulations indicate the same melting mechanism in the squalane monolayer that was found previously for tetracosane (F. Y. Hansen and H. Taub, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 652 (1992).) They also show that the adsorbed molecules are distorted from an all-trans carbon backbone in contrast to what was found for tetracosane. This may explain why the Bragg diffraction peaks were observed to be broader for the squalane monolayer than for tetracosane (D. Fuhrmann, A. P. Graham, L. Criswell, H. Mo, B. Matthies, K. W. Herwig, and H. Taub, Surf. Sci. 482-485, 77 (2001).). The diffusive motion in a squalane monolayer has been investigated by both quasielastic neutron scattering and MD simulations and compared to the dynamics in tetracosane monolayers. Focus will be on differences in the dynamics.

  18. Inferences of Ice Processes From Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, R. B.; Wilen, L. A.; Spencer, M. K.; Hansen, D. P.; Fitzpatrick, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    Barclay Kamb's pioneering work on the physics and mineralogy of laboratory and natural ices has guided glaciological research spanning 40 years. Much of that research required extremely tedious use of optical universal stages to study thin sections of ice. Recent advances in digital systems have revolutionized data collection and offer great opportunities to use ice properties to infer processes that operate too slowly for proper laboratory investigation, leading toward a greatly improved understanding of the history of ice and its softness for further deformation (Wilen, 1999; Hansen and Wilen, in review; Wilen et al., this meeting). Patterns of nearest-neighbor c-axis orientations reveal the influence of nucleation-and-growth recrystallization (typically indicative of steady-state deformation) or polygonization. Combining these results with correlations between grain sizes and dust and chemical loadings reveals impurity effects on active processes. The relations between mean grain size and c-axis-fabric strength may show the importance of grain-boundary processes in deformation. Bubble sizes reveal climate conditions during firnification, and bubble shapes can provide information on in situ strain rates. These and many other possibilities should enhance our understanding of ice flow and of the paleoclimatic records archived in ice.

  19. The armadillo as a model for peripheral neuropathy in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Truman, Richard W; Ebenezer, Gigi J; Pena, Maria T; Sharma, Rahul; Balamayooran, Gayathriy; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Scollard, David M; McArthur, Justin C; Rambukkana, Anura

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy (also known as Hansen's Disease) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that primarily targets the peripheral nervous system; skin, muscle, and other tissues are also affected. Other than humans, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are the only natural hosts of M. leprae, and they are the only laboratory animals that develop extensive neurological involvement with this bacterium. Infection in the armadillo closely recapitulates many of the structural, physiological, and functional aspects of leprosy seen in humans. Armadillos can be useful models of leprosy for basic scientific investigations into the pathogenesis of leprosy neuropathy and its associated myopathies, as well as for translational research studies in piloting new diagnostic methods or therapeutic interventions. Practical and ethical constraints often limit investigation into human neuropathies, but armadillos are an abundant source of leprotic neurologic fibers. Studies with these animals may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in leprosy that also might benefit the understanding of other demyelinating neuropathies. Although there is only a limited supply of armadillo-specific reagents, the armadillo whole genomic sequence has been completed, and gene expression studies can be employed. Clinical procedures, such as electrophysiological nerve conduction testing, provide a functional assessment of armadillo nerves. A variety of standard histopathological and immunopathological procedures including Epidermal Nerve Fiber Density (ENFD) analysis, Schwann Cell Density, and analysis for other conserved cellular markers can be used effectively with armadillos and will be briefly reviewed in this text. PMID:24615444

  20. The armadillo: a model for the neuropathy of leprosy and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Lahiri, Ramanuj; Scollard, David M; Pena, Maria; Williams, Diana L; Adams, Linda B; Figarola, John; Truman, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy (also known as Hansen's disease) is an infectious peripheral neurological disorder caused by Mycobacterium leprae that even today leaves millions of individuals worldwide with life-long disabilities. The specific mechanisms by which this bacterium induces nerve injury remain largely unknown, mainly owing to ethical and practical limitations in obtaining affected human nerve samples. In addition to humans, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are the only other natural host of M. leprae, and they develop a systemically disseminated disease with extensive neurological involvement. M. leprae is an obligate intracellular parasite that cannot be cultivated in vitro. Because of the heavy burdens of bacilli they harbor, nine-banded armadillos have become the organism of choice for propagating large quantities of M. leprae, and they are now advancing as models of leprosy pathogenesis and nerve damage. Although armadillos are exotic laboratory animals, the recently completed whole genome sequence for this animal is enabling researchers to undertake more sophisticated molecular studies and to develop armadillo-specific reagents. These advances will facilitate the use of armadillos in piloting new therapies and diagnostic regimens, and will provide new insights into the oldest known infectious neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:23223615

  1. PATTERNS OF MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION IN WILD NINE-BANDED ARMADILLOS (DASYPUS NOVEMCINCTUS) IN MISSISSIPPI, USA.

    PubMed

    Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Loughry, W J; Anderson, Corey Devin; Oli, Madan K

    2016-07-01

    The nine-banded armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus ) is the only known nonhuman reservoir of Mycobacterium leprae , the causative agent of Hansen's disease or leprosy. We conducted a 6-yr study on a wild population of armadillos in western Mississippi that was exposed to M. leprae to evaluate the importance of demographic and spatial risk factors on individual antibody status. We found that spatially derived covariates were not predictive of antibody status. Furthermore, analyses revealed no evidence of clustering by antibody-positive individuals. Lactating females and adult males had higher odds of being antibody positive than did nonlactating females. No juveniles or yearlings were antibody positive. Results of these analyses support the hypothesis that M. leprae infection patterns are spatially homogeneous within this armadillo population. Further research related to movement patterns, contact among individuals, antibody status, and environmental factors could help address hypotheses related to the role of environmental transmission on M. leprae infection and the mechanisms underlying the differential infection patterns among demographic groups.

  2. Aspherical-atom modeling of coordination compounds by single-crystal X-ray diffraction allows the correct metal atom to be identified.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Birger; Wandtke, Claudia M; Meents, Alke; Pröpper, Kevin; Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Samuel, Prinson P; Amin Sk, Nurul; Singh, Amit Pratap; Roesky, Herbert W; Sidhu, Navdeep

    2015-02-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) is often considered the gold standard in analytical chemistry, as it allows element identification as well as determination of atom connectivity and the solid-state structure of completely unknown samples. Element assignment is based on the number of electrons of an atom, so that a distinction of neighboring heavier elements in the periodic table by XRD is often difficult. A computationally efficient procedure for aspherical-atom least-squares refinement of conventional diffraction data of organometallic compounds is proposed. The iterative procedure is conceptually similar to Hirshfeld-atom refinement (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A- 2008, 64, 383-393; IUCrJ. 2014, 1,61-79), but it relies on tabulated invariom scattering factors (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B- 2013, 69, 91-104) and the Hansen/Coppens multipole model; disordered structures can be handled as well. Five linear-coordinate 3d metal complexes, for which the wrong element is found if standard independent-atom model scattering factors are relied upon, are studied, and it is shown that only aspherical-atom scattering factors allow a reliable assignment. The influence of anomalous dispersion in identifying the correct element is investigated and discussed. PMID:25393218

  3. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: An update.

    PubMed

    Munde, Anita; Karle, Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a rare form of oral leukoplakia, which was first described in 1985 by Hansen et al. Since then, various published case series have presented PVL as a disease with aggressive biological behavior due to its high probability of recurrence and a high rate of malignant transformation, usually higher than 70%. PVL is a long-term progressive condition, which is observed more frequently in elderly women, over 60 years at the time of diagnosis. The buccal mucosa and tongue are the most frequently involved sites. It develops initially as a white plaque of hyperkeratosis that eventually becomes a multifocal disease with confluent, exophytic and proliferative features with a progressive deterioration of the lesions, making it more and more difficult to control. Tobacco use does not seem to have a significant influence on the appearance or progression of PVL and may occur both in smokers and nonsmokers. Prognosis is poor for this seemingly harmless-appearing white lesion of the oral mucosa. At present, the etiology of PVL remains unclear as well as its management and diagnosis, which is still retrospective, late and poorly defined, lacking consensus criteria. This short review discusses the clinical and histopathological features, diagnosis, traditional treatment and the current management of the disease. PMID:27461595

  4. Tensorial density functional theory for non-spherical hard-body fluids.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Mecke, Klaus

    2010-09-15

    In a recent publication (Hansen-Goos and Mecke 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 018302) we constructed a free energy functional for the inhomogeneous hard-body fluid, which reduces to Rosenfeld's fundamental measure theory (Rosenfeld 1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 63 980) when applied to hard spheres. The new functional is able to yield the isotropic-nematic transition for the hard-spherocylinder fluid in contrast to Rosenfeld's fundamental measure theory for non-spherical particles (Rosenfeld 1994 Phys. Rev. E 50 R3318). The description of inhomogeneous isotropic fluids is also improved when compared with data from Monte Carlo simulations for hard spherocylinders in contact with a planar hard wall. However, the new functional for the inhomogeneous fluid in general does not comply with the exact second order virial expansion. We introduced the ζ correction in order to minimize the deviation from Onsager's exact result in the isotropic bulk fluid. In this article we give a detailed account of the construction of the new functional. An extension of the ζ correction makes the latter better suited for non-isotropic particle distributions. The extended ζ correction is shown to improve the description of the isotropic-nematic bulk phase diagram while it has little effect on the results for the isotropic but inhomogeneous hard-spherocylinder fluid. We argue that the gain from using higher order tensorial weighted densities in the theory is likely to be inferior to the associated increase in complexity. PMID:21386523

  5. Fundamental measure density functional theory for hard spherocylinders in static and time-dependent aligning fields.

    PubMed

    Härtel, A; Löwen, H

    2010-03-17

    The recently developed fundamental measure density functional theory (Hansen-Goos and Mecke 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 018302) for an inhomogeneous anisotropic hard body fluid is used as a basic ingredient in treating the Brownian dynamics of hard spherocylinders. After discussing the relevance of a free parameter in the fundamental measure density functional for the isotropic-nematic transition in equilibrium, we discuss the equilibrium phase behaviour of hard spherocylinders in a static external potential which couples only to the orientations. For external potentials favouring rod orientations along the poles of the unit sphere, there is a well-known paranematic-nematic transition which ceases to exist above a threshold of the strength V(0) of the external potential. However, when orientations along the equator are more favoured, in the plane of the potential energy V(0) and density, there is a phase transition from paranematic to nematic for any strength, which becomes second order above a critical threshold of V(0). The full equilibrium phase diagram in the V(0)-density plane is computed for a fixed rod aspect ratio of 5. For the equatorial cases, strength V(0) is then oscillating in time and dynamical density functional theory is used to compute the evolution of the orientational distribution. A subtle resonance for increasing oscillation frequencies is detected if the oscillating V(0) crosses the paranematic-nematic phase transition. PMID:21389446

  6. Functional Comparison of Immediate and Late Weight Bearing after Ankle Bimalleolar Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ağır, İsmail; Tunçer, Nejat; Küçükdurmaz, Fatih; Gümüstaş, Seyitali; Akgül, Esra Demirel; Akpinar, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Aim : The aim of the study is to compare immediate weight bearing with below-knee cast or immobilization with plaster splint in 6 weeks in patients after operative treatment for ankle bimalleolar fractures. Methods : Fifty-three patients with ankle bimalleolar fractures were treated operatively in 2005 to 2010 and then were randomly allocated to two groups. Immediately weight bearing in a below-knee cast (26 patients) and immobilization in a plaster splint for the first six postoperative weeks (27 patients). A mean age 37.9 (min 17; max 72). An average follow-up 26.1 months. (min 14; max 55). All fractures were classified with Lauge-Hansen classification. Functional results of both groups were evaluated with AOFAS for the postoperative one year after surgical treatment. Results : According to the AOFAS scoring system, results were excellent and good in 17 patients in group 1. On the other hand, results were excellent and good in 14 patients in group 2. Conclusion : As a result we think that weight bearing protocol should be advantaged for patients with ankle bimalleolar fractures after surgical treatment immediately. PMID:26069513

  7. Clinical roundtable monograph: a multidisciplinary approach to the use of oncotype DX in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gradishar, William J; Hansen, Nora M; Susnik, Barbara

    2009-04-01

    Recently, recommendations for the use of the Oncotype DX assay in estrogen receptor-positive node-negative breast cancer patients were incorporated into guidelines from both the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. The Oncotype DX assay is a diagnostic test which measures changes in a set of 21 genes in order to predict the likelihood of disease recurrence and also to predict which patients are most likely to respond to chemotherapy. Oncotype DX has been available commercially since January 2004 and has been used for more than 85,000 patients. Drs. William J. Gradishar, Nora M. Hansen, and Barbara Susnik answered questions regarding the incorporation of the Oncotype DX breast cancer assay into routine clinical practice. This expert dialog offers an update and clinical insights into when, how, and why clinicians might incorporate the Oncotype DX assay into the management of their breast cancer patients. Also, the latest research into the benefit of the Oncotype DX assay in node-positive patients is discussed. Finally, sample case studies offer clinically relevant examples of the practical application of the Oncotype DX assay.

  8. KENO-V code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P/sub 1/ scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes.

  9. Landsat-derived cropland mask for Tanzania using 2010-2013 time series and decision tree classifier methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    80% of Tanzania's population is involved in the agriculture sector. Despite this national dependence, agricultural reporting is minimal and monitoring efforts are in their infancy. The cropland mask developed through this study provides the framework for agricultural monitoring through informing analysis of crop conditions, dispersion, and intensity at a national scale. Tanzania is dominated by smallholder agricultural systems with an average field size of less than one hectare (Sarris et al, 2006). At this field scale, previous classifications of agricultural land in Tanzania using MODIS course resolution data are insufficient to inform a working monitoring system. The nation-wide cropland mask in this study was developed using composited Landsat tiles from a 2010-2013 time series. Decision tree classifiers methods were used in the study with representative training areas collected for agriculture and no agriculture using appropriate indices to separate these classes (Hansen et al, 2013). Validation was done using random sample and high resolution satellite images to compare Agriculture and No agriculture samples from the study area. The techniques used in this study were successful and have the potential to be adapted for other countries, allowing targeted monitoring efforts to improve food security, market price, and inform agricultural policy.

  10. Towards uniformly dispersed battery electrode composite materials: Characteristics and performance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yo Han Kwon; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Huie, Matthew M.; Choi, Dalsu; Chang, Mincheol; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2016-01-14

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches formore » improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. In conclusion, the study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials.« less

  11. PATTERNS OF MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION IN WILD NINE-BANDED ARMADILLOS (DASYPUS NOVEMCINCTUS) IN MISSISSIPPI, USA.

    PubMed

    Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Loughry, W J; Anderson, Corey Devin; Oli, Madan K

    2016-07-01

    The nine-banded armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus ) is the only known nonhuman reservoir of Mycobacterium leprae , the causative agent of Hansen's disease or leprosy. We conducted a 6-yr study on a wild population of armadillos in western Mississippi that was exposed to M. leprae to evaluate the importance of demographic and spatial risk factors on individual antibody status. We found that spatially derived covariates were not predictive of antibody status. Furthermore, analyses revealed no evidence of clustering by antibody-positive individuals. Lactating females and adult males had higher odds of being antibody positive than did nonlactating females. No juveniles or yearlings were antibody positive. Results of these analyses support the hypothesis that M. leprae infection patterns are spatially homogeneous within this armadillo population. Further research related to movement patterns, contact among individuals, antibody status, and environmental factors could help address hypotheses related to the role of environmental transmission on M. leprae infection and the mechanisms underlying the differential infection patterns among demographic groups. PMID:27195687

  12. High-resolution modelling of health impacts from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Silver, Jeremy D.

    2014-05-01

    we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different scales; the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model to calculate the air pollution levels with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the Urban Background Model to further calculate the air pollution at 1 km x 1 km resolution using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. Previous health impact assessments related to air pollution have been made on a lower resolution. In this study, the integrated model system, EVA, has been used to estimate the health impacts and related external cost for Denmark over a 20 year period (1990-2010) at a 1 km x 1 km resolution. Furthermore, a sensitivity study of the health impact using coarse and fine resolutions in the model system has been carried out to evaluate the effect of improved description of the geographical population distribution with respect to location of local emissions. Brandt, J., J. D. Silver, J. H. Christensen, M. S. Andersen, J. Bønløkke, T. Sigsgaard, C. Geels, A. Gross, A. B. Hansen, K. M. Hansen, G. B. Hedegaard, E. Kaas and L. M. Frohn, 2013. Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe to the Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution using the EVA Model System - an integrated modelling approach. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, pp. 7725-7746, 2013. Brandt, J., J. D. Silver, J. H. Christensen, M. S. Andersen, J. Bønløkke, T. Sigsgaard, C. Geels, A. Gross, A. B. Hansen, K. M. Hansen, G. B. Hedegaard, E. Kaas and L. M. Frohn, 2013. Assessment of Past, Present and Future Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA Model System. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Vol. 13, pp. 7747-7764, 2013.

  13. [Perceptions regarding leprosy and resulting handicaps prior to diagnosis in Recife, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Feliciano, K V; Kovacs, M H; Sevilla, E; Alzate, A

    1998-05-01

    This article reports on a case-control study conducted in Recife, Brazil, between November 1993 and July 1994, to determine how leprosy patients' perceptions and notions influence disease management and use of health services. The sample was composed of 183 residents of Recife between the ages of 20 and 70 years who sought diagnostic services in the dermatology clinics of two referral centers situated in the third, fourth, and sixth political and administrative regions. Sixty-four patients having handicaps or their precursor lesions were classified as cases; the remaining 119 were used as controls. All were diagnosed during the study period. For the analysis, adjustments were made for sex, age, schooling, and a previous history of Hansen's disease among patients. The study revealed the simultaneous presence of two types of "invisibility" of the disease in an area where endemicity is increasing: 1) for patients in both groups, the low frequency of spontaneous explanatory models related to the illness, even in the presence of disease, and 2) for health professionals, the limitations of detection methods. Since such deficiencies affect decisions bearing on individual and collective disease management, they are a risk factor in and of themselves and stand in the way of eliminating leprosy as a public health problem.

  14. Is rapid growth in Internet usage environmentally sustainable for Australia? An empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Alam, Khorshed; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-03-01

    This study estimates the short- and long-run effects of Internet usage and economic growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using annual time series macro data for Australia for the period 1985-2012. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bounds and Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration tests are applied. ARDL estimates indicate no significant long-run relationship between Internet usage and CO2 emissions, which implies that the rapid growth in Internet usage is still not an environmental threat for Australia. The study further indicates that higher level of economic growth is associated with lower level of CO2 emissions; however, Internet usage and economic growth have no significant short-run relationship with CO2 emissions. Financial development has both short-run and long-run significant positive association with CO2 emissions. The findings offer support in favor of energy efficiency gains and a reduction in energy intensity in Australia. However, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that Internet usage, economic growth and financial development will continue to impact CO2 emissions in the future, and as such, this study recommends that in addition to the existing measures to combat CO2 emissions, Australia needs to exploit the potential of the Internet not only to reduce its own carbon footprint but also to utilize information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled emissions abatement potential to reduce emissions in various other sectors across the economy, such as, power, renewable energy especially in solar and wind energy, agriculture, transport and service.

  15. The Copenhagen City Heart Study (Østerbroundersøgelsen)

    PubMed Central

    Aguib, Yasmine; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2015-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study, also known as “Østerbroundersøgelsen”, is a large prospective cardio-vascular population study of 20,000 women and men that was launched in 1975 by Dr Peter Schnohr and Dr Gorm Jensen together with statistician Jørgen Nyboe and Prof. A. Tybjærg Hansen. The original purpose of the study was to focus on prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. During the years many other aspects have been added to the study: pulmonary diseases, heart failure, arrhythmia, alcohol, arthrosis, eye diseases, allergy, epilepsia, dementia, stress, vital exhaustion, social network, sleep-apnoe, ageing and genetics. In this review we highlight unique aspects of the Copenhagen City Heat Study (CCHS) and its outcome in investigations of clinical and molecular aspects of health and disease in the regional and global population. To increase the impact of population studies with a focus on risk and prevention of cardiovascular and related diseases and to maximize the likelihood of identifying disease causes and effective therapeutics, lessons learned from past research should be applied to the design, implementation and interpretation of future studies. PMID:26779513

  16. Discrimination And Biophysical Characterization Of Brazilian Cerrado Physiognomies With Eo-1 Hyperspectral Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Tomoaki; Huete, Alfredo R.; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Sano, Edson E.

    2004-01-01

    The savanna, typically found in the sub-tropics and seasonal tropics, are the dominant vegetation biome type in the southern hemisphere, covering approximately 45% of the South America. In Brazil, the savanna, locally known as "cerrado," is the most intensely stressed biome with both natural environmental pressures (e.g., the strong seasonality in weather, extreme soil nutrient impoverishment, and widespread fire occurrences) and rapid/aggressive land conversions (Skole et al., 1994; Ratter et al., 1997). Better characterization and discrimination of cerrado physiognomies are needed in order to improve understanding of cerrado dynamics and its impact on carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Brazilian cerrado biome. Satellite remote sensing have been known to be a useful tool for land cover and land use mapping (Rougharden et al., 1991; Hansen et al., 2000). However, attempts to discriminate and classify Brazilian cerrado using multi-spectral sensors (e.g., Landsat TM) and/or moderate resolution sensors (e.g., NOAA AVHRR NDVI) have often resulted in a limited success due partly to small contrasts depicted in their multiband, spectral reflectance or vegetation index values among cerrado classes (Seyler et al., 2002; Fran a and Setzer, 1998). In this study, we aimed to improve discrimination as well as biophysical characterization of the Brazilian cerrado physiognomies with hyperspectral remote sensing. We used Hyperion, the first satellite-based hyperspectral imager, onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) platform.

  17. The Microwave Spectroscopy of Aminoacetonitrile in the Vibrational Excited States 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Chiho; Higurashi, Haruka; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kaori

    2016-06-01

    Aminoacetonitrile (NH_2CH_2CN) is a potential precursor of the simplest amino acid, glycine in the interstellar space and was detected toward SgrB2(N). We have extended measurements up to 1.3 THz so that the strongest transitions that may be found in the terahertz region should be covered. Aminoacetonitrile has a few low-lying vibrational excited states and indeed the pure rotational transitions in these vibrational excited states were found. The pure rotational transitions in six vibrational excited states in the 80-180 GHz range have been assigned and centrifugal distortion constants up to the sextic terms were determined. Based on spectral intensities and the vibrational information from Bak et al., They were assigned to the 3 low-lying fundamentals, 1 overtone and 2 combination bands. In the submillimeter wavelength region, perturbations were recognized and some of the lines were off by more than a few MHz. At this moment, these perturbed transitions are not included in our analysis. A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, H. S. P. Müller, P. Schilke, J. Ott, S. Thorwirth, and C. Hieret, 2008, Astronom. & Astrophys. 482, 179 (2008). Y. Motoki, Y. Tsunoda, H. Ozeki, and K. Kobayashi, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 209, 23 (2013). B. Bak, E. L. Hansen, F. M. Nicolaisen, and O. F. Nielsen, Can. J. Phys. 53, 2183 (1975) C. Fujita, H. Ozeki, and K. Kobayashi, 70th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (2015), MH14.

  18. Evidence for capillarity contributions to gecko adhesion from single spatula nanomechanical measurements.

    PubMed

    Huber, Gerrit; Mantz, Hubert; Spolenak, Ralph; Mecke, Klaus; Jacobs, Karin; Gorb, Stanislav N; Arzt, Eduard

    2005-11-01

    The hairy attachment system on a gecko's toes, consisting of one billion spatulae in the case of Gekko gecko [Ruibal, R. & Ernst, V. (1965) J. Morphol. 117, 271-294], allows it to adhere to nearly all surface topographies. The mechanistic basis for gecko adhesion has been intensely investigated, but the lowest hierarchical level, that of the spatula, has become experimentally accessible only recently. This report details measurements of the adhesion force exerted by a single gecko spatula for various atmospheric conditions and surface chemistries. Through judicious choice and modification of substrates, the short- and long-range adhesive forces are separated. In contrast to previous work [Autumn, K., Sitti, M., Liang, Y. C. A., Peattie, A. M., Hansen, W. R., Sponberg, S., Kenny, T. W., Fearing, R., Israelachvili, J. N. & Full, R. J. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 12252-12256], our measurements clearly show that humidity contributes significantly to gecko adhesion on a nanoscopic level. These findings are crucial for the development of artificial biomimetic attachment systems.

  19. Managed care, deficit financing, and aggregate health care expenditure in the United States: a cointegration analysis.

    PubMed

    Murthy, N R; Okunade, A A

    2000-09-01

    We applied a battery of cointegration tests comprising those of Johansen and Juselius [19], Phillips and Hansen [35], and Engle and Granger [6], to model aggregate health care expenditure using 1960-96 US data. The existence of a stable long-run economic relationship or cointegration is confirmed, in the United States, between aggregate health care expenditure and real GDP, population age distribution, managed care enrollment, number of practicing physicians, and government deficits. The evidence of cointegration among these variables, chosen on the theoretical basis of prior studies, implies that while they are individually non-stationary in levels, together they are highly correlated and move, in the long run to form an economic equilibrium relationship of US aggregate health care expenditure. More specifically, and for the first time in this line of inquiry, (i) managed care enrollment is found to be negatively associated with the level of health care spending, (ii) supply disinduced demand effects of physicians tend to moderate health expenditure, and (iii) government deficit financing is positively related to health care spending. The observed sign and magnitude of the income coefficient are consistent with health care being a luxury good.

  20. Structural and electron charge density studies of a nonlinear optical compound 4,4 di-methyl amino cyano biphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naima, Boubegra; Abdelkader, Chouaih; Mokhtaria, Drissi; Fodil, Hamzaoui

    2014-01-01

    The 4,4 dimethyl amino cyano biphenyl crystal (DMACB) is characterized by its nonlinear activity. The intra molecular charge transfer of this molecule results mainly from the electronic transmission of the electro-acceptor (cyano) and electro-donor (di-methyl-amino) groups. An accurate electron density distribution around the molecule has been calculated based on a high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. The data were collected at 123 K using graphite-monochromated Mo K α radiation to sin(β)/λ = 1.24 Å-1. The integrated intensities of 13796 reflections were measured and reduced to 6501 independent reflections with I >= 3σ(I). The crystal structure was refined using the experimental model of Hansen and Coppens (1978). The crystal structure has been validated and deposited at the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre with the deposition number CCDC 876507. In this article, we present the thermal motion and the structural analysis obtained from the least-square refinement based on F2 and the electron density distribution obtained from the multipolar model.

  1. Stable foraging areas and variable chick diet in Cassin's auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) off southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Carter, H.R.

    2004-01-01

    Planktivorous seabirds readily respond to changes in marine ecosystems and have the ability to integrate information regarding variability in abundance, availability, and community composition of key prey resources. We studied the foraging and breeding ecology of the Cassin's auklet, Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pallas, 1811), off southern California during three breeding seasons (1999-2001), when large intra- and inter-annual variability occurred in local oceanographic conditions during a prolonged La Nina event. Radio-marked parents used consistent core foraging areas within 30 km of their colony, aggregated in shelf waters (<200 m depth), and occasionally foraged in deeper waters. Parents delivered primarily euphausiids, pelagic larval-juvenile fishes, and minor amounts of cephalopods and other crustaceans. Whereas the euphausiid Thysanoessa spinifera Holmes, 1900 was most important during 1999 and 2001, Euphausia pacifica Hansen, 1911 replaced adult T. spinifera in 2000 after an anomalous eastward inflection of the California Current occurred near the auklets' foraging area. Differences in chick diets, however, did not significantly influence fledging success and growth among first chicks, but the proportion of pairs successfully fledging an alpha chick and initiating a second clutch was exceptional in 1999 (63%) and 2000 (75%), and less in 2001 (7%). We suggest that dietary composition was influenced by modified prey availability driven in part by fluctuations in regional upwelling and circulation. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  2. Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Topical Report [SEC 1 THRU 3

    SciTech Connect

    LORENZ, B.D.

    2000-05-11

    In February 1995, the US Department of Energy (DOE) approved the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project's ''Path Forward'' recommendation for resolution of the safety and environmental concerns associated with the deteriorating SNF stored in the Hanford Site's K Basins (Hansen 1995). The recommendation included an aggressive series of projects to design, construct, and operate systems and facilitates to permit the safe retrieval, packaging, transport, conditions, and interim storage of the K Basins' SNF. The facilities are the Cold VAcuum Drying Facility (CVDF) in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site and the Canister Storage building (CSB) in the 200 East Area. The K Basins' SNF is to be cleaned, repackaged in multi-canister overpacks (MCOs), removed from the K Basins, and transported to the CVDF for initial drying. The MCOs would then be moved to the CSB and weld sealed (Loscoe 1996) for interim storage (about 40 years). One of the major tasks associated with the initial Path Forward activities is the development and maintenance of the safety documentation. In addition to meeting the construction needs for new structures, the safety documentation for each must be generated.

  3. Freezing lines of colloidal Yukawa spheres. II. Local structure and characteristic lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Gapinski, Jacek Patkowski, Adam; Nägele, Gerhard

    2014-09-28

    Using the Rogers-Young (RY) integral equation scheme for the static pair correlation functions combined with the liquid-phase Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, we study the generic behavior of the radial distribution function and static structure factor of monodisperse charge-stabilized suspensions with Yukawa-type repulsive particle interactions at freezing. In a related article, labeled Paper I [J. Gapinski, G. Nägele, and A. Patkowski, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024507 (2012)], this hybrid method was used to determine two-parameter freezing lines for experimentally controllable parameters, characteristic of suspensions of charged silica spheres in dimethylformamide. A universal scaling of the RY radial distribution function maximum is shown to apply to the liquid-bcc and liquid-fcc segments of the universal freezing line. A thorough analysis is made of the behavior of characteristic distances and wavenumbers, next-neighbor particle coordination numbers, osmotic compressibility factor, and the Ravaché-Mountain-Streett minimum-maximum radial distribution function ratio.

  4. Resist Materials for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography: Toward Low-Cost Single-Digit-Nanometer Patterning.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Paul D; Olynick, Deirdre L; Ogletree, D Frank; Naulleau, Patrick P

    2015-10-14

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the leading technology for enabling miniaturization of computational components over the next decade. Next-generation resists will need to meet demanding performance criteria of 10 nm critical dimension, 1.2 nm line-edge roughness, and 20 mJ cm(-2) exposure dose. Here, the current state of the development of EUV resist materials is reviewed. First, pattern formation in resist materials is described and the Hansen solubility sphere (HSS) is used as a framework for understanding the pattern-development process. Then, recent progress in EUVL resist chemistry and characterization is discussed. Incremental advances are obtained by transferring chemically amplified resist materials developed for 193 nm lithography to EUV wavelengths. Significant advances will result from synthesizing high-absorbance resist materials using heavier atoms. In the framework of the HSS model, these materials have significant room for improvement and thus offer great promise as high-performance EUV resists for patterning of sub-10 nm features. PMID:26079187

  5. Terrestrial planet formation from a truncated disk -- The 'Grand Tack'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, K. J.; Morbidelli, A.; Raymond, S.; O'Brien, D. P.; Mandell, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    A new terrestrial planet formation model (Walsh et al., 2011) explores the effects of a two-stage, inward-then-outward migration of Jupiter and Saturn, as found in numerous hydrodynamical simulations of giant planet formation (Masset & Snellgrove 2001, Morbidelli & Crida 2007, Pierens & Nelson 2008, Pierens & Raymond 2011). The inward migration of Jupiter truncates the disk of planetesimals and embryos in the terrestrial planet region. Subsequent accretion in that region then forms the terrestrial planets, in particular it produces the correct Earth/Mars mass ratio, which has been difficult to reproduce in simulations with a self-consistent set of initial conditions (see, eg. Raymond et al. 2009, Hansen 2009). Additionally, the outward migration of the giant planets populates the asteroid belt with distinct populations of bodies, with the inner belt filled by bodies originating inside of 3 AU, and the outer belt filled with bodies originating from beyond the giant planets. This differs from previous models of terrestrial planet formation due to the early radial mixing of material due to the giant planet's substantial migration. Specifically, the assumption that the current radial distribution of material in the inner Solar System is reflective of the primordial distribution of material in that region is no longer necessary. We will discuss the implications of this model in relation to previous models of terrestrial planet formation as well as available chemical and isotopic constraints.

  6. Implications of the Central Flash Analysis from the 2015 Pluto Stellar Occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Person, Michael J.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Levine, Stephen; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, Bryce A.; Dunham, Edward W.; McLean, Ian S.; Wolf, Juergen; Abe, F.; Becklin, Eric E.; Bida, Thomas A.; Bright, Leonard P.; Brothers, Tim; Christie, Grant; Collins, Peter; Durst, Rebecca; Gilmore, Alan; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Harris, Hugh C.; Johnson, Christian I.; Kilmartin, Pam; Kosiarek, Molly; Leppik, Karina; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Lucas, Robert; Mathers, Shevill; Morley, Caroline; Natusch, T.; Nelson, P.; Ngan, H.; Pfueller, E.; Roeser, H.-P.; Sallum, Stephanie; Savage, Maureen L.; Seeger, Christina; Chit Siu, Ho; Stockdale, Christopher; Suzuki, D.; Thanathibodee, T.; Tilleman, T.; Tristam, P. J.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Varughese, C.; Weisenbach, Luke; Widen, E.; Wiedemann, M.

    2016-10-01

    Two weeks before the historic New Horizons flyby of Pluto, a stellar occultation was observed from Australia and New Zealand (Bosh et al., 2016, Pasachoff et al., 2016, Sicardy et al., 2016). Prior to these observations, an extensive astrometric campaign (Bosh et al., this meeting) was conducted to carefully place the SOFIA aircraft within the central flash region of the occultation shadow. Multiple central flash chords were obtained and initial analysis indicated global asymmetry of Pluto's atmosphere (Person et al., 2015).Further analysis of these chords reveals asymmetries in Pluto's atmosphere stronger than those previously observed by either central flash measurements or occultation shadow fitting (Person et al., 2006, Olkin et al., 2014). Here we will discuss this revealed atmospheric asymmetry in terms of the bulk atmospheric movements necessary to cause distortions of this order, given the extreme surface sphericity seen by New Horizons (Nimmo et al., 2016), and its implications for surface ice transport scenarios (Hansen et al., 2015), and Pluto's seasonal evolution (Earle et al., 2015).

  7. [Leprosy--a stigma in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Falus, Orsolya

    2011-02-13

    For the initiation of the French journalist Raoul Follereau in 1954 the UNO inaugurated the Leprosy Day (Martyr's Day) that is celebrated on the last Sunday of January every year. Although the bacterium that causes leprosy was isolated by the Norwegian scientist Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen in 1873 and from 1982 this disease can be cured with a special pharmaceutical complex, still 219.826 new leprous are detected on Earth every year, according to the data published in August, 2010 by WHO-experts. Ancient Chinese and Hindu source-strings from 600 B. C. are referring to leprosy, however, the disease was imported by the army of Alexander the Great from India around 327-326 B. C. Even the Old and the New Testament from the Holy Bible are mentioning leprosy in several details. During the Middle Ages the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, established in the Holy Land in 72 A. D., did pioneer work in nursing leprous. In the process of time the medical attendance concerning leprous was organized in special hospitals called "leprosoriums" built on river-banks. Special office and even services were organized for the treatment and isolation of the people infected. Although medical science has prevailed against leprosy, and almost simultaneously even jurisprudence defended the patients' rights via legislation, still mankind can regrettably not get rid of this disease that stigmatizes seriously.

  8. What Roles Can Scientists Play in Public Discourse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    2011-04-01

    What is a useful and proper role for scientists in the public arena? How can we best discriminate where the boundary lies between expert knowledge and values or political opinion, and how can we properly honor that line? What can we expect in the way of reception for our interventions, and how can we increase their efficacy? Involvement in public policy debates is a common and accepted role for scientists in many disciplines. In the sciences related to public health, it is taken for granted that experts will talk about the implications of their research for public policy, whether in regard to smoking, diet, or disease spread. There is also a remarkable track record of geoscientists taking a lead role in the public arena and actually affecting public policy—F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina collaborated on ozone depletion research at the Department of Chemistry at University of California, Irvine and then went on to make outstanding public contributions, as have James Hansen (at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies); Robert Watson (first at NASA, then at the University of East Anglia); and, of course, the late Stephen Schneider (first at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research, then Stanford) on climate. Some “public” geoscientists have restricted their activities to interpreting science for the wider public, while others have endorsed specific policy initiatives (see Figure 1). I firmly believe that the quality of public discourse and the information reaching policy makers were better for their interventions.

  9. The Impact of Deviation from Michaelis-Menten Saturation on Mathematical Model Stability Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, Charles; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Based on purely abstract ecological theory, it has been argued that a system composed of two or more consumers competing for the same resource cannot persist. By analysis on a Monod format mathematical model, Hubble and others demonstrated that this assertion is true for all but very special cases of such competing organisms which are determined by an index formed by a grouping of. the parameters which characterize the biological processes of the competing organisms. In the laboratory, using a bioreactor, Hansen and Hubble obtained confirmatory results for several cases of two competing species, and they characterized it as "qualitative confirmation" of the assertion. This result is amazing, since the analysis required the exact equality of the hey index, and it seems certain that no pair of organism species could have exactly equal values. It is quite plausible, however, that pairs of organism species could have approximately equal indices, and the question of how different they could be and still have coexistence of the two (or more) presents itself. In this paper, the pursuit of this question and a compatible resolution is presented.

  10. Dispersion in alluvial convergent estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-04-01

    The Van der Burgh's equation for longitudinal effective dispersion is a purely empirical method with practical implications. Its application to the effective tidal average dispersion under equilibrium conditions appears to have excellent performance in a wide range of alluvial estuaries. In this research, we try to find out the physical meaning of Van der Burgh's coefficient. Researchers like MacCready, Fischer, Kuijper, Hansen and Rattray have tried to split up dispersion into its constituents which did not do much to explain overall behaviour. In addition, traditional literature on dispersion is mostly related to flumes with constant cross-section. This research is about understanding the Van der Burgh's coefficient facing the fact that natural estuaries have exponentially varying cross-section. The objective is to derive a simple 1-D model considering both longitudinal and lateral mixing processes based on field observations (theoretical derivation). To that effect, we connect dispersion with salinity using the salt balance equation. Then we calculate the salinity along the longitudinal direction and compare it to the observed salinity. Calibrated dispersion coefficients in a range of estuaries are then compared with new expressions for the Van der Burgh's coefficient K and it is analysed if K varies from estuary to estuary. The set of reliable data used will be from estuaries: Kurau, Perak, Bernam, Selangor, Muar, Endau, Maputo, Thames, Corantijn, Sinnamary, Mae Klong, Lalang, Limpopo, Tha Chin, Chao Phraya, Edisto and Elbe.

  11. Brain responses to audiovisual speech mismatch in infants are associated with individual differences in looking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kushnerenko, Elena; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Ballieux, Haiko; Ribeiro, Helena; Potton, Anita; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Moore, Derek G

    2013-11-01

    Research on audiovisual speech integration has reported high levels of individual variability, especially among young infants. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this variability results from individual differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech processing during infancy. A developmental shift in selective attention to audiovisual speech has been demonstrated between 6 and 9 months with an increase in the time spent looking to articulating mouths as compared to eyes (Lewkowicz & Hansen-Tift. (2012) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 1431-1436; Tomalski et al. (2012) Eur. J. Dev. Psychol., 1-14). In the present study we tested whether these changes in behavioural maturational level are associated with differences in brain responses to audiovisual speech across this age range. We measured high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to videos of audiovisually matching and mismatched syllables /ba/ and /ga/, and subsequently examined visual scanning of the same stimuli with eye-tracking. There were no clear age-specific changes in ERPs, but the amplitude of audiovisual mismatch response (AVMMR) to the combination of visual /ba/ and auditory /ga/ was strongly negatively associated with looking time to the mouth in the same condition. These results have significant implications for our understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of audiovisual speech processing in infants, suggesting that they are not strictly related to chronological age but instead associated with the maturation of looking behaviour, and develop at individual rates in the second half of the first year of life.

  12. Determination of electrostatic parameters of a coumarin derivative compound C17H13NO3 by x-ray and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youcef, Megrouss; Nadia, Benhalima; Rawia, Bahoussi; Nouredine, Boukabcha; Abdelkader, Chouaih; Fodil, Hamzaoui

    2015-10-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental determination of the electrostatic properties of the molecular 4-methyl-7-(salicylidene amino) coumarin (C17H13NC3) using high resolution x-ray diffraction data. The experimental results are compared with those obtained theoretically from calculation type ab initio. The experimental investigation is carried out using the molecular electron charge density distribution based on the multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens. However the theoretical calculations are conducted by using the molecular orbital B3LYP method and the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation with the basis set 6-31G (d,p) implemented in the Gaussian program. In addition to the structural analysis, the thermal agitation is also analyzed in terms of rigid blocks to ensure a better precision of the results. Subsequently, the electrostatic atomic and molecular properties such as the net charges, the molecular dipolar moment to highlight the nature of charge transfer existing within the molecule studied are derived. Moreover, the obtained electrostatic potential enables the localization of the electropositive and the electronegative parts of the investigated molecule. The present work reports in detail the obtained electrostatic properties of this biologically important molecule.

  13. Criticality safety validation: Simple geometry, single unit {sup 233}U systems

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, V.L.

    1997-06-01

    Typically used LMITCO criticality safety computational methods are evaluated for suitability when applied to INEEL {sup 233}U systems which reasonably can be modeled as simple-geometry, single-unit systems. Sixty-seven critical experiments of uranium highly enriched in {sup 233}U, including 57 aqueous solution, thermal-energy systems and 10 metal, fast-energy systems, were modeled. These experiments include 41 cylindrical and 26 spherical cores, and 41 reflected and 26 unreflected systems. No experiments were found for intermediate-neutron-energy ranges, or with interstitial non-hydrogenous materials typical of waste systems, mixed {sup 233}U and plutonium, or reflectors such as steel, lead, or concrete. No simple geometry experiments were found with cubic or annular cores, or approximating infinite sea systems. Calculations were performed with various tools and methodologies. Nine cross-section libraries, based on ENDF/B-IV, -V, or -VI.2, or on Hansen-Roach source data, were used with cross-section processing methods of MCNP or SCALE. The k{sub eff} calculations were performed with neutral-particle transport and Monte Carlo methods of criticality codes DANT, MCNP 4A, and KENO Va.

  14. Lignin dissolution in dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquid-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yantao; Wei, Ligang; Li, Kunlan; Ma, Yingchong; Ma, Ningning; Ding, Shan; Wang, Linlin; Zhao, Deyang; Yan, Bing; Wan, Wenying; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xin; Wang, Junmei; Li, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Lignin dissolution in dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL)-water mixtures (40wt%-100wt% IL content) at 60°C was investigated. The IL content and type are found to considerably affect lignin solubility. For the IL-water mixtures except 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4C1im]BF4), the maximum lignin solubility can be achieved at 70wt% IL content. Lignin solubility in IL-water mixtures with different cations follows the order 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4C1im](+))>1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C6C1im](+))>1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C2C1im](+))>1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C8C1im](+))>1-butyl-3-ethylimidazolium ([C4C2im](+))>1-butyl-3-propylimidazolium ([C4C3im](+)). For IL mixtures with different anions, lignin solubility decreases in the following order: methanesulfonate (MeSO3(-))>acetate (MeCO2(-))>bromide (Br(-))>dibutylphosphate (DBP(-)). Evaluation using the theory of Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) is consistent with the experimental results, suggesting that HSP can aid in finding the appropriate range of IL content for IL-water mixtures. However, HSP cannot be used to evaluate the effect of IL type on lignin solubility. PMID:25164342

  15. Influence of matching solubility parameter of polymer matrix and CNT on electrical conductivity of CNT/rubber composite

    PubMed Central

    Ata, Seisuke; Mizuno, Takaaki; Nishizawa, Ayumi; Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Futaba, Don N.; Hata, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We report a general approach to fabricate elastomeric composites possessing high electrical conductivity for applications ranging from wireless charging interfaces to stretchable electronics. By using arbitrary nine kinds of rubbers as matrices, we experimentally demonstrate that the matching the solubility parameter of CNTs and the rubber matrix is important to achieve higher electrical conductivity in CNT/rubber composite, resulting in continuous conductive pathways leading to electrical conductivities as high as 15 S/cm with 10 vol% CNT in fluorinated rubber. Further, using thermodynamic considerations, we demonstrate an approach to mix CNTs to arbitrary rubber matrices regardless of solubility parameter of matrices by adding small amounts of fluorinated rubber as a polymeric-compatibilizer of CNTs. We thereby achieved electrical conductivities ranging from 1.2 to 13.8 S/cm (10 vol% CNTs) using nine varieties of rubber matrices differing in chemical structures and physical properties. Finally, we investigated the components of solubility parameter of CNT by using Hansen solubility parameters, these findings may useful for controlling solubility parameter of CNTs. PMID:25434701

  16. Towards sub-femtosecond emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Roger; Hansen, Peter; Batelaan, Herman; Hilbert, Shawn

    2010-03-01

    To manipulate femtosecond pulses of electrons new electron optical elements are needed. For example, if a source has a lower limit in the duration of the electron pulses that it generates, then aan electron optical element that can reduce the pulse duration could be useful. An example of this is the proposed ``temporal lens '' [1]. To detect the short electron pulses one also needs new elements. Attempts to use the ponderomotive interaction between the electron pulse and a second laser pulse will be presented [2]. Alternatively, we have started to explore a plasmonics structure provided by the Capasso group to make a fast electron switch. This has the potential to be useful both for switching, shaping and detecting the electron pulse. Finally, the experimental parameters and detection ideas for quantum degeneracy will be discussed. [1] S. Hilbert, B. Barwick, K. Uiterwaal, H. Batelaan, A. Zewail, ``Temporal lenses for attosecond and femtosecond electron pulses'', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, p. 10558, vol. 106, (2009). [2] L. Kreminskaya, C. Corder, V. Engquist, O. Golovin, P. Hansen, H. Batelaan, A. I. Khizhnyak, G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., ``Laser Beam Shaping: Donut Mode Formation by Interference.'' Laser Beam Shaping X (Proceedings Volume) Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 7430.

  17. Bringing physics to bear on the phenomenon of life: the divergent positions of Bohr, Delbrück, and Schrödinger.

    PubMed

    Domondon, Andrew T

    2006-09-01

    The received view on the contributions of the physics community to the birth of molecular biology tends to present the physics community as sharing a basic level consensus on how physics should be brought to bear on biology. I argue, however, that a close examination of the views of three leading physicists involved in the birth of molecular biology, Bohr, Delbrück, and Schrödinger, suggests that there existed fundamental disagreements on how physics should be employed to solve problems in biology even within the physics community. In particular, I focus on how these three figures differed sharply in their assessment of the relevance of complementarity, the potential of chemical methods, and the relative importance of classical physics. In addition, I assess and develop Roll-Hansen's attempt to conceptualize this history in terms of models of scientific change advanced by Kuhn and Lakatos. Though neither model is fully successful in explaining the divergence of views among these three physicists, I argue that the extent and quality of difference in their views help elucidate and extend some themes that are left opaque in Kuhn's model.

  18. Assesing Ecohydrological Impacts of Forest Disturbance using Open Source Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovette, J. P.; Chang, T.; Treglia, M.; Gan, T.; Duncan, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the past 30 years, land management protocols, climate change, and land use have radically changed the frequency and magnitudes of disturbance regimes. Landscape scale disturbances can change a forest structure, resulting in impacts on adjacent watersheds that may affect water amount/quality for human and natural resource use. Our project quantifies hydrologic changes from of a suite of disturbance events resulting in vegetation cover shifts at watersheds across the continental United States. These disturbance events include: wildfire, insect/disease, deforestation(logging), hurricanes, ice storms, and human land use. Our major question is: Can the effects of disturbance on ecohydrology be generalized across regions, time scales, and spatial scales? Using a workflow of open source tools, and utilizing publicly available data, this work could be extended and leveraged by other researchers. Spatial data on disturbance include the MODIS Global Disturbance Index (NTSG), Landsat 7 Global Forest Change (Hansen dataset), and the Degree of Human Modification (Theobald dataset). Ecohydrologic response data includes USGS NWIS, USFS-LTER climDB/hydroDB, and the CUAHSI HIS.

  19. Contact Angle Measurements by AFM on Droplets of Intermediate-Length Alkanes Adsorbed on SiO2 Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, M.; Taub, H.; Knorr, K.; Volkmann, U. G.; Hansen, F. Y.

    2007-03-01

    We have recently discovered that films of intermediate-length alkanes (n-CnH2n+2; 24 < n < 40) do not completely wet a SiO2 surface on a nanometer length scale [2]. In a narrow temperature range near the bulk melting point Tb, we observe a single layer of molecules oriented with their long axis perpendicular to the surface. On heating just above Tb, these molecules undergo a delayering transition to three-dimensional droplets that remain present up to their evaporation point. Here we report measurements by noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy of the contact angle of these droplets for a film of hexatriacontane (n-C36H74 or C36). Our preliminary measurements indicate that there is a weak maximum in the contact angle at ˜Tb + 3 C. Further measurements are planned to investigate whether the weak maximum in the contact angle is consistent with the droplets supporting a surface freezing effect as at the bulk fluid/air interface. ^2M. Bai, K. Knorr, M. J. Simpson, S. Trogisch, H. Taub, S. N. Ehrlich, H. Mo, U. G. Volkmann, F. Y. Hansen, cond-mat/0611497.

  20. Global mean sea level - Indicator of climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, A.; Hansen, J.; Gornitz, V.; Lebedeff, S.; Moore, E.; Etkins, R.; Epstein, E.

    1983-01-01

    A critical discussion is presented on the use by Etkins and Epstein (1982) of combined surface air temperature and sea level time series to draw conclusions concerning the discharge of the polar ice sheets. It is objected by Robock that they used Northern Hemisphere land surface air temperature records which are unrepresentative of global sea surface temperature, and he suggests that externally imposed volcanic dust and CO2 forcings can adequately account for observed temperature changes over the last century, with global sea level changing in passive response to sea change as a result of thermal expansion. Hansen et al. adduce evidence for global cooling due to ice discharge that has not exceeded a few hundredths of a degree centigrade in the last century, precluding any importance of this phenomenon in the interpretation of global mean temperature trends for this period. Etkins and Epstein reply that since their 1982 report additional evidence has emerged for the hypothesis that the polar ice caps are diminishing. It is reasserted that each of the indices discussed, including global mean sea surface temperature and sea level, polar ice sheet mass balance, water mass characteristics, and the spin rate and axis of rotation displacement of the earth, are physically linked and can be systematically monitored, as is currently being planned under the auspices of the National Climate Program.

  1. Gibbs adsorption equation for planar fluid-fluid interfaces: Invariant formalism.

    PubMed

    Radke, C J

    2015-08-01

    The fundamental underpinnings of the Gibbs adsorption equation (GAE) are enunciated including sundry choices for the location of the zero-volume dividing surface. Comparison is made to the finite-volume thermodynamic analyses of Guggenheim and Hansen. Provided that Gibbs phase rule is properly invoked, only invariant surface properties appear in the GAE. In the framework of invariant surface properties, both the zero-volume (Gibbs) and the finite-volume (Guggenheim) treatments of the surface phase give identical results for the GAE, confirming the thermodynamic generality and rigor of the expression. Application of the GAE is made to strong and weak electrolytes, to electrified interfaces (Lippmann equation), and to surface complexation. Usefulness of the GAE in molecular simulation of interfaces is outlined. Special attention is paid to the seminal contributions of Fainerman and Miller in applying molecular-thermodynamic interfacial-layer models toward predicting adsorption behavior at fluid/fluid interfaces. Conversion of adsorption isotherms into two-dimensional interfacial-tension equations of state via the GAE is highlighted. Confusion over interpretation of the Gibbs adsorption equation arises primarily because of imprecise meaning for adsorbed amounts. Once invariant adsorptions are recognized and utilized, the Gibbs adsorption equation yields identical results for Gibbs zero-volume surface thermodynamics and for Guggenheim finite-volume surface thermodynamics.

  2. Constraints on sea to air emissions from methane clathrates in the vicinity of Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, Ignacio; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Platt, Stephen Matthew; Eckhardt, Sabine; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Silyakova, Anna; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Mienert, Jurgen; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Methane stored in the seabed in the form of clathrates has the potential to be released into the atmosphere due to ongoing ocean warming. The Methane Emissions from Arctic Ocean to Atmosphere (MOCA, http://moca.nilu.no/) proje sct conducted measurement campaigns in the vicinity of Svalbard during the summers of 2014 and 2015 in collaboration with the Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate (CAGE, https://cage.uit.no/) and the MAMM (https://arcticmethane.wordpress.com) project . The extensive set of measurements includes air (BAe 146) and ship (RV Helmer Hansen) borne methane concentrations, complemented with the nearby monitoring site at Zeppelin mountain. In order to assess the atmospheric impact of emissions from seabed methane hydrates, we characterised the local and long range atmospheric transport during the aircraft campaign and different scenarios for the emission sources. We present a range of upper bounds for the CH4 emissions during the campaign period as well as the methodologies used to obtain them. The methodologies include a box model, Lagrangian transport and elementary inverse modelling. We emphasise the analysis of the aircraft data. We discuss in detail the different methodologies used for determining the upper flux bounds as well as its uncertainties and limitations. The additional information provided by the ship and station observations will be briefly mentioned.

  3. Quantifying Methane Emissions from the Arctic Ocean Seabed to the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, Stephen; Pisso, Ignacio; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Hermansen, Ove; Silyakova, Anna; Ferré, Benedicte; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Myhre, Gunnar; Mienert, Jürgen; Stohl, Andreas; Myhre, Cathrine Lund

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are stored under the seafloor in the shallow waters of the Arctic Ocean. Some of this is in the form of hydrates which may be vulnerable to deomposition due to surface warming. The Methane Emissions from Arctic Ocean to Atmosphere MOCA, (http://moca.nilu.no/) project was established in collaboration with the Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate (CAGE, https://cage.uit.no/). In summer 2014, and summer and autumn 2015 we deployed oceanographic CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) stations and performed state-of-the-art atmospheric measurements of CH4, CO2, CO, and other meteorological parameters aboard the research vessel Helmer Hanssen west of Prins Karl's Forland, Svalbard. Air samples were collected for isotopic analysis (13C, 2H) and quantification of other hydrocarbons (ethane, propane, etc.). Atmospheric measurements are also available from the nearby Zeppelin Observatory at a mountain close to Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. We will present data from these measurements that show an upper constraint of the methane flux in measurement area in 2014 too low to influence the annual CH4 budget. This is further supported by top-down constraints (maximum release consistent with observations at the Helmer Hansen and Zeppelin Observatory) determined using FLEXPART foot print sensitivities and the OsloCTM3 model. The low flux estimates despite the presence of active seeps in the area (numerous gas flares were observed using echo sounding) were apparently due to the presence of a stable ocean pycnocline at ~50 m.

  4. A new route toward limiting climate change?

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J. ); Wigley, Tm L.; Edmonds, James A. )

    2000-11-10

    The upcoming sixth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) has refocused attention on climate change policy. Recently, debate has been stimulated by the publication of a paper by Hansen et al who have suggested an"alternative scenario" for mitigating climate change that focuses primarily on non-CO2 greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. Their proposal is to limit CO2 forcing limited over the next 50 years to an additional 1 W/m2, with no net increase from the combination of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, aerosols, and tropospheric ozone.Reducing the emissions that lead to local air pollution may, indeed, help contribute to reducing climate forcing, particularly if concentrations of methane or tropospheric ozone can be decreased? although the science here is complex and net forcing reductions might not materialize. Clean-up of soot emissions will also tend to reduce climate forcing and non-CO2 greenhouse gases would have an important role to play. But the overall gains of such reductions are not enough to remove the primary focus from carbon dioxide emissions.

  5. Trends of measured climate forcing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James E.; Sato, Makiko

    2001-12-01

    * National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025; and Center for Climate Systems Research, Columbia University Earth Institute, New York, NY 10025 Contributed by James E. Hansen, October 16, 2001 The growth rate of climate forcing by measured greenhouse gases peaked near 1980 at almost 5 W/m2 per century. This growth rate has since declined to 3 W/m2 per century, largely because of cooperative international actions. We argue that trends can be reduced to the level needed for the moderate "alternative" climate scenario (≈2 W/m2 per century for the next 50 years) by means of concerted actions that have other benefits, but the forcing reductions are not automatic "co-benefits" of actions that slow CO2 emissions. Current trends of climate forcings by aerosols remain very uncertain. Nevertheless, practical constraints on changes in emission levels suggest that global warming at a rate +0.15 ± 0.05°C per decade will occur over the next several decades.

  6. Measuring medical students’ empathy using direct verbal expressions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Empathy is an important trait in physicians and a key element in the physician-patient relationship. Accordingly, one of the goals in medical education is developing empathy in students. We attempted to practically assess medical students’ empathy through their direct verbal expressions. Methods: The medical students’ empathy was measured using the modified Pencil-and-Paper Empathy Rating Test by Winefield and Chur-Hansen (2001). The students took 15 minutes or so to complete the scale, and it was then scored by one of two trained evaluators (0 to 4 points for each item, for a total score of 40). The subjects were 605 medical students, and the data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance in SPSS version 21.0. Results: The students’ empathy scores were low (mean, 12.13; standard deviation, 2.55); their most common responses (78.6%) registered as non-empathetic. Differences in empathy were observed by gender (female students>male students; t=-5.068, p<0.001), school system (medical school>medical college; t=-1.935, p=0.053), and academic level (pre-medical 1 year < other years; t=-4.050, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings lead us to the significant conclusion that there is the need for empathy enhancement training programs with practical content. PMID:27363499

  7. S-palmitoylation and s-oleoylation of rabbit and pig sarcolipin.

    PubMed

    Montigny, Cédric; Decottignies, Paulette; Le Maréchal, Pierre; Capy, Pierre; Bublitz, Maike; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul; le Maire, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Sarcolipin (SLN) is a regulatory peptide present in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) from skeletal muscle of animals. We find that native rabbit SLN is modified by a fatty acid anchor on Cys-9 with a palmitic acid in about 60% and, surprisingly, an oleic acid in the remaining 40%. SLN used for co-crystallization with SERCA1a (Winther, A. M., Bublitz, M., Karlsen, J. L., Moller, J. V., Hansen, J. B., Nissen, P., and Buch-Pedersen, M. J. (2013) Nature 495, 265-2691; Ref. 1) is also palmitoylated/oleoylated, but is not visible in crystal structures, probably due to disorder. Treatment with 1 m hydroxylamine for 1 h removes the fatty acids from a majority of the SLN pool. This treatment did not modify the SERCA1a affinity for Ca(2+) but increased the Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity of SR membranes indicating that the S-acylation of SLN or of other proteins is required for this effect on SERCA1a. Pig SLN is also fully palmitoylated/oleoylated on its Cys-9 residue, but in a reverse ratio of about 40/60. An alignment of 67 SLN sequences from the protein databases shows that 19 of them contain a cysteine and the rest a phenylalanine at position 9. Based on a cladogram, we postulate that the mutation from phenylalanine to cysteine in some species is the result of an evolutionary convergence. We suggest that, besides phosphorylation, S-acylation/deacylation also regulates SLN activity. PMID:25301946

  8. Taxonomic significance of leaf micromorphology in some selected taxa of Acanthaceae (Peninsular Malaysia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.; Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Ruzi, A. R.; Idris, S.

    2014-09-01

    Comparative leaf micromorphology study was conducted in eight taxa of Acanthaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. Eight chosen taxa were Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, A. ilicifolius L., A. volubilis Wall, A. montanus T. Anderson, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees, Asystasia gangetica subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu, Chroesthes longifolia (Wight) B. Hansen and Peristrophe roxburghiana (Schult.) Bremek. The objective of this study was to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification and also as supportive data in classification. The procedures involved such as dehydration, critical point drying, gold coated and examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings in this study have demonstrated the similarities and variations in leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in type of epicuticular waxes, cuticular ornamentations, stomata characteristics and in the presence of trichomes. Six types of epicuticular waxes and five types of trichomes were observed. Variations in cuticular ornamentations and stomata structure can be used to differentiate species. One diagnostic character was found and proven to be very useful to identify Acanthus via the presence of simple trichomes (short-conicle like). In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that leaf micromorphological characteristics have taxonomic significance that can be useful in classifications and identification especially at species level.

  9. Dose response of alanine detectors irradiated with carbon ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Rochus; Jaekel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Bassler, Niels

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The dose response of the alanine detector shows a dependence on particle energy and type when irradiated with ion beams. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response behavior of the alanine detector in clinical carbon ion beams and compare the results to model predictions. Methods: Alanine detectors have been irradiated with carbon ions with an energy range of 89-400 MeV/u. The relative effectiveness of alanine has been measured in this regime. Pristine and spread out Bragg peak depth-dose curves have been measured with alanine dosimeters. The track structure based alanine response model developed by Hansen and Olsen has been implemented in the Monte Carlo code FLUKA and calculations were compared to experimental results. Results: Calculations of the relative effectiveness deviate less than 5% from the measured values for monoenergetic beams. Measured depth-dose curves deviate from predictions in the peak region, most pronounced at the distal edge of the peak. Conclusions: The used model and its implementation show a good overall agreement for quasimonoenergetic measurements. Deviations in depth-dose measurements are mainly attributed to uncertainties of the detector geometry implemented in the Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Nuclear fusion and carbon flashes on neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, R. E.; Picklum, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on detailed calculations of the thermal evolution of the carbon-burning shells in the envelopes of accreting neutron stars for mass-accretion rates of 1 hundred-billionth to 2 billionths of a solar mass per yr and neutron-star masses of 0.56 and 1.41 solar masses. The work of Hansen and Van Horn (1975) is extended to higher densities, and a more detailed treatment of nuclear processing in the hydrogen- and helium-burning regions is included. Results of steady-state calculations are presented, and results of time-dependent computations are examined for accretion rates of 3 ten-billionths and 1 billionth of solar mass per yr. It is found that two evolutionary sequences lead to carbon flashes and that the carbon abundance at the base of the helium shell is a strong function of accretion rate. Upper limits are placed on the accretion rates at which carbon flashes will be important.

  11. Screening method for solvent selection used in tar removal by the absorption process.

    PubMed

    Masurel, Eve; Authier, Olivier; Castel, Christophe; Roizard, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of the treatment of flue gas issued from a process of biomass gasification in fluidized bed. The flue gas contains tar which should be selectively removed from the fuel components of interest (e.g. H2, CO and light hydrocarbons) to avoid condensation and deposits in internal combustion engine. The chosen flue gas treatment is the gas-liquid absorption using solvents, which present specific physicochemical properties (e.g. solubility, viscosity, volatility and chemical and thermal stability) in order to optimize the unit on energetic, technico-economic and environmental criteria. The rational choice of the proper solvent is essential for solving the tar issue. The preselection of the solvents is made using a Hansen parameter in order to evaluate the tar solubility and the saturation vapour pressure of the solvent is obtained using Antoine law. Among the nine families of screened solvents (alcohols, amines, ketones, halogenates, ethers, esters, hydrocarbons, sulphured and chlorinates), acids methyl esters arise as solvents of interest. Methyl oleate has then been selected and studied furthermore. Experimental liquid-vapour equilibrium data using bubbling point and absorption cell measurements and theoretical results obtained by the UNIFAC-Dortmund model confirm the high potential of this solvent and the good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  12. GLYCOLATE METABOLISM IN ESCHERICHIA COLI1

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Robert W.; Hayashi, James A.

    1962-01-01

    Hansen, Robert W. (University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago) and James A. Hayashi. Glycolate metabolism in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 83:679–687. 1962.—This study of glycolate-adapted Escherichia coli indicates that the most probable route for utilization of the substrate includes glyceric acid, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. A glyceric acid dehydrogenase, which reduces tartronic semialdehyde to glycerate in the presence of reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide, and a kinase, which catalyzes the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from glyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate, were shown to be present. Carbon recoveries in growing cultures and manometric data obtained with resting cells showed the complete oxidation of glycolate to carbon dioxide. Measurements of the oxidation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates indicated that these compounds are oxidized without lag and at a rate commensurate with the rate of glycolate oxidation. Assays of the enzymes characteristic of known pathways of terminal oxidation, such as isocitratase, malate synthetase, isocitric dehydrogenase, and condensing enzyme, provided further evidence for an operating tricarboxylic acid cycle. A postulated pathway for the utilization of glycolic acid is as follows: glycolate → glycerate → 3-phosphoglycerate → pyruvate → tricarboxylic acid cycle. PMID:13904441

  13. Predicting the Perceived Sound Quality of Frequency-Compressed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Rainer; Parsa, Vijay; Scollie, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The performance of objective speech and audio quality measures for the prediction of the perceived quality of frequency-compressed speech in hearing aids is investigated in this paper. A number of existing quality measures have been applied to speech signals processed by a hearing aid, which compresses speech spectra along frequency in order to make information contained in higher frequencies audible for listeners with severe high-frequency hearing loss. Quality measures were compared with subjective ratings obtained from normal hearing and hearing impaired children and adults in an earlier study. High correlations were achieved with quality measures computed by quality models that are based on the auditory model of Dau et al., namely, the measure PSM, computed by the quality model PEMO-Q; the measure qc, computed by the quality model proposed by Hansen and Kollmeier; and the linear subcomponent of the HASQI. For the prediction of quality ratings by hearing impaired listeners, extensions of some models incorporating hearing loss were implemented and shown to achieve improved prediction accuracy. Results indicate that these objective quality measures can potentially serve as tools for assisting in initial setting of frequency compression parameters. PMID:25402456

  14. Investigation of a rotary valving system with variable valve timing for internal combustion engines: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, P.C.; Hansen, C.N.

    1994-11-18

    The objective of the program was to provide a functional demonstration of the Hansen Rotary Valving System with Variable Valve timing (HRVS/VVT), capable of throttleless inlet charge control, as an alternative to conventional poppet-valves for use in spark ignited internal combustion engines. The goal of this new technology is to secure benefits in fuel economy, broadened torque band, vibration reduction, and overhaul accessibility. Additionally, use of the variable valve timing capability to vary the effective compression ratio is expected to improve multi-fuel tolerance and efficiency. Efforts directed at the design of HRVS components proved to be far more extensive than had been anticipated, ultimately requiring that proof-trial design/development work be performed. Although both time and funds were exhausted before optical or ion-probe types of in-cylinder investigation could be undertaken, a great deal of laboratory data was acquired during the course of the design/development work. This laboratory data is the basis for the information presented in this Final Report.

  15. Exploring the Role of Sub-micron-sized Dust Grains in the Atmospheres of Red L0–L6 Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranaka, Kay; Cruz, Kelle L.; Douglas, Stephanie T.; Marley, Mark S.; Baldassare, Vivienne F.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the hypothesis that the red near-infrared colors of some L dwarfs could be explained by a “dust haze” of small particles in their upper atmospheres. This dust haze would exist in conjunction with the clouds found in dwarfs with more typical colors. We developed a model that uses Mie theory and the Hansen particle size distributions to reproduce the extinction due to the proposed dust haze. We apply our method to 23 young L dwarfs and 23 red field L dwarfs. We constrain the properties of the dust haze including particle size distribution and column density using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. We find that sub-micron-range silicate grains reproduce the observed reddening. Current brown dwarf atmosphere models include large-grain (1–100 μm) dust clouds but not sub-micron dust grains. Our results provide a strong proof of concept and motivate a combination of large and small dust grains in brown dwarf atmosphere models.

  16. Eponymous doctors associated with Edinburgh, part 3--Abraham Colles, Sir William Ferguson, John S Haldane, Argyll Robertson, Thomas Young.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D

    2007-03-01

    In the first papers in this series, it was shown that eponyms were often bestowed on physicians and surgeons who were already famous, had made many discoveries never honoured with eponyms, and were often the leading doctors of their day. Only occasionally was the eponym suggested by a friend or colleague; more usually it was a doctor abroad who wanted to show respect to a great man but the choice of the particular syndrome or discovery was a random one. Eponyms may have had their uses. They were usually much shorter than a detailed description of a medical syndrome or anatomical feature and may sometimes have been used as euphemisms in much the same way as, until recently, bedside teachers protected the patients by speaking of 'mitotic lesions' or 'neoplasms', 'Hansen's Disease' or 'acid-fast bacilli'. The conferring and use of eponyms appears to be lessening but, as shown in this final paper, they are still used and possibly useful, and can tell us things of interest about the recipient and the proposer.

  17. The Fate of the Forest in Brazil, 2000 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, V.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Better understanding the drivers of tropical deforestation is essential to research on global climate change and biodiversity loss, and would be particularly informative to ongoing international climate change negotiations. Geographically explicit maps of post-forest land cover can provide valuable information about the extent and spatial distribution of the major drivers of deforestation. Brazil is the country with the largest extent of tropical forest in the world and the one with the most tropical forest cover loss since the turn of this century. This fate of the forest study aims to determine which land covers have replaced forest cover in Brazil. Using a classification tree algorithm, we determined pasture and cropland extent in areas of forest cover loss in Brazil circa 2012. We used 30 m resolution Landsat data for the 2000-2013 time period as well as tree cover loss data from the Global Forest Change (GFC) maps published by Hansen et al. (2013). The GFC data was used to mask out areas not categorized as forest cover lost between 2000 and 2013. Additionally, the year of loss layer was used to disaggregate pasture and cropland extent by year. Our results comprehensively demonstrate the extent to which pasture is the dominant post-forest land cover in Brazil. More broadly, the product reveals spatiotemporal patterns of forest conversion to pasture and cropland in Brazil, which could lead to a better understanding of the underlying drivers of deforestation.

  18. Validation of KENO-based criticality calculations at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Felsher, P.D.; McKamy, J.N.; Monahan, S.P. )

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of experimental data, it is necessary to rely on computer-based computational methods in evaluating the criticality condition of a nuclear system. The validity of the computer codes is established in a two-part procedure as outlined in ANSI/ANS 8.1. The first step, usually the responsibility of the code developer, involves verification that the algorithmic structure of the code is performing the intended mathematical operations correctly. The second step involves an assessment of the code's ability to realistically portray the governing physical processes in question. This is accomplished by determining the code's bias, or systematic error, through a comparison of computational results to accepted values obtained experimentally. In this paper, the authors discuss the validation process for KENO and the Hansen-Roach cross sections in use at EG and G Rocky Flats. The validation process at Rocky Flats consists of both global and local techniques. The global validation resulted in a maximum k{sub eff} limit of 0.95 for the limiting-accident scanarios of a criticality evaluation.

  19. Two-temperature models for nitrogen dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. Lino; Guerra, V.; Loureiro, J.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate sets of nitrogen state-resolved dissociation rates have been reduced to two-temperature (translational T and vibrational Tv) dissociation rates. The analysis of such two-temperature dissociation rates shows evidence of two different dissociation behaviors. For Tv < 0.3 T dissociation proceeds predominantly from the lower-lying vibrational levels, whereas for Tv > 0.3 T dissociation proceeds predominantly form the near-dissociative vibrational levels, with an abrupt change of behavior at Tv = 0.3 T. These two-temperature sets have then been utilized as a benchmark for the comparison against popular multitemperature dissociation models (Park, Hansen, Marrone-Treanor, Hammerling, Losev-Shatalov, Gordiets, Kuznetsov, and Macheret-Fridman). This has allowed verifying the accuracy of each theoretical model, and additionally proposing adequate values for any semi-empirical parameters present in the different theories. The Macheret-Fridman model, who acknowledges the existence of the two aforementioned dissociation regimes, has been found to provide significantly more accurate results than the other models. Although these different theoretical approaches have been tested and validated solely for nitrogen dissociation processes, it is reasonable to expect that the general conclusions of this work, regarding the adequacy of the different dissociation models, could be extended to the description of arbitrary diatomic dissociation processes.

  20. Prior Knowledge about Objects Determines Neural Color Representation in Human Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, A R E; Fahrenfort, J J; Meuwese, J D I; Scholte, H S; Lamme, V A F

    2016-04-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and de Ruiter 2008). Here, we investigated the influence of object knowledge on the neural substrates underlying subjective color vision. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, human subjects viewed a color that lay midway between red and green (ambiguous with respect to its distance from red and green) presented on either typical red (e.g., tomato), typical green (e.g., clover), or semantically meaningless (nonsense) objects. Using decoding techniques, we could predict whether subjects viewed the ambiguous color on typical red or typical green objects based on the neural response of veridical red and green. This shift of neural response for the ambiguous color did not occur for nonsense objects. The modulation of neural responses was observed in visual areas (V3, V4, VO1, lateral occipital complex) involved in color and object processing, as well as frontal areas. This demonstrates that object memory influences wavelength information relatively early in the human visual system to produce subjective color vision. PMID:25323417