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Sample records for haploid yeast cells

  1. The m6A methyltransferase Ime4 epitranscriptionally regulates triacylglycerol metabolism and vacuolar morphology in haploid yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pradeep Kumar; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2017-08-18

    N 6 -Methyladenosine (m 6 A) is among the most common modifications in eukaryotic mRNA. The role of yeast m 6 A methyltransferase, Ime4, in meiosis and sporulation in diploid strains is very well studied, but its role in haploid strains has remained unknown. Here, with the help of an immunoblotting strategy and Ime4-GFP protein localization studies, we establish the physiological role of Ime4 in haploid cells. Our data showed that Ime4 epitranscriptionally regulates triacylglycerol metabolism and vacuolar morphology through the long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase Faa1, independently of the RNA methylation complex (MIS complex). The MIS complex consists of the Ime4, Mum2, and Slz1 proteins. Our affinity enrichment strategy (methylated RNA immunoprecipitation assays) using m 6 A polyclonal antibodies coupled with mRNA isolation, quantitative real-time PCR, and standard PCR analyses confirmed the presence of m 6 A-modified FAA1 transcripts in haploid yeast cells. The term "epitranscriptional regulation" encompasses the RNA modification-mediated regulation of genes. Moreover, we demonstrate that the Aft2 transcription factor up-regulates FAA1 expression. Because the m 6 A methylation machinery is fundamentally conserved throughout eukaryotes, our findings will help advance the rapidly emerging field of RNA epitranscriptomics. The metabolic link identified here between m 6 A methylation and triacylglycerol metabolism via the Ime4 protein provides new insights into lipid metabolism and the pathophysiology of lipid-related metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Because the yeast vacuole is an analogue of the mammalian lysosome, our findings pave the way to better understand the role of m 6 A methylation in lysosome-related functions and diseases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Haploids from Industrial Strains of Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yuji; Ouchi, Kozo

    1989-01-01

    Strains of baker's yeast conventionally used by the baking industry in Japan were tested for the ability to sporulate and produce viable haploid spores. Three isolates which possessed the properties of baker's yeasts were obtained from single spores. Each strain was a haploid, and one of these strains, YOY34, was characterized. YOY34 fermented maltose and sucrose, but did not utilize galactose, unlike its parental strain. Genetic analysis showed that YOY34 carried two MAL genes, one functional and one cryptic; two SUC genes; and one defective gal gene. The genotype of YOY34 was identified as MATα MAL1 MAL3g SUC2 SUC4 gall. The MAL1 gene from this haploid was constitutively expressed, was dominant over other wild-type MAL tester genes, and gave a weak sucrose fermentation. YOY34 was suitable for both bakery products, like conventional baker's yeasts, and for genetic analysis, like laboratory strains. PMID:16347967

  3. Mutation induction in haploid yeast after split-dose radiation-exposure. I. Fractionated UV-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Schenk, K; Zölzer, F; Kiefer, J

    1989-01-01

    Mutation induction was investigated in wild-type haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae after split-dose UV-irradiation. Cells were exposed to fractionated 254 nm-UV-doses separated by intervals from 0 to 6 h with incubation either on non-nutrient or nutrient agar between. The test parameter was resistance to canavanine. If modifications of sensitivity due to incubation are appropriately taken into account there is no change of mutation frequency.

  4. Brewing characteristics of haploid strains isolated from sake yeast Kyokai No. 7.

    PubMed

    Katou, Taku; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2008-11-01

    Sake yeast exhibit various characteristics that make them more suitable for sake brewing compared to other yeast strains. Since sake yeast strains are Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterothallic diploid strains, it is likely that they have heterozygous alleles on homologous chromosomes (heterozygosity) due to spontaneous mutations. If this is the case, segregation of phenotypic traits in haploid strains after sporulation and concomitant meiosis of sake yeast strains would be expected to occur. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated 100 haploid strains from Kyokai No. 7 (K7), a typical sake yeast strain in Japan, and compared their brewing characteristics in small-scale sake-brewing tests. Analyses of the resultant sake samples showed a smooth and continuous distribution of analytical values for brewing characteristics, suggesting that K7 has multiple heterozygosities that affect brewing characteristics and that these heterozygous alleles do segregate after sporulation. Correlation and principal component analyses suggested that the analytical parameters could be classified into two groups, indicating fermentation ability and sake flavour. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Metabolic engineering of a haploid strain derived from a triploid industrial yeast for producing cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Rin; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Kong, In Iok; Kim, Heejin; Maurer, Matthew J; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Peng, Dairong; Wei, Na; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-03-01

    Many desired phenotypes for producing cellulosic biofuels are often observed in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, many industrial yeast strains are polyploid and have low spore viability, making it difficult to use these strains for metabolic engineering applications. We selected the polyploid industrial strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 4124 exhibiting rapid glucose fermentation capability, high ethanol productivity, strong heat and inhibitor tolerance in order to construct an optimal yeast strain for producing cellulosic ethanol. Here, we focused on developing a general approach and high-throughput screening method to isolate stable haploid segregants derived from a polyploid parent, such as triploid ATCC 4124 with a poor spore viability. Specifically, we deleted the HO genes, performed random sporulation, and screened the resulting segregants based on growth rate, mating type, and ploidy. Only one stable haploid derivative (4124-S60) was isolated, while 14 other segregants with a stable mating type were aneuploid. The 4124-S60 strain inherited only a subset of desirable traits present in the parent strain, same as other aneuploids, suggesting that glucose fermentation and specific ethanol productivity are likely to be genetically complex traits and/or they might depend on ploidy. Nonetheless, the 4124-60 strain did inherit the ability to tolerate fermentation inhibitors. When additional genetic perturbations known to improve xylose fermentation were introduced into the 4124-60 strain, the resulting engineered strain (IIK1) was able to ferment a Miscanthus hydrolysate better than a previously engineered laboratory strain (SR8), built by making the same genetic changes. However, the IIK1 strain showed higher glycerol and xylitol yields than the SR8 strain. In order to decrease glycerol and xylitol production, an NADH-dependent acetate reduction pathway was introduced into the IIK1 strain. By consuming 2.4g/L of acetate, the resulting strain (IIK1A

  6. A p53-dependent response limits the viability of mammalian haploid cells

    PubMed Central

    Olbrich, Teresa; Mayor-Ruiz, Cristina; Vega-Sendino, Maria; Gomez, Carmen; Ortega, Sagrario; Ruiz, Sergio; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The recent development of haploid cell lines has facilitated forward genetic screenings in mammalian cells. These lines include near-haploid human cell lines isolated from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (KBM7 and HAP1), as well as haploid embryonic stem cells derived from several organisms. In all cases, haploidy was shown to be an unstable state, so that cultures of mammalian haploid cells rapidly become enriched in diploids. Here we show that the observed diploidization is due to a proliferative disadvantage of haploid cells compared with diploid cells. Accordingly, single-cell–sorted haploid mammalian cells maintain the haploid state for prolonged periods, owing to the absence of competing diploids. Although the duration of interphase is similar in haploid and diploid cells, haploid cells spend longer in mitosis, indicative of problems in chromosome segregation. In agreement with this, a substantial proportion of the haploids die at or shortly after the last mitosis through activation of a p53-dependent cytotoxic response. Finally, we show that p53 deletion stabilizes haploidy in human HAP1 cells and haploid mouse embryonic stem cells. We propose that, similar to aneuploidy or tetraploidy, haploidy triggers a p53-dependent response that limits the fitness of mammalian cells. PMID:28808015

  7. Transcriptome analysis of functional differentiation between haploid and diploid cells of Emiliania huxleyi, a globally significant photosynthetic calcifying cell.

    PubMed

    von Dassow, Peter; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Probert, Ian; Wincker, Patrick; Da Silva, Corinne; Audic, Stéphane; Claverie, Jean-Michel; de Vargas, Colomban

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotes are classified as either haplontic, diplontic, or haplo-diplontic, depending on which ploidy levels undergo mitotic cell division in the life cycle. Emiliania huxleyi is one of the most abundant phytoplankton species in the ocean, playing an important role in global carbon fluxes, and represents haptophytes, an enigmatic group of unicellular organisms that diverged early in eukaryotic evolution. This species is haplo-diplontic. Little is known about the haploid cells, but they have been hypothesized to allow persistence of the species between the yearly blooms of diploid cells. We sequenced over 38,000 expressed sequence tags from haploid and diploid E. huxleyi normalized cDNA libraries to identify genes involved in important processes specific to each life phase (2N calcification or 1N motility), and to better understand the haploid phase of this prominent haplo-diplontic organism. The haploid and diploid transcriptomes showed a dramatic differentiation, with approximately 20% greater transcriptome richness in diploid cells than in haploid cells and only haploids included signal transduction and motility genes. Diploid-specific transcripts included Ca2+, H+, and HCO3- pumps. Potential factors differentiating the transcriptomes included haploid-specific Myb transcription factor homologs and an unusual diploid-specific histone H4 homolog. This study permitted the identification of genes likely involved in diploid-specific biomineralization, haploid-specific motility, and transcriptional control. Greater transcriptome richness in diploid cells suggests they may be more versatile for exploiting a diversity of rich environments whereas haploid cells are intrinsically more streamlined.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of functional differentiation between haploid and diploid cells of Emiliania huxleyi, a globally significant photosynthetic calcifying cell

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Eukaryotes are classified as either haplontic, diplontic, or haplo-diplontic, depending on which ploidy levels undergo mitotic cell division in the life cycle. Emiliania huxleyi is one of the most abundant phytoplankton species in the ocean, playing an important role in global carbon fluxes, and represents haptophytes, an enigmatic group of unicellular organisms that diverged early in eukaryotic evolution. This species is haplo-diplontic. Little is known about the haploid cells, but they have been hypothesized to allow persistence of the species between the yearly blooms of diploid cells. We sequenced over 38,000 expressed sequence tags from haploid and diploid E. huxleyi normalized cDNA libraries to identify genes involved in important processes specific to each life phase (2N calcification or 1N motility), and to better understand the haploid phase of this prominent haplo-diplontic organism. Results The haploid and diploid transcriptomes showed a dramatic differentiation, with approximately 20% greater transcriptome richness in diploid cells than in haploid cells and only ≤ 50% of transcripts estimated to be common between the two phases. The major functional category of transcripts differentiating haploids included signal transduction and motility genes. Diploid-specific transcripts included Ca2+, H+, and HCO3- pumps. Potential factors differentiating the transcriptomes included haploid-specific Myb transcription factor homologs and an unusual diploid-specific histone H4 homolog. Conclusions This study permitted the identification of genes likely involved in diploid-specific biomineralization, haploid-specific motility, and transcriptional control. Greater transcriptome richness in diploid cells suggests they may be more versatile for exploiting a diversity of rich environments whereas haploid cells are intrinsically more streamlined. PMID:19832986

  9. Potent L-lactic acid assimilation of the fermentative and heterothallic haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAM34-4C.

    PubMed

    Tomitaka, Masataka; Taguchi, Hisataka; Matsuoka, Masayoshi; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji; Akamatsu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We screened an industrial thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, KF7, as a potent lactic-acid-assimilating yeast. Heterothallic haploid strains KF7-5C and KF7-4B were obtained from the tetrads of the homothallic yeast strain KF7. The inefficient sporulation and poor spore viability of the haploid strains were improved by two strategies. The first strategy was as follows: (i) the KF7-5C was crossed with the laboratory strain SH6710; (ii) the progenies were backcrossed with KF7-5C three times; and (iii) the progenies were inbred three times to maintain a genetic background close to that of KF7. The NAM12 diploid between the cross of the resultant two strains, NAM11-9C and NAM11-13A, showed efficient sporulation and exhibited excellent growth in YPD medium (pH 3.5) at 35°C with 1.4-h generation time, indicating thermotolerance and acid tolerance. The second strategy was successive intrastrain crosses. The resultant two strains, KFG4-6B and KFG4-4B, showed excellent mating capacity. A spontaneous mutant of KFG4-6B, KFG4-6BD, showed a high growth rate with a generation time of 1.1 h in YPD medium (pH 3.0) at 35°C. The KFG4-6BD strain produced ascospores, which were crossed with NAM11-2C and its progeny to produce tetrads. These tetrads were crossed with KFG4-4B to produce NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A. The latter strain had a generation time of 1.6 h at 35°C in pH 2.5, thus exhibiting further thermotolerance and acid tolerance. A progeny from a cross of NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A yielded the strain NAM34-4C, which showed potent lactic acid assimilation and high transformation efficiency, better than those of a standard laboratory strain. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diploid, but not haploid, human embryonic stem cells can be derived from microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yong; Li, Rong; Huang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have shown tremendous potential in regenerative medicine, and the recent progress in haploid embryonic stem cells provides new insights for future applications of embryonic stem cells. Disruption of normal fertilized embryos remains controversial; thus, the development of a new source for human embryonic stem cells is important for their usefulness. Here, we investigated the feasibility of haploid and diploid embryo reconstruction and embryonic stem cell derivation using microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes. Diploid and haploid zygotes were successfully reconstructed, but a large proportion of them still had a tripolar spindle assembly. The reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, although the loss of chromosomes was observed in these zygotes. Finally, triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells were derived from tripronuclear and reconstructed zygotes (from which only one pronucleus was removed), but haploid human embryonic stem cells were not successfully derived from the reconstructed zygotes when two pronuclei were removed. Both triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells showed the general characteristics of human embryonic stem cells. These results indicate that the lower embryo quality resulting from abnormal spindle assembly contributed to the failure of the haploid embryonic stem cell derivation. However, the successful derivation of diploid embryonic stem cells demonstrated that microsurgical tripronuclear zygotes are an alternative source of human embryonic stem cells. In the future, improving spindle assembly will facilitate the application of triploid zygotes to the field of haploid embryonic stem cells. PMID:23255130

  11. Mutation induction in haploid yeast after split-dose radiation exposure. II. Combination of UV-irradiation and X-rays.

    PubMed

    Keller, B; Zölzer, F; Kiefer, J

    2004-01-01

    Split-dose protocols can be used to investigate the kinetics of recovery from radiation damage and to elucidate the mechanisms of cell inactivation and mutation induction. In this study, a haploid strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wild-type with regard to radiation sensitivity, was irradiated with 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) light and then exposed to X-rays after incubation for 0-6 hr. The cells were incubated either on nutrient medium or salt agar between the treatments. Loss of reproductive ability and mutation to canavanine resistance were measured. When the X-ray exposure immediately followed UV-irradiation, the X-ray survival curves had the same slope irrespective of the pretreatment, while the X-ray mutation induction curves were changed from linear to linear quadratic with increasing UV fluence. Incubations up to about 3 hr on nutrient medium between the treatments led to synergism with respect to cell inactivation and antagonism with respect to mutation, but after 4-6 hr the two treatments acted independently. Incubation on salt agar did not cause any change in the survival curves, but there was a strong suppression of X-ray-induced mutation with increasing UV fluence. On the basis of these results, we suggest that mutation after combined UV and X-ray exposure is affected not only by the induction and suppression of DNA repair processes, but also by radiation-induced modifications of cell-cycle progression and changes in the expression of the mutant phenotype. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Schrödinger’s Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Mordecai, Gideon J.; Verret, Frederic; Highfield, Andrea; Schroeder, Declan C.

    2017-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV); a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae. E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the “Cheshire Cat” escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA) that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger’s cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive. PMID:28335465

  13. Schrödinger's Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?

    PubMed

    Mordecai, Gideon J; Verret, Frederic; Highfield, Andrea; Schroeder, Declan C

    2017-03-18

    Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV); a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae . E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the "Cheshire Cat" escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA) that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger's cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive.

  14. Polyploid titan cells produce haploid and aneuploid progeny to promote stress adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gerstein, Aleeza C; Fu, Man Shun; Mukaremera, Liliane; Li, Zhongming; Ormerod, Kate L; Fraser, James A; Berman, Judith; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2015-10-13

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a major life-threatening fungal pathogen. In response to the stress of the host environment, C. neoformans produces large polyploid titan cells. Titan cell production enhances the virulence of C. neoformans, yet whether the polyploid aspect of titan cells is specifically influential remains unknown. We show that titan cells were more likely to survive and produce offspring under multiple stress conditions than typical cells and that even their normally sized daughters maintained an advantage over typical cells in continued exposure to stress. Although polyploid titan cells generated haploid daughter cell progeny upon in vitro replication under nutrient-replete conditions, titan cells treated with the antifungal drug fluconazole produced fluconazole-resistant diploid and aneuploid daughter cells. Interestingly, a single titan mother cell was capable of generating multiple types of aneuploid daughter cells. The increased survival and genomic diversity of titan cell progeny promote rapid adaptation to new or high-stress conditions. The ability to adapt to stress is a key element for survival of pathogenic microbes in the host and thus plays an important role in pathogenesis. Here we investigated the predominantly haploid human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, which is capable of ploidy and cell size increases during infection through production of titan cells. The enlarged polyploid titan cells are then able to rapidly undergo ploidy reduction to generate progeny with reduced ploidy and/or aneuploidy. Under stressful conditions, titan cell progeny have a growth and survival advantage over typical cell progeny. Understanding how titan cells enhance the rate of cryptococcal adaptation under stress conditions may assist in the development of novel drugs aimed at blocking ploidy transitions. Copyright © 2015 Gerstein et al.

  15. Generation of genetically modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell systems

    PubMed Central

    JIN, Li-Fang; LI, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology in the post-genomic era, researchers have concentrated their efforts on elucidating the relationships between genes and their corresponding functions. Recently, important progress has been achieved in the generation of genetically modified mice based on CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell (haESC) approaches, which provide new platforms for gene function analysis, human disease modeling, and gene therapy. Here, we review the CRISPR/Cas9 and haESC technology for the generation of genetically modified mice and discuss the key challenges in the application of these approaches. PMID:27469251

  16. Polyploid Titan Cells Produce Haploid and Aneuploid Progeny To Promote Stress Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Gerstein, Aleeza C.; Fu, Man Shun; Mukaremera, Liliane; Li, Zhongming; Ormerod, Kate L.; Fraser, James A.; Berman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a major life-threatening fungal pathogen. In response to the stress of the host environment, C. neoformans produces large polyploid titan cells. Titan cell production enhances the virulence of C. neoformans, yet whether the polyploid aspect of titan cells is specifically influential remains unknown. We show that titan cells were more likely to survive and produce offspring under multiple stress conditions than typical cells and that even their normally sized daughters maintained an advantage over typical cells in continued exposure to stress. Although polyploid titan cells generated haploid daughter cell progeny upon in vitro replication under nutrient-replete conditions, titan cells treated with the antifungal drug fluconazole produced fluconazole-resistant diploid and aneuploid daughter cells. Interestingly, a single titan mother cell was capable of generating multiple types of aneuploid daughter cells. The increased survival and genomic diversity of titan cell progeny promote rapid adaptation to new or high-stress conditions. PMID:26463162

  17. Human DAZL, DAZ and BOULE genes modulate primordial germ cell and haploid gamete formation

    PubMed Central

    Kee, Kehkooi; Angeles, Vanessa T; Flores, Martha; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Pera, Renee A Reijo

    2009-01-01

    The leading cause of infertility in men and women is quantitative and qualitative defects in human germ cell (oocyte and sperm) development. Yet, it has not been possible to examine the unique developmental genetics of human germ cell formation and differentiation due to inaccessibility of germ cells during fetal development. Although several studies have shown that germ cells can be differentiated from mouse and human embryonic stem cells, human germ cells differentiated in these studies generally did not develop beyond the earliest stages1-8. Here we used a germ cell reporter to quantitate and isolate primordial germ cells derived from both male and female hESCs. Then, by silencing and overexpressing genes that encode germ cell-specific cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins (not transcription factors), we modulated human germ cell formation and developmental progression. We observed that human DAZL (Deleted in AZoospermia-Like) functions in primordial germ cell formation, whereas closely-related genes, DAZ and BOULE, promote later stages of meiosis and development of haploid gametes. These results are significant to the generation of gametes for future basic science and potential clinical applications. PMID:19865085

  18. Identification of Spen as a Crucial Factor for Xist Function through Forward Genetic Screening in Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Monfort, Asun; Di Minin, Giulio; Postlmayr, Andreas; Freimann, Remo; Arieti, Fabiana; Thore, Stéphane; Wutz, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Summary In mammals, the noncoding Xist RNA triggers transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in female cells. Here, we report a genetic screen for silencing factors in X chromosome inactivation using haploid mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that carry an engineered selectable reporter system. This system was able to identify several candidate factors that are genetically required for chromosomal repression by Xist. Among the list of candidates, we identify the RNA-binding protein Spen, the homolog of split ends. Independent validation through gene deletion in ESCs confirms that Spen is required for gene repression by Xist. However, Spen is not required for Xist RNA localization and the recruitment of chromatin modifications, including Polycomb protein Ezh2. The identification of Spen opens avenues for further investigation into the gene-silencing pathway of Xist and shows the usefulness of haploid ESCs for genetic screening of epigenetic pathways. PMID:26190100

  19. Cell wall formation in zoospores of Allomyces arbuscula. II. Development of surface structure of encysted haploid zoospores, rhizoids, and hyphae.

    PubMed

    Kroh, M; Hendriks, H; Kirby, E G; Sassen, M M

    1976-08-01

    Development of haploid meiospores of Allomyces arbuscula into germling cells with rhizoids and hyphae was followed during incubation in complete growth medium. The surface structure of encysted meiospores, rhizoids and hyphae before and after extraction of amorphous materials with ethanolic KOH was studied by means of carbon-platinum replicas. After 2--3 min incubation in complete medium 10% of the meiospores were surrounded by a cell wall containing microfibrils embedded in a matrix. Structure of cell walls of encysted meiospores, rhizoids, and hyphae differ from one another by the location of amorphous materials and by the arrangement of chitin microfibrils.

  20. Plant regeneration from haploid cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Mediterranean rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Miara).

    PubMed

    Guiderdoni, E; Chaïr, H

    1992-11-01

    More than 750 plants were regenerated from protoplasts isolated from microspore callus-derived cell suspensions of the Mediterranean japonica rice Miara, using a nurse-feeder technique and N6-based culture medium. The mean plating efficiency and the mean regeneration ability of the protocalluses were 0.5% and 49% respectively. Flow cytometric evaluation of the DNA contents of 7 month old-cell and protoplast suspensions showed that they were still haploid. Contrastingly, the DNA contents of leaf cell nuclei of the regenerated protoclones ranged from 1C to 5C including 60% 2C plants. This was consistent with the morphological type and the fertility of the mature plants. These results and the absence of chimeric plants suggest that polyploidization occurred during the early phase of protoplast culture.

  1. Phenotypic diversity of diploid and haploid Emiliania huxleyi cells and of cells in different growth phases revealed by comparative metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Mausz, Michaela A; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In phytoplankton a high species diversity of microalgae co-exists at a given time. But diversity is not only reflected by the species composition. Within these species different life phases as well as different metabolic states can cause additional diversity. One important example is the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Diploid cells play an important role in marine ecosystems since they can form massively abundant algal blooms but in addition the less abundant haploid life phase of E. huxleyi occurs in lower quantities. Both life phases may fulfill different functions in the plankton. We hypothesize that in addition to the functional diversity caused by this life phase transition the growth stage of cells can also influence the metabolic composition and thus the ecological impact of E. huxleyi. Here we introduce a metabolomic survey in dependence of life phases as well as different growth phases to reveal such changes. The comparative metabolomic approach is based on the extraction of intracellular metabolites from intact microalgae, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Automated data processing and statistical analysis using canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed unique metabolic profiles for each life phase. Concerning the correlations of metabolites to growth phases, complex patterns were observed. As for example the saccharide mannitol showed its highest concentration in the exponential phase, whereas fatty acids were correlated to stationary and sterols to declining phase. These results are indicative for specific ecological roles of these stages of E. huxleyi and are discussed in the context of previous physiological and ecological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulation and estimation of gene number in a biological pathway using almost complete saturation mutagenesis screening of haploid mouse cells.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Masahiro; Kokubu, Chikara; Maeda, Yusuke; Sese, Jun; Horie, Kyoji; Sugimoto, Nakaba; Kinoshita, Taroh; Yusa, Kosuke; Takeda, Junji

    2014-11-24

    Genome-wide saturation mutagenesis and subsequent phenotype-driven screening has been central to a comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes in classical model organisms such as flies, nematodes, and plants. The degree of "saturation" (i.e., the fraction of possible target genes identified) has been shown to be a critical parameter in determining all relevant genes involved in a biological function, without prior knowledge of their products. In mammalian model systems, however, the relatively large scale and labor intensity of experiments have hampered the achievement of actual saturation mutagenesis, especially for recessive traits that require biallelic mutations to manifest detectable phenotypes. By exploiting the recently established haploid mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we present an implementation of almost complete saturation mutagenesis in a mammalian system. The haploid ESCs were mutagenized with the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and processed for the screening of mutants defective in various steps of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthetic pathway. The resulting 114 independent mutant clones were characterized by a functional complementation assay, and were shown to be defective in any of 20 genes among all 22 known genes essential for this well-characterized pathway. Ten mutants were further validated by whole-exome sequencing. The predominant generation of single-nucleotide substitutions by ENU resulted in a gene mutation rate proportional to the length of the coding sequence, which facilitated the experimental design of saturation mutagenesis screening with the aid of computational simulation. Our study enables mammalian saturation mutagenesis to become a realistic proposition. Computational simulation, combined with a pilot mutagenesis experiment, could serve as a tool for the estimation of the number of genes essential for biological processes such as drug target pathways when a positive selection of

  3. In vivo evolutionary engineering for ethanol-tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells triggers diploidization.

    PubMed

    Turanlı-Yıldız, Burcu; Benbadis, Laurent; Alkım, Ceren; Sezgin, Tuğba; Akşit, Arman; Gökçe, Abdülmecit; Öztürk, Yavuz; Baykal, Ahmet Tarık; Çakar, Zeynep Petek; François, Jean M

    2017-09-01

    Microbial ethanol production is an important alternative energy resource to replace fossil fuels, but at high level, this product is highly toxic, which hampers its efficient production. Towards increasing ethanol-tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the so far best industrial ethanol-producer, we evaluated an in vivo evolutionary engineering strategy based on batch selection under both constant (5%, v v -1 ) and gradually increasing (5-11.4%, v v -1 ) ethanol concentrations. Selection under increasing ethanol levels yielded evolved clones that could tolerate up to 12% (v v -1 ) ethanol and had cross-resistance to other stresses. Quite surprisingly, diploidization of the yeast population took place already at 7% (v v -1 ) ethanol level during evolutionary engineering, and this event was abolished by the loss of MKT1, a gene previously identified as being implicated in ethanol tolerance (Swinnen et al., Genome Res., 22, 975-984, 2012). Transcriptomic analysis confirmed diploidization of the evolved clones with strong down-regulation in mating process, and in several haploid-specific genes. We selected two clones exhibiting the highest viability on 12% ethanol, and found productivity and titer of ethanol significantly higher than those of the reference strain under aerated fed-batch cultivation conditions. This higher fermentation performance could be related with a higher abundance of glycolytic and ribosomal proteins and with a relatively lower respiratory capacity of the evolved strain, as revealed by a comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analysis between the evolved and the reference strains. Altogether, these results emphasize the efficiency of the in vivo evolutionary engineering strategy for improving ethanol tolerance, and the link between ethanol tolerance and diploidization. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. True-breeding targeted gene knock-out in barley using designer TALE-nuclease in haploid cells.

    PubMed

    Gurushidze, Maia; Hensel, Goetz; Hiekel, Stefan; Schedel, Sindy; Valkov, Vladimir; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are customizable fusion proteins able to cleave virtually any genomic DNA sequence of choice, and thereby to generate site-directed genetic modifications in a wide range of cells and organisms. In the present study, we expressed TALENs in pollen-derived, regenerable cells to establish the generation of instantly true-breeding mutant plants. A gfp-specific TALEN pair was expressed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in embryogenic pollen of transgenic barley harboring a functional copy of gfp. Thanks to the haploid nature of the target cells, knock-out mutations were readily detected, and homozygous primary mutant plants obtained following genome duplication. In all, 22% of the TALEN transgenics proved knocked out with respect to gfp, and the loss of function could be ascribed to the deletions of between four and 36 nucleotides in length. The altered gfp alleles were transmitted normally through meiosis, and the knock-out phenotype was consistently shown by the offspring of two independent mutants. Thus, here we describe the efficient production of TALEN-mediated gene knock-outs in barley that are instantaneously homozygous and non-chimeric in regard to the site-directed mutations induced. This TALEN approach has broad applicability for both elucidating gene function and tailoring the phenotype of barley and other crop species.

  5. Yeast fuel cell: Application for desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardiana, Ummy; Innocent, Christophe; Cretin, Marc; Buchari, Buchari; Gandasasmita, Suryo

    2016-02-01

    Yeasts have been implicated in microbial fuel cells as biocatalysts because they are non-pathogenic organisms, easily handled and robust with a good tolerance in different environmental conditions. Here we investigated baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the oxidation of glucose. Yeast was used in the anolyte, to transfer electrons to the anode in the presence of methylene blue as mediator whereas K3Fe(CN)6 was used as an electron acceptor for the reduction reaction in the catholyte. Power production with biofuel cell was coupled with a desalination process. The maximum current density produced by the cell was 88 mA.m-2. In those conditions, it was found that concentration of salt was removed 64% from initial 0.6 M after 1-month operation. This result proves that yeast fuel cells can be used to remove salt through electrically driven membrane processes and demonstrated that could be applied for energy production and desalination. Further developments are in progress to improve power output to make yeast fuel cells applicable for water treatment.

  6. Oilseed rape seeds with ablated defence cells of the glucosinolate–myrosinase system. Production and characteristics of double haploid MINELESS plants of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Ishita; Borgen, Birgit Hafeld; Hansen, Magnor; Honne, Bjørn Ivar; Müller, Caroline; Rohloff, Jens; Rossiter, John Trevor; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2011-01-01

    Oilseed rape and other crop plants of the family Brassicaceae contain a unique defence system known as the glucosinolate–myrosinase system or the ‘mustard oil bomb’. The ‘mustard oil bomb’ which includes myrosinase and glucosinolates is triggered by abiotic and biotic stress, resulting in the formation of toxic products such as nitriles and isothiocyanates. Myrosinase is present in specialist cells known as ‘myrosin cells’ and can also be known as toxic mines. The myrosin cell idioblasts of Brassica napus were genetically reprogrammed to undergo controlled cell death (ablation) during seed development. These myrosin cell-free plants have been named MINELESS as they lack toxic mines. This has led to the production of oilseed rape with a significant reduction both in myrosinase levels and in the hydrolysis of glucosinolates. Even though the myrosinase activity in MINELESS was very low compared with the wild type, variation was observed. This variability was overcome by producing homozygous seeds. A microspore culture technique involving non-fertile haploid MINELESS plants was developed and these plants were treated with colchicine to produce double haploid MINELESS plants with full fertility. Double haploid MINELESS plants had significantly reduced myrosinase levels and glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Wild-type and MINELESS plants exhibited significant differences in growth parameters such as plant height, leaf traits, matter accumulation, and yield parameters. The growth and developmental pattern of MINELESS plants was relatively slow compared with the wild type. The characteristics of the pure double haploid MINELESS plant are described and its importance for future biochemical, agricultural, dietary, functional genomics, and plant defence studies is discussed. PMID:21778185

  7. Evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles when haploid and diploid fitnesses are not equal.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michael F; Rescan, Marie

    2017-02-01

    Many organisms spend a significant portion of their life cycle as haploids and as diploids (a haploid-diploid life cycle). However, the evolutionary processes that could maintain this sort of life cycle are unclear. Most previous models of ploidy evolution have assumed that the fitness effects of new mutations are equal in haploids and homozygous diploids, however, this equivalency is not supported by empirical data. With different mutational effects, the overall (intrinsic) fitness of a haploid would not be equal to that of a diploid after a series of substitution events. Intrinsic fitness differences between haploids and diploids can also arise directly, for example because diploids tend to have larger cell sizes than haploids. Here, we incorporate intrinsic fitness differences into genetic models for the evolution of time spent in the haploid versus diploid phases, in which ploidy affects whether new mutations are masked. Life-cycle evolution can be affected by intrinsic fitness differences between phases, the masking of mutations, or a combination of both. We find parameter ranges where these two selective forces act and show that the balance between them can favor convergence on a haploid-diploid life cycle, which is not observed in the absence of intrinsic fitness differences. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Visualization and Image Analysis of Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Steve

    2016-01-01

    When converting real-life data via visualization to numbers and then onto statistics the whole system needs to be considered so that conversion from the analogue to the digital is accurate and repeatable. Here we describe the points to consider when approaching yeast cell analysis visualization, processing, and analysis of a population by screening techniques.

  9. Monkeypox Virus Host Factor Screen Using Haploid Cells Identifies Essential Role of GARP Complex in Extracellular Virus Formation.

    PubMed

    Realegeno, Susan; Puschnik, Andreas S; Kumar, Amrita; Goldsmith, Cynthia; Burgado, Jillybeth; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Olson, Victoria A; Carroll, Darin; Damon, Inger; Hirata, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Taroh; Carette, Jan E; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli Subbian

    2017-06-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. The screen revealed several candidate genes, including those involved in Golgi trafficking, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. We validated the role of a set of vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes during infection, VPS51 to VPS54 (VPS51-54), which comprise the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex. The GARP complex is a tethering complex involved in retrograde transport of endosomes to the trans -Golgi apparatus. Our data demonstrate that VPS52 and VPS54 were dispensable for mature virion (MV) production but were required for extracellular virus (EV) formation. For comparison, a known antiviral compound, ST-246, was used in our experiments, demonstrating that EV titers in VPS52 and VPS54 knockout (KO) cells were comparable to levels exhibited by ST-246-treated wild-type cells. Confocal microscopy was used to examine actin tail formation, one of the viral egress mechanisms for cell-to-cell dissemination, and revealed an absence of actin tails in VPS52KO- or VPS54KO-infected cells. Further evaluation of these cells by electron microscopy demonstrated a decrease in levels of wrapped viruses (WVs) compared to those seen with the wild-type control. Collectively, our data demonstrate the role of GARP complex genes in double-membrane wrapping of MVs necessary for EV formation, implicating the host endosomal trafficking pathway in orthopoxvirus infection. IMPORTANCE Human monkeypox is an emerging zoonotic infectious disease caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV). Of the two MPXV clades, the Congo Basin strain is associated with severe

  10. A Developmentally Regulated Chaperone Complex for the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Male Haploid Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Lith, Marcel; Karala, Anna-Riikka; Bown, Dave; Gatehouse, John A.; Ruddock, Lloyd W.; Saunders, Philippa T.K.

    2007-01-01

    Glycoprotein folding is mediated by lectin-like chaperones and protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) in the endoplasmic reticulum. Calnexin and the PDI homologue ERp57 work together to help fold nascent polypeptides with glycans located toward the N-terminus of a protein, whereas PDI and BiP may engage proteins that lack glycans or have sugars toward the C-terminus. In this study, we show that the PDI homologue PDILT is expressed exclusively in postmeiotic male germ cells, in contrast to the ubiquitous expression of many other PDI family members in the testis. PDILT is induced during puberty and represents the first example of a PDI family member under developmental control. We find that PDILT is not active as an oxido-reductase, but interacts with the model peptide Δ-somatostatin and nonnative bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor in vitro, indicative of chaperone activity. In vivo, PDILT forms a tissue-specific chaperone complex with the calnexin homologue calmegin. The identification of a redox-inactive chaperone partnership defines a new system of testis-specific protein folding with implications for male fertility. PMID:17507649

  11. Haploid plants produced by centromere-mediated genome elimination.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Maruthachalam; Chan, Simon W L

    2010-03-25

    Production of haploid plants that inherit chromosomes from only one parent can greatly accelerate plant breeding. Haploids generated from a heterozygous individual and converted to diploid create instant homozygous lines, bypassing generations of inbreeding. Two methods are generally used to produce haploids. First, cultured gametophyte cells may be regenerated into haploid plants, but many species and genotypes are recalcitrant to this process. Second, haploids can be induced from rare interspecific crosses, in which one parental genome is eliminated after fertilization. The molecular basis for genome elimination is not understood, but one theory posits that centromeres from the two parent species interact unequally with the mitotic spindle, causing selective chromosome loss. Here we show that haploid Arabidopsis thaliana plants can be easily generated through seeds by manipulating a single centromere protein, the centromere-specific histone CENH3 (called CENP-A in human). When cenh3 null mutants expressing altered CENH3 proteins are crossed to wild type, chromosomes from the mutant are eliminated, producing haploid progeny. Haploids are spontaneously converted into fertile diploids through meiotic non-reduction, allowing their genotype to be perpetuated. Maternal and paternal haploids can be generated through reciprocal crosses. We have also exploited centromere-mediated genome elimination to convert a natural tetraploid Arabidopsis into a diploid, reducing its ploidy to simplify breeding. As CENH3 is universal in eukaryotes, our method may be extended to produce haploids in any plant species.

  12. Genome-Wide Mutation Avalanches Induced in Diploid Yeast Cells by a Base Analog or an APOBEC Deaminase

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Artem G.; Stepchenkova, Elena I.; Waisertreiger, Irina S. R.; Noskov, Vladimir N.; Dhar, Alok; Eudy, James D.; Boissy, Robert J.; Hirano, Masayuki; Rogozin, Igor B.; Pavlov, Youri I.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic information should be accurately transmitted from cell to cell; conversely, the adaptation in evolution and disease is fueled by mutations. In the case of cancer development, multiple genetic changes happen in somatic diploid cells. Most classic studies of the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis have been performed in haploids. We demonstrate that the parameters of the mutation process are different in diploid cell populations. The genomes of drug-resistant mutants induced in yeast diploids by base analog 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP) or AID/APOBEC cytosine deaminase PmCDA1 from lamprey carried a stunning load of thousands of unselected mutations. Haploid mutants contained almost an order of magnitude fewer mutations. To explain this, we propose that the distribution of induced mutation rates in the cell population is uneven. The mutants in diploids with coincidental mutations in the two copies of the reporter gene arise from a fraction of cells that are transiently hypersensitive to the mutagenic action of a given mutagen. The progeny of such cells were never recovered in haploids due to the lethality caused by the inactivation of single-copy essential genes in cells with too many induced mutations. In diploid cells, the progeny of hypersensitive cells survived, but their genomes were saturated by heterozygous mutations. The reason for the hypermutability of cells could be transient faults of the mutation prevention pathways, like sanitization of nucleotide pools for HAP or an elevated expression of the PmCDA1 gene or the temporary inability of the destruction of the deaminase. The hypothesis on spikes of mutability may explain the sudden acquisition of multiple mutational changes during evolution and carcinogenesis. PMID:24039593

  13. Cell population modelling of yeast glycolytic oscillations.

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Michael A; Müller, Dirk; Reuss, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    We investigated a cell-population modelling technique in which the population is constructed from an ensemble of individual cell models. The average value or the number distribution of any intracellular property captured by the individual cell model can be calculated by simulation of a sufficient number of individual cells. The proposed method is applied to a simple model of yeast glycolytic oscillations where synchronization of the cell population is mediated by the action of an excreted metabolite. We show that smooth one-dimensional distributions can be obtained with ensembles comprising 1000 individual cells. Random variations in the state and/or structure of individual cells are shown to produce complex dynamic behaviours which cannot be adequately captured by small ensembles. PMID:12206713

  14. Mechanics and morphogenesis of fission yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Davì, Valeria; Minc, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    The integration of biochemical and biomechanical elements is at the heart of morphogenesis. While animal cells are relatively soft objects which shape and mechanics is mostly regulated by cytoskeletal networks, walled cells including those of plants, fungi and bacteria are encased in a rigid cell wall which resist high internal turgor pressure. How these particular mechanical properties may influence basic cellular processes, such as growth, shape and division remains poorly understood. Recent work using the model fungal cell fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, highlights important contribution of cell mechanics to various morphogenesis processes. We envision this genetically tractable system to serve as a novel standard for the mechanobiology of walled cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Convergent evolution of a fused sexual cycle promotes the haploid lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Racquel Kim; Scaduto, Christine M.; Torres, Sandra E.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2014-02-01

    Sexual reproduction is restricted to eukaryotic species and involves the fusion of haploid gametes to form a diploid cell that subsequently undergoes meiosis to generate recombinant haploid forms. This process has been extensively studied in the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which exhibits separate regulatory control over mating and meiosis. Here we address the mechanism of sexual reproduction in the related hemiascomycete species Candida lusitaniae. We demonstrate that, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, C. lusitaniae exhibits a highly integrated sexual program in which the programs regulating mating and meiosis have fused. Profiling of the C. lusitaniae sexual cycle revealed that gene expression patterns during mating and meiosis were overlapping, indicative of co-regulation. This was particularly evident for genes involved in pheromone MAPK signalling, which were highly induced throughout the sexual cycle of C. lusitaniae. Furthermore, genetic analysis showed that the orthologue of IME2, a `diploid-specific' factor in S. cerevisiae, and STE12, the master regulator of S. cerevisiae mating, were each required for progression through both mating and meiosis in C. lusitaniae. Together, our results establish that sexual reproduction has undergone significant rewiring between S. cerevisiae and C. lusitaniae, and that a concerted sexual cycle operates in C. lusitaniae that is more reminiscent of the distantly related ascomycete, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We discuss these results in light of the evolution of sexual reproduction in yeast, and propose that regulatory coupling of mating and meiosis has evolved multiple times as an adaptation to promote the haploid lifestyle.

  16. Dielectric modelling of cell division for budding and fission yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji; Sekine, Katsuhisa

    2007-02-01

    The frequency dependence of complex permittivity or the dielectric spectrum of a system including a cell in cell division has been simulated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. Two different types of cell division characteristic of budding and fission yeast were examined. The yeast cells are both regarded as a body of rotation, and thus have anisotropic polarization, i.e. the effective permittivity of the cell depends on the orientation of the cell to the direction of an applied electric field. In the perpendicular orientation, where the rotational axis of the cell is perpendicular to the electric field direction, the dielectric spectra for both yeast cells included one dielectric relaxation and its intensity depended on the cell volume. In the parallel orientation, on the other hand, two dielectric relaxations appeared with bud growth for budding yeast and with septum formation for fission yeast. The low-frequency relaxation was shifted to a lower frequency region by narrowing the neck between the bud and the mother cell for budding yeast and by increasing the degree of septum formation for fission yeast. After cell separation, the low-frequency relaxation disappeared. The simulations well interpreted the oscillation of the relative permittivity of culture broth found for synchronous cell growth of budding yeast.

  17. Yeast cell differentiation: Lessons from pathogenic and non-pathogenic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Palková, Zdena; Váchová, Libuše

    2016-09-01

    Yeasts, historically considered to be single-cell organisms, are able to activate different differentiation processes. Individual yeast cells can change their life-styles by processes of phenotypic switching such as the switch from yeast-shaped cells to filamentous cells (pseudohyphae or true hyphae) and the transition among opaque, white and gray cell-types. Yeasts can also create organized multicellular structures such as colonies and biofilms, and the latter are often observed as contaminants on surfaces in industry and medical care and are formed during infections of the human body. Multicellular structures are formed mostly of stationary-phase or slow-growing cells that diversify into specific cell subpopulations that have unique metabolic properties and can fulfill specific tasks. In addition to the development of multiple protective mechanisms, processes of metabolic reprogramming that reflect a changed environment help differentiated individual cells and/or community cell constituents to survive harmful environmental attacks and/or to escape the host immune system. This review aims to provide an overview of differentiation processes so far identified in individual yeast cells as well as in multicellular communities of yeast pathogens of the Candida and Cryptococcus spp. and the Candida albicans close relative, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular mechanisms and extracellular signals potentially involved in differentiation processes are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Polygenic Analysis of Maximal Ethanol Accumulation Capacity and Tolerance to High Ethanol Levels of Cell Proliferation in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Thiago M.; Foulquié-Moreno, María R.; Hubmann, Georg; Duitama, Jorge; Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Yang, Yudi; Dumortier, Françoise; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v) by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance. PMID:23754966

  19. Ninety-six haploid yeast strains with individual disruptions of open reading frames between YOR097C and YOR192C, constructed for the Saccharomyces genome deletion project, have an additional mutation in the mismatch repair gene MSH3.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Kevin R; Stone, Megan M; Farber, Rosann A; Petes, Thomas D

    2007-11-01

    As part of the Saccharomyces Genome Deletion Project, sets of presumably isogenic haploid and diploid strains that differed only by single gene deletions were constructed. We found that one set of 96 strains (containing deletions of ORFs located between YOR097C and YOR192C) in the collection, which was derived from the haploid BY4741, has an additional mutation in the MSH3 mismatch repair gene.

  20. Yeast Cells Expressing the Human Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase Reveal Correlations between Polymerase Fidelity and Human Disease Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yufeng; Kachroo, Aashiq H.; Yellman, Christopher M.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the human mitochondrial polymerase (polymerase-γ (Pol-γ)) are associated with various mitochondrial disorders, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome, Alpers syndrome, and progressive external opthamalplegia. To correlate biochemically quantifiable defects resulting from point mutations in Pol-γ with their physiological consequences, we created “humanized” yeast, replacing the yeast mtDNA polymerase (MIP1) with human Pol-γ. Despite differences in the replication and repair mechanism, we show that the human polymerase efficiently complements the yeast mip1 knockouts, suggesting common fundamental mechanisms of replication and conserved interactions between the human polymerase and other components of the replisome. We also examined the effects of four disease-related point mutations (S305R, H932Y, Y951N, and Y955C) and an exonuclease-deficient mutant (D198A/E200A). In haploid cells, each mutant results in rapid mtDNA depletion, increased mutation frequency, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mutation frequencies measured in vivo equal those measured with purified enzyme in vitro. In heterozygous diploid cells, wild-type Pol-γ suppresses mutation-associated growth defects, but continuous growth eventually leads to aerobic respiration defects, reduced mtDNA content, and depolarized mitochondrial membranes. The severity of the Pol-γ mutant phenotype in heterozygous diploid humanized yeast correlates with the approximate age of disease onset and the severity of symptoms observed in humans. PMID:24398692

  1. Doubled haploid production in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Obert, Bohus; Zácková, Zuzana; Samaj, Jozef; Pretová, Anna

    2009-01-01

    There is a requirement of haploid and double haploid material and homozygous lines for cell culture studies and breeding in flax. Anther culture is currently the most successful method producing doubled haploid lines in flax. Recently, ovary culture was also described as a good source of doubled haploids. In this review we focus on tissue and plants regeneration using anther culture, and cultivation of ovaries containing unfertilized ovules. The effect of genotype, physiological status of donor plants, donor material pre-treatment and cultivation conditions for flax anthers and ovaries is discussed here. The process of plant regeneration from anther and ovary derived calli is also in the focus of this review. Attention is paid to the ploidy level of regenerated tissue and to the use of molecular markers for determining of gametic origin of flax plants derived from anther and ovary cultures. Finally, some future prospects on the use of doubled haploids in flax biotechnology are outlined here.

  2. X-ray irradiation of yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Alessandra; Batani, Dimitri; Previdi, Fabio; Conti, Aldo; Pisani, Francesca; Botto, Cesare; Bortolotto, Fulvia; Torsiello, Flavia; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Allott, Ric M.; Lisi, Nicola; Milani, Marziale; Costato, Michele; Pozzi, Achille; Koenig, Michel

    1997-10-01

    Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast cells were irradiated using the soft X-ray laser-plasma source at Rutherford Laboratory. The aim was to produce a selective damage of enzyme metabolic activity at the wall and membrane level (responsible for fermentation) without interfering with respiration (taking place in mitochondria) and with nuclear and DNA activity. The source was calibrated by PIN diodes and X-ray spectrometers. Teflon stripes were chosen as targets for the UV laser, emitting X-rays at about 0.9 keV, characterized by a very large decay exponent in biological matter. X-ray doses to the different cell compartments were calculated following a Lambert-Bouguet-Beer law. After irradiation, the selective damage to metabolic activity at the membrane level was measured by monitoring CO2 production with pressure silicon detectors. Preliminary results gave evidence of pressure reduction for irradiated samples and non-linear response to doses. Also metabolic oscillations were evidenced in cell suspensions and it was shown that X-ray irradiation changed the oscillation frequency.

  3. Mitochondrial fission proteins regulate programmed cell death in yeast.

    PubMed

    Fannjiang, Yihru; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Lee, Sarah J; Qi, Bing; Pevsner, Jonathan; McCaffery, J Michael; Hill, R Blake; Basañez, Gorka; Hardwick, J Marie

    2004-11-15

    The possibility that single-cell organisms undergo programmed cell death has been questioned in part because they lack several key components of the mammalian cell death machinery. However, yeast encode a homolog of human Drp1, a mitochondrial fission protein that was shown previously to promote mammalian cell death and the excessive mitochondrial fragmentation characteristic of apoptotic mammalian cells. In support of a primordial origin of programmed cell death involving mitochondria, we found that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of human Drp1, Dnm1, promotes mitochondrial fragmentation/degradation and cell death following treatment with several death stimuli. Two Dnm1-interacting factors also regulate yeast cell death. The WD40 repeat protein Mdv1/Net2 promotes cell death, consistent with its role in mitochondrial fission. In contrast to its fission function in healthy cells, Fis1 unexpectedly inhibits Dnm1-mediated mitochondrial fission and cysteine protease-dependent cell death in yeast. Furthermore, the ability of yeast Fis1 to inhibit mitochondrial fission and cell death can be functionally replaced by human Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Together, these findings indicate that yeast and mammalian cells have a conserved programmed death pathway regulated by a common molecular component, Drp1/Dnm1, that is inhibited by a Bcl-2-like function.

  4. Accumulation and metabolism of selenium by yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Gientka, Iwona; Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the process of selenium bioaccumulation and selenium metabolism in yeast cells. Yeast cells can bind elements in ionic from the environment and permanently integrate them into their cellular structure. Up to now, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, and Yarrowia lipolytica yeasts have been used primarily in biotechnological studies to evaluate binding of minerals. Yeast cells are able to bind selenium in the form of both organic and inorganic compounds. The process of bioaccumulation of selenium by microorganisms occurs through two mechanisms: extracellular binding by ligands of membrane assembly and intracellular accumulation associated with the transport of ions across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cell interior. During intracellular metabolism of selenium, oxidation, reduction, methylation, and selenoprotein synthesis processes are involved, as exemplified by detoxification processes that allow yeasts to survive under culture conditions involving the elevated selenium concentrations which were observed. Selenium yeasts represent probably the best absorbed form of this element. In turn, in terms of wide application, the inclusion of yeast with accumulated selenium may aid in lessening selenium deficiency in a diet.

  5. Correlating yeast cell stress physiology to changes in the cell surface morphology: atomic force microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M; Adya, Ashok K

    2006-07-06

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful biophysical tool in biotechnology and medicine to investigate the morphological, physical, and mechanical properties of yeasts and other biological systems. However, properties such as, yeasts' response to environmental stresses, metabolic activities of pathogenic yeasts, cell-cell/cell-substrate adhesion, and cell-flocculation have rarely been investigated so far by using biophysical tools. Our recent results obtained by AFM on one strain each of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe show a clear correlation between the physiology of environmentally stressed yeasts and the changes in their surface morphology. The future directions of the AFM related techniques in relation to yeasts are also discussed.

  6. Oxidative Stress and Programmed Cell Death in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Farrugia, Gianluca; Balzan, Rena

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have long served as useful models for the study of oxidative stress, an event associated with cell death and severe human pathologies. This review will discuss oxidative stress in yeast, in terms of sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their molecular targets, and the metabolic responses elicited by cellular ROS accumulation. Responses of yeast to accumulated ROS include upregulation of antioxidants mediated by complex transcriptional changes, activation of pro-survival pathways such as mitophagy, and programmed cell death (PCD) which, apart from apoptosis, includes pathways such as autophagy and necrosis, a form of cell death long considered accidental and uncoordinated. The role of ROS in yeast aging will also be discussed. PMID:22737670

  7. Immobilisation increases yeast cells' resistance to dehydration-rehydration treatment.

    PubMed

    Borovikova, Diana; Rozenfelde, Linda; Pavlovska, Ilona; Rapoport, Alexander

    2014-08-20

    This study was performed with the goal of revealing if the dehydration procedure used in our new immobilisation method noticeably decreases the viability of yeast cells in immobilised preparations. Various yeasts were used in this research: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that were rather sensitive to dehydration and had been aerobically grown in an ethanol-containing medium, a recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic conditions which were completely non-resistant to dehydration and an anaerobically grown bakers' yeast strain S. cerevisiae, as well as a fairly resistant Pichia pastoris strain. Experiments performed showed that immobilisation of all these strains essentially increased their resistance to a dehydration-rehydration treatment. The increase of cells' viability (compared with control cells dehydrated in similar conditions) was from 30 to 60%. It is concluded that a new immobilisation method, which includes a dehydration stage, does not lead to an essential loss of yeast cell viability. Correspondingly, there is no risk of losing the biotechnological activities of immobilised preparations. The possibility of producing dry, active yeast preparations is shown, for those strains that are very sensitive to dehydration and which can be used in biotechnology in an immobilised form. Finally, the immobilisation approach can be used for the development of efficient methods for the storage of recombinant yeast strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Guidelines and recommendations on yeast cell death nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Bauer, Maria Anna; Zimmermann, Andreas; Aguilera, Andrés; Austriaco, Nicanor; Ayscough, Kathryn; Balzan, Rena; Bar-Nun, Shoshana; Barrientos, Antonio; Belenky, Peter; Blondel, Marc; Braun, Ralf J; Breitenbach, Michael; Burhans, William C; Büttner, Sabrina; Cavalieri, Duccio; Chang, Michael; Cooper, Katrina F; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Costa, Vítor; Cullin, Christophe; Dawes, Ian; Dengjel, Jörn; Dickman, Martin B; Eisenberg, Tobias; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Fasel, Nicolas; Fröhlich, Kai-Uwe; Gargouri, Ali; Giannattasio, Sergio; Goffrini, Paola; Gourlay, Campbell W; Grant, Chris M; Greenwood, Michael T; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Heger, Thomas; Heinisch, Jürgen; Herker, Eva; Herrmann, Johannes M; Hofer, Sebastian; Jiménez-Ruiz, Antonio; Jungwirth, Helmut; Kainz, Katharina; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Ludovico, Paula; Manon, Stéphen; Martegani, Enzo; Mazzoni, Cristina; Megeney, Lynn A; Meisinger, Chris; Nielsen, Jens; Nyström, Thomas; Osiewacz, Heinz D; Outeiro, Tiago F; Park, Hay-Oak; Pendl, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina; Picot, Stephane; Polčic, Peter; Powers, Ted; Ramsdale, Mark; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Schaffrath, Raffael; Segovia, Maria; Severin, Fedor F; Sharon, Amir; Sigrist, Stephan J; Sommer-Ruck, Cornelia; Sousa, Maria João; Thevelein, Johan M; Thevissen, Karin; Titorenko, Vladimir; Toledano, Michel B; Tuite, Mick; Vögtle, F-Nora; Westermann, Benedikt; Winderickx, Joris; Wissing, Silke; Wölfl, Stefan; Zhang, Zhaojie J; Zhao, Richard Y; Zhou, Bing; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Elucidating the biology of yeast in its full complexity has major implications for science, medicine and industry. One of the most critical processes determining yeast life and physiology is cel-lular demise. However, the investigation of yeast cell death is a relatively young field, and a widely accepted set of concepts and terms is still missing. Here, we propose unified criteria for the defi-nition of accidental, regulated, and programmed forms of cell death in yeast based on a series of morphological and biochemical criteria. Specifically, we provide consensus guidelines on the differ-ential definition of terms including apoptosis, regulated necrosis, and autophagic cell death, as we refer to additional cell death rou-tines that are relevant for the biology of (at least some species of) yeast. As this area of investigation advances rapidly, changes and extensions to this set of recommendations will be implemented in the years to come. Nonetheless, we strongly encourage the au-thors, reviewers and editors of scientific articles to adopt these collective standards in order to establish an accurate framework for yeast cell death research and, ultimately, to accelerate the pro-gress of this vibrant field of research.

  9. Guidelines and recommendations on yeast cell death nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Bauer, Maria Anna; Zimmermann, Andreas; Aguilera, Andrés; Austriaco, Nicanor; Ayscough, Kathryn; Balzan, Rena; Bar-Nun, Shoshana; Barrientos, Antonio; Belenky, Peter; Blondel, Marc; Braun, Ralf J.; Breitenbach, Michael; Burhans, William C.; Büttner, Sabrina; Cavalieri, Duccio; Chang, Michael; Cooper, Katrina F.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Costa, Vítor; Cullin, Christophe; Dawes, Ian; Dengjel, Jörn; Dickman, Martin B.; Eisenberg, Tobias; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Fasel, Nicolas; Fröhlich, Kai-Uwe; Gargouri, Ali; Giannattasio, Sergio; Goffrini, Paola; Gourlay, Campbell W.; Grant, Chris M.; Greenwood, Michael T.; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Heger, Thomas; Heinisch, Jürgen; Herker, Eva; Herrmann, Johannes M.; Hofer, Sebastian; Jiménez-Ruiz, Antonio; Jungwirth, Helmut; Kainz, Katharina; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Ludovico, Paula; Manon, Stéphen; Martegani, Enzo; Mazzoni, Cristina; Megeney, Lynn A.; Meisinger, Chris; Nielsen, Jens; Nyström, Thomas; Osiewacz, Heinz D.; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Park, Hay-Oak; Pendl, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina; Picot, Stephane; Polčic, Peter; Powers, Ted; Ramsdale, Mark; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Schaffrath, Raffael; Segovia, Maria; Severin, Fedor F.; Sharon, Amir; Sigrist, Stephan J.; Sommer-Ruck, Cornelia; Sousa, Maria João; Thevelein, Johan M.; Thevissen, Karin; Titorenko, Vladimir; Toledano, Michel B.; Tuite, Mick; Vögtle, F.-Nora; Westermann, Benedikt; Winderickx, Joris; Wissing, Silke; Wölfl, Stefan; Zhang, Zhaojie J.; Zhao, Richard Y.; Zhou, Bing; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Elucidating the biology of yeast in its full complexity has major implications for science, medicine and industry. One of the most critical processes determining yeast life and physiology is cellular demise. However, the investigation of yeast cell death is a relatively young field, and a widely accepted set of concepts and terms is still missing. Here, we propose unified criteria for the definition of accidental, regulated, and programmed forms of cell death in yeast based on a series of morphological and biochemical criteria. Specifically, we provide consensus guidelines on the differential definition of terms including apoptosis, regulated necrosis, and autophagic cell death, as we refer to additional cell death routines that are relevant for the biology of (at least some species of) yeast. As this area of investigation advances rapidly, changes and extensions to this set of recommendations will be implemented in the years to come. Nonetheless, we strongly encourage the authors, reviewers and editors of scientific articles to adopt these collective standards in order to establish an accurate framework for yeast cell death research and, ultimately, to accelerate the progress of this vibrant field of research. PMID:29354647

  10. Anhydrobiosis in yeast: cell wall mannoproteins are important for yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae resistance to dehydration.

    PubMed

    Borovikova, Diana; Teparić, Renata; Mrša, Vladimir; Rapoport, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The state of anhydrobiosis is linked with the reversible delay of metabolism as a result of strong dehydration of cells, and is widely distributed in nature. A number of factors responsible for the maintenance of organisms' viability in these conditions have been revealed. This study was directed to understanding how changes in cell wall structure may influence the resistance of yeasts to dehydration-rehydration. Mutants lacking various cell wall mannoproteins were tested to address this issue. It was revealed that mutants lacking proteins belonging to two structurally and functionally unrelated groups (proteins non-covalently attached to the cell wall, and Pir proteins) possessed significantly lower cell resistance to dehydration-rehydration than the mother wild-type strain. At the same time, the absence of the GPI-anchored cell wall protein Ccw12 unexpectedly resulted in an increase of cell resistance to this treatment; this phenomenon is explained by the compensatory synthesis of chitin. The results clearly indicate that the cell wall structure/composition relates to parameters strongly influencing yeast viability during the processes of dehydration-rehydration, and that damage to cell wall proteins during yeast desiccation can be an important factor leading to cell death. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The resurgence of haploids in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Forster, Brian P; Heberle-Bors, Erwin; Kasha, Ken J; Touraev, Alisher

    2007-08-01

    The life cycle of plants proceeds via alternating generations of sporophytes and gametophytes. The dominant and most obvious life form of higher plants is the free-living sporophyte. The sporophyte is the product of fertilization of male and female gametes and contains a set of chromosomes from each parent; its genomic constitution is 2n. Chromosome reduction at meiosis means cells of the gametophytes carry half the sporophytic complement of chromosomes (n). Plant haploid research began with the discovery that sporophytes can be produced in higher plants carrying the gametic chromosome number (n instead of 2n) and that their chromosome number can subsequently be doubled up by colchicine treatment. Recent technological innovations, greater understanding of underlying control mechanisms and an expansion of end-user applications has brought about a resurgence of interest in haploids in higher plants.

  12. A model for cell wall dissolution in mating yeast cells: polarized secretion and restricted diffusion of cell wall remodeling enzymes induces local dissolution.

    PubMed

    Huberman, Lori B; Murray, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Mating of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types signal using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, grow towards each other, and fuse to form a single diploid cell. To fuse, both cells dissolve their cell walls at the point of contact. This event must be carefully controlled because the osmotic pressure differential between the cytoplasm and extracellular environment causes cells with unprotected plasma membranes to lyse. If the cell wall-degrading enzymes diffuse through the cell wall, their concentration would rise when two cells touched each other, such as when two pheromone-stimulated cells adhere to each other via mating agglutinins. At the surfaces that touch, the enzymes must diffuse laterally through the wall before they can escape into the medium, increasing the time the enzymes spend in the cell wall, and thus raising their concentration at the point of attachment and restricting cell wall dissolution to points where cells touch each other. We tested this hypothesis by studying pheromone treated cells confined between two solid, impermeable surfaces. This confinement increases the frequency of pheromone-induced cell death, and this effect is diminished by reducing the osmotic pressure difference across the cell wall or by deleting putative cell wall glucanases and other genes necessary for efficient cell wall fusion. Our results support the model that pheromone-induced cell death is the result of a contact-driven increase in the local concentration of cell wall remodeling enzymes and suggest that this process plays an important role in regulating cell wall dissolution and fusion in mating cells.

  13. A Model for Cell Wall Dissolution in Mating Yeast Cells: Polarized Secretion and Restricted Diffusion of Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Induces Local Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Huberman, Lori B.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Mating of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types signal using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, grow towards each other, and fuse to form a single diploid cell. To fuse, both cells dissolve their cell walls at the point of contact. This event must be carefully controlled because the osmotic pressure differential between the cytoplasm and extracellular environment causes cells with unprotected plasma membranes to lyse. If the cell wall-degrading enzymes diffuse through the cell wall, their concentration would rise when two cells touched each other, such as when two pheromone-stimulated cells adhere to each other via mating agglutinins. At the surfaces that touch, the enzymes must diffuse laterally through the wall before they can escape into the medium, increasing the time the enzymes spend in the cell wall, and thus raising their concentration at the point of attachment and restricting cell wall dissolution to points where cells touch each other. We tested this hypothesis by studying pheromone treated cells confined between two solid, impermeable surfaces. This confinement increases the frequency of pheromone-induced cell death, and this effect is diminished by reducing the osmotic pressure difference across the cell wall or by deleting putative cell wall glucanases and other genes necessary for efficient cell wall fusion. Our results support the model that pheromone-induced cell death is the result of a contact-driven increase in the local concentration of cell wall remodeling enzymes and suggest that this process plays an important role in regulating cell wall dissolution and fusion in mating cells. PMID:25329559

  14. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Nedović, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjević, V; Kalušević, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovičová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Novel technologies in doubled haploid line development.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiaojiao; Wu, Penghao; Trampe, Benjamin; Tian, Xiaolong; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Chen, Shaojiang

    2017-11-01

    haploid inducer line can be transferred (DH) technology can not only shorten the breeding process but also increase genetic gain. Haploid induction and subsequent genome doubling are the two main steps required for DH technology. Haploids have been generated through the culture of immature male and female gametophytes, and through inter- and intraspecific via chromosome elimination. Here, we focus on haploidization via chromosome elimination, especially the recent advances in centromere-mediated haploidization. Once haploids have been induced, genome doubling is needed to produce DH lines. This study has proposed a new strategy to improve haploid genome doubling by combing haploids and minichromosome technology. With the progress in haploid induction and genome doubling methods, DH technology can facilitate reverse breeding, cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line production, gene stacking and a variety of other genetic analysis. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sake yeast strains have difficulty in entering a quiescent state after cell growth cessation.

    PubMed

    Urbanczyk, Henryk; Noguchi, Chiemi; Wu, Hong; Watanabe, Daisuke; Akao, Takeshi; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2011-07-01

    Sake yeast strains produce a high concentration of ethanol during sake brewing compared to laboratory yeast strains. As ethanol fermentation by yeast cells continues even after cell growth stops, analysis of the physiological state of the stationary phase cells is very important for understanding the mechanism of producing higher concentrations of ethanol. We compared the physiological characteristics of stationary phase cells of both sake and laboratory yeast strains in an aerobic batch culture and under sake brewing conditions. We unexpectedly found that sake yeast cells in the stationary phase had a lower buoyant density and stress tolerance than did the laboratory yeast cells under both experimental conditions. These results suggest that it is difficult for sake yeast cells to enter a quiescent state after cell growth has stopped, which may be one reason for the higher fermentation rate of sake yeast compared to laboratory yeast strains. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biocavity laser spectroscopy of genetically altered yeast cells and isolated yeast mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Hendricks, Judy K.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Copeland, R. Guild; Naviaux, Robert K.; Yaffe, Michael P.

    2006-02-01

    We report an analysis of 2 yeast cell mutants using biocavity laser spectroscopy. The two yeast strains differed only by the presence or absence of mitochondrial DNA. Strain 104 is a wild-type (ρ +) strain of the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strain 110 was derived from strain 104 by removal of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Removal of mtDNA causes strain 110 to grow as a "petite" (ρ -), named because it forms small colonies (of fewer cells because it grows more slowly) on agar plates supplemented with a variety of different carbon sources. The absence of mitochondrial DNA results in the complete loss of all the mtDNA-encoded proteins and RNAs, and loss of the pigmented, heme-containing cytochromes a and b. These cells have mitochondria, but the mitochondria lack the normal respiratory chain complexes I, III, IV, and V. Complex II is preserved because its subunits are encoded by genes located in nuclear DNA. The frequency distributions of the peak shifts produced by wild-type and petite cells and mitochondria show striking differences in the symmetry and patterns of the distributions. Wild-type ρ + cells (104) and mitochondria produced nearly symmetric, Gaussian distributions. The ρ - cells (110) and mitochondria showed striking asymmetry and skew that appeared to follow a Poisson distribution.

  18. Verification and characterization of chromosome duplication in haploid maize.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Couto, E G; Resende Von Pinho, E V; Von Pinho, R G; Veiga, A D; de Carvalho, M R; de Oliveira Bustamante, F; Nascimento, M S

    2015-06-26

    Doubled haploid technology has been used by various private companies. However, information regarding chromosome duplication methodologies, particularly those concerning techniques used to identify duplication in cells, is limited. Thus, we analyzed and characterized artificially doubled haploids using microsatellites molecular markers, pollen viability, and flow cytometry techniques. Evaluated material was obtained using two different chromosome duplication protocols in maize seeds considered haploids, resulting from the cross between the haploid inducer line KEMS and 4 hybrids (GNS 3225, GNS 3032, GNS 3264, and DKB 393). Fourteen days after duplication, plant samples were collected and assessed by flow cytometry. Further, the plants were transplanted to a field, and samples were collected for DNA analyses using microsatellite markers. The tassels were collected during anthesis for pollen viability analyses. Haploid, diploid, and mixoploid individuals were detected using flow cytometry, demonstrating that this technique was efficient for identifying doubled haploids. The microsatellites markers were also efficient for confirming the ploidies preselected by flow cytometry and for identifying homozygous individuals. Pollen viability showed a significant difference between the evaluated ploidies when the Alexander and propionic-carmin stains were used. The viability rates between the plodies analyzed show potential for fertilization.

  19. A Simple Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Active Transport in Yeast Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambuk, Boris U.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic "petite" mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells. I. Nuclear-directed protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Heude, M; Chanet, R; Moustacchi, E

    1975-04-01

    The contribution of nuclear-directed protein synthesis in the repair of lethal and mitochondrial genetic damage after UV-irradiation of exponential and stationary phage haploid yeast cells was examined. This was carried out using cycloheximide (CH), a specific inhibitor of nuclear protein synthesis. It appears that nuclear protein synthesis is required for the increase in survival seen after the liquid holding of cells at both stages, as well as for the "petite" recovery seen after the liquid holding of exponential phase cells. The characteristic negative liquid holding effect observed for the UV induction of "petites" in stationary phase cells (increase of the frequency of "petites" during storage) remained following all the treatments which inhibited nuclear protein synthesis. However, the application of photoreactivating light following dark holding with cycloheximide indicates that some steps of the repair of both nuclear and mitochondrial damage are performed in the absence of a synthesis of proteins.

  1. Stochastic Petri Net extension of a yeast cell cycle model.

    PubMed

    Mura, Ivan; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

    2008-10-21

    This paper presents the definition, solution and validation of a stochastic model of the budding yeast cell cycle, based on Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN). A specific family of SPNs is selected for building a stochastic version of a well-established deterministic model. We describe the procedure followed in defining the SPN model from the deterministic ODE model, a procedure that can be largely automated. The validation of the SPN model is conducted with respect to both the results provided by the deterministic one and the experimental results available from literature. The SPN model catches the behavior of the wild type budding yeast cells and a variety of mutants. We show that the stochastic model matches some characteristics of budding yeast cells that cannot be found with the deterministic model. The SPN model fine-tunes the simulation results, enriching the breadth and the quality of its outcome.

  2. The price of independence: cell separation in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Rebeca; Santos, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate goal of cell division is to give rise to two viable independent daughter cells. A tight spatial and temporal regulation between chromosome segregation and cytokinesis ensures the viability of the daughter cells. Schizosaccharomyces pombe, commonly known as fission yeast, has become a leading model organism for studying essential and conserved mechanisms of the eukaryotic cell division process. Like many other eukaryotic cells it divides by binary fission and the cleavage furrow undergoes ingression due to the contraction of an actomyosin ring. In contrast to mammalian cells, yeasts as cell-walled organisms, also need to form a division septum made of cell wall material to complete the process of cytokinesis. The division septum is deposited behind the constricting ring and it will constitute the new ends of the daughter cells. Cell separation also involves cell wall degradation and this process should be precisely regulated to avoid cell lysis. In this review, we will give a brief overview of the whole cytokinesis process in fission yeast, from the positioning and assembly of the contractile ring to the final step of cell separation, and the problems generated when these processes are not precise.

  3. Interactions of Condensed Tannins with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Cells and Cell Walls: Tannin Location by Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mekoue Nguela, Julie; Vernhet, Aude; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-02

    Interactions between grape tannins/red wine polyphenols and yeast cells/cell walls was previously studied within the framework of red wine aging and the use of yeast-derived products as an alternative to aging on lees. Results evidenced a quite different behavior between whole cells (biomass grown to elaborate yeast-derived products, inactivated yeast, and yeast inactivated after autolysis) and yeast cell walls (obtained from mechanical disruption of the biomass). Briefly, whole cells exhibited a high capacity to irreversibly adsorb grape and wine tannins, whereas only weak interactions were observed for cell walls. This last point was quite unexpected considering the literature and called into question the real role of cell walls in yeasts' ability to fix tannins. In the present work, tannin location after interactions between grape and wine tannins and yeast cells and cell walls was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy, light epifluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Microscopy observations evidenced that if tannins interact with cell walls, and especially cell wall mannoproteins, they also diffuse freely through the walls of dead cells to interact with their plasma membrane and cytoplasmic components.

  4. Binding mechanism of patulin to heat-treated yeast cell.

    PubMed

    Guo, C; Yuan, Y; Yue, T; Hatab, S; Wang, Z

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to assess the removal mechanism of patulin using heat-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and identify the role of different cell wall components in the binding process. In order to understand the binding mechanism, viable cells, heat-treated cells, cell wall and intracellular extract were performed to assess their ability to remove patulin. Additionally, the effects of chemical and enzymatic treatments of yeast on the binding ability were tested. The results showed that there was no significant difference between viable (53·28%) and heat-treated yeast cells (51·71%) in patulin binding. In addition, the cell wall fraction decreased patulin by 35·05%, and the cell extract nearly failed to bind patulin. Treatments with protease E, methanol, formaldehyde, periodate or urea significantly decreased (P < 0·05) the ability of heat-treated cells to remove patulin. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that more functional groups were involved in the binding process of heat-treated cells. Polysaccharides and protein are important components of yeast cell wall involved in patulin removal. In addition, hydrophobic interactions play a major role in binding processes. Heat-treated S. cerevisiae cells could be used to control patulin contamination in the apple juice industry. Also, our results proof that the patulin removal process is based mainly on the adsorption not degradation. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Nonlinear Dielectric Properties of Yeast Cells Cultured in Different Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanishi, Gomon; Fukuda, Naoki; Muraji, Masafumi

    The harmonics of the electric current through yeast suspensions, the nonlinear dielectric properties of yeast cells, have particular patterns according to the biological activity of the cells and the measurement of these patterns is a technique for determining the activity of living cells. The concentration of glucose and oxygen in yeast culture medium influences the manifestation of fermentation or respiration of yeast cells. Measurements were made with yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultured aerobically and anaerobically in sufficient glucose concentration, aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation, and aerobically in limited glucose concentration, respiration. The results showed that the harmonics were barely apparent for yeast cells in aerobic fermentation and respiratory; however, cells in the anaerobic fermentation displayed substantial third and fifth harmonics. We can say that environmental condition affects the yeast cells' nonlinear properties, from another viewpoint, the measurements of the nonlinear properties are available to determine the activity of yeast cells adjusted to the conditions of their cultivation.

  6. Cell wall of pathogenic yeasts and implications for antimycotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Cassone, A

    1986-01-01

    Yeast cell wall is a complex, multilayered structure where amorphous, granular and fibrillar components interact with each other to confer both the specific cell shape and osmotic protection against lysis. Thus it is widely recognized that as is the case with bacteria, yeast cell wall is a major potential target for selective chemotherapeutic drugs. Despite intensive research, very few such drugs have been discovered and none has found substantial application in human diseases to date. Among the different cell wall components, beta-glucan and chitin are the fibrillar materials playing a fundamental role in the overall rigidity and resistance of the wall. Inhibition of the metabolism of these polymers, therefore, should promptly lead to lysis. This indeed occurs and aculeacin, echinocandin and polyoxins are examples of agents producing such an action. Particular attention should be focused on chitin synthesis. Although quantitatively a minor cell wall component, chitin is important in the mechanism of dimorphic transition, especially in Candida albicans, a major human opportunistic pathogen. This transition is associated with increased invasiveness and general virulence of the fungus. Yeast cell wall may also limit the effect of antifungals which owe their action to disturbance of the cytoplasmic membrane or of cell metabolism. Indeed, the cell wall may hinder access to the cell interior both under growing conditions and, particularly, during cell ageing in the stationary phase, when important structural changes occur in the cell wall due to unbalanced wall growth (phenotypic drug resistance).

  7. Non-interferometric quantitative phase imaging of yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poola, Praveen K.; Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; John, Renu

    2015-12-01

    Real-time imaging of live cells is quite difficult without the addition of external contrast agents. Various methods for quantitative phase imaging of living cells have been proposed like digital holographic microscopy and diffraction phase microscopy. In this paper, we report theoretical and experimental results of quantitative phase imaging of live yeast cells with nanometric precision using transport of intensity equations (TIE). We demonstrate nanometric depth sensitivity in imaging live yeast cells using this technique. This technique being noninterferometric, does not need any coherent light sources and images can be captured through a regular bright-field microscope. This real-time imaging technique would deliver the depth or 3-D volume information of cells and is highly promising in real-time digital pathology applications, screening of pathogens and staging of diseases like malaria as it does not need any preprocessing of samples.

  8. Sharing the cell's bounty - organelle inheritance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Knoblach, Barbara; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2015-02-15

    Eukaryotic cells replicate and partition their organelles between the mother cell and the daughter cell at cytokinesis. Polarized cells, notably the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are well suited for the study of organelle inheritance, as they facilitate an experimental dissection of organelle transport and retention processes. Much progress has been made in defining the molecular players involved in organelle partitioning in yeast. Each organelle uses a distinct set of factors - motor, anchor and adaptor proteins - that ensures its inheritance by future generations of cells. We propose that all organelles, regardless of origin or copy number, are partitioned by the same fundamental mechanism involving division and segregation. Thus, the mother cell keeps, and the daughter cell receives, their fair and equitable share of organelles. This mechanism of partitioning moreover facilitates the segregation of organelle fragments that are not functionally equivalent. In this Commentary, we describe how this principle of organelle population control affects peroxisomes and other organelles, and outline its implications for yeast life span and rejuvenation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Studying the replicative life span of yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, David A

    2013-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a useful model for elucidating the pathways that control life span and the influence of environmental factors, such as calorie restriction (CR). For 75 years, CR has been studied for its ability to delay diseases of aging in mammals, from cancer to cardiovascular disease (McCay et al., Nutr Rev 33:241-243, 1975). In many other species, reducing calorie intake extends life span, including unicellular organisms (Jiang et al., FASEB J 14:2135-2137, 2000; Lin et al., Science 289:2126-2128, 2000), invertebrates (Rogina and Helfand, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15998-16003, 2004), and rodents (Martín-Montalvo et al., Oncogene 30:505-520, 2011). Here we describe how to calorically restrict yeast cells, the methods used to determine the replicative life span (RLS) of budding yeast cells, how to selectively kill daughter cells using the mother enrichment program (MEP), how to measure recombination frequency at the rDNA locus, how to isolate large quantities of old cells, and how to analyze the circular forms of DNA known as extrachromosomal rDNA circles (ERCs), a cause of aging in S. cerevisiae (Petes, Cell 19:765-774, 1980; Sinclair and Guarente, Cell 91:1033-1042, 1997; Defossez et al., Mol Cell 3:447-455, 1999).

  10. Study the oxidative injury of yeast cells by NADH autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ju; Wu, Wen-Lan; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Mei, Yun-Jun; Cai, Ru-Xiu; Shen, Ping

    2007-06-01

    Autofluorescence has an advantage over the extrinsic fluorescence of an unperturbed environment during investigation, especially in complex system such as biological cells and tissues. NADH is an important fluorescent substance in living cells. The time courses of intracellular NADH autofluorescence in the process of yeast cells exposed to H 2O 2 and ONOO - have been recorded in detail in this work. In the presence of different amounts of H 2O 2 and ONOO -, necrosis, apoptosis and reversible injury are initiated in yeast cells, which are confirmed by acridine orange/ethidum bromide and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. It is found that intracellular NADH content increases momently in the beginning of the apoptotic process and then decreases continually till the cell dies. The most remarkable difference between the apoptotic and the necrotic process is that the NADH content in the latter case changes much more sharply. Further in the case of reversible injury, the time course of intracellular NADH content is completely different from the above two pathways of cell death. It just decreases to some degree firstly and then resumes to the original level. Based on the role of NADH in mitochondrial respiratory chain, the time course of intracellular NADH content is believed to have reflected the response of mitochondrial redox state to oxidative stress. Thus, it is found that the mitochondrial redox state changes differently in different pathways of oxidative injury in yeast cells.

  11. Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging

    PubMed Central

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Baiano, Antonietta; De Gianni, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 μg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines. OTA and anthocyanins adsorption were not competitive phenomena. Unfortunately, the addition of yeast cells to wine could cause color loss; therefore, yeast selection should also focus on this trait to select the best strain. PMID:26516913

  12. High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Rahul

    Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density

  13. Isolation of total RNA from yeast cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ares, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    This article describes two procedures for isolating total RNA from yeast cell cultures. The first allows the convenient isolation of total RNA from early log-phase cultures (vegetative cells). RNA isolated in this way is intact and sufficiently pure for use in microarray experiments, primer extension, and RNase protection mapping. With additional treatment to remove contaminating genomic DNA, the preparation is suitable for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), cDNA library construction, high-throughput sequencing of RNA, or other manipulations. However, compared to vegetative cells, the isolation of RNA from cells late in meiosis (asci and ascospores) requires additional effort. This is because a tough cell wall composed of heavily cross-linked polysaccharides and proteins is built around the four spores during meiosis and ascospore development. Therefore, an alternative protocol is presented for extracting RNA from cells late in meiosis. This alternative may also be preferable for cells from stationary cultures or from yeast strains and other fungal species isolated from the environment.

  14. Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H) and doubled haploid (DH) palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest. PMID:20929530

  15. Immobilization of microbial cell and yeast cell and its application to biomass conversion using radiation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaetsu, Isao; Kumakura, Minoru; Fujimura, Takashi; Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao

    The recent results of immobilization of cellulase-producing cells and ethanol-fermentation yeast by radiation were reported. The enzyme of cellulase produced by immobilized cells was used for saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes and immobilized yeast cells were used for fermentation reaction from glucose to ethanol. The wastes such as chaff and bagasse were treated by γ-ray or electron-beam irradiation in the presence of alkali and subsequent mechanical crushing, to form a fine powder less than 50 μm in diameter. On the other hand, Trichoderma reesei as a cellulase-producing microbial cell was immobilized on a fibrous carrier having a specific porous structure and cultured to produce cellulase. The enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated waste was carried out using the produced cellulase. The enhanced fermentation process to produce ethanol from glucose with the immobilized yeast by radiation was also studied. The ethanol productivity of immobilized growing yeast cells thus obtained was thirteen times that of free yeast cells in a 1:1 volume of liquid medium to immobilized yeast cells.

  16. [Export of an invertase by yeast cells (Candida utilis)].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, O V; Sabirzianova, T A; Celiakh, I O; Kalebina, T S; Kulaev, I S

    2014-01-01

    Export and accumulation of various forms of invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) in the cell wall and culture liquid of the yeast Candida utilis was investigated. It was found that the high-molecular-weight CW-form of invertase is present in the cell wall. This form is not exported into the culture liquid, and it is by a third more glycosylated than the previously described exported S-form. It was shown that one of the two liquid forms of invertase exported into the culture-the glycosylated S-form--is retained in the cell wall, while the other one--the nonglycosylated F-form--was not detected in the cell wall. Based on these results, as well as data on the distribution dynamics of the enzyme in the culture liquid and in the cell wall during different growth stages of a yeast culture, we suggested that the nonglycosylated form was exported into the culture liquid via the zone of abnormal cell wall permeability and the glycosylated forms of this enzyme (both exported and nonexported) did not use this pathway (the degree of N-glycosylation is an important factor determining the final localization of the enzyme).

  17. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Cell Size Influences the Reproductive Potential and Total Lifespan of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast as Revealed by the Analysis of Polyploid Strains.

    PubMed

    Zadrag-Tecza, Renata; Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Alabrudzińska, Małgorzata; Skoneczna, Adrianna

    2018-01-01

    The total lifespan of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be divided into two phases: the reproductive phase, during which the cell undergoes mitosis cycles to produce successive buds, and the postreproductive phase, which extends from the last division to cell death. These phases may be regulated by a common mechanism or by distinct ones. In this paper, we proposed a more comprehensive approach to reveal the mechanisms that regulate both reproductive potential and total lifespan in cell size context. Our study was based on yeast cells, whose size was determined by increased genome copy number, ranging from haploid to tetraploid. Such experiments enabled us to test the hypertrophy hypothesis, which postulates that excessive size achieved by the cell-the hypertrophy state-is the reason preventing the cell from further proliferation. This hypothesis defines the reproductive potential value as the difference between the maximal size that a cell can reach and the threshold value, which allows a cell to undergo its first cell cycle and the rate of the cell size to increase per generation. Here, we showed that cell size has an important impact on not only the reproductive potential but also the total lifespan of this cell. Moreover, the maximal cell size value, which limits its reproduction capacity, can be regulated by different factors and differs depending on the strain ploidy. The achievement of excessive size by the cell (hypertrophic state) may lead to two distinct phenomena: the cessation of reproduction without "mother" cell death and the cessation of reproduction with cell death by bursting, which has not been shown before.

  19. Preparation of corncob grits as a carrier for immobilizing yeast cells for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Choon Geun; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

    2012-12-01

    In this study, DEAE-corncobs [delignified corncob grits derivatized with 2-(diethylamino)ethyl chloride hydrochloride (DEAE·HCl)] were prepared as a carrier to immobilize yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for ethanol production. The immobilized yeast cell reactor produced ethanol under optimized DEAE·HCl derivatization and adsorption conditions between yeast cells and the DEAE-corncobs. When delignified corncob grit (3.0 g) was derivatized with 0.5M DEAE·HCl, the yeast cell suspension (OD600 = 3.0) was adsorbed at >90% of the initial cell OD600. This amount of adsorbed yeast cells was estimated to be 5.36 mg-dry cells/g-DEAE corncobs. The Qmax (the maximum cell adsorption by the carrier) of the DEAE-corncobs was estimated to be 25.1 (mg/g), based on a Languir model biosorption isotherm experiment. When we conducted a batch culture with medium recycling using the immobilized yeast cells, the yeast cells on DEAE-corncobs produced ethanol gradually, according to glucose consumption, without cells detaching from the DEAE-corncobs. We observed under electron microscopy that the yeast cells grew on the surface and in the holes of the DEAEcorncobs. In a future study, DEAE-corncobs and the immobilized yeast cell reactor system will contribute to bioethanol production from biomass hydrolysates.

  20. Evaluation of a recombinant yeast cell estrogen screening assay.

    PubMed Central

    Coldham, N G; Dave, M; Sivapathasundaram, S; McDonnell, D P; Connor, C; Sauer, M J

    1997-01-01

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures derived from plant and environmental origins are reported to have hormonal activity. The potential for appreciable exposure of humans to such substances prompts the need to develop sensitive screening methods to quantitate and evaluate the risk to the public. Yeast cells transformed with plasmids encoding the human estrogen receptor and an estrogen responsive promoter linked to a reporter gene were evaluated for screening compounds for estrogenic activity. Relative sensitivity to estrogens was evaluated by reference to 17 beta-estradiol (E2) calibration curves derived using the recombinant yeast cells, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and a prepubertal mouse uterotrophic bioassay. The recombinant yeast cell bioassay (RCBA) was approximately two and five orders of magnitude more sensitive to E2 than MCF-7 cells and the uterotrophic assay, respectively. The estrogenic potency of 53 chemicals, including steroid hormones, synthetic estrogens, environmental pollutants, and phytoestrogens, was measured using the RCBA. Potency values produced with the RCBA relative to E2 (100) included estrone (9.6), diethylstilbestrol (74.3), tamoxifen (0.0047), alpha-zearalanol (1.3), equol (0.085), 4-nonylphenol (0.005), and butylbenzyl phathalate (0.0004), which were similar to literature values but generally higher than those produced by the uterotrophic assay. Exquisite sensitivity, absence of test compound biotransformation, ease of use, and the possibility of measuring antiestrogenic activity are important attributes that argue for the suitability of the RCBA in screening for potential xenoestrogens to evaluate risk to humans, wildlife, and the environment. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9294720

  1. Effect of Yeast Cell Morphology, Cell Wall Physical Structure and Chemical Composition on Patulin Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ying; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Bin; Wang, Zhouli; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-01-01

    The capability of yeast to adsorb patulin in fruit juice can aid in substantially reducing the patulin toxic effect on human health. This study aimed to investigate the capability of yeast cell morphology and cell wall internal structure and composition to adsorb patulin. To compare different yeast cell morphologies, cell wall internal structure and composition, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and ion chromatography were used. The results indicated that patulin adsorption capability of yeast was influenced by cell surface areas, volume, and cell wall thickness, as well as 1,3-β-glucan content. Among these factors, cell wall thickness and 1,3-β-glucan content serve significant functions. The investigation revealed that patulin adsorption capability was mainly affected by the three-dimensional network structure of the cell wall composed of 1,3-β-glucan. Finally, patulin adsorption in commercial kiwi fruit juice was investigated, and the results indicated that yeast cells could adsorb patulin from commercial kiwi fruit juice efficiently. This study can potentially simulate in vitro cell walls to enhance patulin adsorption capability and successfully apply to fruit juice industry. PMID:26295574

  2. Effect of Yeast Cell Morphology, Cell Wall Physical Structure and Chemical Composition on Patulin Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Bin; Wang, Zhouli; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-01-01

    The capability of yeast to adsorb patulin in fruit juice can aid in substantially reducing the patulin toxic effect on human health. This study aimed to investigate the capability of yeast cell morphology and cell wall internal structure and composition to adsorb patulin. To compare different yeast cell morphologies, cell wall internal structure and composition, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and ion chromatography were used. The results indicated that patulin adsorption capability of yeast was influenced by cell surface areas, volume, and cell wall thickness, as well as 1,3-β-glucan content. Among these factors, cell wall thickness and 1,3-β-glucan content serve significant functions. The investigation revealed that patulin adsorption capability was mainly affected by the three-dimensional network structure of the cell wall composed of 1,3-β-glucan. Finally, patulin adsorption in commercial kiwi fruit juice was investigated, and the results indicated that yeast cells could adsorb patulin from commercial kiwi fruit juice efficiently. This study can potentially simulate in vitro cell walls to enhance patulin adsorption capability and successfully apply to fruit juice industry.

  3. Cell Size Influences the Reproductive Potential and Total Lifespan of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast as Revealed by the Analysis of Polyploid Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Alabrudzińska, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    The total lifespan of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be divided into two phases: the reproductive phase, during which the cell undergoes mitosis cycles to produce successive buds, and the postreproductive phase, which extends from the last division to cell death. These phases may be regulated by a common mechanism or by distinct ones. In this paper, we proposed a more comprehensive approach to reveal the mechanisms that regulate both reproductive potential and total lifespan in cell size context. Our study was based on yeast cells, whose size was determined by increased genome copy number, ranging from haploid to tetraploid. Such experiments enabled us to test the hypertrophy hypothesis, which postulates that excessive size achieved by the cell—the hypertrophy state—is the reason preventing the cell from further proliferation. This hypothesis defines the reproductive potential value as the difference between the maximal size that a cell can reach and the threshold value, which allows a cell to undergo its first cell cycle and the rate of the cell size to increase per generation. Here, we showed that cell size has an important impact on not only the reproductive potential but also the total lifespan of this cell. Moreover, the maximal cell size value, which limits its reproduction capacity, can be regulated by different factors and differs depending on the strain ploidy. The achievement of excessive size by the cell (hypertrophic state) may lead to two distinct phenomena: the cessation of reproduction without “mother” cell death and the cessation of reproduction with cell death by bursting, which has not been shown before. PMID:29743970

  4. Modeling Yeast Cell Polarization Induced by Pheromone Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tau-Mu; Chen, Shanqin; Chou, Ching-Shan; Nie, Qing

    2007-07-01

    Yeast cells respond to spatial gradients of mating pheromones by polarizing and projecting up the gradient toward the source. It is thought that they employ a spatial sensing mechanism in which the cell compares the concentration of pheromone at different points on the cell surface and determines the maximum point, where the projection forms. Here we constructed the first spatial mathematical model of the yeast pheromone response that describes the dynamics of the heterotrimeric and Cdc42p G-protein cycles, which are linked in a cascade. Two key performance objectives of this system are (1) amplification—converting a shallow external gradient of ligand to a steep internal gradient of protein components and (2) tracking—following changes in gradient direction. We used simulations to investigate amplification mechanisms that allow tracking. We identified specific strategies for regulating the spatial dynamics of the protein components (i.e. their changing location in the cell) that would enable the cell to achieve both objectives.

  5. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  6. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-03-03

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 ). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ 0 cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ 0 cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ 0 cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent.

  7. Facile and quantitative electrochemical detection of yeast cell apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qiulin; Xiong, Shiquan; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan; Zhang, Xin

    2014-03-01

    An electrochemical method based on square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was developed to detect the apoptosis of yeast cells conveniently and quantitatively through the high affinity between Cu2+ and phosphatidylserine (PS) translocated from the inner to the outer plasma membrane of the apoptotic cells. The combination of negatively charged PS and Cu2+ could decrease the electrochemical response of Cu2+ on the electrode. The results showed that the apoptotic rates of cells could be detected quantitatively through the variations of peak currents of Cu2+ by SWASV, and agreed well with those obtained through traditional flow cytometry detection. This work thus may provide a novel, simple, immediate and accurate detection method for cell apoptosis.

  8. Nutrient depletion modifies cell wall adsorption activity of wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Sidari, R; Caridi, A

    2016-06-01

    Yeast cell wall is a structure that helps yeasts to manage and respond to many environmental stresses. The mannosylphosphorylation is a modification in response to stress that provides the cell wall with negative charges able to bind compounds present in the environment. Phenotypes related to the cell wall modification such as the filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are affected by nutrient depletion. The present work aimed at describing the effect of carbon and/or nitrogen limitation on the aptitude of S. cerevisiae strains to bind coloured polyphenols. Carbon- and nitrogen-rich or deficient media supplemented with grape polyphenols were used to simulate different grape juice conditions-early, mid, 'adjusted' for nitrogen, and late fermentations. In early fermentation condition, the R+G+B values range from 106 (high adsorption, strain Sc1128) to 192 (low adsorption, strain Σ1278b), in mid-fermentation the values range from 111 (high adsorption, strain Sc1321) to 258 (low adsorption, strain Sc2306), in 'adjusted' for nitrogen conditions the values range from 105 (high adsorption, strain Sc1321) to 194 (low adsorption, strain Sc2306) while in late fermentation conditions the values range from 101 (high adsorption, strain Sc384) to 293 (low adsorption, strain Sc2306). The effect of nutrient availability is not univocal for all the strains and the different media tested modified the strains behaviour. In all the media the strains show significant differences. Results demonstrate that wine yeasts decrease/increase their parietal adsorption activity according to the nutrient availability. The wide range of strain variability observed could be useful in selecting wine starters.

  9. Coupling Binding to Catalysis: Using Yeast Cell Surface Display to Select Enzymatic Activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keya; Bhuripanyo, Karan; Wang, Yiyang; Yin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We find yeast cell surface display can be used to engineer enzymes by selecting the enzyme library for high affinity binding to reaction intermediates. Here we cover key steps of enzyme engineering on the yeast cell surface including library design, construction, and selection based on magnetic and fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

  10. Synchronization of glycolytic oscillations in a yeast cell population.

    PubMed

    Danø, S; Hynne, F; De Monte, S; d'Ovidio, F; Sørensen, P G; Westerhoff, H

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of active phase synchronization in a suspension of oscillatory yeast cells has remained a puzzle for almost half a century. The difficulty of the problem stems from the fact that the synchronization phenomenon involves the entire metabolic network of glycolysis and fermentation, and consequently it cannot be addressed at the level of a single enzyme or a single chemical species. In this paper it is shown how this system in a CSTR (continuous flow stirred tank reactor) can be modelled quantitatively as a population of Stuart-Landau oscillators interacting by exchange of metabolites through the extracellular medium, thus reducing the complexity of the problem without sacrificing the biochemical realism. The parameters of the model can be derived by a systematic expansion from any full-scale model of the yeast cell kinetics with a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. Some parameter values can also be obtained directly from analysis of perturbation experiments. In the mean-field limit, equations for the study of populations having a distribution of frequencies are used to simulate the effect of the inherent variations between cells.

  11. Single-particle tracking of quantum dot-conjugated prion proteins inside yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Toshikazu; Kawai-Noma, Shigeko; Pack, Chan-Gi

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We develop a method to track a quantum dot-conjugated protein in yeast cells. {yields} We incorporate the conjugated quantum dot proteins into yeast spheroplasts. {yields} We track the motions by conventional or 3D tracking microscopy. -- Abstract: Yeast is a model eukaryote with a variety of biological resources. Here we developed a method to track a quantum dot (QD)-conjugated protein in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We chemically conjugated QDs with the yeast prion Sup35, incorporated them into yeast spheroplasts, and tracked the motions by conventional two-dimensional or three-dimensional tracking microscopy. The method paves the way towardmore » the individual tracking of proteins of interest inside living yeast cells.« less

  12. Raman scattering evidence of hydrohalite formation on frozen yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Okotrub, K A; Surovtsev, N V

    2013-02-01

    We studied yeast cells in physiological solution during freezing by Raman microspectroscopy technique. The purpose was to find out the origin of a sharp peak near ∼3430cm(-1) in Raman spectrum of frozen mammalian cells, observed earlier (J. Dong et al., Biophys. J. 99 (2010) 2453), which presumably could be used as an indicator of intracellar ice appearance. We have shown that this line (actually doublet of 3408 and 3425cm(-1)) corresponds to Raman spectrum of hydrohalite (NaCl⋅2H(2)O), which is formed as the result of the eutectic crystallization of the liquid solution around the cells. We also show that the spatial distribution of hydrohalite in the sample significantly depends on the cooling rate. At lower cooling rate (1°C/min), products of eutectic crystallization form layer on the cell surface which thickness varies for different cells and can reach ∼1μm in thickness. At higher cooling rate (20°C/min), the hydrohalite distribution appears more homogeneous, in the sample, and the eutectic crystallization layer around the cells was estimated to be less than ∼20nm. These experimental results are consistent with scenarios predicted by the two-factor hypothesis for freezing induced cell injury. This work demonstrates a potential of Raman microspectroscopy to study peculiarities of the eutectic crystallization around single cells in vivo with the high spatial resolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated RNA- and protein profiling of fermentation and respiration in diploid budding yeast provides insight into nutrient control of cell growth and development.

    PubMed

    Becker, Emmanuelle; Liu, Yuchen; Lardenois, Aurélie; Walther, Thomas; Horecka, Joe; Stuparevic, Igor; Law, Michael J; Lavigne, Régis; Evrard, Bertrand; Demougin, Philippe; Riffle, Michael; Strich, Randy; Davis, Ronald W; Pineau, Charles; Primig, Michael

    2015-04-24

    Diploid budding yeast undergoes rapid mitosis when it ferments glucose, and in the presence of a non-fermentable carbon source and the absence of a nitrogen source it triggers sporulation. Rich medium with acetate is a commonly used pre-sporulation medium, but our understanding of the molecular events underlying the acetate-driven transition from mitosis to meiosis is still incomplete. We identified 263 proteins for which mRNA and protein synthesis are linked or uncoupled in fermenting and respiring cells. Using motif predictions, interaction data and RNA profiling we find among them 28 likely targets for Ume6, a subunit of the conserved Rpd3/Sin3 histone deacetylase-complex regulating genes involved in metabolism, stress response and meiosis. Finally, we identify 14 genes for which both RNA and proteins are detected exclusively in respiring cells but not in fermenting cells in our sample set, including CSM4, SPR1, SPS4 and RIM4, which were thought to be meiosis-specific. Our work reveals intertwined transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms acting when a MATa/α strain responds to nutritional signals, and provides molecular clues how the carbon source primes yeast cells for entering meiosis. Our integrated genomics study provides insight into the interplay between the transcriptome and the proteome in diploid yeast cells undergoing vegetative growth in the presence of glucose (fermentation) or acetate (respiration). Furthermore, it reveals novel target genes involved in these processes for Ume6, the DNA binding subunit of the conserved histone deacetylase Rpd3 and the co-repressor Sin3. We have combined data from an RNA profiling experiment using tiling arrays that cover the entire yeast genome, and a large-scale protein detection analysis based on mass spectrometry in diploid MATa/α cells. This distinguishes our study from most others in the field-which investigate haploid yeast strains-because only diploid cells can undergo meiotic development

  14. Integrated RNA- and protein profiling of fermentation and respiration in diploid budding yeast provides insight into nutrient control of cell growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Emmanuelle; Liu, Yuchen; Lardenois, Aurélie; Walther, Thomas; Horecka, Joe; Stuparevic, Igor; Law, Michael J.; Lavigne, Régis; Evrard, Bertrand; Demougin, Philippe; Riffle, Michael; Strich, Randy; Davis, Ronald W.; Pineau, Charles; Primig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Diploid budding yeast undergoes rapid mitosis when it ferments glucose, and in the presence of a non-fermentable carbon source and the absence of a nitrogen source it triggers sporulation. Rich medium with acetate is a commonly used pre-sporulation medium, but our understanding of the molecular events underlying the acetate-driven transition from mitosis to meiosis is still incomplete. We identified 263 proteins for which mRNA and protein synthesis are linked or uncoupled in fermenting and respiring cells. Using motif predictions, interaction data and RNA profiling we find among them 28 likely targets for Ume6, a subunit of the conserved Rpd3/Sin3 histone deacetylase-complex regulating genes involved in metabolism, stress response and meiosis. Finally, we identify 14 genes for which both RNA and proteins are detected exclusively in respiring cells but not in fermenting cells in our sample set, including CSM4, SPR1, SPS4 and RIM4, which were thought to be meiosis-specific. Our work reveals intertwined transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms acting when a MATa/α strain responds to nutritional signals, and provides molecular clues how the carbon source primes yeast cells for entering meiosis. Biological significance Our integrated genomics study provides insight into the interplay between the transcriptome and the proteome in diploid yeast cells undergoing vegetative growth in the presence of glucose (fermentation) or acetate (respiration). Furthermore, it reveals novel target genes involved in these processes for Ume6, the DNA binding subunit of the conserved histone deacetylase Rpd3 and the co-repressor Sin3. We have combined data from an RNA profiling experiment using tiling arrays that cover the entire yeast genome, and a large-scale protein detection analysis based on mass spectrometry in diploid MATa/α cells. This distinguishes our study from most others in the field—which investigate haploid yeast strains—because only diploid cells can

  15. Yeast Modulation of Human Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ida M.; Christensen, Jeffrey E.; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The concept of individual microorganisms influencing the makeup of T cell subsets via interactions with intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) appears to constitute the foundation for immunoregulatory effects of probiotics, and several studies have reported probiotic strains resulting in reduction of intestinal inflammation through modulation of DC function. Consequent to a focus on Saccharomyces boulardii as the fundamental probiotic yeast, very little is known about hundreds of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in terms of their interaction with the human gastrointestinal immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate 170 yeast strains representing 75 diverse species for modulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion by human DCs in vitro, as compared to cytokine responses induced by a S. boulardii reference strain with probiotic properties documented in clinical trials. Furthermore, we investigated whether cytokine inducing interactions between yeasts and human DCs are dependent upon yeast viability or rather a product of membrane interactions regardless of yeast metabolic function. We demonstrate high diversity in yeast induced cytokine profiles and employ multivariate data analysis to reveal distinct clustering of yeasts inducing similar cytokine profiles in DCs, highlighting clear species distinction within specific yeast genera. The observed differences in induced DC cytokine profiles add to the currently very limited knowledge of the cross-talk between yeasts and human immune cells and provide a foundation for selecting yeast strains for further characterization and development toward potentially novel yeast probiotics. Additionally, we present data to support a hypothesis that the interaction between yeasts and human DCs does not solely depend on yeast viability, a concept which may suggest a need for further classifications beyond the current

  16. Assessment of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae component binding to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using bovine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziwei; You, Qiumei; Ossa, Faisury; Mead, Philip; Quinton, Margaret; Karrow, Niel A

    2016-03-01

    Since yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its components are being used for the prevention and treatment of enteric diseases in different species, they may also be useful for preventing Johne's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study aimed to identify potential yeast derivatives that may be used to help prevent MAP infection. The adherence of mCherry-labeled MAP to bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T cells) and bovine primary epithelial cells (BECs) co-cultured with yeast cell wall components (CWCs) from four different yeast strains (A, B, C and D) and two forms of dead yeast from strain A was investigated. The CWCs from all four yeast strains and the other two forms of dead yeast from strain A reduced MAP adhesion to MAC-T cells and BECs in a concentration-dependent manner after 6-h of exposure, with the dead yeast having the greatest effect. The following in vitro binding studies suggest that dead yeast and its' CWCs may be useful for reducing risk of MAP infection.

  17. Cell-surface display of enzymes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-02-01

    In yeast cell-surface displays, functional proteins, such as cellulases, are genetically fused to an anchor protein and expressed on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is often utilized as a cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and proteins, is the most commonly used yeast for cell-surface display. To construct yeast cells with a desired function, such as the ability to utilize cellulose as a substrate for bioethanol production, cell-surface display techniques for the efficient expression of enzymes on the cell membrane need to be combined with metabolic engineering approaches for manipulating target pathways within cells. In this Minireview, we summarize the recent progress of biorefinery fields in the development and application of yeast cell-surface displays from a synthetic biology perspective and discuss approaches for further enhancing cell-surface display efficiency. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  18. Biosynthesis of amorphous mesoporous aluminophosphates using yeast cells as templates

    SciTech Connect

    Sifontes, Ángela B., E-mail: asifonte@ivic.gob.ve; González, Gema; Tovar, Leidy M.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Amorphous aluminophosphates can take place using yeast as template. ► A mesoporous material was obtained. ► The specific surface area after calcinations ranged between 176 and 214 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: In this study aluminophosphates have been synthesized from aluminum isopropoxide and phosphoric acid solutions using yeast cells as template. The physicochemical characterization was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis; X-ray diffraction; Fourier transform infrared; N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy and potentiometric titration with N-butylamine for determination of: thermal stability; crystalline structure; textural properties; morphology and surface acidity,more » respectively. The calcined powders consisted of an intimate mixture of amorphous and crystallized AlPO particles with sizes between 23 and 30 nm. The average pore size observed is 13–16 nm and the specific surface area after calcinations (at 650 °C) ranged between 176 and 214 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}.« less

  19. A Slowed Cell Cycle Stabilizes the Budding Yeast Genome.

    PubMed

    Vinton, Peter J; Weinert, Ted

    2017-06-01

    During cell division, aberrant DNA structures are detected by regulators called checkpoints that slow division to allow error correction. In addition to checkpoint-induced delay, it is widely assumed, though rarely shown, that merely slowing the cell cycle might allow more time for error detection and correction, thus resulting in a more stable genome. Fidelity by a slowed cell cycle might be independent of checkpoints. Here we tested the hypothesis that a slowed cell cycle stabilizes the genome, independent of checkpoints, in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We were led to this hypothesis when we identified a gene ( ERV14 , an ER cargo membrane protein) that when mutated, unexpectedly stabilized the genome, as measured by three different chromosome assays. After extensive studies of pathways rendered dysfunctional in erv14 mutant cells, we are led to the inference that no particular pathway is involved in stabilization, but rather the slowed cell cycle induced by erv14 stabilized the genome. We then demonstrated that, in genetic mutations and chemical treatments unrelated to ERV14 , a slowed cell cycle indeed correlates with a more stable genome, even in checkpoint-proficient cells. Data suggest a delay in G2/M may commonly stabilize the genome. We conclude that chromosome errors are more rarely made or are more readily corrected when the cell cycle is slowed (even ∼15 min longer in an ∼100-min cell cycle). And, some chromosome errors may not signal checkpoint-mediated responses, or do not sufficiently signal to allow correction, and their correction benefits from this "time checkpoint." Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Astaxanthinogenesis in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma - optimization of low-cost culture media and yeast cell-wall lysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Baron, M.; Guimaraes, M.F.

    Astaxanthin is a diketo-dihydroxy-carotenoid produced by Phaffia rhodozyma, a basidiomicetous yeast. A low-cost fermentation medium consisting of raw sugarcane juice and urea was developed to exploit the active sucrolytic/urelolytic enzyme apparatus inherent to the yeast. As compared to the beneficial effect of 0.1 g% urea, a ready nitrogen source, mild phosphoric pre inversion of juice sucrose to glucose and fructose, promptly fermentable carbon sources, resulted in smaller benefits. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was found to be a valuable supplement for both yeast biomass yield (9.2 g dry cells/L) and astaxanthin production (1.3 mg/g cells). Distillery effluent (vinace), despite only amore » slightly positive effect on yeast growth, allowed for the highest pigment productivity (1.9 mg/g cells). Trace amounts of Ni{sup 2} (1 mg/L, as a cofactor for urease) resulted in controversial effects, namely, biomass decrease and astaxanthin increase, with no effect on the release (and uptake) of ammonium ion from urea. 13 refs., 6 figs.« less

  1. Yeast cell surface display for lipase whole cell catalyst and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Rui; Lian, Zhongshuai

    The cell surface display technique allows for the expression of target proteins or peptides on the microbial cell surface by fusing an appropriate protein as an anchoring motif. Yeast display systems, such as Pichia pastoris, Yarowia lipolytica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are ideal, alternative and extensive display systems with the advantage of simple genetic manipulation and post-translational modification of expressed heterologous proteins. Engineered yeasts show high performance characteristics and variant utilizations. Herein, we comprehensively summarize the variant factors affecting lipase whole cell catalyst activity and display efficiency, including the structure and size of target proteins, screening anchor proteins, type and chainmore » length of linkers, and the appropriate matching rules among the above-mentioned display units. Furthermore, we also address novel approaches to enhance stability and activity of recombinant lipases, such as VHb gene co-expression, multi-enzyme co-display technique, and the micro-environmental interference and self-assembly techniques. Finally, we represent the variety of applications of whole cell surface displayed lipases on yeast cells in non-aqueous phases, including synthesis of esters, PUFA enrichment, resolution of chiral drugs, organic synthesis and biofuels. We demonstrate that the lipase surface display technique is a powerful tool for functionalizing yeasts to serve as whole cell catalysts, and increasing interest is providing an impetus for broad application of this technique.« less

  2. Cell permeability and nuclear DNA staining by propidium iodide in basidiomycetous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Fan, Yuxuan; Li, Chen; Wang, Qiming; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Li, Fuli; Wang, Shi'an

    2018-05-01

    Non-model yeasts within basidiomycetes have considerable importance in agriculture, industry, and environment, but they are not as well studied as ascomycetous yeasts. Serving as a basic technique, nuclear DNA staining is widely used in physiology, ecology, cell biology, and genetics. However, it is unclear whether the classical nuclear DNA staining method for ascomycetous yeasts is applicable to basidiomycetous yeasts. In this study, 5 yeasts ineffectively stained by the classical propidium iodide (PI) staining method were identified from 23 representative basidiomycetous yeasts. Pretreatment of cells using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or snailase markedly improved cell penetration to PI and thus enabled DNA content determination by flow cytometry on the recalcitrant yeasts. The pretreatments are efficient, simple, and fast, avoiding tedious mutagenesis or genetic engineering used in previous reports. The heterogeneity of cell penetration to PI among basidiomycetous yeasts was attributed to the discrepancy in cell wall polysaccharides instead of capsule or plasma membrane. This study also indicated that care must be taken in attributing PI-negative staining as viable cells when studying non-model microorganisms.

  3. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Vanessa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Silvestri, Romano; La Regina, Giuseppe; Falcone, Claudio; Mazzoni, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components. PMID:22970337

  4. Continuous beer fermentation using immobilized yeast cell bioreactor systems.

    PubMed

    Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, José A

    2005-01-01

    Traditional beer fermentation and maturation processes use open fermentation and lager tanks. Although these vessels had previously been considered indispensable, during the past decades they were in many breweries replaced by large production units (cylindroconical tanks). These have proved to be successful, both providing operating advantages and ensuring the quality of the final beer. Another promising contemporary technology, namely, continuous beer fermentation using immobilized brewing yeast, by contrast, has found only a limited number of industrial applications. Continuous fermentation systems based on immobilized cell technology, albeit initially successful, were condemned to failure for several reasons. These include engineering problems (excess biomass and problems with CO(2) removal, optimization of operating conditions, clogging and channeling of the reactor), unbalanced beer flavor (altered cell physiology, cell aging), and unrealized cost advantages (carrier price, complex and unstable operation). However, recent development in reactor design and understanding of immobilized cell physiology, together with application of novel carrier materials, could provide a new stimulus to both research and application of this promising technology.

  5. Nonmutagenic carcinogens induce intrachromosomal recombination in dividing yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, R H

    1993-12-01

    A large number of animal and human carcinogens without apparent genotoxic activity exist (nonmutagenic carcinogens) that are difficult or impossible to detect with the currently used short-term tests. Because of the association of carcinogenesis with genome rearrangement, a system selecting for intrachromosomal recombination (DEL recombination) that results in genome rearrangement has been constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because DEL recombination is under different genetic control than interchromosomal recombination and meiotic recombination, it is probably due to a different mechanism. It has been found that DEL recombination is readily inducible by 10 mutagenic carcinogens and 17 nonmutagenic carcinogens that are not detectable (false negatives) with the Ames assay. In addition, three out of four mutagens that do not cause cancer (false positives in the Ames assay) do not induce DEL recombination. DEL recombination is inducible by UV only in dividing cells but not in cells synchronized in the G1 or G2 phase of the cell cycle. Interchromosomal recombination, on the other hand, is inducible in G1 but not in G2. The nonmutagenic carcinogens induce DEL recombination only in actively growing cells, which may give some indication as to their mechanism. Further characterization of the mechanism involved in induction of DEL recombination may contribute to the understanding of the biological activity of nonmutagenic carcinogens.

  6. Human Cpr (Cell Cycle Progression Restoration) Genes Impart a Far(-) Phenotype on Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, M. C.; Liegeois, N.; Horecka, J.; DePinho, R. A.; Sprague-Jr., G. F.; Tyers, M.; Elledge, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    Regulated cell cycle progression depends on the proper integration of growth control pathways with the basic cell cycle machinery. While many of the central molecules such as cyclins, CDKs, and CKIs are known, and many of the kinases and phosphatases that modify the CDKs have been identified, little is known about the additional layers of regulation that impinge upon these molecules. To identify new regulators of cell proliferation, we have selected for human and yeast cDNAs that when overexpressed were capable of specifically overcoming G(1) arrest signals from the cell cycle branch of the mating pheromone pathway, while still maintaining the integrity of the transcriptional induction branch. We have identified 13 human CPR (cell cycle progression restoration) genes and 11 yeast OPY (overproduction-induced pheromone-resistant yeast) genes that specifically block the G(1) arrest by mating pheromone. The CPR genes represent a variety of biochemical functions including a new cyclin, a tumor suppressor binding protein, chaperones, transcription factors, translation factors, RNA-binding proteins, as well as novel proteins. Several CPR genes require individual CLNs to promote pheromone resistance and those that require CLN3 increase the basal levels of Cln3 protein. Moreover, several of the yeast OPY genes have overlapping functions with the human CPR genes, indicating a possible conservation of roles. PMID:9383053

  7. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  8. Construction of the yeast whole-cell Rhizopus oryzae lipase biocatalyst with high activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-ling; Guo, Qin; Wang, Rui-zhi; Xu, Juan; Zhou, Chen-wei; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2011-07-01

    Surface display is effectively utilized to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Codon optimization has been proven to be effective in maximizing production of heterologous proteins in yeast. Here, the cDNA sequence of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) was optimized and synthesized according to the codon bias of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and based on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface display system with α-agglutinin as an anchor, recombinant yeast displaying fully codon-optimized ROL with high activity was successfully constructed. Compared with the wild-type ROL-displaying yeast, the activity of the codon-optimized ROL yeast whole-cell biocatalyst (25 U/g dried cells) was 12.8-fold higher in a hydrolysis reaction using p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) as the substrate. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt to combine the techniques of yeast surface display and codon optimization for whole-cell biocatalyst construction. Consequently, the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst was constructed with high activity. The optimum pH and temperature for the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst were pH 7.0 and 40 °C. Furthermore, this whole-cell biocatalyst was applied to the hydrolysis of tributyrin and the resulted conversion of butyric acid reached 96.91% after 144 h.

  9. Haploids: Constraints and opportunities in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Britt, Anne B; Tripathi, Leena; Sharma, Shivali; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of haploids in higher plants led to the use of doubled haploid (DH) technology in plant breeding. This article provides the state of the art on DH technology including the induction and identification of haploids, what factors influence haploid induction, molecular basis of microspore embryogenesis, the genetics underpinnings of haploid induction and its use in plant breeding, particularly to fix traits and unlock genetic variation. Both in vitro and in vivo methods have been used to induce haploids that are thereafter chromosome doubled to produce DH. Various heritable factors contribute to the successful induction of haploids, whose genetics is that of a quantitative trait. Genomic regions associated with in vitro and in vivo DH production were noted in various crops with the aid of DNA markers. It seems that F2 plants are the most suitable for the induction of DH lines than F1 plants. Identifying putative haploids is a key issue in haploid breeding. DH technology in Brassicas and cereals, such as barley, maize, rice, rye and wheat, has been improved and used routinely in cultivar development, while in other food staples such as pulses and root crops the technology has not reached to the stage leading to its application in plant breeding. The centromere-mediated haploid induction system has been used in Arabidopsis, but not yet in crops. Most food staples are derived from genomic resources-rich crops, including those with sequenced reference genomes. The integration of genomic resources with DH technology provides new opportunities for the improving selection methods, maximizing selection gains and accelerate cultivar development. Marker-aided breeding and DH technology have been used to improve host plant resistance in barley, rice, and wheat. Multinational seed companies are using DH technology in large-scale production of inbred lines for further development of hybrid cultivars, particularly in maize. The public sector provides support to

  10. Yeast surface display of dehydrogenases in microbial fuel-cells.

    PubMed

    Gal, Idan; Schlesinger, Orr; Amir, Liron; Alfonta, Lital

    2016-12-01

    Two dehydrogenases, cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus and pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris, were displayed for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the yeast surface display system. Surface displayed dehydrogenases were used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs. Surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase has demonstrated a midpoint potential of -28mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH=6.5 and was used in a mediator-less anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell producing a power output of 3.3μWcm(-2) using lactose as fuel. Surface-displayed pyranose dehydrogenase was used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs using different substrates, the highest power output that was achieved was 3.9μWcm(-2) using d-xylose. These results demonstrate that surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase and pyranose dehydrogenase may successfully be used in microbial bioelectrochemical systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of metal salt catalysts on yeast cell growth in ethanol conversion

    Treesearch

    Chung-Yun Hse; Yin Lin

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the addition of metal salts and metal salt-catalyzed hydrolyzates on yeast cell growth in ethanol fermentation were investigated. Four yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae WT1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae MT81, Candida sp. 1779, and Klumaromyces fragilis), four metal salts (CuCl2, FeCl3, AgNO3, and I2), two metal salt-catalyzed hydrolyzates (...

  12. Chemical genetic profiling of the microtubule-targeting agent peloruside A in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Anja; Hanna, Reem; Heathcott, Rosemary W; Northcote, Peter T; Atkinson, Paul H; Bellows, David S; Miller, John H

    2012-04-15

    Peloruside A, a microtubule-stabilising agent from a New Zealand marine sponge, inhibits mammalian cell division by a similar mechanism to that of the anticancer drug paclitaxel. Wild type budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (haploid strain BY4741) showed growth sensitivity to peloruside A with an IC(50) of 35μM. Sensitivity was increased in a mad2Δ (Mitotic Arrest Deficient 2) deletion mutant (IC(50)=19μM). Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint complex that delays the onset of anaphase in cells with defects in mitotic spindle assembly. Haploid mad2Δ cells were much less sensitive to paclitaxel than to peloruside A, possibly because the peloruside binding site on yeast tubulin is more similar to mammalian tubulin than the taxoid site where paclitaxel binds. In order to obtain information on the primary and secondary targets of peloruside A in yeast, a microarray analysis of yeast heterozygous and homozygous deletion mutant sets was carried out. Haploinsufficiency profiling (HIP) failed to provide hits that could be validated, but homozygous profiling (HOP) generated twelve validated genes that interact with peloruside A in cells. Five of these were particularly significant: RTS1, SAC1, MAD1, MAD2, and LSM1. In addition to its known target tubulin, based on these microarray 'hits', peloruside A was seen to interact genetically with other cell proteins involved in the cell cycle, mitosis, RNA splicing, and membrane trafficking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening of intact yeasts and cell extracts to reduce Scrapie prions during biotransformation of food waste.

    PubMed

    Huyben, David; Boqvist, Sofia; Passoth, Volkmar; Renström, Lena; Allard Bengtsson, Ulrika; Andréoletti, Olivier; Kiessling, Anders; Lundh, Torbjörn; Vågsholm, Ivar

    2018-02-08

    Yeasts can be used to convert organic food wastes to protein-rich animal feed in order to recapture nutrients. However, the reuse of animal-derived waste poses a risk for the transmission of infectious prions that can cause neurodegeneration and fatality in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of yeasts to reduce prion activity during the biotransformation of waste substrates-thereby becoming a biosafety hurdle in such a circular food system. During pre-screening, 30 yeast isolates were spiked with Classical Scrapie prions and incubated for 72 h in casein substrate, as a waste substitute. Based on reduced Scrapie seeding activity, waste biotransformation and protease activities, intact cells and cell extracts of 10 yeasts were further tested. Prion analysis showed that five yeast species reduced Scrapie seeding activity by approximately 1 log10 or 90%. Cryptococcus laurentii showed the most potential to reduce prion activity since both intact and extracted cells reduced Scrapie by 1 log10 and achieved the highest protease activity. These results show that select forms of yeast can act as a prion hurdle during the biotransformation of waste. However, the limited ability of yeasts to reduce prion activity warrants caution as a sole barrier to transmission as higher log reductions are needed before using waste-cultured yeast in circular food systems.

  14. The flavoprotein Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers high-temperature stress tolerance on yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Akira; Kawahara, Nobuhiro; Takagi, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiro@bs.naist.jp

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NO is produced from L-arginine in response to elevated temperature in yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tah18 was first identified as the yeast protein involved in NO synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers tolerance to high-temperature on yeast cells. -- Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in the regulation of a large number of cellular functions. In the unicellular eukaryote yeast, NO may be involved in stress response pathways, but its role is poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian NO synthase (NOS) orthologues. Previously, we have proposed the oxidative stress-induced L-arginine synthesis and its physiologicalmore » role under stress conditions in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, our experimental results indicated that increased conversion of L-proline into L-arginine led to NO production in response to elevated temperature. We also showed that the flavoprotein Tah18, which was previously reported to transfer electrons to the Fe-S cluster protein Dre2, was involved in NO synthesis in yeast. Gene knockdown analysis demonstrated that Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers high-temperature stress tolerance on yeast cells. As it appears that such a unique cell protection mechanism is specific to yeasts and fungi, it represents a promising target for antifungal activity.« less

  15. Sporulation in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    In response to nitrogen starvation in the presence of a poor carbon source, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and package the haploid nuclei produced in meiosis into spores. The formation of spores requires an unusual cell division event in which daughter cells are formed within the cytoplasm of the mother cell. This process involves the de novo generation of two different cellular structures: novel membrane compartments within the cell cytoplasm that give rise to the spore plasma membrane and an extensive spore wall that protects the spore from environmental insults. This article summarizes what is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling spore assembly with particular attention to how constitutive cellular functions are modified to create novel behaviors during this developmental process. Key regulatory points on the sporulation pathway are also discussed as well as the possible role of sporulation in the natural ecology of S. cerevisiae. PMID:22084423

  16. Use of Non-Conventional Cell Disruption Method for Extraction of Proteins from Black Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Čolnik, Maja; Primožič, Mateja; Knez, Željko; Leitgeb, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pressure and treatment time on cells disruption of different black yeasts and on activities of extracted proteins using supercritical carbon dioxide process was studied. The cells of three different black yeasts Phaeotheca triangularis, Trimatostroma salinum, and Wallemia ichthyophaga were exposed to supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) by varying pressure at fixed temperature (35°C). The black yeasts cell walls were disrupted, and the content of the cells was spilled into the liquid medium. The impact of SC CO2 conditions on secretion of enzymes and proteins from black yeast cells suspension was studied. The residual activity of the enzymes cellulase, β-glucosidase, α-amylase, and protease was studied by enzymatic assay. The viability of black yeast cells was determined by measuring the optical density of the cell suspension at 600 nm. The total protein concentration in the suspension was determined on UV–Vis spectrophotometer at 595 nm. The release of intracellular and extracellular products from black yeast cells was achieved. Also, the observation by an environmental scanning electron microscopy shows major morphological changes with SC CO2-treated cells. The advantages of the proposed method are in a simple use, which is also possible for heat-sensitive materials on one hand and on the other hand integration of the extraction of enzymes and their use in biocatalytical reactions. PMID:27148527

  17. Tributyltin induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sekito, Takayuki; Sugimoto, Naoko; Ishimoto, Masaya; Kawano-Kawada, Miyuki; Akiyama, Koichi; Nishimoto, Sogo; Sugahara, Takuya; Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    2014-04-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) has long been recognized as a major environmental pollutant that can cause significant damage to the cellular functions as well as disruption of endocrine homeostasis. TBT induces apoptosis accompanied by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian and yeast cells. We observed that the budding yeast cells exposed to this compound at low concentrations exhibited cell growth arrest, but not cell death. Flow cytometric analysis of yeast cells without synchronization and morphological assessment of cells synchronized at M phase by nocodazole treatment indicated that TBT-exposed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were arrested at G1 phase of the cell cycle. This arrest was recovered by the addition of N-acetylcysteine, suggesting the involvement of ROS production by TBT. This is the first study to evaluate the action of TBT on cell cycle events.

  18. Use of flow cytometry to monitor cell damage and predict fermentation activity of dried yeasts.

    PubMed

    Attfield, P V; Kletsas, S; Veal, D A; van Rooijen, R; Bell, P J

    2000-08-01

    Viable dried yeast is used as an inoculum for many fermentations in the baking and wine industries. The fermentative activity of yeast in bread dough or grape must is a critical parameter of process efficiency. Here, it is shown that fluorescent stains and flow cytometry can be used in concert to predict the abilities of populations of dried bakers' and wine yeasts to ferment after rehydration. Fluorescent dyes that stain cells only if they have damaged membrane potential (oxonol) or have increased membrane permeability (propidium iodide) were used to analyse, by flow cytometry, populations of rehydrated yeasts. A strong relationship (r2 = 0.99) was found between the percentages of populations staining with the oxonol and the degree of cell membrane damage as measured by the more traditional method of leakage of intracellular compounds. There were also were good negative relationships (r2 > or = 0.83) between fermentation by rehydrated bakers' or wine dry yeasts and percentage of populations staining with either oxonol or propidium iodide. Fluorescent staining with flow cytometry confirmed that factors such as vigour of dried yeast mixing in water, soaking before stirring, rehydration in water or fermentation medium and temperature of rehydration have profound effects on subsequent yeast vitality. These experiments indicate the potential of flow cytometry as a rapid means of predicting the fermentation performance of dried bakers' and wine yeasts.

  19. Extracellular electron transfer in yeast-based biofuel cells: A review.

    PubMed

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art of the yeast-based biofuel cell research and development. The established extracellular electron transfer (EET) mechanisms in the presence and absence of exogenous mediators are summarized and discussed. The approaches applied for improvement of mediator-less yeast-based biofuel cells performance are also presented. The overview of the literature shows that biofuel cells utilizing yeasts as biocatalysts generate power density in the range of 20 to 2440 mW/m(2), which values are comparable with the power achieved when bacteria are used instead. The electrons' origin and the contribution of the glycolysis, fermentation, aerobic respiration, and phosphorylation to the EET are commented. The reported enhanced current generation in aerobic conditions presumes reconsideration of some basic MFC principles. The challenges towards the practical application of the yeast-based biofuel cells are outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Detection of viable metabolically active yeast cells using a colorimetric assay].

    PubMed

    Růzicka, F; Holá, V

    2008-02-01

    The increasing concern of yeasts able to form biofilm brings about the need for susceptibility testing of both planktonic and biofilm cells. Detection of viability or metabolic activity of yeast cells after exposure to antimicrobials plays a key role in the assessment of susceptibility testing results. Colorimetric assays based on the color change of the medium in the presence of metabolically active cells proved suitable for this purpose. In this study, the usability of a colorimetric assay with the resazurin redox indicator for monitoring the effect of yeast inoculum density on the reduction rate was tested. As correlation between the color change rate and inoculum density was observed, approximate quantification of viable cells was possible. The assay would be of relevance to antifungal susceptibility testing in both planktonic and biofilm yeasts.

  1. Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using hydrolysates of spent yeast cells and corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Quan; Li, Jian; Ma, Jiang-Feng; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ying, Han-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysate of spent yeast cells was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113, using corn fiber hydrolysate as a carbon source. When spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used directly as a nitrogen source, a maximum succinic acid concentration of 35.5 g/l was obtained from a glucose concentration of 50 g/l, with a glucose utilization of 95.2%. Supplementation with individual vitamins showed that biotin was the most likely factor to be limiting for succinic acid production with spent yeast cell hydrolysate. After supplementing spent yeast cell hydrolysate and 90 g/l of glucose with 150 μg/l of biotin, cell growth increased 32.5%, glucose utilization increased 37.6%, and succinic acid concentration was enhanced 49.0%. As a result, when biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used with corn fiber hydrolysate, a succinic acid yield of 67.7% was obtained from 70.3 g/l of total sugar concentration, with a productivity of 0.63 g/(l h). Our results suggest that biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate may be an alternative nitrogen source for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113, using renewable resources. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How do yeast cells become tolerant to high ethanol concentrations?

    PubMed

    Snoek, Tim; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Voordeckers, Karin

    2016-08-01

    The brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays a much higher ethanol tolerance compared to most other organisms, and it is therefore commonly used for the industrial production of bioethanol and alcoholic beverages. However, the genetic determinants underlying this yeast's exceptional ethanol tolerance have proven difficult to elucidate. In this perspective, we discuss how different types of experiments have contributed to our understanding of the toxic effects of ethanol and the mechanisms and complex genetics underlying ethanol tolerance. In a second part, we summarize the different routes and challenges involved in obtaining superior industrial yeasts with improved ethanol tolerance.

  3. Stable current outputs and phytate degradation by yeast-based biofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Hubenova, Yolina; Georgiev, Danail; Mitov, Mario

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report for the first time that Candida melibiosica 2491 yeast strain expresses enhanced phytase activity when used as a biocatalyst in biofuel cells. The polarization also results in an increase of the yeast biomass. Higher steady-state electrical outputs, assigned to earlier production of an endogenous mediator, were achieved at continuous polarization under constant load. The obtained results prove that the C. melibiosica yeast-based biofuel cell could be used for simultaneous electricity generation and phytate bioremediation. In addition, the higher phytase activity obtained by interruptive polarization suggests a new method for increasing the phytase yield from microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Global Gene Expression Analysis of Yeast Cells during Sake Brewing▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong; Zheng, Xiaohong; Araki, Yoshio; Sahara, Hiroshi; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    During the brewing of Japanese sake, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells produce a high concentration of ethanol compared with other ethanol fermentation methods. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of yeast cells during sake brewing using DNA microarray analysis. This analysis revealed some characteristics of yeast gene expression during sake brewing and provided a scaffold for a molecular level understanding of the sake brewing process. PMID:16997994

  5. Neural network analysis of electrodynamic activity of yeast cells around 1 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janca, R.

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with data analysis of electrodynamic activity of two mutants of yeast cells, cell cycle of which is synchronized and non-synchronized, respectively. We used data already published by Jelinek et al. and treat them with data mining method based on the multilayer neural network. Intersection of data mining and statistical distribution of the noise shows significant difference between synchronized and non-synchronized yeasts not only in total power, but also discrete frequencies.

  6. Magnetization of individual yeast cells by in situ formation of iron oxide on cell surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jinsu; Lee, Hojae; Choi, Insung S.; Yang, Sung Ho

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic functionalization of living cells has intensively been investigated with the aim of various bioapplications such as selective separation, targeting, and localization of the cells by using an external magnetic field. However, the magnetism has not been introduced to individual living cells through the in situ chemical reactions because of harsh conditions required for synthesis of magnetic materials. In this work, magnetic iron oxide was formed on the surface of living cells by optimizing reactions conditions to be mild sufficiently enough to sustain cell viability. Specifically, the reactive LbL strategy led to formation of magnetically responsive yeast cells with iron oxide shells. This facile and direct post-magnetization method would be a useful tool for remote manipulation of living cells with magnetic interactions, which is an important technique for the integration of cell-based circuits and the isolation of cell in microfluidic devices.

  7. Evidence that pulsed electric field treatment enhances the cell wall porosity of yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Ganeva, Valentina; Galutzov, Bojidar; Teissie, Justin

    2014-02-01

    The application of rectangular electric pulses, with 0.1-2 ms duration and field intensity of 2.5-4.5 kV/cm, to yeast suspension mediates liberation of cytoplasmic proteins without cell lysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pulsed electric field with similar parameters on cell wall porosity of different yeast species. We found that electrically treated cells become more susceptible to lyticase digestion. In dependence on the strain and the electrical conditions, cell lysis was obtained at 2-8 times lower enzyme concentration in comparison with control untreated cells. The increase of the maximal lysis rate was between two and nine times. Furthermore, when applied at low concentration (1 U/ml), the lyticase enhanced the rate of protein liberation from electropermeabilized cells without provoking cell lysis. Significant differences in the cell surface of control and electrically treated cells were revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Data presented in this study allow us to conclude that electric field pulses provoke not only plasma membrane permeabilization, but also changes in the cell wall structure, leading to increased wall porosity.

  8. Nuclear inner membrane fusion facilitated by yeast Jem1p is required for spindle pole body fusion but not for the first mitotic nuclear division during yeast mating.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Hirata, Aiko; Endo, Toshiya

    2008-11-01

    During mating of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two haploid nuclei fuse to produce a diploid nucleus. The process of nuclear fusion requires two J proteins, Jem1p in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and Sec63p, which forms a complex with Sec71p and Sec72p, in the ER membrane. Zygotes of mutants defective in the functions of Jem1p or Sec63p contain two haploid nuclei that were closely apposed but failed to fuse. Here we analyzed the ultrastructure of nuclei in jem1 Delta and sec71 Delta mutant zygotes using electron microscope with the freeze-substituted fixation method. Three-dimensional reconstitution of nuclear structures from electron microscope serial sections revealed that Jem1p facilitates nuclear inner-membrane fusion and spindle pole body (SPB) fusion while Sec71p facilitates nuclear outer-membrane fusion. Two haploid SPBs that failed to fuse could duplicate, and mitotic nuclear division of the unfused haploid nuclei started in jem1 Delta and sec71 Delta mutant zygotes. This observation suggests that nuclear inner-membrane fusion is required for SPB fusion, but not for SPB duplication in the first mitotic cell division.

  9. Quantitative description of ion transport via plasma membrane of yeast and small cells.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Modeling of ion transport via plasma membrane needs identification and quantitative understanding of the involved processes. Brief characterization of main ion transport systems of a yeast cell (Pma1, Ena1, TOK1, Nha1, Trk1, Trk2, non-selective cation conductance) and determining the exact number of molecules of each transporter per a typical cell allow us to predict the corresponding ion flows. In this review a comparison of ion transport in small yeast cell and several animal cell types is provided. The importance of cell volume to surface ratio is emphasized. The role of cell wall and lipid rafts is discussed in respect to required increase in spatial and temporary resolution of measurements. Conclusions are formulated to describe specific features of ion transport in a yeast cell. Potential directions of future research are outlined based on the assumptions.

  10. Quantitative description of ion transport via plasma membrane of yeast and small cells

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Modeling of ion transport via plasma membrane needs identification and quantitative understanding of the involved processes. Brief characterization of main ion transport systems of a yeast cell (Pma1, Ena1, TOK1, Nha1, Trk1, Trk2, non-selective cation conductance) and determining the exact number of molecules of each transporter per a typical cell allow us to predict the corresponding ion flows. In this review a comparison of ion transport in small yeast cell and several animal cell types is provided. The importance of cell volume to surface ratio is emphasized. The role of cell wall and lipid rafts is discussed in respect to required increase in spatial and temporary resolution of measurements. Conclusions are formulated to describe specific features of ion transport in a yeast cell. Potential directions of future research are outlined based on the assumptions. PMID:26113853

  11. A genome-wide resource of cell cycle and cell shape genes of fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hayles, Jacqueline; Wood, Valerie; Jeffery, Linda; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Park, Han-Oh; Salas-Pino, Silvia; Heichinger, Christian; Nurse, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To identify near complete sets of genes required for the cell cycle and cell shape, we have visually screened a genome-wide gene deletion library of 4843 fission yeast deletion mutants (95.7% of total protein encoding genes) for their effects on these processes. A total of 513 genes have been identified as being required for cell cycle progression, 276 of which have not been previously described as cell cycle genes. Deletions of a further 333 genes lead to specific alterations in cell shape and another 524 genes result in generally misshapen cells. Here, we provide the first eukaryotic resource of gene deletions, which describes a near genome-wide set of genes required for the cell cycle and cell shape. PMID:23697806

  12. Unique phagocytic properties of hemocytes of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas against yeast and yeast cell-wall derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Keisuke G; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Mori, Katsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    For a marine bivalve mollusk such as Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, the elimination of foreign particles via hemocyte phagocytosis plays an important role in host defense mechanisms. The hemocytes of C. gigas have a high phagocytic ability for baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its cell-wall product zymosan. C. gigas hemocytes might phagocytose yeast cells after binding to polysaccharides on the cell-wall surface, but it is unknown how and what kinds of polysaccharide molecules are recognized. We conducted experiments to determine differences in the phagocytic ability of C. gigas hemocytes against heat-killed yeast (HK yeast), zymosan and zymocel, which are similarly sized and shaped but differ in the polysaccharide composition of their particle surface. We found that both the agranulocytes and granulocytes exerted strong phagocytic ability on all tested particles. The phagocytic index (PI) of granulocytes for zymosan was 9.4 ± 1.7, which significantly differed with that for HK yeast and zymocel (P < 0.05). To evaluate the PI for the three types of particles, and especially to understand the outcome of the much higher PI for zymosan, PI was gauged in increments of 5 (1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and ≥16), and the phagocytic frequencies were compared according to these increments. The results show that a markedly high PI of ≥16 was exhibited by 18.1% of granulocytes for zymosan, significantly higher than 1.7% and 3.9% shown for HK yeast and zymocel, respectively (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that the relatively high PI for zymosan could not be attributed to a situation wherein all phagocytic hemocytes shared a high mean PI, but rather to the ability of some hemocytes to phagocytose a larger portion of zymosan. To determine whether the phagocytosis of these respective particles depended on the recognition of specific polysaccharide receptors on the hemocyte surface, C. gigas hemocytes were pretreated with soluble α-mannan or β-laminarin and

  13. Structure, cell wall elasticity and polysaccharide properties of living yeast cells, as probed by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsteens, David; Dupres, Vincent; McEvoy, Kevin; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2008-09-01

    Although the chemical composition of yeast cell walls is known, the organization, assembly, and interactions of the various macromolecules remain poorly understood. Here, we used in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) in three different modes to probe the ultrastructure, cell wall elasticity and polymer properties of two brewing yeast strains, i.e. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and S. cerevisiae. Topographic images of the two strains revealed smooth and homogeneous cell surfaces, and the presence of circular bud scars on dividing cells. Nanomechanical measurements demonstrated that the cell wall elasticity of S. carlsbergensis is homogeneous. By contrast, the bud scar of S. cerevisiae was found to be stiffer than the cell wall, presumably due to the accumulation of chitin. Notably, single molecule force spectroscopy with lectin-modified tips revealed major differences in polysaccharide properties of the two strains. Polysaccharides were clearly more extended on S. cerevisiae, suggesting that not only oligosaccharides, but also polypeptide chains of the mannoproteins were stretched. Consistent with earlier cell surface analyses, these findings may explain the very different aggregation properties of the two organisms. This study demonstrates the power of using multiple complementary AFM modalities for probing the organization and interactions of the various macromolecules of microbial cell walls.

  14. Nanoscopic morphological changes in yeast cell surfaces caused by oxidative stress: an atomic force microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M; Adya, Ashok K

    2009-06-01

    Nanoscopic changes in the cell surface morphology of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354), due to their exposure to varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stress), were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration led to a decrease in cell viabilities and mean cell volumes, and an increase in the surface roughness of the yeasts. In addition, AFM studies revealed that oxidative stress caused cell compression in both S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe cells and an increase in the number of aged yeasts. These results confirmed the importance and usefulness of AFM in investigating the morphology of stressed microbial cells at the nanoscale. The results also provided novel information on the relative oxidative stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe.

  15. Extraction of the number of peroxisomes in yeast cells by automated image analysis.

    PubMed

    Niemistö, Antti; Selinummi, Jyrki; Saleem, Ramsey; Shmulevich, Ilya; Aitchison, John; Yli-Harja, Olli

    2006-01-01

    An automated image analysis method for extracting the number of peroxisomes in yeast cells is presented. Two images of the cell population are required for the method: a bright field microscope image from which the yeast cells are detected and the respective fluorescent image from which the number of peroxisomes in each cell is found. The segmentation of the cells is based on clustering the local mean-variance space. The watershed transformation is thereafter employed to separate cells that are clustered together. The peroxisomes are detected by thresholding the fluorescent image. The method is tested with several images of a budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae population, and the results are compared with manually obtained results.

  16. Allicin disrupts the cell's electrochemical potential and induces apoptosis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Gruhlke, Martin C H; Portz, Daniela; Stitz, Michael; Anwar, Awais; Schneider, Thomas; Jacob, Claus; Schlaich, Nikolaus L; Slusarenko, Alan J

    2010-12-15

    The volatile substance allicin gives crushed garlic (Allium sativum) its characteristic odor and is a pro-oxidant that undergoes thiol-disulfide exchange reactions with -SH groups in proteins and glutathione. The antimicrobial activity of allicin is suspected to be due to the oxidative inactivation of essential thiol-containing enzymes. We investigated the hypothesis that at threshold inhibitory levels allicin can shunt yeast cells into apoptosis by altering their overall redox status. Yeast cells were treated either with chemically synthesized, pure allicin or with allicin in garlic juice. Allicin-dependent cell oxidation was demonstrated with a redox-sensitive GFP construct and the shift in cellular electrochemical potential (E(hc)) from less than -215 to -181mV was calculated using the Nernst equation after the glutathione/glutathione disulfide couple (2GSH/GSSG) in the cell was quantified. Caspase activation occurred after allicin treatment, and yeast expressing a human antiapoptotic Bcl-XL construct was rendered more resistant to allicin. Also, a yeast apoptosis-inducing factor deletion mutant was more resistant to allicin than wild-type cells. We conclude that allicin in garlic juice can activate apoptosis in yeast cells through its oxidizing properties and that this presents an alternative cell-killing mechanism to the previously proposed specific oxidative inactivation of essential enzymes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Untangling the Roles of Anti-Apoptosis in Regulating Programmed Cell Death using Humanized Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Caitlin; Portt, Liam; Khoury, Chamel; Sheibani, Sara; Eid, Rawan; Greenwood, Matthew; Vali, Hojatollah; Mandato, Craig A.; Greenwood, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Genetically programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms, including apoptosis, are important for the survival of metazoans since it allows, among things, the removal of damaged cells that interfere with normal function. Cell death due to PCD is observed in normal processes such as aging and in a number of pathophysiologies including hypoxia (common causes of heart attacks and strokes) and subsequent tissue reperfusion. Conversely, the loss of normal apoptotic responses is associated with the development of tumors. So far, limited success in preventing unwanted PCD has been reported with current therapeutic approaches despite the fact that inhibitors of key apoptotic inducers such as caspases have been developed. Alternative approaches have focused on mimicking anti-apoptotic processes observed in cells displaying increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Hormesis and pre-conditioning are commonly observed cellular strategies where sub-lethal levels of pro-apoptotic stimuli lead to increased resistance to higher or lethal levels of stress. Increased expression of anti-apoptotic sequences is a common mechanism mediating these protective effects. The relevance of the latter observation is exemplified by the observation that transgenic mice overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes show significant reductions in tissue damage following ischemia. Thus strategies aimed at increasing the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, using gene therapy or cell penetrating recombinant proteins are being evaluated as novel therapeutics to decrease cell death following acute periods of cell death inducing stress. In spite of its functional and therapeutic importance, more is known regarding the processes involved in apoptosis than anti-apoptosis. The genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as an exceptional model to study multiple aspects of PCD including the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis observed in metazoans. To increase our knowledge of the process of anti

  18. Dynamics of cell wall elasticity pattern shapes the cell during yeast mating morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goldenbogen, Björn; Giese, Wolfgang; Hemmen, Marie; Uhlendorf, Jannis; Herrmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The cell wall defines cell shape and maintains integrity of fungi and plants. When exposed to mating pheromone, Saccharomyces cerevisiae grows a mating projection and alters in morphology from spherical to shmoo form. Although structural and compositional alterations of the cell wall accompany shape transitions, their impact on cell wall elasticity is unknown. In a combined theoretical and experimental approach using finite-element modelling and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we investigated the influence of spatially and temporally varying material properties on mating morphogenesis. Time-resolved elasticity maps of shmooing yeast acquired with AFM in vivo revealed distinct patterns, with soft material at the emerging mating projection and stiff material at the tip. The observed cell wall softening in the protrusion region is necessary for the formation of the characteristic shmoo shape, and results in wider and longer mating projections. The approach is generally applicable to tip-growing fungi and plants cells. PMID:27605377

  19. Dynamics of cell wall elasticity pattern shapes the cell during yeast mating morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goldenbogen, Björn; Giese, Wolfgang; Hemmen, Marie; Uhlendorf, Jannis; Herrmann, Andreas; Klipp, Edda

    2016-09-01

    The cell wall defines cell shape and maintains integrity of fungi and plants. When exposed to mating pheromone, Saccharomyces cerevisiae grows a mating projection and alters in morphology from spherical to shmoo form. Although structural and compositional alterations of the cell wall accompany shape transitions, their impact on cell wall elasticity is unknown. In a combined theoretical and experimental approach using finite-element modelling and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we investigated the influence of spatially and temporally varying material properties on mating morphogenesis. Time-resolved elasticity maps of shmooing yeast acquired with AFM in vivo revealed distinct patterns, with soft material at the emerging mating projection and stiff material at the tip. The observed cell wall softening in the protrusion region is necessary for the formation of the characteristic shmoo shape, and results in wider and longer mating projections. The approach is generally applicable to tip-growing fungi and plants cells. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Scaffolded Antigens in Yeast Cell Particle Vaccines Provide Protection against Systemic Polyoma Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Tipper, Donald J; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background. U65, a self-aggregating peptide scaffold, traps fused protein antigens in yeast cells. Conversion to Yeast Cell Particle (YCP) vaccines by partial removal of surface mannoproteins exposes β-glucan, mediating efficient uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). YCP vaccines are inexpensive, capable of rapid large-scale production and have potential for both parenteral and oral use. Results. YCP processing by alkaline hydrolysis exposes up to 20% of the glucan but converts scaffolded antigen and internal yeast proteins into a common aggregate, preventing selective yeast protein removal. For U65-green fluorescent protein (GFP) or U65-Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) subcutaneous vaccines, maximal IgG responses in mice required 10% glucan exposure. IgG responses to yeast proteins were 5-fold lower. Proteolytic mannoprotein removal produced YCPs with only 6% glucan exposure, insufficiently porous for selective removal of even native yeast proteins. Vaccine efficacy was reduced 10-fold. Current YCP formulations, therefore, are not suitable for human use but have considerable potential for use in feed animal vaccines. Significantly, a YCP vaccine expressing a GFP fusion to VP1, the murine polyoma virus major capsid protein, after either oral or subcutaneous administration, protected mice against an intraperitoneal polyoma virus challenge, reducing viral DNA levels in spleen and liver by >98%.

  1. Assessing phagotrophy in the mixotrophic ciliate Paramecium bursaria using GFP-expressing yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takashi; Moriya, Hisao; Iwai, Sosuke

    2017-07-03

    We used cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as fluorescently labelled prey to assess the phagocytic activities of the mixotrophic ciliate Paramecium bursaria, which harbours symbiotic Chlorella-like algae. Because of different fluorescence spectra of GFP and algal chlorophyll, ingested GFP-expressing yeast cells can be distinguished from endosymbiotic algal cells and directly counted in individual P. bursaria cells using fluorescence microscopy. By using GFP-expressing yeast cells, we found that P. bursaria altered ingestion activities under different physiological conditions, such as different growth phases or the presence/absence of endosymbionts. Use of GFP-expressing yeast cells allowed us to estimate the digestion rates of live prey of the ciliate. In contrast to the ingestion activities, the digestion rate within food vacuoles was not affected by the presence of endosymbionts, consistent with previous findings that food and perialgal vacuoles are spatially and functionally separated in P. bursaria. Thus, GFP-expressing yeast may provide a valuable tool to assess both ingestion and digestion activities of ciliates that feed on eukaryotic organisms. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Yeast cell surface display: An efficient strategy for improvement of bioethanol fermentation performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianzhong

    2017-03-04

    The cell surface serves as a functional interface between the inside and the outside of the cell. Within the past 20 y the ability of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to display heterologous proteins on the cell surface has been demonstrated. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae has been both developed and applied in expression of various proteins on the cell surface. Using this novel and useful strategy, proteins and peptides of various kinds can be displayed on the yeast cell surface by fusing the protein of interest with the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchoring system. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using S. cerevisiae represents a promising technology for bioethanol production. However, further work is needed to improve the fermentation performance. There is some excellent previous research regarding construction of yeast biocatalyst using the surface display system to decrease cost, increase efficiency of ethanol production and directly utilize starch or biomass for fuel production. In this commentary, we reviewed the yeast surface display system and highlighted recent work. Additionally, the strategy for decrease of phytate phosphate content in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) by display of phytase on the yeast cell surface is discussed.

  3. Yeast cell surface display: An efficient strategy for improvement of bioethanol fermentation performance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianzhong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cell surface serves as a functional interface between the inside and the outside of the cell. Within the past 20 y the ability of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to display heterologous proteins on the cell surface has been demonstrated. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae has been both developed and applied in expression of various proteins on the cell surface. Using this novel and useful strategy, proteins and peptides of various kinds can be displayed on the yeast cell surface by fusing the protein of interest with the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchoring system. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using S. cerevisiae represents a promising technology for bioethanol production. However, further work is needed to improve the fermentation performance. There is some excellent previous research regarding construction of yeast biocatalyst using the surface display system to decrease cost, increase efficiency of ethanol production and directly utilize starch or biomass for fuel production. In this commentary, we reviewed the yeast surface display system and highlighted recent work. Additionally, the strategy for decrease of phytate phosphate content in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) by display of phytase on the yeast cell surface is discussed. PMID:27459271

  4. Meiosis and Haploid Gametes in the Pathogen Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Lori; Bailey, Mick; Carrington, Mark; Gibson, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Summary In eukaryote pathogens, sex is an important driving force in spreading genes for drug resistance, pathogenicity, and virulence [1]. For the parasitic trypanosomes that cause African sleeping sickness, mating occurs during transmission by the tsetse vector [2, 3] and involves meiosis [4], but haploid gametes have not yet been identified. Here, we show that meiosis is a normal part of development in the insect salivary glands for all subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, including the human pathogens. By observing insect-derived trypanosomes during the window of peak expression of meiosis-specific genes, we identified promastigote-like (PL) cells that interacted with each other via their flagella and underwent fusion, as visualized by the mixing of cytoplasmic red and green fluorescent proteins. PL cells had a short, wide body, a very long anterior flagellum, and either one or two kinetoplasts, but only the anterior kinetoplast was associated with the flagellum. Measurement of nuclear DNA contents showed that PL cells were haploid relative to diploid metacyclics. Trypanosomes are among the earliest diverging eukaryotes, and our results support the hypothesis that meiosis and sexual reproduction are ubiquitous in eukaryotes and likely to have been early innovations [5]. PMID:24388851

  5. Meiosis and haploid gametes in the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Lori; Bailey, Mick; Carrington, Mark; Gibson, Wendy

    2014-01-20

    In eukaryote pathogens, sex is an important driving force in spreading genes for drug resistance, pathogenicity, and virulence. For the parasitic trypanosomes that cause African sleeping sickness, mating occurs during transmission by the tsetse vector and involves meiosis, but haploid gametes have not yet been identified. Here, we show that meiosis is a normal part of development in the insect salivary glands for all subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, including the human pathogens. By observing insect-derived trypanosomes during the window of peak expression of meiosis-specific genes, we identified promastigote-like (PL) cells that interacted with each other via their flagella and underwent fusion, as visualized by the mixing of cytoplasmic red and green fluorescent proteins. PL cells had a short, wide body, a very long anterior flagellum, and either one or two kinetoplasts, but only the anterior kinetoplast was associated with the flagellum. Measurement of nuclear DNA contents showed that PL cells were haploid relative to diploid metacyclics. Trypanosomes are among the earliest diverging eukaryotes, and our results support the hypothesis that meiosis and sexual reproduction are ubiquitous in eukaryotes and likely to have been early innovations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Immobilised Sarawak Malaysia yeast cells for production of bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Zain, Masniroszaime Mohd; Kofli, Noorhisham Tan; Rozaimah, Siti; Abdullah, Sheikh

    2011-05-01

    Bioethanol production using yeast has become a popular topic due to worrying depleting worldwide fuel reserve. The aim of the study was to investigate the capability of Malaysia yeast strains isolated from starter culture used in traditional fermented food and alcoholic beverages in producing Bioethanol using alginate beads entrapment method. The starter yeast consists of groups of microbes, thus the yeasts were grown in Sabouraud agar to obtain single colony called ST1 (tuak) and ST3 (tapai). The growth in Yeast Potatoes Dextrose (YPD) resulted in specific growth of ST1 at micro = 0.396 h-1 and ST3 at micro = 0.38 h-1, with maximum ethanol production of 7.36 g L-1 observed using ST1 strain. The two strains were then immobilized using calcium alginate entrapment method producing average alginate beads size of 0.51 cm and were grown in different substrates; YPD medium and Local Brown Sugar (LBS) for 8 h in flask. The maximum ethanol concentration measured after 7 h were at 6.63 and 6.59 g L-1 in YPD media and 1.54 and 1.39 g L-1in LBS media for ST1 and ST3, respectively. The use of LBS as carbon source showed higher yield of product (Yp/s), 0.59 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.25 g g-1 in ST1 and (Yp/s), 0.54 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.24 g g-1 in ST3 . This study indicated the possibility of using local strains (STI and ST3) to produce bioethanol via immobilization technique with local materials as substrate.

  7. Androgenesis, gynogenesis, and parthenogenesis haploids in cucurbit species.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-Qi; Zhao, Wei-Xing; Li, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Xi-Cun; Gao, Ning-Ning; Huang, Jin-Hua; Wang, Wen-Ying; Xu, Xiao-Li; Tang, Zhen-Hai

    2016-10-01

    Haploids and doubled haploids are critical components of plant breeding. This review is focused on studies on haploids and double haploids inducted in cucurbits through in vitro pollination with irradiated pollen, unfertilized ovule/ovary culture, and anther/microspore culture during the last 30 years, as well as comprehensive analysis of the main factors of each process and comparison between chromosome doubling and ploidy identification methods, with special focus on the application of double haploids in plant breeding and genetics. This review identifies existing problems affecting the efficiency of androgenesis, gynogenesis, and parthenogenesis in cucurbit species. Donor plant genotypes and surrounding environments, developmental stages of explants, culture media, stress factors, and chromosome doubling and ploidy identification are compared at length and discussed as methodologies and protocols for androgenesis, gynogenesis, and parthenogenesis in haploid and double haploid production technologies.

  8. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts protect against epithelial cell barrier disruption induced by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Smith, I M; Baker, A; Arneborg, N; Jespersen, L

    2015-11-01

    The human gastrointestinal epithelium makes up the largest barrier separating the body from the external environment. Whereas invasive pathogens cause epithelial barrier disruption, probiotic micro-organisms modulate tight junction regulation and improve epithelial barrier function. In addition, probiotic strains may be able to reduce epithelial barrier disruption caused by pathogenic species. The aim of this study was to explore non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. Benchmarking against established probiotic strains, we evaluated the ability of four nonpathogenic yeast species to modulate transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) across a monolayer of differentiated human colonocytes (Caco-2 cells). Further, we assessed yeast modulation of a Salmonella Typhimurium-induced epithelial cell barrier function insult. Our findings demonstrate distinct patterns of non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function. While the established probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii increased TER across a Caco-2 monolayer by 30%, Kluyveromyces marxianus exhibited significantly stronger properties of TER enhancement (50% TER increase). In addition, our data demonstrate significant yeast-mediated modulation of Salmonella-induced epithelial cell barrier disruption and identify K. marxianus and Metschnikowia gruessii as two non-Saccharomyces yeasts capable of protecting human epithelial cells from pathogen invasion. This study demonstrates distinct patterns of non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. Further, our data demonstrate significant yeast-mediated modulation of Salmonella Typhimurium-induced epithelial cell barrier disruption and identify Kluyveromyces marxianus and Metschnikowia gruessii as two non-Saccharomyces yeasts capable of protecting human epithelial cells from pathogen invasion. This study is the first to demonstrate significant non-Saccharomyces yeast

  9. Surface enhanced Raman scattering analyses of individual silver nanoaggregates on living single yeast cell wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujith, Athiyanathil; Itoh, Tamitake; Abe, Hiroko; Anas, Abdul Aziz; Yoshida, Kenichi; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2008-03-01

    We labeled the living yeast cell surface (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303-1A) by silver nanoparticles which can form nanoaggregates and found to show surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. Blinking of SERS and its polarization dependence reveal that SERS signals are from amplified electromagnetic field at nanometric Ag nanoparticles gaps with single or a few molecules sensitivity. We tentatively assigned SERS spectra from a yeast cell wall to mannoproteins. Nanoaggregate-by-nanoaggregate variations and temporal fluctuations of SERS spectra are discussed in terms of inhomogeneous mannoprotein distribution on a cell wall and possible ways of Ag nanoaggregate adsorption, respectively.

  10. Tim18, a component of the mitochondrial translocator, mediates yeast cell death induced by arsenic.

    PubMed

    Du, Li; Yu, Yong; Li, Zidong; Chen, Jingsi; Liu, Yan; Xia, Yongjing; Liu, Xiangjun

    2007-08-01

    Evidence is presented that Tim18, a mitochondria translocase, plays a role in the previously described apoptosis induced by arsenite in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tim18 deletion mutant exhibited resistance to arsenite. After arsenite treatment, both the wild type and Tim18-deficient cells showed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Arsenite induced the higher expression of tim18 in wild type yeast cells. We found that the tim18 deletion mutant also exhibited resistance to other apoptotic stresses such as acetic acid, H2O2, and hyperosmotic stress. These results suggest that Tim18 is important for yeast cell death induced by arsenic, and it may act downstream of ROS production.

  11. Drying enhances immunoactivity of spent brewer's yeast cell wall β-D-glucans.

    PubMed

    Liepins, Janis; Kovačova, Elena; Shvirksts, Karlis; Grube, Mara; Rapoport, Alexander; Kogan, Grigorij

    2015-07-20

    Due to immunological activity, microbial cell wall polysaccharides are defined as 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). Cell walls of spent brewer's yeast also have some BRM activity. However, up to date there is no consensus on the use of spent brewer's yeast D-glucan as specific BRM in humans or animals. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of spent brewer's yeast β-D-glucans as BRM, and drying as an efficient pretreatment to increase β-D-glucan's immunogenic activity. Our results revealed that drying does not change spent brewer's yeast biomass carbohydrate content as well as the chemical structure of purified β-D-glucan. However, drying increased purified β-D-glucan TNF-α induction activity in the murine macrophage model. We presume drying pretreatment enhances purity of extracted β-D-glucan. This is corroborated with FT-IR analyses of the β-D-glucan spectra. Based on our results, we suggest that dry spent brewer's yeast biomass can be used as a cheap source for high-quality β-D-glucan extraction. Drying in combination with carboxylmethylation (CM), endows spent brewer's yeast β-D-glucan with the immunoactivity similar or exceeding that of a well-characterized fungal BRM pleuran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The duration of mitosis and daughter cell size are modulated by nutrients in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The size of nearly all cells is modulated by nutrients. Thus, cells growing in poor nutrients can be nearly half the size of cells in rich nutrients. In budding yeast, cell size is thought to be controlled almost entirely by a mechanism that delays cell cycle entry until sufficient growth has occurred in G1 phase. Here, we show that most growth of a new daughter cell occurs in mitosis. When the rate of growth is slowed by poor nutrients, the duration of mitosis is increased, which suggests that cells compensate for slow growth in mitosis by increasing the duration of growth. The amount of growth required to complete mitosis is reduced in poor nutrients, leading to a large reduction in cell size. Together, these observations suggest that mechanisms that control the extent of growth in mitosis play a major role in cell size control in budding yeast. PMID:28939614

  13. The duration of mitosis and daughter cell size are modulated by nutrients in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Leitao, Ricardo M; Kellogg, Douglas R

    2017-11-06

    The size of nearly all cells is modulated by nutrients. Thus, cells growing in poor nutrients can be nearly half the size of cells in rich nutrients. In budding yeast, cell size is thought to be controlled almost entirely by a mechanism that delays cell cycle entry until sufficient growth has occurred in G1 phase. Here, we show that most growth of a new daughter cell occurs in mitosis. When the rate of growth is slowed by poor nutrients, the duration of mitosis is increased, which suggests that cells compensate for slow growth in mitosis by increasing the duration of growth. The amount of growth required to complete mitosis is reduced in poor nutrients, leading to a large reduction in cell size. Together, these observations suggest that mechanisms that control the extent of growth in mitosis play a major role in cell size control in budding yeast. © 2017 Leitao and Kellogg.

  14. The CWI Pathway: Regulation of the Transcriptional Adaptive Response to Cell Wall Stress in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Ana Belén; García, Raúl; Rodríguez-Peña, José M.; Arroyo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are surrounded by an essential structure, the cell wall, which not only confers cell shape but also protects cells from environmental stress. As a consequence, yeast cells growing under cell wall damage conditions elicit rescue mechanisms to provide maintenance of cellular integrity and fungal survival. Through transcriptional reprogramming, yeast modulate the expression of genes important for cell wall biogenesis and remodeling, metabolism and energy generation, morphogenesis, signal transduction and stress. The yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway, which is very well conserved in other fungi, is the key pathway for the regulation of this adaptive response. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the yeast transcriptional program elicited to counterbalance cell wall stress situations, the role of the CWI pathway in the regulation of this program and the importance of the transcriptional input received by other pathways. Modulation of this adaptive response through the CWI pathway by positive and negative transcriptional feedbacks is also discussed. Since all these regulatory mechanisms are well conserved in pathogenic fungi, improving our knowledge about them will have an impact in the developing of new antifungal therapies. PMID:29371494

  15. The fungal aroma gene ATF1 promotes dispersal of yeast cells through insect vectors.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, Joaquin F; Franco, Luis M; Cools, Tanne L; De Meester, Luc; Michiels, Jan; Wenseleers, Tom; Hassan, Bassem A; Yaksi, Emre; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-10-23

    Yeast cells produce various volatile metabolites that are key contributors to the pleasing fruity and flowery aroma of fermented beverages. Several of these fruity metabolites, including isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate, are produced by a dedicated enzyme, the alcohol acetyl transferase Atf1. However, despite much research, the physiological role of acetate ester formation in yeast remains unknown. Using a combination of molecular biology, neurobiology, and behavioral tests, we demonstrate that deletion of ATF1 alters the olfactory response in the antennal lobe of fruit flies that feed on yeast cells. The flies are much less attracted to the mutant yeast cells, and this in turn results in reduced dispersal of the mutant yeast cells by the flies. Together, our results uncover the molecular details of an intriguing aroma-based communication and mutualism between microbes and their insect vectors. Similar mechanisms may exist in other microbes, including microbes on flowering plants and pathogens. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of ribosomal RNA stability in dead cells of wine yeast by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Sunyer-Figueres, Merce; Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert

    2018-04-02

    During wine production, some yeasts enter a Viable But Not Culturable (VBNC) state, which may influence the quality and stability of the final wine through remnant metabolic activity or by resuscitation. Culture-independent techniques are used for obtaining an accurate estimation of the number of live cells, and quantitative PCR could be the most accurate technique. As a marker of cell viability, rRNA was evaluated by analyzing its stability in dead cells. The species-specific stability of rRNA was tested in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as in three species of non-Saccharomyces yeast (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Starmerella bacillaris). High temperature and antimicrobial dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) treatments were efficient in lysing the yeast cells. rRNA gene and rRNA (as cDNA) were analyzed over 48 h after cell lysis by quantitative PCR. The results confirmed the stability of rRNA for 48 h after the cell lysis treatments. To sum up, rRNA may not be a good marker of cell viability in the wine yeasts that were tested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution of haploid selection in predominantly diploid organisms

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Sarah P.; Scott, Michael F.; Immler, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Diploid organisms manipulate the extent to which their haploid gametes experience selection. Animals typically produce sperm with a diploid complement of most proteins and RNA, limiting selection on the haploid genotype. Plants, however, exhibit extensive expression in pollen, with actively transcribed haploid genomes. Here we analyze models that track the evolution of genes that modify the strength of haploid selection to predict when evolution intensifies and when it dampens the “selective arena” within which male gametes compete for fertilization. Considering deleterious mutations, evolution leads diploid mothers to strengthen selection among haploid sperm/pollen, because this reduces the mutation load inherited by their diploid offspring. If, however, selection acts in opposite directions in haploids and diploids (“ploidally antagonistic selection”), mothers evolve to reduce haploid selection to avoid selectively amplifying alleles harmful to their offspring. Consequently, with maternal control, selection in the haploid phase either is maximized or reaches an intermediate state, depending on the deleterious mutation rate relative to the extent of ploidally antagonistic selection. By contrast, evolution generally leads diploid fathers to mask mutations in their gametes to the maximum extent possible, whenever masking (e.g., through transcript sharing) increases the average fitness of a father’s gametes. We discuss the implications of this maternal–paternal conflict over the extent of haploid selection and describe empirical studies needed to refine our understanding of haploid selection among seemingly diploid organisms. PMID:26669442

  18. Effect of Selenium on Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism in Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna; Kot, Anna M

    2018-04-19

    This article discusses the effect of selenium in aqueous solutions on aspects of lipid and amino acid metabolism in the cell biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeasts. The yeast biomass was obtained by using waste products (potato wastewater and glycerol). Selenium, at a dose of 20 mg/L of aqueous solution, affected the differentiation of cellular morphology. Yeast enriched with selenium was characterized by a large functional diversity in terms of protein and amino acid content. The protein content in the biomass of S. cerevisiae enriched with selenium (42.6%) decreased slightly as compared to that in the control sample without additional selenium supplementation (48.4%). Moreover, yeasts of both strains enriched with selenium contained a large amount of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, and leucine. Analysis of fatty acid profiles in S. cerevisiae yeast supplemented with selenium showed an increase in the unsaturated fatty acid content (e.g., C18:1). The presence of margaric acid (C17:0) and hexadecanoic acid (C17:1) was found in the C. utilis biomass enriched with selenium, in contrast to that of S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that selenium may induce lipid peroxidation, which consequently affects the loss of integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane. Yeast enriched with selenium with optimal amino acid and lipid composition can be used to prepare a novel formula of dietary supplements, which can be applied directly to various diets for both humans and animals.

  19. Mitochondrial origin of extracelullar transferred electrons in yeast-based biofuel cells.

    PubMed

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2015-12-01

    The influence of mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitors on the electricity outputs of Candida melibiosica yeast-based biofuel cell was investigated. The addition of 30 μM rotenone or antimycin A to the yeast suspension results in a decrease in the current generation, corresponding to 25.7±1.3%, respectively 38.8±1.9% reduction in the electric charge passed through the bioelectrochemical system. The latter percentage coincides with the share of aerobic respiration in the yeast catabolic processes, determined by the decrease of the ethanol production during cultivation in the presence of oxygen compared with that obtained under strict anaerobic conditions. It was established that the presence of both inhibitors leads to almost complete mitochondrial dysfunction, expressed by inactivation of cytochrome c oxidase and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase as well as reduced electrochemical activity of isolated yeast mitochondria. It was also found that methylene blue partially neutralized the rotenone poisoning, probably serving as alternative intracellular electron shuttle for by-passing the complex I blockage. Based on the obtained results, we suppose that electrons generated through the aerobic respiration processes in the mitochondria participate in the extracellular electron transfer from the yeast cells to the biofuel cell anode, which contributes to higher current outputs at aerobic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Live-Cell Imaging of Mitochondria and the Actin Cytoskeleton in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Swayne, Theresa C; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance and regulation of proper mitochondrial dynamics and functions are necessary for cellular homeostasis. Numerous diseases, including neurodegeneration and muscle myopathies, and overall cellular aging are marked by declining mitochondrial function and subsequent loss of multiple other cellular functions. For these reasons, optimized protocols are needed for visualization and quantification of mitochondria and their function and fitness. In budding yeast, mitochondria are intimately associated with the actin cytoskeleton and utilize actin for their movement and inheritance. This chapter describes optimal approaches for labeling mitochondria and the actin cytoskeleton in living budding yeast cells, for imaging the labeled cells, and for analyzing the resulting images.

  1. Soft x-ray-controlled dose deposition in yeast cells: techniques, model, and biological assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Marziale; Batani, Dimitri; Conti, Aldo; Masini, Alessandra; Costato, Michele; Pozzi, Achille; Turcu, I. C. Edmond

    1996-12-01

    A procedure is presented to release soft x-rays onto yeast cell membrane allegedly damaging the resident enzymatic processes connected with fermentation. The damage is expected to be restricted to regulating fermentation processes without interference with respiration. By this technique fermentation is followed leading to CO2 production, and respiration resulting in global pressure measurements. A solid state pressure sensor system has been developed linked to a data acquisition system. Yeast cells cultures have been investigated at different concentrations and with different nutrients. A non-monotone response in CO2 production as a function of the delivered x-ray dose is observed.

  2. A multiplex culture system for the long-term growth of fission yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Callens, Céline; Coelho, Nelson C; Miller, Aaron W; Sananes, Maria Rosa Domingo; Dunham, Maitreya J; Denoual, Matthieu; Coudreuse, Damien

    2017-08-01

    Maintenance of long-term cultures of yeast cells is central to a broad range of investigations, from metabolic studies to laboratory evolution assays. However, repeated dilutions of batch cultures lead to variations in medium composition, with implications for cell physiology. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, powerful miniaturized chemostat setups, or ministat arrays, have been shown to allow for constant dilution of multiple independent cultures. Here we set out to adapt these arrays for continuous culture of a morphologically and physiologically distinct yeast, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, with the goal of maintaining constant population density over time. First, we demonstrated that the original ministats are incompatible with growing fission yeast for more than a few generations, prompting us to modify different aspects of the system design. Next, we identified critical parameters for sustaining unbiased vegetative growth in these conditions. This requires deletion of the gsf2 flocculin-encoding gene, along with addition of galactose to the medium and lowering of the culture temperature. Importantly, we improved the flexibility of the ministats by developing a piezo-pump module for the independent regulation of the dilution rate of each culture. This made it possible to easily grow strains that have different generation times in the same assay. Our system therefore allows for maintaining multiple fission yeast cultures in exponential growth, adapting the dilution of each culture over time to keep constant population density for hundreds of generations. These multiplex culture systems open the door to a new range of long-term experiments using this model organism. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Reduction of Nucleic Acid Content in Candida Yeast Cells by Bovine Pancreatic Ribonuclease A Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Castro, A. C.; Sinskey, A. J.; Tannenbaum, S. R.

    1971-01-01

    Yeast as a source of protein for human consumption is limited by its relatively high nucleic acid content. In this study, we developed an enzymatic method of decreasing the nucleic acid content. Candida utilis cells, heat-shocked at 80 C for 30 sec, were treated with bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A. Maximum leakage of nucleic acid was observed when the incubation temperature was between 55 and 65 C, the pH of the system from 6.75 to 8.0, and the enzyme-to-cell ratio 1:10,000 on a weight-by-weight basis. Other factors, such as yeast strain, age of cells, and method of propagation, did not influence the susceptibility of the yeast cells to the action of ribonuclease. Buffers and monovalent cations had no inhibiting effects. Magnesium and calcium ions at concentrations greater than 0.001 m showed marked inhibition on the rate of nucleic acid leakage. This enzymatic method reduced the nucleic acid content of yeast cells from 7.5 to 9.0% to 1.5 to 2.0% with no significant concomitant loss of protein. PMID:5165838

  4. Glycerol Production by Fermenting Yeast Cells Is Essential for Optimal Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  5. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  6. Identification of Cell Cycle-regulated Genes in Fission YeastD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xu; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Miller, Lance D.; Lin, Kui; Jia, Yonghui; Kondu, Pinar; Wang, Long; Wong, Lim-Soon; Liu, Edison T.; Balasubramanian, Mohan K.; Liu, Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    Cell cycle progression is both regulated and accompanied by periodic changes in the expression levels of a large number of genes. To investigate cell cycle-regulated transcriptional programs in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we developed a whole-genome oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray. Microarray analysis of both wild-type and cdc25 mutant cell cultures was performed to identify transcripts whose levels oscillated during the cell cycle. Using an unsupervised algorithm, we identified 747 genes that met the criteria for cell cycle-regulated expression. Peaks of gene expression were found to be distributed throughout the entire cell cycle. Furthermore, we found that four promoter motifs exhibited strong association with cell cycle phase-specific expression. Examination of the regulation of MCB motif-containing genes through the perturbation of DNA synthesis control/MCB-binding factor (DSC/MBF)-mediated transcription in arrested synchronous cdc10 mutant cell cultures revealed a subset of functional targets of the DSC/MBF transcription factor complex, as well as certain gene promoter requirements. Finally, we compared our data with those for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found ∼140 genes that are cell cycle regulated in both yeasts, suggesting that these genes may play an evolutionarily conserved role in regulation of cell cycle-specific processes. Our complete data sets are available at http://giscompute.gis.a-star.edu.sg/~gisljh/CDC. PMID:15616197

  7. Fission yeast Lem2 and Man1 perform fundamental functions of the animal cell nuclear lamina.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Yanira; Saito, Akira; Sazer, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    In animal cells the nuclear lamina, which consists of lamins and lamin-associated proteins, serves several functions: it provides a structural scaffold for the nuclear envelope and tethers proteins and heterochromatin to the nuclear periphery. In yeast, proteins and large heterochromatic domains including telomeres are also peripherally localized, but there is no evidence that yeast have lamins or a fibrous nuclear envelope scaffold. Nonetheless, we found that the Lem2 and Man1 proteins of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, evolutionarily distant relatives of the Lap2/Emerin/Man1 (LEM) sub-family of animal cell lamin-associated proteins, perform fundamental functions of the animal cell lamina. These integral inner nuclear membrane localized proteins, with nuclear localized DNA binding Helix-Extension-Helix (HEH) domains, impact nuclear envelope structure and integrity, are essential for the enrichment of telomeres at the nuclear periphery and by means of their HEH domains anchor chromatin, most likely transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin, to the nuclear periphery. These data indicate that the core functions of the nuclear lamina are conserved between fungi and animal cells and can be performed in fission yeast, without lamins or other intermediate filament proteins.

  8. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the metabolic responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the metabolic responses of newly-received heifers to endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving a Control diet (n = 8), YCW-A (2.5 grams/heifer/d; n = 8) or YCW-C (2.5 ...

  9. Modifying infrared scattering effects of single yeast cells with plasmonic metal mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Marvin A.; Prakash, Suraj; Heer, Joseph M.; Corwin, Lloyd D.; Cilwa, Katherine E.; Coe, James V.

    2010-11-01

    The scattering effects in the infrared (IR) spectra of single, isolated bread yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on a ZnSe substrate and in metal microchannels have been probed by Fourier transform infrared imaging microspectroscopy. Absolute extinction [(3.4±0.6)×10-7 cm2 at 3178 cm-1], scattering, and absorption cross sections for a single yeast cell and a vibrational absorption spectrum have been determined by comparing it to the scattering properties of single, isolated, latex microspheres (polystyrene, 5.0 μm in diameter) on ZnSe, which are well modeled by the Mie scattering theory. Single yeast cells were then placed into the holes of the IR plasmonic mesh, i.e., metal films with arrays of subwavelength holes, yielding "scatter-free" IR absorption spectra, which have undistorted vibrational lineshapes and a rising generic IR absorption baseline. Absolute extinction, scattering, and absorption spectral profiles were determined for a single, ellipsoidal yeast cell to characterize the interplay of these effects.

  10. Problem-Solving Test: Analysis of DNA Damage Recognizing Proteins in Yeast and Human Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    The experiment described in this test was aimed at identifying DNA repair proteins in human and yeast cells. Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: DNA repair, germline mutation, somatic mutation, inherited disease, cancer, restriction endonuclease, radioactive labeling, [alpha-[superscript 32]P]ATP, [gamma-[superscript…

  11. Harmonic generation by yeast cells in response to low-frequency electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawarathna, D.; Claycomb, J. R.; Cardenas, G.; Gardner, J.; Warmflash, D.; Miller, J. H., Jr.; Widger, W. R.

    2006-05-01

    We report on harmonic generation by budding yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 108cells/ml ) in response to sinusoidal electric fields with amplitudes ranging from zero to 5V/cm in the frequency range 10-300Hz . The cell-generated harmonics are found to exhibit strong amplitude and frequency dependence. Sodium metavanadate, an inhibitor of the proton pump known as H+ -ATPase, and glucose, a substrate of H+ -ATPase, are found to increase harmonic production at low amplitudes while reducing it at large amplitudes. This P-type proton pump can be driven by an oscillatory transmembrane potential, and its nonlinear response is believed to be largely responsible for harmonic production at low frequencies in yeast cells. We find that the observed harmonics show dramatic changes with time and in their field and frequency dependence after perturbing the system by adding an inhibitor, substrate, or membrane depolarizer to the cell suspension.

  12. The structure of a β-(1→3)-d-glucan from yeast cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Manners, David J.; Masson, Alan J.; Patterson, James C.

    1973-01-01

    Yeast glucan as normally prepared by various treatments of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell walls to remove mannan and glycogen is still heterogeneous. The major component (about 85%) is a branched β-(1→3)-glucan of high molecular weight (about 240000) containing 3% of β-(1→6)-glucosidic interchain linkages. The minor component is a branched β-(1→6)-glucan. A comparison of our results with those of other workers suggests that different glucan preparations may differ in the degree of heterogeneity and that the major β-(1→3)-glucan component may vary considerably in degree of branching. PMID:4359920

  13. In cellulo serial crystallography of alcohol oxidase crystals inside yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Jakobi, Arjen J.; Passon, Daniel M.; Knoops, Kèvin; Stellato, Francesco; Liang, Mengning; White, Thomas A.; Seine, Thomas; Messerschmidt, Marc; Chapman, Henry N.; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using femtosecond pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser to collect diffraction data from protein crystals formed in their native cellular organelle has been explored. X-ray diffraction of submicrometre-sized alcohol oxidase crystals formed in peroxisomes within cells of genetically modified variants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha is reported and characterized. The observations are supported by synchrotron radiation-based powder diffraction data and electron microscopy. Based on these findings, the concept of in cellulo serial crystallography on protein targets imported into yeast peroxisomes without the need for protein purification as a requirement for subsequent crystallization is outlined. PMID:27006771

  14. In cellulo serial crystallography of alcohol oxidase crystals inside yeast cells

    DOE PAGES

    Jakobi, Arjen J.; Passon, Daniel M.; Knoops, Kevin; ...

    2016-03-01

    The possibility of using femtosecond pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser to collect diffraction data from protein crystals formed in their native cellular organelle has been explored. X-ray diffraction of submicrometre-sized alcohol oxidase crystals formed in peroxisomes within cells of genetically modified variants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha is reported and characterized. Furthermore, the observations are supported by synchrotron radiation-based powder diffraction data and electron microscopy. Based on these findings, the concept of in cellulo serial crystallography on protein targets imported into yeast peroxisomes without the need for protein purification as a requirement for subsequent crystallization is outlined.

  15. In cellulo serial crystallography of alcohol oxidase crystals inside yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobi, Arjen J.; Passon, Daniel M.; Knoops, Kevin

    The possibility of using femtosecond pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser to collect diffraction data from protein crystals formed in their native cellular organelle has been explored. X-ray diffraction of submicrometre-sized alcohol oxidase crystals formed in peroxisomes within cells of genetically modified variants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha is reported and characterized. Furthermore, the observations are supported by synchrotron radiation-based powder diffraction data and electron microscopy. Based on these findings, the concept of in cellulo serial crystallography on protein targets imported into yeast peroxisomes without the need for protein purification as a requirement for subsequent crystallization is outlined.

  16. An Evolutionary Perspective on Yeast Mating-Type Switching

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Sara J.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

    2017-01-01

    Cell differentiation in yeast species is controlled by a reversible, programmed DNA-rearrangement process called mating-type switching. Switching is achieved by two functionally similar but structurally distinct processes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In both species, haploid cells possess one active and two silent copies of the mating-type locus (a three-cassette structure), the active locus is cleaved, and synthesis-dependent strand annealing is used to replace it with a copy of a silent locus encoding the opposite mating-type information. Each species has its own set of components responsible for regulating these processes. In this review, we summarize knowledge about the function and evolution of mating-type switching components in these species, including mechanisms of heterochromatin formation, MAT locus cleavage, donor bias, lineage tracking, and environmental regulation of switching. We compare switching in these well-studied species to others such as Kluyveromyces lactis and the methylotrophic yeasts Ogataea polymorpha and Komagataella phaffii. We focus on some key questions: Which cells switch mating type? What molecular apparatus is required for switching? Where did it come from? And what is the evolutionary purpose of switching? PMID:28476860

  17. Mitochondrial DNA repairs double-strand breaks in yeast chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ricchetti, M; Fairhead, C; Dujon, B

    1999-11-04

    The endosymbiotic theory for the origin of eukaryotic cells proposes that genetic information can be transferred from mitochondria to the nucleus of a cell, and genes that are probably of mitochondrial origin have been found in nuclear chromosomes. Occasionally, short or rearranged sequences homologous to mitochondrial DNA are seen in the chromosomes of different organisms including yeast, plants and humans. Here we report a mechanism by which fragments of mitochondrial DNA, in single or tandem array, are transferred to yeast chromosomes under natural conditions during the repair of double-strand breaks in haploid mitotic cells. These repair insertions originate from noncontiguous regions of the mitochondrial genome. Our analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial genome indicates that the yeast nuclear genome does indeed contain several short sequences of mitochondrial origin which are similar in size and composition to those that repair double-strand breaks. These sequences are located predominantly in non-coding regions of the chromosomes, frequently in the vicinity of retrotransposon long terminal repeats, and appear as recent integration events. Thus, colonization of the yeast genome by mitochondrial DNA is an ongoing process.

  18. Study of budding yeast colony formation and its characterizations by using circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, D.; Haryanto, F.; Purqon, A.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Budding yeast can exhibit colony formation in solid substrate. The colony of pathogenic budding yeast can colonize various surfaces of the human body and medical devices. Furthermore, it can form biofilm that resists drug effective therapy. The formation of the colony is affected by the interaction between cells and with its growth media. The cell budding pattern holds an important role in colony expansion. To study this colony growth, the molecular dynamic method was chosen to simulate the interaction between budding yeast cells. Every cell was modelled by circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. Cohesion force, contact force, and Stokes force govern this model to mimic the interaction between cells and with the growth substrate. Characterization was determined by the maximum (L max) and minimum (L min) distances between two cells within the colony and whether two lines that connect the two cells in the maximum and minimum distances intersect each other. Therefore, it can be recognized the colony shape in circular, oval, and irregular shapes. Simulation resulted that colony formation are mostly in oval shape with little branch. It also shows that greater cohesion strength obtains more compact colony formation.

  19. Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Matthew [Boston, MA; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Hause, Benjamin Matthew [Currie, MN; Van Hoek, Pim [Camarillo, CA; Dundon, Catherine Asleson [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-03-20

    Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

  20. Beer and bread to brains and beyond: can yeast cells teach us about neurodegenerative disease?

    PubMed

    Gitler, Aaron D

    2008-01-01

    For millennia, humans have harnessed the astonishing power of yeast, producing such culinary masterpieces as bread, beer and wine. Therefore, in this new millennium, is it very farfetched to ask if we can also use yeast to unlock some of the modern day mysteries of human disease? Remarkably, these seemingly simple cells possess most of the same basic cellular machinery as the neurons in the brain. We and others have been using the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model system to study the mechanisms of devastating neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzheimer's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. While very different in their pathophysiology, they are collectively referred to as protein-misfolding disorders because of the presence of misfolded and aggregated forms of various proteins in the brains of affected individuals. Using yeast genetics and the latest high-throughput screening technologies, we have identified some of the potential causes underpinning these disorders and discovered conserved genes that have proven effective in preventing neuron loss in animal models. Thus, these genes represent new potential drug targets. In this review, I highlight recent work investigating mechanisms of cellular toxicity in a yeast Parkinson's disease model and discuss how similar approaches are being applied to additional neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Adsorption of ochratoxin A from grape juice by yeast cells immobilised in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Farbo, Maria Grazia; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Fiori, Stefano; Marceddu, Salvatore; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2016-01-18

    Grape juice can be easily contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health significance. Among the different approaches to decontaminate juice from this mycotoxin, microbiological methods proved efficient, inexpensive and safe, particularly the use of yeast or yeast products. To ascertain whether immobilisation of the yeast biomass would lead to successful decontamination, alginate beads encapsulating Candida intermedia yeast cells were used in our experiments to evaluate their OTA-biosorption efficacy. Magnetic calcium alginate beads were also prepared by adding magnetite in the formulation to allow fast removal from the aqueous solution with a magnet. Calcium alginate beads were added to commercial grape juice spiked with 20 μg/kg OTA and after 48 h of incubation a significant reduction (>80%), of the total OTA content was achieved, while in the subsequent phases (72-120 h) OTA was slowly released into the grape juice by alginate beads. Biosorption properties of alginate-yeast beads were tested in a prototype bioreactor consisting in a glass chromatography column packed with beads, where juice amended with OTA was slowly flowed downstream. The adoption of an interconnected scaled-up bioreactor as an efficient and safe tool to remove traces of OTA from liquid matrices is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A multiplex culture system for the long‐term growth of fission yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Callens, Céline; Coelho, Nelson C.; Miller, Aaron W.; Sananes, Maria Rosa Domingo; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Denoual, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Maintenance of long‐term cultures of yeast cells is central to a broad range of investigations, from metabolic studies to laboratory evolution assays. However, repeated dilutions of batch cultures lead to variations in medium composition, with implications for cell physiology. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, powerful miniaturized chemostat setups, or ministat arrays, have been shown to allow for constant dilution of multiple independent cultures. Here we set out to adapt these arrays for continuous culture of a morphologically and physiologically distinct yeast, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, with the goal of maintaining constant population density over time. First, we demonstrated that the original ministats are incompatible with growing fission yeast for more than a few generations, prompting us to modify different aspects of the system design. Next, we identified critical parameters for sustaining unbiased vegetative growth in these conditions. This requires deletion of the gsf2 flocculin‐encoding gene, along with addition of galactose to the medium and lowering of the culture temperature. Importantly, we improved the flexibility of the ministats by developing a piezo‐pump module for the independent regulation of the dilution rate of each culture. This made it possible to easily grow strains that have different generation times in the same assay. Our system therefore allows for maintaining multiple fission yeast cultures in exponential growth, adapting the dilution of each culture over time to keep constant population density for hundreds of generations. These multiplex culture systems open the door to a new range of long‐term experiments using this model organism. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:28426144

  3. Extraction of nucleic acids from yeast cells and plant tissues using ethanol as medium for sample preservation and cell disruption.

    PubMed

    Linke, Bettina; Schröder, Kersten; Arter, Juliane; Gasperazzo, Tatiana; Woehlecke, Holger; Ehwald, Rudolf

    2010-09-01

    Here we report that dehydrated ethanol is an excellent medium for both in situ preservation of nucleic acids and cell disruption of plant and yeast cells. Cell disruption was strongly facilitated by prior dehydration of the ethanol using dehydrated zeolite. Following removal of ethanol, nucleic acids were extracted from the homogenate pellet using denaturing buffers. The method provided DNA and RNA of high yield and integrity. Whereas cell wall disruption was essential for extraction of DNA and large RNA molecules, smaller molecules such as tRNAs could be selectively extracted from undisrupted, ethanol-treated yeast cells. Our results demonstrate the utility of absolute ethanol for sample fixation, cell membrane and cell wall disruption, as well as preservation of nucleic acids during sample storage.

  4. How do fission yeast cells grow and connect growth to the mitotic cycle?

    PubMed

    Sveiczer, Ákos; Horváth, Anna

    2017-05-01

    To maintain size homeostasis in a unicellular culture, cells should coordinate growth to the division cycle. This is achieved via size control mechanisms (also known as size checkpoints), i.e. some events during the mitotic cycle supervene only if the cell has reached a critical size. Rod-shaped cells like those of fission yeast are ideal model organisms to study these checkpoints via time-lapse microphotography. By applying this method, once we can analyse the growth process between two consecutive divisions at a single (or even at an 'average') cellular level, moreover, we can also position the size checkpoint(s) at the population level. Finally, any of these controls can be abolished in appropriate cell cycle mutants, either in steady-state or in induction synchronised cultures. In the latter case, we produce abnormally oversized cells, and microscopic experiments with them clearly show the existence of a critical size above which the size checkpoint ceases (becomes cryptic). In this review, we delineate the development of our knowledge both on the growth mode of fission yeast and on the operating size control(s) during its mitotic cycle. We finish these historical stories with our recent findings, arguing that three different size checkpoints exist in the fission yeast cell cycle, namely in late G1, in mid G2 and in late G2, which has been concluded by analysing these controls in several cell cycle mutants.

  5. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of menadione-glutathione conjugate export from yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Mauzeroll, Janine; Bard, Allen J.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), which is toxic to yeast cells, and its expulsion as a glutathione complex were studied by scanning electrochemical microscopy. The progression of the in vitro reaction between menadione and glutathione was monitored electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry and correlated with the spectroscopic (UV–visible) behavior. By observing the scanning electrochemical microscope tip current of yeast cells suspended in a menadione-containing solution, the export of the conjugate from the cells with time could be measured. Similar experiments were performed on immobilized yeast cell aggregates stressed by a menadione solution. From the export of the menadione-glutathione conjugate detected at a 1-μm-diameter electrode situated 10 μm from the cells, a flux of about 30,000 thiodione molecules per second per cell was extracted. Numerical simulations based on an explicit finite difference method further revealed that the observation of a constant efflux of thiodione from the cells suggested the rate was limited by the uptake of menadione and that the efflux through the glutathione-conjugate pump was at least an order of magnitude faster. PMID:15148374

  6. Snap-, CLIP- and Halo-Tag Labelling of Budding Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stagge, Franziska; Mitronova, Gyuzel Y.; Belov, Vladimir N.; Wurm, Christian A.; Jakobs, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of the localization and the spatial and temporal dynamics of specifically labelled proteins is an indispensable tool in cell biology. Besides fluorescent proteins as tags, tag-mediated labelling utilizing self-labelling proteins as the SNAP-, CLIP-, or the Halo-tag are widely used, flexible labelling systems relying on exogenously supplied fluorophores. Unfortunately, labelling of live budding yeast cells proved to be challenging with these approaches because of the limited accessibility of the cell interior to the dyes. In this study we developed a fast and reliable electroporation-based labelling protocol for living budding yeast cells expressing SNAP-, CLIP-, or Halo-tagged fusion proteins. For the Halo-tag, we demonstrate that it is crucial to use the 6′-carboxy isomers and not the 5′-carboxy isomers of important dyes to ensure cell viability. We report on a simple rule for the analysis of 1H NMR spectra to discriminate between 6′- and 5′-carboxy isomers of fluorescein and rhodamine derivatives. We demonstrate the usability of the labelling protocol by imaging yeast cells with STED super-resolution microscopy and dual colour live cell microscopy. The large number of available fluorophores for these self-labelling proteins and the simplicity of the protocol described here expands the available toolbox for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24205303

  7. Atomic force microscopic study of the effects of ethanol on yeast cell surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Adya, Ashok K; Walker, Graeme M

    2006-02-01

    The detrimental effects of ethanol toxicity on the cell surface morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354) were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). In combination with culture viability and mean cell volume measurements AFM studies allowed us to relate the cell surface morphological changes, observed on nanometer lateral resolution, with the cellular stress physiology. Exposing yeasts to increasing stressful concentrations of ethanol led to decreased cell viabilities and mean cell volumes. Together with the roughness and bearing volume analyses of the AFM images, the results provided novel insight into the relative ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae and Sc. pombe.

  8. Yeast Genetics for Delineating Bax/Bcl Pathway of Cell Death Regulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    differences in tosol. The cytosol also became electron dense ("cyto- the copy number of the episomal plasmid from which solic condensation"), similar to...Cell Death & Differ . 3, 229-236. (1993). The C. eheans cell death gene ccd-3 encodes a protein similar ¶Xhitc. K., Tahaoglu, E., and Steller, H. (1996...components may be used in different functional contexts. Similar modules might exist in metazoan apoptotic pathways. Even though yeast does not contain

  9. A set of nutrient limitations trigger yeast cell death in a nitrogen-dependent manner during wine alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Camille; Pradal, Martine; Sanchez, Isabelle; Noble, Jessica; Tesnière, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Yeast cell death can occur during wine alcoholic fermentation. It is generally considered to result from ethanol stress that impacts membrane integrity. This cell death mainly occurs when grape musts processing reduces lipid availability, resulting in weaker membrane resistance to ethanol. However the mechanisms underlying cell death in these conditions remain unclear. We examined cell death occurrence considering yeast cells ability to elicit an appropriate response to a given nutrient limitation and thus survive starvation. We show here that a set of micronutrients (oleic acid, ergosterol, pantothenic acid and nicotinic acid) in low, growth-restricting concentrations trigger cell death in alcoholic fermentation when nitrogen level is high. We provide evidence that nitrogen signaling is involved in cell death and that either SCH9 deletion or Tor inhibition prevent cell death in several types of micronutrient limitation. Under such limitations, yeast cells fail to acquire any stress resistance and are unable to store glycogen. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analyses did not reveal any major changes in stress genes expression, suggesting that post-transcriptional events critical for stress response were not triggered by micronutrient starvation. Our data point to the fact that yeast cell death results from yeast inability to trigger an appropriate stress response under some conditions of nutrient limitations most likely not encountered by yeast in the wild. Our conclusions provide a novel frame for considering both cell death and the management of nutrients during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:28922393

  10. Involvement of flocculin in negative potential-applied ITO electrode adhesion of yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Sumihiro; Tsubouchi, Taishi; Usui, Keiko; Uematsu, Katsuyuki; Tame, Akihiro; Nogi, Yuichi; Ohta, Yukari; Hatada, Yuji; Kato, Chiaki; Miwa, Tetsuya; Toyofuku, Takashi; Nagahama, Takehiko; Konishi, Masaaki; Nagano, Yuriko; Abe, Fumiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel methods for attachment and cultivation of specifically positioned single yeast cells on a microelectrode surface with the application of a weak electrical potential. Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strains attached to an indium tin oxide/glass (ITO) electrode to which a negative potential between −0.2 and −0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl was applied, while they did not adhere to a gallium-doped zinc oxide/glass electrode surface. The yeast cells attached to the negative potential-applied ITO electrodes showed normal cell proliferation. We found that the flocculin FLO10 gene-disrupted diploid BY4743 mutant strain (flo10Δ /flo10Δ) almost completely lost the ability to adhere to the negative potential-applied ITO electrode. Our results indicate that the mechanisms of diploid BY4743 S. cerevisiae adhesion involve interaction between the negative potential-applied ITO electrode and the Flo10 protein on the cell wall surface. A combination of micropatterning techniques of living single yeast cell on the ITO electrode and omics technologies holds potential of novel, highly parallelized, microchip-based single-cell analysis that will contribute to new screening concepts and applications. PMID:26187908

  11. Enterovirus D68 receptor requirements unveiled by haploid genetics

    PubMed Central

    Baggen, Jim; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Staring, Jacqueline; Jae, Lucas T.; Liu, Yue; Guo, Hongbo; Slager, Jasper J.; de Bruin, Jost W.; van Vliet, Arno L. W.; Blomen, Vincent A.; Overduin, Pieter; Sheng, Ju; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; de Vries, Erik; Meijer, Adam; Rossmann, Michael G.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen that can cause severe respiratory disease and is associated with cases of paralysis, especially among children. Heretofore, information on host factor requirements for EV-D68 infection is scarce. Haploid genetic screening is a powerful tool to reveal factors involved in the entry of pathogens. We performed a genome-wide haploid screen with the EV-D68 prototype Fermon strain to obtain a comprehensive overview of cellular factors supporting EV-D68 infection. We identified and confirmed several genes involved in sialic acid (Sia) biosynthesis, transport, and conjugation to be essential for infection. Moreover, by using knockout cell lines and gene reconstitution, we showed that both α2,6- and α2,3-linked Sia can be used as functional cellular EV-D68 receptors. Importantly, the screen did not reveal a specific protein receptor, suggesting that EV-D68 can use multiple redundant sialylated receptors. Upon testing recent clinical strains, we identified strains that showed a similar Sia dependency, whereas others could infect cells lacking surface Sia, indicating they can use an alternative, nonsialylated receptor. Nevertheless, these Sia-independent strains were still able to bind Sia on human erythrocytes, raising the possibility that these viruses can use multiple receptors. Sequence comparison of Sia-dependent and Sia-independent EV-D68 strains showed that many changes occurred near the canyon that might allow alternative receptor binding. Collectively, our findings provide insights into the identity of the EV-D68 receptor and suggest the possible existence of Sia-independent viruses, which are essential for understanding tropism and disease. PMID:26787879

  12. Production of viable homozygous, doubled haploid channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of doubled haploids via mitotic gynogenesis is a useful tool for the creation of completely inbred fish. In order to produce viable doubled haploid channel catfish, we utilized hydrostatic pressure or thermal treatments on eggs fertilized with sperm that had been exposed to ultraviolet l...

  13. Natural sequence variants of yeast environmental sensors confer cell-to-cell expression variability

    PubMed Central

    Fehrmann, Steffen; Bottin-Duplus, Hélène; Leonidou, Andri; Mollereau, Esther; Barthelaix, Audrey; Wei, Wu; Steinmetz, Lars M; Yvert, Gaël

    2013-01-01

    Living systems may have evolved probabilistic bet hedging strategies that generate cell-to-cell phenotypic diversity in anticipation of environmental catastrophes, as opposed to adaptation via a deterministic response to environmental changes. Evolution of bet hedging assumes that genotypes segregating in natural populations modulate the level of intraclonal diversity, which so far has largely remained hypothetical. Using a fluorescent Pmet17-GFP reporter, we mapped four genetic loci conferring to a wild yeast strain an elevated cell-to-cell variability in the expression of MET17, a gene regulated by the methionine pathway. A frameshift mutation in the Erc1p transmembrane transporter, probably resulting from a release of laboratory strains from negative selection, reduced Pmet17-GFP expression variability. At a second locus, cis-regulatory polymorphisms increased mean expression of the Mup1p methionine permease, causing increased expression variability in trans. These results demonstrate that an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) can simultaneously have a deterministic effect in cis and a probabilistic effect in trans. Our observations indicate that the evolution of transmembrane transporter genes can tune intraclonal variation and may therefore be implicated in both reactive and anticipatory strategies of adaptation. PMID:24104478

  14. The glyoxylate pathway contributes to enhanced extracellular electron transfer in yeast-based biofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Hubenova, Yolina; Hubenova, Eleonora; Slavcheva, Evelina; Mitov, Mario

    2017-08-01

    This study provides a new insight into our understanding of yeast response to starvation conditions (sole acetate as carbon source) and applied polarization and offers important information about the role of the glyoxylate cycle in the carbohydrate synthesis and extracellular charge transfer processes in biofuel cells. The biosynthetic capabilities of yeast C. melibiosica 2491 and the up/down-regulation of the glyoxylate cycle are evaluated by modifying the cellular metabolism by feedback inhibition or carbohydrate presence and establishing the malate dehydrogenase activity and carbohydrate content together with the electric charge passed through bioelectrochemical system. 10mM malate leads to a decrease of the produced quantity of electricity with ca. 55%. At the same time, 24-times lower intracellular malate dehydrogenase activity is established. At polarization conditions the glyoxylate pathway is up-regulated and huge amount of malate is intra-converted into oxaloacetate. The yeasts are able to synthesize carbohydrates from acetate and a part of them is used for the electricity generation. It is recognized that the enhanced charge transfer in acetate fed yeast-based biofuel cell is implemented by secreted endogenous mediator and changes in the cellular surface redox activity depending on the addition of carbohydrate in the medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Classification of yeast cells from image features to evaluate pathogen conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Putten, Peter; Bertens, Laura; Liu, Jinshuo; Hagen, Ferry; Boekhout, Teun; Verbeek, Fons J.

    2007-01-01

    Morphometrics from images, image analysis, may reveal differences between classes of objects present in the images. We have performed an image-features-based classification for the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Building and analyzing image collections from the yeast under different environmental or genetic conditions may help to diagnose a new "unseen" situation. Diagnosis here means that retrieval of the relevant information from the image collection is at hand each time a new "sample" is presented. The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans can cause infections such as meningitis or pneumonia. The presence of an extra-cellular capsule is known to be related to virulence. This paper reports on the approach towards developing classifiers for detecting potentially more or less virulent cells in a sample, i.e. an image, by using a range of features derived from the shape or density distribution. The classifier can henceforth be used for automating screening and annotating existing image collections. In addition we will present our methods for creating samples, collecting images, image preprocessing, identifying "yeast cells" and creating feature extraction from the images. We compare various expertise based and fully automated methods of feature selection and benchmark a range of classification algorithms and illustrate successful application to this particular domain.

  16. Heavy ion induced DNA-DSB in yeast and mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loebrich, M.; Ikpeme, S.; Kiefer, J.

    1994-01-01

    Molecular changes at the DNA are assumed to be the main cause for radiation effects in a number of organisms. During the course of the last decades techniques have been developed for measuring DNA double-strand breaks (dsb), generally assumed to be the most critical DNA lesions. The outcome of all those different approaches portrays a collection of data useful for a theoretical description of radiation action mechanisms. However, in the case of heavy ion induced DNA dsb the picture is not quite clear yet and further projects and strategies have to be developed. The biological systems studied in our group are yeast and mammalian cells. While in the case of yeast cells technical and methodical reasons highlight these organisms mammalian cells reach greater importance when dsb repair studies are performed. In both types of organisms the technique of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is applied, although with different modifications and evaluation procedures mainly due to the different genome sizes.

  17. Secretion of non-cell-bound phytase by the yeast Pichia kudriavzevii TY13.

    PubMed

    Hellström, A; Qvirist, L; Svanberg, U; Veide Vilg, J; Andlid, T

    2015-05-01

    Mineral deficiencies cause several health problems in the world, especially for populations consuming cereal-based diets rich in the anti-nutrient phytate. Our aim was to characterize the phytate-degrading capacity of the yeast Pichia kudriavzevii TY13 and its secretion of phytase. The phytase activity in cell-free supernatants from cultures with 100% intact cells was 35-190 mU ml(-1) depending on the media. The Km was 0.28 mmol l(-1) and the specific phytase activity 0.32 U mg(-1) total protein. The phytase activity and secretion of extracellular non-cell-bound phytase was affected by the medium phosphate concentrations. Further, addition of yeast extract had a clearly inducing effect, resulting in over 60% of the cultures total phytase activity as non-cell-bound. Our study reveals that it is possible to achieve high extracellular phytase activity from the yeast P. kudriavzevii TY13 by proper composition of the growth medium. TY13 could be a promising future starter culture for fermented foods with improved mineral bioavailability. Using strains that secrete phytase to the food matrix may significantly improve the phytate degradation by facilitating the enzyme-to-substrate interaction. The secreted non-cell-bound phytase activities by TY13 could further be advantageous in industrial production of phytase. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Engineering tolerance to industrially relevant stress factors in yeast cell factories.

    PubMed

    Deparis, Quinten; Claes, Arne; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Thevelein, Johan M

    2017-06-01

    The main focus in development of yeast cell factories has generally been on establishing optimal activity of heterologous pathways and further metabolic engineering of the host strain to maximize product yield and titer. Adequate stress tolerance of the host strain has turned out to be another major challenge for obtaining economically viable performance in industrial production. Although general robustness is a universal requirement for industrial microorganisms, production of novel compounds using artificial metabolic pathways presents additional challenges. Many of the bio-based compounds desirable for production by cell factories are highly toxic to the host cells in the titers required for economic viability. Artificial metabolic pathways also turn out to be much more sensitive to stress factors than endogenous pathways, likely because regulation of the latter has been optimized in evolution in myriads of environmental conditions. We discuss different environmental and metabolic stress factors with high relevance for industrial utilization of yeast cell factories and the experimental approaches used to engineer higher stress tolerance. Improving stress tolerance in a predictable manner in yeast cell factories should facilitate their widespread utilization in the bio-based economy and extend the range of products successfully produced in large scale in a sustainable and economically profitable way. © FEMS 2017.

  19. Regulatory mechanism of the flavoprotein Tah18-dependent nitric oxide synthesis and cell death in yeast.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yuki; Nasuno, Ryo; Kawahara, Nobuhiro; Nishimura, Akira; Watanabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in the regulation of a large number of cellular functions. The regulatory mechanism of NO generation in unicellular eukaryotic yeast cells is poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian and bacterial NO synthase (NOS) orthologues, even though yeast produces NO under oxidative stress conditions. Recently, we reported that the flavoprotein Tah18, which was previously shown to transfer electrons to the iron-sulfur cluster protein Dre2, is involved in NOS-like activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On the other hand, Tah18 was reported to promote apoptotic cell death after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Here, we showed that NOS-like activity requiring Tah18 induced cell death upon treatment with H2O2. Our experimental results also indicate that Tah18-dependent NO production and cell death are suppressed by enhancement of the interaction between Tah18 and its molecular partner Dre2. Our findings indicate that the Tah18-Dre2 complex regulates cell death as a molecular switch via Tah18-dependent NOS-like activity in response to environmental changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetic Analysis of a Molecular Model of the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Katherine C.; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Gyorffy, Bela; Val, John; Novak, Bela; Tyson, John J.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular machinery of cell cycle control is known in more detail for budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, than for any other eukaryotic organism. In recent years, many elegant experiments on budding yeast have dissected the roles of cyclin molecules (Cln1–3 and Clb1–6) in coordinating the events of DNA synthesis, bud emergence, spindle formation, nuclear division, and cell separation. These experimental clues suggest a mechanism for the principal molecular interactions controlling cyclin synthesis and degradation. Using standard techniques of biochemical kinetics, we convert the mechanism into a set of differential equations, which describe the time courses of three major classes of cyclin-dependent kinase activities. Model in hand, we examine the molecular events controlling “Start” (the commitment step to a new round of chromosome replication, bud formation, and mitosis) and “Finish” (the transition from metaphase to anaphase, when sister chromatids are pulled apart and the bud separates from the mother cell) in wild-type cells and 50 mutants. The model accounts for many details of the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of cell cycle control in budding yeast. PMID:10637314

  1. Engineering tolerance to industrially relevant stress factors in yeast cell factories

    PubMed Central

    Deparis, Quinten; Claes, Arne; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The main focus in development of yeast cell factories has generally been on establishing optimal activity of heterologous pathways and further metabolic engineering of the host strain to maximize product yield and titer. Adequate stress tolerance of the host strain has turned out to be another major challenge for obtaining economically viable performance in industrial production. Although general robustness is a universal requirement for industrial microorganisms, production of novel compounds using artificial metabolic pathways presents additional challenges. Many of the bio-based compounds desirable for production by cell factories are highly toxic to the host cells in the titers required for economic viability. Artificial metabolic pathways also turn out to be much more sensitive to stress factors than endogenous pathways, likely because regulation of the latter has been optimized in evolution in myriads of environmental conditions. We discuss different environmental and metabolic stress factors with high relevance for industrial utilization of yeast cell factories and the experimental approaches used to engineer higher stress tolerance. Improving stress tolerance in a predictable manner in yeast cell factories should facilitate their widespread utilization in the bio-based economy and extend the range of products successfully produced in large scale in a sustainable and economically profitable way. PMID:28586408

  2. Magnetic resonance investigation of magnetic-labeled baker's yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy Morais, J. P. M.; Azevedo, R. B.; Silva, L. P.; Lacava, Z. G. M.; Báo, S. N.; Silva, O.; Pelegrini, F.; Gansau, C.; Buske, N.; Safarik, I.; Safarikova, M.; Morais, P. C.

    2004-05-01

    In this study, the interaction of DMSA-coated magnetite nanoparticles (5 and 10 nm core-size) with Saccharomyces cerevisae was investigated using magnetic resonance (MR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs revealed magnetite nanoparticles attached externally to the cell wall. The MR data support the strong interaction among the nanoparticles supported by the cells. A remarkable shift in the resonance field was used as signature of particle attachment to the cell wall.

  3. [Intragenic mitotic recombination induced by ultraviolet and gamma rays in radiosensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts].

    PubMed

    Zakharov, I A; Kasinova, G V; Koval'tsova, S V

    1983-01-01

    The effect of UV- and gamma-irradiation on the survival and intragenic mitotic recombination (gene conversion) of 5 radiosensitive mutants was studied in comparison with the wild type. The level of spontaneous conversion was similar for RAD, rad2 and rad15, mutations xrs2 and xrs4 increasing and rad54 significantly decreasing it. The frequency of conversion induced by UV-light was greater in rad2, rad15 and xrs2 mutants and lower in xrs4, as compared to RAD. Gamma-irradiation caused induction of gene conversion with an equal frequency in RAD, rad2, rad15. Xrs2 and xrs4 mutations slightly decreased gamma-induced conversion. In rad54 mutant, UV-and gamma-induced conversion was practically absent. In the wild type yeast, a diploid strain is more resistant than a haploid, whereas in rad54 a diploid strain has the same or an increased sensitivity, as compared to a haploid strain (the "inverse ploidy effect"). This effect and also the block of induced mitotic recombination caused by rad54 indicate the presence in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of repair pathways of UV- and gamma-induced damages acting in diploid cells and realised by recombination. The data obtained as a result of many years' investigation of genetic effects in radiosensitive mutants of yeast are summarised and considered.

  4. Fully Hydrated Yeast Cells Imaged with Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peckys, Diana B.; Mazur, Peter; Gould, Kathleen L.; de Jonge, Niels

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate electron microscopy of fully hydrated eukaryotic cells with nanometer resolution. Living Schizosaccaromyces pombe cells were loaded in a microfluidic chamber and imaged in liquid with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The native intracellular (ultra)structures of wild-type cells and three different mutants were studied without prior labeling, fixation, or staining. The STEM images revealed various intracellular components that were identified on the basis of their shape, size, location, and mass density. The maximal achieved spatial resolution in this initial study was 32 ± 8 nm, an order of magnitude better than achievable with light microscopy on pristine cells. Light-microscopy images of the same samples were correlated with the corresponding electron-microscopy images. Achieving synergy between the capabilities of light and electron microscopy, we anticipate that liquid STEM will be broadly applied to explore the ultrastructure of live cells. PMID:21575587

  5. Fully hydrated yeast cells imaged with electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Mazur, Peter; Gould, Kathleen L; de Jonge, Niels

    2011-05-18

    We demonstrate electron microscopy of fully hydrated eukaryotic cells with nanometer resolution. Living Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells were loaded in a microfluidic chamber and imaged in liquid with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The native intracellular (ultra)structures of wild-type cells and three different mutants were studied without prior labeling, fixation, or staining. The STEM images revealed various intracellular components that were identified on the basis of their shape, size, location, and mass density. The maximal achieved spatial resolution in this initial study was 32 ± 8 nm, an order of magnitude better than achievable with light microscopy on pristine cells. Light-microscopy images of the same samples were correlated with the corresponding electron-microscopy images. Achieving synergy between the capabilities of light and electron microscopy, we anticipate that liquid STEM will be broadly applied to explore the ultrastructure of live cells. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A systems-level approach for metabolic engineering of yeast cell factories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kwon; Roldão, António; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-03-01

    The generation of novel yeast cell factories for production of high-value industrial biotechnological products relies on three metabolic engineering principles: design, construction, and analysis. In the last two decades, strong efforts have been put on developing faster and more efficient strategies and/or technologies for each one of these principles. For design and construction, three major strategies are described in this review: (1) rational metabolic engineering; (2) inverse metabolic engineering; and (3) evolutionary strategies. Independent of the selected strategy, the process of designing yeast strains involves five decision points: (1) choice of product, (2) choice of chassis, (3) identification of target genes, (4) regulating the expression level of target genes, and (5) network balancing of the target genes. At the construction level, several molecular biology tools have been developed through the concept of synthetic biology and applied for the generation of novel, engineered yeast strains. For comprehensive and quantitative analysis of constructed strains, systems biology tools are commonly used and using a multi-omics approach. Key information about the biological system can be revealed, for example, identification of genetic regulatory mechanisms and competitive pathways, thereby assisting the in silico design of metabolic engineering strategies for improving strain performance. Examples on how systems and synthetic biology brought yeast metabolic engineering closer to industrial biotechnology are described in this review, and these examples should demonstrate the potential of a systems-level approach for fast and efficient generation of yeast cell factories. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of fatty acid-derived oleochemicals and biofuels by synthetic yeast cell factories

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yongjin J.; Buijs, Nicolaas A.; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qin, Jiufu; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production of oleochemicals requires establishment of cell factory platform strains. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive cell factory as new strains can be rapidly implemented into existing infrastructures such as bioethanol production plants. Here we show high-level production of free fatty acids (FFAs) in a yeast cell factory, and the production of alkanes and fatty alcohols from its descendants. The engineered strain produces up to 10.4 g l−1 of FFAs, which is the highest reported titre to date. Furthermore, through screening of specific pathway enzymes, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde reductases, we reconstruct efficient pathways for conversion of fatty acids to alkanes (0.8 mg l−1) and fatty alcohols (1.5 g l−1), to our knowledge the highest titres reported in S. cerevisiae. This should facilitate the construction of yeast cell factories for production of fatty acids derived products and even aldehyde-derived chemicals of high value. PMID:27222209

  8. One-Cell Doubling Evaluation by Living Arrays of Yeast, ODELAY!

    SciTech Connect

    Herricks, Thurston; Dilworth, David J.; Mast, Fred D.

    Cell growth is a complex phenotype widely used in systems biology to gauge the impact of genetic and environmental perturbations. Due to the magnitude of genome-wide studies, resolution is often sacrificed in favor of throughput, creating a demand for scalable, time-resolved, quantitative methods of growth assessment. We present ODELAY (One-cell Doubling Evaluation by Living Arrays of Yeast), an automated and scalable growth analysis platform. High measurement density and single-cell resolution provide a powerful tool for large-scale multiparameter growth analysis based on the modeling of microcolony expansion on solid media. Pioneered in yeast but applicable to other colony forming organisms, ODELAYmore » extracts the three key growth parameters (lag time, doubling time, and carrying capacity) that define microcolony expansion from single cells, simultaneously permitting the assessment of population heterogeneity. The utility of ODELAY is illustrated using yeast mutants, revealing a spectrum of phenotypes arising from single and combinatorial growth parameter perturbations.« less

  9. One-Cell Doubling Evaluation by Living Arrays of Yeast, ODELAY!

    DOE PAGES

    Herricks, Thurston; Dilworth, David J.; Mast, Fred D.; ...

    2016-11-16

    Cell growth is a complex phenotype widely used in systems biology to gauge the impact of genetic and environmental perturbations. Due to the magnitude of genome-wide studies, resolution is often sacrificed in favor of throughput, creating a demand for scalable, time-resolved, quantitative methods of growth assessment. We present ODELAY (One-cell Doubling Evaluation by Living Arrays of Yeast), an automated and scalable growth analysis platform. High measurement density and single-cell resolution provide a powerful tool for large-scale multiparameter growth analysis based on the modeling of microcolony expansion on solid media. Pioneered in yeast but applicable to other colony forming organisms, ODELAYmore » extracts the three key growth parameters (lag time, doubling time, and carrying capacity) that define microcolony expansion from single cells, simultaneously permitting the assessment of population heterogeneity. The utility of ODELAY is illustrated using yeast mutants, revealing a spectrum of phenotypes arising from single and combinatorial growth parameter perturbations.« less

  10. Extraction of brewer's yeasts using different methods of cell disruption for practical biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, Dagmar; Kolouchová, Irena; Masák, Jan; Viden, Ivan; Sigler, Karel

    2015-05-01

    The methods of preparation of fatty acids from brewer's yeast and its use in production of biofuels and in different branches of industry are described. Isolation of fatty acids from cell lipids includes cell disintegration (e.g., with liquid nitrogen, KOH, NaOH, petroleum ether, nitrogenous basic compounds, etc.) and subsequent processing of extracted lipids, including analysis of fatty acid and computing of biodiesel properties such as viscosity, density, cloud point, and cetane number. Methyl esters obtained from brewer's waste yeast are well suited for the production of biodiesel. All 49 samples (7 breweries and 7 methods) meet the requirements for biodiesel quality in both the composition of fatty acids and the properties of the biofuel required by the US and EU standards.

  11. Daughter-Specific Transcription Factors Regulate Cell Size Control in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M.; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:19841732

  12. Design and evaluation of a microfluidic system for inhibition studies of yeast cell signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamngren, Charlotte; Dinér, Peter; Grøtli, Morten; Goksör, Mattias; Adiels, Caroline B.

    2012-10-01

    In cell signaling, different perturbations lead to different responses and using traditional biological techniques that result in averaged data may obscure important cell-to-cell variations. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a four-inlet microfluidic system that enables single-cell analysis by investigating the effect on Hog1 localization post a selective Hog1 inhibitor treatment during osmotic stress. Optical tweezers was used to position yeast cells in an array of desired size and density inside the microfluidic system. By changing the flow rates through the inlet channels, controlled and rapid introduction of two different perturbations over the cell array was enabled. The placement of the cells was determined by diffusion rates flow simulations. The system was evaluated by monitoring the subcellular localization of a fluorescently tagged kinase of the yeast "High Osmolarity Glycerol" (HOG) pathway, Hog1-GFP. By sequential treatment of the yeast cells with a selective Hog1 kinase inhibitor and sorbitol, the subcellular localization of Hog1-GFP was analysed on a single-cell level. The results showed impaired Hog1-GFP nuclear localization, providing evidence of a congenial design. The setup made it possible to remove and add an agent within 2 seconds, which is valuable for investigating the dynamic signal transduction pathways and cannot be done using traditional methods. We are confident that the features of the four-inlet microfluidic system will be a valuable tool and hence contribute significantly to unravel the mechanisms of the HOG pathway and similar dynamic signal transduction pathways.

  13. Quantitative phase imaging of cell division in yeast cells and E.coli using digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; John, Renu

    2015-12-01

    Digital holographic microscope (DHM) is an emerging quantitative phase imaging technique with unique imaging scales and resolutions leading to multitude of applications. DHM is promising as a novel investigational and applied tool for cell imaging, studying the morphology and real time dynamics of cells and a number of related applications. The use of numerical propagation and computational digital optics offer unique flexibility to tune the depth of focus, and compensate for image aberrations. In this work, we report imaging the dynamics of cell division in E.coli and yeast cells using a DHM platform. We demonstrate 3-D and depth imaging as well as reconstruction of phase profiles of E.coli and yeast cells using the system. We record a digital hologram of E.coli and yeast cells and reconstruct the image using Fresnel propagation algorithm. We also use aberration compensation algorithms for correcting the aberrations that are introduced by the microscope objective in the object path using linear least square fitting techniques. This work demonstrates the strong potential of a DHM platform in 3-D live cell imaging, fast clinical quantifications and pathological applications.

  14. QTL mapping of sake brewing characteristics of yeast.

    PubMed

    Katou, Taku; Namise, Masahiro; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2009-04-01

    A haploid sake yeast strain derived from the commercial diploid sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 showed better characteristics for sake brewing compared to the haploid laboratory yeast strain X2180-1B, including higher production of ethanol and aromatic components. A hybrid of these two strains showed intermediate characteristics in most cases. After sporulation of the hybrid strain, we obtained 100 haploid segregants of the hybrid. Small-scale sake brewing tests of these segregants showed a smooth continuous distribution of the sake brewing characteristics, suggesting that these traits are determined by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). To examine these sake brewing characteristics at the genomic level, we performed QTL analysis of sake brewing characteristics using 142 DNA markers that showed heterogeneity between the two parental strains. As a result, we identified 25 significant QTLs involved in the specification of sake brewing characteristics such as ethanol fermentation and the production of aromatic components.

  15. Breeding of a xylose-fermenting hybrid strain by mating genetically engineered haploid strains derived from industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Seitaro; Matsushika, Akinori; Watanabe, Seiya; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2 is a promising host strain to genetically engineer xylose-utilizing yeasts for ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Two IR-2-based haploid strains were selected based upon the rate of xylulose fermentation, and hybrids were obtained by mating recombinant haploid strains harboring heterogeneous xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) (wild-type NAD(+)-dependent XDH or engineered NADP(+)-dependent XDH, ARSdR), xylose reductase (XR) and xylulose kinase (XK) genes. ARSdR in the hybrids selected for growth rates on yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) agar and YP-xylose agar plates typically had a higher activity than NAD(+)-dependent XDH. Furthermore, the xylose-fermenting performance of the hybrid strain SE12 with the same level of heterogeneous XDH activity was similar to that of a recombinant strain of IR-2 harboring a single set of genes, XR/ARSdR/XK. These results suggest not only that the recombinant haploid strains retain the appropriate genetic background of IR-2 for ethanol production from xylose but also that ARSdR is preferable for xylose fermentation.

  16. Growth promoting effects of prebiotic yeast cell wall products in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to investigate the growth promoting effects of supplementing different sources and concentrations of prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) products containing mannanoligosaccharides in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Through a series ...

  17. Micro-Biocidal Activity of Yeast Cells by Needle Plasma Irradiation at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurumi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Taima, Tomohito; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki

    In this study, we report on the biocidal activity technique by needle helium plasma irradiation at atmospheric pressure using borosilicate capillary nozzle to apply for the oral surgery. The diameter of needle plasma was less than 50 µm, and temperature of plasma irradiated area was less than body temperature. Needle plasma showed emission due to OH and O radical. Raman spectra and methylene blue stain showed yeast cells were inactivated by needle plasma irradiation.

  18. Fast kinetic studies of plasmid DNA transfer in intact yeast cells mediated by electropulsation.

    PubMed

    Ganeva, V; Galutzov, B; Teissie, J

    1995-09-25

    Intact yeast cell Electrotransformation process was investigated. It is a two step process. The plasmid must be pre-mixed and present in contact with the cells during the pulse. During the millisecond field pulse, plasmid DNA is associated to the envelope. It therefore crosses the membrane by a process which lasts several seconds as shown by its sensitivity to a post pulse addition of DNase. Electrotransformation is not supported by an electrophoretic transfer due to the external field nor by a free diffusion across the electropermeabilized envelope. DNA is first bound during the field pulse and then is transferred by a still unknown active process due to cell metabolism.

  19. Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rappaz, Benjamin; Cano, Elena; Colomb, Tristan; Kühn, Jonas; Depeursinge, Christian; Simanis, Viesturs; Magistretti, Pierre J; Marquet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Digital holography microscopy (DHM) is an optical technique which provides phase images yielding quantitative information about cell structure and cellular dynamics. Furthermore, the quantitative phase images allow the derivation of other parameters, including dry mass production, density, and spatial distribution. We have applied DHM to study the dry mass production rate and the dry mass surface density in wild-type and mutant fission yeast cells. Our study demonstrates the applicability of DHM as a tool for label-free quantitative analysis of the cell cycle and opens the possibility for its use in high-throughput screening.

  20. Bacterial Signaling Nucleotides Inhibit Yeast Cell Growth by Impacting Mitochondrial and Other Specifically Eukaryotic Functions.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Andy; Vergnano, Marta; Wan, Chris; Oliver, Stephen G

    2017-07-25

    We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inducibly synthesize the prokaryotic signaling nucleotides cyclic di-GMP (cdiGMP), cdiAMP, and ppGpp in order to characterize the range of effects these nucleotides exert on eukaryotic cell function during bacterial pathogenesis. Synthetic genetic array (SGA) and transcriptome analyses indicated that, while these compounds elicit some common reactions in yeast, there are also complex and distinctive responses to each of the three nucleotides. All three are capable of inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth, with the guanine nucleotides exhibiting stronger effects than cdiAMP. Mutations compromising mitochondrial function and chromatin remodeling show negative epistatic interactions with all three nucleotides. In contrast, certain mutations that cause defects in chromatin modification and ribosomal protein function show positive epistasis, alleviating growth inhibition by at least two of the three nucleotides. Uniquely, cdiGMP is lethal both to cells growing by respiration on acetate and to obligately fermentative petite mutants. cdiGMP is also synthetically lethal with the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea. Heterologous expression of the human ppGpp hydrolase Mesh1p prevented the accumulation of ppGpp in the engineered yeast and restored cell growth. Extensive in vivo interactions between bacterial signaling molecules and eukaryotic gene function occur, resulting in outcomes ranging from growth inhibition to death. cdiGMP functions through a mechanism that must be compensated by unhindered RNR activity or by functionally competent mitochondria. Mesh1p may be required for abrogating the damaging effects of ppGpp in human cells subjected to bacterial infection. IMPORTANCE During infections, pathogenic bacteria can release nucleotides into the cells of their eukaryotic hosts. These nucleotides are recognized as signals that contribute to the initiation of defensive immune responses that help the infected

  1. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Kirz, Janos; ...

    2009-11-01

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 °C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

  2. Enhanced phytate dephosphorylation by using Candida melibiosica yeast-based biofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Hubenova, Yolina; Georgiev, Danail; Mitov, Mario

    2014-10-01

    We report for the first time that Candida melibiosica expresses enhanced phytase activity when grown under biofuel cell polarization in a nutrient-poor medium, containing only fructose as a carbohydrate source. Phytase activity during the cultivation under polarization reached up to 25 U per g dry biomass, exceeding with 20 ± 3 % those of the control. A participation of the enzyme in the adaptation processes to the stress conditions is proposed. In addition, steady-state electrical outputs were achieved during biofuel cell operation at continuous polarization under constant load. The obtained results show that C. melibiosica yeast-based biofuel cell could be used for simultaneous electricity generation and phytate bioremediation.

  3. Cytokinesis-Based Constraints on Polarized Cell Growth in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, K. Adam; Gould, Kathleen L.

    2012-01-01

    The rod-shaped fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which undergoes cycles of monopolar-to-bipolar tip growth, is an attractive organism for studying cell-cycle regulation of polarity establishment. While previous research has described factors mediating this process from interphase cell tips, we found that division site signaling also impacts the re-establishment of bipolar cell growth in the ensuing cell cycle. Complete loss or targeted disruption of the non-essential cytokinesis protein Fic1 at the division site, but not at interphase cell tips, resulted in many cells failing to grow at new ends created by cell division. This appeared due to faulty disassembly and abnormal persistence of the cell division machinery at new ends of fic1Δ cells. Moreover, additional mutants defective in the final stages of cytokinesis exhibited analogous growth polarity defects, supporting that robust completion of cell division contributes to new end-growth competency. To test this model, we genetically manipulated S. pombe cells to undergo new end take-off immediately after cell division. Intriguingly, such cells elongated constitutively at new ends unless cytokinesis was perturbed. Thus, cell division imposes constraints that partially override positive controls on growth. We posit that such constraints facilitate invasive fungal growth, as cytokinesis mutants displaying bipolar growth defects formed numerous pseudohyphae. Collectively, these data highlight a role for previous cell cycles in defining a cell's capacity to polarize at specific sites, and they additionally provide insight into how a unicellular yeast can transition into a quasi-multicellular state. PMID:23093943

  4. Awa1p on the cell surface of sake yeast inhibits biofilm formation and the co-aggregation between sake yeasts and Lactobacillus plantarum ML11-11.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Satoru; Shimizu, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Furukawa, Soichi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Takagi, Hiroshi; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2015-05-01

    We examined mixed-species biofilm formation between Lactobacillus plantarum ML11-11 and both foaming and non-foaming mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeasts. Wild-type strains showed significantly lower levels of biofilm formation compared with the non-foaming mutants. Awa1p, a protein involved in foam formation during sake brewing, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and is associated with the cell wall of sake yeasts. The AWA1 gene of the non-foaming mutant strain Kyokai no. 701 (K701) has lost the C-terminal sequence that includes the GPI anchor signal. Mixed-species biofilm formation and co-aggregation of wild-type strain Kyokai no. 7 (K7) were significantly lower than K701 UT-1 (K701 ura3/ura3 trp1/trp1), while the levels of strain K701 UT-1 carrying the AWA1 on a plasmid were comparable to those of K7. The levels of biofilm formation and co-aggregation of the strain K701 UT-1 harboring AWA1 with a deleted GPI anchor signal were similar to those of K701 UT-1. These results clearly demonstrate that Awa1p present on the surface of sake yeast strain K7 inhibits adhesion between yeast cells and L. plantarum ML11-11, consequently impeding mixed-species biofilm formation. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms of electron transfer between a styrylquinolinium dye and yeast in biofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Hubenova, Yolina; Bakalska, Rumyana; Hubenova, Eleonora; Mitov, Mario

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, the influence of the recently synthesized styrylquinolinium dye 4-{(E)-2-[4-(dimethylamino)naphthalen-1-yl]ethenyl}-1-methylquinolinium iodide (DANSQI) on the intracellular processes as well as the electrical outputs of Candida melibiosica 2491 yeast-based biofuel cell was investigated. The addition of nanomolar quantities of DANSQI to the yeast suspension results in an increase of the current outputs right after the startup of the biofuel cells, associated with an electrooxidation of the dye on the anode. After that, the formed cation radical of the dye penetrates the yeast cells, provoking a set of intracellular changes. Studies of the subcellular anolyte fractions show that 1μM dye increased the peroxisomal catalase activity 30-times (1.15±0.06Unit/mg protein) and over twice the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity (92±5Unit/mg protein). The results obtained by electrochemical and spectrophotometric analyses let to the supposition that the dye acts as subcellular shuttle, on account of its specific intramolecular charge transfer properties. The transition between its benzoid, quinolyl radical and ion forms and their putative role for the extracellular and intracellular charge transfer mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of an immobilized yeast cell system using very high gravity for the fermentation of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hairui; Yu, Jianliang; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    The characteristics of ethanol production by immobilized yeast cells were investigated for both repeated batch fermentation and continuous fermentation. With an initial sugar concentration of 280 g/L during the repeated batch fermentation, more than 98% of total sugar was consumed in 65 h with an average ethanol concentration and ethanol yield of 130.12 g/L and 0.477 g ethanol/g consumed sugar, respectively. The immobilized yeast cell system was reliable for at least 10 batches and for a period of 28 days without accompanying the regeneration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inside the carriers. The multistage continuous fermentation was carried out in a five-stage column bioreactor with a total working volume of 3.75 L. The bioreactor was operated for 26 days at a dilution rate of 0.015 h(-1). The ethanol concentration of the effluent reached 130.77 g/L ethanol while an average 8.18 g/L residual sugar remained. Due to the high osmotic pressure and toxic ethanol, considerable yeast cells died without regeneration, especially in the last two stages, which led to the breakdown of the whole system of multistage continuous fermentation.

  7. Cell-autonomous mechanisms of chronological aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Leonov, Anna; Piano, Amanda; Svistkova, Veronika; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-05-27

    A body of evidence supports the view that the signaling pathways governing cellular aging - as well as mechanisms of their modulation by longevity-extending genetic, dietary and pharmacological interventions - are conserved across species. The scope of this review is to critically analyze recent advances in our understanding of cell-autonomous mechanisms of chronological aging in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Based on our analysis, we propose a concept of a biomolecular network underlying the chronology of cellular aging in yeast. The concept posits that such network progresses through a series of lifespan checkpoints. At each of these checkpoints, the intracellular concentrations of some key intermediates and products of certain metabolic pathways - as well as the rates of coordinated flow of such metabolites within an intricate network of intercompartmental communications - are monitored by some checkpoint-specific "master regulator" proteins. The concept envisions that a synergistic action of these master regulator proteins at certain early-life and late-life checkpoints modulates the rates and efficiencies of progression of such processes as cell metabolism, growth, proliferation, stress resistance, macromolecular homeostasis, survival and death. The concept predicts that, by modulating these vital cellular processes throughout lifespan (i.e., prior to an arrest of cell growth and division, and following such arrest), the checkpoint-specific master regulator proteins orchestrate the development and maintenance of a pro- or anti-aging cellular pattern and, thus, define longevity of chronologically aging yeast.

  8. Reconstruction of a yeast cell from x-ray diffraction data

    DOE PAGES

    Thibault, Pierre; Elser, Veit; Jacobsen, Chris; ...

    2006-06-21

    We provide details of the algorithm used for the reconstruction of yeast cell images in the recent demonstration of diffraction microscopy by Shapiro, Thibault, Beetz, Elser, Howells, Jacobsen, Kirz, Lima, Miao, Nieman & Sayre. Two refinements of the iterative constraint-based scheme are developed to address the current experimental realities of this imaging technique, which include missing central data and noise. A constrained power operator is defined whose eigenmodes allow the identification of a small number of degrees of freedom in the reconstruction that are negligibly constrained as a result of the missing data. To achieve reproducibility in the algorithm's output,more » a special intervention is required for these modes. Weak incompatibility of the constraints caused by noise in both direct and Fourier space leads to residual phase fluctuations. This problem is addressed by supplementing the algorithm with an averaging method. The effect of averaging may be interpreted in terms of an effective modulation transfer function, as used in optics, to quantify the resolution. The reconstruction details are prefaced with simulations of wave propagation through a model yeast cell. These show that the yeast cell is a strong-phase-contrast object for the conditions in the experiment.« less

  9. Tributyltin induces Yca1p-dependent cell death of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chahomchuen, Thippayarat; Akiyama, Koichi; Sekito, Takayuki; Sugimoto, Naoko; Okabe, Masaaki; Nishimoto, Sogo; Sugahara, Takuya; Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    2009-10-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT), an environmental pollutant, is toxic to a variety of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Although it has been reported that TBT induces apoptotic cell death in mammalian, the action of TBT on eukaryotic microorganisms has not yet been fully investigated. In this study we examined the mechanism involved in cell death caused by TBT exposure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The median lethal concentration of TBT was 10 microM for the parent strain BY4741 and 3 microM for the pdr5Delta mutant defective in a major multidrug transporter, respectively. Fluorescence microscopic observations revealed nuclear condensation and chromatin fragmentation in cells treated with TBT indicating that cells underwent an apoptosis-like cell dearth. TBT-induced cell death was suppressed by deletion of the yca1 gene encoding a homologue of the mammalian caspase. In parallel, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced by TBT. These results suggest that TBT induces apoptosis-like cell death in yeast via an Yca1p-dependent pathway possibly downstream of the ROS production. This is the first report on TBT-induced apoptotic cell death in yeast.

  10. Fission yeast Ags1 confers the essential septum strength needed for safe gradual cell abscission

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mamiko; Muñoz, Javier; Moreno, M. Belén; Clemente-Ramos, Jose Angel; Ramos, Mariona; Okada, Hitoshi; Osumi, Masako; Durán, Angel; Ribas, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Fungal cytokinesis requires the assembly of a dividing septum wall. In yeast, the septum has to be selectively digested during the critical cell separation process. Fission yeast cell wall α(1-3)glucan is essential, but nothing is known about its localization and function in the cell wall or about cooperation between the α- and β(1-3)glucan synthases Ags1 and Bgs for cell wall and septum assembly. Here, we generate a physiological Ags1-GFP variant and demonstrate a tight colocalization with Bgs1, suggesting a cooperation in the important early steps of septum construction. Moreover, we define the essential functions of α(1-3)glucan in septation and cell separation. We show that α(1-3)glucan is essential for both secondary septum formation and the primary septum structural strength needed to support the physical forces of the cell turgor pressure during cell separation. Consequently, the absence of Ags1 and therefore α(1-3)glucan generates a special and unique side-explosive cell separation due to an instantaneous primary septum tearing caused by the turgor pressure. PMID:22891259

  11. The protonophore CCCP interferes with lysosomal degradation of autophagic cargo in yeast and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Padman, Benjamin S; Bach, Markus; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Prescott, Mark; Ramm, Georg

    2013-11-01

    Mitophagy is a selective pathway, which targets and delivers mitochondria to the lysosomes for degradation. Depolarization of mitochondria by the protonophore CCCP is a strategy increasingly used to experimentally trigger not only mitophagy, but also bulk autophagy. Using live-cell fluorescence microscopy we found that treatment of HeLa cells with CCCP caused redistribution of mitochondrially targeted dyes, including DiOC6, TMRM, MTR, and MTG, from mitochondria to the cytosol, and subsequently to lysosomal compartments. Localization of mitochondrial dyes to lysosomal compartments was caused by retargeting of the dye, rather than delivery of mitochondrial components to the lysosome. We showed that CCCP interfered with lysosomal function and autophagosomal degradation in both yeast and mammalian cells, inhibited starvation-induced mitophagy in mammalian cells, and blocked the induction of mitophagy in yeast cells. PARK2/Parkin-expressing mammalian cells treated with CCCP have been reported to undergo high levels of mitophagy and clearance of all mitochondria during extensive treatment with CCCP. Using correlative light and electron microscopy in PARK2-expressing HeLa cells, we showed that mitochondrial remnants remained present in the cell after 24 h of CCCP treatment, although they were no longer easily identifiable as such due to morphological alterations. Our results showed that CCCP inhibits autophagy at both the initiation and lysosomal degradation stages. In addition, our data demonstrated that caution should be taken when using organelle-specific dyes in conjunction with strategies affecting membrane potential.

  12. Synthesis of mannosylinositol phosphorylceramides is involved in maintenance of cell integrity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuji; Tani, Motohiro

    2015-02-01

    Complex sphingolipids play important roles in many physiologically important events in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we screened yeast mutant strains showing a synthetic lethal interaction with loss of mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) synthesis and found that a specific group of glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of mannan-type N-glycans is essential for the growth of cells lacking MIPC synthases (Sur1 and Csh1). The genetic interaction was also confirmed by repression of MNN2, which encodes alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase that synthesizes mannan-type N-glycans, by a tetracycline-regulatable system. MNN2-repressed sur1Δ csh1Δ cells exhibited high sensitivity to zymolyase treatment, and caffeine and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) strongly inhibited the growth of sur1Δ csh1Δ cells, suggesting impairment of cell integrity due to the loss of MIPC synthesis. The phosphorylated form of Slt2, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activated by impaired cell integrity, increased in sur1Δ csh1Δ cells, and this increase was dramatically enhanced by the repression of Mnn2. Moreover, the growth defect of MNN2-repressed sur1Δ csh1Δ cells was enhanced by the deletion of SLT2 or RLM1 encoding a downstream target of Slt2. These results indicated that loss of MIPC synthesis causes impairment of cell integrity, and this effect is enhanced by impaired synthesis of mannan-type N-glycans. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. eIF2 kinases mediate β-lapachone toxicity in yeast and human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Menacho-Márquez, Mauricio; Rodríguez-Hernández, Carlos J; Villaronga, M Ángeles; Pérez-Valle, Jorge; Gadea, José; Belandia, Borja; Murguía, José R

    2015-01-01

    β-lapachone (β-lap) is a novel anticancer agent that selectively induces cell death in human cancer cells, by activation of the NQO1 NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and radical oxygen species (ROS) generation. We characterized the gene expression profile of budding yeast cells treated with β-lap using cDNA microarrays. Genes involved in tolerance to oxidative stress were differentially expressed in β-lap treated cells. β-lap treatment generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were efficiently blocked by dicoumarol, an inhibitor of NADH dehydrogenases. A yeast mutant in the mitocondrial NADH dehydrogenase Nde2p was found to be resistant to β-lap treatment, despite inducing ROS production in a WT manner. Most interestingly, DNA damage responses triggered by β-lap were abolished in the nde2Δ mutant. Amino acid biosynthesis genes were also induced in β-lap treated cells, suggesting that β-lap exposure somehow triggered the General Control of Nutrients (GCN) pathway. Accordingly, β-lap treatment increased phosphorylation of eIF2α subunit in a manner dependent on the Gcn2p kinase. eIF2α phosphorylation required Gcn1p, Gcn20p and Nde2p. Gcn2p was also required for cell survival upon exposure to β-lap and to elicit checkpoint responses. Remarkably, β-lap treatment increased phosphorylation of eIF2α in breast tumor cells, in a manner dependent on the Nde2p ortholog AIF, and the eIF2 kinase PERK. These findings uncover a new target pathway of β-lap in yeast and human cells and highlight a previously unknown functional connection between Nde2p, Gcn2p and DNA damage responses. PMID:25590579

  14. Employing proteomic analysis to compare Paracoccidioides lutzii yeast and mycelium cell wall proteins.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Danielle Silva; de Sousa Lima, Patrícia; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Melo Bailão, Alexandre; Borges, Clayton Luiz; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2017-11-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important systemic mycosis caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus. During the infective process, the cell wall acts at the interface between the fungus and the host. In this way, the cell wall has a key role in growth, environment sensing and interaction, as well as morphogenesis of the fungus. Since the cell wall is absent in mammals, it may present molecules that are described as target sites for new antifungal drugs. Despite its importance, up to now few studies have been conducted employing proteomics in for the identification of cell wall proteins in Paracoccidioides spp. Here, a detailed proteomic approach, including cell wall-fractionation coupled to NanoUPLC-MS E , was used to study and compare the cell wall fractions from Paracoccidioides lutzii mycelia and yeast cells. The analyzed samples consisted of cell wall proteins extracted by hot SDS followed by extraction by mild alkali. In summary, 512 proteins constituting different cell wall fractions were identified, including 7 predicted GPI-dependent cell wall proteins that are potentially involved in cell wall metabolism. Adhesins previously described in Paracoccidioides spp. such as enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were identified. Comparing the proteins in mycelium and yeast cells, we detected some that are common to both fungal phases, such as Ecm33, and some specific proteins, as glucanase Crf1. All of those proteins were described in the metabolism of cell wall. Our study provides an important elucidation of cell wall composition of fractions in Paracoccidioides, opening a way to understand the fungus cell wall architecture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of in vitro haploid and doubled haploid Chrysanthemum morifolium plants via unfertilized ovule culture for phenotypical traits and DNA methylation pattern

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Dong, Bin; Jiang, Jiafu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemum is one of important ornamental species in the world. Its highly heterozygous state complicates molecular analysis, so it is of interest to derive haploid forms. A total of 2579 non-fertilized chrysanthemum ovules pollinated by Argyranthemum frutescens were cultured in vitro to isolate haploid progeny. One single regenerant emerged from each of three of the 105 calli produced. Chromosome counts and microsatellite fingerprinting showed that only one of the regenerants was a true haploid. Nine doubled haploid derivatives were subsequently generated by colchicine treatment of 80 in vitro cultured haploid nodal segments. Morphological screening showed that the haploid plant was shorter than the doubled haploids, and developed smaller leaves, flowers, and stomata. An in vitro pollen germination test showed that few of the haploid's pollen were able to germinate and those which did so were abnormal. Both the haploid and the doubled haploids produced yellow flowers, whereas those of the maternal parental cultivar were mauve. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) profiling was further used to detect alterations in cytosine methylation caused by the haploidization and/or the chromosome doubling processes. While 52.2% of the resulting amplified fragments were cytosine methylated in the maternal parent's genome, the corresponding proportions for the haploid's and doubled haploids' genomes were, respectively, 47.0 and 51.7%, demonstrating a reduction in global cytosine methylation caused by haploidization and a partial recovery following chromosome doubling. PMID:25566305

  16. Bioethanol production from uncooked raw starch by immobilized surface-engineered yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Wu, Kuo-Wei; Fukuda, Hideki

    2008-03-01

    Surface-engineered yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae codisplaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase and Streptococcus bovis alpha-amylase on the cell surface was used for direct production of ethanol from uncooked raw starch. By using 50 g/L cells during batch fermentation, ethanol concentration could reach 53 g/L in 7 days. During repeated batch fermentation, the production of ethanol could be maintained for seven consecutive cycles. For cells immobilized in loofa sponge, the concentration of ethanol could reach 42 g/L in 3 days in a circulating packed-bed bioreactor. However, the production of ethanol stopped thereafter because of limited contact between cells and starch. The bioreactor could be operated for repeated batch production of ethanol, but ethanol concentration dropped to 55% of its initial value after five cycles because of a decrease in cell mass and cell viability in the bioreactor. Adding cells to the bioreactor could partially restore ethanol production to 75% of its initial value.

  17. Three-dimensional spatiotemporal tracking of fluorine-18 radiolabeled yeast cells via positron emission particle tracking

    DOE PAGES

    Langford, Seth T.; Wiggins, Cody S.; Santos, Roque; ...

    2017-07-06

    A method for Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) based on optical feature point identification techniques is demonstrated for use in low activity tracking experiments. Furthermore, a population of yeast cells of approximately 125,000 members is activated to roughly 55 Bq/cell by 18F uptake. An in vitro particle tracking experiment is performed with nearly 20 of these cells after decay to 32 Bq/cell. These cells are successfully identified and tracked simultaneously in this experiment. Our work extends the applicability of PEPT as a cell tracking method by allowing a number of cells to be tracked together, and demonstrating tracking for verymore » low activity tracers.« less

  18. Bioethanol Production from Uncooked Raw Starch by Immobilized Surface-engineered Yeast Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Wu, Kuo-Wei; Fukuda, Hideki

    Surface-engineered yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae codisplaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase and Streptococcus bovis α-amylase on the cell surface was used for direct production of ethanol from uncooked raw starch. By using 50 g/L cells during batch fermentation, ethanol concentration could reach 53 g/L in 7 days. During repeated batch fermentation, the production of ethanol could be maintained for seven consecutive cycles. For cells immobilized in loofa sponge, the concentration of ethanol could reach 42 g/L in 3 days in a circulating packed-bed bioreactor. However, the production of ethanol stopped thereafter because of limited contact between cells and starch. The bioreactor could be operated for repeated batch production of ethanol, but ethanol concentration dropped to 55% of its initial value after five cycles because of a decrease in cell mass and cell viability in the bioreactor. Adding cells to the bioreactor could partially restore ethanol production to 75% of its initial value.

  19. Three-dimensional spatiotemporal tracking of fluorine-18 radiolabeled yeast cells via positron emission particle tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, Seth T.; Wiggins, Cody S.; Santos, Roque

    A method for Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) based on optical feature point identification techniques is demonstrated for use in low activity tracking experiments. Furthermore, a population of yeast cells of approximately 125,000 members is activated to roughly 55 Bq/cell by 18F uptake. An in vitro particle tracking experiment is performed with nearly 20 of these cells after decay to 32 Bq/cell. These cells are successfully identified and tracked simultaneously in this experiment. Our work extends the applicability of PEPT as a cell tracking method by allowing a number of cells to be tracked together, and demonstrating tracking for verymore » low activity tracers.« less

  20. How peroxisomes partition between cells. A story of yeast, mammals and filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Knoblach, Barbara; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Eukaryotic cells are subcompartmentalized into discrete, membrane-enclosed organelles. These organelles must be preserved in cells over many generations to maintain the selective advantages afforded by compartmentalization. Cells use complex molecular mechanisms of organelle inheritance to achieve high accuracy in the sharing of organelles between daughter cells. Here we focus on how a multi-copy organelle, the peroxisome, is partitioned in yeast, mammalian cells, and filamentous fungi, which differ in their mode of cell division. Cells achieve equidistribution of their peroxisomes through organelle transport and retention processes that act coordinately, although the strategies employed vary considerably by organism. Nevertheless, we propose that mechanisms common across species apply to the partitioning of all membrane-enclosed organelles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intracellular trehalose and sorbitol synergistically promoting cell viability of a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, for aflatoxin reduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sui Sheng T; Hernlem, Bradley J; Yokoyama, Wallace; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L

    2015-05-01

    Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of aflatoxin in the food chain. Maintaining the viability of biocontrol agents in formulated products is a great challenge for commercial applications. Four media, NYG, NYGS, NYGT and NYGST are described which support good growth of yeast cells and were tested as storage formulations. Post growth supplement of 5 % trehalose to NYGST resulted in 83 % viable yeast cells after 12 months in cold storage. Intracellular sorbitol and trehalose concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis at the beginning of the storage and at the end of 12 month. Correlation of cell viability to both trehalose and sorbitol suggested a synergistic effect. Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test, all showed that yeast cell viability in samples with both intracellular trehalose and sorbitol were significantly higher than those with either or none, at a 95 % confidence level. DiBAC4(5) and CFDA-AM were used as the membrane integrity fluorescent stains to create a two-color vital staining scheme with red and green fluorescence, respectively. Yeast cells stored in formulations NYG and NYGS with no detectable trehalose, displayed mostly red fluorescence. Yeast cells in NYGST+5T showed mostly green fluorescence.

  2. The AWA1 Gene Is Required for the Foam-Forming Phenotype and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Sake Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Shimoi, Hitoshi; Sakamoto, Kazutoshi; Okuda, Masaki; Atthi, Ratchanee; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    Sake, a traditional alcoholic beverage in Japan, is brewed with sake yeasts, which are classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Almost all sake yeasts form a thick foam layer on sake mash during the fermentation process because of their cell surface hydrophobicity, which increases the cells' affinity for bubbles. To reduce the amount of foam, nonfoaming mutants were bred from foaming sake yeasts. Nonfoaming mutants have hydrophilic cell surfaces and no affinity for bubbles. We have cloned a gene from a foam-forming sake yeast that confers foaming ability to a nonfoaming mutant. This gene was named AWA1 and structures of the gene and its product were analyzed. The N- and C-terminal regions of Awa1p have the characteristic sequences of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein. The entire protein is rich in serine and threonine residues and has a lot of repetitive sequences. These results suggest that Awa1p is localized in the cell wall. This was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting analysis using hemagglutinin-tagged Awa1p. Moreover, an awa1 disruptant of sake yeast was hydrophilic and showed a nonfoaming phenotype in sake mash. We conclude that Awa1p is a cell wall protein and is required for the foam-forming phenotype and the cell surface hydrophobicity of sake yeast. PMID:11916725

  3. Chromosomal Aneuploidy Improves the Brewing Characteristics of Sake Yeast.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Masafumi; Fujimaru, Yuki; Taguchi, Seiga; Ferdouse, Jannatul; Sawada, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuta; Terasawa, Yohei; Agrimi, Gennaro; Anai, Toyoaki; Noguchi, Hideki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Akao, Takeshi; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2017-12-15

    The effect of chromosomal aneuploidy on the brewing characteristics of brewery yeasts has not been studied. Here we report that chromosomal aneuploidy in sake brewery yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) leads to the development of favorable brewing characteristics. We found that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast, which produces less off-flavor diacetyl, is aneuploid and trisomic for chromosomes XI and XIV. To confirm that this phenotype is due to aneuploidy, we obtained 45 haploids with various chromosomal additions and investigated their brewing profiles. A greater number of chromosomes correlated with a decrease in pyruvate production. Especially, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes in addition to chromosome XI produced less pyruvate than euploids. Mitochondrion-related metabolites and intracellular oxygen species in chromosome XI aneuploids were higher than those in euploids, and this effect was canceled in their "petite" strains, suggesting that an increase in chromosomes upregulated mitochondrial activity and decreased pyruvate levels. These findings suggested that an increase in chromosome number, including chromosome XI, in sake yeast haploids leads to pyruvate underproduction through the augmentation of mitochondrial activity. This is the first report proposing that aneuploidy in brewery yeasts improves their brewing profile. IMPORTANCE Chromosomal aneuploidy has not been evaluated in development of sake brewing yeast strains. This study shows the relationship between chromosomal aneuploidy and brewing characteristics of brewery yeast strains. High concentrations of pyruvate during sake storage give rise to α-acetolactate and, in turn, to high concentrations of diacetyl, which is considered an off-flavor. It was demonstrated that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast is trisomic for chromosome XI and XIV. Furthermore, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes produced reduced levels of pyruvate and showed metabolic processes characteristic of

  4. Chromosomal Aneuploidy Improves the Brewing Characteristics of Sake Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Masafumi; Fujimaru, Yuki; Taguchi, Seiga; Ferdouse, Jannatul; Sawada, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuta; Terasawa, Yohei; Agrimi, Gennaro; Anai, Toyoaki; Noguchi, Hideki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Akao, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of chromosomal aneuploidy on the brewing characteristics of brewery yeasts has not been studied. Here we report that chromosomal aneuploidy in sake brewery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) leads to the development of favorable brewing characteristics. We found that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast, which produces less off-flavor diacetyl, is aneuploid and trisomic for chromosomes XI and XIV. To confirm that this phenotype is due to aneuploidy, we obtained 45 haploids with various chromosomal additions and investigated their brewing profiles. A greater number of chromosomes correlated with a decrease in pyruvate production. Especially, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes in addition to chromosome XI produced less pyruvate than euploids. Mitochondrion-related metabolites and intracellular oxygen species in chromosome XI aneuploids were higher than those in euploids, and this effect was canceled in their “petite” strains, suggesting that an increase in chromosomes upregulated mitochondrial activity and decreased pyruvate levels. These findings suggested that an increase in chromosome number, including chromosome XI, in sake yeast haploids leads to pyruvate underproduction through the augmentation of mitochondrial activity. This is the first report proposing that aneuploidy in brewery yeasts improves their brewing profile. IMPORTANCE Chromosomal aneuploidy has not been evaluated in development of sake brewing yeast strains. This study shows the relationship between chromosomal aneuploidy and brewing characteristics of brewery yeast strains. High concentrations of pyruvate during sake storage give rise to α-acetolactate and, in turn, to high concentrations of diacetyl, which is considered an off-flavor. It was demonstrated that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast is trisomic for chromosome XI and XIV. Furthermore, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes produced reduced levels of pyruvate and showed metabolic processes characteristic

  5. Yeast-assisted synthesis of polypyrrole: Quantification and influence on the mechanical properties of the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Stirke, Arunas; Garbaras, Andrius; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Thornton, Barry; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the metabolism of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was utilized for the synthesis of the conducting polymer - polypyrrole (Ppy).Yeast cells were modified in situ by synthesized Ppy. The Ppy was formed in the cell wall by redox-cycling of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- , performed by the yeast cells. Fluorescence microscopy, enzymatic digestions, atomic force microscopy and isotope ratio mass spectroscopy were applied to determine both the polymerization reaction itself and the polymer location in yeast cells. Ppy formation resulted in enhanced resistance to lytic enzymes, significant increase of elasticity and alteration of other mechanical cell wall properties evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The suggested method of polymer synthesis allows the introduction of polypyrrole structures within the cell wall, which is build up from polymers consisting of carbohydrates. This cell wall modification strategy could increase the usefulness of yeast as an alternative energy source in biofuel cells, and in cell based biosensors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. T Cell Receptor Engineering and Analysis Using the Yeast Display Platform

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sheena N.; Harris, Daniel T.; Kranz, David M.

    2017-01-01

    The αβ heterodimeric T cell receptor (TCR) recognizes peptide antigens that are transported to the cell surface as a complex with a protein encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). T cells thus evolved a strategy to sense these intracellular antigens, and to respond either by eliminating the antigen-presenting cell (e.g. a virus-infected cell) or by secreting factors that recruit the immune system to the site of the antigen. The central role of the TCR in the binding of antigens as peptide-MHC (pepMHC) ligands has now been studied thoroughly. Interestingly, despite their exquisite sensitivity (e.g. T cell activation by as few as 1 to 3 pepMHC complexes on a single target cell), TCRs are known to have relatively low affinities for pepMHC, with KD values in the micromolar range. There has been interest in engineering the affinity of TCRs in order to use this class of molecules in ways similar to now done with antibodies. By doing so, it would be possible to harness the potential of TCRs as therapeutics against a much wider array of antigens that include essentially all intracellular targets. To engineer TCRs, and to analyze their binding features more rapidly, we have used a yeast display system as a platform. Expression and engineering of a single-chain form of the TCR, analogous to scFv fragments from antibodies, allow the TCR to be affinity matured with a variety of possible pepMHC ligands. In addition, the yeast display platform allows one to rapidly generate TCR variants with diverse binding affinities and to analyze specificity and affinity without the need for purification of soluble forms of the TCRs. The present chapter describes the methods for engineering and analyzing single-chain TCRs using yeast display. PMID:26060072

  7. Endocytosis and Vacuolar Degradation of the Yeast Cell Surface Glucose Sensors Rgt2 and Snf3*

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Adhiraj; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Sensing and signaling the presence of extracellular glucose is crucial for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae because of its fermentative metabolism, characterized by high glucose flux through glycolysis. The yeast senses glucose through the cell surface glucose sensors Rgt2 and Snf3, which serve as glucose receptors that generate the signal for induction of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism. Rgt2 and Snf3 detect high and low glucose concentrations, respectively, perhaps because of their different affinities for glucose. Here, we provide evidence that cell surface levels of glucose sensors are regulated by ubiquitination and degradation. The glucose sensors are removed from the plasma membrane through endocytosis and targeted to the vacuole for degradation upon glucose depletion. The turnover of the glucose sensors is inhibited in endocytosis defective mutants, and the sensor proteins with a mutation at their putative ubiquitin-acceptor lysine residues are resistant to degradation. Of note, the low affinity glucose sensor Rgt2 remains stable only in high glucose grown cells, and the high affinity glucose sensor Snf3 is stable only in cells grown in low glucose. In addition, constitutively active, signaling forms of glucose sensors do not undergo endocytosis, whereas signaling defective sensors are constitutively targeted for degradation, suggesting that the stability of the glucose sensors may be associated with their ability to sense glucose. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that the amount of glucose available dictates the cell surface levels of the glucose sensors and that the regulation of glucose sensors by glucose concentration may enable yeast cells to maintain glucose sensing activity at the cell surface over a wide range of glucose concentrations. PMID:24451370

  8. Model of Fission Yeast Cell Shape Driven by Membrane-Bound Growth Factors and the Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Tyler; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Fission yeast serves as a model for how cellular polarization machinery consisting of signaling molecules and the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton regulates cell shape. In this work, we develop mathematical models to investigate how these cells maintain a tubular shape of approximately constant diameter. Many studies identify active Cdc42, found in a cap at the inner membrane of growing cell tips, as an important regulator of local cell wall remodeling, likely through control of exocyst tethering and the targeting of other polarity-enhancing structures. First, we show that a computational model with Cdc42-dependent local cell wall remodeling under turgor pressure predicts a relationship between spatial extent of growth signal and cell diameter that is in agreement with prior experiments. Second, we model the consequences of feedback between cell shape and distribution of Cdc42 growth signal at cell tips. We show that stability of cell diameter over successive cell divisions places restrictions on their mutual dependence. We argue that simple models where the spatial extent of the tip growth signal relies solely on geometrical alignment of confined microtubules might lead to unstable width regulation. Third, we study a computational model that combines a growth signal distributed over a characteristic length scale (as, for example, by a reaction-diffusion mechanism) with an axis-sensing microtubules system that places landmarks at positions where microtubule tips touch the cortex. A two-dimensional implementation of this model leads to stable cell diameter for a wide range of parameters. Changes to the parameters of this model reproduce straight, bent, and bulged cell shapes, and we discuss how this model is consistent with other observed cell shapes in mutants. Our work provides an initial quantitative framework for understanding the regulation of cell shape in fission yeast, and a scaffold for understanding this process on a more molecular level in the future

  9. Partial uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts and yeast mother cells.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Petra; Zankl, Christina; Hütter, Eveline; Unterluggauer, Hermann; Laun, Peter; Heeren, Gino; Bogengruber, Edith; Herndler-Brandstetter, Dietmar; Breitenbach, Michael; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder

    2007-09-15

    The mitochondrial theory of aging predicts that functional alterations in mitochondria leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production contribute to the aging process in most if not all species. Using cellular senescence as a model for human aging, we have recently reported partial uncoupling of the respiratory chain in senescent human fibroblasts. In the present communication, we address a potential cause-effect relationship between impaired mitochondrial coupling and premature senescence. Chronic exposure of human fibroblasts to the chemical uncoupler carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) led to a temporary, reversible uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. FCCP inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and a significant proportion of the cells entered premature senescence within 12 days. Unexpectedly, chronic exposure of cells to FCCP led to a significant increase in ROS production, and the inhibitory effect of FCCP on cell proliferation was eliminated by the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine. However, antioxidant treatment did not prevent premature senescence, suggesting that a reduction in the level of oxidative phosphorylation contributes to phenotypical changes characteristic of senescent human fibroblasts. To assess whether this mechanism might be conserved in evolution, the influence of mitochondrial uncoupling on replicative life span of yeast cells was also addressed. Similar to our findings in human fibroblasts, partial uncoupling of oxidative phsophorylation in yeast cells led to a substantial decrease in the mother-cell-specific life span and a concomitant incrase in ROS, indicating that life span shortening by mild mitochondrial uncoupling may represent a "public" mechanism of aging.

  10. Yeast Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Baochi; Upadhyaya, Arpita; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Brenner, Michael

    2002-11-01

    It is well known that the Young's law and surface tension govern the shape of liquid droplets on solid surfaces. Here we address through experiments and theory the shape of growing aggregates of yeast on agar substrates, and assess whether these ideas still hold. Experiments are carried out on Baker's yeast, with different levels of expressions of an adhesive protein governing cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Changing either the agar concentration or the expression of this protein modifies the local contact angle of a yeast droplet. When the colony is small, the shape is a spherical cap with the contact angle obeying Young's law. However, above a critical volume this structure is unstable, and the droplet becomes nonspherical. We present a theoretical model where this instability is caused by bulk elastic effects. The model predicts that the transition depends on both volume and contact angle, in a manner quantitatively consistent with our experiments.

  11. Mutation induction in yeast by very heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1994-10-01

    Resistance to canavanine was studied in haploid yeast after exposure to heavy ions (argon to uranium) of energies between 1 and 10 MeV/u covering a LET-range up to about 10000 keV/μm. Mutations were found in all instances but the induction cross sections increased with ion energy. This is taken to mean that the contribution of penumbra electrons plays an important role. The probability to recover surviving mutants is highest if the cell is not directly hit by the particle. The experiments demonstrate that the geometrical dimensions of the target cell nucleus as well as its sensitivity in terms of survival have a critical influence on mutation induction with very heavy ions.

  12. The central domain of yeast transcription factor Rpn4 facilitates degradation of reporter protein in human cells.

    PubMed

    Morozov, A V; Spasskaya, D S; Karpov, D S; Karpov, V L

    2014-10-16

    Despite high interest in the cellular degradation machinery and protein degradation signals (degrons), few degrons with universal activity along species have been identified. It has been shown that fusion of a target protein with a degradation signal from mammalian ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) induces fast proteasomal degradation of the chimera in both mammalian and yeast cells. However, no degrons from yeast-encoded proteins capable to function in mammalian cells were identified so far. Here, we demonstrate that the yeast transcription factor Rpn4 undergoes fast proteasomal degradation and its central domain can destabilize green fluorescent protein and Alpha-fetoprotein in human HEK 293T cells. Furthermore, we confirm the activity of this degron in yeast. Thus, the Rpn4 central domain is an effective interspecies degradation signal. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Stochastic Model of the Yeast Cell Cycle Reveals Roles for Feedback Regulation in Limiting Cellular Variability.

    PubMed

    Barik, Debashis; Ball, David A; Peccoud, Jean; Tyson, John J

    2016-12-01

    The cell division cycle of eukaryotes is governed by a complex network of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) and auxiliary proteins that govern CDK activities. The control system must function reliably in the context of molecular noise that is inevitable in tiny yeast cells, because mistakes in sequencing cell cycle events are detrimental or fatal to the cell or its progeny. To assess the effects of noise on cell cycle progression requires not only extensive, quantitative, experimental measurements of cellular heterogeneity but also comprehensive, accurate, mathematical models of stochastic fluctuations in the CDK control system. In this paper we provide a stochastic model of the budding yeast cell cycle that accurately accounts for the variable phenotypes of wild-type cells and more than 20 mutant yeast strains simulated in different growth conditions. We specifically tested the role of feedback regulations mediated by G1- and SG2M-phase cyclins to minimize the noise in cell cycle progression. Details of the model are informed and tested by quantitative measurements (by fluorescence in situ hybridization) of the joint distributions of mRNA populations in yeast cells. We use the model to predict the phenotypes of ~30 mutant yeast strains that have not yet been characterized experimentally.

  14. A Stochastic Model of the Yeast Cell Cycle Reveals Roles for Feedback Regulation in Limiting Cellular Variability

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The cell division cycle of eukaryotes is governed by a complex network of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) and auxiliary proteins that govern CDK activities. The control system must function reliably in the context of molecular noise that is inevitable in tiny yeast cells, because mistakes in sequencing cell cycle events are detrimental or fatal to the cell or its progeny. To assess the effects of noise on cell cycle progression requires not only extensive, quantitative, experimental measurements of cellular heterogeneity but also comprehensive, accurate, mathematical models of stochastic fluctuations in the CDK control system. In this paper we provide a stochastic model of the budding yeast cell cycle that accurately accounts for the variable phenotypes of wild-type cells and more than 20 mutant yeast strains simulated in different growth conditions. We specifically tested the role of feedback regulations mediated by G1- and SG2M-phase cyclins to minimize the noise in cell cycle progression. Details of the model are informed and tested by quantitative measurements (by fluorescence in situ hybridization) of the joint distributions of mRNA populations in yeast cells. We use the model to predict the phenotypes of ~30 mutant yeast strains that have not yet been characterized experimentally. PMID:27935947

  15. Biostimulation effects of low-energy laser radiation on yeast cell suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Neagu, Ionica; Savulescu, Geta; Iorga-Siman, Ion

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents work to determine the effects produced by low energy laser radiation on the metabolism and growth of a yeast cell suspension. As experimental material, we used young yeast culture in liquid medium, then distributed on a solid medium, to obtain isolated colonies. As laser source, we used a He-Ne laser, and the irradiation was made with different exposure times. Form each irradiated material, a sample of white grape sterile must was sowed, that has fermented at 18 divided by 20 degrees C for 10 divided by 15 days, after that some properties was tested. Some microscopic studies were also made. The results prove some influence of low energy laser irradiation, which can induce mutations, with new properties of the irradiated material. These mutations can be obtained in a positive sense, with new and important perspectives in wine industry. Also, we observed an inhibitory effect of the laser radiation on the yeast cell growth, due, probably to the too high values of the exposure.

  16. Measuring strand discontinuity-directed mismatch repair in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by cell-free nuclear extracts.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fenghua; Lai, Fangfang; Gu, Liya; Zhou, Wen; El Hokayem, Jimmy; Zhang, Yanbin

    2009-05-01

    Mismatch repair corrects biosynthetic errors generated during DNA replication, whose deficiency causes a mutator phenotype and directly underlies hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and sporadic cancers. Because of remarkably high conservation of the mismatch repair machinery between the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and humans, the study of mismatch repair in yeast has provided tremendous insights into the mechanisms of this repair pathway in humans. In addition, yeast cells possess an unbeatable advantage over human cells in terms of the easy genetic manipulation, the availability of whole genome deletion strains, and the relatively low cost for setting up the system. Although many components of eukaryotic mismatch repair have been identified, it remains unclear if additional factors, such as DNA helicase(s) and redundant nuclease(s) besides EXO1, participate in eukaryotic mismatch repair. To facilitate the discovery of novel mismatch repair factors, we developed a straightforward in vitro cell-free repair system. Here, we describe the practical protocols for preparation of yeast cell-free nuclear extracts and DNA mismatch substrates, and the in vitro mismatch repair assay. The validity of the cell-free system was confirmed by the mismatch repair deficient yeast strain (Deltamsh2) and the complementation assay with purified yeast MSH2-MSH6.

  17. Reconstructing the regulatory circuit of cell fate determination in yeast mating response.

    PubMed

    Shao, Bin; Yuan, Haiyu; Zhang, Rongfei; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Shuwen; Ouyang, Qi; Hao, Nan; Luo, Chunxiong

    2017-07-01

    Massive technological advances enabled high-throughput measurements of proteomic changes in biological processes. However, retrieving biological insights from large-scale protein dynamics data remains a challenging task. Here we used the mating differentiation in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model and developed integrated experimental and computational approaches to analyze the proteomic dynamics during the process of cell fate determination. When exposed to a high dose of mating pheromone, the yeast cell undergoes growth arrest and forms a shmoo-like morphology; however, at intermediate doses, chemotropic elongated growth is initialized. To understand the gene regulatory networks that control this differentiation switch, we employed a high-throughput microfluidic imaging system that allows real-time and simultaneous measurements of cell growth and protein expression. Using kinetic modeling of protein dynamics, we classified the stimulus-dependent changes in protein abundance into two sources: global changes due to physiological alterations and gene-specific changes. A quantitative framework was proposed to decouple gene-specific regulatory modes from the growth-dependent global modulation of protein abundance. Based on the temporal patterns of gene-specific regulation, we established the network architectures underlying distinct cell fates using a reverse engineering method and uncovered the dose-dependent rewiring of gene regulatory network during mating differentiation. Furthermore, our results suggested a potential crosstalk between the pheromone response pathway and the target of rapamycin (TOR)-regulated ribosomal biogenesis pathway, which might underlie a cell differentiation switch in yeast mating response. In summary, our modeling approach addresses the distinct impacts of the global and gene-specific regulation on the control of protein dynamics and provides new insights into the mechanisms of cell fate determination. We anticipate that our

  18. Increase of ethanol productivity by cell-recycle fermentation of flocculating yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, F Z; Xie, T; Hui, M

    2011-01-01

    Using the recombinant flocculating Angel yeast F6, long-term repeated batch fermentation for ethanol production was performed and a high volumetric productivity resulted from half cells not washed and the optimum opportunity of residual glucose 20 g l(-1) of last medium. The obtained highest productivity was 2.07 g l-(1) h(-1), which was improved by 75.4% compared with that of 1.18 g l(-1) h(-1) in the first batch fermentation. The ethanol concentration reached 8.4% corresponding to the yield of 0.46 g g(-1). These results will contribute greatly to the industrial production of fuel ethanol using the commercial method with the flocculating yeast.

  19. Engineering the Substrate Specificity of the DhbE Adenylation Domain by Yeast Cell Surface Display

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Keya; Nelson, Kathryn M.; Bhuripanyo, Karan; Grimes, Kimberly D.; Zhao, Bo; Aldrich, Courtney C.; Yin, Jun

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The adenylation (A) domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) activate aryl acids or amino acids to launch their transfer through the NRPS assembly line for the biosynthesis of many medicinally important natural products. In order to expand the substrate pool of NRPSs, we developed a method based on yeast cell surface display to engineer the substrate specificities of the A-domains. We acquired A-domain mutants of DhbE that have 11- and 6-fold increases in kcat/Km with nonnative substrates 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 2-aminobenzoic acid, respectively and corresponding 3- and 33-fold decreases in kcat/Km values with the native substrate 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, resulting in a dramatic switch in substrate specificity of up to 200-fold. Our study demonstrates that yeast display can be used as a high throughput selection platform to reprogram the “nonribosomal code” of A-domains. PMID:23352143

  20. Cell size and morphological properties of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to growth temperature.

    PubMed

    Zakhartsev, Maksim; Reuss, Matthias

    2018-04-26

    Cell volume is an important parameter for modelling cellular processes. Temperature-induced variability of cellular size, volume, intracellular granularity, a fraction of budding cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D (in anaerobic glucose unlimited batch cultures) were measured by flow cytometry and matched with the performance of the biomass growth (maximal specific growth rate (μ_max), specific rate of glucose consumption, the rate of maintenance, biomass yield on glucose). The critical diameter of single cells was 7.94 μm and it is invariant at growth temperatures above 18.5°C. Below 18.5°C, it exponentially increases up to 10.2 μm. The size of the bud linearly depends on μ_max, and it is between 50% at 5°C and 90% at 31°C of the averaged single cell. The intracellular granularity (SSC-index) negatively depends on μ_max. There are two temperature regions (5-31°C vs. 33-40°C) where the relationship between SSC-index and various cellular parameters differ significantly. In supraoptimal temperature range (33-40°C), cells are less granulated perhaps due to a higher rate of the maintenance. There is temperature dependent passage through the checkpoints in the cell cycle which influences the μ_max. The results point to the existence of two different morphological states of yeasts in these different temperature regions.

  1. ODE, RDE and SDE models of cell cycle dynamics and clustering in yeast.

    PubMed

    Boczko, Erik M; Gedeon, Tomas; Stowers, Chris C; Young, Todd R

    2010-07-01

    Biologists have long observed periodic-like oxygen consumption oscillations in yeast populations under certain conditions, and several unsatisfactory explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. These ‘autonomous oscillations’ have often appeared with periods that are nearly integer divisors of the calculated doubling time of the culture. We hypothesize that these oscillations could be caused by a form of cell cycle synchronization that we call clustering. We develop some novel ordinary differential equation models of the cell cycle. For these models, and for random and stochastic perturbations, we give both rigorous proofs and simulations showing that both positive and negative growth rate feedback within the cell cycle are possible agents that can cause clustering of populations within the cell cycle. It occurs for a variety of models and for a broad selection of parameter values. These results suggest that the clustering phenomenon is robust and is likely to be observed in nature. Since there are necessarily an integer number of clusters, clustering would lead to periodic-like behaviour with periods that are nearly integer divisors of the period of the cell cycle. Related experiments have shown conclusively that cell cycle clustering occurs in some oscillating yeast cultures.

  2. Immobilization of yeast cells with ionic hydrogel carriers by adhesion-multiplication.

    PubMed

    Zhaoxin, L; Fujimura, T

    2000-12-01

    The mixture of an ionic monomer, 2-acrylamido 2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (TBAS), and a series of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (nG) monomers were copolymerized with 60Co gamma-rays, and the produced ionic hydrogel polymers were used for immobilization of yeast cells. The cells were adhered onto the surface of the hydrogel polymers and intruded into the interior of the polymers with growing. The immobilized yeast cells with these hydrogel polymers had higher ethanol productivity than that of free cells. The yield of ethanol with poly(TBAS-14G) carrier was the highest and increased by 3.5 times compared to the free cells. It was found that the ethanol yield increased with the increase of glycol number in poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate. The state of the immobilized cells was observed with microscope, and it was also found that the difference in the ethanol productivity is mainly due to the difference in the internal structure and properties of polymer carrier, such as surface charge, hydrophilicity, and swelling ability of polymer carrier.

  3. Single-molecule analysis of the major glycopolymers of pathogenic and non-pathogenic yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Alsteens, David; Sarazin, Aurore; Jouault, Thierry; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-05-01

    Most microbes are coated with carbohydrates that show remarkable structural variability and play a crucial role in mediating microbial-host interactions. Understanding the functions of cell wall glycoconjugates requires detailed knowledge of their molecular organization, diversity and heterogeneity. Here we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) with tips bearing specific probes (lectins, antibodies) to analyze the major glycopolymers of pathogenic and non-pathogenic yeast cells at molecular resolution. We show that non-ubiquitous β-1,2-mannans are largely exposed on the surface of native cells from pathogenic Candida albicans and C. glabrata, the former species displaying the highest glycopolymer density and extensions. We also find that chitin, a major component of the inner layer of the yeast cell wall, is much more abundant in C. albicans. These differences in molecular properties, further supported by flow cytometry measurements, may play an important role in strengthening cell wall mechanics and immune interactions. This study demonstrates that single-molecule AFM, combined with immunological and fluorescence methods, is a powerful platform in fungal glycobiology for probing the density, distribution and extension of specific cell wall glycoconjugates. In nanomedicine, we anticipate that this new form of AFM-based nanoglycobiology will contribute to the development of sugar-based drugs, immunotherapeutics, vaccines and diagnostics.

  4. Quasi-programmed aging of budding yeast: a trade-off between programmed processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, stress response, survival and death defines yeast lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Piano, Amanda; Leonov, Anna; Svistkova, Veronika; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that evolutionarily distant organisms share the key features of the aging process and exhibit similar mechanisms of its modulation by certain genetic, dietary and pharmacological interventions. The scope of this review is to analyze mechanisms that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae underlie: (1) the replicative and chronological modes of aging; (2) the convergence of these 2 modes of aging into a single aging process; (3) a programmed differentiation of aging cell communities in liquid media and on solid surfaces; and (4) longevity-defining responses of cells to some chemical compounds released to an ecosystem by other organisms populating it. Based on such analysis, we conclude that all these mechanisms are programs for upholding the long-term survival of the entire yeast population inhabiting an ecological niche; however, none of these mechanisms is a ʺprogram of agingʺ - i.e., a program for progressing through consecutive steps of the aging process. PMID:25485579

  5. Unravel lipid accumulation mechanism in oleaginous yeast through single cell systems biology study

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Xiaoliang; Ding, Shiyou

    Searching for alternative and clean energy is one of the most important tasks today. Our research aimed at finding the best living condition for certain types of oleaginous yeasts for efficient lipid production. We found that R. glutinis yeast cells has great variability in lipid production among cells while Y. lipolytica cells has similar oil production ability. We found some individual cells shows much higher level of oil production. In order to further study these cases, we employed a label-free chemical sensitive microscopy method call stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). With SRS, we could measure the lipid content in each cell.more » We combined SRS microscopy with microfluidic device so that we can isolate cells with high fat content. We also developed SRS imaging technique that has higher imaging speed, which is highly desirable for high throughput cell screening and sorting. Since these cells has similar genome, it must be the transcriptome caused their difference in oil production. We developed a single cell transcriptome sequencing method to study which genes are responsible for elevated oil production. These methods that are developed for this project can easily be applied for many other areas of research. For example, the single transcriptome can be used to study the transcriptomes of other cell types. The high-speed SRS microscopy techniques can be used to speed up chemical imaging for lablefree histology or imaging distribution of chemicals in tissues of live mice or in humans. The developed microfluidic platform can be used to sort other type of cells, e.g., white blood cells for diagnosis of cancer or other blood diseases.« less

  6. Behavior of yeast cells in aqueous suspension affected by pulsed electric field.

    PubMed

    El Zakhem, H; Lanoisellé, J-L; Lebovka, N I; Nonus, M; Vorobiev, E

    2006-08-15

    This work discusses pulsed electric fields (PEF) induced effects in treatment of aqueous suspensions of concentrated yeast cells (S. cerevisiae). The PEF treatment was done using pulses of near-rectangular shape, electric field strength was within E=2-5 kV/cm and the total time of treatment was t(PEF)=10(-4)-0.1 s. The concentration of aqueous yeast suspensions was in the interval of C(Y)=0-22 (wt%), where 1% concentration corresponds to the cellular density of 2x10(8) cells/mL. Triton X-100 was used for studying non-ionic surfactant additive effects. The electric current peak value I was measured during each pulse application, and from these data the electrical conductivity sigma was estimated. The PEF-induced damage results in increase of sigma with t(PEF) increasing and attains its saturation level sigma approximately sigma(max) at long time of PEF treatment. The value of sigma(max) reflects the efficiency of damage. The reduced efficiency of damage at suspension volume concentration higher than phi(Y) approximately 32 vol% is explained by the percolation phenomenon in the randomly packed suspension of near-spherical cells. The higher cytoplasmic ions leakage was observed in presence of surfactant. Experiments were carried out in the static and continuous flow treatment chambers in order to reveal the effects of mixing in PEF-treatment efficiency. A noticeable aggregation of the yeast cells was observed in the static flow chamber during the PEF treatment, while aggregation was not so pronounced in the continuous flow chamber. The nature of the enhanced aggregation under the PEF treatment was revealed by the zeta-potential measurements: these data demonstrate different zeta-potential signs for alive and dead cells. The effect of the electric field strength on the PEF-induced extraction of the intracellular components of S. cerevisiae is discussed.

  7. A minimal mathematical model combining several regulatory cycles from the budding yeast cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Sriram, K; Bernot, G; Képès, F

    2007-11-01

    A novel topology of regulatory networks abstracted from the budding yeast cell cycle is studied by constructing a simple nonlinear model. A ternary positive feedback loop with only positive regulations is constructed with elements that activates the subsequent element in a clockwise fashion. A ternary negative feedback loop with only negative regulations is constructed with the elements that inhibit the subsequent element in an anticlockwise fashion. Positive feedback loop exhibits bistability, whereas the negative feedback loop exhibits limit cycle oscillations. The novelty of the topology is that the corresponding elements in these two homogeneous feedback loops are linked by the binary positive feedback loops with only positive regulations. This results in the emergence of mixed feedback loops in the network that displays complex behaviour like the coexistence of multiple steady states, relaxation oscillations and chaos. Importantly, the arrangement of the feedback loops brings in the notion of checkpoint in the model. The model also exhibits domino-like behaviour, where the limit cycle oscillations take place in a stepwise fashion. As the aforementioned topology is abstracted from the budding yeast cell cycle, the events that govern the cell cycle are considered for the present study. In budding yeast, the sequential activation of the transcription factors, cyclins and their inhibitors form mixed feedback loops. The transcription factors that involve in the positive regulation in a clockwise orientation generates ternary positive feedback loop, while the cyclins and their inhibitors that involve in the negative regulation in an anticlockwise orientation generates ternary negative feedback loop. The mutual regulation between the corresponding elements in the transcription factors and the cyclins and their inhibitors generates binary positive feedback loops. The bifurcation diagram constructed for the whole system can be related to the different events of the

  8. Effective de novo assembly of fish genome using haploid larvae.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuki; Nishiki, Issei; Nakamura, Yoji; Yasuike, Motoshige; Kai, Wataru; Nomura, Kazuharu; Yoshida, Kazunori; Nomura, Yousuke; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2016-02-01

    Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing technology have made it possible to do whole genome sequencing, on even non-model eukaryote species with no available reference genomes. However, de novo assembly of diploid genomes is still a big challenge because of allelic variation. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of utilizing the genome of haploid fish larvae for de novo assembly of whole-genome sequences. We compared the efficiency of assembly using the haploid genome of yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) with that using the diploid genome obtained from the dam. De novo assembly from the haploid and the diploid sequence reads (100 million reads per each datasets) generated by the Ion Proton sequencer (200 bp) was done under two different assembly algorithms, namely overlap-layout-consensus (OLC) and de Bruijn graph (DBG). This revealed that the assembly of the haploid genome significantly reduced (approximately 22% for OLC, 9% for DBG) the total number of contigs (with longer average and N50 contig lengths) when compared to the diploid genome assembly. The haploid assembly also improved the quality of the scaffolds by reducing the number of regions with unassigned nucleotides (Ns) (total length of Ns; 45,331,916 bp for haploids and 67,724,360 bp for diploids) in OLC-based assemblies. It appears clear that the haploid genome assembly is better because the allelic variation in the diploid genome disrupts the extension of contigs during the assembly process. Our results indicate that utilizing the genome of haploid larvae leads to a significant improvement in the de novo assembly process, thus providing a novel strategy for the construction of reference genomes from non-model diploid organisms such as fish. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Yeast for virus research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  10. Application of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope-Nanomanipulation System on Spheroplast Yeast Cells Surface Observation.

    PubMed

    Rad, Maryam Alsadat; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan; Nakajima, Masahiro; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio; Fukuda, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    The preparation and observations of spheroplast W303 cells are described with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). The spheroplasting conversion was successfully confirmed qualitatively, by the evaluation of the morphological change between the normal W303 cells and the spheroplast W303 cells, and quantitatively, by determining the spheroplast conversion percentage based on the OD 800 absorbance data. From the optical microscope observations as expected, the normal cells had an oval shape whereas spheroplast cells resemble a spherical shape. This was also confirmed under four different mediums, that is, yeast peptone-dextrose (YPD), sterile water, sorbitol-EDTA-sodium citrate buffer (SCE), and sorbitol-Tris-Hcl-CaCl 2 (CaS). It was also observed that the SCE and CaS mediums had a higher number of spheroplast cells as compared to the YPD and sterile water mediums. The OD 800 absorbance data also showed that the whole W303 cells were fully converted to the spheroplast cells after about 15 minutes. The observations of the normal and the spheroplast W303 cells were then performed under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The normal cells showed a smooth cell surface whereas the spheroplast cells had a bleb-like surface after the loss of its integrity when removing the cell wall.

  11. A stable hybrid containing haploid genomes of two obligate diploid Candida species.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Uttara; Mohamed, Aiyaz; Kakade, Pallavi; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Sadhale, Parag P; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2013-08-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are diploid, predominantly asexual human-pathogenic yeasts. In this study, we constructed tetraploid (4n) strains of C. albicans of the same or different lineages by spheroplast fusion. Induction of chromosome loss in the tetraploid C. albicans generated diploid or near-diploid progeny strains but did not produce any haploid progeny. We also constructed stable heterotetraploid somatic hybrid strains (2n + 2n) of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by spheroplast fusion. Heterodiploid (n + n) progeny hybrids were obtained after inducing chromosome loss in a stable heterotetraploid hybrid. To identify a subset of hybrid heterodiploid progeny strains carrying at least one copy of all chromosomes of both species, unique centromere sequences of various chromosomes of each species were used as markers in PCR analysis. The reduction of chromosome content was confirmed by a comparative genome hybridization (CGH) assay. The hybrid strains were found to be stably propagated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays with antibodies against centromere-specific histones (C. albicans Cse4/C. dubliniensis Cse4) revealed that the centromere identity of chromosomes of each species is maintained in the hybrid genomes of the heterotetraploid and heterodiploid strains. Thus, our results suggest that the diploid genome content is not obligatory for the survival of either C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. In keeping with the recent discovery of the existence of haploid C. albicans strains, the heterodiploid strains of our study can be excellent tools for further species-specific genome elimination, yielding true haploid progeny of C. albicans or C. dubliniensis in future.

  12. Nuclear congression and membrane fusion: two distinct events in the yeast karyogamy pathway

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Karyogamy is the process where haploid nuclei fuse to form a diploid nucleus during yeast mating. We devised a novel genetic screen that identified five new karyogamy (KAR) genes and three new cell fusion (FUS) genes. The kar mutants fell into two classes that represent distinct events in the yeast karyogamy pathway. Class I mutations blocked congression of the nuclei due to cytoplasmic microtubule defects. In Class II mutants, nuclear congression proceeded and the membranes of apposed nuclei were closely aligned but unfused. In vitro, Class II mutant membranes were defective in a homotypic ER/nuclear membrane fusion assay. We propose that Class II mutants define components of a novel membrane fusion complex which functions during vegetative growth and is recruited for karyogamy. PMID:8051211

  13. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and mad cows: lessons learnt from yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, J; Wolf, H; Grassmann, A; Arndt, V; Graham, J; Vorberg, I

    2012-01-24

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect mammals including humans. The proteinaceous nature of the infectious agent, the prion, and its propagation, challenge established dogmas in biology. It is now widely accepted that prion diseases are caused by unconventional agents principally composed of a misfolded host-encoded protein, PrP. Surprisingly, major break-throughs in prion research came from studies on functionally unrelated proteins in yeast and filamentous fungi. Aggregates composed of these proteins act as epigenetic elements of inheritance that can propagate their alternative states by a conformational switch into an ordered ß-sheet rich polymer just like mammalian prions. Since their discovery prions of lower eukaryotes have provided invaluable insights into all aspects of prion biogenesis. Importantly, yeast prions provide proof-of-principle that distinct protein conformers can be infectious and can serve as genetic elements that have the capacity to encipher strain specific information. As a powerful and tractable model system, yeast prions will continue to increase our understanding of prion-host cell interaction and potential mechanisms of protein-based epigenetic inheritance.

  14. Characterization and oxidative stability of purslane seed oil microencapsulated in yeast cells biocapsules.

    PubMed

    Kavosi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Khaksar, Ramin; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

    2018-05-01

    Purslane seed oil, as a potential nutritious source of omega-3 fatty acid, is susceptible to oxidation. Encapsulation in yeast cells is a possible approach for overcoming this problem. In the present study, purslane seed oil was encapsulated in non-plasmolysed, plasmolysed and plasmolysed carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)-coated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and measurements of oil loading capacity (LC), encapsulation efficiency (EE), oxidative stability and the fatty acid composition of oil-loaded microcapsules were made. Furthermore, investigations of morphology and thermal behavior, as well as a Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) analyses of microcapsules, were performed. The values of EE, LC were approximately 53-65% and 187-231 g kg -1 , respectively. Studies found that the plasmolysis treatment increased EE and LC and decreased the mean peroxide value (PV) of microencapsulated oil. The presence of purslane seed oil in yeast microcapsules was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The lowest rate of oxidation belonged to the oil-loaded plasmolysed CMC-coated microcapsules (16.73 meqvO 2 kg -1 ), whereas the highest amount of oxidation regardless of native oil referred to the oil-loaded in non-plasmolysed cells (28.15 meqvO 2 kg -1 ). The encapsulation of purslane seed oil in the yeast cells of S. cerevisiae can be considered as an efficient approach for extending the oxidative stability of this nutritious oil and facilitating its application in food products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Inaccurate DNA Synthesis in Cell Extracts of Yeast Producing Active Human DNA Polymerase Iota

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Alena V.; Grabow, Corinn; Gening, Leonid V.; Tarantul, Vyacheslav Z.; Tahirov, Tahir H.; Bessho, Tadayoshi; Pavlov, Youri I.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian Pol ι has an unusual combination of properties: it is stimulated by Mn2+ ions, can bypass some DNA lesions and misincorporates “G” opposite template “T” more frequently than incorporates the correct “A.” We recently proposed a method of detection of Pol ι activity in animal cell extracts, based on primer extension opposite the template T with a high concentration of only two nucleotides, dGTP and dATP (incorporation of “G” versus “A” method of Gening, abbreviated as “misGvA”). We provide unambiguous proof of the “misGvA” approach concept and extend the applicability of the method for the studies of variants of Pol ι in the yeast model system with different cation cofactors. We produced human Pol ι in baker's yeast, which do not have a POLI ortholog. The “misGvA” activity is absent in cell extracts containing an empty vector, or producing catalytically dead Pol ι, or Pol ι lacking exon 2, but is robust in the strain producing wild-type Pol ι or its catalytic core, or protein with the active center L62I mutant. The signature pattern of primer extension products resulting from inaccurate DNA synthesis by extracts of cells producing either Pol ι or human Pol η is different. The DNA sequence of the template is critical for the detection of the infidelity of DNA synthesis attributed to DNA Pol ι. The primer/template and composition of the exogenous DNA precursor pool can be adapted to monitor replication fidelity in cell extracts expressing various error-prone Pols or mutator variants of accurate Pols. Finally, we demonstrate that the mutation rates in yeast strains producing human DNA Pols ι and η are not elevated over the control strain, despite highly inaccurate DNA synthesis by their extracts. PMID:21304950

  16. Inaccurate DNA synthesis in cell extracts of yeast producing active human DNA polymerase iota.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Alena V; Grabow, Corinn; Gening, Leonid V; Tarantul, Vyacheslav Z; Tahirov, Tahir H; Bessho, Tadayoshi; Pavlov, Youri I

    2011-01-31

    Mammalian Pol ι has an unusual combination of properties: it is stimulated by Mn(2+) ions, can bypass some DNA lesions and misincorporates "G" opposite template "T" more frequently than incorporates the correct "A." We recently proposed a method of detection of Pol ι activity in animal cell extracts, based on primer extension opposite the template T with a high concentration of only two nucleotides, dGTP and dATP (incorporation of "G" versus "A" method of Gening, abbreviated as "misGvA"). We provide unambiguous proof of the "misGvA" approach concept and extend the applicability of the method for the studies of variants of Pol ι in the yeast model system with different cation cofactors. We produced human Pol ι in baker's yeast, which do not have a POLI ortholog. The "misGvA" activity is absent in cell extracts containing an empty vector, or producing catalytically dead Pol ι, or Pol ι lacking exon 2, but is robust in the strain producing wild-type Pol ι or its catalytic core, or protein with the active center L62I mutant. The signature pattern of primer extension products resulting from inaccurate DNA synthesis by extracts of cells producing either Pol ι or human Pol η is different. The DNA sequence of the template is critical for the detection of the infidelity of DNA synthesis attributed to DNA Pol ι. The primer/template and composition of the exogenous DNA precursor pool can be adapted to monitor replication fidelity in cell extracts expressing various error-prone Pols or mutator variants of accurate Pols. Finally, we demonstrate that the mutation rates in yeast strains producing human DNA Pols ι and η are not elevated over the control strain, despite highly inaccurate DNA synthesis by their extracts.

  17. Preferential retrotransposition in aging yeast mother cells is correlated with increased genome instability

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Melissa N.; Scannapieco, Alison E.; Au, Pak Ho; Dorsey, Savanna; Royer, Catherine A.; Maxwell, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Retrotransposon expression or mobility is increased with age in multiple species and could promote genome instability or altered gene expression during aging. However, it is unclear whether activation of retrotransposons during aging is an indirect result of global changes in chromatin and gene regulation or a result of retrotransposon-specific mechanisms. Retromobility of a marked chromosomal Ty1 retrotransposon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was elevated in mother cells relative to their daughter cells, as determined by magnetic cell sorting of mothers and daughters. Retromobility frequencies in aging mother cells were significantly higher than those predicted by cell age and the rate of mobility in young populations, beginning when mother cells were only several generations old. New Ty1 insertions in aging mothers were more strongly correlated with gross chromosome rearrangements than in young cells and were more often at non-preferred target sites. Mother cells were more likely to have high concentrations and bright foci of Ty1 Gag-GFP than their daughter cells. Levels of extrachromosomal Ty1 cDNA were also significantly higher in aged mother cell populations than their daughter cell populations. These observations are consistent with a retrotransposon-specific mechanism that causes retrotransposition to occur preferentially in yeast mother cells as they begin to age, as opposed to activation by phenotypic changes associated with very old age. These findings will likely be relevant for understanding retrotransposons and aging in many organisms, based on similarities in regulation and consequences of retrotransposition in diverse species. PMID:26298836

  18. In vivo biochemistry: quantifying ion and metabolite levels in individual cells or cultures of yeast.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Clara; Ewald, Jennifer C; Lanquar, Viviane; Jones, Alexander M; Frommer, Wolf B

    2011-08-15

    Over the past decade, we have learned that cellular processes, including signalling and metabolism, are highly compartmentalized, and that relevant changes in metabolic state can occur at sub-second timescales. Moreover, we have learned that individual cells in populations, or as part of a tissue, exist in different states. If we want to understand metabolic processes and signalling better, it will be necessary to measure biochemical and biophysical responses of individual cells with high temporal and spatial resolution. Fluorescence imaging has revolutionized all aspects of biology since it has the potential to provide information on the cellular and subcellular distribution of ions and metabolites with sub-second time resolution. In the present review we summarize recent progress in quantifying ions and metabolites in populations of yeast cells as well as in individual yeast cells with the help of quantitative fluorescent indicators, namely FRET metabolite sensors. We discuss the opportunities and potential pitfalls and the controls that help preclude misinterpretation. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  19. Arming Technology in Yeast-Novel Strategy for Whole-cell Biocatalyst and Protein Engineering.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-09-09

    Cell surface display of proteins/peptides, in contrast to the conventional intracellular expression, has many attractive features. This arming technology is especially effective when yeasts are used as a host, because eukaryotic modifications that are often required for functional use can be added to the surface-displayed proteins/peptides. A part of various cell wall or plasma membrane proteins can be genetically fused to the proteins/peptides of interest to be displayed. This technology, leading to the generation of so-called "arming technology", can be employed for basic and applied research purposes. In this article, we describe various strategies for the construction of arming yeasts, and outline the diverse applications of this technology to industrial processes such as biofuel and chemical productions, pollutant removal, and health-related processes, including oral vaccines. In addition, arming technology is suitable for protein engineering and directed evolution through high-throughput screening that is made possible by the feature that proteins/peptides displayed on cell surface can be directly analyzed using intact cells without concentration and purification. Actually, novel proteins/peptides with improved or developed functions have been created, and development of diagnostic/therapeutic antibodies are likely to benefit from this powerful approach.

  20. The extraction of liquid, protein molecules and yeast cells from paper through surface acoustic wave atomization.

    PubMed

    Qi, Aisha; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James; Ho, Jenny

    2010-02-21

    Paper has been proposed as an inexpensive and versatile carrier for microfluidics devices with abilities well beyond simple capillary action for pregnancy tests and the like. Unlike standard microfluidics devices, extracting a fluid from the paper is a challenge and a drawback to its broader use. Here, we extract fluid from narrow paper strips using surface acoustic wave (SAW) irradiation that subsequently atomizes the extracted fluid into a monodisperse aerosol for use in mass spectroscopy, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery applications. Two protein molecules, ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin (BSA), have been preserved in paper and then extracted using atomized mist through SAW excitation; protein electrophoresis shows there is less than 1% degradation of either protein molecule in this process. Finally, a solution of live yeast cells was infused into paper, which was subsequently dried for preservation then remoistened to extract the cells via SAW atomization, yielding live cells at the completion of the process. The successful preservation and extraction of fluids, proteins and yeast cells significantly expands the usefulness of paper in microfluidics.

  1. Recent advances in yeast cell-surface display technologies for waste biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nan-Qi; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Waste biorefinery aims to maximize the output of value-added products from various artificial/agricultural wastes by using integrated bioprocesses. To make waste biorefinery economically feasible, it is thus necessary to develop a low-cost, environment-friendly technique to perform simultaneous biodegradation and bioconversion of waste materials. Cell-surface display engineering is a novel, cost-effective technique that can auto-immobilize proteins on the cell exterior of microorganisms, and has been applied for use with waste biofinery. Through tethering different enzymes (e.g., cellulase, lipase, and protease) or metal-binding peptides on cell surfaces, various yeast strains can effectively produce biofuels and biochemicals from sugar/protein-rich waste materials, catalyze waste oils into biodiesels, or retrieve heavy metals from wastewater. This review critically summarizes recent applications of yeast cell-surface display on various types of waste biorefineries, highlighting its potential and future challenges with regard to commercializing this technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A sphingolipid-dependent diffusion barrier confines ER stress to the yeast mother cell

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Lori; Caudron, Fabrice; Denoth-Lippuner, Annina; Boettcher, Barbara; Buvelot Frei, Stéphanie; Snapp, Erik Lee; Barral, Yves

    2014-01-01

    In many cell types, lateral diffusion barriers compartmentalize the plasma membrane and, at least in budding yeast, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, the molecular nature of these barriers, their mode of action and their cellular functions are unclear. Here, we show that misfolded proteins of the ER remain confined into the mother compartment of budding yeast cells. Confinement required the formation of a lateral diffusion barrier in the form of a distinct domain of the ER-membrane at the bud neck, in a septin-, Bud1 GTPase- and sphingolipid-dependent manner. The sphingolipids, but not Bud1, also contributed to barrier formation in the outer membrane of the dividing nucleus. Barrier-dependent confinement of ER stress into the mother cell promoted aging. Together, our data clarify the physical nature of lateral diffusion barriers in the ER and establish the role of such barriers in the asymmetric segregation of proteotoxic misfolded proteins during cell division and aging. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01883.001 PMID:24843009

  3. Fundamental mechanisms of telomerase action in yeasts and mammals: understanding telomeres and telomerase in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christine A; Tomita, Kazunori

    2017-03-01

    Aberrant activation of telomerase occurs in 85-90% of all cancers and underpins the ability of cancer cells to bypass their proliferative limit, rendering them immortal. The activity of telomerase is tightly controlled at multiple levels, from transcriptional regulation of the telomerase components to holoenzyme biogenesis and recruitment to the telomere, and finally activation and processivity. However, studies using cancer cell lines and other model systems have begun to reveal features of telomeres and telomerase that are unique to cancer. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the mechanisms of telomerase recruitment and activation using insights from studies in mammals and budding and fission yeasts. Finally, we discuss the differences in telomere homeostasis between normal cells and cancer cells, which may provide a foundation for telomere/telomerase targeted cancer treatments. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. A Trichosporonales genome tree based on 27 haploid and three evolutionarily conserved 'natural' hybrid genomes.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Masako; Sriswasdi, Sira; Manabe, Ri-Ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Sugita, Takashi; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2018-01-01

    To construct a backbone tree consisting of basidiomycetous yeasts, draft genome sequences from 25 species of Trichosporonales (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota) were generated. In addition to the hybrid genomes of Trichosporon coremiiforme and Trichosporon ovoides that we described previously, we identified an interspecies hybrid genome in Cutaneotrichosporon mucoides (formerly Trichosporon mucoides). This hybrid genome had a gene retention rate of ~55%, and its closest haploid relative was Cutaneotrichosporon dermatis. After constructing the C. mucoides subgenomes, we generated a phylogenetic tree using genome data from the 27 haploid species and the subgenome data from the three hybrid genome species. It was a high-quality tree with 100% bootstrap support for all of the branches. The genome-based tree provided superior resolution compared with previous multi-gene analyses. Although our backbone tree does not include all Trichosporonales genera (e.g. Cryptotrichosporon), it will be valuable for future analyses of genome data. Interest in interspecies hybrid fungal genomes has recently increased because they may provide a basis for new technologies. The three Trichosporonales hybrid genomes described in this study are different from well-characterized hybrid genomes (e.g. those of Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces bayanus) because these hybridization events probably occurred in the distant evolutionary past. Hence, they will be useful for studying genome stability following hybridization and speciation events. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Comparative analysis of cell wall surface glycan expression in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Esparza, M; Sarazin, A; Jouy, N; Poulain, D; Jouault, T

    2006-07-31

    The yeast Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, part of the normal human microbial flora that causes infections in immunocompromised individuals with a high morbidity and mortality levels. Recognition of yeasts by host cells is based on components of the yeast cell wall, which are considered part of its virulence attributes. Cell wall glycans play an important role in the continuous interchange that regulates the balance between saprophytism and parasitism, and also between resistance and infection. Some of these molecular entities are expressed both by the pathogenic yeast C. albicans and by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a related non-pathogenic yeast, involving similar molecular mechanisms and receptors for recognition. In this work we have exploited flow cytometry methods for probing surface glycans of the yeasts. We compared glycan expression by C. albicans and by S. cerevisiae, and studied the effect of culture conditions. Our results show that the expression levels of alpha- and beta-linked mannosides as well as beta-glucans can be successfully evaluated by flow cytometry methods using different antibodies independent of agglutination reactions. We also found that the surface expression pattern of beta-mannosides detected by monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies are differently modulated during the growth course. These data indicate that the yeast beta-mannosides exposed on mannoproteins and/or phospholipomannan are increased in stationary phase, whereas those linked to mannan are not affected by the yeast growth phase. The cytometric method described here represents a useful tool to investigate to what extent C. albicans is able to regulate its glycan surface expression and therefore modify its virulence properties.

  6. Electrical control of cell polarization in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Minc, Nicolas; Chang, Fred

    2010-04-27

    Electric signals surround tissues and cells and have been proposed to participate in directing cell polarity in processes such as development, wound healing, and host invasion [1, 2]. The application of exogenous electric fields (EFs) can direct cell polarization in cell types ranging from bacteria and fungi to neurons and neutrophils [3-7]. The mechanisms by which EFs modulate cell polarity, however, remain poorly understood. Here we introduce the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model organism to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this process. In these rod-shaped cells, an exogenous EF reorients cell growth in a direction orthogonal to the field, producing cells with a bent morphology. A candidate genetic screen identifies conserved factors involved in this process: an integral membrane proton ATPase pma1p that regulates intracellular pH, the small GTPase cdc42p, and the formin for3p that assembles actin cables. Interestingly, mutants in these genes still respond to the EF but orient in a different direction, toward the anode. In addition, EFs also cause electrophoretic movement of cell wall synthase complex proteins toward the anode. These data suggest molecular models for how the EF reorients cell polarization by modulating intracellular pH and steering cell polarity factors in multiple directions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selection of G1 Phase Yeast Cells for Synchronous Meiosis and Sporulation.

    PubMed

    Stuart, David T

    2017-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation is a procedure that allows the fractionation of cell populations based upon their size and shape. This allows cells in distinct cell cycle stages can be captured from an asynchronous population. The technique is particularly helpful when performing an experiment to monitor the progression of cells through the cell cycle or meiosis. Yeast sporulation like gametogenesis in other eukaryotes initiates from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Conveniently, S. cerevisiae arrest in G1 phase when starved for nutrients and so withdrawal of nitrogen and glucose allows cells to abandon vegetative growth in G1 phase before initiating the sporulation program. This simple starvation protocol yields a partial synchronization that has been used extensively in studies of progression through meiosis and sporulation. By using centrifugal elutriation it is possible to isolate a homogeneous population of G1 phase cells and induce them to sporulate synchronously, which is beneficial for investigating progression through meiosis and sporulation. An additionally benefit of this protocol is that cell populations can be isolated based upon size and both large and small cell populations can be tested for progression through meiosis and sporulation. Here we present a protocol for purification of G1 phase diploid cells for examining synchronous progression through meiosis and sporulation.

  8. Mechanical feedback coordinates cell wall expansion and assembly in yeast mating morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The shaping of individual cells requires a tight coordination of cell mechanics and growth. However, it is unclear how information about the mechanical state of the wall is relayed to the molecular processes building it, thereby enabling the coordination of cell wall expansion and assembly during morphogenesis. Combining theoretical and experimental approaches, we show that a mechanical feedback coordinating cell wall assembly and expansion is essential to sustain mating projection growth in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Our theoretical results indicate that the mechanical feedback provided by the Cell Wall Integrity pathway, with cell wall stress sensors Wsc1 and Mid2 increasingly activating membrane-localized cell wall synthases Fks1/2 upon faster cell wall expansion, stabilizes mating projection growth without affecting cell shape. Experimental perturbation of the osmotic pressure and cell wall mechanics, as well as compromising the mechanical feedback through genetic deletion of the stress sensors, leads to cellular phenotypes that support the theoretical predictions. Our results indicate that while the existence of mechanical feedback is essential to stabilize mating projection growth, the shape and size of the cell are insensitive to the feedback. PMID:29346368

  9. Cell cycle- and chaperone-mediated regulation of H3K56ac incorporation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Tommy; Liu, Chih Long; Erkmann, Judith A; Holik, John; Grunstein, Michael; Kaufman, Paul D; Friedman, Nir; Rando, Oliver J

    2008-11-01

    Acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 is a covalent modification best known as a mark of newly replicated chromatin, but it has also been linked to replication-independent histone replacement. Here, we measured H3K56ac levels at single-nucleosome resolution in asynchronously growing yeast cultures, as well as in yeast proceeding synchronously through the cell cycle. We developed a quantitative model of H3K56ac kinetics, which shows that H3K56ac is largely explained by the genomic replication timing and the turnover rate of each nucleosome, suggesting that cell cycle profiles of H3K56ac should reveal most first-time nucleosome incorporation events. However, since the deacetylases Hst3/4 prevent use of H3K56ac as a marker for histone deposition during M phase, we also directly measured M phase histone replacement rates. We report a global decrease in turnover rates during M phase and a further specific decrease in turnover at several early origins of replication, which switch from rapidly replaced in G1 phase to stably bound during M phase. Finally, by measuring H3 replacement in yeast deleted for the H3K56 acetyltransferase Rtt109 and its two co-chaperones Asf1 and Vps75, we find evidence that Rtt109 and Asf1 preferentially enhance histone replacement at rapidly replaced nucleosomes, whereas Vps75 appears to inhibit histone turnover at those loci. These results provide a broad perspective on histone replacement/incorporation throughout the cell cycle and suggest that H3K56 acetylation provides a positive-feedback loop by which replacement of a nucleosome enhances subsequent replacement at the same location.

  10. Growth control of the eukaryote cell: a systems biology study in yeast.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, Juan I; Zeef, Leo A; Hoyle, David C; Zhang, Nianshu; Hayes, Andrew; Gardner, David Cj; Cornell, Michael J; Petty, June; Hakes, Luke; Wardleworth, Leanne; Rash, Bharat; Brown, Marie; Dunn, Warwick B; Broadhurst, David; O'Donoghue, Kerry; Hester, Svenja S; Dunkley, Tom Pj; Hart, Sarah R; Swainston, Neil; Li, Peter; Gaskell, Simon J; Paton, Norman W; Lilley, Kathryn S; Kell, Douglas B; Oliver, Stephen G

    2007-01-01

    Cell growth underlies many key cellular and developmental processes, yet a limited number of studies have been carried out on cell-growth regulation. Comprehensive studies at the transcriptional, proteomic and metabolic levels under defined controlled conditions are currently lacking. Metabolic control analysis is being exploited in a systems biology study of the eukaryotic cell. Using chemostat culture, we have measured the impact of changes in flux (growth rate) on the transcriptome, proteome, endometabolome and exometabolome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each functional genomic level shows clear growth-rate-associated trends and discriminates between carbon-sufficient and carbon-limited conditions. Genes consistently and significantly upregulated with increasing growth rate are frequently essential and encode evolutionarily conserved proteins of known function that participate in many protein-protein interactions. In contrast, more unknown, and fewer essential, genes are downregulated with increasing growth rate; their protein products rarely interact with one another. A large proportion of yeast genes under positive growth-rate control share orthologs with other eukaryotes, including humans. Significantly, transcription of genes encoding components of the TOR complex (a major controller of eukaryotic cell growth) is not subject to growth-rate regulation. Moreover, integrative studies reveal the extent and importance of post-transcriptional control, patterns of control of metabolic fluxes at the level of enzyme synthesis, and the relevance of specific enzymatic reactions in the control of metabolic fluxes during cell growth. This work constitutes a first comprehensive systems biology study on growth-rate control in the eukaryotic cell. The results have direct implications for advanced studies on cell growth, in vivo regulation of metabolic fluxes for comprehensive metabolic engineering, and for the design of genome-scale systems biology models of the

  11. Growth control of the eukaryote cell: a systems biology study in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Castrillo, Juan I; Zeef, Leo A; Hoyle, David C; Zhang, Nianshu; Hayes, Andrew; Gardner, David CJ; Cornell, Michael J; Petty, June; Hakes, Luke; Wardleworth, Leanne; Rash, Bharat; Brown, Marie; Dunn, Warwick B; Broadhurst, David; O'Donoghue, Kerry; Hester, Svenja S; Dunkley, Tom PJ; Hart, Sarah R; Swainston, Neil; Li, Peter; Gaskell, Simon J; Paton, Norman W; Lilley, Kathryn S; Kell, Douglas B; Oliver, Stephen G

    2007-01-01

    Background Cell growth underlies many key cellular and developmental processes, yet a limited number of studies have been carried out on cell-growth regulation. Comprehensive studies at the transcriptional, proteomic and metabolic levels under defined controlled conditions are currently lacking. Results Metabolic control analysis is being exploited in a systems biology study of the eukaryotic cell. Using chemostat culture, we have measured the impact of changes in flux (growth rate) on the transcriptome, proteome, endometabolome and exometabolome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each functional genomic level shows clear growth-rate-associated trends and discriminates between carbon-sufficient and carbon-limited conditions. Genes consistently and significantly upregulated with increasing growth rate are frequently essential and encode evolutionarily conserved proteins of known function that participate in many protein-protein interactions. In contrast, more unknown, and fewer essential, genes are downregulated with increasing growth rate; their protein products rarely interact with one another. A large proportion of yeast genes under positive growth-rate control share orthologs with other eukaryotes, including humans. Significantly, transcription of genes encoding components of the TOR complex (a major controller of eukaryotic cell growth) is not subject to growth-rate regulation. Moreover, integrative studies reveal the extent and importance of post-transcriptional control, patterns of control of metabolic fluxes at the level of enzyme synthesis, and the relevance of specific enzymatic reactions in the control of metabolic fluxes during cell growth. Conclusion This work constitutes a first comprehensive systems biology study on growth-rate control in the eukaryotic cell. The results have direct implications for advanced studies on cell growth, in vivo regulation of metabolic fluxes for comprehensive metabolic engineering, and for the design of genome

  12. Optical spectral analysis of ultra-weak photon emission from tissue culture and yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerudová, Michaela; Červinková, Kateřina; Hašek, Jiří; Cifra, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Optical spectral analysis of the ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) could be utilized for non-invasive diagnostic of state of biological systems and for elucidation of underlying mechanisms of UPE generation. Optical spectra of UPE from differentiated HL-60 cells and yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were investigated. Induced photon emission of neutrophil-like cells and spontaneous photon emission of yeast cells were measured using highly sensitive photomultiplier module Hamamatsu H7360-01 in a thermally regulated light-tight chamber. The respiratory burst of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells was induced with the PMA (phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate). PMA activates an assembly of NADPH oxidase, which induces a rapid formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Long-pass edge filters (wavelength 350, from 400 to 600 with 25 nm resolution and 650 nm) were used for optical spectral analysis. Propagation of error of indirect measurements and standard deviation were used to assess reliability of the measured spectra. Results indicate that the photon emission from both cell cultures is detectable in the six from eight examined wavelength ranges with different percentage distribution of cell suspensions, particularly 450-475, 475-500, 500-525, 525-550, 550-575 and 575-600 nm. The wavelength range of spectra from 450 to 550 nm coincides with the range of photon emission from triplet excited carbonyls (350-550 nm). The both cells cultures emitted photons in wavelength range from 550 to 600 nm but this range does not correspond with any known emitter. To summarize, we have demonstrated a clear difference in the UPE spectra between two organisms using rigorous methodology and error analysis.

  13. Mechanisms of Contact-Mediated Killing of Yeast Cells on Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Quaranta, Davide; Krans, Travis; Santo, Christophe Espírito; Elowsky, Christian G.; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Surfaces made of copper or its alloys have strong antimicrobial properties against a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the molecular mode of action responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic copper is not known. Here, we show that dry copper surfaces inactivate Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae within minutes in a process called contact-mediated killing. Cellular copper ion homeostasis systems influenced the kinetics of contact-mediated killing in both organisms. Deregulated copper ion uptake through a hyperactive S. cerevisiae Ctr1p (ScCtr1p) copper uptake transporter in Saccharomyces resulted in faster inactivation of mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Similarly, lack of the C. albicans Crp1p (CaCrp1p) copper-efflux P-type ATPase or the metallothionein CaCup1p caused more-rapid killing of Candida mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Candida and Saccharomyces took up large quantities of copper ions as soon as they were in contact with copper surfaces, as indicated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and by the intracellular copper ion-reporting dye coppersensor-1. Exposure to metallic copper did not cause lethality through genotoxicity, deleterious action on a cell's genetic material, as indicated by a mutation assay with Saccharomyces. Instead, toxicity mediated by metallic copper surfaces targeted membranes in both yeast species. With the use of Live/Dead staining, onset of rapid and extensive cytoplasmic membrane damage was observed in cells from copper surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy using the indicator dye DiSBaC2(3) indicated that cell membranes were depolarized. Also, during contact-mediated killing, vacuoles first became enlarged and then disappeared from the cells. Lastly, in metallic copper-stressed yeasts, oxidative stress in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria was elevated. PMID:21097600

  14. Effects of different yeast cell wall supplements added to maize- or wheat-based diets for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Morales-López, R; Auclair, E; Van Immerseel, F; Ducatelle, R; García, F; Brufau, J

    2010-06-01

    1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308). 2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4 experimental treatments was used: T-1) Negative control, no additives T-2) Positive control, avilamycin group (10 mg/kg feed), T-3) Yeast extract-YCW (500 mg/kg), and T-4) Brewery-YCW (500 mg/kg feed). There were 6 replicates of 20 (experiment 1) and 22 (experiment 2) chicks per treatment. 3. In experiment 1 (wheat based diets), yeast extract-YCW increased BW and daily feed intake (42 d). The effects were comparable to those of avilamycin. In experiment 2 (maize based diet), avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW treatments improved the feed conversion ratio with respect to the negative control group (0 to 14 d). 4. At 24 d, in both experiments, the ileal nutrient digestibility and ileal bacterial counts were not affected by any experimental treatment. In maize diets, lower intestinal viscosity was obtained with avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW than with the negative control. In wheat diets, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW reduced intestinal viscosity. 5. A third experiment was conducted to study the effect of yeast extract-YCW on animal performance, intestinal mucosa morphology and intestinal viscosity. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used; one factor was the dietary yeast extract-YCW supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg feed) and the other the cereal in the diet (maize or wheat). 6. At 43 d, the heaviest BW was in chickens fed on yeast extract-YCW compared to those given the negative control. At 22 d, yeast extract-YCW increased villus height, mucus thickness and number of goblet cells with respect to negative control. 7. Results of these experiments

  15. Nuclear fusion and genome encounter during yeast zygote formation.

    PubMed

    Tartakoff, Alan Michael; Jaiswal, Purnima

    2009-06-01

    When haploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are crossed, parental nuclei congress and fuse with each other. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we have developed assays that evaluate the impact of drugs and mutations. Nuclear congression is inhibited by drugs that perturb the actin and tubulin cytoskeletons. Nuclear envelope (NE) fusion consists of at least five steps in which preliminary modifications are followed by controlled flux of first outer and then inner membrane proteins, all before visible dilation of the waist of the nucleus or coalescence of the parental spindle pole bodies. Flux of nuclear pore complexes occurs after dilation. Karyogamy requires both the Sec18p/NSF ATPase and ER/NE luminal homeostasis. After fusion, chromosome tethering keeps tagged parental genomes separate from each other. The process of NE fusion and evidence of genome independence in yeast provide a prototype for understanding related events in higher eukaryotes.

  16. Studying p53 family proteins in yeast: Induction of autophagic cell death and modulation by interactors and small molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Leão, Mariana; Gomes, Sara; Bessa, Cláudia

    In this work, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to individually study human p53, p63 (full length and truncated forms) and p73. Using this cell system, the effect of these proteins on cell proliferation and death, and the influence of MDM2 and MDMX on their activities were analyzed. When expressed in yeast, wild-type p53, TAp63, ΔNp63 and TAp73 induced growth inhibition associated with S-phase cell cycle arrest. This growth inhibition was accompanied by reactive oxygen species production and autophagic cell death. Furthermore, they stimulated rapamycin-induced autophagy. On the contrary, none of the tested p53 family members induced apoptosis either permore » se or after apoptotic stimuli. As previously reported for p53, also TAp63, ΔNp63 and TAp73 increased actin expression levels and its depolarization, suggesting that ACT1 is also a p63 and p73 putative yeast target gene. Additionally, MDM2 and MDMX inhibited the activity of all tested p53 family members in yeast, although the effect was weaker on TAp63. Moreover, Nutlin-3a and SJ-172550 were identified as potential inhibitors of the p73 interaction with MDM2 and MDMX, respectively. Altogether, the yeast-based assays herein developed can be envisaged as a simplified cell system to study the involvement of p53 family members in autophagy, the modulation of their activities by specific interactors (MDM2 and MDMX), and the potential of new small molecules to modulate these interactions. - Highlights: • p53, p63 and p73 are individually studied in the yeast S. cerevisiae. • p53 family members induce ROS production, cell cycle arrest and autophagy in yeast. • p53 family members increase actin depolarization and expression levels in yeast. • MDM2 and MDMX inhibit the activity of p53 family members in yeast. • Yeast can be a useful tool to study the biology and drugability of p53, p63 and p73.« less

  17. [A Modified Procedure to Isolate Synchronous Cells from Yeasts with Continuous Percoll Density Gradient and Their Raman Discrimination].

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-shi; Lai, Jun-zhuo; Lu, Ming-qian; Cheng, Qin; Liao, Wei; Chen, Li-mei

    2015-08-01

    A modified procedure of Percoll density gradient centrifugation was developed to isolate and fractionate synchronous cells from stationary phase (sp) cultures of different yeast strains, as well as Raman spectra discrimination of single yeast cells was reported. About 1.75 mL Percoll solution in 2 mL polypropylene centrifugal tube was centrifuged at 19,320 g, 20 °C with an angle rotor for 15 min to form continuous densities gradient (1.00~1.31 g · mL(-1)), approximately 100 μL sample was overlaid onto the preformed continuous density gradient carefully, subsequently, centrifuged at 400 g for 60 min in a tabletop centrifuge equipped with a angle rotor at 25 °C. Yeast samples could be observed that the suspensions were separated into two cell fractions obviously. Both fractions of different yeast strains were respectively determined by differential interference contrast (DIC), phase contrast microscope and synchronous culture to distinguish their morphological and growth trait. The results showed that the lower fraction cells were unbudded, mostly unicellular, highly refractive, homogeneous and uniform in size, and represented growth characteristic synchronously; Their protoplasm had relatively high density, and contained significant concentrations of glycogen; all of which were accordant with description of quiescent yeast cells and G0 cells in previously published paper. It was shown that lower fraction was quiescent cells, synchronous G0 cells as well. A Raman tweezers setup was used to investigate the differences between two fractions, G0 cells and non G0 cells, at a single cell level. The result showed that both G0 cells and the non G0 cells had the same characteristic peaks corresponding biological macromolecules including proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids, but all characteristic peak intensities of G0 cells were higher than that of non G0 cells, implied that the macromolecular substance content of G0 cells was more higher. Principal component

  18. Fabrication of silica hollow particles using yeast cells as a template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shenglan; Lin, Liqin; Chen, Xiaofang; Liu, Jingru; Zhang, Biao

    2018-04-01

    Inorganic hollow particles have attracted great interest in recent years. In this study, silica micro spheres were produced. Yeast cells were used as a biological template. The silica shell was synthesized by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in water-alcohol mixtures as solvent using ammonia as a catalyst according to the Stoeber process. Various approaches including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. The results showed that the thermally treated samples were SiO2 hollow microspheres with a diameter varying between 1-5μm.

  19. Alpha-ketoglutarate enhances freeze-thaw tolerance and prevents carbohydrate-induced cell death of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, Maria M; Hrynkiv, Olha V; Knyhynytska, Roksolana V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2018-01-01

    Stress resistance and fermentative capability are important quality characteristics of baker's yeast. In the present study, we examined protective effects of exogenous alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acid metabolism, against freeze-thaw and carbohydrate-induced stresses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth on AKG-supplemented medium prevented a loss of viability and improved fermentative capacity of yeast cells after freeze-thaw treatment. The cells grown in the presence of AKG had higher levels of amino acids (e.g., proline), higher metabolic activity and total antioxidant capacity, and higher activities of catalase, NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthase compared to control ones. Both synthesis of amino acids and enhancement of antioxidant system capacity could be involved in AKG-improved freeze-thaw tolerance in S. cerevisiae. Cell viability dramatically decreased under incubation of stationary-phase yeast cells in 2% glucose or fructose solutions (in the absence of the other nutrients) as compared with incubation in distilled water or in 10 mM AKG solution. The decrease in cell viability was accompanied by acidification of the medium, and decrease in cellular respiration, aconitase activity, and levels of total protein and free amino acids. The supplementation with 10 mM AKG effectively prevented carbohydrate-induced yeast death. Protective mechanisms of AKG could be associated with the intensification of respiration and prevention of decreasing protein level as well as with direct antioxidant AKG action.

  20. Yeast surface displaying glucose oxidase as whole-cell biocatalyst: construction, characterization, and its electrochemical glucose sensing application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwei; Lang, Qiaolin; Li, Liang; Liang, Bo; Tang, Xiangjiang; Kong, Lingrang; Mascini, Marco; Liu, Aihua

    2013-06-18

    The display of glucose oxidase (GOx) on yeast cell surface using a-agglutinin as an anchor motif was successfully developed. Both the immunochemical analysis and enzymatic assay showed that active GOx was efficiently expressed and translocated on the cell surface. Compared with conventional GOx, the yeast cell surface that displayed GOx (GOx-yeast) demonstrated excellent enzyme properties, such as good stability within a wide pH range (pH 3.5-11.5), good thermostability (retaining over 94.8% enzyme activity at 52 °C and 84.2% enzyme activity at 56 °C), and high d-glucose specificity. In addition, direct electrochemistry was achieved at a GOx-yeast/multiwalled-carbon-nanotube modified electrode, suggesting that the host cell of yeast did not have any adverse effect on the electrocatalytic property of the recombinant GOx. Thus, a novel electrochemical glucose biosensor based on this GOx-yeast was developed. The as-prepared biosensor was linear with the concentration of d-glucose within the range of 0.1-14 mM and a low detection limit of 0.05 mM (signal-to-noise ratio of S/N = 3). Moreover, the as-prepared biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible, simple, and cost-effective, which can be applicable for real sample detection. The proposed strategy to construct robust GOx-yeast may be applied to explore other oxidase-displaying-system-based whole-cell biocatalysts, which can find broad potential application in biosensors, bioenergy, and industrial catalysis.

  1. Synthesis of polypyrrole within the cell wall of yeast by redox-cycling of [Fe(CN)6](3-)/[Fe(CN)6](4-).

    PubMed

    Ramanavicius, Arunas; Andriukonis, Eivydas; Stirke, Arunas; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Balevicius, Zigmas; Ramanaviciene, Almira

    2016-02-01

    Yeast cells are often used as a model system in various experiments. Moreover, due to their high metabolic activity, yeast cells have a potential to be applied as elements in the design of biofuel cells and biosensors. However a wider application of yeast cells in electrochemical systems is limited due to high electric resistance of their cell wall. In order to reduce this problem we have polymerized conducting polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) directly in the cell wall and/or within periplasmic membrane. In this research the formation of Ppy was induced by [Fe(CN)6](3-)ions, which were generated from K4[Fe(CN)6], which was initially added to polymerization solution. The redox process was catalyzed by oxido-reductases, which are present in the plasma membrane of yeast cells. The formation of Ppy was confirmed by spectrophotometry and atomic force microscopy. It was confirmed that the conducting polymer polypyrrole was formed within periplasmic space and/or within the cell wall of yeast cells, which were incubated in solution containing pyrrole, glucose and [Fe(CN)6](4-). After 24h drying at room temperature we have observed that Ppy-modified yeast cell walls retained their initial spherical form. In contrast to Ppy-modified cells, the walls of unmodified yeast have wrinkled after 24h drying. The viability of yeast cells in the presence of different pyrrole concentrations has been evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Allosteric regulation of phosphofructokinase controls the emergence of glycolytic oscillations in isolated yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Anna-Karin; van Niekerk, David D; Adiels, Caroline B; Kooi, Bob; Goksör, Mattias; Snoep, Jacky L

    2014-06-01

    Oscillations are widely distributed in nature and synchronization of oscillators has been described at the cellular level (e.g. heart cells) and at the population level (e.g. fireflies). Yeast glycolysis is the best known oscillatory system, although it has been studied almost exclusively at the population level (i.e. limited to observations of average behaviour in synchronized cultures). We studied individual yeast cells that were positioned with optical tweezers in a microfluidic chamber to determine the precise conditions for autonomous glycolytic oscillations. Hopf bifurcation points were determined experimentally in individual cells as a function of glucose and cyanide concentrations. The experiments were analyzed in a detailed mathematical model and could be interpreted in terms of an oscillatory manifold in a three-dimensional state-space; crossing the boundaries of the manifold coincides with the onset of oscillations and positioning along the longitudinal axis of the volume sets the period. The oscillatory manifold could be approximated by allosteric control values of phosphofructokinase for ATP and AMP. The mathematical models described here have been submitted to the JWS Online Cellular Systems Modelling Database and can be accessed at http://jjj.mib.ac.uk/webMathematica/UItester.jsp?modelName=gustavsson5. [Database section added 14 May 2014 after original online publication]. © 2014 FEBS.

  3. Utilization of brewery wastewater for culturing yeast cells for use in river water remediation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-Yun; Sun, Jing-Mei; Song, Shu-Qiang; Sun, Bao-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Successful in situ bio-augmentation of contaminated river water involves reducing the cost of the bio-agent. In this study, brewery wastewater was used to culture yeast cells for degrading the COD(Cr) from a contaminated river. The results showed that 15 g/L of yeast cells could be achieved after being cultured in the autoclaved brewery wastewater with 5 mL/L of saccharified starch and 9 g/L of corn steep liquor. The COD(Cr) removal efficiency was increased from 22% to 33% when the cells were cultured using the mentioned method. Based on the market price of materials used in this method, the cost of the medium for remediating 1 m3 of river water was 0.0076 US dollars. If the additional cost of field implementation is included, the total cost is less than 0.016 US dollars for treating 1 m3 of river water. The final cost was dependent on the size of remediation: the larger the scale, the lower the cost. By this method, the nutrient in the brewery wastewater was reused, the cost of brewery wastewater treatment was saved and the cost of the remediation using bio-augmentation was reduced. Hence, it is suggested that using brewery wastewater to culture a bio-agent for bio-augmentation is a cost-effective method.

  4. Cell cycle entry triggers a switch between two modes of Cdc42 activation during yeast polarization

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Kristen; Strickland, Devin; Glotzer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cell polarization underlies many cellular and organismal functions. The GTPase Cdc42 orchestrates polarization in many contexts. In budding yeast, polarization is associated with a focus of Cdc42•GTP which is thought to self sustain by recruiting a complex containing Cla4, a Cdc42-binding effector, Bem1, a scaffold, and Cdc24, a Cdc42 GEF. Using optogenetics, we probe yeast polarization and find that local recruitment of Cdc24 or Bem1 is sufficient to induce polarization by triggering self-sustaining Cdc42 activity. However, the response to these perturbations depends on the recruited molecule, the cell cycle stage, and existing polarization sites. Before cell cycle entry, recruitment of Cdc24, but not Bem1, induces a metastable pool of Cdc42 that is sustained by positive feedback. Upon Cdk1 activation, recruitment of either Cdc24 or Bem1 creates a stable site of polarization that induces budding and inhibits formation of competing sites. Local perturbations have therefore revealed unexpected features of polarity establishment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26722.001 PMID:28682236

  5. Raspberry wine fermentation with suspended and immobilized yeast cells of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Djordjević, Radovan; Gibson, Brian; Sandell, Mari; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M; Bugarski, Branko; Leskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Vunduk, Jovana; Nikićević, Ninoslav; Nedović, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the differences in fermentative behaviour of two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EC1118 and RC212) and to determine the differences in composition and sensory properties of raspberry wines fermented with immobilized and suspended yeast cells of both strains at 15 °C. Analyses of aroma compounds, glycerol, acetic acid and ethanol, as well as the kinetics of fermentation and a sensory evaluation of the wines, were performed. All fermentations with immobilized yeast cells had a shorter lag phase and faster utilization of sugars and ethanol production than those fermented with suspended cells. Slower fermentation kinetics were observed in all the samples that were fermented with strain RC212 (suspended and immobilized) than in samples fermented with strain EC1118. Significantly higher amounts of acetic acid were detected in all samples fermented with strain RC212 than in those fermented with strain EC1118 (0.282 and 0.602 g/l, respectively). Slightly higher amounts of glycerol were observed in samples fermented with strain EC1118 than in those fermented with strain RC212. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Influence of non-adherent yeast cells on electrical characteristics of diamond-based field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházka, Václav; Cifra, Michal; Kulha, Pavel; Ižák, Tibor; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Diamond thin films provide unique features as substrates for cell cultures and as bio-electronic sensors. Here we employ solution-gated field effect transistors (SGFET) based on nanocrystalline diamond thin films with H-terminated surface which exhibits the sub-surface p-type conductive channel. We study an influence of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on electrical characteristics of the diamond SGFETs. Two different cell culture solutions (sucrose and yeast peptone dextrose-YPD) are used, with and without the cells. We have found that transfer characteristics of the SGFETs exhibit a negative shift of the gate voltage by -26 mV and -42 mV for sucrose and YPD with cells in comparison to blank solutions without the cells. This effect is attributed to a local pH change in close vicinity of the H-terminated diamond surface due to metabolic processes of the yeast cells. The pH sensitivity of the diamond-based SGFETs, the role of cell and protein adhesion on the gate surface and the role of negative surface charge of yeast cells on the SGFETs electrical characteristics are discussed as well.

  7. Yeast Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

    Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

  8. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stefano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11–13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy. PMID:20368463

  9. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; ...

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore » freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  10. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal of developing improved yeast cell factories. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1164-1170. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cassette Series Designed for Live-Cell Imaging of Proteins and High Resolution Techniques in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Young, Carissa L.; Raden, David L.; Caplan, Jeffrey; Czymmek, Kirk; Robinson, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, it has become clear that protein function and regulation are highly dependent upon intracellular localization. Although fluorescent protein variants are ubiquitously used to monitor protein dynamics, localization, and abundance; fluorescent light microscopy techniques often lack the resolution to explore protein heterogeneity and cellular ultrastructure. Several approaches have been developed to identify, characterize, and monitor the spatial localization of proteins and complexes at the sub-organelle level; yet, many of these techniques have not been applied to yeast. Thus, we have constructed a series of cassettes containing codon-optimized epitope tags, fluorescent protein variants that cover the full spectrum of visible light, a TetCys motif used for FlAsH-based localization, and the first evaluation in yeast of a photoswitchable variant – mEos2 – to monitor discrete subpopulations of proteins via confocal microscopy. This series of modules, complete with six different selection markers, provides the optimal flexibility during live-cell imaging and multicolor labeling in vivo. Furthermore, high-resolution imaging techniques include the yeast-enhanced TetCys motif that is compatible with diaminobenzidine photooxidation used for protein localization by electron microscopy and mEos2 that is ideal for super-resolution microscopy. We have examined the utility of our cassettes by analyzing all probes fused to the C-terminus of Sec61, a polytopic membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum of moderate protein concentration, in order to directly compare fluorescent probes, their utility and technical applications. Our series of cassettes expand the repertoire of molecular tools available to advance targeted spatiotemporal investigations using multiple live-cell, super-resolution or electron microscopy imaging techniques. PMID:22473760

  12. Proteomics analysis for asymmetric inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kusunoki, Shunta; Ishibashi, Yuko; Kito, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    In budding yeast, a mother cell can produce a finite number of daughter cells over its life. The accumulation of a variety of types of damaged components has an impact on the aging process. Asymmetrical inheritance during cell division causes these aberrant intracellular constituents to be retained in mother cells and prevents them from segregating to daughter cells. However, the understanding of asymmetrical inheritance of individual proteins that are damaged or old age, and their relevance to the aging process, has been limited. The aim of this study is to propose a proteomics strategy for asymmetrical inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells. During synchronous culture for one generation, newly synthesized proteins were labeled with stable isotope amino acids to discriminate preexisting proteins originally expressed in mother cells, followed by separation of mother and daughter cells using a conventional method based on biotin labeling. Isotope incorporation ratios for individual proteins were quantified using mass spectrometry. We successfully identified 21 proteins whose preexisting versions were asymmetrically inherited in mother cells, including plasma membrane transporter involved in the aging process and organelle-anchoring proteins related to the stress response to misfolded proteins. Thus, our approach would be useful for making catalog of asymmetrically inherited proteins. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Effects of Amphotericin B and Three Azole Derivatives on the Lipids of Yeast Cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Rosane Christine; Hamdan, Júnia Soares

    2000-01-01

    Yeast cells of five different strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were obtained for partial analysis of lipid composition, and sterol content was determined quantitatively and qualitatively. The determinations were conducted with cells cultured in the presence and absence of amphotericin B and azole derivatives at levels below the MIC. PMID:10858371

  14. Proton pumping and the internal pH of yeast cells, measured with pyranine introduced by electroporation.

    PubMed Central

    Peña, A; Ramírez, J; Rosas, G; Calahorra, M

    1995-01-01

    The internal pH of yeast cells was determined by measuring the fluorescence changes of pyranine (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene-trisulfonic acid), which was introduced into the cells by electroporation. This may be a suitable procedure for the following reasons. (i) Only minor changes in the physiological status of the cells seemed to be produced. (ii) The dye did not seem to leak at a significant rate from the cells. (iii) Different incubation conditions produced large fluorescence changes in the dye, which in general agree with present knowledge of the proton movements of the yeast cell under different conditions. (iv) Pyranine introduced by electroporation seemed to be located in the cytoplasm and to avoid the vacuole, and therefore it probably measured actual cytoplasmic pH. (v) Correction factors to obtain a more precise estimation of the internal pH are not difficult to apply, and the procedure may be useful for other yeasts and microorganisms, as well as for the introduction of other substances into cells. Values for the cytoplasmic pHs of yeast cells that were higher than those reported previously were obtained, probably because this fluorescent indicator did not seem to penetrate into the cell vacuole. PMID:7860582

  15. Fixation Probability in a Haploid-Diploid Population.

    PubMed

    Bessho, Kazuhiro; Otto, Sarah P

    2017-01-01

    Classical population genetic theory generally assumes either a fully haploid or fully diploid life cycle. However, many organisms exhibit more complex life cycles, with both free-living haploid and diploid stages. Here we ask what the probability of fixation is for selected alleles in organisms with haploid-diploid life cycles. We develop a genetic model that considers the population dynamics using both the Moran model and Wright-Fisher model. Applying a branching process approximation, we obtain an accurate fixation probability assuming that the population is large and the net effect of the mutation is beneficial. We also find the diffusion approximation for the fixation probability, which is accurate even in small populations and for deleterious alleles, as long as selection is weak. These fixation probabilities from branching process and diffusion approximations are similar when selection is weak for beneficial mutations that are not fully recessive. In many cases, particularly when one phase predominates, the fixation probability differs substantially for haploid-diploid organisms compared to either fully haploid or diploid species. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Fixation Probability in a Haploid-Diploid Population

    PubMed Central

    Bessho, Kazuhiro; Otto, Sarah P.

    2017-01-01

    Classical population genetic theory generally assumes either a fully haploid or fully diploid life cycle. However, many organisms exhibit more complex life cycles, with both free-living haploid and diploid stages. Here we ask what the probability of fixation is for selected alleles in organisms with haploid-diploid life cycles. We develop a genetic model that considers the population dynamics using both the Moran model and Wright–Fisher model. Applying a branching process approximation, we obtain an accurate fixation probability assuming that the population is large and the net effect of the mutation is beneficial. We also find the diffusion approximation for the fixation probability, which is accurate even in small populations and for deleterious alleles, as long as selection is weak. These fixation probabilities from branching process and diffusion approximations are similar when selection is weak for beneficial mutations that are not fully recessive. In many cases, particularly when one phase predominates, the fixation probability differs substantially for haploid-diploid organisms compared to either fully haploid or diploid species. PMID:27866168

  17. Long-term tracking of budding yeast cells in brightfield microscopy: CellStar and the Evaluation Platform

    PubMed Central

    Versari, Cristian; Stoma, Szymon; Batmanov, Kirill; Llamosi, Artémis; Mroz, Filip; Kaczmarek, Adam; Deyell, Matt

    2017-01-01

    With the continuous expansion of single cell biology, the observation of the behaviour of individual cells over extended durations and with high accuracy has become a problem of central importance. Surprisingly, even for yeast cells that have relatively regular shapes, no solution has been proposed that reaches the high quality required for long-term experiments for segmentation and tracking (S&T) based on brightfield images. Here, we present CellStar, a tool chain designed to achieve good performance in long-term experiments. The key features are the use of a new variant of parametrized active rays for segmentation, a neighbourhood-preserving criterion for tracking, and the use of an iterative approach that incrementally improves S&T quality. A graphical user interface enables manual corrections of S&T errors and their use for the automated correction of other, related errors and for parameter learning. We created a benchmark dataset with manually analysed images and compared CellStar with six other tools, showing its high performance, notably in long-term tracking. As a community effort, we set up a website, the Yeast Image Toolkit, with the benchmark and the Evaluation Platform to gather this and additional information provided by others. PMID:28179544

  18. Long-term tracking of budding yeast cells in brightfield microscopy: CellStar and the Evaluation Platform.

    PubMed

    Versari, Cristian; Stoma, Szymon; Batmanov, Kirill; Llamosi, Artémis; Mroz, Filip; Kaczmarek, Adam; Deyell, Matt; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Hersen, Pascal; Batt, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    With the continuous expansion of single cell biology, the observation of the behaviour of individual cells over extended durations and with high accuracy has become a problem of central importance. Surprisingly, even for yeast cells that have relatively regular shapes, no solution has been proposed that reaches the high quality required for long-term experiments for segmentation and tracking (S&T) based on brightfield images. Here, we present CellStar , a tool chain designed to achieve good performance in long-term experiments. The key features are the use of a new variant of parametrized active rays for segmentation, a neighbourhood-preserving criterion for tracking, and the use of an iterative approach that incrementally improves S&T quality. A graphical user interface enables manual corrections of S&T errors and their use for the automated correction of other, related errors and for parameter learning. We created a benchmark dataset with manually analysed images and compared CellStar with six other tools, showing its high performance, notably in long-term tracking. As a community effort, we set up a website, the Yeast Image Toolkit, with the benchmark and the Evaluation Platform to gather this and additional information provided by others. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. [Genetic control of mitotic crossing-over in yeasts. III. Induction by 8-methoxypsoralen and long-wave UV irradiation (lambda=365 nm)].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, I V; Marfin, S V

    1982-02-01

    The lethal effect of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus 365 nm light has been studied in haploid radiosensitive strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The diploid of wild type and the diploid homozygous for the rad2 mutation (this mutation blocks the excision of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers) were more resistant to the lethal effect of 8-MOP plus 365 nm light than the haploid of wild type and rad2 haploid, respectively. The diploid homozygous for rad54 mutation (the mutation blocks the repair of double-strand breaks in DNA) was more sensitive than haploid rad54. The method of repeated irradiation allowed to study the capacity of radiosensitive diploids to remove monoadducts induced by 8-MOP in DNA. This process was very effective in diploids of wild type and in the rad54 rad54 diploid, while the rad2 rad2 diploid was characterized by nearly complete absence of monoadduct excision. The study of mitotic crossing over and mitotic segregation in yeast diploids, containing a pair of complementing alleles of the ade2 gene (red/pink) has shown a very high recombinogenic effect of 8-MOP plus 365 nm light. The rad2 mutation slightly increased the frequency of mitotic segregation and mitotic crossing over. The rad54 mutation decreased the frequency of mitotic segregation and entirely suppressed mitotic crossing over. The method of repeated irradiation showed that the cross-links, but not monoadducts, are the main cause of high recombinogenic effect of 8-MOP plus 365 nm light. The possible participation of different repair systems in recombinational processes induced by 8-MOP in yeast cells is discussed.

  20. Metabolic regulation and maximal reaction optimization in the central metabolism of a yeast cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasbawati, Gunawan, A. Y.; Hertadi, R.; Sidarto, K. A.

    2015-03-01

    Regulation of fluxes in a metabolic system aims to enhance the production rates of biotechnologically important compounds. Regulation is held via modification the cellular activities of a metabolic system. In this study, we present a metabolic analysis of ethanol fermentation process of a yeast cell in terms of continuous culture scheme. The metabolic regulation is based on the kinetic formulation in combination with metabolic control analysis to indicate the key enzymes which can be modified to enhance ethanol production. The model is used to calculate the intracellular fluxes in the central metabolism of the yeast cell. Optimal control is then applied to the kinetic model to find the optimal regulation for the fermentation system. The sensitivity results show that there are external and internal control parameters which are adjusted in enhancing ethanol production. As an external control parameter, glucose supply should be chosen in appropriate way such that the optimal ethanol production can be achieved. For the internal control parameter, we find three enzymes as regulation targets namely acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase which reside in the acetaldehyde branch. Among the three enzymes, however, only acetaldehyde dehydrogenase has a significant effect to obtain optimal ethanol production efficiently.

  1. High hydrostatic pressure leads to free radicals accumulation in yeast cells triggering oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bravim, Fernanda; Mota, Mainã M; Fernandes, A Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2016-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a unicellular organism that during the fermentative process is exposed to a variable environment; hence, resistance to multiple stress conditions is a desirable trait. The stress caused by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in S. cerevisiae resembles the injuries generated by other industrial stresses. In this study, it was confirmed that gene expression pattern in response to HHP displays an oxidative stress response profile which is expanded upon hydrostatic pressure release. Actually, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration level increased in yeast cells exposed to HHP treatment and an incubation period at room pressure led to a decrease in intracellular ROS concentration. On the other hand, ethylic, thermic and osmotic stresses did not result in any ROS accumulation in yeast cells. Microarray analysis revealed an upregulation of genes related to methionine metabolism, appearing to be a specific cellular response to HHP, and not related to other stresses, such as heat and osmotic stresses. Next, we investigated whether enhanced oxidative stress tolerance leads to enhanced tolerance to HHP stress. Overexpression of STF2 is known to enhance tolerance to oxidative stress and we show that it also leads to enhanced tolerance to HHP stress. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Transcription factor genes essential for cell proliferation and replicative lifespan in budding yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kamei, Yuka; Tai, Akiko; Dakeyama, Shota

    Many of the lifespan-related genes have been identified in eukaryotes ranging from the yeast to human. However, there is limited information available on the longevity genes that are essential for cell proliferation. Here, we investigated whether the essential genes encoding DNA-binding transcription factors modulated the replicative lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Heterozygous diploid knockout strains for FHL1, RAP1, REB1, and MCM1 genes showed significantly short lifespan. {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated a characteristic metabolic profile in the Δfhl1/FHL1 mutant. These results strongly suggest that FHL1 regulates the transcription of lifespan related metabolic genes. Thus, heterozygous knockout strains could be themore » potential materials for discovering further novel lifespan genes. - Highlights: • Involvement of yeast TF genes essential for cell growth in lifespan was evaluated. • The essential TF genes, FHL1, RAP1, REB1, and MCM1, regulate replicative lifespan. • Heterozygous deletion of FHL1 changes cellular metabolism related to lifespan.« less

  3. The Yeast Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Routes Carbon Fluxes to Fuel Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Kuehne, Andreas; Zamboni, Nicola; Skotheim, Jan M

    2016-05-19

    Cell division entails a sequence of processes whose specific demands for biosynthetic precursors and energy place dynamic requirements on metabolism. However, little is known about how metabolic fluxes are coordinated with the cell division cycle. Here, we examine budding yeast to show that more than half of all measured metabolites change significantly through the cell division cycle. Cell cycle-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), a major cell cycle regulator, and the metabolic regulator protein kinase A. At the G1/S transition, Cdk1 phosphorylates and activates the enzyme Nth1, which funnels the storage carbohydrate trehalose into central carbon metabolism. Trehalose utilization fuels anabolic processes required to reliably complete cell division. Thus, the cell cycle entrains carbon metabolism to fuel biosynthesis. Because the oscillation of Cdk activity is a conserved feature of the eukaryotic cell cycle, we anticipate its frequent use in dynamically regulating metabolism for efficient proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial Signaling Nucleotides Inhibit Yeast Cell Growth by Impacting Mitochondrial and Other Specifically Eukaryotic Functions

    PubMed Central

    Vergnano, Marta; Wan, Chris

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inducibly synthesize the prokaryotic signaling nucleotides cyclic di-GMP (cdiGMP), cdiAMP, and ppGpp in order to characterize the range of effects these nucleotides exert on eukaryotic cell function during bacterial pathogenesis. Synthetic genetic array (SGA) and transcriptome analyses indicated that, while these compounds elicit some common reactions in yeast, there are also complex and distinctive responses to each of the three nucleotides. All three are capable of inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth, with the guanine nucleotides exhibiting stronger effects than cdiAMP. Mutations compromising mitochondrial function and chromatin remodeling show negative epistatic interactions with all three nucleotides. In contrast, certain mutations that cause defects in chromatin modification and ribosomal protein function show positive epistasis, alleviating growth inhibition by at least two of the three nucleotides. Uniquely, cdiGMP is lethal both to cells growing by respiration on acetate and to obligately fermentative petite mutants. cdiGMP is also synthetically lethal with the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea. Heterologous expression of the human ppGpp hydrolase Mesh1p prevented the accumulation of ppGpp in the engineered yeast and restored cell growth. Extensive in vivo interactions between bacterial signaling molecules and eukaryotic gene function occur, resulting in outcomes ranging from growth inhibition to death. cdiGMP functions through a mechanism that must be compensated by unhindered RNR activity or by functionally competent mitochondria. Mesh1p may be required for abrogating the damaging effects of ppGpp in human cells subjected to bacterial infection. PMID:28743817

  5. Development of a novel microbial sensor with baker's yeast cells for monitoring temperature control during cold food chain.

    PubMed

    Kogure, H; Kawasaki, S; Nakajima, K; Sakai, N; Futase, K; Inatsu, Y; Bari, M L; Isshiki, K; Kawamoto, S

    2005-01-01

    A novel microbial sensor containing a commercial baker's yeast with a high freeze tolerance was developed for visibly detecting inappropriate temperature control of food. When the yeast cells fermented glucose, the resulting gas production triggered the microbial sensor. The biosensor was a simple, small bag containing a solution of yeast cells, yeast extract, glucose, and glycerol sealed up with multilayer transparent film with barriers against oxygen and humidity. Fine adjustment of gas productivity in the biosensor at low temperatures was achieved by changing either or both concentrations of glucose and yeast cells. Moreover, the amount of time that food was exposed to inappropriate temperatures could be deduced by the amount of gas produced in the biosensor. The biosensor was stable without any functional loss for up to 1 week in frozen storage. The biosensor could offer a useful tool for securing food safety by maintaining low-temperature control in every stage from farm to fork, including during transportation, in the store, and at home.

  6. Single cell oils of the cold-adapted oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glacialis DBVPG 4785

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The production of microbial lipids has attracted considerable interest during the past decade since they can be successfully used to produce biodiesel by catalyzed transesterification with short chain alcohols. Certain yeast species, including several psychrophilic isolates, are oleaginous and accumulate lipids from 20 to 70% of biomass under appropriate cultivation conditions. Among them, Rhodotorula glacialis is a psychrophilic basidiomycetous species capable to accumulate intracellular lipids. Results Rhodotorula glacialis DBVPG 4785 is an oleaginous psychrophilic yeast isolated from a glacial environment. Despite its origin, the strain abundantly grew and accumulated lipids between -3 to 20°C. The temperature did not influence the yield coefficients of both biomass and lipids production, but had positive effect on the growth rate and thus on volumetric productivity of lipid. In glucose-based media, cellular multiplication occurred first, while the lipogenic phase followed whenever the culture was limited by a nutrient other than glucose. The extent of the carbon excess had positive effects on triacylglycerols production, that was maximum with 120 g L-1 glucose, in terms of lipid concentration (19 g L-1), lipid/biomass (68%) and lipid/glucose yields (16%). Both glucose concentration and growth temperature influenced the composition of fatty acids, whose unsaturation degree decreased when the temperature or glucose excess increased. Conclusions This study is the first proposed biotechnological application for Rhodotorula glacialis species, whose oleaginous biomass accumulates high amounts of lipids within a wide range of temperatures through appropriate cultivation C:N ratio. Although R. glacialis DBVPG 4785 is a cold adapted yeast, lipid production occurs over a broad range of temperatures and it can be considered an interesting microorganism for the production of single cell oils. PMID:20863365

  7. Use of the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis as a cell factory to produce a Pleurotus ostreatus hydrophobin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanyu; Liu, Dongmei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ren, Danfeng; Zheng, Liesheng; Chen, Liguo; Ma, Aimin

    2017-08-01

    To obtain hydrophobin, a Class I hydrophobin gene, Po.hyd from Pleurotus ostreatus, was transformed into the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The hydrophobin Po.HYD from P. ostreatus was heterogeneously expressed by the yeast-like cells of T. fuciformis. Plasmids harboring the Po.hyd gene driven by endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter were transformed by A. tumefaciens. The integration and expression of the rPo.HYD in the T. fuciformis cells were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, fluorescence microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR. SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the rPo.HYD was extracted with the expected MW of 14 kDa. The yield of purified rPo.HYD was 0.58 mg/g dry wt. The protein, with its ability to stabilize oil droplets, exhibited a better emulsifying activity than the typical food emulsifiers Tween 20 and sodium caseinate. Tremella fuciformis can be used as a cell factory to produce hydrophobin on a large scale for the food industry.

  8. Studies on Rapidly Frozen Suspensions of Yeast Cells by Differential Thermal Analysis and Conductometry

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Peter

    1963-01-01

    Few, if any, yeast cells survived rapid cooling to -196°C and subsequent slow warming. After rapid freezing, the suspensions absorbed latent heat of fusion between -15° and 0°C during warming, and the relation between the amount of heat absorbed and the concentration of cells was the same as that in equivalent KCl solutions, indicating that frozen suspensions behave thermally like frozen solutions. The amount of heat absorbed was such that more than 80 per cent of the intracellular solution had to be frozen. The conductometric behavior of frozen suspensions showed that cell solutes were still inside the cells and surrounded by an intact cell membrane at the time heat was being absorbed. Two models are consistent with these findings. The first assumes that intracellular freezing has taken place; the second that all freezable water has left the cells and frozen externally. The latter model is ruled out because rapidly cooled cells do not shrink by an amount equal to the volume of water that would have to be withdrawn to prevent internal freezing. PMID:13934216

  9. Stress proteins on the yeast cell surface determine resistance to osmotin, a plant antifungal protein.

    PubMed

    Yun, D J; Zhao, Y; Pardo, J M; Narasimhan, M L; Damsz, B; Lee, H; Abad, L R; D'Urzo, M P; Hasegawa, P M; Bressan, R A

    1997-06-24

    Strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ in their sensitivities to tobacco osmotin, an antifungal protein of the PR-5 family. However, cells sensitive to tobacco osmotin showed resistance to osmotin-like proteins purified from the plant Atriplex nummularia, indicating a strict specificity between the antifungal protein and its target cell. A member of a gene family encoding stress proteins induced by heat and nitrogen limitation, collectively called Pir proteins, was isolated among the genes that conveyed resistance to tobacco osmotin to a susceptible strain. We show that overexpression of Pir proteins increased resistance to osmotin, whereas simultaneous deletion of all PIR genes in a tolerant strain resulted in sensitivity. Pir proteins have been immunolocalized to the cell wall. The enzymatic digestion of the cell wall of sensitive and resistant cells rendered spheroplasts equally susceptible to the cytotoxic action of tobacco osmotin but not to other osmotin-like proteins, indicating that the cell membrane interacts specifically with osmotin and facilitates its action. Our results demonstrate that fungal cell wall proteins are determinants of resistance to antifungal PR-5 proteins.

  10. Stress proteins on the yeast cell surface determine resistance to osmotin, a plant antifungal protein

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Dae-Jin; Zhao, Yuan; Pardo, José M.; Narasimhan, Meena L.; Damsz, Barbara; Lee, Hyeseung; Abad, Laura R.; D’Urzo, Matilde Paino; Hasegawa, Paul M.; Bressan, Ray A.

    1997-01-01

    Strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ in their sensitivities to tobacco osmotin, an antifungal protein of the PR-5 family. However, cells sensitive to tobacco osmotin showed resistance to osmotin-like proteins purified from the plant Atriplex nummularia, indicating a strict specificity between the antifungal protein and its target cell. A member of a gene family encoding stress proteins induced by heat and nitrogen limitation, collectively called Pir proteins, was isolated among the genes that conveyed resistance to tobacco osmotin to a susceptible strain. We show that overexpression of Pir proteins increased resistance to osmotin, whereas simultaneous deletion of all PIR genes in a tolerant strain resulted in sensitivity. Pir proteins have been immunolocalized to the cell wall. The enzymatic digestion of the cell wall of sensitive and resistant cells rendered spheroplasts equally susceptible to the cytotoxic action of tobacco osmotin but not to other osmotin-like proteins, indicating that the cell membrane interacts specifically with osmotin and facilitates its action. Our results demonstrate that fungal cell wall proteins are determinants of resistance to antifungal PR-5 proteins. PMID:9192695

  11. Cell Surface Interference with Plasma Membrane and Transport Processes in Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Francois, Jean Marie

    2016-01-01

    The wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a shell of about 120 nm thick, made of two distinct layers, which surrounds the cell. The outer layer is constituted of highly glycosylated proteins and the inner layer is composed of β-glucan and chitin. These two layers are interconnected through covalent linkages leading to a supramolecular architecture that is characterized by physical and chemical properties including rigidity, porosity and biosorption. The later property results from the presence of highly negative charged phosphate and carboxylic groups of the cell wall proteins, allowing the cell wall to act as an efficient barrier to metals ions, toxins and organic compounds. An intimate connection between cell wall and plasma membrane is indicated by the fact that changes in membrane fluidity results in change in cell wall nanomechanical properties. Finally, cell wall contributes to transport processes through the use of dedicated cell wall mannoproteins, as it is the case for Fit proteins implicated in the siderophore-iron bound transport and the Tir/Dan proteins family in the uptake of sterols.

  12. Ammonium Is Toxic for Aging Yeast Cells, Inducing Death and Shortening of the Chronological Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Júlia

    2012-01-01

    Here we show that in aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) cells, NH4 + induces cell death associated with shortening of chronological life span. This effect is positively correlated with the concentration of NH4 + added to the culture medium and is particularly evident when cells are starved for auxotrophy-complementing amino acids. NH4 +-induced cell death is accompanied by an initial small increase of apoptotic cells followed by extensive necrosis. Autophagy is inhibited by NH4 +, but this does not cause a decrease in cell viability. We propose that the toxic effects of NH4 + are mediated by activation of PKA and TOR and inhibition of Sch9p. Our data show that NH4 + induces cell death in aging cultures through the regulation of evolutionary conserved pathways. They may also provide new insights into longevity regulation in multicellular organisms and increase our understanding of human disorders such as hyperammonemia as well as effects of amino acid deprivation employed as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:22615903

  13. Starvation induced cell death in autophagy-defective yeast mutants is caused by mitochondria dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sho W; Onodera, Jun; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2011-02-25

    Autophagy is a highly-conserved cellular degradation and recycling system that is essential for cell survival during nutrient starvation. The loss of viability had been used as an initial screen to identify autophagy-defective (atg) mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the mechanism of cell death in these mutants has remained unclear. When cells grown in a rich medium were transferred to a synthetic nitrogen starvation media, secreted metabolites lowered the extracellular pH below 3.0 and autophagy-defective mutants mostly died. We found that buffering of the starvation medium dramatically restored the viability of atg mutants. In response to starvation, wild-type (WT) cells were able to upregulate components of the respiratory pathway and ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging enzymes, but atg mutants lacked this synthetic capacity. Consequently, autophagy-defective mutants accumulated the high level of ROS, leading to deficient respiratory function, resulting in the loss of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA). We also showed that mtDNA deficient cells are subject to cell death under low pH starvation conditions. Taken together, under starvation conditions non-selective autophagy, rather than mitophagy, plays an essential role in preventing ROS accumulation, and thus in maintaining mitochondria function. The failure of response to starvation is the major cause of cell death in atg mutants.

  14. An origin-deficient yeast artificial chromosome triggers a cell cycle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    van Brabant, A J; Buchanan, C D; Charboneau, E; Fangman, W L; Brewer, B J

    2001-04-01

    Checkpoint controls coordinate entry into mitosis with the completion of DNA replication. Depletion of nucleotide precursors by treatment with the drug hydroxyurea triggers such a checkpoint response. However, it is not clear whether the signal for this hydroxyurea-induced checkpoint pathway is the presence of unreplicated DNA, or rather the persistence of single-stranded or damaged DNA. In a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) we have engineered an approximately 170 kb region lacking efficient replication origins that allows us to explore the specific effects of unreplicated DNA on cell cycle progression. Replication of this YAC extends the length of S phase and causes cells to engage an S/M checkpoint. In the absence of Rad9 the YAC becomes unstable, undergoing deletions within the origin-free region.

  15. Expanding xylose metabolism in yeast for plant cell wall conversion to biofuels.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Yu, Vivian Yaci; Lin, Yuping; Chomvong, Kulika; Estrela, Raíssa; Park, Annsea; Liang, Julie M; Znameroski, Elizabeth A; Feehan, Joanna; Kim, Soo Rin; Jin, Yong-Su; Glass, N Louise; Cate, Jamie H D

    2015-02-03

    Sustainable biofuel production from renewable biomass will require the efficient and complete use of all abundant sugars in the plant cell wall. Using the cellulolytic fungus Neurospora crassa as a model, we identified a xylodextrin transport and consumption pathway required for its growth on hemicellulose. Reconstitution of this xylodextrin utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that fungal xylose reductases act as xylodextrin reductases, producing xylosyl-xylitol oligomers as metabolic intermediates. These xylosyl-xylitol intermediates are generated by diverse fungi and bacteria, indicating that xylodextrin reduction is widespread in nature. Xylodextrins and xylosyl-xylitol oligomers are then hydrolyzed by two hydrolases to generate intracellular xylose and xylitol. Xylodextrin consumption using a xylodextrin transporter, xylodextrin reductases and tandem intracellular hydrolases in cofermentations with sucrose and glucose greatly expands the capacity of yeast to use plant cell wall-derived sugars and has the potential to increase the efficiency of both first-generation and next-generation biofuel production.

  16. The yeast metacaspase is implicated in oxidative stress response in frataxin-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sophie; Sliwa, Dominika; Auchère, Françoise; Brossas, Caroline; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Boggetto, Nicole; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Madeo, Frank; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Santos, Renata

    2012-01-20

    Friedreich ataxia is the most common recessive neurodegenerative disease and is caused by reduced expression of mitochondrial frataxin. Frataxin depletion causes impairment in iron-sulfur cluster and heme biosynthesis, disruption of iron homeostasis and hypersensitivity to oxidants. Currently no pharmacological treatment blocks disease progression, although antioxidant therapies proved to benefit patients. We show that sensitivity of yeast frataxin-deficient cells to hydrogen peroxide is partially mediated by the metacaspase. Metacaspase deletion in frataxin-deficient cells results in recovery of antioxidant capacity and heme synthesis. In addition, our results suggest that metacaspase is associated with mitochondrial respiration, intracellular redox control and genomic stability. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of nutrient imbalance on wine alcoholic fermentations: nitrogen excess enhances yeast cell death in lipid-limited must.

    PubMed

    Tesnière, Catherine; Delobel, Pierre; Pradal, Martine; Blondin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the consequences of nutritional imbalances, particularly lipid/nitrogen imbalances, on wine yeast survival during alcoholic fermentation. We report that lipid limitation (ergosterol limitation in our model) led to a rapid loss of viability during the stationary phase of fermentation and that the cell death rate is strongly modulated by nitrogen availability and nature. Yeast survival was reduced in the presence of excess nitrogen in lipid-limited fermentations. The rapidly dying yeast cells in fermentations in high nitrogen and lipid-limited conditions displayed a lower storage of the carbohydrates trehalose and glycogen than observed in nitrogen-limited cells. We studied the cell stress response using HSP12 promoter-driven GFP expression as a marker, and found that lipid limitation triggered a weaker stress response than nitrogen limitation. We used a SCH9-deleted strain to assess the involvement of nitrogen signalling pathways in the triggering of cell death. Deletion of SCH9 increased yeast viability in the presence of excess nitrogen, indicating that a signalling pathway acting through Sch9p is involved in this nitrogen-triggered cell death. We also show that various nitrogen sources, but not histidine or proline, provoked cell death. Our various findings indicate that lipid limitation does not elicit a transcriptional programme that leads to a stress response protecting yeast cells and that nitrogen excess triggers cell death by modulating this stress response, but not through HSP12. These results reveal a possibly negative role of nitrogen in fermentation, with reported effects referring to ergosterol limitation conditions. These effects should be taken into account in the management of alcoholic fermentations.

  18. Impact of Nutrient Imbalance on Wine Alcoholic Fermentations: Nitrogen Excess Enhances Yeast Cell Death in Lipid-Limited Must

    PubMed Central

    Tesnière, Catherine; Delobel, Pierre; Pradal, Martine; Blondin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the consequences of nutritional imbalances, particularly lipid/nitrogen imbalances, on wine yeast survival during alcoholic fermentation. We report that lipid limitation (ergosterol limitation in our model) led to a rapid loss of viability during the stationary phase of fermentation and that the cell death rate is strongly modulated by nitrogen availability and nature. Yeast survival was reduced in the presence of excess nitrogen in lipid-limited fermentations. The rapidly dying yeast cells in fermentations in high nitrogen and lipid-limited conditions displayed a lower storage of the carbohydrates trehalose and glycogen than observed in nitrogen-limited cells. We studied the cell stress response using HSP12 promoter-driven GFP expression as a marker, and found that lipid limitation triggered a weaker stress response than nitrogen limitation. We used a SCH9-deleted strain to assess the involvement of nitrogen signalling pathways in the triggering of cell death. Deletion of SCH9 increased yeast viability in the presence of excess nitrogen, indicating that a signalling pathway acting through Sch9p is involved in this nitrogen-triggered cell death. We also show that various nitrogen sources, but not histidine or proline, provoked cell death. Our various findings indicate that lipid limitation does not elicit a transcriptional programme that leads to a stress response protecting yeast cells and that nitrogen excess triggers cell death by modulating this stress response, but not through HSP12. These results reveal a possibly negative role of nitrogen in fermentation, with reported effects referring to ergosterol limitation conditions. These effects should be taken into account in the management of alcoholic fermentations. PMID:23658613

  19. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine protects the probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, from acid-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Cascio, Vincent; Gittings, Daniel; Merloni, Kristen; Hurton, Matthew; Laprade, David; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2013-02-13

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic yeast routinely used to prevent and to treat gastrointestinal disorders, including the antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile infections. However, only 1-3% of the yeast administered orally is recovered alive in the feces suggesting that this yeast is unable to survive the acidic environment of the gastrointestinal tract. We provide evidence that suggests that S. boulardii undergoes programmed cell death (PCD) in acidic environments, which is accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species and the appearance of caspase-like activity. To better understand the mechanism of cell death at the molecular level, we generated microarray gene expression profiles of S. boulardii cells cultured in an acidic environment. Significantly, functional annotation revealed that the up-regulated genes were significantly over-represented in cell death pathways Finally, we show that S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet), a commercially available, FDA-approved dietary supplement, enhances the viability of S. boulardii in acidic environments, most likely by preventing programmed cell death. In toto, given the observation that many of the proven health benefits of S. boulardii are dependent on cell viability, our data suggests that taking S. boulardii and AdoMet together may be a more effective treatment for gastrointestinal disorders than taking the probiotic yeast alone.

  20. TORC1 signaling inhibition by rapamycin and caffeine affect lifespan, global gene expression, and cell proliferation of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Rallis, Charalampos; Codlin, Sandra; Bähler, Jürg

    2013-08-01

    Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is implicated in growth control and aging from yeast to humans. Fission yeast is emerging as a popular model organism to study TOR signaling, although rapamycin has been thought to not affect cell growth in this organism. Here, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin and caffeine, singly and combined, on multiple cellular processes in fission yeast. The two drugs led to diverse and specific phenotypes that depended on TORC1 inhibition, including prolonged chronological lifespan, inhibition of global translation, inhibition of cell growth and division, and reprograming of global gene expression mimicking nitrogen starvation. Rapamycin and caffeine differentially affected these various TORC1-dependent processes. Combined drug treatment augmented most phenotypes and effectively blocked cell growth. Rapamycin showed a much more subtle effect on global translation than did caffeine, while both drugs were effective in prolonging chronological lifespan. Rapamycin and caffeine did not affect the lifespan via the pH of the growth media. Rapamycin prolonged the lifespan of nongrowing cells only when applied during the growth phase but not when applied after cells had stopped proliferation. The doses of rapamycin and caffeine strongly correlated with growth inhibition and with lifespan extension. This comprehensive analysis will inform future studies into TORC1 function and cellular aging in fission yeast and beyond. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  1. S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine protects the probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, from acid-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic yeast routinely used to prevent and to treat gastrointestinal disorders, including the antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile infections. However, only 1-3% of the yeast administered orally is recovered alive in the feces suggesting that this yeast is unable to survive the acidic environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Results We provide evidence that suggests that S. boulardii undergoes programmed cell death (PCD) in acidic environments, which is accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species and the appearance of caspase-like activity. To better understand the mechanism of cell death at the molecular level, we generated microarray gene expression profiles of S. boulardii cells cultured in an acidic environment. Significantly, functional annotation revealed that the up-regulated genes were significantly over-represented in cell death pathways Finally, we show that S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet), a commercially available, FDA-approved dietary supplement, enhances the viability of S. boulardii in acidic environments, most likely by preventing programmed cell death. Conclusions In toto, given the observation that many of the proven health benefits of S. boulardii are dependent on cell viability, our data suggests that taking S. boulardii and AdoMet together may be a more effective treatment for gastrointestinal disorders than taking the probiotic yeast alone. PMID:23402325

  2. Physiological analysis of yeast cells by flow cytometry during serial-repitching of low-malt beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2007-05-01

    At the end of beer brewing fermentation, yeast cells are collected and repitched for economical reasons. Although it is generally accepted that the physiological state of inoculated yeast cells affects their subsequent fermentation performance, the effect of serial-repitching on the physiological state of such yeast cells has not been well clarified. In this study, the fermentation performance of yeast cells during serial-repitching was investigated. After multiple repitchings, the specific growth rate and maximum optical density (OD(660)) decreased, and increases in isoamyl alcohol, which causes an undesirable flavor, and residual free amino acid nitrogen (FAN) concentrations were observed. The physiological state of individual cells before inoculation was characterized by flow cytometry using the fluorescent dyes dehydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (OXN). The fluorescence intensities of DHR, an indicator of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), and OXN, which indicates membrane potential, gradually increased as the number of serial-repitching cycles increased. Fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with cell growth. The subsequent fermentation performance can be predicted from this correlation.

  3. MANIFESTATIONS OF INJURY IN YEAST CELLS EXPOSED TO SUBZERO TEMPERATURES II.

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Peter

    1961-01-01

    Mazur, Peter (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.). Manifestations of injury in yeast cells exposed to subzero temperatures. II. Changes in specific gravity and in the concentration and quantity of cell solids. J. Bacteriol. 82:673–684. 1961.—It has previously been established that subjecting cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to rapid cooling to −30 C results in cell death and in certain morphological alterations. The alterations consisted of the loss of the central vacuole and a 50% decrease in volume. The present experiments were concerned with determining whether the volume decrease was the result of the loss of water alone or of water plus cellular solutes. The density of the “frozenthawed” cells was found to increase from 1.14 to 1.25 g/cm3 on the basis of measurements of the sedimentation rate of the cells. Interferometric and refractometric measurements indicated, furthermore, that the concentration of cell solids increased from 20 to 28%, whereas the total mass of cell solids decreased from 25 to 17 μμg/cell. The decrease in cell volume was thus shown to be the result of loss of solution from the cells, a solution containing 11 to 16% solids. Measurements of the rate of dialysis suggested that most or all of these solids had a molecular weight below 600. The findings are consistent with the view that low-temperature exposure destroyed the vacuolar membrane and sufficiently damaged the permeability barriers of the cell to permit escape of low molecular weight compounds. The damage was present a few seconds after thawing, and may, therefore, have been a direct result of intracellular ice crystals which, on the basis of previous studies, are believed to be responsible for death from low-temperature exposure. PMID:14471819

  4. Preferential retrotransposition in aging yeast mother cells is correlated with increased genome instability.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Melissa N; Scannapieco, Alison E; Au, Pak Ho; Dorsey, Savanna; Royer, Catherine A; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2015-10-01

    Retrotransposon expression or mobility is increased with age in multiple species and could promote genome instability or altered gene expression during aging. However, it is unclear whether activation of retrotransposons during aging is an indirect result of global changes in chromatin and gene regulation or a result of retrotransposon-specific mechanisms. Retromobility of a marked chromosomal Ty1 retrotransposon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was elevated in mother cells relative to their daughter cells, as determined by magnetic cell sorting of mothers and daughters. Retromobility frequencies in aging mother cells were significantly higher than those predicted by cell age and the rate of mobility in young populations, beginning when mother cells were only several generations old. New Ty1 insertions in aging mothers were more strongly correlated with gross chromosome rearrangements than in young cells and were more often at non-preferred target sites. Mother cells were more likely to have high concentrations and bright foci of Ty1 Gag-GFP than their daughter cells. Levels of extrachromosomal Ty1 cDNA were also significantly higher in aged mother cell populations than their daughter cell populations. These observations are consistent with a retrotransposon-specific mechanism that causes retrotransposition to occur preferentially in yeast mother cells as they begin to age, as opposed to activation by phenotypic changes associated with very old age. These findings will likely be relevant for understanding retrotransposons and aging in many organisms, based on similarities in regulation and consequences of retrotransposition in diverse species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein kinases are associated with multiple, distinct cytoplasmic granules in quiescent yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, Khyati H; Nostramo, Regina; Zhang, Bo; Varia, Sapna N; Klett, Bethany M; Herman, Paul K

    2014-12-01

    The cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell is subdivided into distinct functional domains by the presence of a variety of membrane-bound organelles. The remaining aqueous space may be further partitioned by the regulated assembly of discrete ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that contain particular proteins and messenger RNAs. These RNP granules are conserved structures whose importance is highlighted by studies linking them to human disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, relatively little is known about the diversity, composition, and physiological roles of these cytoplasmic structures. To begin to address these issues, we examined the cytoplasmic granules formed by a key set of signaling molecules, the protein kinases of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interestingly, a significant fraction of these proteins, almost 20%, was recruited to cytoplasmic foci specifically as cells entered into the G0-like quiescent state, stationary phase. Colocalization studies demonstrated that these foci corresponded to eight different granules, including four that had not been reported previously. All of these granules were found to rapidly disassemble upon the resumption of growth, and the presence of each was correlated with cell viability in the quiescent cultures. Finally, this work also identified new constituents of known RNP granules, including the well-characterized processing body and stress granule. The composition of these latter structures is therefore more varied than previously thought and could be an indicator of additional biological activities being associated with these complexes. Altogether, these observations indicate that quiescent yeast cells contain multiple distinct cytoplasmic granules that may make important contributions to their long-term survival. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Characterization of winemaking yeast by cell number-size distribution analysis through flow field-flow fractionation with multi-wavelength turbidimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Zattoni, Andrea; Melucci, Dora; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Sanz, Ramsés; Puignou, Lluís; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2004-10-29

    Yeasts are widely used in several areas of food industry, e.g. baking, beer brewing, and wine production. Interest in new analytical methods for quality control and characterization of yeast cells is thus increasing. The biophysical properties of yeast cells, among which cell size, are related to yeast cell capabilities to produce primary and secondary metabolites during the fermentation process. Biophysical properties of winemaking yeast strains can be screened by field-flow fractionation (FFF). In this work we present the use of flow FFF (FlFFF) with turbidimetric multi-wavelength detection for the number-size distribution analysis of different commercial winemaking yeast varieties. The use of a diode-array detector allows to apply to dispersed samples like yeast cells the recently developed method for number-size (or mass-size) analysis in flow-assisted separation techniques. Results for six commercial winemaking yeast strains are compared with data obtained by a standard method for cell sizing (Coulter counter). The method here proposed gives, at short analysis time, accurate information on the number of cells of a given size, and information on the total number of cells.

  7. Tolerant industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae posses a more robust cell wall integrity signaling pathway against 2-furaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cell wall integrity signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a conserved function for detecting and responding to cell stress conditions but less understood for industrial yeast. We dissected gene expression dynamics for a tolerant industrial yeast strain NRRL Y-50049 in response to challeng...

  8. Role of intracellular freezing in the death of cells cooled at supraoptimal rates. [Preservation of erythrocytes, bone marrow cells, and yeasts by freezing

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1976-01-01

    Cooling velocity is one of the major factors that determines whether viable cells can be frozen to temperatures that permit indefinite storage. Cooling either too slowly or too rapidly tends to be damaging. Optimum cooling rates are reported for mouse marrow stem cells, yeast, and human red cells.

  9. High-throughput microfluidics to control and measure signaling dynamics in single yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anders S.; Hao, Nan; O'Shea, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics coupled to quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy is transforming our ability to control, measure, and understand signaling dynamics in single living cells. Here we describe a pipeline that incorporates multiplexed microfluidic cell culture, automated programmable fluid handling for cell perturbation, quantitative time-lapse microscopy, and computational analysis of time-lapse movies. We illustrate how this setup can be used to control the nuclear localization of the budding yeast transcription factor Msn2. Using this protocol, we generate oscillations of Msn2 localization and measure the dynamic gene expression response of individual genes in single cells. The protocol allows a single researcher to perform up to 20 different experiments in a single day, whilst collecting data for thousands of single cells. Compared to other protocols, the present protocol is relatively easy to adopt and higher-throughput. The protocol can be widely used to control and monitor single-cell signaling dynamics in other signal transduction systems in microorganisms. PMID:26158443

  10. Regulation of Cell Cycle and Stress Responses to Hydrostatic Pressure in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    George, Vinoj T.; Brooks, Gavin

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the cellular responses to hydrostatic pressure by using the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model system. Exposure to sublethal levels of hydrostatic pressure resulted in G2 cell cycle delay. This delay resulted from Cdc2 tyrosine-15 (Y-15) phosphorylation, and it was abrogated by simultaneous disruption of the Cdc2 kinase regulators Cdc25 and Wee1. However, cell cycle delay was independent of the DNA damage, cytokinesis, and cell size checkpoints, suggesting a novel mechanism of Cdc2-Y15 phosphorylation in response to hydrostatic pressure. Spc1/Sty1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, a conserved member of the eukaryotic stress-activated p38, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, was rapidly activated after pressure stress, and it was required for cell cycle recovery under these conditions, in part through promoting polo kinase (Plo1) phosphorylation on serine 402. Moreover, the Spc1 MAP kinase pathway played a key role in maintaining cell viability under hydrostatic pressure stress through the bZip transcription factor, Atf1. Further analysis revealed that prestressing cells with heat increased barotolerance, suggesting adaptational cross-talk between these stress responses. These findings provide new insight into eukaryotic homeostasis after exposure to pressure stress. PMID:17699598

  11. Pseudouridine profiling reveals regulated mRNA pseudouridylation in yeast and human cells

    PubMed Central

    Carlile, Thomas M.; Rojas-Duran, Maria F.; Zinshteyn, Boris; Shin, Hakyung; Bartoli, Kristen M.; Gilbert, Wendy V.

    2014-01-01

    Post-transcriptional modification of RNA nucleosides occurs in all living organisms. Pseudouridine, the most abundant modified nucleoside in non-coding RNAs1, enhances the function of transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA by stabilizing RNA structure2–8. mRNAs were not known to contain pseudouridine, but artificial pseudouridylation dramatically affects mRNA function – it changes the genetic code by facilitating non-canonical base pairing in the ribosome decoding center9,10. However, without evidence of naturally occurring mRNA pseudouridylation, its physiological was unclear. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of pseudouridylation in yeast and human RNAs using Pseudo-seq, a genome-wide, single-nucleotide-resolution method for pseudouridine identification. Pseudo-seq accurately identifies known modification sites as well as 100 novel sites in non-coding RNAs, and reveals hundreds of pseudouridylated sites in mRNAs. Genetic analysis allowed us to assign most of the new modification sites to one of seven conserved pseudouridine synthases, Pus1–4, 6, 7 and 9. Notably, the majority of pseudouridines in mRNA are regulated in response to environmental signals, such as nutrient deprivation in yeast and serum starvation in human cells. These results suggest a mechanism for the rapid and regulated rewiring of the genetic code through inducible mRNA modifications. Our findings reveal unanticipated roles for pseudouridylation and provide a resource for identifying the targets of pseudouridine synthases implicated in human disease11–13. PMID:25192136

  12. A Kinetic Modelling of Enzyme Inhibitions in the Central Metabolism of Yeast Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasbawati; Kalondeng, A.; Aris, N.; Erawaty, N.; Azis, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic regulation plays an important role in the metabolic engineering of a cellular process. It is conducted to improve the productivity of a microbial process by identifying the important regulatory nodes of a metabolic pathway such as fermentation pathway. Regulation of enzymes involved in a particular pathway can be held to improve the productivity of the system. In the central metabolism of yeast cell, some enzymes are known as regulating enzymes that can be inhibited to increase the production of ethanol. In this research we study the kinetic modelling of the enzymes in the central pathway of yeast metabolism by taking into consideration the enzyme inhibition effects to the ethanol production. The existence of positive steady state solution and the stability of the system are also analysed to study the property and dynamical behaviour of the system. One stable steady state of the system is produced if some conditions are fulfilled. The conditions concern to the restriction of the maximum reactions of the enzymes in the pyruvate and acetaldehyde branch points. There exists a certain time of fermentation reaction at which a maximum and a minimum ethanol productions are attained after regulating the system. Optimal ethanol concentration is also produced for a certain initial concentration of inhibitor.

  13. Engineering the substrate specificity of the DhbE adenylation domain by yeast cell surface display.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keya; Nelson, Kathryn M; Bhuripanyo, Karan; Grimes, Kimberly D; Zhao, Bo; Aldrich, Courtney C; Yin, Jun

    2013-01-24

    The adenylation (A) domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) activate aryl acids or amino acids to launch their transfer through the NRPS assembly line for the biosynthesis of many medicinally important natural products. In order to expand the substrate pool of NRPSs, we developed a method based on yeast cell surface display to engineer the substrate specificities of the A-domains. We acquired A-domain mutants of DhbE that have 11- and 6-fold increases in k(cat)/K(m) with nonnative substrates 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 2-aminobenzoic acid, respectively and corresponding 3- and 33-fold decreases in k(cat)/K(m) values with the native substrate 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, resulting in a dramatic switch in substrate specificity of up to 200-fold. Our study demonstrates that yeast display can be used as a high throughput selection platform to reprogram the "nonribosomal code" of A-domains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress-tolerance of baker's-yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells: stress-protective molecules and genes involved in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2009-05-29

    During the fermentation of dough and the production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), cells are exposed to numerous environmental stresses (baking-associated stresses) such as freeze-thaw, high sugar concentrations, air-drying and oxidative stresses. Cellular macromolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and membranes, are seriously damaged under stress conditions, leading to the inhibition of cell growth, cell viability and fermentation. To avoid lethal damage, yeast cells need to acquire a variety of stress-tolerant mechanisms, for example the induction of stress proteins, the accumulation of stress protectants, changes in membrane composition and repression of translation, and by regulating the corresponding gene expression via stress-triggered signal-transduction pathways. Trehalose and proline are considered to be critical stress protectants, as is glycerol. It is known that these molecules are effective for providing protection against various types of environmental stresses. Modifications of the metabolic pathways of trehalose and proline by self-cloning methods have significantly increased tolerance to baking-associated stresses. To clarify which genes are required for stress tolerance, both a comprehensive phenomics analysis and a functional genomics analysis were carried out under stress conditions that simulated those occurring during the commercial baking process. These analyses indicated that many genes are involved in stress tolerance in yeast. In particular, it was suggested that vacuolar H+-ATPase plays important roles in yeast cells under stress conditions.

  15. Live cell imaging of mitochondrial movement along actin cables in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbacher, Kammy L; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Gay, Anna Card; Huckaba, Thomas M; Pon, Liza A

    2004-11-23

    Mitochondrial inheritance is essential for cell division. In budding yeast, mitochondrial movement from mother to daughter requires (1) actin cables, F-actin bundles that undergo retrograde movement during elongation from buds into mother cells; (2) the mitochore, a mitochondrial protein complex implicated in linking mitochondria to actin cables; and (3) Arp2/3 complex-mediated force generation on mitochondria. We observed three new classes of mitochondrial motility: anterograde movement at velocities of 0.2-0.33 microm/s, retrograde movement at velocities of 0.26-0.51 microm/s, and no net anterograde or retrograde movement. In all cases, motile mitochondria were associated with actin cables undergoing retrograde flow at velocities of 0.18-0.62 microm/s. Destabilization of actin cables or mutations of the mitochore blocked all mitochondrial movements. In contrast, mutations in the Arp2/3 complex affected anterograde but not retrograde mitochondrial movements. Actin cables are required for movement of mitochondria, secretory vesicles, mRNA, and spindle alignment elements in yeast. We provide the first direct evidence that one of the proposed cargos use actin cables as tracks. In the case of mitochondrial inheritance, anterograde movement drives transfer of the organelle from mothers to buds, while retrograde movement contributes to retention of the organelle in mother cells. Interaction of mitochondria with actin cables is required for anterograde and retrograde movement. In contrast, force generation on mitochondria is required only for anterograde movement. Finally, we propose a novel mechanism in which actin cables serve as "conveyor belts" that drive retrograde organelle movement.

  16. Application of cell-surface engineering for visualization of yeast in bread dough: development of a fluorescent bio-imaging technique in the mixing process of dough.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tatsuro; Shiraga, Seizaburo; Araki, Tetsuya; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Yamada, Masaharu; Takeya, Koji; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    2009-07-01

    Cell-surface engineering (Ueda et al., 2000) has been applied to develop a novel technique to visualize yeast in bread dough. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was bonded to the surface of yeast cells, and 0.5% EGFP yeasts were mixed into the dough samples at four different mixing stages. The samples were placed on a cryostat at -30 degrees C and sliced at 10 microm. The sliced samples were observed at an excitation wavelength of 480 nm and a fluorescent wavelength of 520 nm. The results indicated that the combination of the EGFP-displayed yeasts, rapid freezing, and cryo-sectioning made it possible to visualize 2-D distribution of yeast in bread dough to the extent that the EGFP yeasts could be clearly distinguished from the auto-fluorescent background of bread dough.

  17. Effect of nagilactone E on cell morphology and glucan biosynthesis in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ogita, Akira; Tanaka, Toshio; Kubo, Isao; Fujita, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-14

    Nagilactones are norditerpene dilactones isolated from the root bark of Podocarpus nagi. Although nagilactone E has been reported to show antifungal activities, its activity is weaker than that of antifungals on the market. Nagilactone E enhances the antifungal activity of phenylpropanoids such as anethole and isosafrole against nonpathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae and pathogenic Candida albicans. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the antifungal activity of nagilactone E itself have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the antifungal mechanisms of nagilactone E using S. cerevisiae. Although nagilactone E induced lethality in vegetatively growing cells, it did not affect cell viability in non-growing cells. Nagilactone E-induced morphological changes in the cells, such as inhomogeneous thickness of the glucan layer and leakage of cytoplasm. Furthermore, a dose-dependent decrease in the amount of newly synthesized (1, 3)-β-glucan was detected in the membrane fractions of the yeast incubated with nagilactone E. These results suggest that nagilactone E exhibits an antifungal activity against S. cerevisiae by depending on cell wall fragility via the inhibition of (1, 3)-β-glucan biosynthesis. Additionally, we confirmed nagilactone E-induced morphological changes of a human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Therefore, nagilactone E is a potential antifungal drug candidate with fewer adverse effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lipid droplets form from distinct regions of the cell in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Alex; del Rio, Zuania P.; Beaver, Rachael A.

    Eukaryotic cells store cholesterol/sterol esters (SEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in lipid droplets, which form from the contiguous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. However, it is not known if droplets preferentially form from certain regions of the ER over others. Here, we used fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells where the nuclear and cortical/peripheral ER domains are distinguishable by light microscopy to show that SE-enriched lipid droplets form away from the nucleus at the cell tips, whereas TAG-enriched lipid droplets form around the nucleus. Sterols localize to the regions of the cells where droplets enriched in SEs are observed. TAG droplet formation aroundmore » the nucleus appears to be a strong function of diacylglycerol (DAG) homeostasis with Cpt1p, which coverts DAG into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine localized exclusively to the nuclear ER. Also, Dgk1p, which converts DAG into phosphatidic acid localized strongly to the nuclear ER over the cortical/peripheral ER. We also show that TAG more readily translocates from the ER to lipid droplets than do SEs. Lastly, the results augment the standard lipid droplet formation model, which has SEs and TAGs flowing into the same nascent lipid droplet regardless of its biogenesis point in the cell.« less

  19. Yeast cell metabolism investigated by CO{_2} production and soft X-ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, A.; Batani, D.; Previdi, F.; Milani, M.; Pozzi, A.; Turcu, E.; Huntington, S.; Takeyasu, H.

    1999-01-01

    Results obtained using a new technique for studying cell metabolism are presented. The technique, consisting in CO2 production monitoring, has been applied to Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. Also the cells were irradiated using the soft X-ray laser-plasma source at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory with the aim of producing a damage of metabolic processes at the wall level, responsible for fermentation, without great interference with respiration, taking place in mitochondria, and DNA activity. The source was calibrated with PIN diodes and X-ray spectrometers and used Teflon stripes as target, emitting X-rays at about 0.9 keV, with a very low penetration in biological material. X-ray doses delivered to the different cell compartments were calculated following a Lambert-Bouguet-Beer law. Immediately after irradiation, the damage to metabolic activity was measured again by monitoring CO2 production. Results showed a general reduction in gas production by irradiated samples, together with non-linear and non-monotone response to dose. There was also evidence of oscillations in cell metabolic activity and of X-ray induced changes in oscillation frequency.

  20. Lipid droplets form from distinct regions of the cell in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DOE PAGES

    Meyers, Alex; del Rio, Zuania P.; Beaver, Rachael A.; ...

    2016-04-29

    Eukaryotic cells store cholesterol/sterol esters (SEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in lipid droplets, which form from the contiguous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. However, it is not known if droplets preferentially form from certain regions of the ER over others. Here, we used fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells where the nuclear and cortical/peripheral ER domains are distinguishable by light microscopy to show that SE-enriched lipid droplets form away from the nucleus at the cell tips, whereas TAG-enriched lipid droplets form around the nucleus. Sterols localize to the regions of the cells where droplets enriched in SEs are observed. TAG droplet formation aroundmore » the nucleus appears to be a strong function of diacylglycerol (DAG) homeostasis with Cpt1p, which coverts DAG into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine localized exclusively to the nuclear ER. Also, Dgk1p, which converts DAG into phosphatidic acid localized strongly to the nuclear ER over the cortical/peripheral ER. We also show that TAG more readily translocates from the ER to lipid droplets than do SEs. Lastly, the results augment the standard lipid droplet formation model, which has SEs and TAGs flowing into the same nascent lipid droplet regardless of its biogenesis point in the cell.« less

  1. Yeast casein kinase 2 governs morphology, biofilm formation, cell wall integrity, and host cell damage of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Irrizary, Jihyun; Liboro, Karl; Bogarin, Thania; Macias, Marlene; Eivers, Edward; Porter, Edith; Filler, Scott G.

    2017-01-01

    The regulatory networks governing morphogenesis of a pleomorphic fungus, Candida albicans are extremely complex and remain to be completely elucidated. This study investigated the function of C. albicans yeast casein kinase 2 (CaYck2p). The yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain displayed constitutive pseudohyphae in both yeast and hyphal growth conditions, and formed enhanced biofilm under non-biofilm inducing condition. This finding was further supported by gene expression analysis of the yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain which showed significant upregulation of UME6, a key transcriptional regulator of hyphal transition and biofilm formation, and cell wall protein genes ALS3, HWP1, and SUN41, all of which are associated with morphogenesis and biofilm architecture. The yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain was hypersensitive to cell wall damaging agents and had increased compensatory chitin deposition in the cell wall accompanied by an upregulation of the expression of the chitin synthase genes, CHS2, CHS3, and CHS8. Absence of CaYck2p also affected fungal-host interaction; the yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain had significantly reduced ability to damage host cells. However, the yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain had wild-type susceptibility to cyclosporine and FK506, suggesting that CaYck2p functions independently from the Ca+/calcineurin pathway. Thus, in C. albicans, Yck2p is a multifunctional kinase that governs morphogenesis, biofilm formation, cell wall integrity, and host cell interactions. PMID:29107946

  2. Yeast casein kinase 2 governs morphology, biofilm formation, cell wall integrity, and host cell damage of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sook-In; Rodriguez, Natalie; Irrizary, Jihyun; Liboro, Karl; Bogarin, Thania; Macias, Marlene; Eivers, Edward; Porter, Edith; Filler, Scott G; Park, Hyunsook

    2017-01-01

    The regulatory networks governing morphogenesis of a pleomorphic fungus, Candida albicans are extremely complex and remain to be completely elucidated. This study investigated the function of C. albicans yeast casein kinase 2 (CaYck2p). The yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain displayed constitutive pseudohyphae in both yeast and hyphal growth conditions, and formed enhanced biofilm under non-biofilm inducing condition. This finding was further supported by gene expression analysis of the yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain which showed significant upregulation of UME6, a key transcriptional regulator of hyphal transition and biofilm formation, and cell wall protein genes ALS3, HWP1, and SUN41, all of which are associated with morphogenesis and biofilm architecture. The yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain was hypersensitive to cell wall damaging agents and had increased compensatory chitin deposition in the cell wall accompanied by an upregulation of the expression of the chitin synthase genes, CHS2, CHS3, and CHS8. Absence of CaYck2p also affected fungal-host interaction; the yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain had significantly reduced ability to damage host cells. However, the yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain had wild-type susceptibility to cyclosporine and FK506, suggesting that CaYck2p functions independently from the Ca+/calcineurin pathway. Thus, in C. albicans, Yck2p is a multifunctional kinase that governs morphogenesis, biofilm formation, cell wall integrity, and host cell interactions.

  3. Real-time measurement of the intracellular pH of yeast cells during glucose metabolism using ratiometric fluorescent nanosensors.

    PubMed

    Elsutohy, Mohamed M; Chauhan, Veeren M; Markus, Robert; Kyyaly, Mohammed Aref; Tendler, Saul J B; Aylott, Jonathan W

    2017-05-11

    Intracellular pH is a key parameter that influences many biochemical and metabolic pathways that can also be used as an indirect marker to monitor metabolic and intracellular processes. Herein, we utilise ratiometric fluorescent pH-sensitive nanosensors with an extended dynamic pH range to measure the intracellular pH of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during glucose metabolism in real-time. Ratiometric fluorescent pH-sensitive nanosensors consisting of a polyacrylamide nanoparticle matrix covalently linked to two pH-sensitive fluorophores, Oregon green (OG) and 5(6)carboxyfluorescein (FAM), and a reference pH-insensitive fluorophore, 5(6)carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), were synthesised. Nanosensors were functionalised with acrylamidopropyltrimethyl ammonium hydrochloride (ACTA) to confer a positive charge to the nanoparticle surfaces that facilitated nanosensor delivery to yeast cells, negating the need to use stress inducing techniques. The results showed that under glucose-starved conditions the intracellular pH of yeast population (n ≈ 200) was 4.67 ± 0.15. Upon addition of d-(+)-glucose (10 mM), this pH value decreased to pH 3.86 ± 0.13 over a period of 10 minutes followed by a gradual rise to a maximal pH of 5.21 ± 0.26, 25 minutes after glucose addition. 45 minutes after the addition of glucose, the intracellular pH of yeast cells returned to that of the glucose starved conditions. This study advances our understanding of the interplay between glucose metabolism and pH regulation in yeast cells, and indicates that the intracellular pH homestasis in yeast is highly regulated and demonstrates the utility of nanosensors for real-time intracellular pH measurements.

  4. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the metabolic responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the metabolic responses of newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Cent...

  5. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to an endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving a Control diet (n = 8), ...

  6. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the performance and physiological response of beef heifers following an immune challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was designed to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the performance response and vaginal temperature of crossbred heifers following a subcutaneous endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=83; 225±9.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns ...

  7. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9+/-2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and tra...

  8. Stabilizing Motifs in Autonomous Boolean Networks and the Yeast Cell Cycle Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevim, Volkan; Gong, Xinwei; Socolar, Joshua

    2009-03-01

    Synchronously updated Boolean networks are widely used to model gene regulation. Some properties of these model networks are known to be artifacts of the clocking in the update scheme. Autonomous updating is a less artificial scheme that allows one to introduce small timing perturbations and study stability of the attractors. We argue that the stabilization of a limit cycle in an autonomous Boolean network requires a combination of motifs such as feed-forward loops and auto-repressive links that can correct small fluctuations in the timing of switching events. A recently published model of the transcriptional cell-cycle oscillator in yeast contains the motifs necessary for stability under autonomous updating [1]. [1] D. A. Orlando, et al. Nature (London), 4530 (7197):0 944--947, 2008.

  9. Gene regulatory network identification from the yeast cell cycle based on a neuro-fuzzy system.

    PubMed

    Wang, B H; Lim, J W; Lim, J S

    2016-08-30

    Many studies exist for reconstructing gene regulatory networks (GRNs). In this paper, we propose a method based on an advanced neuro-fuzzy system, for gene regulatory network reconstruction from microarray time-series data. This approach uses a neural network with a weighted fuzzy function to model the relationships between genes. Fuzzy rules, which determine the regulators of genes, are very simplified through this method. Additionally, a regulator selection procedure is proposed, which extracts the exact dynamic relationship between genes, using the information obtained from the weighted fuzzy function. Time-series related features are extracted from the original data to employ the characteristics of temporal data that are useful for accurate GRN reconstruction. The microarray dataset of the yeast cell cycle was used for our study. We measured the mean squared prediction error for the efficiency of the proposed approach and evaluated the accuracy in terms of precision, sensitivity, and F-score. The proposed method outperformed the other existing approaches.

  10. The Regulation of Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis in Eukaryotic Cells: All That Yeast Can Tell Us

    PubMed Central

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; García-Testón, Elena; Padilla, Sergio; Martín-Montalvo, Alejandro; Pomares Viciana, Teresa; Vazquez-Fonseca, Luis; Gandolfo Domínguez, Pablo; Santos-Ocaña, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a mitochondrial lipid, which functions mainly as an electron carrier from complex I or II to complex III at the mitochondrial inner membrane, and also as antioxidant in cell membranes. CoQ is needed as electron acceptor in β-oxidation of fatty acids and pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis, and it is responsible for opening the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. The yeast model has been very useful to analyze the synthesis of CoQ, and therefore, most of the knowledge about its regulation was obtained from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. CoQ biosynthesis is regulated to support 2 processes: the bioenergetic metabolism and the antioxidant defense. Alterations of the carbon source in yeast, or in nutrient availability in yeasts or mammalian cells, upregulate genes encoding proteins involved in CoQ synthesis. Oxidative stress, generated by chemical or physical agents or by serum deprivation, modifies specifically the expression of some COQ genes by means of stress transcription factors such as Msn2/4p, Yap1p or Hsf1p. In general, the induction of COQ gene expression produced by metabolic changes or stress is modulated downstream by other regulatory mechanisms such as the protein import to mitochondria, the assembly of a multi-enzymatic complex composed by Coq proteins and also the existence of a phosphorylation cycle that regulates the last steps of CoQ biosynthesis. The CoQ biosynthetic complex assembly starts with the production of a nucleating lipid such as HHB by the action of the Coq2 protein. Then, the Coq4 protein recognizes the precursor HHB acting as the nucleus of the complex. The activity of Coq8p, probably as kinase, allows the formation of an initial pre-complex containing all Coq proteins with the exception of Coq7p. This pre-complex leads to the synthesis of 5-demethoxy-Q6 (DMQ6), the Coq7p substrate. When de novo CoQ biosynthesis is required, Coq7p becomes dephosphorylated by the action of Ptc7p increasing the synthesis

  11. A comparative study on glycerol metabolism to erythritol and citric acid in Yarrowia lipolytica yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ludwika; Rakicka, Magdalena; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Rywińska, Anita

    2014-09-01

    Citric acid and erythritol biosynthesis from pure and crude glycerol by three acetate-negative mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica yeast was investigated in batch cultures in a wide pH range (3.0-6.5). Citric acid biosynthesis was the most effective at pH 5.0-5.5 in the case of Wratislavia 1.31 and Wratislavia AWG7. With a decreasing pH value, the direction of biosynthesis changed into erythritol synthesis accompanied by low production of citric acid. Pathways of glycerol conversion into erythritol and citric acid were investigated in Wratislavia K1 cells. Enzymatic activity was compared in cultures run at pH 3.0 and 4.5, that is, under conditions promoting the production of erythritol and citric acid, respectively. The effect of pH value (3.0 and 4.5) and NaCl presence on the extracellular production and intracellular accumulation of citric acid and erythritol was compared as well. Low pH and NaCl resulted in diminished activity of glycerol kinase, whereas such conditions stimulated the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The presence of NaCl strongly influenced enzymes activity - the effective erythritol production was correlated with a high activity of transketolase and erythrose reductase. Therefore, presented results confirmed that transketolase and erythrose reductase are involved in the overproduction of erythritol in the cells of Y. lipolytica yeast. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced xylose fermentation by engineered yeast expressing NADH oxidase through high cell density inoculums.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Chang; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-03-01

    Accumulation of reduced byproducts such as glycerol and xylitol during xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae hampers the economic production of biofuels and chemicals from cellulosic hydrolysates. In particular, engineered S. cerevisiae expressing NADPH-linked xylose reductase (XR) and NAD + -linked xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) produces substantial amounts of the reduced byproducts under anaerobic conditions due to the cofactor difference of XR and XDH. While the additional expression of a water-forming NADH oxidase (NoxE) from Lactococcus lactis in engineered S. cerevisiae with the XR/XDH pathway led to reduced glycerol and xylitol production and increased ethanol yields from xylose, volumetric ethanol productivities by the engineered yeast decreased because of growth defects from the overexpression of noxE. In this study, we introduced noxE into an engineered yeast strain (SR8) exhibiting near-optimal xylose fermentation capacity. To overcome the growth defect caused by the overexpression of noxE, we used a high cell density inoculum for xylose fermentation by the SR8 expressing noxE. The resulting strain, SR8N, not only showed a higher ethanol yield and lower byproduct yields, but also exhibited a high ethanol productivity during xylose fermentation. As noxE overexpression elicits a negligible growth defect on glucose conditions, the beneficial effects of noxE overexpression were substantial when a mixture of glucose and xylose was used. Consumption of glucose led to rapid cell growth and therefore enhanced the subsequent xylose fermentation. As a result, the SR8N strain produced more ethanol and fewer byproducts from a mixture of glucose and xylose than the parental SR8 strain without noxE overexpression. Our results suggest that the growth defects from noxE overexpression can be overcome in the case of fermenting lignocellulose-derived sugars such as glucose and xylose.

  13. Chimera proteins with affinity for membranes and microtubule tips polarize in the membrane of fission yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Recouvreux, Pierre; Sokolowski, Thomas R; Grammoustianou, Aristea; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Dogterom, Marileen

    2016-02-16

    Cell polarity refers to a functional spatial organization of proteins that is crucial for the control of essential cellular processes such as growth and division. To establish polarity, cells rely on elaborate regulation networks that control the distribution of proteins at the cell membrane. In fission yeast cells, a microtubule-dependent network has been identified that polarizes the distribution of signaling proteins that restricts growth to cell ends and targets the cytokinetic machinery to the middle of the cell. Although many molecular components have been shown to play a role in this network, it remains unknown which molecular functionalities are minimally required to establish a polarized protein distribution in this system. Here we show that a membrane-binding protein fragment, which distributes homogeneously in wild-type fission yeast cells, can be made to concentrate at cell ends by attaching it to a cytoplasmic microtubule end-binding protein. This concentration results in a polarized pattern of chimera proteins with a spatial extension that is very reminiscent of natural polarity patterns in fission yeast. However, chimera levels fluctuate in response to microtubule dynamics, and disruption of microtubules leads to disappearance of the pattern. Numerical simulations confirm that the combined functionality of membrane anchoring and microtubule tip affinity is in principle sufficient to create polarized patterns. Our chimera protein may thus represent a simple molecular functionality that is able to polarize the membrane, onto which additional layers of molecular complexity may be built to provide the temporal robustness that is typical of natural polarity patterns.

  14. Improving genetic immobilization of a cellulase on yeast cell surface for bioethanol production using cellulose.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinying; Dang, Hongyue; Lu, Jian Ren

    2013-04-01

    In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was genetically engineered to harbor the capability of utilizing celluloses for bioethanol production by displaying active cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface. An endo-1,4-β-glucanase gene egX was cloned from Bacillus pumilus C-9 and its expression products, the EGX cellulases, were displayed on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae by fusing egX with aga2 that encodes the binding subunit of the S. cerevisiae cell wall protein α-agglutinin. To achieve high gene copies and stability, multicopy integration was obtained by integrating the fusion aga2-egX gene into the rDNA region of the S. cerevisiae chromosome. To achieve high expression and surface display efficiency, the aga2-egX gene was expressed under the control of a strong promoter. The presence of the enzymatically active cellulase fusion proteins on the S. cerevisiae cell surface was verified by carboxymethyl cellulase activity assay and immunofluorescence microscopy. This work presented a promising strategy to genetically engineer yeasts to perform efficient fermentation of cellulosic materials for bioethanol production. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Mhr1p-dependent concatemeric mitochondrial DNA formation for generating yeast mitochondrial homoplasmic cells.

    PubMed

    Ling, Feng; Shibata, Takehiko

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondria carry many copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but mt-alleles quickly segregate during mitotic growth through unknown mechanisms. Consequently, all mtDNA copies are often genetically homogeneous within each individual ("homoplasmic"). Our previous study suggested that tandem multimers ("concatemers") formed mainly by the Mhr1p (a yeast nuclear gene-encoded mtDNA-recombination protein)-dependent pathway are required for mtDNA partitioning into buds with concomitant monomerization. The transmission of a few randomly selected clones (as concatemers) of mtDNA into buds is a possible mechanism to establish homoplasmy. The current study provides evidence for this hypothesis as follows: the overexpression of MHR1 accelerates mt-allele-segregation in growing heteroplasmic zygotes, and mhr1-1 (recombination-deficient) causes its delay. The mt-allele-segregation rate correlates with the abundance of concatemers, which depends on Mhr1p. In G1-arrested cells, concatemeric mtDNA was labeled by [14C]thymidine at a much higher density than monomers, indicating concatemers as the immediate products of mtDNA replication, most likely in a rolling circle mode. After releasing the G1 arrest in the absence of [14C]thymidine, the monomers as the major species in growing buds of dividing cells bear a similar density of 14C as the concatemers in the mother cells, indicating that the concatemers in mother cells are the precursors of the monomers in buds.

  16. The effective application of a discrete transition model to explore cell-cycle regulation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bench biologists often do not take part in the development of computational models for their systems, and therefore, they frequently employ them as “black-boxes”. Our aim was to construct and test a model that does not depend on the availability of quantitative data, and can be directly used without a need for intensive computational background. Results We present a discrete transition model. We used cell-cycle in budding yeast as a paradigm for a complex network, demonstrating phenomena such as sequential protein expression and activity, and cell-cycle oscillation. The structure of the network was validated by its response to computational perturbations such as mutations, and its response to mating-pheromone or nitrogen depletion. The model has a strong predicative capability, demonstrating how the activity of a specific transcription factor, Hcm1, is regulated, and what determines commitment of cells to enter and complete the cell-cycle. Conclusion The model presented herein is intuitive, yet is expressive enough to elucidate the intrinsic structure and qualitative behavior of large and complex regulatory networks. Moreover our model allowed us to examine multiple hypotheses in a simple and intuitive manner, giving rise to testable predictions. This methodology can be easily integrated as a useful approach for the study of networks, enriching experimental biology with computational insights. PMID:23915717

  17. Mapping the yeast host cell response to recombinant membrane protein production: relieving the biological bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Ashe, Mark P; Bill, Roslyn M

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the structures and functions of membrane proteins is an active area of research within bioscience. Membrane proteins are key players in essential cellular processes such as the uptake of nutrients, the export of waste products, and the way in which cells communicate with their environment. It is therefore not surprising that membrane proteins are targeted by over half of all prescription drugs. Since most membrane proteins are not abundant in their native membranes, it is necessary to produce them in recombinant host cells to enable further structural and functional studies. Unfortunately, achieving the required yields of functional recombinant membrane proteins is still a bottleneck in contemporary bioscience. This has highlighted the need for defined and rational optimization strategies based upon experimental observation rather than relying on trial and error. We have published a transcriptome and subsequent genetic analysis that has identified genes implicated in high-yielding yeast cells. These results have highlighted a role for alterations to a cell's protein synthetic capacity in the production of high yields of recombinant membrane protein: paradoxically, reduced protein synthesis favors higher yields. These results highlight a potential bottleneck at the protein folding or translocation stage of protein production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Pseudozyma and other non-Candida opportunistic yeast bloodstream infections in a large stem cell transplant center.

    PubMed

    Pande, Anupam; Non, Lemuel R; Romee, Rizwan; Santos, Carlos A Q

    2017-04-01

    Non-Candida opportunistic yeasts are emerging causes of bloodstream infection (BSI) in immunocompromised hosts. However, their clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients are not well described. We report the first case to our knowledge of Pseudozyma BSI in a SCT recipient. He had evidence of cutaneous involvement, which has not been previously described in the literature. He became infected while neutropenic and receiving empiric micafungin, which is notable because Pseudozyma is reported to be resistant to echinocandins. He was successfully treated with the sequential use of liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole. A review of the literature revealed nine reported instances of Pseudozyma fungemia. We performed a retrospective review of 3557 SCT recipients at our institution from January 2000 to June 2015 and identified four additional cases of non-Candida yeast BSIs. These include two with Cryptococcus, one with Trichosporon, and one with Saccharomyces. Pseudozyma and other non-Candida yeasts are emerging pathogens that can cause severe and disseminated infections in SCT recipients and other immunocompromised hosts. Clinicians should have a high degree of suspicion for echinocandin-resistant yeasts, if patients develop breakthrough yeast BSIs while receiving echinocandin therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Haploid deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that determine survival during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanson, Kelly; Allen, Patricia L.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Nesbit, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; D'Elia, Riccardo; Muse, Kenneth E.; Hammond, Jeffrey; Freeman, Jake; Stodieck, Louis S.; Hammond, Timothy G.

    2007-02-01

    This study identifies genes that determine survival during a space flight, using the model eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Select strains of a haploid yeast deletion series grew during storage in distilled water in space, but not in ground based static or clinorotation controls. The survival advantages in space in distilled water include a 133-fold advantage for the deletion of PEX19, a chaperone and import receptor for newly- synthesized class I peroxisomal membrane proteins, to 77-40 fold for deletion strains lacking elements of aerobic respiration, isocitrate metabolism, and mitochondrial electron transport. Following automated addition of rich growth media, the space flight was associated with a marked survival advantage of strains with deletions in catalytically active genes including hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases. When compared to static controls, space flight was associated with a marked survival disadvantage of deletion strains lacking transporter, antioxidant and catalytic activity. This study identifies yeast deletion strains with a survival advantage during storage in distilled water and space flight, and amplifies our understanding of the genes critical for survival in space.

  20. Toxicology of the aqueous extract from the flowers of Butea monosperma Lam. and it's metabolomics in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Washim; Gupta, Shreesh; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2017-10-01

    Due to lack of scientific evidence for the safety of Butea monosperma (Fabaceae), our study aimed to carry out its toxicological profile and to identify its metabolic pattern in yeast cell. The effect of aqueous extract of B. monosperma flower on glucose uptake in yeast cell was evaluated through optimizing pH, temperature, incubation time, substrate concentration and kinetic parameters. Further, the metabolic pattern of extract as such and in yeast cell were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mice were administered aqueous extract up to 6000 and 4000 mg/kg for acute oral and intraperitoneal toxicity, respectively, while up to 4500 mg/kg for sub-acute oral toxicity (30 days). Elongation in the lag and log phase was observed in yeast cells supplemented with extract as compared to control. A maximum of 184.9% glucose uptake was observed whereas kinetic parameters (K m and V max ) were 1.38 and 41.91 mol/s, respectively. Out of 75 metabolites found in the extract, 14 and 18 metabolites were utilized by yeast cell after 15 and 30 min of incubation, respectively. The LD 50 of extract administered through intraperitoneal route was estimated to be 3500 mg/kg. The extract did not elicit any significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) in weight gain, food consumption, water intake, hematological, biochemical parameters and histological changes as compared to the normal control. Results ascertained the safety of B. monosperma flower extract which can be explored as potential candidates for the development of anti-diabetic phytopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Nonlinear Mixed Effects Approach for Modeling the Cell-To-Cell Variability of Mig1 Dynamics in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Almquist, Joachim; Bendrioua, Loubna; Adiels, Caroline Beck; Goksör, Mattias; Hohmann, Stefan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has seen a rapid development of experimental techniques that allow data collection from individual cells. These techniques have enabled the discovery and characterization of variability within a population of genetically identical cells. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) modeling is an established framework for studying variability between individuals in a population, frequently used in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but its potential for studies of cell-to-cell variability in molecular cell biology is yet to be exploited. Here we take advantage of this novel application of NLME modeling to study cell-to-cell variability in the dynamic behavior of the yeast transcription repressor Mig1. In particular, we investigate a recently discovered phenomenon where Mig1 during a short and transient period exits the nucleus when cells experience a shift from high to intermediate levels of extracellular glucose. A phenomenological model based on ordinary differential equations describing the transient dynamics of nuclear Mig1 is introduced, and according to the NLME methodology the parameters of this model are in turn modeled by a multivariate probability distribution. Using time-lapse microscopy data from nearly 200 cells, we estimate this parameter distribution according to the approach of maximizing the population likelihood. Based on the estimated distribution, parameter values for individual cells are furthermore characterized and the resulting Mig1 dynamics are compared to the single cell times-series data. The proposed NLME framework is also compared to the intuitive but limited standard two-stage (STS) approach. We demonstrate that the latter may overestimate variabilities by up to almost five fold. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of the inferred population model are used to predict the distribution of key characteristics of the Mig1 transient response. We find that with decreasing levels of post-shift glucose, the transient response of Mig1 tend

  2. Evaluation of the sensitivity of bacterial and yeast cells to cold atmospheric plasma jet treatments.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Michael A; Chebbi, Ahmed; McDonnell, Kevin A; Staunton, Claire; Dowling, Denis P

    2015-06-07

    The focus of this research was first to determine the influence of the atmospheric plasma drive frequency on the generation of atomic oxygen species and its correlation with the reduction of bacterial load after treatment in vitro. The treatments were carried out using a helium-plasma jet source called PlasmaStream™. The susceptibility of multiple microbial cell lines was investigated in order to compare the response of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as a yeast cell line to the atmospheric plasma treatment. It was observed for the source evaluated that at a frequency of 160 kHz, increased levels of oxygen-laden active species (i.e., OH, NO) were generated. At this frequency, the maximum level of bacterial inactivation in vitro was also achieved. Ex vivo studies (using freshly excised porcine skin as a human analog) were also carried out to verify the antibacterial effect of the plasma jet treatment at this optimal operational frequency and to investigate the effect of treatment duration on the reduction of bacterial load. The plasma jet treatment was found to yield a 4 log reduction in bacterial load after 6 min of treatment, with no observable adverse effects on the treatment surface. The gram-negative bacterial cell lines were found to be far more susceptible to the atmospheric plasma treatments than the gram-positive bacteria. Flow cytometric analysis of plasma treated bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) was conducted in order to attain a fundamental understanding of the mode of action of the treatment on bacteria at a cellular level. This study showed that after treatment with the plasma jet, E. coli cells progressed through the following steps of cell death; the inactivation of transport systems, followed by depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane, and finally permeabilization of the cell wall.

  3. Germplasm enhancement of maize: A look into haploid induction and chromosomal doubling of haploids from temperate-adapted tropical sources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Doubled haploid technology is used to develop completely homozygous inbred lines, where each of the chromatids making up a chromosome pair are identical. Two inbred lines, PHB47 and PHZ51, were used to make backcrosses to 18 maize landraces, generating 36 populations. The landraces were chosen bas...

  4. sup 31 P NMR measurements of the ADP concentration in yeast cells genetically modified to express creatine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Brindle, K.; Braddock, P.; Fulton, S.

    1990-04-03

    Rabbit muscle creatine kinase has been introduced into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by transforming cells with a multicopy plasmid containing the coding sequence for the enzyme under the control of the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. The transformed cells showed creating kinase activities similar to those found in mammalian heart muscle. {sup 31}P NMR measurements of the near-equilibrium concentrations of phosphocreatine and cellular pH together with measurements of the total extractable concentrations of phosphocreatine and creatine allowed calculation of the free ADP/ATP ratio in the cell. The calculated ratio of approximately 2 was considerably higher than the ratio of between 0.06more » and 0.1 measured directly in cell extracts.« less

  5. Industrial antifoam agents impair ethanol fermentation and induce stress responses in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Senne de Oliveira Lino, Felipe; Rasmussen, Thomas Gundelund; Thykær, Jette; Workman, Christopher T; Basso, Thiago Olitta

    2017-11-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane industry constitutes one of the biggest and most efficient ethanol production processes in the world. Brazilian ethanol production utilizes a unique process, which includes cell recycling, acid wash, and non-aseptic conditions. Process characteristics, such as extensive CO 2 generation, poor quality of raw materials, and frequent contaminations, all lead to excessive foam formation during fermentations, which is treated with antifoam agents (AFA). In this study, we have investigated the impact of industrial AFA treatments on the physiology and transcriptome of the industrial ethanol strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAT-1. The investigated AFA included industrially used AFA acquired from Brazilian ethanol plants and commercially available AFA commonly used in the fermentation literature. In batch fermentations, it was shown that industrial AFA compromised growth rates and glucose uptake rates, while commercial AFA had no effect in concentrations relevant for defoaming purposes. Industrial AFA were further tested in laboratory scale simulations of the Brazilian ethanol production process and proved to decrease cell viability compared to the control, and the effects were intensified with increasing AFA concentrations and exposure time. Transcriptome analysis showed that AFA treatments induced additional stress responses in yeast cells compared to the control, shown by an up-regulation of stress-specific genes and a down-regulation of lipid biosynthesis, especially ergosterol. By documenting the detrimental effects associated with chemical AFA, we highlight the importance of developing innocuous systems for foam control in industrial fermentation processes.

  6. Actin Bodies in Yeast Quiescent Cells: An Immediately Available Actin Reserve?

    PubMed Central

    Pinson, Benoît; Salin, Bénédicte; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells spend most of their life in a quiescent state, poised to respond to specific signals to proliferate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, entry into and exit from quiescence are dependent only on the availability of nutrients in the environment. The transition from quiescence to proliferation requires not only drastic metabolic changes but also a complete remodeling of various cellular structures. Here, we describe an actin cytoskeleton organization specific of the yeast quiescent state. When cells cease to divide, actin is reorganized into structures that we named “actin bodies.” We show that actin bodies contain F-actin and several actin-binding proteins such as fimbrin and capping protein. Furthermore, by contrast to actin patches or cables, actin bodies are mostly immobile, and we could not detect any actin filament turnover. Finally, we show that upon cells refeeding, actin bodies rapidly disappear and actin cables and patches can be assembled in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. This led us to propose that actin bodies are a reserve of actin that can be immediately mobilized for actin cables and patches formation upon reentry into a proliferation cycle. PMID:16914523

  7. Entropy-based separation of yeast cells using a microfluidic system of conjoined spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Kai-Jian; Qin, S.-J., E-mail: shuijie.qin@gmail.com; Bai, Zhong-Chen

    2013-11-21

    A physical model is derived to create a biological cell separator that is based on controlling the entropy in a microfluidic system having conjoined spherical structures. A one-dimensional simplified model of this three-dimensional problem in terms of the corresponding effects of entropy on the Brownian motion of particles is presented. This dynamic mechanism is based on the Langevin equation from statistical thermodynamics and takes advantage of the characteristics of the Fokker-Planck equation. This mechanism can be applied to manipulate biological particles inside a microfluidic system with identical, conjoined, spherical compartments. This theoretical analysis is verified by performing a rapid andmore » a simple technique for separating yeast cells in these conjoined, spherical microfluidic structures. The experimental results basically match with our theoretical model and we further analyze the parameters which can be used to control this separation mechanism. Both numerical simulations and experimental results show that the motion of the particles depends on the geometrical boundary conditions of the microfluidic system and the initial concentration of the diffusing material. This theoretical model can be implemented in future biophysics devices for the optimized design of passive cell sorters.« less

  8. From the Cover: Visualization of maltose uptake in living yeast cells by fluorescent nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, Marcus; Frommer, Wolf B.; Lalonde, Sylvie

    2002-07-01

    Compartmentation of metabolic reactions and thus transport within and between cells can be understood only if we know subcellular distribution based on nondestructive dynamic monitoring. Currently, methods are not available for in vivo metabolite imaging at cellular or subcellular levels. Limited information derives from methods requiring fixation or fractionation of tissue (1, 2). We thus developed a flexible strategy for designing protein-based nanosensors for a wide spectrum of solutes, allowing analysis of changes in solute concentration in living cells. We made use of bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs), where we show that, on binding of the substrate, PBPs transform their hinge-bend movement into increased fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two coupled green fluorescent proteins. By using the maltose-binding protein as a prototype, nanosensors were constructed allowing in vitro determination of FRET changes in a concentration-dependent fashion. For physiological applications, mutants with different binding affinities were generated, allowing dynamic in vivo imaging of the increase in cytosolic maltose concentration in single yeast cells. Control sensors allow the exclusion of the effect from other cellular or environmental parameters on ratio imaging. Thus the myriad of PBPs recognizing a wide spectrum of different substrates is suitable for FRET-based in vivo detection, providing numerous scientific, medical, and environmental applications.

  9. Effect of whole yeast cell product supplementation (CitriStim®) on immune responses and cecal microflora species in pullet and layer chickens during an experimental coccidial challenge.

    PubMed

    Markazi, Ashley D; Perez, Victor; Sifri, Mamduh; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2017-07-01

    Three separate experiments were conducted to study the effects of whole yeast cell product supplementation in pullets and layer hens. Body weight gain, fecal and intestinal coccidial oocyst counts, cecal microflora species, cytokine mRNA amounts, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations in the cecal tonsils were analyzed following an experimental coccidial infection. In Experiment I, day-old Leghorn layer chicks were fed 3 experimental diets with 0, 0.1, or 0.2% whole yeast cell product (CitriStim®, ADM, Decatur, IL). At 21 d of age, birds were challenged with 1 × 105 live coccidial oocysts. Supplementation with whole yeast cell product decreased the fecal coccidial oocyst count at 7 (P = 0.05) and 8 (P < 0.01) d post-challenge. In Experiment II, 27-week old Leghorn layer hens were fed 3 experimental diets with 0, 0.05 or 0.1% whole yeast cell product and challenged with 1 × 105 live coccidial oocysts on d 25 of whole yeast cell product feeding. Supplementation with whole yeast cell product decreased the coccidial oocyst count in the intestinal content (P < 0.01) at 5, 13, and 38 d post-coccidial challenge. Supplementation with whole yeast cell product increased relative proportion of Lactobacillus (P < 0.01) in the cecal tonsils 13 d post-coccidial challenge. Supplementation with whole yeast cell product decreased CD8+ T cell percentages (P < 0.05) in the cecal tonsils at 5 d post-coccidial challenge. In Experiment III, 32-week-old Leghorn layer hens were fed 3 experimental diets with 0, 0.1, or 0.2% whole yeast cell product and challenged with 1 × 105 live coccidial oocysts on d 66 of whole yeast cell product feeding. At 5 d post-coccidial challenge, whole yeast cell product supplementation down-regulated (P = 0.01) IL-10 mRNA amount. It could be concluded that supplementing whole yeast cell product can help minimize coccidial infection in both growing pullets and layer chickens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Performance study of sugar-yeast-ethanol bio-hybrid fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, Justin P.; Mackie, David M.; Benyamin, Marcus; Ganguli, Rahul; Sumner, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Renewable alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons for energy generation are of general interest for a variety of political, economic, environmental, and practical reasons. In particular, energy from biomass has many advantages, including safety, sustainability, and the ability to be scavenged from native ecosystems or from waste streams. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can take advantage of microorganism metabolism to efficiently use sugar and other biomolecules as fuel, but are limited by low power densities. In contrast, direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) take advantage of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) to generate electricity from alcohols at much higher power densities. Here, we investigate a novel bio-hybrid fuel cell design prepared using commercial off-the-shelf DAFCs. In the bio-hybrid fuel cells, biomass such as sugar is fermented by yeast to ethanol, which can be used to fuel a DAFC. A separation membrane between the fermentation and the DAFC is used to purify the fermentate while avoiding any parasitic power losses. However, shifting the DAFCs from pure alcohol-water solutions to filtered fermented media introduces complications related to how the starting materials, fermentation byproducts, and DAFC waste products affect both the fermentation and the long-term DAFC performance. This study examines the impact of separation membrane pore size, fermentation/fuel cell byproducts, alcohol and salt concentrations, and load resistance on fuel cell performance. Under optimized conditions, the performance obtained is comparable to that of a similar DAFC run with a pure alcohol-water mixture. Additionally, the modified DAFC can provide useable amounts of power for weeks.

  11. The Bioeffects Resulting from Prokaryotic Cells and Yeast Being Exposed to an 18 GHz Electromagnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, The Hong Phong; Pham, Vy T H; Nguyen, Song Ha; Baulin, Vladimir; Croft, Rodney J; Phillips, Brian; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which various biological effects are triggered by exposure to an electromagnetic field are not fully understood and have been the subject of debate. Here, the effects of exposing typical representatives of the major microbial taxa to an 18 GHz microwave electromagnetic field (EMF)were studied. It appeared that the EMF exposure induced cell permeabilisation in all of the bacteria and yeast studied, while the cells remained viable (94% throughout the exposure), independent of the differences in cell membrane fatty acid and phospholipid composition. The resulting cell permeabilisation was confirmed by detection of the uptake of propidium iodine and 23 nm fluorescent silica nanospheres using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Upon EMF exposure, the bacterial cell membranes are believed to become permeable through quasi-endocytosis processes. The dosimetry analysis revealed that the EMF threshold level required to induce the uptake of the large (46 nm) nanopsheres was between three and six EMF doses, with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3 kW/kg and 5 kW/kg per exposure, respectively, depending on the bacterial taxa being studied. It is suggested that the taxonomic affiliation and lipid composition (e.g. the presence of phosphatidyl-glycerol and/or pentadecanoic fatty acid) may affect the extent of uptake of the large nanospheres (46 nm). Multiple 18 GHz EMF exposures over a one-hour period induced periodic anomalous increases in the cell growth behavior of two Staphylococcus aureus strains, namely ATCC 25923 and CIP 65.8T.

  12. The Bioeffects Resulting from Prokaryotic Cells and Yeast Being Exposed to an 18 GHz Electromagnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Vy T. H.; Nguyen, Song Ha; Baulin, Vladimir; Croft, Rodney J.; Phillips, Brian; Crawford, Russell J.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which various biological effects are triggered by exposure to an electromagnetic field are not fully understood and have been the subject of debate. Here, the effects of exposing typical representatives of the major microbial taxa to an 18 GHz microwave electromagnetic field (EMF)were studied. It appeared that the EMF exposure induced cell permeabilisation in all of the bacteria and yeast studied, while the cells remained viable (94% throughout the exposure), independent of the differences in cell membrane fatty acid and phospholipid composition. The resulting cell permeabilisation was confirmed by detection of the uptake of propidium iodine and 23 nm fluorescent silica nanospheres using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Upon EMF exposure, the bacterial cell membranes are believed to become permeable through quasi-endocytosis processes. The dosimetry analysis revealed that the EMF threshold level required to induce the uptake of the large (46 nm) nanopsheres was between three and six EMF doses, with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3 kW/kg and 5 kW/kg per exposure, respectively, depending on the bacterial taxa being studied. It is suggested that the taxonomic affiliation and lipid composition (e.g. the presence of phosphatidyl-glycerol and/or pentadecanoic fatty acid) may affect the extent of uptake of the large nanospheres (46 nm). Multiple 18 GHz EMF exposures over a one-hour period induced periodic anomalous increases in the cell growth behavior of two Staphylococcus aureus strains, namely ATCC 25923 and CIP 65.8T. PMID:27391488

  13. Candida albicans yeast and hyphae are discriminated by MAPK signaling in vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Moyes, David L; Murciano, Celia; Runglall, Manohursingh; Islam, Ayesha; Thavaraj, Selvam; Naglik, Julian R

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that a bi-phasic innate immune MAPK response, constituting activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase MKP1 and c-Fos transcription factor, discriminates between the yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans in oral epithelial cells (ECs). Since the vast majority of mucosal Candida infections are vaginal, we sought to determine whether a similar bi-phasic MAPK-based immune response was activated by C. albicans in vaginal ECs. Here, we demonstrate that vaginal ECs orchestrate an innate response to C. albicans via NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. However, unlike in oral ECs, the first MAPK response, defined by c-Jun transcription factor activation, is delayed until 2 h in vaginal ECs but is still independent of hypha formation. The 'second' or 'late' MAPK response, constituting MKP1 and c-Fos transcription factor activation, is identical to oral ECs and is dependent upon both hypha formation and fungal burdens. NF-κB activation is immediate but independent of morphology. Furthermore, the proinflammatory response in vaginal ECs is different to oral ECs, with an absence of G-CSF and CCL20 and low level IL-6 production. Therefore, differences exist in how C. albicans activates signaling mechanisms in oral and vaginal ECs; however, the activation of MAPK-based pathways that discriminate between yeast and hyphal forms is retained between these mucosal sites. We conclude that this MAPK-based signaling pathway is a common mechanism enabling different human epithelial tissues to orchestrate innate immune responses specifically against C. albicans hyphae.

  14. Electric field mediated loading of macromolecules in intact yeast cells is critically controlled at the wall level.

    PubMed

    Ganeva, V; Galutzov, B; Teissié, J

    1995-12-13

    The mechanism of electric field mediated macromolecule transfer inside an intact yeast cell was investigated by observing, under a microscope, the fluorescence associated to cells after pulsation in a buffer containing two different hydrophilic fluorescent dyes. In the case of a small probe such as propidium iodide, a long lived permeabilized state was induced by the field as classically observed on wall free systems. Penetration of a 70 kDa FITC dextran was obtained only by using drastic conditions and only a very limited number of yeast cells which took up macromolecules remained viable. Most dextrans were trapped in the wall. A dramatic improvement in transfer of dextrans was observed when the cells were treated by dithiothreitol before pulsation. A cytoplasmic protein leakage was detected after the electric treatment suggesting that an irreversible damage took place in the walls of many pulsed cells. Electroloading of macromolecules in intact yeast cells appears to be controlled by a field induced short lived alteration of the envelope organization.

  15. Scanning electrochemical microscopy based evaluation of influence of pH on bioelectrochemical activity of yeast cells - Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ramanavicius, A; Morkvenaite-Vilkonciene, I; Kisieliute, A; Petroniene, J; Ramanaviciene, A

    2017-01-01

    In this research scanning electrochemical microscopy was applied for the investigation of immobilized yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Two redox mediators based system was applied in order to increase the efficiency of charge transfer from yeast cells. 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) was applied as a lipophilic redox mediator, which has the ability to cross the cell's membrane; another redox mediator was ferricyanide, which acted as a hydrophylic electron acceptor able to transfer electrons from the PQ to the working electrode of SECM. Hill's function was applied to determine the optimal pH for this described SECM-based system. The influence of pH on cell viability could be well described by Hill's function. It was determined that at pH 6.5 the PQ has a minimal toxic influence on yeast cells, and the kinetics of metabolic processes in cells as well as electron transfer rate achieved in consecutive action of both redox mediators were appropriate to achieve optimal current signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 {yields} S transition

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. {yields} TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition. {yields} Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, theirmore » exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 {yields} S arrest is discussed.« less

  17. A Novel Family of Cell Wall-Related Proteins Regulated Differently during the Yeast Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Peña, José Manuel; Cid, Víctor J.; Arroyo, Javier; Nombela, César

    2000-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ygr189c, Yel040w, and Ylr213c gene products show significant homologies among themselves and with various bacterial β-glucanases and eukaryotic endotransglycosidases. Deletion of the corresponding genes, either individually or in combination, did not produce a lethal phenotype. However, the removal of YGR189c and YEL040w, but not YLR213c, caused additive sensitivity to compounds that interfere with cell wall construction, such as Congo red and Calcofluor White, and overexpression of YEL040w led to resistance to these compounds. These genes were renamed CRH1 and CRH2, respectively, for Congo red hypersensitive. By site-directed mutagenesis we found that the putative glycosidase domain of CRH1 was critical for its function in complementing hypersensitivity to the inhibitors. The involvement of CRH1 and CRH2 in the development of cell wall architecture was clearly shown, since the alkali-soluble glucan fraction in the crh1Δ crh2Δ strain was almost twice the level in the wild-type. Interestingly, the three genes were subject to different patterns of transcriptional regulation. CRH1 and YLR213c (renamed CRR1, for CRH related) were found to be cell cycle regulated and also expressed under sporulation conditions, whereas CRH2 expression did not vary during the mitotic cycle. Crh1 and Crh2 are localized at the cell surface, particularly in chitin-rich areas. Consistent with the observed expression patterns, Crh1–green fluorescent protein was found at the incipient bud site, around the septum area in later stages of budding, and in ascospore envelopes. Crh2 was found to localize mainly at the bud neck throughout the whole budding cycle, in mating projections and zygotes, but not in ascospores. These data suggest that the members of this family of putative glycosidases might exert a common role in cell wall organization at different stages of the yeast life cycle. PMID:10757808

  18. Lipidomics Characterization of Biosynthetic and Remodeling Pathways of Cardiolipins in Genetically and Nutritionally Manipulated Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Tyurina, Yulia Y; Lou, Wenjia; Qu, Feng; Tyurin, Vladimir A; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Liu, Jenney; Hüttemann, Maik; Frasso, Michael A; Wipf, Peter; Bayir, Hülya; Greenberg, Miriam L; Kagan, Valerian E

    2017-01-20

    Cardioipins (CLs) are unique tetra-acylated phospholipids of mitochondria and define the bioenergetics and regulatory functions of these organelles. An unresolved paradox is the high uniformity of CL molecular species (tetra-linoleoyl-CL) in the heart, liver, and skeletal muscles-in contrast to their high diversification in the brain. Here, we combined liquid chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based phospholipidomics with genetic and nutritional manipulations to explore CLs' biosynthetic vs postsynthetic remodeling processes in S. cerevisiae yeast cells. By applying the differential phospholipidomics analysis, we evaluated the contribution of Cld1 (CL-specific phospholipase A) and Taz1 (acyl-transferase) as the major regulatory mechanisms of the remodeling process. We further established that nutritional "pressure" by high levels of free fatty acids triggered a massive synthesis of homoacylated molecular species in all classes of phospholipids, resulting in the preponderance of the respective homoacylated CLs. We found that changes in molecular speciation of CLs induced by exogenous C18-fatty acids (C18:1 and C18:2) in wild-type (wt) cells did not occur in any of the remodeling mutant cells, including cld1Δ, taz1Δ, and cld1Δtaz1Δ. Interestingly, molecular speciation of CLs in wt and double mutant cells cld1Δtaz1Δ was markedly different. Given that the bioenergetics functions are preserved in the double mutant, this suggests that the accumulated MLCL-rather than the changed CL speciation-are the likely major contributors to the mitochondrial dysfunction in taz1Δ mutant cells (also characteristic of Barth syndrome). Biochemical studies of Cld1 specificity and computer modeling confirmed the hydrolytic selectivity of the enzyme toward C16-CL substrates and the preservation of C18:1-containing CL species.

  19. Monitoring Intracellular pH Change with a Genetically Encoded and Ratiometric Luminescence Sensor in Yeast and Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfei; Robertson, J Brian; Xie, Qiguang; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2016-01-01

    "pHlash" is a novel bioluminescence-based pH sensor for measuring intracellular pH, which is developed based on Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET). pHlash is a fusion protein between a mutant of Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and a Venus fluorophore. The spectral emission of purified pHlash protein exhibits pH dependence in vitro. When expressed in either yeast or mammalian cells, pHlash reports basal pH and cytosolic acidification. In this chapter, we describe an in vitro characterization of pHlash, and also in vivo assays including in yeast cells and in HeLa cells using pHlash as a cytoplasmic pH indicator.

  20. Experimental Evolution Reveals Favored Adaptive Routes to Cell Aggregation in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Elyse A.; Amorosi, Clara J.; Miller, Aaron W.; Dang, Kolena; Heil, Caiti Smukowski; Dunham, Maitreya J.

    2017-01-01

    Yeast flocculation is a community-building cell aggregation trait that is an important mechanism of stress resistance and a useful phenotype for brewers; however, it is also a nuisance in many industrial processes, in clinical settings, and in the laboratory. Chemostat-based evolution experiments are impaired by inadvertent selection for aggregation, which we observe in 35% of populations. These populations provide a testing ground for understanding the breadth of genetic mechanisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses to flocculate, and which of those mechanisms provide the biggest adaptive advantages. In this study, we employed experimental evolution as a tool to ask whether one or many routes to flocculation are favored, and to engineer a strain with reduced flocculation potential. Using a combination of whole genome sequencing and bulk segregant analysis, we identified causal mutations in 23 independent clones that had evolved cell aggregation during hundreds of generations of chemostat growth. In 12 of those clones, we identified a transposable element insertion in the promoter region of known flocculation gene FLO1, and, in an additional five clones, we recovered loss-of-function mutations in transcriptional repressor TUP1, which regulates FLO1 and other related genes. Other causal mutations were found in genes that have not been previously connected to flocculation. Evolving a flo1 deletion strain revealed that this single deletion reduces flocculation occurrences to 3%, and demonstrated the efficacy of using experimental evolution as a tool to identify and eliminate the primary adaptive routes for undesirable traits. PMID:28450459

  1. Expanding xylose metabolism in yeast for plant cell wall conversion to biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Yu, Vivian Yaci; Lin, Yuping; Chomvong, Kulika; Estrela, Raíssa; Park, Annsea; Liang, Julie M; Znameroski, Elizabeth A; Feehan, Joanna; Kim, Soo Rin; Jin, Yong-Su; Glass, N Louise; Cate, Jamie HD

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable biofuel production from renewable biomass will require the efficient and complete use of all abundant sugars in the plant cell wall. Using the cellulolytic fungus Neurospora crassa as a model, we identified a xylodextrin transport and consumption pathway required for its growth on hemicellulose. Reconstitution of this xylodextrin utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that fungal xylose reductases act as xylodextrin reductases, producing xylosyl-xylitol oligomers as metabolic intermediates. These xylosyl-xylitol intermediates are generated by diverse fungi and bacteria, indicating that xylodextrin reduction is widespread in nature. Xylodextrins and xylosyl-xylitol oligomers are then hydrolyzed by two hydrolases to generate intracellular xylose and xylitol. Xylodextrin consumption using a xylodextrin transporter, xylodextrin reductases and tandem intracellular hydrolases in cofermentations with sucrose and glucose greatly expands the capacity of yeast to use plant cell wall-derived sugars and has the potential to increase the efficiency of both first-generation and next-generation biofuel production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05896.001 PMID:25647728

  2. Decoherence in yeast cell populations and its implications for genome-wide expression noise.

    PubMed

    Briones, M R S; Bosco, F

    2009-01-20

    Gene expression "noise" is commonly defined as the stochastic variation of gene expression levels in different cells of the same population under identical growth conditions. Here, we tested whether this "noise" is amplified with time, as a consequence of decoherence in global gene expression profiles (genome-wide microarrays) of synchronized cells. The stochastic component of transcription causes fluctuations that tend to be amplified as time progresses, leading to a decay of correlations of expression profiles, in perfect analogy with elementary relaxation processes. Measuring decoherence, defined here as a decay in the auto-correlation function of yeast genome-wide expression profiles, we found a slowdown in the decay of correlations, opposite to what would be expected if, as in mixing systems, correlations decay exponentially as the equilibrium state is reached. Our results indicate that the populational variation in gene expression (noise) is a consequence of temporal decoherence, in which the slow decay of correlations is a signature of strong interdependence of the transcription dynamics of different genes.

  3. In vitro systems for the study of microtubule-based cell polarity in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Taberner, Núria; Lof, Andries; Roth, Sophie; Lamers, Dimitry; Zeijlemaker, Hans; Dogterom, Marileen

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of cell polarity is essential for processes such as growth and division. In fission yeast, as well as other species, polarity factors travel at the ends of microtubules to cortical sites where they associate with the membrane and subsequently maintain a polarized activity pattern despite their ability to diffuse in the membrane. In this chapter we present methods to establish an in vitro system that captures the essential features of this process. This bottom-up approach allows us to identify the minimal molecular requirements for microtubule-based cell polarity. We employ microfabrication techniques combined with surface functionalization to create rigid chambers with affinity for proteins, as well as microfluidic techniques to create and shape emulsion droplets with functionalized lipid boundaries. Preliminary results are shown demonstrating that a properly organized microtubule cytoskeleton can be confined to these confined spaces, and proteins traveling at the ends of growing microtubules can be delivered to their boundaries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Redox State of Cytochromes in Frozen Yeast Cells Probed by Resonance Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Okotrub, Konstantin A; Surovtsev, Nikolay V

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is a well-established technique used for the long-term storage of biological materials whose biological activity is effectively stopped under low temperatures (suspended animation). Since most biological methods do not work in a low-temperature frozen environment, the mechanism and details of the depression of cellular activity in the frozen state remain largely uncharacterized. In this work, we propose, to our knowledge, a new approach to study the downregulation of the redox activity of cytochromes b and c in freezing yeast cells in a contactless, label-free manner. Our approach is based on cytochrome photobleaching effects observed in the resonance Raman spectra of live cells. Photoinduced and native redox reactions that contributed to the photobleaching rate were studied over a wide temperature range (from -173 to +25 °C). We found that ice formation influences both the rate of cytochrome redox reactions and the balance between the reduced and oxidized cytochromes. We demonstrate that the temperature dependence of native redox reaction rates can be well described by the thermal activation law with an apparent energy of 32.5 kJ/mol, showing that the redox reaction rate is ∼10(15) times slower at liquid nitrogen temperature than at room temperature. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental Evolution Reveals Favored Adaptive Routes to Cell Aggregation in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Hope, Elyse A; Amorosi, Clara J; Miller, Aaron W; Dang, Kolena; Heil, Caiti Smukowski; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2017-06-01

    Yeast flocculation is a community-building cell aggregation trait that is an important mechanism of stress resistance and a useful phenotype for brewers; however, it is also a nuisance in many industrial processes, in clinical settings, and in the laboratory. Chemostat-based evolution experiments are impaired by inadvertent selection for aggregation, which we observe in 35% of populations. These populations provide a testing ground for understanding the breadth of genetic mechanisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses to flocculate, and which of those mechanisms provide the biggest adaptive advantages. In this study, we employed experimental evolution as a tool to ask whether one or many routes to flocculation are favored, and to engineer a strain with reduced flocculation potential. Using a combination of whole genome sequencing and bulk segregant analysis, we identified causal mutations in 23 independent clones that had evolved cell aggregation during hundreds of generations of chemostat growth. In 12 of those clones, we identified a transposable element insertion in the promoter region of known flocculation gene FLO1 , and, in an additional five clones, we recovered loss-of-function mutations in transcriptional repressor TUP1 , which regulates FLO1 and other related genes. Other causal mutations were found in genes that have not been previously connected to flocculation. Evolving a flo1 deletion strain revealed that this single deletion reduces flocculation occurrences to 3%, and demonstrated the efficacy of using experimental evolution as a tool to identify and eliminate the primary adaptive routes for undesirable traits. Copyright © 2017 Hope et al.

  6. Identification of Yeast V-ATPase Mutants by Western Blots Analysis of Whole Cell Lysates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Belky, Karlett

    2002-11-01

    A biochemistry laboratory was designed for an undergraduate course to help students better understand the link between molecular engineering and biochemistry. Students identified unknown yeast strains with high specificity using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of whole cell lysates. This problem-solving exercise is a common application of biochemistry in biotechnology research. Three different strains were used: a wild-type and two mutants for the proton pump vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). V-ATPases are multisubunit enzymes and the mutants used were deletion mutants; each lacked one structural gene of the complex. After three, three-hour labs, mutant strains were easily identified by the students and distinguished from wild-type cells analyzing the pattern of SDS-PAGE distribution of proteins. Identifying different subunits of one multimeric protein allowed for discussion of the structure and function of this metabolic enzyme, which captured the interest of the students. The experiment can be adapted to other multimeric protein complexes and shows improvement of the described methodology over previous reports, perhaps because the problem and its solution are representative of the type of techniques currently used in research labs.

  7. Entrapping of Nanoparticles in Yeast Cell Wall Microparticles for Macrophage-Targeted Oral Delivery of Cabazitaxel.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tianyang; Gou, Jingxin; Sun, Wanxiao; Tao, Xiaoguang; Tan, Xinyi; Wang, Puxiu; Zhang, Yu; He, Haibing; Yin, Tian; Tang, Xing

    2018-06-13

    In this work, a nano-in-micro carrier was constructed by loading polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) into porous and hollow yeast cell wall microparticles (YPs) for macrophage-targeted oral delivery of cabazitaxel (CTX). The YPs, primarily composed of natural β-1,3-d-glucan, can be recognized by the apical membrane receptor, dectin-1, which has a high expression on macrophages and intestinal M cells. By combining electrostatic force-driven self-deposition with solvent hydration/lyophilization methods, the positively charged NPs loaded with CTX or fluorescence probes were efficiently packaged into YPs, as verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force mircoscope (AFM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images. NP-loaded YPs (NYPs) showed a slower in vitro drug release and higher drug stability compared with NPs in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Biodistribution experiments confirmed a widespread distribution and extended retention time of NYPs in the intestinal tract after oral administration. Importantly, a large amount of NYPs were primarily accumulated and transported in the intestinal Peyer's patches as visualized in distribution and absorption site studies, implying that NYPs were mainly absorbed through the lymphatic pathway. In vitro cell evaluation further demonstrated that NYPs were rapidly and efficiently taken up by macrophages via receptor dectin-1-mediated endocytosis using a mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. As expected, in the study of in vivo pharmacokinetics, the oral bioavailability of CTX was improved to 32.1% when loaded in NYPs, which is approximately 5.7 times higher than that of the CTX solution, indicating the NYPs are efficient for oral targeted delivery. Hence, this nano-in-micro carrier is believed to become a hopeful alternative strategy for increasing the oral absorption of small molecule drugs.

  8. Cell cycle-dependent transcription factors control the expression of yeast telomerase RNA.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Isabelle; Larose, Stéphanie; Dandjinou, Alain T; Abou Elela, Sherif; Wellinger, Raymund J

    2013-07-01

    Telomerase is a specialized ribonucleoprotein that adds repeated DNA sequences to the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes to preserve genome integrity. Some secondary structure features of the telomerase RNA are very well conserved, and it serves as a central scaffold for the binding of associated proteins. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase RNA, TLC1, is found in very low copy number in the cell and is the limiting component of the known telomerase holoenzyme constituents. The reasons for this low abundance are unclear, but given that the RNA is very stable, transcriptional control mechanisms must be extremely important. Here we define the sequences forming the TLC1 promoter and identify the elements required for its low expression level, including enhancer and repressor elements. Within an enhancer element, we found consensus sites for Mbp1/Swi4 association, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the binding of Mbp1 and Swi4 to these sites of the TLC1 promoter. Furthermore, the enhancer element conferred cell cycle-dependent regulation to a reporter gene, and mutations in the Mbp1/Swi4 binding sites affected the levels of telomerase RNA and telomere length. Finally, ChIP experiments using a TLC1 RNA-binding protein as target showed cell cycle-dependent transcription of the TLC1 gene. These results indicate that the budding yeast TLC1 RNA is transcribed in a cell cycle-dependent fashion late in G1 and may be part of the S phase-regulated group of genes involved in DNA replication.

  9. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1→S transition.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Sadhale, Parag P; Nath, Utpal

    2011-07-01

    The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1→S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1→S arrest is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kex1 protease is involved in yeast cell death induced by defective N-glycosylation, acetic acid, and chronological aging.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, Peter; Lehle, Ludwig

    2008-07-04

    N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum is an essential protein modification and highly conserved in evolution from yeast to humans. The key step of this pathway is the transfer of the lipid-linked core oligosaccharide to the nascent polypeptide chain, catalyzed by the oligosaccharyltransferase complex. Temperature-sensitive oligosaccharyltransferase mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the restrictive temperature, such as wbp1-1, as well as wild-type cells in the presence of the N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin display typical apoptotic phenotypes like nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine translocation, caspase-like activity, and reactive oxygen species accumulation. Since deletion of the yeast metacaspase YCA1 did not abrogate this death pathway, we postulated a different proteolytic process to be responsible. Here, we show that Kex1 protease is involved in the programmed cell death caused by defective N-glycosylation. Its disruption decreases caspase-like activity, production of reactive oxygen species, and fragmentation of mitochondria and, conversely, improves growth and survival of cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that Kex1 contributes also to the active cell death program induced by acetic acid stress or during chronological aging, suggesting that Kex1 plays a more general role in cellular suicide of yeast.

  11. The evolutionary dynamics of haplodiploidy: Genome architecture and haploid viability.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Heath; Hardy, Nate B; Ross, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Haplodiploid reproduction, in which males are haploid and females are diploid, is widespread among animals, yet we understand little about the forces responsible for its evolution. The current theory is that haplodiploidy has evolved through genetic conflicts, as it provides a transmission advantage to mothers. Male viability is thought to be a major limiting factor; diploid individuals tend to harbor many recessive lethal mutations. This theory predicts that the evolution of haplodiploidy is more likely in male heterogametic lineages with few chromosomes, as genes on the X chromosome are often expressed in a haploid environment, and the fewer the chromosome number, the greater the proportion of the total genome that is X-linked. We test this prediction with comparative phylogenetic analyses of mites, among which haplodiploidy has evolved repeatedly. We recover a negative correlation between chromosome number and haplodiploidy, find evidence that low chromosome number evolved prior to haplodiploidy, and that it is unlikely that diplodiploidy has reevolved from haplodiploid lineages of mites. These results are consistent with the predicted importance of haploid male viability. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. The evolutionary dynamics of haplodiploidy: Genome architecture and haploid viability

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, Heath; Hardy, Nate B.; Ross, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Haplodiploid reproduction, in which males are haploid and females are diploid, is widespread among animals, yet we understand little about the forces responsible for its evolution. The current theory is that haplodiploidy has evolved through genetic conflicts, as it provides a transmission advantage to mothers. Male viability is thought to be a major limiting factor; diploid individuals tend to harbor many recessive lethal mutations. This theory predicts that the evolution of haplodiploidy is more likely in male heterogametic lineages with few chromosomes, as genes on the X chromosome are often expressed in a haploid environment, and the fewer the chromosome number, the greater the proportion of the total genome that is X‐linked. We test this prediction with comparative phylogenetic analyses of mites, among which haplodiploidy has evolved repeatedly. We recover a negative correlation between chromosome number and haplodiploidy, find evidence that low chromosome number evolved prior to haplodiploidy, and that it is unlikely that diplodiploidy has reevolved from haplodiploid lineages of mites. These results are consistent with the predicted importance of haploid male viability. PMID:26462452

  13. Beta-glucan-depleted, glycopeptide-rich extracts from Brewer's and Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lower interferon-gamma production by stimulated human blood cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roderick; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama; Roessner, Ute; Bennett, Louise E

    2016-04-15

    Regulation of the human immune system requires controlled pro- and anti-inflammatory responses for host defence against infection and disease states. Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as used in brewing and baking, are mostly known for ability to stimulate the human immune-system predominantly reflecting the pro-inflammatory cell wall β-glucans. However, in this study, using food-compatible processing methods, glycopeptide-enriched and β-glucan-depleted products were each prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeasts, which suppressed production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in human whole blood cell assay, signifying that anti-inflammatory factors are also present in yeast. Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of products prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeast were compared with the commercial yeast product, Epicor®. While unfractionated Epicor was inactive, the C18 resin-binding fractions of Brewer's and Baker's yeast products and Epicor dose-dependently lowered IFN-γ, demonstrating that Epicor also contained both pro-inflammatory (β-glucans) and anti-inflammatory components. Anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to C18 resin-binding species glyco-peptides in Epicor and experimental yeast products. This study demonstrated that pro- and anti-inflammatory factors could be resolved and enriched in yeasts by suitable processing, with potential to improve specific activities. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, the World’s First Pure Culture Lager Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Andrea; Hesselbart, Ana; Wendland, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Lager yeast beer production was revolutionized by the introduction of pure culture strains. The first established lager yeast strain is known as the bottom fermenting Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, which was originally termed Unterhefe No. 1 by Emil Chr. Hansen and has been used in production in since 1883. S. carlsbergensis belongs to group I/Saaz-type lager yeast strains and is better adapted to cold growth conditions than group II/Frohberg-type lager yeasts, e.g., the Weihenstephan strain WS34/70. Here, we sequenced S. carlsbergensis using next generation sequencing technologies. Lager yeasts are descendants from hybrids formed between a S. cerevisiae parent and a parent similar to S. eubayanus. Accordingly, the S. carlsbergensis 19.5-Mb genome is substantially larger than the 12-Mb S. cerevisiae genome. Based on the sequence scaffolds, synteny to the S. cerevisae genome, and by using directed polymerase chain reaction for gap closure, we generated a chromosomal map of S. carlsbergensis consisting of 29 unique chromosomes. We present evidence for genome and chromosome evolution within S. carlsbergensis via chromosome loss and loss of heterozygosity specifically of parts derived from the S. cerevisiae parent. Based on our sequence data and via fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis, we determined the ploidy of S. carlsbergensis. This inferred that this strain is basically triploid with a diploid S. eubayanus and haploid S. cerevisiae genome content. In contrast the Weihenstephan strain, which we resequenced, is essentially tetraploid composed of two diploid S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus genomes. Based on conserved translocations between the parental genomes in S. carlsbergensis and the Weihenstephan strain we propose a joint evolutionary ancestry for lager yeast strains. PMID:24578374

  15. Kinetic analysis of beer primary fermentation using yeast cells immobilized by ceramic support adsorption and alginate gel entrapment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongming; Kennedy, John F; Knill, Charles J; Panesar, Parmjit S

    2006-01-01

    Yeast cells were immobilized by absorption onto porous ceramic support and evaluated for continuous beer primary fermentation using a bioreactor in comparison to yeast cells immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate gel. The effects of temperature and flow rate as a function of reaction/fermentation time on fermentation rate were investigated. The fermentation reaction (in terms of loss of total soluble solids in the beer wort as a function of time) was first-order with half-lifes in the range of approximately 9-11 hours at approximately 10-12 degrees C at beer wort linear flow rates of approximately 0.8-1.6 cm/minute for ceramic support, compared with approximately 16 hours for Ca-alginate gel, the former support matrix being more efficient and demonstrating greater potential for future commercial application.

  16. Effect of Shock Waves Generated by Pulsed Electric Discharges in Water on Yeast Cells and Virus Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdyuk, A. E.; Gorshkov, A. N.; Egorov, V. V.; Kolikov, V. A.; Snetov, V. N.; Shneerson, G. A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimal parameters of the electric pulses and shock waves generated by them for the soft destruction of the virus and yeast envelopes with no changes in the structure of antigenic surface albumin and in the cell morphology in order to use them to produce antivirus vaccines and in biotechnology. The pulse electric discharges in water have been studied for different values of amplitude, pulse duration and the rate of the rise in the current. A mathematical model has been developed to estimate the optimal parameters of pulsed electric charges and shock waves for the complete destruction of the yeast cell envelopes and virus particles at a minimum of pulses.

  17. The Adder Phenomenon Emerges from Independent Control of Pre- and Post-Start Phases of the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Chandler-Brown, Devon; Schmoller, Kurt M; Winetraub, Yonatan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-09-25

    Although it has long been clear that cells actively regulate their size, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation have remained poorly understood. In budding yeast, cell size primarily modulates the duration of the cell-division cycle by controlling the G1/S transition known as Start. We have recently shown that the rate of progression through Start increases with cell size, because cell growth dilutes the cell-cycle inhibitor Whi5 in G1. Recent phenomenological studies in yeast and bacteria have shown that these cells add an approximately constant volume during each complete cell cycle, independent of their size at birth. These results seem to be in conflict, as the phenomenological studies suggest that cells measure the amount they grow, rather than their size, and that size control acts over the whole cell cycle, rather than specifically in G1. Here, we propose an integrated model that unifies the adder phenomenology with the molecular mechanism of G1/S cell-size control. We use single-cell microscopy to parameterize a full cell-cycle model based on independent control of pre- and post-Start cell-cycle periods. We find that our model predicts the size-independent amount of cell growth during the full cell cycle. This suggests that the adder phenomenon is an emergent property of the independent regulation of pre- and post-Start cell-cycle periods rather than the consequence of an underlying molecular mechanism measuring a fixed amount of growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The small GTPase Rab5 homologue Ypt5 regulates cell morphology, sexual development, ion-stress response and vacuolar formation in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Yuta; Katayama, Chisako; Shinohara, Miki

    Highlights: •Multiple functions of Rab5 GTPase in fission yeast were found. •Roles of Rab5 in fission yeast were discussed. •Relation between Rab5 and actin cytoskeleton were discussed. -- Abstract: Inner-membrane transport is critical to cell function. Rab family GTPases play an important role in vesicle transport. In mammalian cells, Rab5 is reported to be involved in the regulation of endosome formation, phagocytosis and chromosome alignment. Here, we examined the role of the fission yeast Rab5 homologue Ypt5 using a point mutant allele. Mutant cells displayed abnormal cell morphology, mating, sporulation, endocytosis, vacuole fusion and responses to ion stress. Our datamore » strongly suggest that fission yeast Rab5 is involved in the regulation of various types of cellular functions.« less

  19. Protoplast formation and yeast cell-wall structure. The action of the enzymes of the snail, Helix pomatia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, F. B.; Millbank, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    1. The digestive juice of the snail Helix pomatia was used in the study of the degradation of isolated cell-wall preparations from a strain of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. 2. The crude enzyme system was fractionated by gel filtration and the activities of the more specific fractions thus obtained were examined. 3. Results are discussed with respect to (a) the nature of various factors that are essential for protoplast formation and cell-wall dissolution and (b) structures envisaged in yeast cell walls that are responsible for the observed variations in susceptibility to attack by snail juice. PMID:5964965

  20. Forces in yeast flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  1. Yeast mother cell-specific ageing, genetic (in)stability, and the somatic mutation theory of ageing.

    PubMed

    Laun, Peter; Bruschi, Carlo V; Dickinson, J Richard; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Heeren, Gino; Schwimbersky, Richard; Rid, Raphaela; Breitenbach, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Yeast mother cell-specific ageing is characterized by a limited capacity to produce daughter cells. The replicative lifespan is determined by the number of cell cycles a mother cell has undergone, not by calendar time, and in a population of cells its distribution follows the Gompertz law. Daughter cells reset their clock to zero and enjoy the full lifespan characteristic for the strain. This kind of replicative ageing of a cell population based on asymmetric cell divisions is investigated as a model for the ageing of a stem cell population in higher organisms. The simple fact that the daughter cells can reset their clock to zero precludes the accumulation of chromosomal mutations as the cause of ageing, because semiconservative replication would lead to the same mutations in the daughters. However, nature is more complicated than that because, (i) the very last daughters of old mothers do not reset the clock; and (ii) mutations in mitochondrial DNA could play a role in ageing due to the large copy number in the cell and a possible asymmetric distribution of damaged mitochondrial DNA between mother and daughter cell. Investigation of the loss of heterozygosity in diploid cells at the end of their mother cell-specific lifespan has shown that genomic rearrangements do occur in old mother cells. However, it is not clear if this kind of genomic instability is causative for the ageing process. Damaged material other than DNA, for instance misfolded, oxidized or otherwise damaged proteins, seem to play a major role in ageing, depending on the balance between production and removal through various repair processes, for instance several kinds of proteolysis and autophagy. We are reviewing here the evidence for genetic change and its causality in the mother cell-specific ageing process of yeast.

  2. Yeast mother cell-specific ageing, genetic (in)stability, and the somatic mutation theory of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Laun, Peter; Bruschi, Carlo V.; Dickinson, J. Richard; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Heeren, Gino; Schwimbersky, Richard; Rid, Raphaela; Breitenbach, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Yeast mother cell-specific ageing is characterized by a limited capacity to produce daughter cells. The replicative lifespan is determined by the number of cell cycles a mother cell has undergone, not by calendar time, and in a population of cells its distribution follows the Gompertz law. Daughter cells reset their clock to zero and enjoy the full lifespan characteristic for the strain. This kind of replicative ageing of a cell population based on asymmetric cell divisions is investigated as a model for the ageing of a stem cell population in higher organisms. The simple fact that the daughter cells can reset their clock to zero precludes the accumulation of chromosomal mutations as the cause of ageing, because semiconservative replication would lead to the same mutations in the daughters. However, nature is more complicated than that because, (i) the very last daughters of old mothers do not reset the clock; and (ii) mutations in mitochondrial DNA could play a role in ageing due to the large copy number in the cell and a possible asymmetric distribution of damaged mitochondrial DNA between mother and daughter cell. Investigation of the loss of heterozygosity in diploid cells at the end of their mother cell-specific lifespan has shown that genomic rearrangements do occur in old mother cells. However, it is not clear if this kind of genomic instability is causative for the ageing process. Damaged material other than DNA, for instance misfolded, oxidized or otherwise damaged proteins, seem to play a major role in ageing, depending on the balance between production and removal through various repair processes, for instance several kinds of proteolysis and autophagy. We are reviewing here the evidence for genetic change and its causality in the mother cell-specific ageing process of yeast. PMID:17986449

  3. Application of microbial electrolysis cells to treat spent yeast from an alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Hernández, Ornella; Popat, Sudeep C; Parameswaran, Prathap; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán Sidney; Torres, César I; Buitrón, Germán; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Spent yeast (SY), a major challenge for the brewing industry, was treated using a microbial electrolysis cell to recover energy. Concentrations of SY from bench alcoholic fermentation and ethanol were tested, ranging from 750 to 1500mgCOD/L and 0 to 2400mgCOD/L respectively. COD removal efficiency (RE), coulombic efficiency (CE), coulombic recovery (CR), hydrogen production and current density were evaluated. The best treatment condition was 750mgCOD/LSY+1200mgCOD/L ethanol giving higher COD RE, CE, CR (90±1%, 90±2% and 81±1% respectively), as compared with 1500mgCOD/LSY (76±2%, 63±7% and 48±4% respectively); ethanol addition was significantly favorable (p value=0.011), possibly due to electron availability and SY autolysis. 1500mgCOD/LSY+1200mgCOD/L ethanol achieved higher current density (222.0±31.3A/m(3)) and hydrogen production (2.18±0.66 [Formula: see text] ) but with lower efficiencies (87±2% COD RE, 71.0±.4% CE). Future work should focus on electron sinks, acclimation and optimizing SY breakdown. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacillus subtilis and yeast cell wall improve the intestinal health of broilers challenged by Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wang, W; Lv, Z; Liu, D; Guo, Y

    2017-12-01

    1. The objective was to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis, yeast cell wall (YCW) and their combination on intestinal health of broilers challenged by Clostridium perfringens over a 21-d period. 2. Using a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, 800 1-d-old male Cobb 500 broilers were used to study the effects of feed additives (without additive or with zinc bacitracin, B. subtilis, YCW, and the combination of B. subtilis and YCW), pathogen challenge (without or with Clostridium perfringens challenge), and their interactive effects. 3. C. perfringens infection increased intestinal lesions scores, damaged intestinal histomorphology, increased serum endotoxin concentration, cytokine mRNA expression and intestinal population of C. perfringens and Escherichia coli and decreased ileal bifidobacteria numbers. The 4 additives decreased serum endotoxin. Zinc bacitracin tended to decrease cytokine mRNA expression and the intestinal number of C. perfringens and E. coli. B. subtilis, YCW and their combination increased cytokine mRNA expression. B. subtilis and YCW decreased the number of C. perfringens and E. coli in the ileum, and their combination decreased pathogens numbers in the ileum and caecum. 4. In conclusion, B. subtilis, YCW and their combination improved the intestinal health of NE-infected broilers, and could be potential alternatives to antibiotics.

  5. Divergent branches of mitochondrial signaling regulate specific genes and the viability of specialized cell types of differentiated yeast colonies.

    PubMed

    Podholová, Kristýna; Plocek, Vítězslav; Rešetárová, Stanislava; Kučerová, Helena; Hlaváček, Otakar; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena

    2016-03-29

    Mitochondrial retrograde signaling mediates communication from altered mitochondria to the nucleus and is involved in many normal and pathophysiological changes, including cell metabolic reprogramming linked to cancer development and progression in mammals. The major mitochondrial retrograde pathway described in yeast includes three activators, Rtg1p, Rtg2p and Rtg3p, and repressors, Mks1p and Bmh1p/Bmh2p. Using differentiated yeast colonies, we show that Mks1p-Rtg pathway regulation is complex and includes three branches that divergently regulate the properties and fate of three specifically localized cell subpopulations via signals from differently altered mitochondria. The newly identified RTG pathway-regulated genes ATO1/ATO2 are expressed in colonial upper (U) cells, the cells with active TORC1 that metabolically resemble tumor cells, while CIT2 is a typical target induced in one subpopulation of starving lower (L) cells. The viability of the second L cell subpopulation is strictly dependent on RTG signaling. Additional co-activators of Rtg1p-Rtg3p specific to particular gene targets of each branch are required to regulate cell differentiation.

  6. Solving the influence maximization problem reveals regulatory organization of the yeast cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, David L; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2017-06-01

    The Influence Maximization Problem (IMP) aims to discover the set of nodes with the greatest influence on network dynamics. The problem has previously been applied in epidemiology and social network analysis. Here, we demonstrate the application to cell cycle regulatory network analysis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fundamentally, gene regulation is linked to the flow of information. Therefore, our implementation of the IMP was framed as an information theoretic problem using network diffusion. Utilizing more than 26,000 regulatory edges from YeastMine, gene expression dynamics were encoded as edge weights using time lagged transfer entropy, a method for quantifying information transfer between variables. By picking a set of source nodes, a diffusion process covers a portion of the network. The size of the network cover relates to the influence of the source nodes. The set of nodes that maximizes influence is the solution to the IMP. By solving the IMP over different numbers of source nodes, an influence ranking on genes was produced. The influence ranking was compared to other metrics of network centrality. Although the top genes from each centrality ranking contained well-known cell cycle regulators, there was little agreement and no clear winner. However, it was found that influential genes tend to directly regulate or sit upstream of genes ranked by other centrality measures. The influential nodes act as critical sources of information flow, potentially having a large impact on the state of the network. Biological events that affect influential nodes and thereby affect information flow could have a strong effect on network dynamics, potentially leading to disease. Code and data can be found at: https://github.com/gibbsdavidl/miergolf.

  7. tRNA anticodon loop modifications ensure protein homeostasis and cell morphogenesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Roland; Ciftci, Akif; Funk, Johanna; Bruch, Alexander; Butter, Falk; Schaffrath, Raffael

    2016-12-15

    Using budding yeast, we investigated a negative interaction network among genes for tRNA modifications previously implicated in anticodon-codon interaction: 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio-uridine (mcm 5 s 2 U34: ELP3, URM1), pseudouridine (Ψ38/39: DEG1) and cyclic N6-threonyl-carbamoyl-adenosine (ct 6 A37: TCD1). In line with functional cross talk between these modifications, we find that combined removal of either ct 6 A37 or Ψ38/39 and mcm 5 U34 or s 2 U34 results in morphologically altered cells with synthetic growth defects. Phenotypic suppression by tRNA overexpression suggests that these defects are caused by malfunction of tRNA Lys UUU or tRNA Gln UUG , respectively. Indeed, mRNA translation and synthesis of the Gln-rich prion Rnq1 are severely impaired in the absence of Ψ38/39 and mcm 5 U34 or s 2 U34, and this defect can be rescued by overexpression of tRNA Gln UUG Surprisingly, we find that combined modification defects in the anticodon loops of different tRNAs induce similar cell polarity- and nuclear segregation defects that are accompanied by increased aggregation of cellular proteins. Since conditional expression of an artificial aggregation-prone protein triggered similar cytological aberrancies, protein aggregation is likely responsible for loss of morphogenesis and cytokinesis control in mutants with inappropriate tRNA anticodon loop modifications. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Rice Shaker Potassium Channel OsKAT1 Confers Tolerance to Salinity Stress on Yeast and Rice Cells1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Toshihiro; Kitamoto, Hiroko K.; Nakamura, Atsuko; Fukuda, Atsunori; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    We screened a rice (Oryza sativa L. ‘Nipponbare’) full-length cDNA expression library through functional complementation in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to find novel cation transporters involved in salt tolerance. We found that expression of a cDNA clone, encoding the rice homolog of Shaker family K+ channel KAT1 (OsKAT1), suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of yeast strain G19 (Δena1–4), which lacks a major component of Na+ efflux. It also suppressed a K+-transport-defective phenotype of yeast strain CY162 (Δtrk1Δtrk2), suggesting the enhancement of K+ uptake by OsKAT1. By the expression of OsKAT1, the K+ contents of salt-stressed G19 cells increased during the exponential growth phase. At the linear phase, however, OsKAT1-expressing G19 cells accumulated less Na+ than nonexpressing cells, but almost the same K+. The cellular Na+ to K+ ratio of OsKAT1-expressing G19 cells remained lower than nonexpressing cells under saline conditions. Rice cells overexpressing OsKAT1 also showed enhanced salt tolerance and increased cellular K+ content. These functions of OsKAT1 are likely to be common among Shaker K+ channels because OsAKT1 and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) KAT1 were able to complement the salt-sensitive phenotype of G19 as well as OsKAT1. The expression of OsKAT1 was restricted to internodes and rachides of wild-type rice, whereas other Shaker family genes were expressed in various organs. These results suggest that OsKAT1 is involved in salt tolerance of rice in cooperation with other K+ channels by participating in maintenance of cytosolic cation homeostasis during salt stress and thus protects cells from Na+. PMID:17586689

  9. A Model of Yeast Cell-Cycle Regulation Based on a Standard Component Modeling Strategy for Protein Regulatory Networks.

    PubMed

    Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Chen, Katherine C; Baumann, William T; Tyson, John J

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression in eukaryotes, a variety of mathematical modeling approaches have been employed, ranging from Boolean networks and differential equations to stochastic simulations. Each approach has its own characteristic strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a "standard component" modeling strategy that combines advantageous features of Boolean networks, differential equations and stochastic simulations in a framework that acknowledges the typical sorts of reactions found in protein regulatory networks. Applying this strategy to a comprehensive mechanism of the budding yeast cell cycle, we illustrate the potential value of standard component modeling. The deterministic version of our model reproduces the phenotypic properties of wild-type cells and of 125 mutant strains. The stochastic version of our model reproduces the cell-to-cell variability of wild-type cells and the partial viability of the CLB2-dbΔ clb5Δ mutant strain. Our simulations show that mathematical modeling with "standard components" can capture in quantitative detail many essential properties of cell cycle control in budding yeast.

  10. A Model of Yeast Cell-Cycle Regulation Based on a Standard Component Modeling Strategy for Protein Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Chen, Katherine C.; Baumann, William T.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression in eukaryotes, a variety of mathematical modeling approaches have been employed, ranging from Boolean networks and differential equations to stochastic simulations. Each approach has its own characteristic strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a “standard component” modeling strategy that combines advantageous features of Boolean networks, differential equations and stochastic simulations in a framework that acknowledges the typical sorts of reactions found in protein regulatory networks. Applying this strategy to a comprehensive mechanism of the budding yeast cell cycle, we illustrate the potential value of standard component modeling. The deterministic version of our model reproduces the phenotypic properties of wild-type cells and of 125 mutant strains. The stochastic version of our model reproduces the cell-to-cell variability of wild-type cells and the partial viability of the CLB2-dbΔ clb5Δ mutant strain. Our simulations show that mathematical modeling with “standard components” can capture in quantitative detail many essential properties of cell cycle control in budding yeast. PMID:27187804

  11. Beyond bread and beer: whole cell protein extracts from baker's yeast as a bulk source for 3D cell culture matrices.

    PubMed

    Bodenberger, Nicholas; Kubiczek, Dennis; Paul, Patrick; Preising, Nico; Weber, Lukas; Bosch, Ramona; Hausmann, Rudolf; Gottschalk, Kay-Eberhard; Rosenau, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present a novel approach to form hydrogels from yeast whole cell protein. Countless hydrogels are available for sophisticated research, but their fabrication is often difficult to reproduce, with the gels being complicated to handle or simply too expensive. The yeast hydrogels presented here are polymerized using a four-armed, amine reactive crosslinker and show a high chemical and thermal resistance. The free water content was determined by measuring swelling ratios for different protein concentrations, and in a freeze-drying approach, pore sizes of up to 100 μm in the gel could be created without destabilizing the 3D network. Elasticity was proofed to be adjustable with the help of atomic force microscopy by merely changing the amount of used protein. Furthermore, the material was tested for possible cell culture applications; diffusion rates in the network are high enough for sufficient supply of human breast cancer cells and adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells with nutrition, and cells showed high viabilities when tested for compatibility with the material. Furthermore, hydrogels could be functionalized with RGD peptide and the optimal concentration for sufficient cell adhesion was determined to be 150 μM. Given that yeast protein is one of the cheapest and easiest available protein sources and that hydrogels are extremely easy to handle, the developed material has highly promising potential for both sophisticated cell culture techniques as well as for larger scale industrial applications.

  12. Single cell assessment of yeast metabolic engineering for enhanced lipid production using Raman and AFM-IR imaging.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Kamila; Peng, Huadong; Wood, Bayden R; Haritos, Victoria S

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesel is a valuable renewable fuel made from derivatized fatty acids produced in plants, animals, and oleaginous microbes. Of the latter, yeasts are of special interest due to their wide use in biotechnology, ability to synthesize fatty acids and store large amounts of triacylglycerols while utilizing non-food carbon sources. While yeast efficiently produce lipids, genetic modification and indeed, lipid pathway metabolic engineering, is usually required for cost-effective production. Traditionally, gas chromatography (GC) is used to measure fatty acid production and to track the success of a metabolic engineering strategy in a microbial culture; here we have employed vibrational spectroscopy approaches at population and single cell level of engineered yeast while simultaneously investigating metabolite levels in subcellular structures. Firstly, a strong correlation ( r 2  > 0.99) was established between Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) lipid in intact cells and GC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters in the differently engineered strains. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of individual cells carrying genetic modifications to enhance fatty acid synthesis and lipid accumulation revealed changes to the lipid body (LB), the storage organelle for lipids in yeast, with their number increasing markedly (up to tenfold higher); LB size was almost double in the strain that also expressed a LB stabilizing gene but considerable variation was also noted between cells. Raman spectroscopy revealed a clear trend toward reduced unsaturated fatty acid content in lipids of cells carrying more complex metabolic engineering. Atomic force microscopy-infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) analysis of individual cells indicated large differences in subcellular constituents between strains: cells of the most highly engineered strain had elevated lipid and much reduced carbohydrate in their cytoplasm compared with unmodified cells. Vibrational spectroscopy analysis allowed the simultaneous

  13. From mannan to bioethanol: cell surface co-display of β-mannanase and β-mannosidase on yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Djohan, Apridah Cameliawati; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Asai-Nakashima, Nanami; Teramura, Hiroshi; Andriani, Ade; Tominaga, Masahiro; Wakai, Satoshi; Kahar, Prihardi; Yopi; Prasetya, Bambang; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Mannans represent the largest hemicellulosic fraction in softwoods and also serve as carbohydrate stores in various plants. However, the utilization of mannans as sustainable resources has been less advanced in sustainable biofuel development. Based on a yeast cell surface-display technology that enables the immobilization of multiple enzymes on the yeast cell walls, we constructed a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that co-displays β-mannanase and β-mannosidase; this strain is expected to facilitate ethanol fermentation using mannan as a biomass source. Parental yeast S. cerevisiae assimilated mannose and glucose as monomeric sugars, producing ethanol from mannose. We constructed yeast strains that express tethered β-mannanase and β-mannosidase; co-display of the two enzymes on the cell surface was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining and enzyme activity assays. The constructed yeast cells successfully hydrolyzed 1,4-β-d-mannan and produced ethanol by assimilating the resulting mannose without external addition of enzymes. Furthermore, the constructed strain produced ethanol from 1,4-β-d-mannan continually during the third batch of repeated fermentation. Additionally, the constructed strain produced ethanol from ivory nut mannan; ethanol yield was improved by NaOH pretreatment of the substrate. We successfully displayed β-mannanase and β-mannosidase on the yeast cell surface. Our results clearly demonstrate the utility of the strain co-displaying β-mannanase and β-mannosidase for ethanol fermentation from mannan biomass. Thus, co-tethering β-mannanase and β-mannosidase on the yeast cell surface provides a powerful platform technology for yeast fermentation toward the production of bioethanol and other biochemicals from lignocellulosic materials containing mannan components.

  14. Novel method to reduce fishy aftertaste in wine and seafood pairing using alcohol-treated yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Toshikazu; Kanai, Keiko; Yokoyama, Aki; Tamura, Takayuki; Hanamure, Kenichi; Sasaki, Kanako; Takata, Ryoji; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-06-20

    "Fishy aftertaste" is sometimes perceived in wine consumed with seafood. Iron in wine has been reported to be a key compound that produces fishy aftertaste. However, cost-effective methods to remove iron from wine have not been developed. Here, we describe a cost-effective and safe iron adsorbent consisting of alcohol-treated yeast (ATY) cells based on the observation that nonviable cells adsorbed iron after completion of fermentation. Treatment of cells with more than 40% (v/v) ethanol killed them without compromising their ability to adsorb iron. Drying the ATY cells did not reduce iron adsorption. Use of ATY cells together with phytic acid had a synergistic effect on iron removal. We term this means of removing iron the "ATY-PA" method. Sensory analysis indicated that fishy aftertaste in wine-seafood pairings was not perceived if the wine had been pretreated with both ATY cells and phytic acid.

  15. TheCellMap.org: A Web-Accessible Database for Visualizing and Mining the Global Yeast Genetic Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Usaj, Matej; Tan, Yizhao; Wang, Wen; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Zou, Albert; Myers, Chad L.; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Providing access to quantitative genomic data is key to ensure large-scale data validation and promote new discoveries. TheCellMap.org serves as a central repository for storing and analyzing quantitative genetic interaction data produced by genome-scale Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA) experiments with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In particular, TheCellMap.org allows users to easily access, visualize, explore, and functionally annotate genetic interactions, or to extract and reorganize subnetworks, using data-driven network layouts in an intuitive and interactive manner. PMID:28325812

  16. TheCellMap.org: A Web-Accessible Database for Visualizing and Mining the Global Yeast Genetic Interaction Network.

    PubMed

    Usaj, Matej; Tan, Yizhao; Wang, Wen; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Zou, Albert; Myers, Chad L; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles

    2017-05-05

    Providing access to quantitative genomic data is key to ensure large-scale data validation and promote new discoveries. TheCellMap.org serves as a central repository for storing and analyzing quantitative genetic interaction data produced by genome-scale Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA) experiments with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae In particular, TheCellMap.org allows users to easily access, visualize, explore, and functionally annotate genetic interactions, or to extract and reorganize subnetworks, using data-driven network layouts in an intuitive and interactive manner. Copyright © 2017 Usaj et al.

  17. Nanoscale domain formation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in the plasma and vacuolar membranes of living yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tomioku, Kan-Na; Shigekuni, Mikiko; Hayashi, Hiroki; Yoshida, Akane; Futagami, Taiki; Tamaki, Hisanori; Tanabe, Kenji; Fujita, Akikazu

    2018-05-01

    In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PtdIns(4)P serves as an essential signalling molecule in the Golgi complex, endosomal system, and plasma membrane, where it is involved in the control of multiple cellular functions via direct interactions with PtdIns(4)P-binding proteins. To analyse the distribution of PtdIns(4)P in yeast cells at a nanoscale level, we employed an electron microscopy technique that specifically labels PtdIns(4)P on the freeze-fracture replica of the yeast membrane. This method minimizes the possibility of artificial perturbation, because molecules in the membrane are physically immobilised in situ. We observed that PtdIns(4)P is localised on the cytoplasmic leaflet, but not the exoplasmic leaflet, of the plasma membrane, Golgi body, vacuole, and vesicular structure membranes. PtdIns(4)P labelling was not observed in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, and in the outer and inner membranes of the nuclear envelope or mitochondria. PtdIns(4)P forms clusters of <100 nm in diameter in the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane according to point pattern analysis of immunogold labelling. There are three kinds of compartments in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. In the present study, we showed that PtdIns(4)P is specifically localised in the flat undifferentiated plasma membrane compartment. In the vacuolar membrane, PtdIns(4)P was concentrated in intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient raft-like domains, which are tightly bound to lipid droplets, but not surrounding IMP-rich non-raft domains in geometrical IMP-distributed patterns in the stationary phase. This is the first report showing microdomain formations of PtdIns(4)P in the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane of budding yeast cells at a nanoscale level, which will illuminate the functionality of PtdIns(4)P in each membrane. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Dramatic improvement in genome assembly achieved using doubled-haploid genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Tan, Engkong; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hirose, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Okano, Hideyuki; Kudoh, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Watabe, Shugo; Asakawa, Shuichi

    2014-10-27

    Improvement in de novo assembly of large genomes is still to be desired. Here, we improved draft genome sequence quality by employing doubled-haploid individuals. We sequenced wildtype and doubled-haploid Takifugu rubripes genomes, under the same conditions, using the Illumina platform and assembled contigs with SOAPdenovo2. We observed 5.4-fold and 2.6-fold improvement in the sizes of the N50 contig and scaffold of doubled-haploid individuals, respectively, compared to the wildtype, indicating that the use of a doubled-haploid genome aids in accurate genome analysis.

  19. Immunological targeting of tumor cells undergoing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition via a recombinant brachyury-yeast vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jales, Alessandra; Huang, Bruce; Fernando, Romaine I.; Hodge, James W.; Ardiani, Andressa; Apelian, David

    2013-01-01

    The embryonic T-box transcription factor brachyury is aberrantly expressed in a range of human tumors. Previous studies have demonstrated that brachyury is a driver of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process associated with cancer progression. Brachyury expression in human tumor cells enhances tumor invasiveness in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and induces resistance to various conventional therapeutics including chemotherapy and radiation. These characteristics, and the selective expression of brachyury for a range of human tumor types vs. normal adult tissues, make brachyury an attractive tumor target. Due to its intracellular localization and the “undruggable” character of transcription factors, available options to target brachyury are currently limited. Here we report on the development and characterization of an immunological platform for the efficient targeting of brachyury-positive tumors consisting of a heat-killed, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast)–brachyury vector-based vaccine (designated as GI-6301) that expresses the full-length human brachyury protein. We demonstrate that human dendritic cells treated with recombinant yeast-brachyury can activate and expand brachyury-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vitro that, in turn, can effectively lyse human tumor cells expressing the brachyury protein. Vaccination of mice with recombinant yeast-brachyury is also shown here to elicit brachyury-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, and to induce anti-tumor immunity in the absence of toxicity. Based on these results, a Phase I clinical trial of GI-6301 is currently ongoing in patients with advanced tumors; to our knowledge, this is the first vaccine platform aimed at targeting a driver of tumor EMT that has successfully reached the clinical stage. PMID:24125763

  20. A High-Throughput Genetic Complementation Assay in Yeast Cells Identified Selective Inhibitors of Sphingosine Kinase 1 Not Found Using a Cell-Free Enzyme Assay.

    PubMed

    Kashem, Mohammed A; Kennedy, Charles A; Fogarty, Kylie E; Dimock, Janice R; Zhang, Yunlong; Sanville-Ross, Mary L; Skow, Donna J; Brunette, Steven R; Swantek, Jennifer L; Hummel, Heidi S; Swindle, John; Nelson, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) is a lipid kinase that phosphorylates sphingosine to produce the bioactive sphingolipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and therefore represents a potential drug target for a variety of pathological processes such as fibrosis, inflammation, and cancer. We developed two assays compatible with high-throughput screening to identify small-molecule inhibitors of SphK1: a purified component enzyme assay and a genetic complementation assay in yeast cells. The biochemical enzyme assay measures the phosphorylation of sphingosine-fluorescein to S1P-fluorescein by recombinant human full-length SphK1 using an immobilized metal affinity for phosphochemicals (IMAP) time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer format. The yeast assay employs an engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which the human gene encoding SphK1 replaced the yeast ortholog and quantitates cell viability by measuring intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) using a luciferase-based luminescent readout. In this assay, expression of human SphK1 was toxic, and the resulting yeast cell death was prevented by SphK1 inhibitors. We optimized both assays in a 384-well format and screened ∼10(6) compounds selected from the Boehringer Ingelheim library. The biochemical IMAP high-throughput screen identified 5,561 concentration-responsive hits, most of which were ATP competitive and not selective over sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2). The yeast screen identified 205 concentration-responsive hits, including several distinct compound series that were selective against SphK2 and were not ATP competitive.

  1. Asymmetric bioreduction of acetophenones by Baker's yeast and its cell-free extract encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Katsuya; Nakamura, Hitomi; Nakanishi, Kazuma

    2014-02-01

    Baker's yeast (BY) encapsulated in silica materials was synthesized using a yeast cell suspension and its cell-free extract during a sol-gel reaction of tetramethoxysilane with nitric acid as a catalyst. The synthesized samples were fully characterized using various methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The BY cells were easily encapsulated inside silica-gel networks, and the ratio of the cells in the silica gel was approximately 75 wt%, which indicated that a large volume of BY was trapped with a small amount of silica. The enzyme activity (asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones) of BY and its cell-free extract encapsulated in silica gel was investigated in detail. The activities and enantioselectivities of free and encapsulated BY were similar to those of acetophenone and its fluorine derivatives, which indicated that the conformation structure of BY enzymes inside silica-gel networks did not change. In addition, the encapsulated BY exhibited considerably better solvent (methanol) stability and recyclability compared to free BY solution. We expect that the development of BY encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials will significantly impact the industrial-scale advancement of high-efficiency and low-cost biocatalysts for the synthesis of valuable chiral alcohols.

  2. Fission Yeast Sec3 and Exo70 Are Transported on Actin Cables and Localize the Exocyst Complex to Cell Poles

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sophie G.

    2012-01-01

    The exocyst complex is essential for many exocytic events, by tethering vesicles at the plasma membrane for fusion. In fission yeast, polarized exocytosis for growth relies on the combined action of the exocyst at cell poles and myosin-driven transport along actin cables. We report here the identification of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sec3 protein, which we identified through sequence homology of its PH-like domain. Like other exocyst subunits, sec3 is required for secretion and cell division. Cells deleted for sec3 are only conditionally lethal and can proliferate when osmotically stabilized. Sec3 is redundant with Exo70 for viability and for the localization of other exocyst subunits, suggesting these components act as exocyst tethers at the plasma membrane. Consistently, Sec3 localizes to zones of growth independently of other exocyst subunits but depends on PIP2 and functional Cdc42. FRAP analysis shows that Sec3, like all other exocyst subunits, localizes to cell poles largely independently of the actin cytoskeleton. However, we show that Sec3, Exo70 and Sec5 are transported by the myosin V Myo52 along actin cables. These data suggest that the exocyst holocomplex, including Sec3 and Exo70, is present on exocytic vesicles, which can reach cell poles by either myosin-driven transport or random walk. PMID:22768263

  3. The steady-state level and stability of TLS polymerase eta are cell cycle dependent in the yeast S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Plachta, Michal; Halas, Agnieszka; McIntyre, Justyna; Sledziewska-Gojska, Ewa

    2015-05-01

    Polymerase eta (Pol eta) is a ubiquitous translesion DNA polymerase that is capable of bypassing UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in an error-free manner. However, this specialized polymerase is error prone when synthesizing through an undamaged DNA template. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both depletion and overproduction of Pol eta result in mutator phenotypes. Therefore, regulation of the cellular abundance of this enzyme is of particular interest. However, based on the investigation of variously tagged forms of Pol eta, mutually contradictory conclusions have been reached regarding the stability of this polymerase in yeast. Here, we optimized a protocol for the detection of untagged yeast Pol eta and established that the half-life of the native enzyme is 80 ± 14 min in asynchronously growing cultures. Experiments with synchronized cells indicated that the cellular abundance of this translesion polymerase changes throughout the cell cycle. Accordingly, we show that the stability of Pol eta, but not its mRNA level, is cell cycle stage dependent. The half-life of the polymerase is more than fourfold shorter in G1-arrested cells than in those at G2/M. Our results, in concert with previous data for Rev1, indicate that cell cycle regulation is a general property of Y family TLS polymerases in S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitochondrial depolarization in yeast zygotes inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Karavaeva, Iuliia E; Golyshev, Sergey A; Smirnova, Ekaterina A; Sokolov, Svyatoslav S; Severin, Fedor F; Knorre, Dmitry A

    2017-04-01

    Non-identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compete with each other within a cell and the ultimate variant of mtDNA present depends on their relative replication rates. Using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as a model, we studied the effects of mitochondrial inhibitors on the competition between wild-type mtDNA and mutant selfish mtDNA in heteroplasmic zygotes. We found that decreasing mitochondrial transmembrane potential by adding uncouplers or valinomycin changes the competition outcomes in favor of the wild-type mtDNA. This effect was significantly lower in cells with disrupted mitochondria fission or repression of the autophagy-related genes ATG8 , ATG32 or ATG33 , implying that heteroplasmic zygotes activate mitochondrial degradation in response to the depolarization. Moreover, the rate of mitochondrially targeted GFP turnover was higher in zygotes treated with uncoupler than in haploid cells or untreated zygotes. Finally, we showed that vacuoles of zygotes with uncoupler-activated autophagy contained DNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that mitochondrial depolarization inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA and this effect depends on mitochondrial fission and autophagy. These observations suggest an activation of mitochondria quality control mechanisms in heteroplasmic yeast zygotes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Influence of Selenium Content in the Culture Medium on Protein Profile of Yeast Cells Candida utilis ATCC 9950

    PubMed Central

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for human health and it has been recognized as a component of several selenoproteins with crucial biological functions. It has been identified as a component of active centers of many enzymes, as well as integral part of biologically active complexes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content and amino acid profile of the protein of fodder yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 cultured in media control and experimental enriched selenium. Protein analysis was performed using SDS-PAGE method consisting of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. The highest contents of soluble protein (49,5 mg/g) were found in yeast cells after 24-hour culture conducted in control (YPD) medium. In the presence of selenium there were determined small amounts of protein content. With increasing time of yeast culture (to 72 hours) the control and experimental media were reported to reduce soluble protein content. In electropherogram proteins from control cultures was observed the presence of 10 protein fractions, but in all the experimental cultures (containing 20, 30, and 40 mg/L selenium) of 14 protein fractions. On the basis of the molecular weights of proteins, it can be concluded that they were among others: selenoprotein 15 kDa and selenoprotein 18 kDa. PMID:26185592

  6. Prequels to Synthetic Biology: From Candidate Gene Identification and Validation to Enzyme Subcellular Localization in Plant and Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Foureau, E; Carqueijeiro, I; Dugé de Bernonville, T; Melin, C; Lafontaine, F; Besseau, S; Lanoue, A; Papon, N; Oudin, A; Glévarec, G; Clastre, M; St-Pierre, B; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, N; Courdavault, V

    2016-01-01

    Natural compounds extracted from microorganisms or plants constitute an inexhaustible source of valuable molecules whose supply can be potentially challenged by limitations in biological sourcing. The recent progress in synthetic biology combined to the increasing access to extensive transcriptomics and genomics data now provide new alternatives to produce these molecules by transferring their whole biosynthetic pathway in heterologous production platforms such as yeasts or bacteria. While the generation of high titer producing strains remains per se an arduous field of investigation, elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways as well as characterization of their complex subcellular organization are essential prequels to the efficient development of such bioengineering approaches. Using examples from plants and yeasts as a framework, we describe potent methods to rationalize the study of partially characterized pathways, including the basics of computational applications to identify candidate genes in transcriptomics data and the validation of their function by an improved procedure of virus-induced gene silencing mediated by direct DNA transfer to get around possible resistance to Agrobacterium-delivery of viral vectors. To identify potential alterations of biosynthetic fluxes resulting from enzyme mislocalizations in reconstituted pathways, we also detail protocols aiming at characterizing subcellular localizations of protein in plant cells by expression of fluorescent protein fusions through biolistic-mediated transient transformation, and localization of transferred enzymes in yeast using similar fluorescence procedures. Albeit initially developed for the Madagascar periwinkle, these methods may be applied to other plant species or organisms in order to establish synthetic biology platform. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A human haploid gene trap collection to study lncRNAs with unusual RNA biology.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Aleksandra E; Vlatkovic, Irena; Neesen, Jürgen; Barlow, Denise P; Pauler, Florian M

    2016-01-01

    Many thousand long non-coding (lnc) RNAs are mapped in the human genome. Time consuming studies using reverse genetic approaches by post-transcriptional knock-down or genetic modification of the locus demonstrated diverse biological functions for a few of these transcripts. The Human Gene Trap Mutant Collection in haploid KBM7 cells is a ready-to-use tool for studying protein-coding gene function. As lncRNAs show remarkable differences in RNA biology compared to protein-coding genes, it is unclear if this gene trap collection is useful for functional analysis of lncRNAs. Here we use the uncharacterized LOC100288798 lncRNA as a model to answer this question. Using public RNA-seq data we show that LOC100288798 is ubiquitously expressed, but inefficiently spliced. The minor spliced LOC100288798 isoforms are exported to the cytoplasm, whereas the major unspliced isoform is nuclear localized. This shows that LOC100288798 RNA biology differs markedly from typical mRNAs. De novo assembly from RNA-seq data suggests that LOC100288798 extends 289kb beyond its annotated 3' end and overlaps the downstream SLC38A4 gene. Three cell lines with independent gene trap insertions in LOC100288798 were available from the KBM7 gene trap collection. RT-qPCR and RNA-seq confirmed successful lncRNA truncation and its extended length. Expression analysis from RNA-seq data shows significant deregulation of 41 protein-coding genes upon LOC100288798 truncation. Our data shows that gene trap collections in human haploid cell lines are useful tools to study lncRNAs, and identifies the previously uncharacterized LOC100288798 as a potential gene regulator.

  8. Damage-induced ectopic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kupiec, M; Steinlauf, R

    1997-06-09

    Mitotic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is induced when cells are irradiated with UV or X-rays, reflecting the efficient repair of damage by recombinational repair mechanisms. We have used multiply marked haploid strains that allow the simultaneous detection of several types of ectopic recombination events. We show that inter-chromosomal ectopic conversion of lys2 heteroalleles and, to a lesser extent, direct repeat recombination (DRR) between non-tandem repeats, are increased by DNA-damaging agents; in contrast, ectopic recombination of the naturally occurring Ty element is not induced. We have tested several hypotheses that could explain the preferential lack of induction of Ty recombination by DNA-damaging agents. We have found that the lack of induction cannot be explained by a cell cycle control or by an effect of the mating-type genes. We also found no role for the flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the Ty in preventing the induction. Ectopic conversion, DRR, and forward mutation of artificial repeats show different kinetics of induction at various positions of the cell cycle, reflecting different mechanisms of recombination. We discuss the mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of these results.

  9. Centromere Size and Its Relationship to Haploid Formation in Plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Dawe, R Kelly

    2018-03-05

    Wide species crosses often result in uniparental genome elimination and visible failures in centromere function. Crosses involving lines with mutated forms of the CENH3 histone variant that organizes the centromere/kinetochore interface have been shown to have similar effects, inducing haploids at high frequencies. Here, we propose a simple centromere size model that endeavors to explain both observations. It is based on the idea of a quantitative centromere architecture where each centromere in an individual is the same size, and the average size is dictated by a natural equilibrium between bound and unbound CENH3 (and its chaperones or binding proteins). While centromere size is determined by the cellular milieu, centromere positions are heritable and defined by the interactions of a small set of proteins that bind to both DNA and CENH3. Lines with defective or mutated CENH3 have a lower loading capacity and support smaller centromeres. In cases where a line with small or defective centromeres is crossed to a line with larger or normal centromeres, the smaller/defective centromeres are selectively degraded or not maintained, resulting in chromosome loss from the small-centromere parent. The model is testable and generalizable, and helps to explain the counterintuitive observation that inducer lines do not induce haploids when crossed to themselves. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extracellular nanovesicles released from the commensal yeast Malassezia sympodialis are enriched in allergens and interact with cells in human skin.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik J; Vallhov, Helen; Holm, Tina; Gehrmann, Ulf; Andersson, Anna; Johansson, Catharina; Blom, Hans; Carroni, Marta; Lehtiö, Janne; Scheynius, Annika

    2018-06-15

    Malassezia sympodialis is a dominant commensal fungi in the human skin mycobiome but is also associated with common skin disorders including atopic eczema (AE). M. sympodialis releases extracellular vesicles, designated MalaEx, which are carriers of small RNAs and allergens, and they can induce inflammatory cytokine responses. Here we explored how MalaEx are involved in host-microbe interactions by comparing protein content of MalaEx with that of the parental yeast cells, and by investigating interactions of MalaEx with cells in the skin. Cryo-electron tomography revealed a heterogeneous population of MalaEx. iTRAQ based quantitative proteomics identified in total 2439 proteins in all replicates of which 110 were enriched in MalaEx compared to the yeast cells. Among the MalaEx enriched proteins were two of the M. sympodialis allergens, Mala s 1 and s 7. Functional experiments indicated an active binding and internalization of MalaEx into human keratinocytes and monocytes, and MalaEx were found in close proximity of the nuclei using super-resolution fluorescence 3D-SIM imaging. Our results provides new insights into host-microbe interactions, supporting that MalaEx may have a role in the sensitization and maintenance of inflammation in AE by containing enriched amounts of allergens and with their ability to interact with skin cells.

  11. Tris-sucrose buffer system: a new specially designed medium for extracellular invertase production by immobilized cells of isolated yeast Cryptococcus laurentii MT-61.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri; Taskin, Mesut; Canli, Ozden; Arslan, Nazli Pinar; Ortucu, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to isolate new yeasts with high extracellular (exo) invertase activity and to investigate the usability of buffer systems as invertase production media by immobilized yeast cells. Among 70 yeast isolates, Cryptococcus laurentii MT-61 had the highest exo-invertase activity. Immobilization of yeast cells was performed using sodium alginate. Higher exo-invertase activity for immobilized cells was achieved in tris-sucrose buffer system (TSBS) compared to sodium acetate buffer system and potassium phosphate buffer system. TSBS was prepared by dissolving 30 g of sucrose in 1 L of tris buffer solution. The optimum pH, temperature, and incubation time for invertase production with immobilized cells were determined as 8.0, 35 °C and 36 h in TSBS, respectively. Under optimized conditions, maximum exo-invertase activity was found to be 28.4 U/mL in sterile and nonsterile TSBS. Immobilized cells could be reused in 14 and 12 successive cycles in sterile and nonsterile TSBS without any loss in the maximum invertase activity, respectively. This is the first report which showed that immobilized microbial cells could be used as a biocatalyst for exo-invertase production i