Science.gov

Sample records for hard mobile launcher

  1. Time lapse: Mobile Launcher Moves

    NASA Video Gallery

    The mobile launcher returned from Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida following two weeks of structural and other testing. The 355-foot-tall structure is to be used by the Spac...

  2. Mobile Launcher Moves for Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    In anticipation of launching NASA’s Space Launch System heavy-lift rocket later in this decade, engineers wanted to check the mobile launcher, or ML, to see how it would behave moving atop a craw...

  3. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH PLATFORM AND TOWER ON RIGHT IS CALLED LAUNCH UMBILICAL TOWER, (LUT). - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  4. 6. MOBILE LAUNCHER SIDE 4, SHOWING MILK STOOL AND LUT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MOBILE LAUNCHER SIDE 4, SHOWING MILK STOOL AND LUT. PROTRUSION ON UPPER RIGHT HAND SIDE OF LUT IS SWING ARM NINE WHICH PROVIDED ACCESS TO CAPSULE OF LAUNCH VEHICLE WHILE ON LAUNCHER. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  5. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF MOBILE LAUNCHER. ON TOP OF LUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF MOBILE LAUNCHER. ON TOP OF LUT SITS A 25 TON HAMMERHEAD CRANE. STRUCTURE ON LEFT SIDE OF LAUNCH PLATFORM IS KNOWN AS A 'MILK STOOL' AND ALLOWS A SATURN 1B ROCKET TO BE USED IN PLACE OF THE SATURN V ROCKET. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  6. Time-Lapse: Mobile Launcher Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    The mobile launcher that will host NASA's Space Launch System and new Orion spacecraft was moved to Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to begin two weeks of structural and sys...

  7. Dr. Wernher Von Braun near the mobile launcher.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. George Mueller, NASA associate administrator for manned space flight, and Dr. Wernher Von Braun (right), director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, are seen near the mobile launcher carrying a 363 foot tall Saturn V space launch vehicle as the rocket is rolled from the vehicle assembly building at KSC for its three mile trip to the launch pad.

  8. Acoustic and Vibration Environment for Crew Launch Vehicle Mobile Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.

    2007-01-01

    A launch-induced acoustic environment represents a dynamic load on the exposed facilities and ground support equipment (GSE) in the form of random pressures fluctuating around the ambient atmospheric pressure. In response to these fluctuating pressures, structural vibrations are generated and transmitted throughout the structure and to the equipment items supported by the structure. Certain equipment items are also excited by the direct acoustic input as well as by the vibration transmitted through the supporting structure. This paper presents the predicted acoustic and vibration environments induced by the launch of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) from Launch Complex (LC) 39. The predicted acoustic environment depicted in this paper was calculated by scaling the statistically processed measured data available from Saturn V launches to the anticipated environment of the CLV launch. The scaling was accomplished by using the 5-segment Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) engine parameters. Derivation of vibration environment for various Mobile Launcher (ML) structures throughout the base and tower was accomplished by scaling the Saturn V vibration environment.

  9. VIEW OF HB1 (VAB HIGH BAY) WITH MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HB-1 (VAB HIGH BAY) WITH MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM (VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS ARE VISIBLE IN THE CENTER), FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. Utilizing NX Advanced Simulation for NASA's New Mobile Launcher for Ares-l

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of NX to simulate the new Mobile Launcher (ML) for the Ares-I. It includes: a comparison of the sizes of the Saturn 5, the Space Shuttle, the Ares I, and the Ares V, with the height, and payload capability; the loads control plan; drawings of the base framing, the underside of the ML, beam arrangement, and the finished base and the origin of the 3D CAD data. It also reviews the modeling approach, meshing. the assembly Finite Element Modeling, the model summary. and beam improvements.

  11. The STS-93 external tank and booster stack sits at the Mobile Launcher Platform park site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-93 stack of solid rocket boosters and external tank sits at the Mobile Launcher Platform park site waiting for lightning shield wires to be installed on the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) in the background. The stack is being temporarily stored outside the VAB while Space Shuttle Discovery undergoes repair to hail damage in High Bay 1. Discovery was rolled back from Pad 39B to the VAB for repairs because access to all of the damaged areas was not possible at the pad. The STS-93 stack will be moved under the wires at the VAB for protection until Discovery returns to the pad, later this week. The scheduled date for launch of mission STS-96 is no earlier than May 27. STS-93 is targeted for launch on July 22, carrying the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  12. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  13. Rotating mobile launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus holds remotely piloted arm that accelerates until launching speed is reached. Then vehicle and counterweight at other end of arm are released simultaneously to avoid structural damage from unbalanced rotating forces.

  14. 27. VAL, DETAIL OF LAUNCHER SLAB AND LAUNCHER RAIL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VAL, DETAIL OF LAUNCHER SLAB AND LAUNCHER RAIL WITH 7 INCH DIAMETER HOLE FOR SUPPORT CARRIAGE LOCKING PIN. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 5. VAL LAUNCHER BRIDGE OVER LAUNCHER SLAB TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VAL LAUNCHER BRIDGE OVER LAUNCHER SLAB TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR LOOKING NORTH. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  17. 4. VAL PARTIAL ELEVATION SHOWING LAUNCHER BRIDGE ON SUPPORTS, LAUNCHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VAL PARTIAL ELEVATION SHOWING LAUNCHER BRIDGE ON SUPPORTS, LAUNCHER SLAB, SUPPORT CARRIAGE, CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE AND CAMERA TOWER LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Superconducting Magnetic Projectile Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell L.; Lawson, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed projectile launcher exploits Meissner effect to transfer much of kinetic energy of relatively massive superconducting plunger to smaller projectile, accelerating projectile to high speed. Because it operates with magnetic fields, launcher not limited by gas-expansion thermodynamics. Plunger energized mechanically and/or chemically, avoiding need for large electrical power supplies and energy-storage systems. Potential applications include launching of projectiles for military purposes and for scientific and industrial tests of hypervelocity impacts.

  19. View of Launcher #3 surface doors. Launcher #1 in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Launcher #3 surface doors. Launcher #1 in background. Image looking southwest - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. Characterization of the Ignition Over-Pressure/Sound Suppression Water in the Space Launch System Mobile Launcher Using Volume of Fluid Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Vehicle consists of a Core Stage with four RS-25 engines and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs). This vehicle is launched from the Launchpad using a Mobile Launcher (ML) which supports the SLS vehicle until its liftoff from the ML under its own power. The combination of the four RS-25 engines and two SRBs generate a significant Ignition Over-Pressure (IOP) and Acoustic Sound environment. One of the mitigations of these environments is the Ignition Over-Pressure/Sound Suppression (IOP/SS) subsystem installed on the ML. This system consists of six water nozzles located parallel to and 24 inches downstream of each SRB nozzle exit plane as well as 16 water nozzles located parallel to and 53 inches downstream of the RS-25 nozzle exit plane. During launch of the SLS vehicle, water is ejected through each water nozzle to reduce the intensity of the transient pressure environment imposed upon the SLS vehicle. While required for the mitigation of the transient pressure environment on the SLS vehicle, the IOP/SS subsystem interacts (possibly adversely) with other systems located on the Launch Pad. One of the other systems that the IOP/SS water is anticipated to interact with is the Hydrogen Burn-Off Igniter System (HBOI). The HBOI system's purpose is to ignite the unburned hydrogen/air mixture that develops in and around the nozzle of the RS-25 engines during engine start. Due to the close proximity of the water system to the HBOI system, the presence of the IOP/SS may degrade the effectiveness of the HBOI system. Another system that the IOP/SS water may interact with adversely is the RS-25 engine nozzles and the SRB nozzles. The adverse interaction anticipated is the wetting, to a significant degree, of the RS-25 nozzles resulting in substantial weight of ice forming and water present to a significant degree upstream of the SRB nozzle exit plane inside the nozzle itself, posing significant additional blockage of the effluent that exits the nozzle

  1. View of Launcher #3 surface doors. Launcher #1 in background ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Launcher #3 surface doors. Launcher #1 in background left, Launcher #2 in background right. Image looking west - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. Coilgun Launcher for Nanosatellites

    SciTech Connect

    Turman, B.N.

    1999-03-23

    Nanosatellite space launches could significantly benefit from an electrically powered launch complex, based on an electromagnetic coil launcher. This paper presents results of studies to estimate the required launcher parameters and some fixed facility issues. This study is based on electromagnetic launch, or electromagnetic gun technology, which is constrained to a coaxial geometry to take advantage of the efficiency of closely-coupled coils. A baseline configuration for analysis considers a payload mass of 10 kg, launch velocity of 6 km/s, a second stage solid booster for orbital insertion, and a payload fraction of about 0.1. The launch facility is envisioned as an inclined track, 1-2 km in length, mounted on a hillside at 25 degrees aimed in the orbital inclination of interest. The launcher energy and power requirements fall in the range of 2000 MJ and 2 MW electric. This energy would be supplied by 400 modules of energy storage and magnetic coils. With a prime power generator of 2 MW, a launch rate of some 200 satellites per day is possible. The launch requires high acceleration, so the satellite package must be hardened to launch acceleration on the order of 1000 gee. Parametric evaluations compare performance parameters for a launcher length of 1-2 km, exit velocity of 4-8 km/s, and payloads of 1-100 kg. The EM launch complex could greatly reduce the amount of fuels handling, reduce the turn-around time between launches, allow more concurrence in launch preparation, reduce the manpower requirements for launch vehicle preparation and increase the reliability of launch by using more standardized vehicle preparations. Most importantly, such a facility could reduce the cost per launch and could give true launch-on-demand capability for nanosatellites.

  3. Air-Powered Projectile Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, T.; Bjorklund, R. A.; Elliott, D. G.; Jones, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Air-powered launcher fires plastic projectiles without using explosive propellants. Does not generate high temperatures. Launcher developed for combat training for U.S. Army. With reservoir pressurized, air launcher ready to fire. When pilot valve opened, sleeve (main valve) moves to rear. Projectile rapidly propelled through barrel, pushed by air from reservoir. Potential applications in seismic measurements, avalanche control, and testing impact resistance of windshields on vehicles.

  4. Mobility of hard drug users: patterns and characteristics relevant for deconcentration of facilities.

    PubMed

    van de Mheen, Dike; van der Poel, Agnes; Lempens, Ankie; Maalsté, Nicole

    2007-06-01

    Mobility is related to problematic hard drug use. It remains unclear, however, to what extent the availability of care facilities attracts drug users. The aim of the study is to gain insight into the mobility of problematic hard drug users, with particular focus on the possibilities for deconcentration of facilities. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used: a survey and in-depth interviews with problematic hard drug users. The results show that the extent of mobility is not related to specific characteristics of the target group. The most relevant concepts related to possible deconcentration/displacement of problematic drug users are the nature of mobility and visibility of the users. A high level of mobility does not necessarily lead to more visibility and nuisance. Having a structured daily pattern (housing and/or working) largely determines visibility. More purposeful movement of drug users is associated with a lower level of visibility and nuisance. Mobility of users is strongly determined by the need to buy drugs. Low-threshold facilities are not a trigger for mobility as such, and need to be located near places where drug users stay and/or close to well-known dealing areas.

  5. Electromagnetic Meissner effect launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An electromagnetic projectile launcher provides acceleration of a superconducting projectile through the diamagnetic repulsion of the superconducting projectile. A superconducting layer is provided aft of the projectile, either directly on the projectile or on a platform upon which the projectile is carried, and a traveling magnetic field is caused to propagate along a magnetic field drive coil in which the projectile is disposed. The resulting diamagnetic repulsion between the superconducting projectile and the traveling magnetic field causes the projectile to be propelled along the coil. In one embodiment, a segmented drive coil is used to generate the traveling magnetic field.

  6. Magnetic reconnection launcher

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Maynard

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic launcher includes a plurality of electrical stages which are energized sequentially in synchrony with the passage of a projectile. Each stage of the launcher includes two or more coils which are arranged coaxially on either closed-loop or straight lines to form gaps between their ends. The projectile has an electrically conductive gap-portion that passes through all the gaps of all the stages in a direction transverse to the axes of the coils. The coils receive an electric current, store magnetic energy, and convert a significant portion of the stored magnetic energy into kinetic energy of the projectile by magnetic reconnection as the gap portion of the projectile moves through the gap. The magnetic polarity of the opposing coils is in the same direction, e.g. N-S-N-S. A gap portion of the projectile may be made from aluminum and is propelled by the reconnection of magnetic flux stored in the coils which causes accelerating forces to act upon the projectile at both the rear vertical surface of the projectile and at the horizontal surfaces of the projectile near its rear. The gap portion of the projectile may be flat, rectangular and longer than the length of the opposing coils and fit loosely within the gap between the opposing coils.

  7. Historic and Current Launcher Success Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, Randy

    2002-01-01

    This presentation reviews historic and current space launcher success rates from all nations with a mature launcher industry. Data from the 1950's through present day is reviewed for possible trends such as when in the launch timeline a failure occurred, which stages had the highest failure rate, overall launcher reliability, a decade by decade look at launcher reliability, when in a launchers history did failures occur, and the reliability of United States human-rated launchers. This information is useful in determining where launcher reliability can be improved and where additional measures for crew survival (i.e., Crew Escape systems) will have the greatest emphasis

  8. The SHARP scramjet launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Cartland, H.; Fiske, P.; Greenwood, R.; Hargiss, D.; Heston, P.; Hinsey, N.; Hunter, J.; Massey, W.

    1995-01-10

    The worlds largest light gas gun at SHARP (Super High Altitude Research Project) is completed and in the past year has launched 9 scramjets. Typical masses and velocities are 5.9 kg at 2.8 km/sec.and 4.4 kg at 3.1 km/sec. In so doing SHARP launched the first fully functioning, hydrogen burning scramjet at mach 8. The SHARP launcher is unique in having a 4 inch diameter and 155 foot-long barrel. This enables lower acceleration launches than any other system. In addition the facility can deliver high energy projectiles to targets in the open air without having to contain the impact fragments. This allows one to track lethality test debris for several thousand feet.

  9. The DSI small satellite launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, S.; Gibbons, D.; Wise, J.; Nguyen, D.

    1992-01-01

    A new launcher has been developed by DSI, that is compatible with the GAS canisters. It has the proven capability to deploy a satellite from an orbiting Shuttle that is 18 inches in diameter, 31 inches long, and weighing 190 pounds. These DSI Launchers were used aboard the Discovery (STS-39) in May 1991 as part of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) to deploy three small satellites known as Chemical Release Observation (CRO) satellites A, B, and C. Because the satellites contained hazardous liquids (MMH, UDMH, and MON-10) and were launched from GAS Cylinders without motorized doors, the launchers were required to pass NASA Shuttle Payload safety and verification requirements. Some of the more interesting components of the design were the V-band retention and separation mechanism, the separation springs, and the launcher electronics which provided a properly inhibited release sequence operated through the Small Payload Accommodations Switch Panel (SPASP) on board the Orbiter. The original plan for this launcher was to use a motorized door. The launcher electronics, therefore has the capability to be modified to accommodate the door, if desired.

  10. 32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER SLAB AND UNDERSIDE OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 21. VAL, DETAIL OF MUZZLE END OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VAL, DETAIL OF MUZZLE END OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE SHOWING BOTH LAUNCHER TUBES TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR LOOKING NORTH. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; GRUNLOH,H.J; ELLIS,R.A; GROSNICKLE,W.H; HUMPHREY,R.L

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future.

  13. 90. 22'X34' original blueprint, VariableAngle Launcher, 'FRONT ELEVATION OF LAUNCHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. 22'X34' original blueprint, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'FRONT ELEVATION OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE, CONNECTING BRIDGE AND BARGES' drawn at 1/4'=1'0'. (BUROD Sketch # 208247). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 89. 22'X34' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher 'ELEVATION OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. 22'X34' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher 'ELEVATION OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE ON TEMPORARY SUPPORT' drawn at 1'=20'. (BUORD Sketch # 209786, PAPW 1932). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Space transportation propulsion USSR launcher technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion U.S.S.R. launcher technology is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: Energia background (launch vehicle summary, Soviet launcher family) and Energia propulsion characteristics (booster propulsion, core propulsion, and growth capability).

  16. Control of an Aerospace Launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbiri, N.; Manseur, Z.

    2009-03-01

    This research is within the framework of the PERSEUS project proposed by the CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales). Its aim is to develop new concepts for the attitude control of space modules. This article presents a first study as well as the results of a robust LQG control system that allows stable and satisfactory performance for the attitude of a rigid launcher.

  17. Electromagnetic launchers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. M.; Gully, J. H.; Driga, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic launcher (EML) was designed for NASA-Langley to boost large models to hypervelocity for flight evaluation. Two different concepts were developed using railgun and coilgun principles. A coilgun was designed to accelerate a 14-kg mass to 6 km/s and, by adding additional equipment, to accelerate a 10-kg mass to 11 km/s. The railgun system was designed to accelerate only 14 kg to 6 km/s. Of significance in this development is the opportunity to use the launcher for aeroballistic research of the upper atmosphere, eventually placing packages in low earth orbit using a small rocket. The authors describe the railgun and coilgun launch designs and suggest a reconfiguration for placement of 150-kg parcels into low earth orbit for aeroballistic studies and possible space lab support. Each design is detailed along with the performance adjustments which would be required for circular orbit payload placement.

  18. A multiple armature railgun launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challita, Antonios; Maas, Brian L.; Bauer, David P.; Heyse, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Railgun launchers with multiple armatures, which can distribute the accelerating force on the projectile, supply each armature with gun current for acceleration through its own set of rails. Test results are reported which confirm the feasibility of this concept; it is shown that the control of current distribution to multiple armatures is possible. Attention is given to gun behavior for the case of high length/diameter projectiles.

  19. Traveling-wave induction launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of traveling-wave induction launchers shows that induction is a feasible method of producing armature current and that efficient accelerators can be built without sliding contacts or arcs. In a traveling-wave induction launcher the armature current is induced by a slip speed between the armature and a traveling magnetic field. At 9 m/s slip speed a 9 kg projectile with an aluminum armature weighing 25 percent of the total mass can be accelerated to 3000 m/s in a 5 m-long barrel with a total ohmic loss in the barrel coils and armature of 4 percent of the launch kinetic energy and with an average armature temperature rise of 220 deg C, but a peak excitation frequency of 8600 Hz is required. With a 2 kg launch mass the ohmic loss is 7 percent. A launcher system optimized for rotating generators would have a peak frequency of 4850 Hz; with an aluminum armature weighing 33 percent of the launch mass and a slip speed of 30 m/s the total ohmic loss in the generators, cables, and accelerator would be 43 percent of the launch kinetic energy, and the average armature temperature rise would be 510 deg C.

  20. An electomagnetic lunar launcher utilizing superconductivity technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilby, Curt; Nozette, Stewart; Kolm, Henry

    1989-01-01

    The application of superconductivity technology to the lunar launcher problem was considered, and a quenchgun concept was formulated to reduce the mass of the launcher system by incorporating the energy storage in the launcher itself and using the efficiency of the quenchgun to reduce the power requirements. A conceptual design for the quenchgun launcher is presented, and the integration of the system into a lunar base logistics model for evaluation is addressed. The results of these evaluations under the NASA Office of Exploration lunar base scenarios are reported.

  1. 26. VAL, DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR LAUNCHER BRIDGE, COUNTERWEIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VAL, DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR LAUNCHER BRIDGE, COUNTERWEIGHT CAR AND WINDSTAY WINCHES. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 48. VIEW ACROSS RESERVOIR OF SLOPE PREPARATION FOR VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. VIEW ACROSS RESERVOIR OF SLOPE PREPARATION FOR VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER (VAL) SLAB LOOKING NORTHEAST, November 6, 1946. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 24. VAL, CONTROL PANELS FOR LAUNCHER BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT CAR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VAL, CONTROL PANELS FOR LAUNCHER BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT CAR AND WINDSTAY WINCHES OVERLOOKING FIRING RANGE AND MORRIS DAM LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 25. VAL, DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR LAUNCHER BRIDGE, COUNTERWEIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VAL, DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR LAUNCHER BRIDGE, COUNTERWEIGHT CAR AND WINDSTAY WINCHES. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 18. VAL, DETAIL OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE ALONG THE SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VAL, DETAIL OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE ALONG THE SIDE OF THE 32' DIAMETER LAUNCHING TUBE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 46. VAL, DETAIL OF 'PILLOW BLOCK' WHERE LAUNCHER BRIDGE PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VAL, DETAIL OF 'PILLOW BLOCK' WHERE LAUNCHER BRIDGE PIN SAT AT THE TOP OF THE CONNECTING BRIDGE. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 1. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER (VAL) CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER (VAL) CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING CAMERA TOWER STRUCTURE LOOKING SOUTH AND ARCHED OPENING FOR ROADWAY. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 6. VAL LAUNCHER BRIDGE, CARRIAGE SUPPORT, CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VAL LAUNCHER BRIDGE, CARRIAGE SUPPORT, CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE AND CAMERA TOWER LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING WEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 17. VAL PROJECTILE LOADING DECK AND BREECH END OF LAUNCHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VAL PROJECTILE LOADING DECK AND BREECH END OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTH. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 49. DETAIL VIEW OF SLOPE PREPARATION FOR VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER SLAB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. DETAIL VIEW OF SLOPE PREPARATION FOR VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER SLAB LOOKING NORTH, November 6, 1946. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Hypervelocity Launcher for Aerothermodynamic Experiments. Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, Timothy J.; Bauer, David P.

    1995-01-01

    The capability of an Ultra Distributed Energy Store System (UDESS) powered electromagnetic launcher (EM) is experimentally assessed. The UDESS system was developed specifically to address the velocity speed limit seen in plasma armature EM launchers. Metal armature launch packages were also developed and tested to assess the usefulness of the UDESS concept for low velocity applications.

  13. Finding HIV in Hard to Reach Populations: Mobile HIV Testing and Geospatial Mapping in Umlazi Township, Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Regan, Susan; Mbonambi, Hlengiwe; Blossom, Jeffrey; Bogan, Stacy; Bearnot, Benjamin; Robine, Marion; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Mhlongo, Bright; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Thulare, Hilary; Losina, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Mobile, community-based HIV testing may help achieve universal HIV testing in South Africa. We compared the yield, geographic distribution, and demographic characteristics of populations tested by mobile- and clinic-based HIV testing programs deployed by iThembalabantu Clinic in Durban, South Africa. From July–November 2011, 4,701 subjects were tested; HIV prevalence was 35% among IPHC testers and 10% among mobile testers (p<0.001). Mobile testers varied in mean age (22–37 years) and % males (26–67%). HIV prevalence at mobile sites ranged from 0% to 26%. Testers traveled further than the clinic closest to their home; mobile testers were more likely to test ≥ 5 km away from home. Mobile HIV testing can improve testing access and identify testing sites with high HIV prevalence. Individuals often access mobile testing sites farther from home than their nearest clinic. Geospatial techniques can help optimize deployment of mobile units to maximize yield in hard-to-reach populations. PMID:25874754

  14. Modeling of an Implosion Driven Hypervelocity Launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew; Szirti, Daniel; Batchelor, Patrick; Zhang, Fan; Tanguay, Vincent

    2007-06-01

    Modelling work carried out on the implosion driven launcher under concurrent development is presented. The launcher consists of a thin walled metal tube surrounded by explosive which when detonated pinches the tube shut and drives a strong shock into the projectile. The commercial hydrocode LS-DYNA was used to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the design parameters of the launcher and their effect on implosion dynamics and performance. These parameters include fill pressure, tube diameter, explosive layer thickness, and explosives tampering. The launcher is primarily modeled using a quasi 2D Arbitrary Langrage Euler formulation. A full 3-D axisymmetric model is also employed. The model is evaluated against experimental data previously collected. Additional developmental work on a second stage launcher taking advantage of a phase velocity between the imploding tube and explosives via the use of angled flyer plates and cones is also carried out.

  15. Mobile hard substrata - An additional biodiversity source in a high latitude shallow subtidal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazy, Piotr; Kuklinski, Piotr

    2013-03-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of a hard mobile substratum (hermit crab shells) for Arctic biodiversity. Based on previous observations from other geographic regions we hypothesized that this niche at high latitudes would support a higher biodiversity of epifauna than might be predicted from similar substrata. We test whether the hermit crab epifauna is specific to that substratum providing unique biodiversity components to the local community. From four study sites in Isfjorden (78°N), West Spitsbergen and two study sites in Northern Norway (69°N) we collected approximately 50 each of hermit crabs, gastropods and pebbles, of visually similar surface area using SCUBA diving. Hermit crab shells were colonized by a larger number of epifaunal species than either gastropods or pebbles, even when they were of a larger size. Among 87 taxa found on all the three substrata, 22 occurred only on hermit crab shells. Except for two study sites hermit crab shells also supported more individuals. This study shows that the contribution of shells carried by hermit crabs to high-latitude, shallow-subtidal diversity is higher than might be predicted by their surface area alone and that hermit crabs modify, maintain and create a unique habitat. This is the result of a number of factors interacting positively on the presence of epifauna including shell surface heterogeneity and the complex influence of the crab host.

  16. The enhanced ASDEX Upgrade pellet centrifuge launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Plöckl, B.; Lang, P. T.

    2013-10-15

    Pellets played an important role in the program of ASDEX Upgrade serving both for investigations on efficient particle fuelling and high density scenarios but also for pioneering work on Edge Localised Mode (ELM) pacing and mitigation. Initially designed for launching fuelling pellets from the magnetic low field side, the system was converted already some time ago to inject pellets from the magnetic high field side as much higher fuelling efficiency was found using this configuration. In operation for more than 20 years, the pellet launching system had to undergo a major revision and upgrading, in particular of its control system. Furthermore, the control system installed adjacent to the launcher had to be transferred to a more distant location enforcing a complete galvanic separation from torus potential and a fully remote control solution. Changing from a hybrid system consisting of PLC S5/S7 and some hard wired relay control to a state of the art PLC system allowed the introduction of several new operational options enabling more flexibility in the pellet experiments. This article describes the new system architecture of control hardware and software, the operating procedure, and the extended operational window. First successful applications for ELM pacing and triggering studies are presented as well as utilization for the development of high density scenarios.

  17. The enhanced ASDEX Upgrade pellet centrifuge launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöckl, B.; Lang, P. T.

    2013-10-01

    Pellets played an important role in the program of ASDEX Upgrade serving both for investigations on efficient particle fuelling and high density scenarios but also for pioneering work on Edge Localised Mode (ELM) pacing and mitigation. Initially designed for launching fuelling pellets from the magnetic low field side, the system was converted already some time ago to inject pellets from the magnetic high field side as much higher fuelling efficiency was found using this configuration. In operation for more than 20 years, the pellet launching system had to undergo a major revision and upgrading, in particular of its control system. Furthermore, the control system installed adjacent to the launcher had to be transferred to a more distant location enforcing a complete galvanic separation from torus potential and a fully remote control solution. Changing from a hybrid system consisting of PLC S5/S7 and some hard wired relay control to a state of the art PLC system allowed the introduction of several new operational options enabling more flexibility in the pellet experiments. This article describes the new system architecture of control hardware and software, the operating procedure, and the extended operational window. First successful applications for ELM pacing and triggering studies are presented as well as utilization for the development of high density scenarios.

  18. 30. VAL LOOKING DOWN THE LAUNCHER SLAB STAIRS AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VAL LOOKING DOWN THE LAUNCHER SLAB STAIRS AT THE PROJECTILE LOADING CAR AND LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO THE PROJECTILE LOADING DECK AND LAUNCHER BRIDGE. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Technology demonstration for reusable launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiocco, P.; Bonnal, Ch.

    2016-03-01

    Reusable launchers have been studied under CNES contracts for more than 30 years, with early concepts such as STS-2000 or Oriflamme, more recently with very significant efforts devoted to Liquid Fly Back Boosters as with the Bargouzin project led with Tsniimash, TSTO with the Everest concept studied by Airbus-DS as prime contractor or the RFS Reusable First Stage concept of a large first stage associated to a cryotechnic second stage. These investigations, summarized in the first part of the paper, enabled CNES to identify clearly the technology requirements associated to reusability, as well as cost efficiency through detailed non-recurring costs and mission costs analysis. In parallel, CNES set in place development logic for sub-systems and equipment based on demonstrators, hardware test benches enabling maturation of technologies up to a TRL such that an actual development can be decided with limited risk. This philosophy has been applied so far to a large number of cases, such as TPTech and TPX for Hydrogen turbo pump, GGPX as demonstrator of innovative gas generator, HX demonstrator of modern cryotechnic upper stage with a dozen of different objectives (Thermal Protection, 20K Helium storage, measurements …). This virtuous approach, "learn as you test", is currently applied in the phased approach towards scaled down reusable booster stage, whose possibility to be used as first stage of a microlaunch vehicle is under investigation. The selected technologies allow paving the way towards reusable booster stages for Ariane 6 evolutions or main reusable stage for a further generation of heavy launchers. The paper describes the logic behind this project, together with the demonstration objectives set for the various sub-systems as well as operations.

  20. Study of new materials for railgun launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Poltanov, A.; Jygailo, N.; Bykov, M.; Glinov, A.; Svobodov, A.; Belyakov, A.; Chernetskaya, N.

    1997-01-01

    The description of new materials which can be used in railgun launchers is presented. Mo-W compositions in the Cu matrix, binary composites with anisotropic conductivity, ceramics and ceramic covers have been studied as materials for rails, solid armature and insulator respectively. The tests have been conducted on a 1m long railgun launcher with a section of the bore 10mm x 10mm using a current with the amplitude 350--400 kA. Main test results are demonstrated.

  1. A multiple armature railgun launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyse, Mark W.; Challita, Antonios; Maas, Brian L.; Bauer, David P.

    1993-01-01

    As longer projectiles are accelerated, the efficiency (projectile mass/launch mass) of the launch package decreases. The reduction in efficiency makes launching projectiles with a L/D (length-to-diameter ratio) greater than 20 undesirable. EM guns have several launch characteristics that differ from conventional guns. Higher launch velocities are achievable in EM guns because sonic gas velocities do not limit the projectile velocity. Acceleration profiles for EM guns are more constant. The acceleration forces can be distributed on the projectile easily because the accelerating force can be distributed with multiple armatures. These characteristics combine to make EN guns a very attractive approach for launching very long (i.e.. high L/D ratio) projectiles. Railgun launchers with multiple armatures can distribute the accelerating force. Each armature is supplied gun current for acceleration through its own set of rails. This multi-rail, multi-armature concept was tested at the railgun test facility. The results demonstrated feasibility. We were able to control current distribution to multiple armatures. This paper describes the theory and test results for multi-armature launch of high L/D projectiles.

  2. Does Mobility Have to Mean Being Hard to Reach? Mobile Pastoralists and Education's "Terms of Inclusion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Nomadic groups are highly discriminated against in access to education services, and the 2010 Education For All Global Monitoring Report demanded urgent action to address their education deprivation. Mobile pastoralists, particularly, appear to be falling beyond the remit of migration studies in education, although they are among the most mobile…

  3. Comparative modelling of lower hybrid current drive with two launcher designs in the Tore Supra tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, E.; Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Artaud, J.-F.; Ekedahl, A.; Hillairet, J.; Aniel, T.; Basiuk, V.; Goniche, M.; Imbeaux, F.; Mazon, D.; Sharma, P.

    2013-08-01

    Fully non-inductive operation with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in the Tore Supra tokamak is achieved using either a fully active multijunction (FAM) launcher or a more recent ITER-relevant passive active multijunction (PAM) launcher, or both launchers simultaneously. While both antennas show comparable experimental efficiencies, the analysis of stability properties in long discharges suggest different current profiles. We present comparative modelling of LHCD with the two different launchers to characterize the effect of the respective antenna spectra on the driven current profile. The interpretative modelling of LHCD is carried out using a chain of codes calculating, respectively, the global discharge evolution (tokamak simulator METIS), the spectrum at the antenna mouth (LH coupling code ALOHA), the LH wave propagation (ray-tracing code C3PO), and the distribution function (3D Fokker-Planck code LUKE). Essential aspects of the fast electron dynamics in time, space and energy are obtained from hard x-ray measurements of fast electron bremsstrahlung emission using a dedicated tomographic system. LHCD simulations are validated by systematic comparisons between these experimental measurements and the reconstructed signal calculated by the code R5X2 from the LUKE electron distribution. An excellent agreement is obtained in the presence of strong Landau damping (found under low density and high-power conditions in Tore Supra) for which the ray-tracing model is valid for modelling the LH wave propagation. Two aspects of the antenna spectra are found to have a significant effect on LHCD. First, the driven current is found to be proportional to the directivity, which depends upon the respective weight of the main positive and main negative lobes and is particularly sensitive to the density in front of the antenna. Second, the position of the main negative lobe in the spectrum is different for the two launchers. As this lobe drives a counter-current, the resulting

  4. 1. MORRIS DAM TEST FACILITY (MDTF) AND VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MORRIS DAM TEST FACILITY (MDTF) AND VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER AS SEEN FROM STATE HIGHWAY 39 NEAR MORRIS DAM LOOKING EAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. The rise of the mobile phone in the hard drug scene of Rotterdam.

    PubMed

    Barendregt, Cas; van der Poel, Agnes; van de Mheen, Dike

    2006-03-01

    The rise of mobile phone dealing in the retail market of heroin and cocaine in the city of Rotterdam is described. Multiple methods were used for the study, including analysis of street survey data (1998, 2000, 2003), qualitative and quantitative analysis of fieldwork data, and semi-open interviews with drug users and key informants. In 2000, 70% of the respondents to a street survey bought drugs from a mobile dealer. Qualitative data showed that the majority of mobile dealers have an ethnic Moroccan background; the reasons for this may include the ambiguous attitude of the Moroccan community towards drug crime, and repressive legislation causing the market to find alternatives for basic street dealing. The rise of mobile dealing is discussed as a form of reshaping of the drug market under prohibition.

  6. Future reusable space launcher systems - A European view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Rudi G.

    Plans for future, reusable space launcher systems in Europe, beyond Ariane V/Hermes, are discussed. A family of launch vehicles, known as the European Advanced Rocket Launchers (EARLs), is presented. Technical and performance data for the EARL concept are given and the cost of development and operating the launchers is estimated. Also, the EARL concept is compared with other planned and existing concepts, including the Saenger launcher.

  7. 79. VIEW OF VAL FIRING RANGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING LAUNCHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. VIEW OF VAL FIRING RANGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING LAUNCHER BRIDGE, BARGES, SONAR BUOY RANGE AND MORRIS DAM IN BACKGROUND, June 10, 1948. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Distributed data fusion across multiple hard and soft mobile sensor platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsley, Gregory

    is a younger field than centralized fusion. The main issues in distributed fusion that are addressed are distributed classification and distributed tracking. There are several well established methods for performing distributed fusion that are first reviewed. The chapter on distributed fusion concludes with a multiple unmanned vehicle collaborative test involving an unmanned aerial vehicle and an unmanned ground vehicle. The third issue this thesis addresses is that of soft sensor only data fusion. Soft-only fusion is a newer field than centralized or distributed hard sensor fusion. Because of the novelty of the field, the chapter on soft only fusion contains less background information and instead focuses on some new results in soft sensor data fusion. Specifically, it discusses a novel fuzzy logic based soft sensor data fusion method. This new method is tested using both simulations and field measurements. The biggest issue addressed in this thesis is that of combined hard and soft fusion. Fusion of hard and soft data is the newest area for research in the data fusion community; therefore, some of the largest theoretical contributions in this thesis are in the chapter on combined hard and soft fusion. This chapter presents a novel combined hard and soft data fusion method based on random set theory, which processes random set data using a particle filter. Furthermore, the particle filter is designed to be distributed across multiple robots and portable computers (used by human observers) so that there is no centralized failure point in the system. After laying out a theoretical groundwork for hard and soft sensor data fusion the thesis presents practical applications for hard and soft sensor data fusion in simulation. Through a series of three progressively more difficult simulations, some important hard and soft sensor data fusion capabilities are demonstrated. The first simulation demonstrates fusing data from a single soft sensor and a single hard sensor in

  9. Distributed data fusion across multiple hard and soft mobile sensor platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsley, Gregory

    is a younger field than centralized fusion. The main issues in distributed fusion that are addressed are distributed classification and distributed tracking. There are several well established methods for performing distributed fusion that are first reviewed. The chapter on distributed fusion concludes with a multiple unmanned vehicle collaborative test involving an unmanned aerial vehicle and an unmanned ground vehicle. The third issue this thesis addresses is that of soft sensor only data fusion. Soft-only fusion is a newer field than centralized or distributed hard sensor fusion. Because of the novelty of the field, the chapter on soft only fusion contains less background information and instead focuses on some new results in soft sensor data fusion. Specifically, it discusses a novel fuzzy logic based soft sensor data fusion method. This new method is tested using both simulations and field measurements. The biggest issue addressed in this thesis is that of combined hard and soft fusion. Fusion of hard and soft data is the newest area for research in the data fusion community; therefore, some of the largest theoretical contributions in this thesis are in the chapter on combined hard and soft fusion. This chapter presents a novel combined hard and soft data fusion method based on random set theory, which processes random set data using a particle filter. Furthermore, the particle filter is designed to be distributed across multiple robots and portable computers (used by human observers) so that there is no centralized failure point in the system. After laying out a theoretical groundwork for hard and soft sensor data fusion the thesis presents practical applications for hard and soft sensor data fusion in simulation. Through a series of three progressively more difficult simulations, some important hard and soft sensor data fusion capabilities are demonstrated. The first simulation demonstrates fusing data from a single soft sensor and a single hard sensor in

  10. Impurity Radiation From The LHCD Launcher During Operation In JET And Investigation Of Launcher Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirov, K. K.; Mailloux, J.; Lhcd Team; Jet Efda Contributors

    2005-09-01

    In this study, the most likely causes of the enhanced radiation in front of the LHCD launcher are investigated: fast ions from the warm plasma, fast electrons parasitically accelerated in front of the grill and arcs. Evidence for the presence of each of these mechanisms is discussed. The experimental conditions favouring the appearance of these phenomena and their impact on the launcher have also been highlighted.

  11. Ariane 5 - A new launcher for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte-Weywada, H.; Raillon, E.

    The design characteristics of the Ariane 5 launcher system are described. The launcher consists of three separate stages, with the two stages of the lower section operating in parallel, and an upper section comprising the third stage, Vehicle Equipment Bay (VEB) payload, and nose fairing. The lower section is driven by an HM60 motor and two solid propellant boosters similar to those of the Shuttle. The two boosters are arranged on either side of the second stage and provide a thrust of 900 tons on liftoff. The upper stage incorporates a spherical tank design containing the same LOX fuel used in the lower section. The storable propellant third stage of the Ariane 5 is driven by an MMH/N2O4 motor delivering between 10 and 15 kN thrust. The MMH/N2O4 propellant is contained in two small spherical tanks. Commencement of actual production of the Ariane 5 launcher and the MH60 motor is scheduled for mid-1986 in order to achieve ground qualifications by the middle of 1993 with test flights starting in 1994. Detailed line drawings of the fuel tanks, motors, and fairings of the separate launcher stages are provided.

  12. Electromagnetic coilgun launcher for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Turman, B.N.; Lipinski, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    A ground-based electrically-powered launcher could significantly reduce the complexity and cost of space launches for moderate-weight payloads. The EM launch complex could greatly reduce the amount of fuels handling, reduce the turnaround time between launches, allow more concurrence in launch preparation, reduce the manpower requirements for launch vehicle preparation and increase the reliability of launch by using more standardized vehicle preparations. The launch requires high acceleration, so the satellite package must be hardened. This paper presents results of a study to estimate the required launcher parameters, and estimate the cost of such a launch facility. This study is based on electromagnetic gun technology which is constrained to a coaxial geometry to take advantage of the efficiency of closely-coupled coils. The launcher energy and power requirements fall in the range of 40 {minus} 260 GJ and 20 {minus} 400 GW electric. Parametric evaluations have been conducted with a launcher length of 1-2 km, exit velocity of 1-6 kn/s, and payloads to low earth orbit of 100 1000 kg.

  13. External wave launcher study. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, K.G.

    1986-06-26

    The overall purpose of this study is to explore the applicability of dielectric filled waveguide launchers to couple ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) power to magnetically confined plasma. The major advantage of dielectric filled launchers is that the geometrical dimensions of a waveguide launcher required to accommodate an electromagnetic wave of any given frequency can be reduced by the square root of the relative permittivity of the dielectric compared to air or vacuum waveguide dimensions. However, removal of the intense heat load deposited by 14 MeV neutrons in a solid dielectric filled waveguide heating system in close proximity to a fusion reactor presents several major problems: Heat is distributed throughout the volume of solid dielectric by energetic neutrons, which necessitates that a substantial fraction of the dielectric filled waveguide must be occupied by channels containing liquid coolant to remove the heat. The uniformity of the internal dielectric media of the waveguide is disrupted, and electromagnetic waves in the guide will be reflected and scattered at the discontinuities. It is highly questionable that a waveguide or waveguide launcher constructed in this manner will be an efficient means of transmitting ICRF power. This circumstance leads to employing liquid dielectrics which could satisfy both electromagnetic and coolant requirements of ICRF auxiliary launching systems simultaneously. Additionally, liquid dielectrics facilitate the motion of tuning structures through the media and preserve its dielectric uniformity in contrast to the tuning restrictions imposed by solid dielectrics in this regard.

  14. A Cost Effective Automatic Balloon Launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Berrigan J. Michael

    2000-06-08

    Approximately 800,000 balloon-borne radiosondes are hand-launched each year, a cost and labor-intensive procedure. Development of a low-cost Automatic Radiosonde Launcher would allow the manual procedure to be replaced with a reliable and less expensive process. Balloon-borne radiosondes provide essential meteorological data used by forecasters and researchers around the globe. The National Weather service alone launches tens of thousands of sondes from sites across the US. Although worldwide launching of radiosondes has been done for many years, it remains a labor intensive and therefore expensive operation. Using its own funding and, more recently with the help of a Phase I SBIR grant, Visidyne, Inc. has begun investigating the feasibility of building an Automatic Radiosonde Launcher (ARL) that can be built at a cost that will be acceptable to the commercial marketplace. That work has led to the issuing of four patents covering important innovations that will allow us to meet that goal. Under the recent Phase I effort, solutions to many of the key problems have been tested in the laboratory and in real-world demonstrations in the field. The balloon filling, battery wetting, and launch release mechanisms were designed, built, and tested. A breadboard launcher was constructed and tested to prove feasibility of key system elements. Demonstration launches of radiosondes were performed using the breadboard launcher from the National Weather Service facility in Gray, ME, and from Hanscom AFB in Lexington, MA. The cost and size of a full scale shelter prevented us from building one during Phase I, however, we do have a design that will accomplish our goals. The Automatic Radiosonde Launcher will significantly reduce the cost of launching balloon-borne instruments. US and foreign weather services and atmospheric, climatological, and meteorological researchers will all benefit from this innovation.

  15. SIDON: A simulator of radio-frequency networks. Application to WEST ICRF launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helou, Walid; Dumortier, Pierre; Durodié, Frédéric; Goniche, Marc; Hillairet, Julien; Mollard, Patrick; Berger-By, Gilles; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Colas, Laurent; Lombard, Gilles; Maggiora, Riccardo; Magne, Roland; Milanesio, Daniele; Moreau, Didier

    2015-12-01

    SIDON (SImulator of raDiO-frequency Networks) is an in-house developed Radio-Frequency (RF) network solver that has been implemented to cross-validate the design of WEST ICRF launchers and simulate their impedance matching algorithm while considering all mutual couplings and asymmetries. In this paper, the authors illustrate the theory of SIDON as well as results of its calculations. The authors have built time-varying plasma scenarios (a sequence of launchers front-faces L-mode and H-mode Z-matrices), where at each time step (1 millisecond here), SIDON solves the RF network. At the same time, when activated, the impedance matching algorithm controls the matching elements (vacuum capacitors) and thus their corresponding S-matrices. Typically a 1-second pulse requires around 10 seconds of computational time on a desktop computer. These tasks can be hardly handled by commercial RF software. This innovative work allows identifying strategies for the launchers future operation while insuring the limitations on the currents, voltages and electric fields, matching and Load-Resilience, as well as the required straps voltage amplitude/phase balance. In this paper, a particular attention is paid to the simulation of the launchers behavior when arcs appear at several locations of their circuits using SIDON calculator. This latter work shall confirm or identify strategies for the arc detection using various RF electrical signals. One shall note that the use of such solvers in not limited to ICRF launchers simulations but can be employed, in principle, to any linear or linearized RF problem.

  16. Future launchers strategy : the ariane 2010 initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnal, Ch.; Eymard, M.; Soccodato, C.

    2001-03-01

    With the new cryogenic upper stage ESC, the European heavy launcher Ariane 5+ is perfectly suited to the space market envisioned for the coming decade: flexible to cope with any payload and commercially attractive despite a fierce competition. Current Arianespace projections for the following years 2010-2020 indicate two major trends: satellites may still become larger and may require very different final orbits; today's market largely dominated by GEO may well evolve, influenced by LEO operations such as those linked to ISS or by constellations, to remain competitive, the launch cost has to be reduced. The future generation of the European heavy launcher has therefore to focus on an ever increased flexibility with a drastic cost reduction. Two strategies are possible to achieve this double goal: reusable launchers, either partially or totally, may ease the access to space, limiting costly expendable stages; the assessment of their technical feasibility and financial viability is undergoing in Europe under the Future Launchers Technology Program (FLTP), expendable launchers, derived from the future Ariane 5+. This second way started by CNES at the end of year 1999 is called the "Ariane 2010 initiative". The main objectives are simultaneously an increase of 25% in performance and a reduction of 30% in launch cost wrt Ariane 5+. To achieve these very ambitious goals, numerous major modifications are studied: technical improvements : modifications of the Solid Rocket Boosters may consist in filament winding casing, increased loading, simplified casting, improved grain, simplified Thrust Vector Control, … evolution of the Vulcain engine leading to higher efficiency despite a simplified design, flow separation controlled nozzle extension, propellant management of the two cryogenic stages, simplified electrical system, increased standardization, for instance on flanged interfaces and manufacturing processes, operational improvements such as launch cycle simplification

  17. Three-phase hypervelocity projectile launcher

    DOEpatents

    Fugelso, L. Erik; Langner, Gerald C.; Burns, Kerry L.; Albright, James N.

    1994-01-01

    A hypervelocity projectile launcher for use in perforating borehole casings provides improved penetration into the surrounding rock structure. The launcher includes a first cylinder of explosive material that defines an axial air-filled cavity, a second cylinder of explosive material defining an axial frustum-shaped cavity abutting and axially aligned with the first cylinder. A pliant washer is located between and axially aligned with the first and second cylinders. The frustum shaped cavity is lined with a metal liner effective to form a projectile when the first and second cylinders are detonated. The washer forms a unique intermediate projectile in advance of the liner projectile and enables the liner projectile to further penetrate into and fracture the adjacent rock structure.

  18. Nondestructive inspection of a composite missile launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, O.; Chung, S.; Butera, M.; Valatka, T.; Triplett, M. H.; Godinez, V.

    2012-05-01

    Lighter weight alternatives are being sought to replace metallic components currently used in high performance aviation and missile systems. Benefits of lightweight, high strength carbon fiber reinforced composites in missile launchers and rocket motor cases include improved fuel economy, increased flight times, enhanced lethality and/or increased velocity. In this work, various nondestructive inspection techniques are investigated for the damage assessment of a composite missile launcher system for use in U.S. Army attack helicopters. The launcher system, which includes rails and a hardback, can be subject to impact damage from accidental tool drops, routine operation, and/or ballistic threats. The composite hardback and the launch rails both have complex geometries that can challenge the inspection process. Scanning techniques such as line scanning thermography, ultrasonic, and acousto-ultrasonics will be used and compared to determine damage detection accuracy, reliability, and efficiency. Results will also be compared with visual observations to determine if there is a correlation. The goal is to establish an inspection method that quickly and accurately assesses damage extent in order to minimize service time and return the missile system back into the field [1].

  19. Final Report Advanced Quasioptical Launcher System

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Neilson

    2010-04-30

    This program developed an analytical design tool for designing antenna and mirror systems to convert whispering gallery RF modes to Gaussian or HE11 modes. Whispering gallery modes are generated by gyrotrons used for electron cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. These modes cannot be easily transmitted and must be converted to free space or waveguide modes compatible with transmission line systems.This program improved the capability of SURF3D/LOT, which was initially developed in a previous SBIR program. This suite of codes revolutionized quasi-optical launcher design, and this code, or equivalent codes, are now used worldwide. This program added functionality to SURF3D/LOT to allow creating of more compact launcher and mirror systems and provide direct coupling to corrugated waveguide within the vacuum envelope of the gyrotron. Analysis was also extended to include full-wave analysis of mirror transmission line systems. The code includes a graphical user interface and is available for advanced design of launcher systems.

  20. INPAGN_Launcher_V3.DLL

    2007-05-01

    INPAGN_Launcher_v3.DLL is a preprocessor and postprocessor used to integrate the INPAG-N code (Monitor Scientific, LLC) with the GoldSim{trademark} code (GoldSim Technology Group, LLC). The program is intended as a DLL for use with a GoldSim{trademark} model file. The code is executed through a call from the GoldSim.exe during runtime. The code allocates parameters to memory to receive data from subsequent calls from goldsim.exe when the model is run. The goldsim.exe passes input values to themore » INPAGN_Launcher_v3.DLL during runtime, which comprise a single array of values (Appendix C, GoldSim Users Guide, GoldSim Technology Group, 2006). The DLL parses the GoldSim array in (*) into the allocated memory and then writes a new INPAG-N input file using the values passed by goldsim.exe. This software is used as part of a modeling package that consists of INPAGN.EXE, INPAGNH.EXE, INPAGNHI.EXE, INPAGNV2.EXE, INPAGNV21.EXE, GoldSim{trademark}, and INPAGN_Launcher_v3.DLL.« less

  1. Photographic copy of photograph, view of rail launcher used for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, view of rail launcher used for 'Baby Corporal E' missiles on 6 and 7 May 1946 at JPL-Muroc Army Air Base (later Edwards Air Force Base) (This launcher was also used for 'Baby WAC' missiles at Goldstone, Fort Irwin, California in 1945). Photocopy of 35mm photograph made in December 1994, looking west with Test Stand 'A' immediately behind the rail launcher. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Multirail electromagnetic launcher powered from a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, A. G.; Butov, V. G.; Panchenko, V. P.; Sinyaev, S. V.; Solonenko, V. A.; Shvetsov, G. A.; Yakushev, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    The operation of an electromagnetic multirail launcher of solids powered from a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator is studied. The plasma flow in the channel of the pulsed MHD generator and the possibility of launching solids in a rapid-fire mode of launcher operation are considered. It is shown that this mode of launcher operation can be implemented by matching the plasma flow dynamics in the channel of the pulsed MHD generator and the launching conditions. It is also shown that powerful pulsed MHD generators can be used as a source of electrical energy for rapid-fire electromagnetic rail launchers operating in a burst mode.

  3. 94. 22'X34' original blueprint, VariableAngle Launcher, 'MAIN RAIL' drawn at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. 22'X34' original blueprint, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'MAIN RAIL' drawn at 1'=1'-0'. (BUORD Sketch # 207406). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 23. VIEW DOWN INTO LAUNCHER AND FLAME BUCKET FROM STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW DOWN INTO LAUNCHER AND FLAME BUCKET FROM STATION 48 IN SLC-3W MST. NOTE REMOVABLE METAL PLANKS BELOW LAUNCHER AND ROPE NET OVER FLAME BUCKET. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 1. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING NORTH TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 7. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER DEDICATION PLAQUE SHOWING JAMES H. JENNISON (LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER DEDICATION PLAQUE SHOWING JAMES H. JENNISON (LEFT), AND W.H. SAYLOR (RIGHT), AT THE DEDICATION CEREMONY, May 7, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. A hypervelocity projectile launcher for well perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J.N.; Fugelso, L.E.; Lagner, G.C.; Burns, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Current oil well perforation techniques use low- to medium-velocity gun launchers for completing wells in soft rock. Shaped-charge jets are normally used in harder, more competent rock. A device to create a much higher velocity projectile was designed. This launcher will provide an alternative technique to be used when the conventional devices do not yield the maximum well performance. It is an adaptation of the axial cavity in a high explosive (HE) annulus design, with the axial cavity being filled with a low density foam material. Two configurations were tested; both had an HE annulus filled with organic foam, one had a projectile. Comparison of the two shots was made. A time sequence of Image Intensifier Camera photographs and sequential, orthogonal flash x-ray radiographs provided information on the propagation of the foam fragments, the first shock wave disturbance, the projectile motion and deformation, and the direct shock wave transmission from the main HE charge. DYNA2D calculations were made to assist in the experimental interpretation. 25 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Non-US electrodynamic launchers research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.; Batteh, J.H.; Greig, J.R.; Keefer, D.; McNab, I.R.; Zabar, Z.

    1994-11-01

    Electrodynamic launcher research and development work of scientists outside the United States is analyzed and assessed by six internationally recognized US experts in the field of electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers. The assessment covers five broad technology areas: (1) Experimental railguns; (2) Railgun theory and design; (3) Induction launchers; (4) Electrothermal guns; (5) Energy storage and power supplies. The overall conclusion is that non-US work on electrodynamic launchers is maturing rapidly after a relatively late start in many countries. No foreign program challenges the US efforts in scope, but it is evident that the United States may be surpassed in some technologies within the next few years. Until recently, published Russian work focused on hypervelocity for research purposes. Within the last two years, large facilities have been described where military-oriented development has been underway since the mid-1980s. Financial support for these large facilities appears to have collapsed, leaving no effective effort to develop practical launchers for military or civilian applications. Electrodynamic launcher research in Europe is making rapid progress by focusing on a single application, tactical launchers for the military. Four major laboratories, in Britain, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, are working on this problem. Though narrower in scope than the US effort, the European work enjoys a continuity of support that has accelerated its progress. The next decade will see the deployment of electrodynamic launcher technology, probably in the form of an electrothermal-chemical upgrade for an existing gun system. The time scale for deployment of electromagnetic launchers is entirely dependent on the level of research-and-development effort. If resources remain limited, the advantage will lie with cooperative efforts that have reasonably stable funding such as the present French-German program.

  9. Infrared tracker for a portable missile launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.

    1993-07-13

    An infrared beam tracker is described for arrangement to a housing that is unitary with a portable missile launcher, comprising: a rotating beam splitter positioned to intercept the infrared beam passing a first portion of the beam through the beam splitter along a first direction and reflecting the remaining portion along a different direction; a first infrared detector for receiving the beam reflected portion from the beam splitter and produce electric signals responsive thereto; a second infrared detector for receiving the beam portion that passes through the beam splitter and providing electric signals responsive thereto; and means interconnected to the first and second infrared detectors and responsive to the electric signals generated by said detectors for determining errors in missile flight direction and communicating course correction information to the missile.

  10. Non-Rocket Missile Rope Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The method, installation, and estimation for delivering payload and missiles into outer space are presented. This method uses, in general, the engines and straight or closed-loop cables disposed on a planet surface. The installation consists of a space apparatus, power drive stations located along trajectory of the apparatus, the cables connected to the apparatus and to the power stations, a system for suspending the cable, and disconnected device. The drive stations accelerate the apparatus up to hypersonic speed. The estimations and computations show the possibility of making these projects a reality in a short period of time (see attached project: launcher for missiles and loads). The launch will be very cheap $1-$2 per LB. We need only light strong cable, which can be made from artificial fibers, whiskers, nanotubes, which exist in industry and scientific laboratories.

  11. Shuttle Hitchhiker Experiment Launcher System (SHELS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daelemans, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP), in partnership with the United States Air Force and NASA's Explorer Program, is developing a Shuttle based launch system called SHELS (Shuttle Hitchhiker Experiment Launcher System), which shall be capable of launching up to a 400 pound spacecraft from the Shuttle cargo bay. SHELS consists of a Marman band clamp push-plate ejection system mounted to a launch structure; the launch structure is mounted to one Orbiter sidewall adapter beam. Avionics mounted to the adapter beam will interface with Orbiter electrical services and provide optional umbilical services and ejection circuitry. SHELS provides an array of manifesting possibilities to a wide range of satellites.

  12. 56. VIEW OF LAUNCHER FROM SOUTHWEST. NITROGEN CONTROL UNIT ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. VIEW OF LAUNCHER FROM SOUTHWEST. NITROGEN CONTROL UNIT ON RIGHT; UMBILICAL MAST ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. The XLLGG — A Hypervelocity Launcher for Impact Cratering Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lexow, B.; Bückle, A.; Wickert, M.; Hiermaier, S.

    2015-09-01

    Hypervelocity launchers are used to accelerate projectiles that simulate impacting meteoroids or asteroids. The XLLGG (eXtra Large Light Gas Gun) at the EMI (Ernst-Mach-Institute) was used within the MEMIN program.

  14. LH Power Losses In Front of the JET Launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquet, P.; Arnoux, G.; Kirov, K.; Mailloux, J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Ongena, J.

    2009-11-26

    In recent JET experiments, Lower Hybrid (LH) power losses in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) were characterized using infra-red (IR) thermography. Hot spots were observed on objects intercepting the field lines passing in front of the LH launcher, i.e. on poloidal limiters and on dumplates located at the top of the tokamak; their locations being in good agreement with magnetic field line tracing using the EFIT equilibrium code. The dumplate temperature was monitored while scanning the launcher position so that the radial distance between field lines intercepting the hot spots and the launcher was increased up to 3.5 cm. The dissipation layer in front of the launcher was estimated to be at least 3.5 cm wide, in agreement with recent measurements on Tore-Supra, but not with simple models that predict a dissipation layer in the mm range.

  15. Computational model for simulation small testing launcher, technical solution

    SciTech Connect

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Cristian, Barbu; Chelaru, Adrian

    2014-12-10

    The purpose of this paper is to present some aspects regarding the computational model and technical solutions for multistage suborbital launcher for testing (SLT) used to test spatial equipment and scientific measurements. The computational model consists in numerical simulation of SLT evolution for different start conditions. The launcher model presented will be with six degrees of freedom (6DOF) and variable mass. The results analysed will be the flight parameters and ballistic performances. The discussions area will focus around the technical possibility to realize a small multi-stage launcher, by recycling military rocket motors. From technical point of view, the paper is focused on national project 'Suborbital Launcher for Testing' (SLT), which is based on hybrid propulsion and control systems, obtained through an original design. Therefore, while classical suborbital sounding rockets are unguided and they use as propulsion solid fuel motor having an uncontrolled ballistic flight, SLT project is introducing a different approach, by proposing the creation of a guided suborbital launcher, which is basically a satellite launcher at a smaller scale, containing its main subsystems. This is why the project itself can be considered an intermediary step in the development of a wider range of launching systems based on hybrid propulsion technology, which may have a major impact in the future European launchers programs. SLT project, as it is shown in the title, has two major objectives: first, a short term objective, which consists in obtaining a suborbital launching system which will be able to go into service in a predictable period of time, and a long term objective that consists in the development and testing of some unconventional sub-systems which will be integrated later in the satellite launcher as a part of the European space program. This is why the technical content of the project must be carried out beyond the range of the existing suborbital vehicle

  16. Computational model for simulation small testing launcher, technical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Cristian, Barbu; Chelaru, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some aspects regarding the computational model and technical solutions for multistage suborbital launcher for testing (SLT) used to test spatial equipment and scientific measurements. The computational model consists in numerical simulation of SLT evolution for different start conditions. The launcher model presented will be with six degrees of freedom (6DOF) and variable mass. The results analysed will be the flight parameters and ballistic performances. The discussions area will focus around the technical possibility to realize a small multi-stage launcher, by recycling military rocket motors. From technical point of view, the paper is focused on national project "Suborbital Launcher for Testing" (SLT), which is based on hybrid propulsion and control systems, obtained through an original design. Therefore, while classical suborbital sounding rockets are unguided and they use as propulsion solid fuel motor having an uncontrolled ballistic flight, SLT project is introducing a different approach, by proposing the creation of a guided suborbital launcher, which is basically a satellite launcher at a smaller scale, containing its main subsystems. This is why the project itself can be considered an intermediary step in the development of a wider range of launching systems based on hybrid propulsion technology, which may have a major impact in the future European launchers programs. SLT project, as it is shown in the title, has two major objectives: first, a short term objective, which consists in obtaining a suborbital launching system which will be able to go into service in a predictable period of time, and a long term objective that consists in the development and testing of some unconventional sub-systems which will be integrated later in the satellite launcher as a part of the European space program. This is why the technical content of the project must be carried out beyond the range of the existing suborbital vehicle

  17. Para: a computer simulation code for plasma driven electromagnetic launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Thio, Y.-C.

    1983-03-01

    A computer code for simulation of rail-type accelerators utilizing a plasma armature has been developed and is described in detail. Some time varying properties of the plasma are taken into account in this code thus allowing the development of a dynamical model of the behavior of a plasma in a rail-type electromagnetic launcher. The code is being successfully used to predict and analyse experiments on small calibre rail-gun launchers.

  18. Modeling the effects of surfactant, hardness, and natural organic matter on deposition and mobility of silver nanoparticles in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Min; Heo, Jiyong; Her, Namguk; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Jang, Min; Yoon, Yeomin

    2016-10-15

    This study aims to provide insights into the mechanisms governing the deposition and retention of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in saturated porous media. Column experiments were conducted with quartz sand under saturated conditions to investigate the deposition kinetics of AgNPs, their mobility at different groundwater hardnesses (10-400 mg/L as CaCO3), and humic acid (HA, 0-50 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon [DOC]). An anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was used as a dispersing agent to prepare a SDS-AgNPs suspension. The deposition kinetics of AgNPs were highly sensitive to the surfactant concentration, ionic strength, and cation type in solution. The breakthrough curves (BTCs) of SDS-AgNPs suggested that the transport and retention were influenced by groundwater hardness and HA. At low water hardness and high HA, high mobility of SDS-AgNPs was observed in saturated conditions. However, the retention of SDS-AgNPs increased substantially in very hard water with a low concentration of HA, because of a decreased primary energy barrier and the straining effect during the course of transport experiments. A modified clean-bed filtration theory and a two-site kinetic attachment model showed good fits with the BTCs of SDS-AgNPs. The fitted model parameters (katt and kstr) could be used successfully to describe that the retention behaviors were dominated by electrostatic and electrosteric repulsion, based on extended Derjaguin-Landau-Vaerwey-Overbeek calculations. PMID:27429353

  19. Calibrating Accelerometers Using an Electromagnetic Launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Erik Timpson

    2012-05-13

    A Pulse Forming Network (PFN), Helical Electromagnetic Launcher (HEML), Command Module (CM), and Calibration Table (CT) were built and evaluated for the combined ability to calibrate an accelerometer. The PFN has a maximum stored energy of 19.25 kJ bank and is fired by a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), with appropriate safety precautions. The HEML is constructed out of G-10 fiberglass and is designed to accelerate 600 grams to 10 meters per second. The CM is microcontroller based running Arduino Software. The CM has a keypad input and 7 segment outputs of the bank voltage and desired voltage. After entering a desired bank voltage, the CM controls the charge of the PFN. When the two voltages are equal it allows the fire button to send a pulse to the SCR to fire the PFN and in turn, the HEML. The HEML projectile's tip hits a target that is held by the CT. The CT consists of a table to hold the PFN and HEML, a vacuum chuck, air bearing, velocity meter and catch pot. The Target is held with the vacuum chuck awaiting impact. After impact, the air bearing allows the target to fall freely for the velocity meter to get an accurate reading. A known acceleration is determined from the known change in velocity of the target. Thus, if an accelerometer was attached to the target, the measured value can be compared to the known value.

  20. Calculations supporting HyperVelocity Launcher development

    SciTech Connect

    Trucano, T.G.; Chhabildas, L.C.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a HyperVelocity Launcher (also referred to as HVL) in which a thin flier plate (nominally 1 mm thick) is launched to velocities in excess of 12 km/s. The length to diameter ratio of these launched flier plates varies from 0.02 to 0.06. The launch technique is based upon using structured, time-dependant, high-pressure, high-acceleration pulses to drive the flier plates. Such pulses are achieved by using a graded-density material to impact a stationary flier. A computational and experimental program at Sandia seeks to extend this technique to allow launching thick plates whose length-to-diameter ratio is 10 to 20 times larger than thin plates. Hydrodynamic codes are used to design modifications to the basic technique. The authors have controlled and used these effects to successfully launch a chunk-flier, consisting of 0.33 gm of titanium alloy, 0.3 cm thick by 0.6 cm in diameter, to a velocity of 10.2 km/s. This is the largest chunky size ever launched at this velocity from a gas gun configuration.

  1. Use of mobile phones for improving vaccination coverage among children living in rural hard-to-reach areas and urban streets of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Horng, Lily; Labrique, Alain; Vasudevan, Lavanya; Zeller, Kelsey; Chowdhury, Mridul; Larson, Charles P; Bishai, David; Alam, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, full vaccination rates among children living in rural hard-to-reach areas and urban streets are low. We conducted a quasi-experimental pre-post study of a 12-month mobile phone intervention to improve vaccination among 0-11 months old children in rural hard-to-reach and urban street dweller areas. Software named "mTika" was employed within the existing public health system to electronically register each child's birth and remind mothers about upcoming vaccination dates with text messages. Android smart phones with mTika were provided to all health assistants/vaccinators and supervisors in intervention areas, while mothers used plain cell phones already owned by themselves or their families. Pre and post-intervention vaccination coverage was surveyed in intervention and control areas. Among children over 298 days old, full vaccination coverage actually decreased in control areas--rural baseline 65.9% to endline 55.2% and urban baseline 44.5% to endline 33.9%--while increasing in intervention areas from rural baseline 58.9% to endline 76*8%, difference +18.8% (95% CI 5.7-31.9) and urban baseline 40.7% to endline 57.1%, difference +16.5% (95% CI 3.9-29.0). Difference-in-difference (DID) estimates were +29.5% for rural intervention versus control areas and +27.1% for urban areas for full vaccination in children over 298 days old, and logistic regression adjusting for maternal education, mobile phone ownership, and sex of child showed intervention effect odds ratio (OR) of 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-9.2) in rural areas and 3.0 (95% CI 1.4-6.4) in urban areas. Among all age groups, intervention effects on age-appropriate vaccination coverage were positive: DIDs +13.1-30.5% and ORs 2.5-4.6 (p<0.001 in all comparisons). Qualitative data showed the intervention was well-accepted. Our study demonstrated that a mobile phone intervention can improve vaccination coverage in rural hard-to-reach and urban street dweller communities in Bangladesh. This small-scale successful

  2. Use of mobile phones for improving vaccination coverage among children living in rural hard-to-reach areas and urban streets of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Horng, Lily; Labrique, Alain; Vasudevan, Lavanya; Zeller, Kelsey; Chowdhury, Mridul; Larson, Charles P; Bishai, David; Alam, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, full vaccination rates among children living in rural hard-to-reach areas and urban streets are low. We conducted a quasi-experimental pre-post study of a 12-month mobile phone intervention to improve vaccination among 0-11 months old children in rural hard-to-reach and urban street dweller areas. Software named "mTika" was employed within the existing public health system to electronically register each child's birth and remind mothers about upcoming vaccination dates with text messages. Android smart phones with mTika were provided to all health assistants/vaccinators and supervisors in intervention areas, while mothers used plain cell phones already owned by themselves or their families. Pre and post-intervention vaccination coverage was surveyed in intervention and control areas. Among children over 298 days old, full vaccination coverage actually decreased in control areas--rural baseline 65.9% to endline 55.2% and urban baseline 44.5% to endline 33.9%--while increasing in intervention areas from rural baseline 58.9% to endline 76*8%, difference +18.8% (95% CI 5.7-31.9) and urban baseline 40.7% to endline 57.1%, difference +16.5% (95% CI 3.9-29.0). Difference-in-difference (DID) estimates were +29.5% for rural intervention versus control areas and +27.1% for urban areas for full vaccination in children over 298 days old, and logistic regression adjusting for maternal education, mobile phone ownership, and sex of child showed intervention effect odds ratio (OR) of 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-9.2) in rural areas and 3.0 (95% CI 1.4-6.4) in urban areas. Among all age groups, intervention effects on age-appropriate vaccination coverage were positive: DIDs +13.1-30.5% and ORs 2.5-4.6 (p<0.001 in all comparisons). Qualitative data showed the intervention was well-accepted. Our study demonstrated that a mobile phone intervention can improve vaccination coverage in rural hard-to-reach and urban street dweller communities in Bangladesh. This small-scale successful

  3. 10. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher, 'PROJECT PLOT PLAN' drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'PROJECT PLOT PLAN' drawn at no scale (P.W.DWG.NO. 1781). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 11. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher, 'INDEX TO Drawings' drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'INDEX TO Drawings' drawn at no scale (P.W.DWG.No. 1781). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 9. 22'X34' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher, 'GENERAL SITE PLAN' drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 22'X34' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'GENERAL SITE PLAN' drawn at 1'=200'. (BUORD Sketch # 209887, PAPW 300). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. An Ergonomic Evaluation of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Space Suit Hard Upper Torso (HUT) Size Effect on Metabolic, Mobility, and Strength Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher; Harvill, Lauren; England, Scott; Young, Karen; Norcross, Jason; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance differences between a nominally sized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit and a nominal +1 (plus) sized EMU. Method: This study evaluated suit size conditions by using metabolic cost, arm mobility, and arm strength as performance metrics. Results: Differences between the suit sizes were found only in shoulder extension strength being 15.8% greater for the plus size. Discussion: While this study was able to identify motions and activities that were considered to be practically or statistically different, it does not signify that use of a plus sized suit should be prohibited. Further testing would be required that either pertained to a particular mission critical task or better simulates a microgravity environment that the EMU suit was designed to work in.

  7. Direct Energy Exchange Enhancement in Distributed Injection Light Gas Launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, T W; Finucane, R G; Hall, J P; Penetrante, B M; Uphaus, T M

    2000-04-06

    It is not widely acknowledged or appreciated that conventional, two-stage light-gas launchers do not efficiently apply their high breech pressures to the design intent: accelerating the projectile. Our objective in this project was to carry out the analysis, design, construction, and testing of a new class of launchers that will address this limitation. Our particular application is to expand the pressure range of the conventional, two-stage gas launcher to overlap and validate the pressure regimes previously attainable only with shock waves generated by nuclear explosions, lasers, or multistage conventional explosions. That is, these launchers would have the capability to conduct--in a laboratory setting--high-velocity-impact, equation-of-state (EOS) measurements at up to 2-TPa (20 Mbar) pressure levels in high-Z materials. Our design entailed a new class of distributed-injection, gas-dynamic launchers that are designed to use a boat-tail projectile to overcome the fundamental gas-expansion phenomena known as escape velocity (the Riemann limit). Our program included analytical, numerical, and experimental studies of the fast gas release flow technique that is central to the success of our approach. The analyses led us to believe that, in a typical configuration, the pressure will be effectively applied to the projectile in a time short relative to its few-microsecond traverse time; the experimental program we conducted during FY1999 supported these estimates. In addition, our program revealed dramatic increased efficiency in this process that was previously unknown to the launcher community. The most fundamental practical restrictions on the performance of any gas launcher are the ability of the launcher to (1) contain pressure in a reservoir, and (2) effectively apply that pressure to the base of a moving projectile. Our gas-release test-fixture experiments showed that our design was capable of applying nearly twice the pressure to the projectile that is

  8. 91. 22'X34' original blueprint, VariableAngle Launcher, 'CONNECTING BRIDGE, REAR VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. 22'X34' original blueprint, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'CONNECTING BRIDGE, REAR VIEW CAMERA HOUSE ASSEMBLY' drawn at 3/8=1'-0', 3'=1'-0'. (BUORD Sketch # 209042). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 87. 22'X34' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher 'WEST ELEVATION AND PLANMAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. 22'X34' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher 'WEST ELEVATION AND PLAN-MAIN STRUCTURE' drawn at 1'=10'. (BUORD Sketch # 207648, PAPW 1832). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 93. 22'X34' original blueprint, VariableAngle Launcher, 'OVERHEAD CAMERA SUSPENSION SYSTEM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. 22'X34' original blueprint, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'OVERHEAD CAMERA SUSPENSION SYSTEM, TOWER STAY CABLES' drawn at 3/4'=1'-0'. (BUORD Sketch # 208783). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 99. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher '32 INCH 'Y' JOINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher '32 INCH 'Y' JOINT DETAILS drawn at 1 1/2'=1'-0' and 6'=1'-0'. (P.W. DWG. NO. 1786). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 92. 22'X34' original blueprint, VariableAngle Launcher, 'CAMERA CABLE TOWER PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. 22'X34' original blueprint, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'CAMERA CABLE TOWER PLAN AND ELEVATION' drawn at 3/8'=1'0' (BUORD Sketch # 208580). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 86. 22'X34' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher 'GENERAL PLAN AND ELEVATION' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. 22'X34' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher 'GENERAL PLAN AND ELEVATION' drawn at 1'=40'. (BUORD Sketch # 207184, PAPW 1892). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 98. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher '32 INCH 'Y' JOINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher '32 INCH 'Y' JOINT AND TRANSITION ASSEMBLY' drawn at 1 1/2'=1'-0'. (P.W. DWG. NO. 1785). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 88. 22'X34' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher 'EAST ELEVATION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. 22'X34' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher 'EAST ELEVATION AND PLAN MAIN STRUCTURE' drawn at 1'=10'. (BUORD Sketch # 207572, PAPW 1833) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 97. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher '32 INCH UPPER TUBE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher '32 INCH UPPER TUBE ASSEMBLY' drawn at 2'=1'-0' and 6'=1'0', full size. (P.W. DWG. NO. 1784). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 100. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher '32 INCH BREECH' drawn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher '32 INCH BREECH' drawn at 2'=1'-0', 3'=1'-0' and full size. (P.W. DWG. NO. 1787). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 96. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher '32 INCH TUBE ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher '32 INCH TUBE ASSEMBLY SECTION 1' drawn at 3'=1'-0', 6'=1'-0', and full size. (P.W. DWG. NO. 1783). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 95. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher '32 INCH TUBE ASSEMBLY' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher '32 INCH TUBE ASSEMBLY' drawn at 1/8'=1'-0', 1'=1'-0' and 1'-40'. (P.W. DWG. NO. 1782). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 101. 28'X40' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher '32 INCH BREECH DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. 28'X40' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher '32 INCH BREECH DOOR OPERATING MECHANISM ASSEMBLY' drawn at 3'=1'-0, 6'=1'0', and full size. (P.W. DRW. NO. 1788). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Development of an automatic multiple launcher for expendable probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalà, G.; Reseghetti, F.; Manzella, G. M. R.

    2007-04-01

    A main goal of a Ship Of Opportunity Programme (SOOP) is the provision of temperature profiles in near real time. The use of commercial ships and expandable probes allows the reduction of costs, in comparison with research ship cruises. A major cost effectiveness is achieved using an automated multiple launcher, requiring minimum personnel effort. A multiple launcher, developed in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System - Toward Environmental Prediction Project (MFSTEP), allows for a sequential collection of eight temperature profiles, using a software-programmable sampling strategy. The data acquisition system can be remotely controlled in every functionality, and data can be transmitted by GSM-GPRS or satellite telephone systems.

  2. Design of an automatic multiple launcher for expendable probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalà, G.; Reseghetti, F.; Manzella, G. M. R.

    2006-07-01

    A main goal of a ships of opportunity program is the provision of near real time temperature profiles. The use of expandable probes allows the reduction of costs, in comparison to usual scientific cruises. A major cost effectiveness can be achieved by using an automated multiple launcher, that can be used with a minimum personnel effort. A multiple launcher, developed in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System - Toward Environmental Prediction, allows to collect eight temperature profiles, with a sampling strategy that can be monitored automatically by means of a software. The data acquisition system is controlled internally in all functionalities, and data can be transmitted by GSM or satellite telephone systems.

  3. Metal vapor vacuum arc switching - Applications and results. [for launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, D.; Mongeau, P.

    1984-01-01

    The design of metal-vapor vacuum-arc switches (MVSs) for electromagnetic launchers is discussed, and preliminary results are presented for an experimental MVS. The general principles of triggered-vacuum-gap and vacuum-interrupter MVSs are reviewed, and the requirements of electromagnetic launchers are analyzed. High-current design problems such as electrode erosion, current sharing, magnetic effects, and thermal effects are examined. The experimental MVS employs stainless-steel flanges, a glass vacuum vessel, an adjustable electrode gap, autonomous internal magnetic-field coils, and a tungsten-pin trigger assembly. Some results from tests without magnetic augmentation are presented graphically.

  4. Energy stores and switches for rail-launcher systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, W. F.; Zowarka, R. C.; Marshall, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of existing switch and power supply technology applicable to space launch, a new candidate pulsed power supply for Earth-to-space rail launcher duty, the inverse railgun flux compressor, and a set of switching experiments to study further the feasibility of Earth-to-space launch are discussed.

  5. 33. Lower level, ballistic gas generator at left (opens launcher ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Lower level, ballistic gas generator at left (opens launcher door during launch), LDB panel at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  6. 58. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF LAUNCHER FROM ABOVE. AFRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF LAUNCHER FROM ABOVE. A-FRAME PIVOT POINT IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH; NITROGEN CONTROL UNIT IN UPPER LEFT CORNER OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 13. Photocopy of drawing of missile launcher from 'Procedures and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of drawing of missile launcher from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Ajax System,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-80 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1956 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  8. Feasibility study of superconducting LSM rocket launcher system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshida, Kinjiro; Ohashi, Takaaki; Shiraishi, Katsuto; Takami, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    A feasibility study is presented concerning an application of a superconducting linear synchronous motor (LSM) to a large-scale rocket launcher, whose acceleration guide tube of LSM armature windings is constructed 1,500 meters under the ground. The rocket is released from the linear launcher just after it gets to a peak speed of about 900 kilometers per hour, and it flies out of the guide tube to obtain the speed of 700 kilometers per hour at the height of 100 meters above ground. The linear launcher is brought to a stop at the ground surface for a very short time of 5 seconds by a quick control of deceleration. Very large current variations in the single-layer windings of the LSM armature, which are produced at the higher speed region of 600 to 900 kilometers per hour, are controlled successfully by adopting the double-layer windings. The proposed control method makes the rocket launcher ascend stably in the superconducting LSM system, controlling the Coriolis force.

  9. 63. VIEW OF FLAME BUCKET AND LAUNCHER FROM SOUTHEAST. TRICHLOROETHENE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF FLAME BUCKET AND LAUNCHER FROM SOUTHEAST. TRICHLOROETHENE RECOVERY TANK LEFT OF FLAME BUCKET; LIQUID OXYGEN CATCH TANK RIGHT OF FLAME BUCKET. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. An Engineering Design STEM Project: T-Shirt Launcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantz, Todd D.; Grant, Melva R.

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on making technology education students interested in science and mathematics through the use of a T-shirt launcher design project. This project was designed for junior and senior level high school students who have completed or are currently taking physics and precalculus. The project involves designing an…

  11. RLV candidates for European Future Launchers Preparatory Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomatis, Carlo; Bouaziz, Laurent; Franck, Thomas; Kauffmann, Jens

    2009-07-01

    ESA's Future Launcher Preparatory Programme (FLPP) includes system activities and technology developments on materials and structures and propulsion. The overall approach is system-driven, i.e. FLPP aims at defining reference launcher concepts from which will be derived a demonstration logic including in-flight experimental vehicles, and technology development requirements. The paper addresses the launcher concepts studies, and more specifically the analysis of Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) concepts that has been performed in the first part of the FLPP program. The paper provides first elements on the mission requirements, the operations and the ground facilities for the RLV concepts selected as potential FLPP candidates. In particular, operations will likely have a heavy impact on the operability and on the launch cost of RLVs; in this sense, most of the paper content is dedicated to discuss specific operation features, and related infrastructure elements, linked to the considered RLVs. At last, a brief presentation of the next steps of the launcher system activities inside the FLPP is given.

  12. 62. VIEW OF FLAME BUCKET BELOW LAUNCHER ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. VIEW OF FLAME BUCKET BELOW LAUNCHER ON SOUTH END OF LAUNCH PAD. FIRE SUPPRESSION EQUIPMENT RIGHT OF FLAME BUCKET. SOUTH FACE OF MST IS IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Increasing use of composite structure on Ariane launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Eymard, P.

    1986-02-01

    The progressive use of composite structures on Ariane launchers 1 to 4 generation and the tendency for Ariane 5 is outlined. Carbon fiber and glass fiber reinforced plastics are involved. Mass saving, rigidity requirements, and cost arguments are mentioned. Rupture criteria, orthotropic effects, thermal effects and quality control are discussed.

  14. Dynamics of a medieval missile launcher: the trebuchet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, James

    2001-11-01

    In the Middle Ages, the heavy throw-weight launcher of choice was the trebuchet. When the heavy mass, attached to the short end of the pivoted beam, is released and falls, the projectile, which is in a sling fastened to the other end of the beam, begins to acquire a high velocity.

  15. Note Launchers: Promoting Active Reading of Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Josh W.; Helms, Kimberly Turner

    2010-01-01

    Note launchers, an instructor-designed reading guide, model how to select, decide, and focus upon what textbook material is important to learn. Reading guides are specially-designed study aids that can steer students through difficult parts of assigned readings (Bean, 1996) while encouraging advance preparation. As an example of a reading guide,…

  16. Advanced TSTO VTOHL reusable rocket launcher - Study status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abriat, E.; Bombled, J. P.; Rezette, J. P.; Lacaze, H.

    1992-08-01

    Results of current investigations of an advanced TSTO, vertical-takeoff-and-horizontal landing, reusable rocket launcher are presented. Cost reduction and safety considerations, which require abort capabilities of the future manned launcher throughout the flight regime, are addressed. Recovery scenarios are investigated to determine when the stages could execute return-to-launch-site, transatlantic-abort-landing, or abort-to-orbit abort modes. It is shown that the appropriate combination of powered and gliding phases with limited relaxation on nominal constraints enables the intact stages to recover throughout the flight regime, from takeoff to orbital insertion. The results of a trade-off study performed to obtain a lightweight thermostructural concept are also presented.

  17. Variable dual-frequency electrostatic wave launcher for plasma applications.

    PubMed

    Jorns, Benjamin; Sorenson, Robert; Choueiri, Edgar

    2011-12-01

    A variable tuning system is presented for launching two electrostatic waves concurrently in a magnetized plasma. The purpose of this system is to satisfy the wave launching requirements for plasma applications where maximal power must be coupled into two carefully tuned electrostatic waves while minimizing erosion to the launching antenna. Two parallel LC traps with fixed inductors and variable capacitors are used to provide an impedance match between a two-wave source and a loop antenna placed outside the plasma. Equivalent circuit analysis is then employed to derive an analytical expression for the normalized, average magnetic flux density produced by the antenna in this system as a function of capacitance and frequency. It is found with this metric that the wave launcher can couple to electrostatic modes at two variable frequencies concurrently while attenuating noise from the source signal at undesired frequencies. An example based on an experiment for plasma heating with two electrostatic waves is used to demonstrate a procedure for tailoring the wave launcher to accommodate the frequency range and flux densities of a specific two-wave application. This example is also used to illustrate a method based on averaging over wave frequencies for evaluating the overall efficacy of the system. The wave launcher is shown to be particularly effective for the illustrative example--generating magnetic flux densities in excess of 50% of the ideal case at two variable frequencies concurrently--with a high adaptability to a number of plasma dynamics and heating applications. PMID:22225213

  18. Launcher Systems Development Cost: Behavior, Uncertainty, Influences, Barriers and Strategies for Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will report on the activities of the IAA Launcher Systems Economics Working Group in preparations for its Launcher Systems Development Cost Behavior Study. The Study goals include: improve launcher system and other space system parametric cost analysis accuracy; improve launcher system and other space system cost analysis credibility; and provide launcher system and technology development program managers and other decisionmakers with useful information on development cost impacts of their decisions. The Working Group plans to explore at least the following five areas in the Study: define and explain development cost behavior terms and concepts for use in the Study; identify and quantify sources of development cost and cost estimating uncertainty; identify and quantify significant influences on development cost behavior; identify common barriers to development cost understanding and reduction; and recommend practical, realistic strategies to accomplish reductions in launcher system development cost.

  19. The Physics Performance Of The Front Steering Launcher For The ITER ECRH Upper Port

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, M.; Chavan, R.; Nikkola, P.; Sanchez, F.; Sauter, O.; Shidara, H.; Ramponi, G.; Saibene, G.; Zohm, H.

    2005-09-26

    The capability of any given e.m.-wave plasma heating system to be utilized for physics applications depends strongly on the technical properties of the launching antenna (or launcher). An effective ECH launcher must project a small mm-wave beam spot size far into the plasma and 'steer' the beam across a large fraction of the plasma cross section (along the resonance surface). Thus the choice in the launcher concept and design may either severely limit or enhance the capability of a heating system to be effectively applied for physics applications, such as sawtooth stabilization, control of the Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM), Edge Localized Mode (ELM) control, etc. Presently, two antenna concepts are under consideration for the ITER upper port ECH launcher: front steering (FS) and remote steering (RS) launchers. The RS launcher has the technical advantage of easier maintenance access to the steering mirror, which is isolated from the torus vacuum. The FS launcher places the steering mirror near the plasma increasing the technical challenges, but significantly enhancing the focusing and steering capabilities of the launcher, offering a threefold increase in NTM stabilization efficiency over the RS launcher as well as the potential for application to other critical physics issues such as ELM or sawtooth control.

  20. EGSE (Electrical Ground Support Equipment) for ESA VEGA Launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrante, M.; Ortenzi, A.; del Re, V.; Bordin, M.; Saccucci, Fr.

    2004-08-01

    Activities belonging to Assembly, Integration and Validation (AIV) phase of a launch vehicle are fundamental in development of a so much delicate system. The equipment used to support this long and crucial phase can be described as a set of Mechanical and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE). This paper describes the approach followed to develop such a system, and the benefits that this brings in terms of lower risk, more coordinated interfaces and improved functionality. The paper briefly outlines VEGA Electrical Ground Support Equipment major characteristics. In particular, this paper describes the EGSE design for a small launch vehicle such as VEGA. The objective of EGSE is to provide hardware and software for efficient electrical testing of either single stages and integrated launcher. The needs to develop a small launcher is a response to a Resolution in the Space Transportation Strategy adopted by the ESA Council in June 2000, aiming at: "completing, in the medium term, the range of launch services offered by the addition of European manufactured small and medium launcher, complementary to Ariane, consistent with diversified users' needs and relying on common elements, such as stages, subsystems, technologies, production facilities and operational infrastructure, thereby increasing the European launcher industry's competitiveness". Three different parts principally compose the Vega EGSE: TCS (Test Configuration System), TES (Test Execution System), PPS (Post Processing System). The TES is the part of the EGSE devoted to the tests execution; it has capabilities of immediate test data analysis, parameters monitoring and it is able to undertake pre-defined actions, in case of anomalous events happen, in order to put in safe conditions the Unity Under Test (UUT). The TES is composed of two main components: HLCS and LLCS. The HLCS is based on SCOS 2000 ESA product; it is mainly devoted to the interaction with operators. It allows loading Test Sequences and

  1. Unidirectional surface plasmon launcher: rotating dipole mimicked by optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Zheng; Lu, Yonghua; Yu, Wenhai; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai

    2014-10-01

    We propose an optical antenna as a unidirectional surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode launcher. Appropriate tuning of the transverse and longitudinal resonance of the antenna makes the scattered field pattern mimic that of the rotating dipole. An extinction ratio of 110 dB is achieved for the SPP launched via the optical antenna. The steering of the SPP propagation direction can be controlled by focusing on antennas with different orientations. The universal design can also be applied to unidirectional launching of the waveguide mode.

  2. Inhibited Shaped Charge Launcher Testing of Spacecraft Shield Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, Donald J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a test program in which several orbital debris shield designs were impact tested using the inhibited shaped charge launcher facility at Southwest Research Institute. This facility enables researchers to study the impact of one-gram aluminum projectiles on various shielding designs at velocities above 11 km/s. A total of twenty tests were conducted on targets provided by NASA-MSFC. This report discusses in detail the shield design, the projectile parameters and the test configuration used for each test. A brief discussion of the target damage is provided, as the detailed analysis of the target response will be done by NASA-MSFC.

  3. British government, industry agree to fund Hotel launcher studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. A.

    1986-02-01

    A program status assessment is presented for the horizontal takeoff and landing 'Hotol' single-stage-to-orbit space launcher, for which parallel, two-year airframe and propulsion system proof-of-concept studies have been approved. A two-year initial development program for the airframe would be followed by a four-year development and manufacturing phase that would begin upon the propulsion system concept's successful demonstration. Flight trials could begin in 1996. A number of significant modifications have already been made to the initial design concept, such as to the foreplanes, afterbody, engine intake, and orbital control system.

  4. 11. 22'X34' original blueprint, VariableAngle Launcher, 'CONTROL STATION STRUCTURAL DETAILS' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 22'X34' original blueprint, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'CONTROL STATION STRUCTURAL DETAILS' drawn at 1 1/2'=1'-0'. (BUORD Sketch # 208401). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Control Station, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 12. 22'X34' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher, 'SIDE VIEW CAMERA TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. 22'X34' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'SIDE VIEW CAMERA TRACK H-20 BRIDGE MODIFICATIONS' drawn at 3/16'=1'-0' and 1/2'1'-0'. (BUORD Sketch # 208784, PAPW 907). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 13. 22'X34' original vellum, VariableAngle Launcher, 'SIDEVIEW CAMERA CAR TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. 22'X34' original vellum, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'SIDEVIEW CAMERA CAR TRACK DETAILS' drawn at 1/4'=1'-0' (BUORD Sketch # 208078, PAPW 908). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 10. 22'X34' original blueprint, VariableAngle Launcher, 'SIDE VIEW CAMERA CARSTEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 22'X34' original blueprint, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'SIDE VIEW CAMERA CAR-STEEL FRAME AND AXLES' drawn at 1/2'=1'-0'. (BOURD Sketch # 209124). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Improvement of payload capability of the Brazilian VLS satellite launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Toshiaki; Schlingloff, Hanfried; Boscov, Jayme

    The future Brazilian VLS satellite launcher is a conventional four stage rocket utilizing solid propellant motors in all stages. With a lift-off mass of about 50 tons and a length of 18.8 meters, the vehicle will have a capacity of inserting about a 200 kg satellite payload into circular low earth orbit. Since the demand on payload weight tends to increase more and more, improvement possibilities of this payload capacity for later missions are now under consideration. Introducing conceptual modifications in the present reference configuration, consequences in trajectory parameters and payload capacity are examined. The computation of the flight performance of each new configuration is made by means of the SKYNAV computer code, a special CAE/CAD system for IBM-PC environment supporting space launcher design with ascent trajectory optimization. The paper presents a resume of the analysis in terms of payload capabilities and trajectory parameters for relevant new VLS configurations. It is shown that the addition of one or two more booster motors, the replacement of the solid propellant second stage by liquid propulsion and satellite integrated orbital injection may improve the payload capacity considerably, while modifications like off-loading of propellant in the fourth stage or changing the thrust behavior of the first stage to reduce aerodynamic loads cannot be recommended.

  9. Numerical predictions of EML (electromagnetic launcher) system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schnurr, N.M.; Kerrisk, J.F.; Davidson, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of an electromagnetic launcher (EML) depends on a large number of parameters, including the characteristics of the power supply, rail geometry, rail and insulator material properties, injection velocity, and projectile mass. EML system performance is frequently limited by structural or thermal effects in the launcher (railgun). A series of computer codes has been developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to predict EML system performance and to determine the structural and thermal constraints on barrel design. These codes include FLD, a two-dimensional electrostatic code used to calculate the high-frequency inductance gradient and surface current density distribution for the rails; TOPAZRG, a two-dimensional finite-element code that simultaneously analyzes thermal and electromagnetic diffusion in the rails; and LARGE, a code that predicts the performance of the entire EML system. Trhe NIKE2D code, developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is used to perform structural analyses of the rails. These codes have been instrumental in the design of the Lethality Test System (LTS) at Los Alamos, which has an ultimate goal of accelerating a 30-g projectile to a velocity of 15 km/s. The capabilities of the individual codes and the coupling of these codes to perform a comprehensive analysis is discussed in relation to the LTS design. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental data and presented for the LTS prototype tests.

  10. Comparative study of component erosion for electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourham, M. A.; Hankins, O. E.; Gilligan, J. G.; Hurley, J. D.; Earnhart, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The electrothermal launcher SIRENS has been used to study the erosion of critical components (rails and insulators) of plasma-driven launchers. SIRENS can produce high-density (above 10 exp 25/cu m) low-temperature (1-3 eV) plasma, formed by the ablation of the insulator (Lexan), with currents up to 100 kA. The incident heat flux varies between 2 to 90 GW/sq m over 100 microsec duration, for input energies 1-10 kJ. Erosion studies have been performed on several insulators, pure and coated metals, alloys and several graphite grades. The fraction of the total incident energy that is transmitted to the eroded surface varies from 12 to 30 percent for the materials tested and decreases to 5-7 percent as the incident energy fluence increases. Such reduction in erosion for a given incident fluence is due to the vapor shield effect. The scaling law for the energy transmission factor through the vapor shield layer was obtained for the exposed materials.

  11. Chunk projectile launch using the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Trucano, T.G.; Reinhart, W.D.; Hall, C.A.

    1994-07-01

    An experimental technique is described to launch an intact ``chunk,`` i.e. a 0.3 cm thick by 0.6 cm diameter cylindrical titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) flyer, to 10.2 km/s. The ability to launch fragments having such an aspect ratio is important for hypervelocity impact phenomenology studies. The experimental techniques used to accomplish this launch were similar but not identical to techniques developed for the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL). A confined barrel impact is crucial in preventing the two-dimensional effects from dominating the loading response of the projectile chunk. The length to diameter ratio of the metallic chunk that is launched to 10.2 km/s is 0.5 and is an order of magnitude larger than those accomplished using the conventional hypervelocity launcher. The multi-dimensional, finite-difference (finite-volume), hydrodynamic code CTH was used to evaluate and assess the acceleration characteristics i.e., the in-bore ballistics of the chunky projectile launch. A critical analysis of the CTH calculational results led to the final design and the experimental conditions that were used in this study. However, the predicted velocity of the projectile chunk based on CTH calculations was {approximately} 6% lower than the measured velocity of {approximately}10.2 km/S.

  12. Effect of the electric field pattern on the generation of fast electrons in front of lower hybrid launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Laurent; Fuchs, Vladimir; Ekedahl, Annika; Petrzilka, Vaclav; Colas, Laurent; Goniche, Marc; Hillairet, Julien; Li, Miaohui; Zhang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    The effect of the detailed waveguide spectrum on the electron acceleration has been studied for the 3.7 GHz LHCD launchers in Tore Supra, i.e. the ITER-like passive-active multijunction (PAM) launcher and the fully-active-multijunction (FAM) launcher, using test electron modelling technique. The detailed launched antenna wave spectrum is used as input to the code that computes the dynamics of the electrons in the electric field. Comparison with the LHCD launchers in EAST, operating at 2.45 GHz and 4.6 GHz, has also been made. The simulations show that the PAM-design generates lower flux of fast electrons than FAM-launchers, this could be the consequence of the wider waveguide of PAM-launcher (14.65 mm for Tore-Supra) than FAM-launcher (8 mm for Tore-Supra).

  13. Effect of the electric field pattern on the generation of fast electrons in front of lower hybrid launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Valade, Laurent Ekedahl, Annika; Colas, Laurent; Goniche, Marc; Hillairet, Julien; Fuchs, Vladimir; Petrzilka, Vaclav; Li, Miaohui; Zhang, Bin

    2015-12-10

    The effect of the detailed waveguide spectrum on the electron acceleration has been studied for the 3.7 GHz LHCD launchers in Tore Supra, i.e. the ITER-like passive-active multijunction (PAM) launcher and the fully-active-multijunction (FAM) launcher, using test electron modelling technique. The detailed launched antenna wave spectrum is used as input to the code that computes the dynamics of the electrons in the electric field. Comparison with the LHCD launchers in EAST, operating at 2.45 GHz and 4.6 GHz, has also been made. The simulations show that the PAM-design generates lower flux of fast electrons than FAM-launchers, this could be the consequence of the wider waveguide of PAM-launcher (14.65 mm for Tore-Supra) than FAM-launcher (8 mm for Tore-Supra)

  14. The use of monolithic YBCO in electromagnetic launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, Philip T.

    One of the fundamental barriers to the use of electromagnetic launchers is the high power required to reach launch speed in a reasonable distance. It has been proposed that large external power supplies can be avoided by using superconducting persistent currents in the barrel of the launcher to store energy. This study examines the use of monolithic YBCO for these persistent current magnets. Monolithic magnets, unlike wound magnets, can have a nonuniform current distribution, which causes energy transfer between the stationary energy storage magnets and the accelerated magnet to be inefficient. This problem can be overcome by optimization of the magnet shape. This requires a model for computation of current distribution, force vs. distance, and efficiency. A model is presented for calculating the current distribution and magnetic force for two YBCO rings, each with a trapped field such that an attractive force is developed between them. Two different methods were used to find current as a function of time. The first is a system of differential equations for the time dependence of the current distribution, which is solved using the 4-step vector Runge-Kutta method. The second is a speed-independent approximation that is less computationally intensive. The integral equation for force at each time step is solved using the finite sum method. After verifying the speed-dependent model by comparing computations to measured force vs. distance curves for twenty-eight pairs of YBCO magnets, the model was used to examine behavior at speeds up to 10,000 m/s. It was found that energy transfer is almost independent of speed for a properly designed launcher. Also, heating due to flux flow was found to be minimal. The fact that energy transfer did not depend on speed allowed the speed-independent model to be used with an optimizer to find a more efficient shape for the accelerated YBCO magnet. A magnet of this shape was fabricated, and efficiency was measured to be 84%, compared

  15. Porting aircraft technology to launchers: the EHA case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coster, François

    2001-09-01

    SABCA is active in actuation systems for years, both in aeronautics and space domain. We develop direct drive valves, hydraulic actuators and also electrical actuators. These latest years, the trend is to replace hydraulic actuators by electrical actuators (see Ariane 2010 initiative or Vega launcher). This paper first presents the advantages of the electrical actuators in comparison to hydraulic actuators. Then, it compares aeronautics applications to space applications to highlight the differences. The results of that comparative analysis are applied to a particular case, the electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA). The paper presents the design, tests and lessons learnt from an EHA for aeronautic application, and develops the test plan required to upgrade this EHA for use in space applications.

  16. Impact of Launchers on the Environment in French Guiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S.; Chemoul, B.

    2012-01-01

    The main combustion products of the Ariane 5 solid rocket boosters are alumina and chlorhyde gas. When the launcher lift off the significant concentrations of this components are around the launch zone. We use samplers to evaluate the concentrations of this two elements. To optimize the localisation of the samplers we use a model to obtain the projected traces of the combustion cloud according to meteorological data (software sarrim). During the first seconds of takes 1000 m3 of water flood the base right to decrease the acoustic vibration. The major parts of the pollutants fall close to the launch zone and acidic cloud is formed. Once having stabilized the cloud begins diluting, it is subjected to the influence of the different layers of wind. To measure air quality we use first continuous analysers, secondly containers with distilled water to sample the acidic particles from the cloud. We also monitor the physicochemical quality of water in a river near the launch zone, the impact of the combustion products on vegetation, the aquatic fauna. Noise and vibrations are also measured. For terrestrial fauna like birds, we monitor the general population and a colony of wade. The most important colony of this species is located on the base : around 75% of the population of the French Guiana. We use also a new protocol to estimate the impact of launch by measuring the thickness of eggshells. We use research results which show that calcium can be replaced by alumina. When the thickness of eggshells is thin, the reproduction can be affected. For each measurement campaign, we have more than 100 sites and around 600 samples. The results shows that the land around the space centre is like a natural refuge. The impact of the launches is low, hunting is forbidden and security personal controls the zone base is a protected zone. The space centre is now a natural wildlife refuge. For the two new launchers, Vega and Soyuz, we will also monitor the environmental impact of the launch

  17. Ultimate kinematic characteristics of rail electromagnetic launchers with metal armatures in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankevich, S. V.; Shvetsov, G. A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulation of the Joule heating of the armature and rails in rail launchers of metal bodies with one or two augmenting rails generating an external magnetic field. The ultimate projectile velocity is calculated under the assumption that the Joule heating of the armature and rails during acceleration does not exceed the melting temperature of the materials of which they are made. It is shown that, with an appropriate choice of the position of the coils generating the augmenting magnetic field with respect to the launcher channel and the current magnitude in them, the heat load on the rails and armature in electromagnetic launchers of solids can be substantially reduced and the ultimate kinematic characteristics of these launchers in crisis-free regimes can be considerably increased.

  18. Study of the modelling of an electromagnetic launcher of fire extinguishing loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunzulica, Florin; Oncescu, Cosmin; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Vintea, Adela

    2016-06-01

    The problem of launchers used in civil applications is a topical issue. The role of a launcher is to launch objects with a certain speed towards certain goals like for example dangerous fire outbreaks (drilling areas, fires in buildings). This paper is aiming to present the theoretical aspects and results regarding the launching objects, in this case spheres that contains firefighting substance, during the launching stage, the ballistic stage and the impact stage with a solid surface.

  19. "It Is Hard to Stay in England": Itineraries, Routes, and Dead Ends--An (Im)mobility Study of Nurses Who Became Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra

    2010-01-01

    This article presents findings from an Economic Social Research Council (ESRC) study on the roles of education in the trajectories of health care professionals who migrated to England and became carers. The study looks at the downward mobility and deskilling of these women, and their struggles to reverse their bungled career paths. The author maps…

  20. A small scale lunar launcher for early lunar material utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. R.; Kubby, J. A.; Dunbar, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    A system for the launching of lunar derived oxygen or raw materials into low lunar orbit or to L2 for transfer to low earth orbit is presented. The system described is a greatly simplified version of the conventional and sophisticated approach suggested by O'Neill using mass drivers with recirculating buckets. An electromagnetic accelerator is located on the lunar surface which launches 125 kg 'smart' containers of liquid oxygen or raw materials into a transfer orbit. Upon reaching apolune a kick motor is fired to circularize the orbit at 100 km altitude or L2. These containers are collected and their payloads transferred to a tanker OTV. The empty containers then have their kick motors refurbished and then are returned to the launcher site on the lunar surface for reuse. Initial launch capability is designed for about 500T of liquid oxygen delivered to low earth orbit per year with upgrading to higher levels, delivery of lunar soil for shielding, or raw materials for processing given the demand.

  1. Development of an accelerating piston implosion-driven launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneault, J.; Loiseau, J.; Higgins, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    The ability to soft-launch projectiles to velocities exceeding 10 km/s is of interest for a number of scientific fields, including orbital debris impact testing and equation of state research. Current soft-launch technologies have reached a performance plateau below this operating range. In the implosion-driven launcher (ILD) concept, explosives are used to dynamically compress a light driver gas to significantly higher pressures and temperatures than the propellant of conventional light-gas guns. The propellant of the IDL is compressed through the linear implosion of a pressurized tube. The imploding tube behaves like a piston which travels into the light gas at the explosive detonation velocity, thus forming an increasingly long column of shock-compressed gas which can be used to propel a projectile. The McGill designed IDL has demonstrated the ability to launch a 0.1-g projectile to 9.1 km/s. This work will focus on the implementation of a novel launch cycle in which the explosively driven piston is accelerated in order to gradually increase driver gas compression, thus maintaining a relatively constant projectile driving pressure. The theoretical potential of the concept as well as the experimental development of an accelerating piston driver will be examined.

  2. Development of an accelerating-piston implosion-driven launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneault, Justin; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    The ability to soft-launch projectiles at velocities exceeding 10 km/s is of interest to several scientific fields, including orbital debris impact testing and equation of state research. Current soft-launch technologies have reached a performance plateau below this operating range. The energy and power density of high explosives provides a possible avenue to reach this velocity if used to dynamically compress a light driver gas to significantly higher pressures and temperatures compared to light-gas guns. In the implosion-driven launcher (IDL), linear implosion of a pressurized tube drives a strong shock into the gas ahead of the tube pinch, thereby forming an increasingly long column of compressed gas which can be used to propel a projectile. The McGill IDL has demonstrated the ability to launch a 0.1-g projectile to 9.1 km/s. This study focuses on the implementation of a novel launch cycle wherein the explosively driven pinch is accelerated down the length of the tube in order to maintain a relatively constant projectile base pressure early in the launch cycle. The experimental development of an accelerating driver which utilizes an explosive lens to phase the detonation wave is presented. The design and experimental performance of an accelerating-piston IDL is also discussed.

  3. Rockot - a new cost effective launcher for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosenkis, Regina

    1996-01-01

    Daimler-Benz Aerospace of Germany and the Russian Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center have formed a jointly owned EUROCKOT Launch Services GmbH to offer worldwide cost effective launch services for the ROCKOT launch vehicle. ROCKOT, produced by Khrunichev, builder of the famous PROTON launcher, aims at the market of small and medium size satellites ranging from 300 to 1800 kg to be launched into low earth or sunsynchronous orbits. These comprize scientific, earth observation and polar meteorological satellites as well as the new generation of small communication satellites in low earth orbits, known as the ``Constellations''. ROCKOT is a three stage liquid propellant launch vehicle, composed of a former Russian SS 19 strategic missile, which has been withdrawn from military use, and a highly sophisticated, flight-proven upper stage named Breeze, which is particularly suited for a variety of civic and commercial space applications. Usable payload envelope has a length of 4.75 meters and a maximum diameter of 2.26 meters for accomodating the payload within the payload fairing. ROCKOT can also accomodate multiple payloads which can be deployed into the same or different orbits. So far ROCKOT has been successfully launched three times from Baikonur. The commercial launch services on ROCKOT from the Plesetsk launch site, Russia, will begin in 1997 and will be available worldwide at a highly competitive price.

  4. Preliminary analysis of space mission applications for electromagnetic launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. A.; Rice, E. E.; Earhart, R. W.; Conlon, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using electromagnetically launched EML payloads propelled from the Earth's surface to LEO, GEO, lunar orbit, or to interplanetary space was assessed. Analyses of the designs of rail accelerators and coaxial magnetic accelerators show that each is capable of launching to space payloads of 800 KG or more. A hybrid launcher in which EML is used for the first 2 KM/sec followed by chemical rocket stages was also tested. A cost estimates study shows that one to two EML launches per day are needed to break even, compared to a four-stage rocket. Development models are discussed for: (1) Earth orbital missions; (2) lunar base supply mission; (3) solar system escape mission; (4) Earth escape missions; (5) suborbital missions; (6) electromagnetic boost missions; and (7) space-based missions. Safety factors, environmental impacts, and EML systems analysis are discussed. Alternate systems examined include electrothermal thrustors, an EML rocket gun; an EML theta gun, and Soviet electromagnetic accelerators.

  5. LH launcher Arcs Formation and Detection on JET

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, Yu. F.; Challis, C. D.; Kirov, K.; Mailloux, J.; Monakhov, I.

    2011-12-23

    Mechanisms of arc formation have been analyzed and the critical electric fields for the multipactor effect calculated, compared to the experimental values and found to be within the normal operational space of the LH system on JET. It has been shown that the characteristic electron energy (20-1000)eV for the highest multipactor resonances (N = 4-9) are within the limits of secondary electron yield above 1 required for multipactoring. Electrons with these energies provide the highest gas desorption efficiency when hitting the waveguide walls. The effect of higher waveguide modes and magnetic field on the multipactor was also considered. The distribution function for electrons accelerated by LH waves in front of the launcher has been calculated. The field emission currents have been estimated and found to be small. It is proposed that emission of Fel5, 16 lines, which can be obtained with improved diagnostics, could be used to detect arcs that are missed by a protection system based on the reflected power. The reliability and time response of these signals are discussed. A similar technique based on the observation of the emission of low ionized atoms can be used for a fast detection of other undesirable events to avoid sputtering or melting of the plasma facing components such as RF antenna. These techniques are especially powerful if they are based on emission uniquely associated with specific locations and components.

  6. Assessment of the ITER EC Upper Launcher Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figini, Lorenzo; Farina, Daniela; Poli, Emanuele; Sauter, Olivier; Bruschi, Alessandro; Goodman, Timothy; Moro, Alessandro; Platania, Paola; Sozzi, Carlo; Cavinato, Mario; Saibene, Gabriella; Henderson, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The 24 MW ITER Electron Cyclotron (EC) Heating and Current Drive (H&CD) system, operating at 170 GHz, consists of one Equatorial (EL) and four Upper Launchers (UL). The main task of the UL will be the control of Magneto-Hydrodynamic (MHD) activity such as Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs) at the q=3/2 and q=2 surfaces, but it will also be needed for current profile tailoring in advanced scenarios and to assist plasma break-down and L- to H-mode transition. Moreover, it is required to be e.ective both when ITER will operate at nominal and reduced magnetic field magnitude. Here the performance of the UL is assessed through the study of the full temporal evolution of di.erent scenarios, including the reference ITER 15MA H-mode plasma, a half-field case at 2.65T, and a steady state scenario. The ECCD efficiency has been evaluated for a wide range of injection angles, deriving the optimal angles and the power required for NTMs stabilization, as well as the steering range necessary to reach the rational surfaces during all the phases of the discharge. The steering sensitivity to shifts of the target or aiming errors has been estimated too. The result is an assessment of the UL design requirements to achieve the desired functionalities, which, together with the engineering limits, will be used to drive the optimization and finalization of the UL design.

  7. Zero Boil Off Cryogen Storage for Future Launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentian, D.; Plachta, D.; Kittel, P.; Hastings, L. J.; Salerno, Louis J.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Zero boil off (ZBO) cryogen storage using both cryocoolers and passive insulation technologies will enable long-term exploration missions by allowing designers to optimize tankage without the need for excess cryogen storage to account for boil off. Studies of ZBO (zero boil off) have been on-going in the USA for several years. More recently, a review of the needs of advanced space propulsion took place in Europe. This showed the interest of the European community in cryogenic propulsion for planetary missions as well as the use of liquid hydrogen for large power electric propulsion (manned Mars missions). Although natural boiling could be acceptable for single leg missions, passive insulation techniques yield roughly a I% per month cryogen loss and this would not be cost effective for robotic planetary missions involving storage times greater than one year. To make economic sense, long-term exploration missions require lower tank capacity and longer storage times. Recent advances in cryocooler technology, resulting in vast improvements in both cooler efficiency and reliability, make ZBO is a clear choice for planetary exploration missions. Other, more near term applications of ZBO include boil-off reduction or elimination applied to first and upper stages of future earth-to-orbit (ETO) launchers. This would extend launch windows and reduce infrastructure costs. Successors to vehicles like Ariane 5 could greatly benefit by implementing ZBO. Zero Boil Off will only be successful in ETO launcher applications if it makes economic sense to implement. The energy cost is only a fraction of the total cost of buying liquid cryogen, the rest being transportation and other overhead. Because of this, higher boiling point cryogens will benefit more from on-board liquefaction, thus reducing the infrastructure costs. Since hydrogen requires a liquefier with at least a 17% efficiency just to break even from a cost standpoint, one approach for implementing ZBO in upper stages would

  8. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  9. Apparatus for and method of operating a cylindrical pulsed induction mass launcher

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Duggin, B.W.; Widner, M.M.

    1992-06-30

    An electromagnetic cylindrical projectile mass launcher and a method of operation is provided which includes a cylindrical projectile having a conducting armature, a cylindrical barrel in which the armature is received, a plurality of electromagnetic drive coil stages, a plurality of pulse energy sources, and a pulsed power arrangement for generating magnetic pulses forming a pulsed magnetic wave along the length of the launcher barrel. The pulsed magnetic wave provides a propelling force on the projectile along the drive coil. The pulsed magnetic wave of the drive coil stages is advanced along the armature faster than the projectile to thereby generate an induced current wave in the armature. The pulsed generation of the magnetic wave minimizes electromagnetic heating of the projectile and provides for smooth acceleration of the projectile through the barrel of the launcher. 2 figs.

  10. Apparatus for and method of operating a cylindrical pulsed induction mass launcher

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Duggin, Billy W.; Widner, Melvin M.

    1992-01-01

    An electromagnetic cylindrical projectile mass launcher and a method of operation is provided which includes a cylindrical projectile having a conducting armature, a cylindrical barrel in which the armature is received, a plurality of electromagnetic drive coil stages, a plurality of pulse energy sources, and a pulsed power arrangement for generating magnetic pulses forming a pulsed magnetic wave along the length of the launcher barrel. The pulsed magnetic wave provides a propelling force on the projectile along the drive coil. The pulsed magnetic wave of the drive coil stages is advanced along the armature faster than the projectile to thereby generate an induced current wave in the armature. The pulsed generation of the magnetic wave minimizes electromagnetic heating of the projectile and provides for smooth acceleration of the projectile through the barrel of the launcher.

  11. From Satellite To Launcher, Highlights On Powder/Wire ALM At Astrium Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourenaud, Florent; Desagulier, Christian

    2012-07-01

    ALM (Additive Layer Manufacturing) or Direct Manufacturing has been one of EADS’ (and more recently Astrium ST’s) major interests for almost a decade. It consists in manufacturing a part by adding (metallic) material layer by layer instead of machining the desired shape from a blank. It therefore has many advantages directly suitable for the spatial business, ranging from satellite to launcher structures. The present paper describes the range of available additive processes suitable for our present or future metallic launcher structures. The operational domain is described, in close correlation with the specific spatial constraints. A first successful in-flight application has been recently demonstrated by Astrium ST, which clearly opens a wide range of opportunities for next generation launchers and satellite structures. This paper gives an overview of the (technically and economically) eligible spatial structures that represent strong ALM business cases, as well as the on-going R&T and development trends at Astrium ST

  12. Nuclear analysis for the intor array of loops ICRF launcher module design

    SciTech Connect

    Sawan, M.E.

    1985-07-01

    Nuclear analysis for the array of loops ICRF launcher module design of INTOR is presented. The nuclear radiation environment in the different module components is determined. The fast neutron fluence in the BeO radome is 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ after one full power year leading to significant microcracking. Activation calculations for SF/sub 6/ imply a total activity of 5 x 10/sup 4/ Ci at shutdown. Nuclear heating results in a large breakdown rate in SF/sub 6/. A 1.6 m thick nuclear shield is needed to allow for hands-on maintenance one day after shutdown behind the launcher module. The results imply that significant design changes are required for the array of loops ICRF launcher module to stand the severe INTOR nuclear environment.

  13. Results from Sandia National Laboratories/Lockheed Martin Electromagnetic Missile Launcher (EMML).

    SciTech Connect

    Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Skurdal, Ben; Gaigler, Randy; Basak, L; Root, G; Aubuchon, Matthew S.; Turman, Bobby N.; Floyd, Mendel D.

    2005-05-01

    Sandia national laboratories (SNL) and lockheed martin MS2 are designing an electromagnetic missile launcher (EMML) for naval applications. The EMML uses an induction coilgun topology with the requirement of launching a 3600 lb. missile up to a velocity of 40 m/s. To demonstrate the feasibility of the electromagnetic propulsion design, a demonstrator launcher was built that consists of approximately 10% of the propulsion coils needed for a tactical design. The demonstrator verified the design by launching a 1430 lb weighted sled to a height of 24 ft in mid-December 2004 (Figure 1). This paper provides the general launcher design, specific pulsed power system component details, system operation, and demonstration results.

  14. The LHCD Launcher for Alcator C-Mod - Design, Construction, Calibration and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hosea; D. Beals; W. Beck; S. Bernabei; W. Burke; R. Childs; R. Ellis; E. Fredd; N. Greenough; M. Grimes; D. Gwinn; J. Irby; S. Jurczynski; P. Koert; C.C. Kung; G.D. Loesser; E. Marmar; R. Parker; J. Rushinski; G. Schilling; D. Terry; R. Vieira; J.R. Wilson; J. Zaks

    2005-06-27

    MIT and PPPL have joined together to fabricate a high-power lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system for supporting steady-state AT regime research on Alcator C-Mod. The goal of the first step of this project is to provide 1.5 MW of 4.6 GHz rf [radio frequency] power to the plasma with a compact launcher which has excellent spectral selectivity and fits into a single C-Mod port. Some of the important design, construction, calibration and testing considerations for the launcher leading up to its installation on C-Mod are presented here.

  15. Low cost heavy lift launch vehicle for lunar exploration based on the Energia launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassmann, J.

    1992-08-01

    Different mission strategies for large-scale lunar explorations using a low-cost heavy-lift launch vehicle based on the Energia launcher are examined. Using a parametrical cost model developed at the Berlin University of Technology, total life costs were determined for landing on the moon a cargo of 15 tons for $25,000/kg, showing it to be about half the cost of a comparable Saturn V/Apollo mission. It is noted that this opportunity for international cooperation is limited: the two complete Energia launchers which are presently stored will have to be launched within the next 3 to 5 years.

  16. LAUNCHER PERFORMANCE AND THERMAL CAPABILITY OF THE DIII-D ECH SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    KAJIWARA,K; LOHR,J; GORELOV,I.A; GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; CALLIS,R.W; ELLIS,R.A

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The temperatures of components of DIII-D ECH launchers were observed during 2003 tokamak operation. The injected power was typically 500-700 kW and the pulse length was typically 2s. Plasma shots were performed at intervals of about 17 min from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The temperatures of a movable mirror, a fixed mirror and a launcher reached an equilibrium after about six hours of repetitive pulsing. The saturation temperature depends to some extent on the plasma stored energy. However, even in high {beta} plasma, the temperatures plateaued at acceptable values.

  17. EARL - Proposed European launcher concept for the 'post-Ariane 5/Hermes-era'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, W.

    1988-10-01

    A conceptual family of fully reusable manned and semireusable unmanned launchers, designated the European Advanced Rocket Launcher (EARL), has been defined with a view to ESA requirements beyond the Ariane 5-booster/Hermes manned spacecraft service-life period, but prior to the availability of airbreathing launch systems of Saenger type. Attention is presently given to the various configurations into which the modular components of EARL can be assembled, and to the structural systems being contemplated as the bases of the modules, including the manned orbiter's thermal protection system.

  18. Design and development of the redundant launcher stabilization system for the Atlas 2 launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Launcher Stabilization System (LSS) is a pneumatic/hydraulic ground system used to support an Atlas launch vehicle prior to launch. The redesign and development activity undertaken to achieve an LSS with increased load capacity and a redundant hydraulic system for the Atlas 2 launch vehicle are described.

  19. Advanced Optics for a Full Quasi-Optical Front Steering ECRH Upper Launcher for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, A.; Alessi, E.; Bruschi, A.; Platania, P.; Sozzi, C.; Chavan, R.; Collazos, A.; Goodman, T. P.; Udintsev, V. S.; Henderson, M. A.

    2009-11-26

    A full quasi-optical setup for the internal optics of the Front Steering Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) Upper Launcher for ITER was designed, proving to be feasible and favorable in terms of additional flexibility and cost reduction with respect to the former design. This full quasi-optical solution foresees the replacement of the mitre-bends in the final section of the launcher with dedicated free-space mirrors to realize the last changes of directions in the launcher. A description of the launcher is given and its advantages presented. The parameters of the expected output beams as well as preliminary evaluations of truncation effects with the physical optics GRASP code are shown. Moreover, a study of mitre-bends replacement with single mirrors for multiple beams is described. In principle it could allow the beams to be larger at the mirror locations (with a further decrease of the peak power density due to partial overlapping) and has the additional advantage to get a larger opening with compressed beams to avoid conflicts with side-walls port. Constraints on the setup, arising both from the resulting beam characteristics in the space of free parameters and from mechanical requirements are taken into account in the analysis.

  20. Flow structure and unsteadiness in the supersonic wake of a generic space launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Stephan, Sören; Radespiel, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    At the junction between the rocket engine and the main body of a classical space launcher, a separation-dominated and highly unstable flow field develops and induces strong wall-pressure oscillations. These can excite structural vibrations detrimental to the launcher. It is desirable to minimize these effects, for which a better understanding of the flow field is required. We study the wake flow of a generic axisymmetric space-launcher model with and without propulsive jet (cold air). Experimental investigations are performed at Mach 2.9 and a Reynolds number ReD = 1 . 3 .106 based on model diameter D. The jet exits the nozzle at Mach 2.5. Velocity measurements by means of Particle Image Velocimetry and mean and unsteady wall-pressure measurements on the main-body base are performed simultaneously. Additionally, we performed hot-wire measurements at selected points in the wake. We can thus observe the evolution of the wake flow along with its spectral content. We describe the mean and turbulent flow topology and evolution of the structures in the wake flow and discuss the origin of characteristic frequencies observed in the pressure signal at the launcher base. The influence of a propulsive jet on the evolution and topology of the wake flow is discussed in detail. The German Research Foundation DFG is gratefully acknowledged for funding this research within the SFB-TR40 ``Technological foundations for the design of thermally and mechanically highly loaded components of future space transportation systems.''

  1. Optimization of the ITER electron cyclotron equatorial launcher for improved heating and current drive functional capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Henderson, M.; Saibene, G.

    2014-06-15

    The design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (EC H and CD) system has evolved in the last years both in goals and functionalities by considering an expanded range of applications. A large effort has been devoted to a better integration of the equatorial and the upper launchers, both from the point of view of the performance and of the design impact on the engineering constraints. However, from the analysis of the ECCD performance in two references H-mode scenarios at burn (the inductive H-mode and the advanced non-inductive scenario), it was clear that the EC power deposition was not optimal for steady-state applications in the plasma region around mid radius. An optimization study of the equatorial launcher is presented here aiming at removing this limitation of the EC system capabilities. Changing the steering of the equatorial launcher from toroidal to poloidal ensures EC power deposition out to the normalized toroidal radius ρ ≈ 0.6, and nearly doubles the EC driven current around mid radius, without significant performance degradation in the core plasma region. In addition to the improved performance, the proposed design change is able to relax some engineering design constraints on both launchers.

  2. Preliminary feasibility assessment for Earth-to-space electromagnetic (Railgun) launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Earhart, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    An Earth to space electromagnetic (railgun) launcher (ESRL) for launching material into space was studied. Potential ESRL applications were identified and initially assessed to formulate preliminary system requirements. The potential applications included nuclear waste disposal in space, Earth orbital applications, deep space probe launchers, atmospheric research, and boost of chemical rockets. The ESRL system concept consisted of two separate railgun launcher tubes (one at 20 deg from the horizontal for Earth orbital missions, the other vertical for solar system escape disposal missions) powered by a common power plant. Each 2040 m launcher tube is surrounded by 10,200 homopolar generator/inductor units to transmit the power to the walls. Projectile masses are 6500 kg for Earth orbital missions and 2055 kg for nuclear waste disposal missions. For the Earth orbital missions, the projectile requires a propulsion system, leaving an estimated payload mass of 650 kg. For the nuclear waste disposal in space mission, the high level waste mass was estimated at 250 kg. This preliminary assessment included technical, environmental, and economic analyses.

  3. Advanced concepts. [specific impulse, mass drivers, electromagnetic launchers, and the rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    The relative strengths of those interactions which enable propulsive forces are listed as well as the specific impulse of various propellants. Graphics show the linear synchronous motor of the mass driver, the principle of the direct current electromagnetic launcher, and the characteristics of the rail gun.

  4. Design and Characterization of Thin Stainless Steel Burst Disks for Increasing Two-Stage Light Gas Launcher Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan M.; Johnson, Kenneth L.; Henderson, Donald; Rodriguez, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Laser etched 300 series Stainless Steel Burst Disks (SSBD) ranging between 0.178 mm (0.007-in.) and 0.508mm (0.020-in.) thick were designed for use in a 17-caliber two-stage light gas launcher. First, a disk manufacturing method was selected using a combination of wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) to form the blank disks and laser etching to define the pedaling fracture pattern. Second, a replaceable insert was designed to go between the SSDB and the barrel. This insert reduced the stress concentration between the SSBD and the barrel, providing a place for the petals of the SSDB to open, and protecting the rifling on the inside of the barrel. Thereafter, a design of experiments was implemented to test and characterize the burst characteristics of SSBDs. Extensive hydrostatic burst testing of the SSBDs was performed to complete the design of experiments study with one-hundred and seven burst tests. The experiment simultaneously tested the effects of the following: two SSBD material states (full hard, annealed); five SSBD thicknesses 0.178, 0.254, 0.305, 0.381 mm (0.007, 0.010, 0.012, 0.015, 0.020-in.); two grain directions relative); number of times the laser etch pattern was repeated (varies between 5-200 times); two heat sink configurations (with and without heat sink); and, two barrel configurations (with and without insert). These tests resulted in the quantification of the relationship between SSBD thickness, laser etch parameters, and desired burst pressure. Of the factors investigated only thickness and number of laser etches were needed to develop a mathematical relationship predicting hydrostatic burst pressure of disks using the same barrel configuration. The fracture surfaces of two representative SSBD bursts were then investigated with a scanning electron microscope, one burst hydrostatically in a fixture and another dynamically in the launcher. The fracture analysis verified that both burst conditions resulted in a ductile overload failure

  5. Crew Launch Vehicle Mobile Launcher Solid Rocket Motor Plume Induced Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Sulyma, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The plume-induced environment created by the Ares 1 first stage, five-segment reusable solid rocket motor (RSRMV) will impose high heating rates and impact pressures on Launch Complex 39. The extremes of these environments pose a potential threat to weaken or even cause structural components to fail if insufficiently designed. Therefore the ability to accurately predict these environments is critical to assist in specifying structural design requirements to insure overall structural integrity and flight safety. This paper presents the predicted thermal and pressure environments induced by the launch of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) from Launch Complex (LC) 39. Once the environments are predicted, a follow-on thermal analysis is required to determine the surface temperature response and the degradation rate of the materials. An example of structures responding to the plume-induced environment will be provided.

  6. CRAWLER HIDDEN UNDER MOBILE LAUNCHER MOVES APOLLO 17 FROM VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING AS TRIP TO LAUNC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 17 space vehicle was moved today from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Complex 39's pad A in preparation for its launch with Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Commander; Ronald A. Evans, Command Module Pilot; and Dr. Harrison H. ''Jack'' Schmitt, Lunar Module Pilot, on the sixth U.S. manned lunar landing mission on December 6, 1972.

  7. Mount mechanisms for the Saturn 5/Apollo mobile launcher at John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balke, H. A.

    1975-01-01

    A support system was designed to resist hurricane wind loads at the launch pad and to allow the supported structural frame to expand and contract freely under wide ranges of temperature. This system consists of six mount mechanisms devised to meet the previously stated requirements plus a load-carrying capacity for each of 3.2-million kilograms (7-million pounds) downward and 1.6-million kilograms (3.5-million pounds) upward. A similar but lighter system of six mount mechanisms was designed for use in the sheltered environment of the vehicle assembly building. Each requirement and design result is discussed, and each mount mechanism is defined by location and type with references to visual presentations.

  8. Assessment of the Feasibility of Innovative Reusable Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiesa, S.; Corpino, S.; Viola, N.

    The demand for getting access to space, in particular to Low Earth Orbit, is increasing and fully reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) are likely to play a key role in the development of future space activities. Up until now this kind of space systems has not been successfully carried out: in fact today only the Space Shuttle, which belongs to the old generation of launchers, is operative and furthermore it is not a fully reusable system. In the nineties many studies regarding advanced transatmospheric planes were started, but no one was accomplished because of the technological problems encountered and the high financial resources required with the corresponding industrial risk. One of the most promising project was the Lockheed Venture Star, which seemed to have serious chances to be carried out. Anyway, if this ever happens, it will take quite a long time thus the operative life of Space Shuttle will have to be extended for the International Space Station support. The purpose of the present work is to assess the feasibility of different kinds of advanced reusable launch vehicles to gain access to space and to meet the requirements of today space flight needs, which are mainly safety and affordability. Single stage to orbit (SSTO), two stage to orbit (TSTO) and the so called "one and a half" stage to orbit vehicles are here taken into account to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The "one and a half" stage to orbit vehicle takes off and climbs to meet a tanker aircraft to be aerially refuelled and then, after disconnecting from the tanker, it flies to reach the orbit. In this case, apart from the space vehicle, also the tanker aircraft needs a dedicated study to examine the problems related to the refuelling at high subsonic speeds and at a height near the tropopause. Only winged vehicles which take off and land horizontally are considered but different architectural layouts and propulsive configurations are hypothesised. Unlike the Venture Star, which

  9. Design and evaluation of coils for a 50 mm diameter induction coilgun launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, R.J.; Shokair, I.R.; Wavrik, R.W.; Dempsey, J.F.; Honey, W.E.; Shimp, K.J.; Douglas, G.M.

    1993-12-31

    Coilguns have the ability to provide magnetic pressure to projectiles which results in near constant acceleration. However, to achieve this performance and control projectile hearing, significant constraints are placed on the design of the coils. We are developing coils to produce an effective projectile base pressure of 100 MPa (1kbar) as a step toward reaching base pressures of 200 MPa. The design uses a scalable technology applicable to the entire range of breech to muzzle coils of a multi-stage launcher. This paper presents the design of capacitor-driven coils for launching nominal 50 mm, 350 gram projectiles. Design criteria, constraints, mechanical stress analysis, launcher performance, and test results are discussed.

  10. A Monte Carlo Analysis for Collision Risk Assessment on Vega Launcher Payloads and LARES Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindoni, G.; Ciufolini, I.; Battie, F.

    2016-03-01

    This work has been developed in the framework of the LARES mission of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The LARES satellite has been built to test, with high accuracy, the frame-dragging effect predicted by the theory of General Relativity, specifically the Lense-Thirring drag of its node. LARES was the main payload in the qualification flight of the European Space Agency launcher VEGA. A concern arose about the possibility of an impact between the eight secondary payloads among themselves, with LARES and with the last stage of the launcher (AVUM). An impact would have caused failure on the payloads and the production of debris in violation of the space debris mitigation measures established internationally. As an additional contribution, this study allowed the effect of the payload release on the final manoeuvers of the AVUM to be understood.

  11. Nano-Launcher Technologies, Approaches, and Life Cycle Assessment. Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Assist in understanding NASA technology and investment approaches, and other driving factors, necessary for enabling dedicated nano-launchers by industry at a cost and flight rate that (1) could support and be supported by an emerging nano-satellite market and (2) would benefit NASAs needs. Develop life-cycle cost, performance and other NASA analysis tools or models required to understand issues, drivers and challenges.

  12. Advanced concepts for electromagnetic launcher power supplies incorporating magnetic flux compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driga, M. D.; Fair, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts of high-energy power supplies for coil launchers are designed to produce high inductive compression ratios and large current and magnetic field multiplication ratios in the range of megaamperes of current and gigawatts of active power. As a consequence of the flexibility of multiwinding rotating generators, such designs provide an extensive range of output pulse shaping in single or multiple pulses, enabling optimum operation of the coil launcher. The interaction of different stationary and rotating electrical windings in strong magnetic fields with feedback generated amplification and nonuniform compensation of the armature reaction is the key to providing a large and flexible spectrum of tailored output pulses, eliminating the need for switching and other large external electromagnetic pulse-forming components. Dynamic interactions between the internal impedance of these generators and the induced electromotive forces in various windings, as well as the role of the external passive circuit components introduced in the launcher circuit (such as capacitors and inductors), are discussed and numerically evaluated. Finally, an adaptive finite-element method numerical code is given which takes into account the relative motion and is designed to evaluate machines incorporating flux compression.

  13. Quantity Distance for the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building for Solid Propellant Fueled Launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stover, Steven; Diebler, Corey; Frazier, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The NASA KSC VAB was built to process Apollo launchers in the 1960's, and later adapted to process Space Shuttles. The VAB has served as a place to assemble solid rocket motors (5RM) and mate them to the vehicle's external fuel tank and Orbiter before rollout to the launch pad. As Space Shuttle is phased out, and new launchers are developed, the VAB may again be adapted to process these new launchers. Current launch vehicle designs call for continued and perhaps increased use of SRM segments; hence, the safe separation distances are in the process of being re-calculated. Cognizant NASA personnel and the solid rocket contractor have revisited the above VAB QD considerations and suggest that it may be revised to allow a greater number of motor segments within the VAB. This revision assumes that an inadvertent ignition of one SRM stack in its High Bay need not cause immediate and complete involvement of boosters that are part of a vehicle in adjacent High Bay. To support this assumption, NASA and contractor personnel proposed a strawman test approach for obtaining subscale data that may be used to develop phenomenological insight and to develop confidence in an analysis model for later use on full-scale situations. A team of subject matter experts in safety and siting of propellants and explosives were assembled to review the subscale test approach and provide options to NASA. Upon deliberations regarding the various options, the team arrived at some preliminary recommendations for NASA.

  14. New Designs, Materials and Processes for Interstage Structures of Future Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangas, C. B.; Diaz, V.

    2012-07-01

    Since the 1990’s EADS CASA Espacio has been leading the development of structures made out of advanced composite materials for the upper stage of Ariane 5: Inter Stage Structure (ISS), Vehicle Equipment Bay (VEB), different Payload Adaptor Systems, Satellite Dispensers and other structures. The next generation of launchers will demand an improvement on mechanical performances, reduction of mass and cost, and an optimization of the manufacturing processes. In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Programme (FLPP) promoted by ESA, new designs, materials and processes are being studied and tested, in order to mature the most promising technologies and implement them in the future launchers. Specifically, in this programme these efforts are focused on different ISS structures. Taking as starting point the current ISS of Ariane 5 and IS3 of VEGA, new designs are suggested. Monocoque stiffened with omega stringers is the concept proposed for the ISS, while carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) - syntactic core sandwich is the one planned for IS3. This paper outlines the work performed in the programme: • Design and analysis of two Inter Stage Structures • Basic characterization tests for new materials: CFRP, syntactic core • Development tests at sample level for the different design solutions: different omega stringers, syncore sandwich • Manufacturing trials for the selected designs • Manufacturing of a sub-scaled demonstrator of the ISS

  15. Optimized use of superconducting magnetic energy storage for electromagnetic rail launcher powering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badel, Arnaud; Tixador, Pascal; Arniet, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic rail launchers (EMRLs) require very high currents, from hundreds of kA to several MA. They are usually powered by capacitors. The use of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in the supply chain of an EMRL is investigated, as an energy buffer and as direct powering source. Simulations of direct powering are conducted to quantify the benefits of this method in terms of required primary energy. In order to enhance further the benefits of SMES powering, a novel integration concept is proposed, the superconducting self-supplied electromagnetic launcher (S3EL). In the S3EL, the SMES is used as a power supply for the EMRL but its coil serves also as an additional source of magnetic flux density, in order to increase the thrust (or reduce the required current for a given thrust). Optimization principles for this new concept are presented. Simulations based on the characteristics of an existing launcher demonstrate that the required current could be reduced by a factor of seven. Realizing such devices with HTS cables should be possible in the near future, especially if the S3EL concept is used in combination with the XRAM principle, allowing current multiplication.

  16. High Velocity Linear Induction Launcher with Exit-Edge Compensation for Testing of Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsov, Stephen; Marriott, Darin

    2008-01-01

    Advances in ultra high speed linear induction electromagnetic launchers over the past decade have focused on magnetic compensation of the exit and entry-edge transient flux wave to produce efficient and compact linear electric machinery. The paper discusses two approaches to edge compensation in long-stator induction catapults with typical end speeds of 150 to 1,500 m/s. In classical linear induction machines, the exit-edge effect is manifest as two auxiliary traveling waves that produce a magnetic drag on the projectile and a loss of magnetic flux over the main surface of the machine. In the new design for the Stator Compensated Induction Machine (SCIM) high velocity launcher, the exit-edge effect is nulled by a dual wavelength machine or alternately the airgap flux is peaked at a location prior to the exit edge. A four (4) stage LIM catapult is presently being constructed for 180 m/s end speed operation using double-sided longitudinal flux machines. Advanced exit and entry edge compensation is being used to maximize system efficiency, and minimize stray heating of the reaction armature. Each stage will output approximately 60 kN of force and produce over 500 G s of acceleration on the armature. The advantage of this design is there is no ablation to the projectile and no sliding contacts, allowing repeated firing of the launcher without maintenance of any sort. The paper shows results of a parametric study for 500 m/s and 1,500 m/s linear induction launchers incorporating two of the latest compensation techniques for an air-core stator primary and an iron-core primary winding. Typical thrust densities for these machines are in the range of 150 kN/sq.m. to 225 kN/sq.m. and these compete favorably with permanent magnet linear synchronous machines. The operational advantages of the high speed SCIM launcher are shown by eliminating the need for pole-angle position sensors as would be required by synchronous systems. The stator power factor is also improved.

  17. Study on launchers for future specialized missions. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, R. G.; Uebelhack, H. T.

    1981-03-01

    The disposal in space of nuclear waste from Western Europe is discussed. Waste packaging, launcher systems, waste disposal destinations, reentry and impact protection systems, and safety aspects are considered. For a late 1990's mission, a ballistic recoverable, two stage orbit launch vehicle, is proposed, with waste disposed in the heliocentric orbit, at the rate of 80 (unmanned) launches per year. Reentry, and impact protection, system weighs 15,000 kg for a 7500 kg waste payload. The waste is enclosed in a glass matrix.

  18. Development of a CFRP Engine Thrust Frame for the Next Generation Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, Javad; van der Bas, Finn; Cruijssen, Henk

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the activities related to the development of technologies for a composite Engine Thrust Frame (ETF) for the next generation launchers. In particular, the design and analyses of a full Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) engine thrust frame are presented in more detail. The ETF concept is composed of three main parts, i.e. an aluminium top-ring which connects the ETF to the upper-stage tank, a CFRP cone, and a CFRP cone-cap which connects the Vinci engine to the ETF. The main challenging requirements for development of a CFRP ETF are recalled. The ETF concept and its mechanical performances are assessed.

  19. Structural requirements and basic design concepts for a two-stage winged launcher system (Saenger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczera, H.; Keller, K.; Kunz, R.

    1988-10-01

    An evaluation is made of materials and structures technologies deemed capable of increasing the mass fraction-to-orbit of the Saenger two-stage launcher system while adequately addressing thermal-control and cryogenic fuel storage insulation problems. Except in its leading edges, nose cone, and airbreathing propulsion system air intakes, Ti alloy-based materials will be the basis of the airframe primary structure. Lightweight metallic thermal-protection measures will be employed. Attention is given to the design of the large lower stage element of Saenger.

  20. SHARP, a first step towards a full sized Jules Verne Launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, L.R.; Hunter, J.W.; Powell, J.R.; Tidman, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    A vital element for space exploration and utilization is the ability to affordably place large quantities of consumables and building material into low earth orbit. Calculations and supportive data indicate this can be done with a large hydrogen gas gun referred to as the Jules Verne Launcher (JVL). We present a design for the JVL based upon the concept of side injecting preheated hydrogen along a long barrel. This dramatically reduces the peak pressures in the launcher as well as the pressures and g-loads at the vehicle. The JVL has the promise of reducing payload delivery costs to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to below $500/kg. The Super High Altitude Research Project (SHARP) is a conventional two-stage hydrogen gas gun which is configured to launch 5 kg packages on suborbital trajectories. It is the first step towards the much larger Jules Verne system and will demonstrate several important features of the larger system. SHARP is currently in the middle of a series of tests aimed at its first milestone. This is to launch 5 kg at 4 km/sec horizontally. In its inclined configuration SHARP should launch vehicles to apogees in excess of 400 km and ranges in excess of 700 km.

  1. Feasibility of an earth-to-space rail launcher system. [emphasizing nuclear waste disposal application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Marshall, R. A.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of earth-to-space electromagnetic (railgun) launchers (ESRL) is considered, in order to determine their technical practicality and economic viability. The potential applications of the launcher include nuclear waste disposal into space, deep space probe launches, and atmospheric research. Examples of performance requirements of the ESRL system are a maximum acceleration of 10,000 g's for nuclear waste disposal in space (NWDS) missions and 2,500 g's for earth orbital missions, a 20 km/sec launch velocity for NWDS missions, and a launch azimuth of 90 degrees E. A brief configuration description is given, and test results indicate that for the 2020-2050 time period, as much as 3.0 MT per day of bulk material could be launched, and about 0.5 MT per day of high-level nuclear waste could be launched. For earth orbital missions, a significant projectile mass was approximately 6.5 MT, and an integral distributed energy store launch system demonstrated a good potential performance. ESRL prove to be economically and environmentally feasible, but an operational ESRL of the proposed size is not considered achievable before the year 2020.

  2. Measurements of ECH absorption on ATF using a polarization-controlled beam launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.; Schaich, C.R.; White, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is used on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) experiment at ORNL for plasma formation and heating. A 53.2 GHz gyrotron generates 200 kW cw which is transported to ATF in 6.35 cm evacuated waveguide. Power is launched into ATF using a recently completed polarization controlled beam launcher which can launch a linear polarized beam with a /minus/20 dB diameter of 12 cm at the plasma center. The launcher consists of a Vlasov mode converting antenna, a Teflon-copper laminate polarization rotating grating, and a spherical focusing mirror. The plane of polarization can be remotely adjusted by rotating the grating with a motorized vacuum feedthrough. First pass plasma absorption is monitored in two planes of polarization using a dual-polarized detector looking through a dome shaped scattering cut-off screen. During plasma operation, the detected signals indicate that absorption under ideal conditions is nearly complete. With low density or a shifted resonance zone, absorption is small and there are cases where there is mode coupling to the perpendicular polarization. This is presumably due to shear in the ATF magnetic field. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Millimeter wave experiment of ITER equatorial EC launcher mock-up

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Isozaki, M.; Sakamoto, K.; Omori, T.; Henderson, M.

    2014-02-12

    The full-scale mock-up of the equatorial launcher was fabricated in basis of the baseline design to investigate the mm-wave propagation properties of the launcher, the manufacturability, the cooling line management, how to assemble the components and so on. The mock-up consists of one of three mm-wave transmission sets and one of eight waveguide lines can deliver the mm-wave power. The mock-up was connected to the ITER compatible transmission line and the 170GHz gyrotron and the high power experiment was carried out. The measured radiation pattern of the beam at the location of 2.5m away from the EL mock-up shows the successful steering capability of 20°∼40°. It was also revealed that the radiated profile at both steering and fixed focusing mirror agreed with the calculation. The result also suggests that some unwanted modes are included in the radiated beam. Transmission of 0.5MW-0.4sec and of 0.12MW-50sec were also demonstrated.

  4. Recent advance on design and manufacturing of composite anisogrid structures for space launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, G.; De Nicola, F.

    2012-12-01

    Anisogrid composite shells have been developed and applied since the eighties by the Russian technology aiming at critical weight structures for space launchers, as interstages and cone adapters. The manufacturing process commonly applied is based on the wet filament winding. The paper concerns with some developments of design and manufacturing recently performed at the Italian Aerospace Research Center on a cylindrical structural model representative of this kind of structures. The framework of preliminary design is improved by introducing the concept of suboptimal configuration in order to match the stiffness requirement of the shell and minimise the mass, in conjunction with the typical strength constraints. The undertaken manufacturing process is based on dry robotic winding for the lattice structure and for the outer skin, with the aid of usual rubber tooling and new devices for the automated deposition strategy. Resin infusion under vacuum bag and co-cure of the system of ribs and skin is finally applied out-of-autoclave, with the aid of a heated mandrel. With such approach an interstage structural model (scale factor 1:1.5) has been designed, manufactured and tested. Design requirements and loads refer to a typical space launcher whose baseline configuration is made in aluminium. The global mechanical test of the manufactured structure has confirmed the expected high structural performance. The possibility to reach substantial weight savings in comparison with the aluminium benchmark has been fully demonstrated.

  5. Fabrication issues and technology development for HELEOS (Hypervelocity Electromagnetic Launcher for Equation of State)

    SciTech Connect

    Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Balk, J.K.; Hall, C.A.; McDonald, M.J.

    1988-02-01

    Starfire is a joint railgun project of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque. The goal of Starfire is to develop a Hypervelocity Electromagnetic Launcher for Equation of State (HELEOS) experiments. A two-stage light-gas gun is used as pre-injector. Each round-bore HELEOS railgun module is 12.7 mm in diameter and 2.4 m long. The muzzle end of the railgun is connected to a vacuum tank. Common materials and fabrication technology are used in the manufacture of all components,a nd modular design allows for extending the length of the railgun as progress dictates. The launcher uses a ''vee block'' geometry, which is designed to: provide compressive preload; operate with a 300-MPa (3-kbar) internal bore pressure; and easily accommodate interchangeable materials in the bore support structure and rail. We have performed full-scale material testing of the railgun and have developed a precision round-bore fabrication process. Air-gage inspection is used to determine bore diameter and straightness. We have also developed a surface mapping system to document the surface topography of the bore before and after an experiment. This paper presents fabrication details, results of tests conducted, and areas for potential improvement. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Aktiv De-Orbiting Onboard System from Leo of Upper Stages of Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shalay, V.; Shatrov, J.; Jakovlev, M.; Kostantino, A.

    2009-03-01

    The active de-orbiting onboard system (VDOS) of upper separable parts (USP) stage of launchers from LEO into orbits of utilization with term of existence orbital lifetimes till 25 years is offered. ADOS it is based on use of power resources of not produced rests of liquid fuel onboard USP launchers with liquid propulsion module (LPM). Following systems enter in structure VDOS: the gas jet propulsion system consisting of a system of gasification, chambers of gas engines (GE), a control system. For gasification of the rests of liquid fuel the heat-carrier received in the autonomous gas generator is used. The gasification propellant components from each tank with temperature and the pressure determined by strength of the corresponding tank, move in chambers of the GE established on a top of a fuel compartment. After separation of a payload execute twist USP for preservation of its position in the space by activity of the GE. Ways of increase of a system effectiveness of gasification are offered by superposition on the entered heat-carrier of ultrasonic oscillations, and also introduction in gaseous fuel nanopowder of aluminum. The volume of adaptations of construction USP, connected with introduction VDOS does not exceed 5 % from weight of a dry construction.

  7. The use of high velocity launchers for scientific and engineering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, J.R.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Furnish, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Shockwave techniques have been used for decades to study the dynamic states of matter in temperature and pressure regimes inaccessible by other methods. These techniques have been employed in a wide variety of scientific, military, and commercial applications. A principal scientific objective has been to determine high-pressure equations of state (EOS) to ultra-high pressures; pressures of tens of Mbar have been reported for several materials. Most recently, these methods have been used for studies of thermophysical properties under shock compression, including phase transition kinetics, and mechanical properties, such as the high-pressure yield strength. In this paper, a brief discussion of recent developments in high velocity launchers is given. Advances in techniques for subjecting materials to a wide range of loading conditions is presented, including selected illustrations of shockwave measurements to Mbar pressures. 54 refs.

  8. Specifications and implementation of the RT MHD control system for the EC launcher of FTU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galperti, C.; Alessi, E.; Boncagni, L.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, A.; Iannone, F.; Marchetto, C.; Nowak, S.; Panella, M.; Sozzi, C.; Tilia, B.

    2012-09-01

    To perform real time plasma control experiments using EC heating waves by using the new fast launcher installed on FTU a dedicated data acquisition and elaboration system has been designed recently. A prototypical version of the acquisition/control system has been recently developed and will be tested on FTU machine in its next experimental campaign. The open-source framework MARTe (Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor) on Linux/RTAI real-time operating system has been chosen as software platform to realize the control system. Standard open-architecture industrial PCs, based either on VME bus and CompactPCI bus equipped with standard input/output cards are the chosen hardware platform.

  9. High temperature properties of alloys being considered for design of a concentric canister launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, M E; Lowry, R W; Rosen, R S

    1998-06-01

    This report describes a study to determine the high temperature mechanical properties of several titanium alloys and to compare them with properties of AISI 316L stainless steel and ASTM A 387 structural steel. The steel materials are less costly to procure but exhibit good resistance to corrosion in seawater environments. Six titanium alloys were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a c Concentric Canister Launcher (CCL). Each titanium alloy was tested at three temperatures (68°, 2000°F, and 2400°F). Strain-rate changes tests were used to determine the strain rate sensitivity of the alloys at each test temperature. Optical metallography was performed on two of the alloys to determine the relationship between test temperature and microstructure (presence of second phase precipitates, grain size). Complete test results are includes, a long with figures and tables of test data.

  10. On the criteria guiding the design of the upper electron-cyclotron launcher for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, E.; Angioni, C.; Casson, F. J.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Goodman, T. P.; Maj, O.; Sauter, O.; Weber, H.; Zohm, H.; Saibene, G.; Henderson, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Electron cyclotron waves injected from an antenna located in the upper part of the vessel will be employed in ITER to controlMHD instabilities, particularly neoclassical tearingmodes (NTMs). The derivation of the NTM stabilization criteria used up to now to guide the optimization of the launcher is reviewed in this paper and their range of validity elucidated. Possible effects leading to a deterioration of the predicted performance through a broadening of the EC deposition profile are discussed. The most detrimental effect will likely be the scattering of the EC beams from density fluctuations, resulting in a beam broadening in the 100% range. The combined impact of these effects with that of beam misalignment (with respect to the targeted surface) is discussed for a time slice of the standard Q = 10 H-mode scenario.

  11. System Tests on Full Scale VEGA Launcher Mock-Up at the European Spaceport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leofanti, Jose Luis; Fotino, Domenico; Bianchini, Angelo; Scaccia, Aldo

    2012-07-01

    Between the end of 2010 and the first half of 2011, a full scale mock-up of the VEGA launcher was assembled at Kourou spaceport in the frame of the so- called “Combined Tests”. Beyond the verification of the interfaces with the ground segment, this mock-up was used to perform dry runs of the flight time-line up lift off in both night and day conditions and, during these dry runs, several system tests in representative environmental conditions were carried out. This paper gives an overview on all the tests performed mainly in terms of test sequence, test setup preparation and main results. Attention is focused on the final countdown dry-run were thermal, inertial system alignment, ground operations and structural dynamic tests have been performed contemporarily following the operational plan.

  12. Inverse synthetic aperture radar imagery of a man with a rocket propelled grenade launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chi N.; Innocenti, Roberto; Kirose, Getachew; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Smith, Gregory

    2004-08-01

    As the Army moves toward more lightly armored Future Combat System (FCS) vehicles, enemy personnel will present an increasing threat to U.S. soldiers. In particular, they face a very real threat from adversaries using shoulder-launched, rocket propelled grenade (RPG). The Army Research Laboratory has utilized its Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) turntable facility to collect very high resolution, fully polarimetric Ka band radar data at low depression angles of a man holding an RPG. In this paper, we examine the resulting low resolution and high resolution range profiles; and based on the observed radar cross section (RCS) value, we attempt to determine the utility of Ka band radar for detecting enemy personnel carrying RPG launchers.

  13. Beam masking to reduce cyclic error in beam launcher of interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Lawrence L. (Inventor); Bell, Raymond Mark (Inventor); Dutta, Kalyan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to reducing cyclic error in the beam launcher of an interferometer. In one embodiment, an interferometry apparatus comprises a reference beam directed along a reference path, and a measurement beam spatially separated from the reference beam and being directed along a measurement path contacting a measurement object. The reference beam and the measurement beam have a single frequency. At least a portion of the reference beam and at least a portion of the measurement beam overlapping along a common path. One or more masks are disposed in the common path or in the reference path and the measurement path to spatially isolate the reference beam and the measurement beam from one another.

  14. In-bore diagnostic and modeling of an electrothermal plasma launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    A diagnostic method has been developed to measure the high heat flux produced in the electrothermal plasma launcher SIRENS. The method involves attaching a thermocouple to the back surface of a target to obtain the temperature history of the back surface, which is a direct indication of the heat flux incident on the front surface. The measured temperature history is an input to a developed one dimensional (1-D), time dependent heat conduction code which uses the temperature history of the back surface to determine the incident heat flux on the front surface of the target. A one dimensional time dependent code, ODIN, was developed to model the plasma formation and flow in electrothermal launchers. ODIN models the plasma formation and flow into the source section and the plasma expansion into and through the barrel section. ODIN models the energy transport, particle transport, plasma resistivity, plasma viscosity, and equation-of-state. The source and barrel sections were broken into a specific number of cells and each cell was considered to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), with the plasma modeled as a viscous fluid. The primary objective of the numerical simulation was to predict the time and axial variation of the plasma flow and to predict the magnitude of the drag forces acting on the plasma. SIRENS has been operated at atmospheric conditions using a fuse placed between the two electrodes in the source section to initiate the discharge. Three different types of fuses were tested, with the best results obtaining using a thin triangular shaped aluminum fuse. SIRENS has also be used to launch projectiles, with projectile masses ranging from 400 mg to 1500 mg. The maximum velocity obtained was 1.74 km/sec at an input energy of 2.5 kJ, using a 540 mg Lexan projectile with an efficiency of 33%.

  15. ESC-B: The Cryogenic Upper Stage for Europe's Heavy Lift Launcher Ariane 5ECB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhls, A.

    2002-01-01

    -A. Juhls, Astrium GmbH -M. Lepelletier, Snecma Moteurs -JM. Bahu, CNES -C. Poincheval, CNES. In the year 1998 the European ministerial council decided to initiate the Ariane 5 Plus programme in order to upgrade the European heavy lift launcher Ariane 5. The market was changing more rapidly than predicted showing steadily growing satellite mass and the demand for flexible missions while strong competitors were intensifying their preparations to enter the commercial business. The answer was to improve the Ariane 5 launcher by modifying the cryogenic first (or lower ?) stage and the solid boosters and by introducing two cryogenic upper stages in two steps: In order to cope with the short term need of a significant growth of GTO lift capacity up to 10 t the first denoted ESC-A shall enter commercial service in 2002. Four years later a more powerful second version shall take over enabling a GTO performance of 12 t and providing versatile mission capability. The paper will focus on this new cryogenic upper stage denoted ESC-B giving first a general description of main characteristics and constituents. The article will highlight different challenging aspects of the ESC-B development: Ambitious economical conditions regarding both limited development budgets and the strong need to reduce production cost require improved working methods and an adjustment of the conventional development logic, in particular regarding new verification methods. Furthermore Europe is now facing the complex combination of versatile mission capability together with a powerful cryogenic upper stage. The paper will present the approach to define reasonable mission scenarios in order to cover customer demands while avoiding too stringent system requirements. Along with VINCI, Europe's first expander cycle type engine featuring an extendable nozzle dedicated subsystems will be described which allow 4 re-ignitions and 6 hours of ballistic flight. The paper concludes with the summary of the

  16. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  17. Hardness Tester for Polyur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, D. L.; Buras, D. F.; Corbin, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Rubber-hardness tester modified for use on rigid polyurethane foam. Provides objective basis for evaluation of improvements in foam manufacturing and inspection. Typical acceptance criterion requires minimum hardness reading of 80 on modified tester. With adequate correlation tests, modified tester used to measure indirectly tensile and compressive strengths of foam.

  18. The hard metal diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Cugell, D.W. )

    1992-06-01

    Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure.66 references.

  19. The hard metal diseases.

    PubMed

    Cugell, D W

    1992-06-01

    Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure.

  20. The hard metal diseases.

    PubMed

    Cugell, D W

    1992-06-01

    Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure. PMID:1511554

  1. Spacecraft configuration study for second generation mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louie, M.; Vonstentzsch, W.; Zanella, F.; Hayes, R.; Mcgovern, F.; Tyner, R.

    1985-01-01

    A high power, high performance communicatons satellite bus being developed is designed to satisfy a broad range of multimission payload requirements in a cost effective manner and is compatible with both STS and expendable launchers. Results are presented of tradeoff studies conducted to optimize the second generation mobile satellite system for its mass, power, and physical size. Investigations of the 20-meter antenna configuration, transponder linearization techniques, needed spacecraft modifications, and spacecraft power, dissipation, mass, and physical size indicate that the advanced spacecraft bus is capable of supporting the required payload for the satellite.

  2. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited).

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Martin, E H; Isler, R C; Colas, L; Goniche, M; Hillairet, J; Panayotis, S; Pegourié, B; Jacquot, J; Lotte, Ph; Colledani, G; Biewer, T M; Caughman, J B; Ekedahl, A; Green, D L; Harris, J H; Hillis, D L; Shannon, S C; Litaudon, X

    2014-11-01

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>∼1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher. PMID:25430306

  3. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited).

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Martin, E H; Isler, R C; Colas, L; Goniche, M; Hillairet, J; Panayotis, S; Pegourié, B; Jacquot, J; Lotte, Ph; Colledani, G; Biewer, T M; Caughman, J B; Ekedahl, A; Green, D L; Harris, J H; Hillis, D L; Shannon, S C; Litaudon, X

    2014-11-01

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>∼1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

  4. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C Christopher; Martin, Elijah H; Isler, Ralph C; Colas, L.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Panayotis, Stephanie; Jacquot, Jonathan; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Biewer, Theodore M; Caughman, J. B. O.; Ekedahl, A.; Green, David L; Harris, Jeffrey H; Hillis, Donald Lee; Shannon, Prof. Steven; Litaudon, X

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (> 1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

  5. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C. C. Isler, R. C.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B.; Green, D. L.; Harris, J. H.; Hillis, D. L.; Martin, E. H.; Colas, L.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Panayotis, S.; Pegourié, B.; Jacquot, J.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Ekedahl, A.; Litaudon, X.; Shannon, S. C.

    2014-11-15

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>∼1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

  6. Organizing Your Hard Disk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, H. Robert; Hilton, Thomas S. E.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests strategies that make hard disk organization easy and efficient, such as making, changing, and removing directories; grouping files by subject; naming files effectively; backing up efficiently; and using PATH. (JOW)

  7. Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of an Accelerometer Calibration Using a POC Electromagnetic Launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Timpson, Erik J.; Engel, T. G.

    2012-06-12

    A pulse forming network (PFN), helical electromagnetic launcher (HEML), command module (CM), and calibration table (CT) were built and evaluated for the combined ability to calibrate an accelerometer. The PFN has a maximum stored nergy of 19.25 kJ bank and is fired by a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), with appropriate safety precautions. The HEML is constructed out of G-10 fiberglass reinforced epoxy and is designed to accelerate a mass of 600 grams to a velocity of 10 meters per second. The CM is microcontroller-based running Arduino Software. The CM has a keypad input and 7 segment outputs of the PFN voltage and desired charging voltage. After entering a desired PFN voltage, the CM controls the charging of the PFN. When the two voltages are equal it sends a pulse to the SCR to fire the PFN and in turn, the HEML. The HEML projectile’s tip hits a target that is held by the CT. The CT consists of a table to hold the PFN and HEML, a vacuum chuck, air bearing, velocimeter and catch pot. The target is held with the vacuum chuck awaiting impact. After impact, the air bearing allows the target to fall freely so that the velocimeter can accurately read. A known acceleration is determined from the known change in velocity of the target. Thus, if an accelerometer was attached to the target, the measured value can be compared to the known value.

  8. Design for robustness using the μ-synthesis applied to launcher attitude and vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yasuhiro; Goto, Shinichi

    2008-01-01

    The M-V launch vehicle of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has successfully injected Japan's fifth X-ray space telescope "SUZAKU" into its low earth orbit in this past July. The attitude and vibration control algorithm of the M-V rocket used to be highlighted by its H∞ robust stability since its first flight conducted in 1997. Beyond this, its robustness character has been further enhanced using the μ-synthesis approach to get better robust characteristics not only in stability but in tracking performance under uncertainty of the system dynamics. The performance has been validated by the latest back-to-back successful flights of the vehicle: in May 2003 to directly inject Japan's first asteroid sample return spaceship "HAYABUSA" into the planned inter-planetary trajectory and in this past July to launch the telescope. The μ-synthesis has been applied for the first time ever for Japan's launcher control beyond the reliable H∞ design. The plant dynamics has an extremely high-order and unstable characteristics, thus the standard μ-synthesis format cannot be directly applied. The paper gives a unique methodology to apply the theory to such a real high-order complicated system.

  9. A crude model to study radio frequency induced density modification close to launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eester, Dirk; Crombé, Kristel

    2015-12-15

    The interplay between radio frequency (RF) waves and the density is discussed by adopting the general framework of a 2-time-scale multi-fluid treatment, allowing to separate the dynamics on the RF time scale from that on the time scale on which macroscopic density and flows vary as a result of the presence of electromagnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The focus is on regions close to launchers where charge neutrality is incomplete and waves are commonly evanescent. The fast time scale dynamics influences the slow time scale behavior via quasilinear terms (the Ponderomotive force for the case of the equation of motion). Electrons and ions are treated on the same footing. Also, both fast and slow waves are retained in the wave description. Although this work is meant as a subtopic of a large study—the wave induced “convective cell” physics at hand is of a 2- or 3-dimensional nature while this paper limits itself to a single dimension—a few tentative examples are presented.

  10. Guidelines for internal optics optimization of the ITER EC H and CD upper launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, A.; Bruschi, A.; Figini, L.; Farina, D.; Platania, P.; Sozzi, C.; Chavan, R.; Goodman, T. P.; Krause, A.; Landis, J. D.; Sanchez Galan, F.; Toussaint, M.; Henderson, M. A.; Saibene, G.

    2014-02-12

    The importance of localized injection of Electron Cyclotron waves to control Magneto-HydroDynamic instability is well assessed in tokamak physics and the set of four Electron Cyclotron (EC) Upper Launchers (UL) in ITER is mainly designed for this purpose. Each of the 4 ULs uses quasi-optical mirrors (shaping and planes, fixed and steerable) to redirect and focus 8 beams (in two rows, with power close to 1 MW per beam coming from the EC transmission lines) in the plasma region where the instability appears. Small beam dimensions and maximum beam superposition guarantee the necessary localization of the driven current. To achieve the goal of MHD stabilization with minimum EC power to preserve the energy confinement in the outer half of the plasma cross section, optimization of the quasi-optical design is required and a guideline of a strategy is presented. As a result of this process and following the guidelines indicated, modifications of the design (new mirrors positions, rotation axes and/or focal properties) will be proposed for the next step of an iterative process, including the mandatory compatibility check with the mechanical constraints.

  11. Numerical investigation of the near wake of generic space launcher systems at transonic and supersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statnikov, V.; Glatzer, C.; Meiß, J.-H.; Meinke, M.; Schröder, W.

    2013-06-01

    Numerical simulations of the near wake of generic rocket configurations are performed at transonic and supersonic freestream conditions to improve the understanding of the highly intricate near wake structures. The Reynolds number in both flow regimes is 106 based on the main body diameter, i. e., specific freestream conditions of ESA's Ariane launcher trajectory. The geometry matches models used in experiments in the framework of the German Transregional Collaborative Research Center TRR40. Both axisymmetric wind tunnel models possess cylindrical sting supports, representing a nozzle to allow investigations of a less disturbed wake flow. A zonal approach consisting of a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and a large-eddy simulation (LES) is applied. It is shown that the highly unsteady transonic wake flow at Ma∞ = 0.7 is characterized by the expanding separated shear layer, while the Mach 6.0 wake is defined by a shock, expansion waves, and a recompression region. In both cases, an instantaneous view on the base characteristics reveals complex azimuthal flow structures even for axisymmetric geometries. The flow regimes are discussed by comparing the aerodynamic characteristics, such as the size of the recirculation region and the turbulent kinetic energy.

  12. A crude model to study radio frequency induced density modification close to launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, Dirk; Crombé, Kristel

    2015-12-01

    The interplay between radio frequency (RF) waves and the density is discussed by adopting the general framework of a 2-time-scale multi-fluid treatment, allowing to separate the dynamics on the RF time scale from that on the time scale on which macroscopic density and flows vary as a result of the presence of electromagnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The focus is on regions close to launchers where charge neutrality is incomplete and waves are commonly evanescent. The fast time scale dynamics influences the slow time scale behavior via quasilinear terms (the Ponderomotive force for the case of the equation of motion). Electrons and ions are treated on the same footing. Also, both fast and slow waves are retained in the wave description. Although this work is meant as a subtopic of a large study—the wave induced "convective cell" physics at hand is of a 2- or 3-dimensional nature while this paper limits itself to a single dimension—a few tentative examples are presented.

  13. The Aquarius, A Proposal for a Nano-Satellite Launcher Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calero, J. S.

    Here we present a nano launcher vehicle capable of injecting a 14 kg satellite in a polar orbit of 400 kilometres of altitude. This vehicle, which we call Aquarius, has an approximate mass of 1,000 kg and is transported and launched as an external load from a fighter aircraft such as the F-18 Hornet or EF-2000 Typhoon. Although we are dealing with a theoretical exercise, the solution we propose here is totally realistic. The calculation methods employed are the usual ones in the preliminary phases of projects of this type, and the technology proposed for the systems corresponds to current state-of-the- art. Of course there are some areas in which conjecture was introduced as to study them in detail would take too long; however we have tried to provide solutions that are both realistic and likely. As regards the numerical values employed in the diverse parameters and magnitudes, we tended to be a bit more conservative. Conceptual aspects, calculation methods, technological solutions and economic and scheduling provisions all derive from knowledge acquired from the extinct Capricornio programme.

  14. Design of a robust control law for the Vega launcher ballistic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valli, Monica; Lavagna, Michèle R.; Panozzo, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    This work presents the design of a robust control law, and the related control system architecture, for the Vega launcher ballistic phase, taking into account the complete six degrees of freedom dynamics. To gain robustness a non-linear control approach has been preferred: more specifically the Lyapunov's second stability theorem has been exploited, being a very powerful tool to guarantee asymptotic stability of the controlled dynamics. The dynamics of Vega's actuators has also been taken into account. The system performance has been checked and analyzed by numerical simulations run on real mission data for different operational and configuration scenarios, and the effectiveness of the synthesized control highlighted: in particular scenarios including a wide range of composite's inertial configurations performing various typologies of maneuvers have been run. The robustness of the controlled dynamics has been validated by 100 cases Monte Carlo analysis campaign: the containment of the dispersion for the controlled variables - say the composite roll, yaw and pitch angles - confirmed the wide validity and generality of the proposed control law. This paper will show the theoretical approach and discuss the obtained results.

  15. Development of a high-velocity free-flight launcher : the Ames light-gas gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charters, A C; Denardo, B Pat; Rossow, Vernon J

    1955-01-01

    Recent interest in long-range missiles has stimulated a search for new experimental techniques which can reproduce in the laboratory the high temperatures and Mach numbers associated with the missiles' flight. One promising possibility lies in free-flight testing of laboratory models which are flown at the full velocity of the missile. In this type of test, temperatures are approximated and aerodynamic heating of the model is representative of that experienced by the missile in high-velocity flight. A prime requirement of the free-flight test technique is a device which had the capacity for launching models at the velocities desired. In response to thie need, a gun firing light models at velocities up to 15,000 feet per second has been developed at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. The design of this gun, the analysis of its performance, and the results of the initial firing trials are described in this paper. The firing trials showed that the measured velocities and pressures agreed well with the predicted values. Also, the erosion of the launch tube was very small for the eleven rounds fired. The performance of the gun suggests that it will prove to be a satisfactory launcher for high-velocity free-flight tests. However, it should be mentioned that only the gross performance has been evaluated so far, and, consequently, the operation of the gun must be investigated in further detail before its performance can be reliably predicted over its full operating range.

  16. A new technology for production of high thickness carbon/carbon composites for launchers application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Marta; Delfini, Andrea; Pastore, Roberto; Micheli, Davide; Marchetti, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-Carbon (C/C) composites are known for their extraordinary stability and excellent mechanical properties, almost unchanged at high temperatures. Among the several advanced applications, C/C based materials can be used in engines as nozzle throat section for launchers. In particular, the main feature for such employment is the material high resistance in extreme thermal environment. On the other hand, large-size items are required for this kind of purposes, thus introducing criticalities in terms of material uniformity and final overall properties. Up to now, there no standard for the production of high thickness C/C structures. In this paper a novel manufacturing method is analyzed, following each phase of the process, from the carbon fiber preform design and preparation to the carbon densification by chemical vapor infiltration method. Five preforms of large dimensions with different characteristics have been manufactured and infiltrated. The realized prototypes have been then analyzed by means of mechanical, physical and morphological tests. Aim of the results of this preliminary work is to establish a set of guidelines for a well-defined high thickness C/C production method.

  17. Update on Progress of Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital Payload Systems (SSIKLOPS) - Cyclops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newswander, Daniel; Smith, James P.; Lamb, Craig R.; Ballard, Perry G.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital Payload Systems (SSIKLOPS), known as "Cyclops" to the International Space Station (ISS) community, was introduced last August (2013) during Technical Session V: From Earth to Orbit of the 27th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites. Cyclops is a collaboration between the NASA ISS Program, NASA Johnson Space Center Engineering, and Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program (STP) communities to develop a dedicated 50-100 kg class ISS small satellite deployment system. This paper will address the progress of Cyclops through its fabrication, assembly, flight certification, and on-orbit demonstration phases. It will also go into more detail regarding its anatomy, its satellite deployment concept of operations, and its satellite interfaces and requirements. Cyclops is manifested to fly on Space-X 4 which is currently scheduled in July 2014 with its initial satellite deployment demonstration of DoD STP's SpinSat and UT/TAMU's Lonestar satellites being late summer or fall of 2014.

  18. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  19. Investigations on the turbulent wake of a generic space launcher geometry in the hypersonic flow regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saile, D.; Gülhan, A.; Henckels, A.; Glatzer, C.; Statnikov, V.; Meinke, M.

    2013-06-01

    The turbulent wake flow of generic rocket configurations is investigated experimentally and numerically at a freestream Mach number of 6.0 and a unit Reynolds number of 10·106 m-1. The flow condition is based on the trajectory of Ariane V-like launcher at an altitude of 50 km, which is used as the baseline to address the overarching tasks of wake flows in the hypersonic regime like fluid-structural coupling, reverse hot jets and base heating. Experimental results using pressure transducers and the high-speed Schlieren measurement technique are shown to gain insight into the local pressure fluctuations on the base and the oscillations of the recompression shock. This experimental configuration features a wedgeprofiled strut orthogonally mounted to the main body. Additionally, the influence of cylindrical dummy nozzles attached to the base of the rocket is investigated, which is the link to the numerical investigations. Here, the axisymmetric model possesses a cylindrical sting support of the same diameter as the dummy nozzles. The sting support allows investigations for an undisturbed wake flow. A time-accurate zonal Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes/Large Eddy Simulation (RANS/LES) approach is applied to identify shocks, expansion waves, and the highly unsteady recompression region numerically. Subsequently, experimental and numerical results in the strut-averted region are compared with regard to the wall pressure and recompression shock frequency spectra. For the compared configurations, experimental pressure spectra exhibit dominant Strouhal numbers at about SrD = 0.03 and 0.27, and the recompression shock oscillates at 0.2. In general, the pressure and recompression shock fluctuations numerically calculated agree reasonably with the experimental results. The experiments with a blunt base reveal base-pressure spectra with dominant Strouhal numbers at 0.08 at the center position and 0.145, 0.21-0.22, and 0.31-0.33 at the outskirts of the base.

  20. Combined experimental and numerical investigation of a transonic space launcher wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharnowski, S.; Statnikov, V.; Meinke, M.; Schröder, W.; Kähler, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    Combined experimental und numerical investigations of the turbulent wake of a generic space launcher at transonic free stream conditions (Ma∞ = 0.7 and ReD = 1.0 · 106) are performed to gain a better understanding of intricate phenomena of the wake flow physics and to validate new methods for its analysis. The experiments are conducted at the Bundeswehr University Munich using a high-repetition-rate particle image velocimetry (PIV) system, while the numerical investigation is performed by the Institute of Aerodynamics of RWTH Aachen University using a zonal Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) / large-eddy simulation (LES) approach. After a characterization of the wake flow topology, two applied methodologies are compared to each other with respect to the spatial and temporal resolution stressing their strengths and shortcomings. It is shown that both methods are well suitable for the prediction of the mean and instantaneous values of the turbulent velocity field, whereas for a reliable statistical analysis of the velocity fluctuations, the PIV approach is more appropriate due to the computational time limitations of the LES. On the other hand, the high spatial and temporal resolution of the LES allows for an accurate detection of relevant coherent structures as well as tracking their motion in time without any significant artificial vortex agglomeration that can be critical in the case of PIV. Furthermore, the influence of different model assumptions, e. g., the level of incoming turbulence and model vibrations, is discussed in order to emphasize the importance of a side-by-side combination of both investigation techniques.

  1. Wave induced density modification in RF sheaths and close to wave launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, D.; Crombé, K.; Lu, Ling-Feng

    2015-12-01

    With the return to full metal walls - a necessary step towards viable fusion machines - and due to the high power densities of current-day ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) or RF (radio frequency) antennas, there is ample renewed interest in exploring the reasons for wave-induced sputtering and formation of hot spots. Moreover, there is experimental evidence on various machines that RF waves influence the density profile close to the wave launchers so that waves indirectly influence their own coupling efficiency. The present study presents a return to first principles and describes the wave-particle interaction using a 2-time scale model involving the equation of motion, the continuity equation and the wave equation on each of the time scales. Through the changing density pattern, the fast time scale dynamics is affected by the slow time scale events. In turn, the slow time scale density and flows are modified by the presence of the RF waves through quasilinear terms. Although finite zero order flows are identified, the usual cold plasma dielectric tensor - ignoring such flows - is adopted as a first approximation to describe the wave response to the RF driver. The resulting set of equations is composed of linear and nonlinear equations and is tackled in 1D in the present paper. Whereas the former can be solved using standard numerical techniques, the latter require special handling. At the price of multiple iterations, a simple 'derivative switch-on' procedure allows to reformulate the nonlinear problem as a sequence of linear problems. Analytical expressions allow a first crude assessment - revealing that the ponderomotive potential plays a role similar to that of the electrostatic potential arising from charge separation - but numerical implementation is required to get a feeling of the full dynamics. A few tentative examples are provided to illustrate the phenomena involved.

  2. Wave induced density modification in RF sheaths and close to wave launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eester, D.; Lu, Ling-Feng

    2015-12-10

    With the return to full metal walls - a necessary step towards viable fusion machines - and due to the high power densities of current-day ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) or RF (radio frequency) antennas, there is ample renewed interest in exploring the reasons for wave-induced sputtering and formation of hot spots. Moreover, there is experimental evidence on various machines that RF waves influence the density profile close to the wave launchers so that waves indirectly influence their own coupling efficiency. The present study presents a return to first principles and describes the wave-particle interaction using a 2-time scale model involving the equation of motion, the continuity equation and the wave equation on each of the time scales. Through the changing density pattern, the fast time scale dynamics is affected by the slow time scale events. In turn, the slow time scale density and flows are modified by the presence of the RF waves through quasilinear terms. Although finite zero order flows are identified, the usual cold plasma dielectric tensor - ignoring such flows - is adopted as a first approximation to describe the wave response to the RF driver. The resulting set of equations is composed of linear and nonlinear equations and is tackled in 1D in the present paper. Whereas the former can be solved using standard numerical techniques, the latter require special handling. At the price of multiple iterations, a simple ’derivative switch-on’ procedure allows to reformulate the nonlinear problem as a sequence of linear problems. Analytical expressions allow a first crude assessment - revealing that the ponderomotive potential plays a role similar to that of the electrostatic potential arising from charge separation - but numerical implementation is required to get a feeling of the full dynamics. A few tentative examples are provided to illustrate the phenomena involved.

  3. Assessment of the ITER electron cyclotron upper launcher capabilities in view of an optimized design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figini, L.; Farina, D.; Henderson, M.; Mariani, A.; Poli, E.; Saibene, G.

    2015-05-01

    The 24 MW ITER electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive (H and CD) system, operating at 170 GHz, consists of one equatorial and four upper launchers (UL). The main task of the UL will be the control of magneto-hydrodynamic activity such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) at the q = 3/2 and q = 2 surfaces and sawteeth at q = 1, but it will also be needed for current profile tailoring in advanced scenarios and to assist plasma break-down and L- to H-mode transition. Moreover, it is required to be effective both when ITER will operate at nominal and reduced magnetic field magnitude. Here the performance of the UL has been assessed through the study of the full temporal evolution of different scenarios, including the reference ITER 15 MA H-mode plasma, a half-field case at 2.65 T and a steady state scenario. The ECCD efficiency has been evaluated for a wide range of injection angles, deriving the optimal angles and the power required for NTMs stabilization with simplified criteria. An injected power ranging from 3 MW to 9 MW should be sufficient to control NTMs in the flat-top phase of the scenarios considered here. The result of the analysis shows that the EC system maintains a good performance level even at intermediate values of the magnetic field, between the nominal and the half-field value. The analysis has also allowed to evaluate the adequateness of the available steering range for reaching the rational surfaces during all the phases of the discharge and to quantify the steering sensitivity to shifts of the target or aiming errors. The result is an assessment of the UL design requirements to achieve the desired functionalities, which will be used to drive the optimization and finalization of the UL design.

  4. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  5. Hard (and Soft) Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Provides guidelines to help schools maintain hard floors and carpets, including special areas in schools and colleges that need attention and the elements needed to have a successful carpet-maintenance program. The importance of using heavy equipment to lessen time and effort is explained as are the steps maintenance workers can take to make the…

  6. CSI: Hard Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

  7. Running in Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    Roberta Stevens and Kent Oliver are campaigning hard for the presidency of the American Library Association (ALA). Stevens is outreach projects and partnerships officer at the Library of Congress. Oliver is executive director of the Stark County District Library in Canton, Ohio. They have debated, discussed, and posted web sites, Facebook pages,…

  8. Steady-State Cycle Deck Launcher Developed for Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDrei, Donald E.

    1997-01-01

    industry and NASA. The NPSS Steady-State Cycle Deck team released a batch version of the Steady-State Cycle Deck in March 1996. Version 1.1 was released in June 1996. During fiscal 1997, NPSS accepted enhancements and modifications to the Steady-State Cycle Deck launcher. Consistent with NPSS' commercialization plan, these modifications will be done by a third party that can provide long-term software support.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of the turbulent wake flow of a generic space launcher configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statnikov, V.; Saile, D.; Meiß, J.-H.; Henckels, A.; Meinke, M.; Gülhan, A.; Schröder, W.

    2015-06-01

    The turbulent wake of a generic space launcher at cold hypersonic freestream conditions is investigated experimentally and numerically to gain detailed insight into the intricate base flow phenomena of space vehicles at upper stages of the flight trajectory. The experiments are done at Ma∞ = 6 and ReD = 1.7 · 106 m-1 by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the corresponding computations are performed by the Institute of Aerodynamics Aachen using a zonal Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes / Large-Eddy Simulation (RANS/LES) approach. Two different aft-body geometries consisting of a blunt base and an attached cylindrical nozzle dummy are considered. It is found that the wind tunnel model support attached to the upper side of the main body has a nonnegligible impact on the wake along the whole circumference, albeit on the opposite side, the effects are minimal compared to an axisymmetric configuration. In the blunt-base case, the turbulent supersonic boundary layer undergoes a strong aftexpansion on the model shoulder leading to the formation of a confined low-pressure (p/p∞ ≈ 0.2) recirculation region. Adding a nozzle dummy causes the shear layer to reattach on the its wall at x/D ˜ 0.6 and the base pressure level to increase (p/p∞ ≈ 0.25) compared to the blunt-base case. For both configurations, the pressure fluctuations on the base wall feature dominant frequencies at SrD ≈ 0.05 and SrD ≈ 0.2-0.27, but are of small amplitudes (prms/p∞ = 0.02-0.025) compared to the main body boundary layer. For the nozzle dummy configuration, when moving downstream along the nozzle extension, the wall pressure is increasingly influenced by the reattaching shear layer and the periodic low-frequency behavior becomes less pronounced. Directly behind the reattachment point, the wall pressure reaches maximum mean and root-mean-square (rms) values of about p/p∞ = 1 and p'rms/p∞ = 0.1 and features a broadband specrms trum without distinct frequencies determined by the

  10. Final Progress Report for the NASA Inductrack Model Rocket Launcher at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, L S; Post, R F; Martinez-Frias, J

    2001-06-27

    The Inductrack magnetic levitation system, developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was studied for its possible use for launching rockets. Under NASA sponsorship, a small model system was constructed at the Laboratory to pursue key technical aspects of this proposed application. The Inductrack is a passive magnetic levitation system employing special arrays of high-field permanent magnets (Halbach arrays) on the levitating cradle, moving above a ''track'' consisting of a close-packed array of shorted coils with which are interleaved with special drive coils. Halbach arrays produce a strong spatially periodic magnetic field on the front surface of the arrays, while canceling the field on their back surface. Relative motion between the Halbach arrays and the track coils induces currents in those coils. These currents levitate the cradle by interacting with the horizontal component of the magnetic field. Pulsed currents in the drive coils, synchronized with the motion of the carrier, interact with the vertical component of the magnetic field to provide acceleration forces. Motional stability, including resistance to both vertical and lateral aerodynamic forces, is provided by having Halbach arrays that interact with both the upper and the lower sides of the track coils. At present, a 7.8 meter track composed of drive and levitation coils has been built and the electronic drive circuitry performs as designed. A 9 kg cradle that carries the Halbach array of permanent magnets has been built. A mechanical launcher is nearly complete which will provide an initial cradle velocity of 9 m/s into the electronic drive section. We have found that the drag forces from the levitation coils were higher than in our original design. However, measurements of drag force at velocities less than 1 m/s are exactly as predicted by theory. Provided here are recommended design changes to improve the track's performance so that a final velocity of 40 m/s can be achieved with

  11. Hard Times Hit Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Hard-to-grasp dollar amounts are forcing real cuts in K-12 education at a time when the cost of fueling buses and providing school lunches is increasing and the demands of the federal No Child Left Behind Act still loom larger over states and districts. "One of the real challenges is to continue progress in light of the economy," said Gale Gaines,…

  12. Hard Diffraction at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Melese, P.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-06-01

    We present results on diffractive production of hard processes in {anti p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV at the Tevatron using the CDF detector. The signatures used to identify diffractive events are the forward rapidity gap and/or the detection of a recoil antiproton with high forward momentum. We have observed diffractive W- boson, dijet, and heavy quark production. We also present results on double-pomeron production of dijets.

  13. Work Hard. Be Nice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Jay

    2009-01-01

    In 1994, fresh from a two-year stint with Teach for America, Mike Feinberg and Dave Levin inaugurated the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) in Houston with an enrollment of 49 5th graders. By this Fall, 75 KIPP schools will be up and running, setting children from poor and minority families on a path to college through a combination of hard work,…

  14. Study on the eddy current damping of the spin dynamics of space debris from the Ariane launcher upper stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praly, N.; Hillion, M.; Bonnal, C.; Laurent-Varin, J.; Petit, N.

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the topic of damping of the spin dynamics of a spatial debris orbiting around the Earth. Such debris, which can consist of parts of heavy launchers such as the Ariane rocket under consideration in this article, are impacted by torques generated by eddy currents as their conducting non-ferromagnetic body orbits through the Earth magnetosphere. Several previous works have focused on describing this induction phenomenon and have proposed analysis of empirical observations of this particular and important effect which has attracted much attention since the number of spatial debris has emerged as a problem for the future of space programs, especially in low orbits. In this paper, we present a relatively comprehensive modeling of the induction phenomenon, by means of Maxwell's equations inside the conducting and non-ferromagnetic body. Through the generalized Ohm's law, we show how one can obtain a partial differential equation with Neumann's boundary conditions problem that, once solved, e.g. through a finite elements method, yields the values of induced currents and braking torques. The case of a depleted upper stage of a heavy launcher, having a cylindrical shape and thin walls is particularly studied. We show a methodology to estimate the decay-rate of the spinning velocity, which is proven to satisfy a first-order asymptotically stable linear dynamics. Special cases consisting of typical orbit of space debris are treated.

  15. Technology for the European Next Generation Launcher - Integrated On-Ground and In-Flight Development Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggiato, D.; da Costa, R.; Tumino, T. Franck. G.

    ESA's Future Launcher Preparatory Programme (FLPP) includes system activities and technology developments, especially on materials and structures and on propulsion. The overall approach is system-driven, i.e. FLPP aims at defining reference launcher concepts from which technology development needs are derived, and a corresponding demonstration logic and scenario - including in-flight experimentation vehicles. This paper addresses the activities in the frame of the technology identification and verification process, which was concluded with the choice of a preferred demonstrator concept. The activities consisted of: - the identification of the critical technologies and of their present and target readiness levels - the establishment of their associated verification needs - the establishment of a verification approach for each need (what to be tested and how, whether on-ground or in-flight) - the identification of possible in-flight demonstrator candidates for re- entry and re-use technologies - the trade-offs among demonstrator candidates based on their experimentation output potential, and optimization of the synergies with on-ground testing - the selection of preferred in-flight demonstrator concepts. The paper shows the above process, together with details and intermediate results of the work leading to the final choice. Additionally it gives a summary and an outlook into the next expected steps.

  16. Performance and technical feasibility comparison of reusable launch systems: A synthesis of the ESA winged launcher studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, W.; Grallert, H.

    1996-02-01

    The paper presents a synthesis of the performance and technical feasibility assessment of 7 reusable launcher types, comprising 13 different vehicles, studied by European Industry for ESA in the ESA Winged Launcher Study in the period January 1988 to May 1994. The vehicles comprised single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) and two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicles, propelled by either air-breathing/rocket propulsion or entirely by rocket propulsion. The results showed that an SSTO vehicle of the HOTOL-type, propelled by subsonic combustion air-breathing/rocket engines could barely deliver the specified payload mass and was aerodynamically unstable; that a TSTO vehicle of the Saenger type, employing subsonic combustion airbreathing propulsion in its first stage and rocket propulsion in its second stage, could readily deliver the specified payload mass and was found to be technically feasible and versatile; that an SSTO vehicle of the NASP type, propelled by supersonic combustion airbreathing/rocket propulsion was able to deliver a reduced payload mass, was very complex and required very advanced technologies; that an air-launched rocket propelled vehicle of the Interim HOTOL type, although technically feasible, could deliver only a reduced payload mass, being constrained by the lifting capability of the carrier airplane; that three different, entirely rocket-propelled vehicles could deliver the specified payload mass, were technically feasible but required relatively advanced technologies.

  17. SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mansur, Louis K; Bhattacharya, R; Blau, Peter Julian; Clemons, Art; Eberle, Cliff; Evans, H B; Janke, Christopher James; Jolly, Brian C; Lee, E H; Leonard, Keith J; Trejo, Rosa M; Rivard, John D

    2010-01-01

    High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

  18. Ultrasonic characterization of materials hardness

    PubMed

    Badidi Bouda A; Benchaala; Alem

    2000-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental technique has been developed to measure velocities and attenuation of ultrasonic waves through a steel with a variable hardness. A correlation between ultrasonic measurements and steel hardness was investigated.

  19. Hard metal composition

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  20. Hard metal composition

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1986-01-01

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  1. Hard Exclusive Pion Leptoproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this talk it is reported on an analysis of hard exclusive leptoproduction of pions within the handbag approach. It is argued that recent measurements of this process performed by HERMES and CLAS clearly indicate the occurrence of strong contributions from transversely polarized photons. Within the handbag approach such γ ^{ *}_T→ π transitions are described by the transversity GPDs accompanied by twist-3 pion wave functions. It is shown that the handbag approach leads to results on cross sections and single-spin asymmetries in fair agreement with experiment. Predictions for other pseudoscalar meson channels are also briefly discussed.

  2. Reviews Book: Enjoyable Physics Equipment: SEP Colorimeter Box Book: Pursuing Power and Light Equipment: SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher Equipment: Sciencescope GLE Datalogger Equipment: EDU Logger Book: Physics of Sailing Book: The Lightness of Being Software: Logotron Insight iLog Studio iPhone Apps Lecture: 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Enjoyable Physics Mechanics book makes learning more fun SEP Colorimeter Box A useful and inexpensive colorimeter for the classroom Pursuing Power and Light Account of the development of science in the 19th centuary SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher An excellent resource for teaching about projectiles GLE Datalogger GPS software is combined with a datalogger EDU Logger Remote datalogger has greater sensing abilities Logotron Insight iLog Studio Software enables datlogging, data analysis and modelling iPhone Apps Mobile phone games aid study of gravity WORTH A LOOK Physics of Sailing Book journeys through the importance of physics in sailing The Lightness of Being Study of what the world is made from LECTURE The 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture presents the physics of fusion WEB WATCH Planet Scicast pushes boundaries of pupil creativity

  3. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  4. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  5. Overview - Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James C.

    1992-03-24

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  6. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  7. Modeling Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berl, Andras

    In wireless networks, communication can take place based on an infrastructure (e.g. WLAN access point or GPRS base station) or it can take place in adhoc mode, where mobile devices are connected directly to each other and care for the routing by themselves (mobile ad-hoc networks). When such wireless networks are investigated and simulations are performed, it is often necessary to consider the movement of entities within the simulated environment.

  8. Laser Safety Evaluation of the Oscmar M203PI Grenade Launcher Simulator (GLS) and the Associated Umpire Control Gun

    SciTech Connect

    AUGUSTONI, ARNOLD L.

    2002-06-01

    A laser safety evaluation and pertinent output measurements were performed (during March and April 2002) on the M203PI Grenade Launcher Simulator (GLS) and its associated Umpire Control Gun manufactured by Oscmar International Limited, Auckland, New Zealand. The results were the Oscmar Umpire Gun is laser hazard Class 1 and can be used without restrictions. The radiant energy output of the Oscmar M203PI GLS, under ''Small Source'' criteria at 10 centimeters, is laser hazard Class 3b and not usable, under SNL policy, in force-on-force exercises. However, due to a relatively large exit diameter and an intentionally large beam divergence, to simulate a large area blast, the output beam geometry met the criteria for ''Extended Source'' viewing [ANSI Std. 2136.1-2000 (S.l)]. Under this ''Extended Source'' criteria the output of the M203PI GLS unit was, in fact, laser hazard Class 1 (eye safe), for 3 of the 4 possible modes of laser operation. The 4'h mode, ''Auto Fire'', which simulates a continuous grenade firing every second and is not used at SNL, was laser hazard Class 3a (under the ''Extended Source'' viewing criteria). The M203PI GLS does present a laser hazard Class 3a to aided viewing with binoculars inside 3 meters from the unit. Farther than 3 meters it is ''eye safe''. The M203PI GLS can be considered a Class 1 laser hazard and can be used under SNL policy with the following restrictions: (1) The M203PI GLS unit shall only be programmed for: the ''Single Fire'' (which, includes ''Rapid Fire'') and the ''Auto Align'' (used in adjusting the alignment of the grenade launcher simulator system to the target) modes of operation. (2) The M203PI GLS shall never be directed against personnel, using binoculars, inside of 3 meters. DOE Order 5480.16A, Firearms Safety, (Chapter 1)(5)(a)(8)(d) and DOE-STD-1091-96, Firearms Safety (Chapter 4); already prevents ESS laser engagement of personnel (with or without binoculars), ''closer than 10 feet (3.05 meters)''. Both of

  9. Mechanical Analysis of an SM 2 Blk IV restrained firing within a concentric canister launcher test unit

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, M C; Kennedy, T C; Puttapitukporn, T; Rosen, R S

    1999-03-01

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) and PMS512 have undertaken a program to develop a new Vertical Launching System (VLS) for future generation ships, such as the DD-21 Destroyer. The Naval Sea Systems Command Combat Weapons Program (NAVSEA 05K) and Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD) are working jointly with industry and universities to develop one such launcher design, the Concentric Canister Launcher (CCL). The basic CCL design consists of a tube made of two concentric cylinders; one end is open, the other is sealed with a hemispherical end cap. During firing, the missile exhaust gas is turned 180 degrees by the hemispherical end cap and flows through the annular space between inner and outer cylinders. Depending on the missile utilized and the particular service environment of the CCL, maximum temperatures within the cylinder material have been calculated to exceed 2000 F. In an earlier study [1], the authors determined the high temperature mechanical properties of several candidate alloys being considered for fabrication of the CCL. This study [1] found that, of these candidate materials, titanium alloys exhibit higher yield stresses than that of 316L stainless steel at temperatures up to about 1000 F; above 1500 F, the yield stress of 316L stainless steel is comparable to those of the titanium alloys. The 316L stainless steel was found to strain harden (increase its flow stress with increasing strain) at temperatures up to about 1800 F. The ability of the 316L stainless steel to strain harden at high temperatures may provide an added margin of safety for engineering design of the CCL. The objective of the current study was to perform a computer simulation of the structural response of a CCL during a restrained firing, one in which a SM-2 Blk IV missile would fail to exit the canister. A finite element model of the inner cylinder, outer cylinder, end rings (mounting brackets), and lateral restraints in the uptake was constructed. An elastic

  10. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. D.; Wilson, M. A.

    2003-07-01

    Marine organisms have occupied hard substrates since the Archaean. Shells, rocks, wood and sedimentary hardgrounds offer relatively stable habitats compared to unconsolidated sediments, but the plants and animals which inhabit them must develop means to gain and defend this premium attachment space. Hard substrate communities are formed by organisms with a variety of strategies for adhering to and/or excavating the substrates they inhabit. While mobile grazers, organically attached and even soft-bodied organisms may leave evidence of their former presence in ancient hard substrate communities, a superior fossil record is left by sessile encrusters with mineralised skeletons and by borers which leave trace fossils. Furthermore, encrusters and borers are preserved in situ, retaining their spatial relationships to one another and to the substrate. Spatial competition, ecological succession, oriented growth, and differential utilisation of exposed vs. hidden substrate surfaces can all be observed or inferred. Hard substrate communities are thus excellent systems with which to study community evolution over hundreds of millions of years. Here we review the research on modern and ancient hard substrate communities, and point to some changes that have affected them over geological time scales. Such changes include a general increase in bioerosion of hard substrates, particularly carbonate surfaces, through the Phanerozoic. This is, at least in part, analogous to the infaunalisation trends seen in soft substrate communities. Encrusting forms show an increase in skeletalisation from the Palaeozoic into the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, which may be a response to increasing levels of predation. Hard substrate communities, considering borers and encrusters together, show a rough increase in tiering through the Phanerozoic which again parallels trends seen in soft substrate communities. This extensive review of the literature on living and fossil hard substrate organisms shows that

  11. Beta Backscatter Measures the Hardness of Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, E. T.; Roje, F. N.

    1986-01-01

    Nondestructive testing method determines hardness, on Shore scale, of room-temperature-vulcanizing silicone rubber. Measures backscattered beta particles; backscattered radiation count directly proportional to Shore hardness. Test set calibrated with specimen, Shore hardness known from mechanical durometer test. Specimen of unknown hardness tested, and radiation count recorded. Count compared with known sample to find Shore hardness of unknown.

  12. Melting of polydisperse hard disks.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Sander; Frenkel, Daan

    2004-06-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find that while there is pronounced fractionation in polydispersity, the apparent density-polydispersity gap does not increase in width, contrary to 3D polydisperse hard spheres. The point where the Young's modulus is low enough for the dislocation unbinding to occur moves with the apparent melting point, but stays within the density gap, just like for the monodisperse hard-disk system. Additionally, we find that throughout the accessible polydispersity range, the bound dislocation-pair concentration is high enough to affect the dislocation-unbinding melting as predicted by Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson, and Young.

  13. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of International Space Station Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Shielding Using an Inhibited Shaped Charge Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Justin H.; Grosch, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Johnson Space Center have conducted hypervelocity impact (HVI) performance evaluations of spacecraft meteoroid and orbital debris (M/OD) shields at velocities in excess of 7 km/s. The inhibited shaped charge launcher (ISCL), developed by the Southwest Research Institute, launches hollow, circular, cylindrical jet tips to approximately 11 km/s. Since traditional M/OD shield ballistic limit performance is defined as the diameter of sphere required to just perforate or spall a spacecraft pressure wall, engineers must decide how to compare ISCL derived data with those of the spherical impactor data set. Knowing the mass of the ISCL impactor, an equivalent sphere diameter may be calculated. This approach is conservative since ISCL jet tips are more damaging than equal mass spheres. A total of 12 tests were recently conducted at the Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) on International Space Station M/OD shields. Results of these tests are presented and compared to existing ballistic limit equations. Modification of these equations is suggested based on the results.

  14. Project designs of alternative versions of the SL-86 2-Stage horizontal take-off space launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, J. P.

    This paper describes studies of three versions of a 2-Stage to orbit horizontal take-off launcher. An initial design study was performed, which determined the basic shape of the aircraft together with weight, and aerodynamic information. This was given to the 31 Master students working on the project, who were given individual responsibility for the design and analysis of major parts of the aircraft. The orbiter was designed to use a carbon fiber structure, protected by a thermal protective system and should take a 4 1/2 ton payload into Low Earth Orbit, from a payload bay of sinmilar cross-section to the Shuttle. The booster vehicle has a cranked delta wing and a recess on the upper surface to accommodate the orbiter, which is launched at Mach 4 at 25 km altitude. The project showed that the concept was feasible but highlighted several problem areas, which were addressed by a subsequent MSc thesis. The main changes were the introduction of a canard foreplane and larger turbo-ramjets to the booster, which gave considerable improvements. The third version had more power, and separation at Mach 5.

  15. Solid colloids with surface-mobile linkers.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Stef A J; Helms, Gesa; Dogterom, Marileen

    2015-06-17

    In this report we review the possibilities of using colloids with surface mobile linkers for the study of colloidal self-assembly processes. A promising route to create systems with mobile linkers is the use of lipid (bi-)layers. These lipid layers can be either used in the form of vesicles or as coatings for hard colloids and emulsion droplets. Inside the lipid bilayers molecules can be inserted via membrane anchors. Due to the fluidity of the lipid bilayer, the anchored molecules remain mobile. The use of different lipid mixtures even allows creating Janus-like particles that exhibit directional bonding if linkers are used which have a preference for a certain lipid phase. In nature mobile linkers can be found e.g. as receptors in cells. Therefore, towards the end of the review, we also briefly address the possibility of using colloids with surface mobile linkers as model systems to mimic cell-cell interactions and cell adhesion processes.

  16. Hard diffraction in Pythia 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overgaard Rasmussen, Christine

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general-purpose event generator Pythia 8 [1]. We review the existing model for soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction. Both models use the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF, with several choices for both implemented in Pythia 8. The model of hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions (MPI) framework, thus introducing a dynamical gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  17. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material.

  18. Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

  19. Large Spun Formed Friction-Stir Welded Tank Domes for Liquid Propellant Tanks Made from AA2195: A Technology Demonstration for the Next Generation of Heavy Lift Launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachulla, M.; Pernpeinter, R.; Brewster J.; Curreri, P.; Hoffman, E.

    2010-01-01

    Improving structural efficiency while reducing manufacturing costs are key objectives when making future heavy-lift launchers more performing and cost efficient. The main enabling technologies are the application of advanced high performance materials as well as cost effective manufacture processes. This paper presents the status and main results of a joint industrial research & development effort to demonstrate TRL 6 of a novel manufacturing process for large liquid propellant tanks for launcher applications. Using high strength aluminium-lithium alloy combined with the spin forming manufacturing technique, this development aims at thinner wall thickness and weight savings up to 25% as well as a significant reduction in manufacturing effort. In this program, the concave spin forming process is used to manufacture tank domes from a single flat plate. Applied to aluminium alloy, this process allows reaching the highest possible material strength status T8, eliminating numerous welding steps which are typically necessary to assemble tank domes from 3D-curved panels. To minimize raw material costs for large diameter tank domes for launchers, the dome blank has been composed from standard plates welded together prior to spin forming by friction stir welding. After welding, the dome blank is contoured in order to meet the required wall thickness distribution. For achieving a material state of T8, also in the welding seams, the applied spin forming process allows the required cold stretching of the 3D-curved dome, with a subsequent ageing in a furnace. This combined manufacturing process has been demonstrated up to TRL 6 for tank domes with a 5.4 m diameter. In this paper, the manufacturing process as well as test results are presented. Plans are shown how this process could be applied to future heavy-lift launch vehicles developments, also for larger dome diameters.

  20. Going mobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brus, Eric

    1987-12-01

    By 1990, all metropolitan areas in the U.S. and rural areas close to major cities or towns are expected to have cellular telephone service; 22 Canadian cities also feature cellular service. To supply mobile telecommunication services to sparsely-populated rural areas, a mobile satellite service (MSS) is now being developed. In this paper the projected possibilities of the MSS system are discussed, including a possibility that a piggyback-MSS payload be added to the GSTAR-4 satellite which is scheduled for a launch in 1988 or 1989; one in which some of the hardware from aborted direct-broadcast satellites would be used; and the possibility of building a new MSS satellite with large servicing capacity. Canada is planning to launch its own mobile satellite, MSAT, in the early 1990s. The MSS is expected to be 'generic', serving not only people on land but maritime and aeronautical users as well. It will also offer major benefits to truck and automobile drivers, making it possible for them to conduct business or to call for assistance from locations beyond the range of cellular systems.

  1. Structure of hard particle fluids near a hard wall. II. yw(z) for hard spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labik, S.; Smith, William R.; Speedy, Robin J.

    1988-02-01

    Predictions of the wall-cavity correlation function yw(z) for hard spheres against a hard wall are tested using the treatment that Smith and Speedy developed and examined for the case of hard disks in part I of this series, as well as an extension of this approach using an alternative procedure. yw(z) in the range 0≤z≤1 may be accurately predicted using only the thermodynamic properties of the bulk fluid, for which precise expressions are available. These predictions are tested by determining yw(z) and the cavity concentration profile nwo(z) in a computer simulation study. We also derive a new integral equation relating yw(z) near the wall to its values just outside the wall and illustrate this in examining the consistency of our computer simulation results.

  2. FATIGUE OF BIOMATERIALS: HARD TISSUES.

    PubMed

    Arola, D; Bajaj, D; Ivancik, J; Majd, H; Zhang, D

    2010-09-01

    The fatigue and fracture behavior of hard tissues are topics of considerable interest today. This special group of organic materials comprises the highly mineralized and load-bearing tissues of the human body, and includes bone, cementum, dentin and enamel. An understanding of their fatigue behavior and the influence of loading conditions and physiological factors (e.g. aging and disease) on the mechanisms of degradation are essential for achieving lifelong health. But there is much more to this topic than the immediate medical issues. There are many challenges to characterizing the fatigue behavior of hard tissues, much of which is attributed to size constraints and the complexity of their microstructure. The relative importance of the constituents on the type and distribution of defects, rate of coalescence, and their contributions to the initiation and growth of cracks, are formidable topics that have not reached maturity. Hard tissues also provide a medium for learning and a source of inspiration in the design of new microstructures for engineering materials. This article briefly reviews fatigue of hard tissues with shared emphasis on current understanding, the challenges and the unanswered questions.

  3. FATIGUE OF BIOMATERIALS: HARD TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Arola, D.; Bajaj, D.; Ivancik, J.; Majd, H.; Zhang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The fatigue and fracture behavior of hard tissues are topics of considerable interest today. This special group of organic materials comprises the highly mineralized and load-bearing tissues of the human body, and includes bone, cementum, dentin and enamel. An understanding of their fatigue behavior and the influence of loading conditions and physiological factors (e.g. aging and disease) on the mechanisms of degradation are essential for achieving lifelong health. But there is much more to this topic than the immediate medical issues. There are many challenges to characterizing the fatigue behavior of hard tissues, much of which is attributed to size constraints and the complexity of their microstructure. The relative importance of the constituents on the type and distribution of defects, rate of coalescence, and their contributions to the initiation and growth of cracks, are formidable topics that have not reached maturity. Hard tissues also provide a medium for learning and a source of inspiration in the design of new microstructures for engineering materials. This article briefly reviews fatigue of hard tissues with shared emphasis on current understanding, the challenges and the unanswered questions. PMID:20563239

  4. Hard processes in hadronic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Satz, H. |; Wang, X.N.

    1995-07-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks` duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley.

  5. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, Morris S.; Schuster, George J.; Skorpik, James R.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  6. Overview-hard rock penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C. )

    1993-01-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, borehole instrumentation, acoustic telemetry, slimhole drilling, geothermal heat pumps. A new project to improve synthetic diamond drill bits for hard rock drilling was initiated during the year. Accomplishments during the year include completion of important acoustic telemetry tests in the Long Valley Well. These tests produced the first set of reliable, repeatable data in a drill hole. The results indicate the promise of acoustic transmission through drill pipe for great distances without repeaters. The rolling float meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow was duplicated and sent to six different companies for evaluation in the field. A new slimhole spectral gamma tool for operation at temperatures up to 300 C was fabricated and evaluated in the laboratory. Slimhole drilling for exploration and reservoir characterization was begun with several projects jointly completed with industry.

  7. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  8. Mobile Transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-110 mission, deployed this railcar, called the Mobile Transporter, and an initial 43-foot section of track, the S0 (S-zero) truss, preparing the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks. The first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The 27,000-pound S0 truss is the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002. STS-110's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station.

  9. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOEpatents

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  10. Results on hard diffractive production

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K.

    1995-07-01

    The results of experiments at hadron colliders probing the structure of the pomeron through hard diffraction are reviewed. Some results on deep inelastic diffractive scattering obtained a HERA are also discussed and placed in perspective. By using a properly normalized pomeron flux factor in single diffraction dissociation, as dictated by unitarity, the pomeron emerges as a combination of valence quark and gluon color singlets in a ratio suggested by asymptopia.

  11. Schwannoma of the hard palate

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Pradyumna Kumar; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Ghosh, Saradindu

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign encapsulated perineural tumors. The head and neck region is the most common site. Intraoral origin is seen in only 1% of cases, tongue being the most common site; its location in the palate is rare. We report a case of hard-palate schwannoma with bony erosion which was immunohistochemically confirmed. The tumor was excised completely intraorally. After two months of follow-up, the defect was found to be completely covered with palatal mucosa. PMID:25298716

  12. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Emerson, John Allen; Bahr, David F.; Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas; Adams, David Price; Yeager,John; Nyugen, Thao D.; Corona, Edmundo; Kennedy, Marian S.; Cordill, Megan J.

    2009-09-01

    Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As

  13. Virial coefficients and equations of state for mixtures of hard discs, hard spheres and hard hyperspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Yuste, S. B.; López de Haro, M.

    The composition-independent virial coefficients of a d-dimensional binary mixture of (additive) hard hyperspheres following from a recent proposal for the equation of state of the mixture (SANTOS, A., YUSTE, S. B., and LÓPEZ DE HARO, M., 1999, Molec. Phys., 96 , 1) are examined. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and available exact or numerical results is found for d = 2, 3, 4 and 5, except for mixtures whose components are very disparate in size. A slight modification that remedies this deficiency is introduced and the resummation of the associated virial series is carried out, leading to a new proposal for the equation of state. The case of binary hard sphere mixtures (d = 3) is analysed in some detail.

  14. Mobile shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalms, Michael; Jueptner, Werner

    2005-04-01

    By reason of their sensitivity, accuracy and non-contact as well as non-destructive characteristics, modern optical methods such as digital speckle shearography have found an increasing interest for NDT applications on the factory floor. With new carbon filter technologies and other lightweight constructions in aircraft and automotive manufacturing, adapted examination designs and especially developed testing methods are necessary. Shearography as a coherent optical method has been widely accepted as an useful NDT tool. It is a robust interferometric method to determine locations with maximum stress on various material structures. However, limitations of this technique can be found in the bulky equipment components, the interpretation of the complex sherographic result images and at the work with non-cooperative surfaces (dark absorber, bright shining reflectors). We report a mobile shearography system that was especially designed for investigations at aircraft and automotive constructions.

  15. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at...

  16. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at...

  17. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at...

  18. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at...

  19. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at...

  20. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  1. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  2. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  3. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  4. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  5. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  6. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  7. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  8. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  9. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  10. 30 CFR 56.15002 - Hard hats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hard hats. 56.15002 Section 56.15002 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15002 Hard hats. All persons shall wear suitable hard hats when in or around a mine or plant where falling...

  11. 30 CFR 57.15002 - Hard hats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hard hats. 57.15002 Section 57.15002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.15002 Hard hats. All persons shall wear suitable hard hats when in or around a mine or...

  12. Induction launcher design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driga, M. D.; Weldon, W. F.

    1989-01-01

    New concepts in the design of induction accelerators and their power supplies for space and military applications are discussed. Particular attention is given to a piecewise-rising-frequency power supply in which each elementary generator (normal compulsator or rising frequency generator) has a different base frequency. A preliminary design of a coaxial induction accelerator for a hypersonic real gas facility is discussed to illustrate the concepts described.

  13. The Delta 2 launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousley, Gilbert W., Sr.

    1991-12-01

    The utilization of the Delta 2 as the vehicle for launching Aristoteles into its near Sun synchronous orbit is addressed. Delta is NASA's most reliable launch vehicle and is well suited for placing the present Aristoteles spacecraft into a 400 m circular orbit. A summary of some of the Delta 2 flight parameters is presented. Diagrams of a typical Delta 2 two stage separation are included along with statistics on delta reliability and launch plans.

  14. Delta launcher enhanced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-08-01

    The next-generation, 'Delta II' version of the Delta expendable launch vehicle will be able to launch over 4000 lbs into geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO), as required by the USAF's Navstar GPS; the current Delta 3920 configuration can loft only 2800 lbs into GEO. Three distinct growth configurations of the Delta II are planned: the 6925, whose booster propellant tanks will be extended by 12 ft; the 7925, whose improved booster engine will increase nozzle expansion ratio from 8:1 to 12:1; and the 'enhanced ' Delta II, with stretched graphite-epoxy solid rocket motor cases. In this final form, Delta II will boost 4010 lbs into GTO, or 11,110 lbs into LEO.

  15. The Hard Problem of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the “hard problem of cooperation” as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior. PMID:22792282

  16. Making Nozzles From Hard Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Dennis L.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed method of electrical-discharge machining (EDM) cuts hard materials like silicon carbide into smoothly contoured parts. Concept developed for fabrication of interior and exterior surfaces and internal cooling channels of convergent/divergent nozzles. EDM wire at skew angle theta creates hyperboloidal cavity in tube. Wire offset from axis of tube and from axis of rotation by distance equal to throat radius. Maintaining same skew angle as that used to cut hyperboloidal inner surface but using larger offset, cooling channel cut in material near inner hyperboloidal surface.

  17. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) Guideline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) consists of all activities undertaken to ensure that the electronics and materials of a space system perform to their design specifications after exposure to the mission space environment. The subset of interests for NEPP and the REAG, are EEE parts. It is important to register that all of these undertakings are in a feedback loop and require constant iteration and updating throughout the mission life. More detail can be found in the reference materials on applicable test data for usage on parts.

  18. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  19. Application of the French Space Operation Act and the Development of Space Activities in the Field of Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, F.; Biard, A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of space activities has led France to define a new legal framework: French Space Operation Act (FSOA). The aim of this act, is to define the conditions according to which the French government authorizes and checks the spatial operations under its jurisdiction or its international responsibility as State of launch, according to the international treaties of the UN on space, in particular the Treaty (1967) on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, the Convention ( 1972 ) on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, and the Convention (1975) on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. The main European space centre is the Guiana Space Centre (CSG), settled in France. A clarification of the French legal framework was compulsory to allow the arrival of new launchers (Soyuz and Vega). This act defines the competent authority, the procedure of authorization and licenses, the regime for operations led from foreign countries, the control of spatial objects, the enabling of inspectors, the delegation of monitoring to CNES, the procedure for urgent measures necessary for the safety, the registration of spatial objects. In this framework, the operator is fully responsible of the operation that he leads. He is subjected to a regime of authorization and to governmental technical monitoring delegated to CNES. In case of litigation, the operator gets the State guarantee above a certain level of damage to third party. The introduction of FSOA has led to issue a Technical Regulation set forth, in particular for the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. This general regulation is completed by a specific regulation applicable to CSG that covers the preparation phase of the launch, and all specificities of the launch range, as regards the beginning of the launch. The Technical Regulation is based on 30 years of Ariane's activities and on the

  20. Mobile Schools for a Mobile World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, independent schools are embracing mobile devices--laptops, iPads or other tablets, and smartphones--to enhance teaching and learning. This article describes the results of the "NAIS 2012 Mobile Learning Survey." Among its findings were that 75 percent of NAIS-member schools currently use mobile learning devices in at…

  1. Hard and Soft Safety Verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Anderson, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between and the effects of hard and soft safety verifications. Initially, the terminology should be defined and clarified. A hard safety verification is datum which demonstrates how a safety control is enacted. An example of this is relief valve testing. A soft safety verification is something which is usually described as nice to have but it is not necessary to prove safe operation. An example of a soft verification is the loss of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) casings from Shuttle flight, STS-4. When the main parachutes failed, the casings impacted the water and sank. In the nose cap of the SRBs, video cameras recorded the release of the parachutes to determine safe operation and to provide information for potential anomaly resolution. Generally, examination of the casings and nozzles contributed to understanding of the newly developed boosters and their operation. Safety verification of SRB operation was demonstrated by examination for erosion or wear of the casings and nozzle. Loss of the SRBs and associated data did not delay the launch of the next Shuttle flight.

  2. Hardness correlation for uranium and its alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D L; Romig, Jr, A D

    1983-03-01

    The hardness of 16 different uranium-titanium (U-Ti) alloys was measured on six (6) different hardness scales (R/sub A/, R/sub B/, R/sub C/, R/sub D/, Knoop, and Vickers). The alloys contained between 0.75 and 2.0 wt % Ti. All of the alloys were solutionized (850/sup 0/C, 1 h) and ice-water quenched to produce a supersaturated martensitic phase. A range of hardnesses was obtained by aging the samples for various times and temperatures. The correlation of various hardness scales was shown to be virtually identical to the hardness-scale correlation for steels. For more-accurate conversion from one hardness scale to another, least-squares-curve fits were determined for the various hardness-scale correlations. 34 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Use of a portable tower and remote-controlled launcher to improve physical conditioning in a rehabilitating wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Pollard-Wright, Holly M; Wright, Mark T; Warren, Jeffrey M

    2010-12-01

    Prerelease reconditioning improves the chance of survival of rehabilitating raptors. Reconditioning may also help to rehabilitate waterfowl, including those that are threatened or endangered, especially if the birds are released during periods of migration. A flying harness, creance, remote-controlled launcher, and portable tower were used to create a means of reconditioning a rehabilitating 5-month-old female wild mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) that had been housed in a rehabilitation center for 7 weeks while recovering from an injury. Pre- and postflight serum lactate levels, body condition index scores, and controlled flight distances were used to assess the bird's degree of conditioning. Postflight serum lactate levels never returned to preflight levels and were not deemed a reliable indicator of physical fitness. However, the mallard showed an increase in endurance and strength as well as improved body condition index scores over the course of the reconditioning program.

  4. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G. ); Blackburn, R. )

    1992-05-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro.

  5. Hard X-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Past hard X-ray and lower energy satellite instruments are reviewed and it is shown that observation above 20 keV and up to hundreds of keV can provide much valuable information on the astrophysics of cosmic sources. To calculate possible sensitivities of future arrays, the efficiencies of a one-atmosphere inch gas counter (the HEAO-1 A-2 xenon filled HED3) and a 3 mm phoswich scintillator (the HEAO-1 A-4 Na1 LED1) were compared. Above 15 keV, the scintillator was more efficient. In a similar comparison, the sensitivity of germanium detectors did not differ much from that of the scintillators, except at high energies where the sensitivity would remain flat and not rise with loss of efficiency. Questions to be addressed concerning the physics of active galaxies and the diffuse radiation background, black holes, radio pulsars, X-ray pulsars, and galactic clusters are examined.

  6. Mobility of University Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This study deals with interuniversity mobility. Part I examines the harmonization of action taken to encourage mobility, the removal of legislative and statutory obstacles to mobility, the simplification of university staff regulations and careers, and incentives to mobility. Part II describes the ideas and activities of UNESCO, the Council of…

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Hard clam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1984-01-01

    Two species of hard clams occur along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America: the southern hard clam, Mercenaria campechiensis Gmelin 1791, and the northern hard clam, ~lercenaria mercenaria Linne 1758 (Wells 1957b). The latter species, also commonly kno\\'m as the quahog, was formerly named Venus mercenaria. The two species are closely related, produce viable hybrids (Menzel and Menzel 1965), and may be a single species.

  8. Tactics of Interventions: Student Mobility and Human Capital Building in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Hitherto, research on transnational higher education student mobility tended to narrowly present hard statistics on student mobility, analysing these in terms of "trends" and the implication this has on policy and internationalizing strategies. What is missing from this "big picture" is a close-up analysis of the micropolitics of student mobility…

  9. Was a Mobile Health Strategy One of Your New Year’s Resolutions?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Culture change is hard in any organization. However, it can often lead to positive results. We believe that the culture of health care needs to focus on how mobile health tools can assist in care provision in hospitals and health systems. In this installment, we explore some of the steps necessary to help move mobile health into the mainstream of health care. PMID:24715751

  10. Tooth mobility changes subsequent to root fractures: a longitudinal clinical study of 44 permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Ahrensburg, Søren Steno; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth mobility changes in root-fractured permanent teeth and relate this to type of interfragment healing (hard tissue healing (HT), interfragment healing with periodontal ligament (PDL) and nonhealing with interposition of granulation tissue (GT) because of pulp necrosis in the coronal fragment. Furthermore, the effect of age, location of the fracture on the root, and observation period on mobility values was analyzed. Mobility values were measured for 44 of 95 previous reported root-fractured permanent incisors. Mobility changes were measured with a Mühlemanns periodontometer and noninjured incisors served as controls. The mobility values represented the labial-lingual excursion of the root measured in μm when the tooth received a frontal and a palatal impact of 100 g force. In 18 cases of hard tissue healing (HT), a slightly increased mobility was seen after 3 months and 1 year, and a normalization of mobility value was usually found after 5 and 10 years. In 17 cases of PDL healing, generally a higher mobility was found in comparison with root fractures healing with hard tissue, and a consistent decrease in mobility value was found in the course of the 10 year observation period. A tendency for reduced mobility over time was found, a relation that could possibly be explained by the known general decrease in tooth mobility with increasing age. Finally, nine cases of nonhealing with initial interposition of granulation tissue (GT) because of pulp necrosis in the coronal fragment resulted in increasing mobility values possibly related to a lateral breakdown of the PDL in relation to the fracture line. In control teeth, a lowering of mobility was found over the course of a 10-year observation period. In conclusion, mobility changes appeared to reflect the radiographic healing stages and known age effects upon tooth mobility.

  11. Mobile Devices at School: Possibilities, Problems, and Tough Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dennis; Angeles, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a "point/counterpoint" approach to considering the educational use of mobile devices. It views the possibilities and problems surrounding the use of small laptops, cellphones, iPhones, etc. Although clear answers to questions regarding the classroom use of digital devices are hard to come by, the authors believe that educators…

  12. Handheld Libraries 101: Using Mobile Technologies in the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosturski, Kate; Skornia, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 "Horizon Report" called mobile technologies "an opportunity for higher education to reach its constituents in new and compelling ways." The report implied that academic libraries would find them to be the ideal tools for bringing reluctant researchers to the library, mainly for their convenience. It's not hard to see why--in 2008, mobile…

  13. Persistence, Privilege, and Parenting: The Comparative Study of Intergenerational Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeeding, Timothy M., Ed.; Erikson, Robert, Ed.; Jantti, Markus, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Americans like to believe that theirs is the land of opportunity, but the hard facts are that children born into poor families in the United States tend to stay poor and children born into wealthy families generally stay rich. Other countries have shown more success at lessening the effects of inequality on mobility--possibly by making public…

  14. The Mobility Strategies of Successful Hispanic High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muskal, Fred; Chairez, Maria

    This study examined how successful Hispanic American high school students have managed their upward mobility, specifically the decision to work hard and get to college. The sample consisted of 115 participants at the annual Hispanic Youth Conference in Sacramento (California). Why the students decided on college, how they planned to get there, and…

  15. 30 CFR 75.1720-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720-1 Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1710-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps... Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color from those worn by experienced miners shall be worn...

  17. Mobile Phone Application Development for the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P.; Oostra, D.; Crecelius, S.; Chambers, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    With smartphone sales currently surpassing laptop sales, it is hard not to think that these devices will have a place in the classroom. More specifically, with little to no monetary investment, classroom-centric mobile applications have the ability to suit the needs of teachers. Previously, programming such an item was a daunting task to the classroom teacher. But now, through the use of online visual tools, anyone has the ability to generate a mobile application to suit individual classroom needs. The "MY NASA DATA" (MND) project has begun work on such an application. Using online tools that are directed at the non-programmer, the team has developed two usable mobile applications ("apps") that fit right into the science classroom. The two apps generated include a cloud dichotomous key for cloud identification in the field, and an atmospheric science glossary to help with standardized testing key vocabulary and classroom assignments. Through the use of free online tools, teachers and students now have the ability to customize mobile applications to meet their individual needs. As an extension of the mobile applications, the MND team is planning web-based application programming interfaces (API's) that will be generated from data that is currently included in the MND Live Access Server. This will allow teachers and students to choose data sets that they want to include in the mobile application without having to populate the API themselves. Through the use of easy to understand online mobile app tutorials and MND data sets, teachers will have the ability to generate unit-specific mobile applications to further engage and empower students in the science classroom.

  18. Tale of two hard Pomerons

    SciTech Connect

    Berera, Arjun

    2000-07-01

    Two mechanisms are examined for hard double ''pomeron'' exchange dijet production, the factorized model of Ingelman-Schlein, and the nonfactorized model of lossless jet production which exhibits the Collins-Frankfurt-Strikman mechanism. Comparisons between these two mechanisms are made of the total cross section, E{sub T} spectra, and mean rapidity spectra. For both mechanisms, several specific models are examined with the cuts of the collider detector at Fermilab (CDF), DOe, and representative cuts of CERN LHC. Distinct qualitative differences are predicted by the two mechanisms for the CDF y{sub +} spectra and for the E{sub T} spectra for all three experimental cuts. The preliminary CDF and DOe experimental data for this process are interpreted in terms of these two mechanisms. The y{sub +} spectra of the CDF data are suggestive of domination by the factorized Ingelman-Schlein mechanism, whereas the DOe data show no greater preference for either mechanism. An inconsistency is found among all the theoretical models in attempting to explain the ratio of the cross sections given by the data from these two experiments. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  19. Radiation Hardness of Trigger Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawisza, Irene; Safonov, Alexei; Gilmore, Jason; Khotilovich, Vadim

    2011-10-01

    As the maximum intensity of particle accelerators increases, probing the most basic questions of the Universe, detectors and electronics must be designed to insure reliability in high-radiation environments. As the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam intensity is increased, it is necessary to upgrade the electronics in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS). To select interesting events, CMS utilizes fast electronics, which are installed in the experimental cavern. However, much higher post-upgrade levels of radiation in the cavern set tight requirements on the radiation hardness of the new electronics. Damaging effects of high and low energy radiation leads to disruption of digital circuits and accumulated degradation of silicon components. Quantifying the radiation exposure is required for the design of a radiation-tolerant system, but current simulation studies suffer from large uncertainties. We compare simulation predictions with measured performance in two different experimental studies, which evaluate component performance for pre and post irradiation determining the survivability of electronics in the harsh CMS environment. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program.

  20. Mobile Router Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  1. "Hard Science" for Gifted 1st Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGennaro, April

    2006-01-01

    "Hard Science" is designed to teach 1st grade gifted students accurate and high level science concepts. It is based upon their experience of the world and attempts to build a foundation for continued love and enjoyment of science. "Hard Science" provides field experiences and opportunities for hands-on discovery working beside experts in the field…

  2. 21 CFR 133.150 - Hard cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hard cheeses. 133.150 Section 133.150 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.150 Hard cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions and standards of identity...

  3. Retraction of Hard, Lozano, and Tversky (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, B. M.; Lozano, S. C.; Tversky, B.

    2008-01-01

    Reports a retraction of "Hierarchical encoding of behavior: Translating perception into action" by Bridgette Martin Hard, Sandra C. Lozano and Barbara Tversky (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2006[Nov], Vol 135[4], 588-608). All authors retract this article. Co-author Tversky and co-author Hard believe that the research results cannot…

  4. On investigating social dynamics in tactical opportunistic mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Li, Yong

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of military mobile network operations at the tactical edge is challenging due to the practical Disconnected, Intermittent, and Limited (DIL) environments at the tactical edge which make it hard to maintain persistent end-to-end wireless network connectivity. Opportunistic mobile networks are hence devised to depict such tactical networking scenarios. Social relations among warfighters in tactical opportunistic mobile networks are implicitly represented by their opportunistic contacts via short-range radios, but were inappropriately considered as stationary over time by the conventional wisdom. In this paper, we develop analytical models to probabilistically investigate the temporal dynamics of this social relationship, which is critical to efficient mobile communication in the battlespace. We propose to formulate such dynamics by developing various sociological metrics, including centrality and community, with respect to the opportunistic mobile network contexts. These metrics investigate social dynamics based on the experimentally validated skewness of users' transient contact distributions over time.

  5. Hardness Evolution of Gamma-Irradiated Polyoxymethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chuan-Hao; Harmon, Julie P.; Lee, Sanboh

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on analyzing hardness evolution in gamma-irradiated polyoxymethylene (POM) exposed to elevated temperatures after irradiation. Hardness increases with increasing annealing temperature and time, but decreases with increasing gamma ray dose. Hardness changes are attributed to defects generated in the microstructure and molecular structure. Gamma irradiation causes a decrease in the glass transition temperature, melting point, and extent of crystallinity. The kinetics of defects resulting in hardness changes follow a first-order structure relaxation. The rate constant adheres to an Arrhenius equation, and the corresponding activation energy decreases with increasing dose due to chain scission during gamma irradiation. The structure relaxation of POM has a lower energy barrier in crystalline regions than in amorphous ones. The hardness evolution in POM is an endothermic process due to the semi-crystalline nature of this polymer.

  6. Exclusive, Hard Diffraction in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Andreas

    1999-03-01

    In the first chapter we give an introduction to hard diffractive scattering in QCD to introduce basic concepts and terminology. In the second chapter we make predictions for the evolution of skewed parton distributions in a proton in the LLA. We calculate the DGLAP-type evolution kernels in the LLA and solve the skewed GLAP evolution equations with a modified version of the CTEQ-package. In the third chapter, we discuss the algorithms used in the LO evolution program for skewed parton distributions in the DGLAP region, discuss the stability of the code and reproduce the LO diagonal evolution within less than 0.5% of the original CTEQ-code. In chapter 4, we show that factorization holds for the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude in QCD, up to power suppressed terms, to all orders in perturbation theory. In chapter 5, we demonstrate that perturbative QCD allows one to calculate the absolute cross section of diffractive, exclusive production of photons (DVCS) at large Q^2 at HERA, while the aligned jet model allows one to estimate the cross section for intermediate Q^2 ˜ 2 GeV^2. We find a significant DVCS counting rate for the current generation of experiments at HERA and a large azimuthal angle asymmetry for HERA kinematics. In the last chapter, we propose a new methodology of gaining shape fits to skewed parton distributions and, for the first time, to determine the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the DIS amplitude. We do this by using several recent fits to F_2(x,Q^2) to compute the asymmetry A for the combined DVCS and Bethe-Heitler cross section. In the appendix, we give an application of distributional methods as discussed abstractly in chapter 4.

  7. Solid colloids with surface-mobile linkers.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Stef A J; Helms, Gesa; Dogterom, Marileen

    2015-06-17

    In this report we review the possibilities of using colloids with surface mobile linkers for the study of colloidal self-assembly processes. A promising route to create systems with mobile linkers is the use of lipid (bi-)layers. These lipid layers can be either used in the form of vesicles or as coatings for hard colloids and emulsion droplets. Inside the lipid bilayers molecules can be inserted via membrane anchors. Due to the fluidity of the lipid bilayer, the anchored molecules remain mobile. The use of different lipid mixtures even allows creating Janus-like particles that exhibit directional bonding if linkers are used which have a preference for a certain lipid phase. In nature mobile linkers can be found e.g. as receptors in cells. Therefore, towards the end of the review, we also briefly address the possibility of using colloids with surface mobile linkers as model systems to mimic cell-cell interactions and cell adhesion processes. PMID:25993272

  8. Ion mobility sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  9. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  10. Analysis of pressure perturbation sources on a generic space launcher after-body in supersonic flow using zonal turbulence modeling and dynamic mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statnikov, Vladimir; Sayadi, Taraneh; Meinke, Matthias; Schmid, Peter; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A sparsity promoting dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) combined with a classical data-based statistical analysis is applied to the turbulent wake of a generic axisymmetric configuration of an Ariane 5-like launcher at Ma∞ = 6.0 computed via a zonal Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large-eddy simulation (RANS/LES) method. The objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the wake flow dynamics of the generic launcher by clarification and visualization of initially unknown pressure perturbation sources on its after-body in coherent flow patterns. The investigated wake topology is characterized by a subsonic cavity region around the cylindrical nozzle extension which is formed due to the displacement effect of the afterexpanding jet plume emanating from the rocket nozzle (Mae = 2.52, pe/p∞ = 100) and the shear layer shedding from the main body. The cavity region contains two toroidal counter-rotating large-scale vortices which extensively interact with the turbulent shear layer, jet plume, and rocket walls, leading to the shear layer instability process to be amplified. The induced velocity fluctuations in the wake and the ultimately resulting pressure perturbations on the after-body feature three global characteristic frequency ranges, depending on the streamwise position inside the cavity. The most dominant peaks are detected at SrD r3 = 0.85 ± 0.075 near the nozzle exit, while the lower frequency peaks, in the range of SrD r2 = 0.55 ± 0.05 and SrD r1 = 0.25 ± 0.05, are found to be dominant closer to the rocket's base. A sparse promoting DMD algorithm is applied to the time-resolved velocity field to clarify the origin of the detected peaks. This analysis extracts three low-frequency spatial modes at SrD = 0.27, 0.56, and 0.85. From the three-dimensional shape of the DMD modes and the reconstructed modulation of the mean flow in time, it is deduced that the detected most dominant peaks of SrD r3 ≈ 0.85 are caused by the radial flapping motion of

  11. Design and Implementation of a Hall Effect Sensor Array Applied to Recycling Hard Drive Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Killough, Stephen M; McIntyre, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Rare earths are an important resource for many electronic components and technologies. Examples abound including Neodymium magnets used in mobile devices and computer hard drives (HDDs), and a variety of renewable energy technologies (e.g., wind turbines). Approximately 21,000 metric tons of Neodymium is processed annually with less than 1% being recycled. An economic system to assist in the recycling of magnet material from post-consumer goods, such as Neodymium Iron Boron magnets commonly found in hard drives is presented. A central component of this recycling measurement system uses an array of 128 Hall Effect sensors arranged in two columns to detect the magnetic flux lines orthogonal to the HDD. Results of using the system to scan planar shaped objects such as hard drives to identify and spatially locate rare-earth magnets for removal and recycling from HDDs are presented. Applications of the sensor array in other identification and localization of magnetic components and assemblies will be presented.

  12. Superintendent Vulnerability and Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Phyllis

    1996-01-01

    Examined Callahan's vulnerability thesis to determine its ability to explain the mobility of superintendents in Texas between 1985 and 1990. Questionnaire and interview data indicated that, at least in Texas where superintendent mobility reached 50% in that time period, vulnerability did not appear to account for much of superintendent mobility.…

  13. Mobility and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue deals with the phenomenon of mobility or transience in India, Kenya, Greece, Ireland, Malaysia, Thailand and Israel. The primary focus is on mobility's effect on young children, specifically their health and education; some of the broader concerns also addressed by the newsletter are the causes of mobility and its…

  14. Mobile Student Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  15. Magnetic and viscoelastic response of elastomers with hard magnetic filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarenko, E. Yu; Chertovich, A. V.; Stepanov, G. V.; Semisalova, A. S.; Makarova, L. A.; Perov, N. S.; Khokhlov, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic elastomers (MEs) based on a silicone matrix and magnetically hard NdFeB particles have been synthesized and their magnetic and viscoelastic properties have been studied depending on the size and concentration of magnetic particles and the magnetizing field. It has been shown that magnetic particles can rotate in soft polymer matrix under applied magnetic field, this fact leading to some features in both magnetic and viscoelastic properties. In the maximum magnetic field used magnetization of MEs with smaller particles is larger while the coercivity is smaller due to higher mobility of the particles within the polymer matrix. Viscoelastic behavior is characterized by long relaxation times due to restructuring of the magnetic filler under the influence of an applied mechanical force and magnetic interactions. The storage and loss moduli of magnetically hard elastomers grow significantly with magnetizing field. The magnetic response of the magnetized samples depends on the mutual orientation of the external magnetic field and the internal sample magnetization. Due to the particle rotation within the polymer matrix, the loss factor increases abruptly when the magnetic field is turned on in the opposite direction to the sample magnetization, further decreasing with time. Moduli versus field dependences have minimum at non-zero field and are characterized by a high asymmetry with respect to the field direction.

  16. Effects of Hard Water on Hair

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Gautham; Srinivas, Chakravarthi Rangachari; Mathew, Anil C; Duraiswami, Divakar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hardness of water is determined by the amount of salts (calcium carbonate [CaCO3] and magnesium sulphate [MgSO4]) present in water. The hardness of the water used for washing hair may cause fragility of hair. Objective: The objective of the following study is to compare the tensile strength and elasticity of hair treated in hard water and hair treated in distilled water. Materials and Methods: 10-15 strands of hair of length 15-20 cm, lost during combing were obtained from 15 volunteers. Each sample was cut in the middle to obtain 2 sets of hair per volunteer. One set of 15 samples was immersed in hard water and the other set in distilled water for 10 min on alternate days. Procedure was repeated for 30 days. The tensile strength and elasticity of the hair treated in hard water and distilled water was determined using INSTRON universal strength tester. Results: The CaCO3 and MgSO4 content of hard water and distilled water were determined as 212.5 ppm of CaCO3 and 10 ppm of CaCO3 respectively. The tensile strength and elasticity in each sample was determined and the mean values were compared using t-test. The mean (SD) of tensile strength of hair treated in hard water was 105.28 (27.59) and in distilled water was 103.66 (20.92). No statistical significance was observed in the tensile strength, t = 0.181, P = 0.858. The mean (SD) of elasticity of hair treated in hard water was 37.06 (2.24) and in distilled water was 36.84 (4.8). No statistical significance was observed in the elasticity, t = 0.161, P = 0.874. Conclusion: The hardness of water does not interfere with the tensile strength and elasticity of hair. PMID:24574692

  17. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  18. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film on stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  19. Differential cross-sections with hard targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, J. L.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2005-09-01

    When the concept of scattering differential cross-section is introduced in classical mechanics textbooks, usually it is first supposed that the target is a fixed, hard sphere. In this paper we calculate the scattering differential cross-section in the case of the hard target being a fixed figure of revolution of any shape. When the target is a paraboloid of revolution, we find the well-known formula corresponding to Rutherford's scattering. In addition, we analyse the inverse problem, i.e. given a differential cross-section, what is the profile of the corresponding hard target?

  20. [Methods for evaluation of penile erection hardness].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi-Ming; Zhou, Su; Zhang, Kai

    2010-07-01

    Penile erection hardness is one of the key factors for successful sexual intercourse, as well as an important index in the diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). This article gives an overview on the component and impact factors of erection hardness, summarizes some commonly used evaluation methods, including those for objective indexes, such as Rigiscan, axial buckling test and color Doppler ultrasonography, and those for subjective indexes of ED patients, such as IIEF, the Erectile Function Domain of IIEF (IIEF-EF), and Erection Hardness Score (EHS), and discusses the characteristics of these methods.

  1. Ion mobility sensor

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2005-08-23

    An ion mobility sensor which can detect both ion and molecules simultaneously. Thus, one can measure the relative arrival times between various ions and molecules. Different ions have different mobility in air, and the ion sensor enables measurement of ion mobility, from which one can identify the various ions and molecules. The ion mobility sensor which utilizes a pair of glow discharge devices may be designed for coupling with an existing gas chromatograph, where various gas molecules are already separated, but numbers of each kind of molecules are relatively small, and in such cases a conventional ion mobility sensor cannot be utilized.

  2. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  3. Electric field determination in the plasma-antenna boundary of a lower-hybrid wave launcher in Tore Supra through dynamic Stark-effect spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Elijah H.; Goniche, M.; Klepper, C. Christopher; Hillairet, J.; Isler, Ralph C.; Bottereau, C.; Colas, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Panayotis, S.; Pegourie, B.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hillis, Donald Lee; Shannon, S.C.; Clairet, F.; Litaudon, X.

    2015-04-22

    Interaction of radio-frequency (RF) waves with the plasma in the near-field of a high-power wave launcher is now seen to be important, both in understanding the channeling of these waves through the plasma boundary and in avoiding power losses in the edge. In a recent Letter a direct non-intrusive measurement of a near antenna RF electric field in the range of lower hybrid (LH) frequencies ($E_{LH}$) was announced (Phys. Rev. Lett., 110:215005, 2013). The measurement was achieved through the fitting of Balmer series deuterium spectral lines utilizing a time dependent (dynamic) Stark effect model. In this article, the processing of the spectral data is discussed in detail and applied to a larger range of measurements and the accuracy and limitations of the experimental technique is investigated. We find through an analysis of numerous Tore Supra pulses that good quantitative agreement exists between the measured and full-wave modeled $E_{LH}$ when the launched power exceeds 0.5MW. For low power the measurement becomes formidable utilizing the implemented passive spectroscopic technique because the spectral noise overwhelms the effect of the RF electric field on the line profile. Additionally, effects of the ponderomotive force are suspected at sufficiently high power.

  4. Electric field determination in the plasma-antenna boundary of a lower-hybrid wave launcher in Tore Supra through dynamic Stark-effect spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Martin, Elijah H.; Goniche, M.; Klepper, C. Christopher; Hillairet, J.; Isler, Ralph C.; Bottereau, C.; Colas, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Panayotis, S.; Pegourie, B.; et al

    2015-04-22

    Interaction of radio-frequency (RF) waves with the plasma in the near-field of a high-power wave launcher is now seen to be important, both in understanding the channeling of these waves through the plasma boundary and in avoiding power losses in the edge. In a recent Letter a direct non-intrusive measurement of a near antenna RF electric field in the range of lower hybrid (LH) frequencies (more » $$E_{LH}$$) was announced (Phys. Rev. Lett., 110:215005, 2013). The measurement was achieved through the fitting of Balmer series deuterium spectral lines utilizing a time dependent (dynamic) Stark effect model. In this article, the processing of the spectral data is discussed in detail and applied to a larger range of measurements and the accuracy and limitations of the experimental technique is investigated. We find through an analysis of numerous Tore Supra pulses that good quantitative agreement exists between the measured and full-wave modeled $$E_{LH}$$ when the launched power exceeds 0.5MW. For low power the measurement becomes formidable utilizing the implemented passive spectroscopic technique because the spectral noise overwhelms the effect of the RF electric field on the line profile. Additionally, effects of the ponderomotive force are suspected at sufficiently high power.« less

  5. Exclusive, hard diffraction in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Andreas

    In the first chapter we give an introduction to hard diffractive scattering in QCD to introduce basic concepts and terminology, thus setting the stage for the following chapters. In the second chapter we make predictions for nondiagonal parton distributions in a proton in the LLA. We calculate the DGLAP-type evolution kernels in the LLA, solve the nondiagonal GLAP evolution equations with a modified version of the CTEQ-package and comment on the range of applicability of the LLA in the asymmetric regime. We show that the nondiagonal gluon distribution g(x1,x2,t,μ2) can be well approximated at small x by the conventional gluon density xG(x,μ2). In the third chapter, we discuss the algorithms used in the LO evolution program for nondiagonal parton distributions in the DGLAP region and discuss the stability of the code. Furthermore, we demonstrate that we can reproduce the case of the LO diagonal evolution within less than 0.5% of the original code as developed by the CTEQ-collaboration. In chapter 4, we show that factorization holds for the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude in QCD, up to power suppressed terms, to all orders in perturbation theory. Furthermore, we show that the virtuality of the produced photon does not influence the general theorem. In chapter 5, we demonstrate that perturbative QCD allows one to calculate the absolute cross section of diffractive exclusive production of photons at large Q2 at HERA, while the aligned jet model allows one to estimate the cross section for intermediate Q2~2GeV2. Furthermore, we find that the imaginary part of the amplitude for the production of real photons is larger than the imaginary part of the corresponding DIS amplitude, leading to predictions of a significant counting rate for the current generation of experiments at HERA. We also find a large azimuthal angle asymmetry in ep scattering for HERA kinematics which allows one to directly measure the real part of the DVCS amplitude and hence the

  6. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.

    1981-02-03

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value.

  7. Automated radiation hard ASIC design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mike; Bartholet, Bill; Baze, Mark

    1993-01-01

    A commercial based, foundry independent, compiler design tool (ChipCrafter) with custom radiation hardened library cells is described. A unique analysis approach allows low hardness risk for Application Specific IC's (ASIC's). Accomplishments, radiation test results, and applications are described.

  8. Financial Incentives for Staffing Hard Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Cynthia D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes examples of financial incentives used to recruit teachers for low-achieving and hard-to-staff schools. Includes targeted salary increases, housing incentives, tuition assistance, and tax credits. (PKP)

  9. Electronic Teaching: Hard Disks and Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Samuel F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes floppy-disk and hard-disk based networks, electronic systems linking microcomputers together for the purpose of sharing peripheral devices, and presents points to remember when shopping for a network. (MBR)

  10. Density functional theory for hard polyhedra.

    PubMed

    Marechal, Matthieu; Löwen, Hartmut

    2013-03-29

    Using the framework of geometry-based fundamental-measure theory, we develop a classical density functional for hard polyhedra and their mixtures and apply it to inhomogeneous fluids of Platonic solids near a hard wall. As revealed by Monte Carlo simulations, the faceted shape of the polyhedra leads to complex layering and orientational ordering near the wall, which is excellently reproduced by our theory. These effects can be verified in real-space experiments on polyhedral colloids.

  11. Breakdown of QCD factorization in hard diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Factorization of short- and long-distance interactions is severely broken in hard diffractive hadronic collisions. Interaction with the spectator partons leads to an interplay between soft and hard scales, which results in a leading twist behavior of the cross section, on the contrary to the higher twist predicted by factorization. This feature is explicitly demonstrated for diffractive radiation of abelian (Drell-Yan, gauge bosons, Higgs) and non-abelian (heavy flavors) particles.

  12. A Novel Approach to Hardness Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier; West, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the application of a simple rebound time measuring device and relates the determination of relative hardness of a variety of common engineering metals. A relation between rebound time and hardness will be sought. The effect of geometry and surface condition will also be discussed in order to acquaint the student with the problems associated with this type of method.

  13. Laser Ablatin of Dental Hard Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Seka, W.; Rechmann, P.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Fried, D.

    2007-07-31

    This paper discusses ablation of dental hard tissue using pulsed lasers. It focuses particularly on the relevant tissue and laser parameters and some of the basic ablation processes that are likely to occur. The importance of interstitial water and its phase transitions is discussed in some detail along with the ablation processes that may or may not directly involve water. The interplay between tissue parameters and laser parameters in the outcome of the removal of dental hard tissue is discussed in detail.

  14. Greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines for wireless ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, HyungJune

    2014-01-01

    We present a greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines in ad hoc sensor networks of stationary nodes and multiple mobile nodes with scheduled trajectory path and arrival time. In the proposed routing strategy, each stationary ad hoc node en route decides whether to relay a shortest-path stationary node toward destination or a passing-by mobile node that will carry closer to destination. We aim to utilize mobile nodes to minimize the total routing cost as far as the selected route can satisfy the end-to-end packet deadline. We evaluate our proposed routing algorithm in terms of routing cost, packet delivery ratio, packet delivery time, and usability of mobile nodes based on network level simulations. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm fully exploits the remaining time till packet deadline to turn into networking benefits of reducing the overall routing cost and improving packet delivery performance. Also, we demonstrate that the routing scheme guarantees packet delivery with hard deadlines, contributing to QoS improvement in various network services.

  15. Strong mobility in weakly disordered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-naim, Eli; Krapivsky, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle s grows superdiffusively with time t, {sigma}{approx}({epsilon}t){sup 2/3}, where {epsilon} is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, {sigma} {approx}t{sup 1/4}, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.

  16. 33 CFR 165.835 - Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. 165.835 Section 165.835 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.835 Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. (a) Definition. As used...

  17. 33 CFR 165.835 - Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. 165.835 Section 165.835 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.835 Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. (a) Definition. As used...

  18. Developing and Studying the Methods of Hard-Facing with Heat-Resisting High-Hardness Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malushin, N. N.; Kovalev, A. P.; Valuev, D. V.; Shats, E. A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-08-01

    The authors develop the methods of hard-facing of mining-metallurgic equipment parts with heat-resisting high-hardness steels on the base of plasma-jet hard-facing in the shielding-alloying nitrogen atmosphere.

  19. ACTS mobile SATCOM experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Frye, Robert E.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last decade, the demand for reliable mobile satellite communications (satcom) for voice, data, and video applications has increased dramatically. As consumer demand grows, the current spectrum allocation at L-band could become saturated. For this reason, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) mobile terminal (AMT) and are evaluating the feasibility of K/Ka-band (20/30 GHz) mobile satcom to meet these growing needs. U.S. industry and government, acting as co-partners, will evaluate K/Ka-band mobile satcom and develop new technologies by conducting a series of applications-oriented experiments. The ACTS and the AMT testbed will be used to conduct these mobile satcom experiments. The goals of the ACTS Mobile Experiments Program and the individual experiment configurations and objectives are further presented.

  20. Mobile learning in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  1. Exploring the mobility of mobile phone users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáji, Balázs Cs.; Browet, Arnaud; Traag, V. A.; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D.

    2013-03-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100,000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread of users’ frequent locations and show that commuting distances can be reasonably well explained by a gravity model.

  2. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-08-23

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated. 3 figs.

  3. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1983-08-23

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated.

  4. The French Space Operation Act: Scope and Main Features. Introduction to the Technical Regulation Considerations about the Implementation in the Launcher Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, Francois

    2010-09-01

    This publication provides a presentation of the new French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA). The main objectives of FSOA are to institute a clarified legal regime for launch operations. The technical regulation associated to the act is set forth, in particular for the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. First, we give an overview of the institutional and legal framework implemented in accordance with the act. The general purpose of this French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA) is to set up a coherent national regime of authorization and control of Space operations under the French jurisdiction or for which the French Government bears international liability either under UN Treaties principles(namely the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, the 1972 Liability Convention and the 1976 Registration Convention) or in accordance with its European commitments with the ESA organization and its Members States. For a given space operation, the operator must show that systems and procedures that he intends to implement are compliant with the technical regulation. The regime of authorization leads to a request of authorization for each launch operation. Thus, licences concerning operator management organization or a given space system can be obtained. These licences help to simplify the authorization file required for a given space operation. The technical regulation is presented in another article, and will be issued in 2010 by the French Minister in charge of space activities. A brief description of the organization associated to the implementation of the authorization regime in the launcher field is presented.

  5. "We Can Get Everything We Want if We Try Hard": Young People, Celebrity, Hard Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendick, Heather; Allen, Kim; Harvey, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on 24 group interviews on celebrity with 148 students aged 14-17 across six schools, we show that "hard work" is valued by young people in England. We argue that we should not simply celebrate this investment in hard work. While it opens up successful subjectivities to previously excluded groups, it reproduces neoliberal…

  6. Research in the Hard Sciences, and in Very Hard "Softer" Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The author of this commentary argues that physical scientists are attempting to advance knowledge in the so-called hard sciences, whereas education researchers are laboring to increase knowledge and understanding in an "extremely hard" but softer domain. Drawing on the work of Popper and Dewey, this commentary highlights the relative…

  7. Hard Water and Soft Soap: Dependence of Soap Performance on Water Hardness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osorio, Viktoria K. L.; de Oliveira, Wanda; El Seoud, Omar A.; Cotton, Wyatt; Easdon, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    The demonstration of the performance of soap in different aqueous solutions, which is due to water hardness and soap formulation, is described. The demonstrations use safe, inexpensive reagents and simple glassware and equipment, introduce important everyday topics, stimulates the students to consider the wider consequences of water hardness and…

  8. Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. MODIFICATIONS TO CONVERT ML NO. 3 TO MOBILE LAUNCHER PLATFORM NO. 1. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 79K04401, Reynolds, Smith and Hills, March, 1975. ISOMETRIC: EXISTING ML NO. 3 LAUNCHER. Sheet A1 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. Potential Health Impacts of Hard Water

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-01-01

    In the past five decades or so evidence has been accumulating about an environmental factor, which appears to be influencing mortality, in particular, cardiovascular mortality, and this is the hardness of the drinking water. In addition, several epidemiological investigations have demonstrated the relation between risk for cardiovascular disease, growth retardation, reproductive failure, and other health problems and hardness of drinking water or its content of magnesium and calcium. In addition, the acidity of the water influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in the renal tubule. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. Thus, the present review attempts to explore the health effects of hard water and its constituents. PMID:24049611

  10. Erosion testing of hard materials and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-04-29

    Erosion is the process by which unconstrained particles, usually hard, impact a surface, creating damage that leads to material removal and component failure. These particles are usually very small and entrained in fluid of some type, typically air. The damage that occurs as a result of erosion depends on the size of the particles, their physical characteristics, the velocity of the particle/fluid stream, and their angle of impact on the surface of interest. This talk will discuss the basics of jet erosion testing of hard materials, composites and coatings. The standard test methods will be discussed as well as alternative approaches to determining the erosion rate of materials. The damage that occurs will be characterized in genera1 terms, and examples will be presented for the erosion behavior of hard materials and coatings (both thick and thin).

  11. Potential health impacts of hard water.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-08-01

    In the past five decades or so evidence has been accumulating about an environmental factor, which appears to be influencing mortality, in particular, cardiovascular mortality, and this is the hardness of the drinking water. In addition, several epidemiological investigations have demonstrated the relation between risk for cardiovascular disease, growth retardation, reproductive failure, and other health problems and hardness of drinking water or its content of magnesium and calcium. In addition, the acidity of the water influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in the renal tubule. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. Thus, the present review attempts to explore the health effects of hard water and its constituents.

  12. Equation of state for fluid mixtures of hard spheres and heteronuclear hard dumbbells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, C.; Solana, J. R.

    1999-09-01

    A theoretically founded equation of state is developed for mixtures of hard spheres with heteronuclear hard dumbbells. It is based on a model previously developed for hard-convex-body fluid mixtures, and further extended to fluid mixtures of homonuclear hard dumbbells. The equation scales the excess compressibility factor for an equivalent hard-sphere fluid mixture to obtain that corresponding to the true mixture. The equivalent mixture is one in which the averaged volume of a sphere is the same as the effective molecular volume of a molecule in the real mixture. Thus, the theory requires two parameters, namely the averaged effective molecular volume of the molecules in the mixture and the scaling factor, which is the effective nonsphericity parameter. Expressions to determine these parameters are derived in terms of the geometrical characteristics of the molecules that form the mixture. The overall results are in closer agreement with simulation data than those obtained with other theories developed for these kinds of mixtures.

  13. Observational Aspects of Hard X-ray Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    retrieving polarization information from few of such spectroscopic instruments like RHESSI, INTEGRAL-IBIS, INTEGRAL-SPI. Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager (CZTI) onboard Astrosat, India's first astronomical mission, is one of such instruments which is expected to provide sensitive polarization measurements for bright X-ray sources. CZTI consists of 64 CZT detector modules, each of which is 5 mm thick and 4 cm × 4 cm in size. Each CZT module is subdivided into 256 pixels with pixel pitch of 2.5 mm. Due to its pixelation nature and significant Compton scattering efficiency at energies beyond 100 keV, CZTI can work as a sensitive Compton polarimeter in hard X-rays. Detailed Geant-4 simulations and polarization experiments with the flight configuration of CZTI show that CZTI will have significant polarization measurement capability for bright sources in hard X-rays. CZTI is primarily a spectroscopic instrument with coded mask imaging. To properly utilize the spectroscopic capabilities of CZT detectors, it is important to generate accurate response matrix for CZTI, which in turn requires precise modelling of the CZT lines shapes for monoenergetic X-ray interaction. CZT detectors show an extended lower energy tail of an otherwise Gaussian line shape due to low mobility and lifetime of the charge carriers. On the other hand, interpixel charge sharing may also contribute to the lower energy tail making the line shape more complicated. We have developed a model to predict the line shapes from CZTI modules taking into account the mobility and lifetime of the charge carriers and charge sharing fractions. The model predicts the line shape quite well and can be used to generate pixel-wise response matrix for CZTI.

  14. Novel Aspects of Hard Diffraction in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2005-12-14

    Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and nuclear shadowing and antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency.

  15. UV curable hard coatings on polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datashvili, Tea; Brostow, Witold; Kao, David

    2006-10-01

    UV curable, hard and transparent hybrid inorganic-organic coatings with covalent links between the inorganic and the organic networks were prepared using organically crosslinked heteropolysiloxanes based on the sol-gel process. The materials were applied onto polyester sheets and UV cured. The deposition was followed by a thermal treatment to improve mechanical properties of the coatings. High light transmission and the resulting thermophysical properties indicate the presence of a nanoscale hybrid composition. The coatings show excellent adhesion to polyesters even without using primers. Further mechanical characterization shows that the coatings provide high hardness and good abrasion resistance.

  16. Radiation-hard static induction transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, M.H.; Bartko, J.; Hwang, J.M.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Leslie, S.G.

    1988-12-01

    The static induction transistor (SIT) has been proposed as a preferred power switching device for applications in military and space environments because of its potential for radiation hardness, high-frequency operation, and the incorporation of on-chip smart power sensor and logic functions. Design, fabrication, and characteristics of a 350 V, 100 A buried gate SIT are described. The potential radiation hardness of this class of devices was evaluated by measurement of SIT characteristics after irradiation with 100 Mrad electrons (2 MeV), and up to 10%16% fission neutrons/cm/sup 2/. High-temperature operation and the possibility of radiation damage self-annealing are discussed.

  17. [Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the hard palate].

    PubMed

    Topstad, T K; Olofsson, J; Myking, A

    1991-11-30

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign, self-healing disease of salivary gland tissue and is usually confined to the minor salivary glands of the hard palate. It has clinical and histological features that simulate malignancies such as mucoepidermoid and squamous cell carcinomas. Wrong diagnosis has led to unnecessary mutilating surgical procedures. The etiology of the disease is unknown, but an ischaemic process is considered most likely. We describe two patients with necrotizing sialometaplasia, one with midline and one with bilateral symmetrical affection of the hard palate.

  18. Mobility control agent

    SciTech Connect

    Argabright, P.A.; Phillips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

    1983-05-17

    Polymer mobility control agents useful in supplemental oil recovery processes, which give improved reciprocal relative mobilities, are prepared by initiating the polymerization of a monomer containing a vinyl group with a catalyst comprising a persulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate. The vinyl monomer is an acrylyl, a vinyl cyanide, a styryl and water soluble salts thereof.

  19. Mobile Apps for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June L.

    2013-01-01

    In an increasing mobile environment, library and reading-related activities often take place on a phone or tablet device. Not only does this mean that library Web sites must keep mobile navigability in mind, but also develop and utilize apps that allow patrons to interact with information and with libraries. While apps do not serve every purpose,…

  20. Mobile Learning Anytime, Anywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlodan, Oksana

    2010-01-01

    Some educational institutions are taking the leap to mobile learning (m-learning) by giving out free iPods. For example, Abilene Christian University gave iPods or iPhones to freshman students and developed 15 Web applications specifically for the mobile devices. The iPod is not the only ubiquitous m-learning device. Any technology that connects…

  1. Mastering Mobile Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Without proper security, mobile devices are easy targets for worms, viruses, and so-called robot ("bot") networks. Hackers increasingly use bot networks to launch massive attacks against eCommerce websites--potentially targeting one's online tuition payment or fundraising/financial development systems. How can one defend his mobile systems against…

  2. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  3. Mobile Goes Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning--the use of mobile devices for educational purposes by students--is rapidly moving from an experimental initiative by a few innovative districts over the last five years to a broadly accepted concept in K12. The latest research and surveys, results of pilot programs, and analysis of trends in both public education and the broader…

  4. Advances in data representation for hard/soft information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Coughlin, Dan; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2012-06-01

    Information fusion is becoming increasingly human-centric. While past systems typically relegated humans to the role of analyzing a finished fusion product, current systems are exploring the role of humans as integral elements in a modular and extensible distributed framework where many tasks can be accomplished by either human or machine performers. For example, "participatory sensing" campaigns give humans the role of "soft sensors" by uploading their direct observations or as "soft sensor platforms" by using mobile devices to record human-annotated, GPS-encoded high quality photographs, video, or audio. Additionally, the role of "human-in-the-loop", in which individuals or teams using advanced human computer interface (HCI) tools such as stereoscopic 3D visualization, haptic interfaces, or aural "sonification" interfaces can help to effectively engage the innate human capability to perform pattern matching, anomaly identification, and semantic-based contextual reasoning to interpret an evolving situation. The Pennsylvania State University is participating in a Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate fusion of hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. In addition to the importance of this research for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), many of the same challenges and techniques apply to health and medical informatics, crisis management, crowd-sourced "citizen science", and monitoring environmental concerns. One of the key challenges that we have encountered is the development of data formats, protocols, and methodologies to establish an information architecture and framework for the effective capture, representation, transmission, and storage of the vastly heterogeneous data and accompanying metadata -- including capabilities and characteristics of human observers, uncertainty of human observations, "soft" contextual data, and information pedigree

  5. [Cognition and mobility].

    PubMed

    Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A

    2015-04-01

    Felix Platter Hospital, University Center for Medicine of Aging, Basel, Switzerland; There is a strong association between cognition and mobility. Older adults with gait deficits have an increased risk of developing cognitive deficits, even dementia. Cognitive deficits, on the other hand, are associated with worsening gait. Cognitive as well as mobility deficits are associated with an increased fall risk. Assessments of cognition, particularly the executive functions, and functional mobility should therefore be an integral part of every comprehensive geriatric assessment. Some quick screening tests for mobility disorders can be performed in a clinical praxis. If those assessments provide pathological results, then consider patient referral for an in-depth gait analysis. Gait analyses that utilize dual task paradigms (walking and simultaneously performing a second task) are particularly meaningful for early detection of mobility and cognitive deficits. Early detection permits timely implementation of targeted interventions to improve gait and brain function. PMID:25791044

  6. Skylab mobile laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, G. R.; Larue, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab mobile laboratory was designed to provide the capability to obtain necessary data on the Skylab crewmen 30 days before lift-off, within 1 hour after recovery, and until preflight physiological baselines were reattained. The mobile laboratory complex consisted of six laboratories that supported cardiovascular, metabolic, nutrition and endocrinology, operational medicine, blood, and microbiology experiments; a utility package; and two shipping containers. The objectives and equipment requirements of the Skylab mobile laboratory and the data acquisition systems are discussed along with processes such as permanently mounting equipment in the individual laboratories and methods of testing and transporting the units. The operational performance, in terms of amounts of data collected, and the concept of mobile laboratories for medical and scientific experiments are evaluated. The Skylab mobile laboratory succeeded in facilitating the data collection and sample preservation associated with the three Skylab manned flights.

  7. Gone Mobile? (Mobile Libraries Survey 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2010-01-01

    Librarians, like patrons and researchers, are caught between traditional library service models and the promise of evolving information technologies. In recent years, professional conferences have strategically featured programs and presentations geared toward building a mobile agenda and adapting or adopting services to meet new demands of mobile…

  8. Water resources of the Mobile area, Alabama, with a section on salinity of the Mobile River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, W.H.; Powell, William J.; Brown, Eugene; Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army

    1956-01-01

    Water is an abundant resource of the Mobile area. The Mobile River has an estimated average flow of 60, 000 cubic feet per second (cfs), or about 39,000 million gallons per day (mgd). It is the largest single source of water. Water is available in substantial quantities from the many local streams and extensive water-bearing formations almost anywhere in the area. Surface water is low in dissolved mineral matter and is extremely soft. Salt water moving up the Mobile River from Mobile Bay during periods of low river flow, however, limits the use of that stream as a source of supply. The principal water-bearing formations are the alluvium and sediments of Miocene age. The Miocene strata dip toward the southwest, forming an artesian basin in the downtown area of Mobile. Small groundwater supplies can be developed practically everywhere, and supplies for industrial or other large-scale uses are available north of Mobile. The average use of water from all sources in the area during 1954 was about 356 mgd, of which about 20 mgd was used for domestic supplies and 336 mgd was used by industry. An estimated 42 mgd of ground water is used in the Mobile area. The discharge from wells used by industry ranges from 10 to 1,500 gallons per minute (gpm}, and the specific capacity of the large-capacity wells ranges from less than 6 to about 6 3 gpm per foot of drawdown. Concentrated pumping in the downtown area of Mobile between 1941 and 1945 resulted in encroachment of salt water from the Mobile River into the alluvium. Because of a decrease in pumping in that vicinity, the sodium chloride content of the water has decreased substantially since 1945. The quality of ground water is variable. Hardness of waters sampled ranged from 1 to 2, 190 parts per million (ppm}, the dissolved solids from 27 to 13, 000 ppm, and the chloride from 2.2 to 6,760 ppm. The water of best quality occurs between McIntosh and Prichard, and the water of poorest quality occurs in the downtown area of Mobile

  9. Lock-and-key dimerization in dense Brownian systems of hard annular sector particles.

    PubMed

    Hodson, Wade D; Mason, Thomas G

    2016-08-01

    We develop a translational-rotational cage model that describes the behavior of dense two-dimensional (2D) Brownian systems of hard annular sector particles (ASPs), resembling C shapes. At high particle densities, pairs of ASPs can form mutually interdigitating lock-and-key dimers. This cage model considers either one or two mobile central ASPs which can translate and rotate within a static cage of surrounding ASPs that mimics the system's average local structure and density. By comparing with recent measurements made on dispersions of microscale lithographic ASPs [P. Y. Wang and T. G. Mason, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 15308 (2015)JACSAT0002-786310.1021/jacs.5b10549], we show that mobile two-particle predictions of the probability of dimerization P_{dimer}, equilibrium constant K, and 2D osmotic pressure Π_{2D} as a function of the particle area fraction ϕ_{A} correspond closely to these experiments. By contrast, predictions based on only a single mobile particle do not agree well with either the two-particle predictions or the experimental data. Thus, we show that collective entropy can play an essential role in the behavior of dense Brownian systems composed of nontrivial hard shapes, such as ASPs. PMID:27627263

  10. Lock-and-key dimerization in dense Brownian systems of hard annular sector particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, Wade D.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a translational-rotational cage model that describes the behavior of dense two-dimensional (2D) Brownian systems of hard annular sector particles (ASPs), resembling C shapes. At high particle densities, pairs of ASPs can form mutually interdigitating lock-and-key dimers. This cage model considers either one or two mobile central ASPs which can translate and rotate within a static cage of surrounding ASPs that mimics the system's average local structure and density. By comparing with recent measurements made on dispersions of microscale lithographic ASPs [P. Y. Wang and T. G. Mason, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 15308 (2015), 10.1021/jacs.5b10549], we show that mobile two-particle predictions of the probability of dimerization Pdimer, equilibrium constant K , and 2D osmotic pressure Π2 D as a function of the particle area fraction ϕA correspond closely to these experiments. By contrast, predictions based on only a single mobile particle do not agree well with either the two-particle predictions or the experimental data. Thus, we show that collective entropy can play an essential role in the behavior of dense Brownian systems composed of nontrivial hard shapes, such as ASPs.

  11. Ototraumatic effects of hard rock music.

    PubMed

    Reddell, R C; Lebo, C P

    1972-01-01

    Temporary and permanent shifts in auditory thresholds were found in 43 hard rock musicians and temporary shifts were also observed in some listeners. The threshold shifts involved all of the conventional puretone test frequencies. Custom-fitted polyvinyl chloride ear protectors were found to be effective in prevention of these noise-induced hearing losses.

  12. Sustaining Transformation: "Resiliency in Hard Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarasci, Richard; Lieberman, Devorah

    2009-01-01

    The strategic, systemic, and encompassing evolution of a college or university spans a number of years, and the vagaries of economic cycles inevitably catch transforming institutions in mid-voyage. "Sustaining Transformation: Resiliency in Hard Times" presents a study of Wagner College as it moves into its second decade of purposeful institutional…

  13. Hard Times: Philosophy and the Fundamentalist Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2005-01-01

    A close reading of Gradgrind's opening monologue of Hard Times by Charles Dickens will provide the starting off point for an examination of the role and place of philosophy in the music curriculum. The Gradgrind philosophy finds easy parallel to current thinking in American education. In the fundamentalist imagination, sources of ambiguity must be…

  14. Registration of 'Advance' Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new hard red spring wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent on satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also help to maxi...

  15. Hard thermal loops in static external fields

    SciTech Connect

    Frenkel, J.; Takahashi, N.; Pereira, S. H.

    2009-04-15

    We examine, in the imaginary-time formalism, the high temperature behavior of n-point thermal loops in static Yang-Mills and gravitational fields. We show that in this regime, any hard thermal loop gives the same leading contribution as the one obtained by evaluating the loop integral at zero external energies and momenta.

  16. Classic and Hard-Boiled Detective Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John M.

    Through an analysis of several stories, this paper defines the similarities and differences between classic and hard-boiled detective fiction. The characters and plots of three stories are discussed: "The Red House" by A. A. Milne; "I, The Jury" by Mickey Spillane; and "League of Frightened Men" by Rex Stout. The classic detective story is defined…

  17. PROTEIN TEMPLATES IN HARD TISSUE ENGINEERING

    PubMed Central

    George, Anne; Ravindran, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Biomineralization processes such as formation of bones and teeth require controlled mineral deposition and self-assembly into hierarchical biocomposites with unique mechanical properties. Ideal biomaterials for regeneration and repair of hard tissues must be biocompatible, possess micro and macroporosity for vascular invasion, provide surface chemistry and texture that facilitate cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation of lineage specific progenitor cells, and induce deposition of calcium phosphate mineral. To expect in-vivo like cellular response several investigators have used extracellular matrix proteins as templates to recreate in-vivo microenvironment for regeneration of hard tissues. Recently, several novel methods of designing tissue repair and restoration materials using bioinspired strategies are currently being formulated. Nanoscale structured materials can be fabricated via the spontaneous organization of self-assembling proteins to construct hierarchically organized nanomaterials. The advantage of such a method is that polypeptides can be specifically designed as building blocks incorporated with molecular recognition features and spatially distributed bioactive ligands that would provide a physiological environment for cells in-vitro and in-vivo. This is a rapidly evolving area and provides a promising platform for future development of nanostructured templates for hard tissue engineering. In this review we try to highlight the importance of proteins as templates for regeneration and repair of hard tissues as well as the potential of peptide based nanomaterials for regenerative therapies. PMID:20802848

  18. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  19. Radiation-Hardness Data For Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Nichols, D. K.; Brown, S. F.; Gauthier, M. K.; Martin, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Document presents data on and analysis of radiation hardness of various semiconductor devices. Data specifies total-dose radiation tolerance of devices. Volume 1 of report covers diodes, bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, silicon controlled rectifiers and optical devices. Volume 2 covers integrated circuits. Volume 3 provides detailed analysis of data in volumes 1 and 2.

  20. Remember Hard But Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiushu; Lu, Zhi; Wang, Ruiming; Cai, Zhenguang G

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between "hard" and "rigid" and between "soft" and "flexible" in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affects cognitive functions whose performance depends prospectively on rigidity (memory) and flexibility (creativity). In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition) than a cushioned one (the soft condition). In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity or flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations can be grounded in bodily states via metaphorical associations. PMID:27672373

  1. Remember Hard But Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiushu; Lu, Zhi; Wang, Ruiming; Cai, Zhenguang G

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between "hard" and "rigid" and between "soft" and "flexible" in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affects cognitive functions whose performance depends prospectively on rigidity (memory) and flexibility (creativity). In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition) than a cushioned one (the soft condition). In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity or flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations can be grounded in bodily states via metaphorical associations.

  2. Tuning structure and mobility of solvation shells surrounding tracer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Carmer, James; Jain, Avni; Bollinger, Jonathan A.; Truskett, Thomas M.; Swol, Frank van

    2015-03-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations and a stochastic Fokker-Planck equation based approach are used to illuminate how position-dependent solvent mobility near one or more tracer particle(s) is affected when tracer-solvent interactions are rationally modified to affect corresponding solvation structure. For tracers in a dense hard-sphere fluid, we compare two types of tracer-solvent interactions: (1) a hard-sphere-like interaction, and (2) a soft repulsion extending beyond the hard core designed via statistical mechanical theory to enhance tracer mobility at infinite dilution by suppressing coordination-shell structure [Carmer et al., Soft Matter 8, 4083–4089 (2012)]. For the latter case, we show that the mobility of surrounding solvent particles is also increased by addition of the soft repulsive interaction, which helps to rationalize the mechanism underlying the tracer’s enhanced diffusivity. However, if multiple tracer surfaces are in closer proximity (as at higher tracer concentrations), similar interactions that disrupt local solvation structure instead suppress the position-dependent solvent dynamics.

  3. Tuning structure and mobility of solvation shells surrounding tracer additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmer, James; Jain, Avni; Bollinger, Jonathan A.; van Swol, Frank; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations and a stochastic Fokker-Planck equation based approach are used to illuminate how position-dependent solvent mobility near one or more tracer particle(s) is affected when tracer-solvent interactions are rationally modified to affect corresponding solvation structure. For tracers in a dense hard-sphere fluid, we compare two types of tracer-solvent interactions: (1) a hard-sphere-like interaction, and (2) a soft repulsion extending beyond the hard core designed via statistical mechanical theory to enhance tracer mobility at infinite dilution by suppressing coordination-shell structure [Carmer et al., Soft Matter 8, 4083-4089 (2012)]. For the latter case, we show that the mobility of surrounding solvent particles is also increased by addition of the soft repulsive interaction, which helps to rationalize the mechanism underlying the tracer's enhanced diffusivity. However, if multiple tracer surfaces are in closer proximity (as at higher tracer concentrations), similar interactions that disrupt local solvation structure instead suppress the position-dependent solvent dynamics.

  4. Limits of social mobilization.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-04-16

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719

  5. Limits of social mobilization.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-04-16

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability.

  6. Mobile sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-12-16

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  7. Mobile Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  8. Limits of social mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-01-01

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719

  9. Mobile sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  10. Displays enabling mobile multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Jyrki

    2007-02-01

    With the rapid advances in telecommunications networks, mobile multimedia delivery to handsets is now a reality. While a truly immersive multimedia experience is still far ahead in the mobile world, significant advances have been made in the constituent audio-visual technologies to make this become possible. One of the critical components in multimedia delivery is the mobile handset display. While such alternatives as headset-style near-to-eye displays, autostereoscopic displays, mini-projectors, and roll-out flexible displays can deliver either a larger virtual screen size than the pocketable dimensions of the mobile device can offer, or an added degree of immersion by adding the illusion of the third dimension in the viewing experience, there are still challenges in the full deployment of such displays in real-life mobile communication terminals. Meanwhile, direct-view display technologies have developed steadily, and can provide a development platform for an even better viewing experience for multimedia in the near future. The paper presents an overview of the mobile display technology space with an emphasis on the advances and potential in developing direct-view displays further to meet the goal of enabling multimedia in the mobile domain.

  11. Stochastic interactions of two Brownian hard spheres in the presence of depletants

    SciTech Connect

    Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Tuinier, Remco; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2014-06-07

    A quantitative analysis is presented for the stochastic interactions of a pair of Brownian hard spheres in non-adsorbing polymer solutions. The hard spheres are hypothetically trapped by optical tweezers and allowed for random motion near the trapped positions. The investigation focuses on the long-time correlated Brownian motion. The mobility tensor altered by the polymer depletion effect is computed by the boundary integral method, and the corresponding random displacement is determined by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. From our computations it follows that the presence of depletion layers around the hard spheres has a significant effect on the hydrodynamic interactions and particle dynamics as compared to pure solvent and uniform polymer solution cases. The probability distribution functions of random walks of the two interacting hard spheres that are trapped clearly shift due to the polymer depletion effect. The results show that the reduction of the viscosity in the depletion layers around the spheres and the entropic force due to the overlapping of depletion zones have a significant influence on the correlated Brownian interactions.

  12. Stochastic interactions of two Brownian hard spheres in the presence of depletants.

    PubMed

    Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Tuinier, Remco; Taniguchi, Takashi; Fan, Tai-Hsi

    2014-06-01

    A quantitative analysis is presented for the stochastic interactions of a pair of Brownian hard spheres in non-adsorbing polymer solutions. The hard spheres are hypothetically trapped by optical tweezers and allowed for random motion near the trapped positions. The investigation focuses on the long-time correlated Brownian motion. The mobility tensor altered by the polymer depletion effect is computed by the boundary integral method, and the corresponding random displacement is determined by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. From our computations it follows that the presence of depletion layers around the hard spheres has a significant effect on the hydrodynamic interactions and particle dynamics as compared to pure solvent and uniform polymer solution cases. The probability distribution functions of random walks of the two interacting hard spheres that are trapped clearly shift due to the polymer depletion effect. The results show that the reduction of the viscosity in the depletion layers around the spheres and the entropic force due to the overlapping of depletion zones have a significant influence on the correlated Brownian interactions. PMID:24908040

  13. Mobile sociology. 2000.

    PubMed

    Urry, John

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a manifesto for a sociology concerned with the diverse mobilities of peoples, objects, images, information, and wastes; and of the complex interdependencies between, and social consequences of, such diverse mobilities. A number of key concepts relevant for such a sociology are elaborated: 'gamekeeping', networks, fluids, scapes, flows, complexity and iteration. The article concludes by suggesting that a 'global civil society' might constitute the social base of a sociology of mobilities as we move into the twenty-first century.

  14. The unconstrained local hardness: an intriguing quantity, beset by problems.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Saavedra, Rogelio; Rabi, Nataly; Ayers, Paul W

    2011-11-21

    Developing a mathematical approach to the local hard/soft acid/base principle requires an unambiguous definition for the local hardness. One such quantity, which has aroused significant interest in recent years, is the unconstrained local hardness. Key identities are derived for the unconstrained local hardness, δμ/δρ(r). Several identities are presented which allow one to determine the unconstrained local hardness either explicitly using the hardness kernel and the inverse-linear response function, or implicitly by solving a system of linear equations. One result of this analysis is that the problem of determining the unconstrained local hardness is infinitely ill-conditioned because arbitrarily small changes in electron density can cause enormous changes in the chemical potential. This is manifest in the exponential divergence of the unconstrained local hardness as one moves away from the system. This suggests that one should be very careful when using the unconstrained local hardness for chemical interpretation. PMID:21984043

  15. On recent results in the modelling of neoclassical-tearing-mode stabilization via electron cyclotron current drive and their impact on the design of the upper EC launcher for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, E.; Angioni, C.; Casson, F. J.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Goodman, T. P.; Maj, O.; Sauter, O.; Weber, H.; Zohm, H.; Saibene, G.; Henderson, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Electron cyclotron wave beams injected from a launcher placed in the upper part of the vessel will be used in ITER to control MHD instabilities, in particular neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). Simplified NTM stabilization criteria have been used in the past to guide the optimization of the launcher. Their derivation is reviewed in this paper and their range of applicability clarified. Moreover, possible effects leading to a deterioration of the predicted performance are discussed. Particularly critical in this context is the broadening of the electron-cyclotron (EC) deposition profiles. It is argued that the most detrimental effect for ITER is likely to be the scattering of the EC beams from density fluctuations due to plasma turbulence, resulting in a beam broadening by about a factor of two. The combined impact of these effects with that of beam misalignment (with respect to the targeted surface) is investigated by solving the Rutherford equation in a form that retains the most relevant terms. The perspectives for NTM stabilization in the Q = 10 ITER scenario are discussed.

  16. AUSSAT mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowland, Wayne L.; Wagg, Michael; Simpson, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    An overview of AUSSAT's planned mobile satellite system is given. The development program which is being undertaken to achieve the 1992 service date is described. Both business and technical aspects of the development program are addressed.

  17. Understanding Mobile Apps

    MedlinePlus

    ... a device, you’re committed to using the operating system and the type of apps that go with it. The Android, Apple, Microsoft and BlackBerry mobile operating systems have app stores online where you can look ...

  18. Persuasive Mobile Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Wylie, Carlos; Coulton, Paul

    With many industrialized societies bearing the cost of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the health of their populations there is a need to find new ways of encouraging physical activity to promote better health and well being. With the increasing power of mobile phones and the recent emergence of personal heart rate monitors, aimed at dedicated amateur runners, there is now a possibility to develop “Persuasive Mobile Health Applications” to promote well being through the use of real-time physiological data and persuade users to adopt a healthier lifestyle. In this paper we present a novel general health monitoring software for mobile phones called Heart Angel. This software is aimed at helping users monitor, record, as well as improve their fitness level through built-in cardio-respiratory tests, a location tracking application for analyzing heart rate exertion over time and location, and a fun mobile-exergame called Health Defender.

  19. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  20. Hard-on-Hard Lubrication in the Artificial Hip under Dynamic Loading Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, Robert; Reinders, Jörn; Rieger, Johannes S.; Heitzmann, Daniel W. W.; Kretzer, J. Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The tribological performance of an artificial hip joint has a particularly strong influence on its success. The principle causes for failure are adverse short- and long-term reactions to wear debris and high frictional torque in the case of poor lubrication that may cause loosening of the implant. Therefore, using experimental and theoretical approaches models have been developed to evaluate lubrication under standardized conditions. A steady-state numerical model has been extended with dynamic experimental data for hard-on-hard bearings used in total hip replacements to verify the tribological relevance of the ISO 14242-1 gait cycle in comparison to experimental data from the Orthoload database and instrumented gait analysis for three additional loading conditions: normal walking, climbing stairs and descending stairs. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing partners show superior lubrication potential compared to hard-on-hard bearings that work with at least one articulating metal component. Lubrication regimes during the investigated activities are shown to strongly depend on the kinematics and loading conditions. The outcome from the ISO gait is not fully confirmed by the normal walking data and more challenging conditions show evidence of inferior lubrication. These findings may help to explain the differences between the in vitro predictions using the ISO gait cycle and the clinical outcome of some hard-on-hard bearings, e.g., using metal-on-metal. PMID:23940772

  1. Hard-on-hard lubrication in the artificial hip under dynamic loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Robert; Reinders, Jörn; Rieger, Johannes S; Heitzmann, Daniel W W; Kretzer, J Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The tribological performance of an artificial hip joint has a particularly strong influence on its success. The principle causes for failure are adverse short- and long-term reactions to wear debris and high frictional torque in the case of poor lubrication that may cause loosening of the implant. Therefore, using experimental and theoretical approaches models have been developed to evaluate lubrication under standardized conditions. A steady-state numerical model has been extended with dynamic experimental data for hard-on-hard bearings used in total hip replacements to verify the tribological relevance of the ISO 14242-1 gait cycle in comparison to experimental data from the Orthoload database and instrumented gait analysis for three additional loading conditions: normal walking, climbing stairs and descending stairs. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing partners show superior lubrication potential compared to hard-on-hard bearings that work with at least one articulating metal component. Lubrication regimes during the investigated activities are shown to strongly depend on the kinematics and loading conditions. The outcome from the ISO gait is not fully confirmed by the normal walking data and more challenging conditions show evidence of inferior lubrication. These findings may help to explain the differences between the in vitro predictions using the ISO gait cycle and the clinical outcome of some hard-on-hard bearings, e.g., using metal-on-metal.

  2. Remember Hard But Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiushu; Lu, Zhi; Wang, Ruiming; Cai, Zhenguang G.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between “hard” and “rigid” and between “soft” and “flexible” in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affects cognitive functions whose performance depends prospectively on rigidity (memory) and flexibility (creativity). In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition) than a cushioned one (the soft condition). In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity or flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations can be grounded in bodily states via metaphorical associations. PMID:27672373

  3. Remember Hard But Think Softly: Metaphorical Effects of Hardness/Softness on Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiushu; Lu, Zhi; Wang, Ruiming; Cai, Zhenguang G.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between “hard” and “rigid” and between “soft” and “flexible” in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affects cognitive functions whose performance depends prospectively on rigidity (memory) and flexibility (creativity). In Experiment 1, we found that Chinese-speaking participants performed better at recalling previously memorized words while sitting on a hard-surface stool (the hard condition) than a cushioned one (the soft condition). In Experiment 2, participants sitting on a cushioned stool outperformed those sitting on a hard-surface stool on a Chinese riddle task, which required creative/flexible thinking, but not on an analogical reasoning task, which required both rigid and flexible thinking. The results suggest the hardness experience affects cognitive functions that are metaphorically associated with rigidity or flexibility. They support the embodiment proposition that cognitive functions and representations can be grounded in bodily states via metaphorical associations.

  4. Hard-on-hard lubrication in the artificial hip under dynamic loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Robert; Reinders, Jörn; Rieger, Johannes S; Heitzmann, Daniel W W; Kretzer, J Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The tribological performance of an artificial hip joint has a particularly strong influence on its success. The principle causes for failure are adverse short- and long-term reactions to wear debris and high frictional torque in the case of poor lubrication that may cause loosening of the implant. Therefore, using experimental and theoretical approaches models have been developed to evaluate lubrication under standardized conditions. A steady-state numerical model has been extended with dynamic experimental data for hard-on-hard bearings used in total hip replacements to verify the tribological relevance of the ISO 14242-1 gait cycle in comparison to experimental data from the Orthoload database and instrumented gait analysis for three additional loading conditions: normal walking, climbing stairs and descending stairs. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing partners show superior lubrication potential compared to hard-on-hard bearings that work with at least one articulating metal component. Lubrication regimes during the investigated activities are shown to strongly depend on the kinematics and loading conditions. The outcome from the ISO gait is not fully confirmed by the normal walking data and more challenging conditions show evidence of inferior lubrication. These findings may help to explain the differences between the in vitro predictions using the ISO gait cycle and the clinical outcome of some hard-on-hard bearings, e.g., using metal-on-metal. PMID:23940772

  5. Further links between the maximum hardness principle and the hard/soft acid/base principle: insights from hard/soft exchange reactions.

    PubMed

    Chattaraj, Pratim K; Ayers, Paul W; Melin, Junia

    2007-08-01

    Ayers, Parr, and Pearson recently showed that insight into the hard/soft acid/base (HSAB) principle could be obtained by analyzing the energy of reactions in hard/soft exchange reactions, i.e., reactions in which a soft acid replaces a hard acid or a soft base replaces a hard base [J. Chem. Phys., 2006, 124, 194107]. We show, in accord with the maximum hardness principle, that the hardness increases for favorable hard/soft exchange reactions and decreases when the HSAB principle indicates that hard/soft exchange reactions are unfavorable. This extends the previous work of the authors, which treated only the "double hard/soft exchange" reaction [P. K. Chattaraj and P. W. Ayers, J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 123, 086101]. We also discuss two different approaches to computing the hardness of molecules from the hardness of the composing fragments, and explain how the results differ. In the present context, it seems that the arithmetic mean of fragment softnesses is the preferable definition.

  6. Spin effects in hard collision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.

    1984-05-01

    Questions of conservation and nonconservation of parity in phenomena associated with particle spin are reviewed. The main attention is concentrated on the production of hadrons, jets, and photons with large momentum transfer and the production of lepton pairs. The mechanisms of the hard-scattering subprocess include exchange of W/sup + -/ and Z/sup 0/ mesons, QCD and QED, and also interference between QCD and the weak interactions and between QED and the weak interactions. Effective cross sections of hard scattering processes are calculated, a factorization of the hadron--hadron scattering cross section is proposed, and the possible types of spin effects manifested in the hadronic subprocesses are classified and discussed. The properties of the polarized proton distributions and polarized structure functions are given in two appendices.

  7. Superhard material comparable in hardness to diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Badzian, A.R.

    1988-12-19

    Superhard boron suboxides, with hardness close to that of diamond, were synthesized from boron/boron oxide mixtures. Such hardness is expected when a material's molar volume approaches the value characteristic for diamond. These materials consist of boron-rich phases belonging to the boron-oxygen system. The phase which contains 4 at. % oxygen and a crystal structure related to ..beta..rhombohedral boron can scratch diamond faces. During scratching of diamond the suboxide is worn also, and the wear debris is amorphized. Wear on the lt. slash/100/ diamond faces results from a cleavage mechanism which leaves a rough surface covered with cleaved lt. slash/111/ microfaces. The lt. slash/100/ faces are more easily abraded than the lt. slash/111/ diamond faces. Wear on lt. slash/111/ faces consumes much more energy and leaves grooves of plastically deformed diamond.

  8. Superhard material comparable in hardness to diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badzian, Andrzej R.

    1988-12-01

    Superhard boron suboxides, with hardness close to that of diamond, were synthesized from boron/boron oxide mixtures. Such hardness is expected when a material's molar volume approaches the value characteristic for diamond. These materials consist of boron-rich phases belonging to the boron-oxygen system. The phase which contains 4 at. % oxygen and a crystal structure related to β-rhombohedral boron can scratch diamond faces. During scratching of diamond the suboxide is worn also, and the wear debris is amorphized. Wear on the {100} diamond faces results from a cleavage mechanism which leaves a rough surface covered with cleaved {111} microfaces. The {100} faces are more easily abraded than the {111} diamond faces. Wear on {111} faces consumes much more energy and leaves grooves of plastically deformed diamond.

  9. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, W. II; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10--20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode. 12 figs.

  10. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10-20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode.

  11. Hard diffraction with dynamic gap survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christine O.; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2016-02-01

    We present a new framework for the modelling of hard diffraction in pp and poverline{p} collisions. It starts from the the approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, wherein the single diffractive cross section is factorized into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF. To this it adds a dynamically calculated rapidity gap survival factor, derived from the modelling of multiparton interactions. This factor is not relevant for diffraction in ep collisions, giving non-universality between HERA and Tevatron diffractive event rates. The model has been implemented in P ythia 8 and provides a complete description of the hadronic state associated with any hard single diffractive process. Comparisons with poverline{p} and pp data reveal improvement in the description of single diffractive events.

  12. Hardness/intensity correlations among BATSE bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Conclusions about the nature of gamma-ray bursts derived from the size-frequency distribution may be altered if a significant correlation exists between burst intensity and spectral shape. Moreover, if gamma-ray bursts have a cosmological origin, such a correlation may be expected to result from the expansion of the universe. We have performed a rudimentary search of the BATSE bursts for hardness/intensity correlations. The range of spectral shapes was determined for each burst by computing the ratio of the intensity in the range 100-300 keV to that in 55-300 keV. We find weak evidence for the existence of a correlation, the strongest effect being present when comparing the maximum hardness ratio for each burst with its maximum rate.

  13. Rad-Hard/HI-REL FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jih-Jong; Cronquist, Brian E.; McGowan, John E.; Katz, Richard B.

    1997-01-01

    The goals for a radiation hardened (RAD-HARD) and high reliability (HI-REL) field programmable gate array (FPGA) are described. The first qualified manufacturer list (QML) radiation hardened RH1280 and RH1020 were developed. The total radiation dose and single event effects observed on the antifuse FPGA RH1280 are reported on. Tradeoffs and the limitations in the single event upset hardening are discussed.

  14. Radiation Hardness Assurance for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poivey, Christian; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The space radiation environment can lead to extremely harsh operating conditions for on-board electronic box and systems. The characteristics of the radiation environment are highly dependent on the type of mission (date, duration and orbit). Radiation accelerates the aging of the electronic parts and material and can lead to a degradation of electrical performance; it can also create transient phenomena on parts. Such damage at the part level can induce damage or functional failure at electronic box, subsystem, and system levels. A rigorous methodology is needed to ensure that the radiation environment does not compromise the functionality and performance of the electronics during the system life. This methodology is called hardness assurance. It consists of those activities undertaken to ensure that the electronic piece parts placed in the space system perform to their design specifications after exposure to the space environment. It deals with system requirements, environmental definitions, part selection, part testing, shielding and radiation tolerant design. All these elements should play together in order to produce a system tolerant to.the radiation environment. An overview of the different steps of a space system hardness assurance program is given in section 2. In order to define the mission radiation specifications and compare these requirements to radiation test data, a detailed knowledge of the space environment and the corresponding electronic device failure mechanisms is required. The presentation by J. Mazur deals with the Earth space radiation environment as well as the internal environment of a spacecraft. The presentation by J. Schwank deals with ionization effects, and the presentation by T. Weatherford deals with Single particle Event Phenomena (SEP) in semiconductor devices and microcircuits. These three presentations provide more detailed background to complement the sections 3 and 4. Part selection and categorization are discussed in section

  15. The PASCO Half-Byte Hard Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Peter S.

    2005-03-01

    To provide an interesting application of Faraday's law, Brad Hinaus and Mick Veum created an experiment constructing a scaled-up model of a computer hard drive. They mounted permanent magnets on a wooden disk. When the disk was spun, an emf was induced in a "read" head (solenoid) and recorded by a computer. I have found a way to do a similar experiment using only PASCO equipment.2

  16. Nanotwinned diamond with unprecedented hardness and stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Quan; Yu, Dongli; Xu, Bo; Hu, Wentao; Ma, Yanming; Wang, Yanbin; Zhao, Zhisheng; Wen, Bin; He, Julong; Liu, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yongjun

    2014-06-12

    Although diamond is the hardest material for cutting tools, poor thermal stability has limited its applications, especially at high temperatures. Simultaneous improvement of the hardness and thermal stability of diamond has long been desirable. According to the Hall-Petch effect, the hardness of diamond can be enhanced by nanostructuring (by means of nanograined and nanotwinned microstructures), as shown in previous studies. However, for well-sintered nanograined diamonds, the grain sizes are technically limited to 10-30 nm (ref. 3), with degraded thermal stability compared with that of natural diamond. Recent success in synthesizing nanotwinned cubic boron nitride (nt-cBN) with a twin thickness down to ∼3.8 nm makes it feasible to simultaneously achieve smaller nanosize, ultrahardness and superior thermal stability. At present, nanotwinned diamond (nt-diamond) has not been fabricated successfully through direct conversions of various carbon precursors (such as graphite, amorphous carbon, glassy carbon and C60). Here we report the direct synthesis of nt-diamond with an average twin thickness of ∼5 nm, using a precursor of onion carbon nanoparticles at high pressure and high temperature, and the observation of a new monoclinic crystalline form of diamond coexisting with nt-diamond. The pure synthetic bulk nt-diamond material shows unprecedented hardness and thermal stability, with Vickers hardness up to ∼200 GPa and an in-air oxidization temperature more than 200 °C higher than that of natural diamond. The creation of nanotwinned microstructures offers a general pathway for manufacturing new advanced carbon-based materials with exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties.

  17. Nanotwinned diamond with unprecedented hardness and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Quan; Yu, Dongli; Xu, Bo; Hu, Wentao; Ma, Yanming; Wang, Yanbin; Zhao, Zhisheng; Wen, Bin; He, Julong; Liu, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yongjun

    2014-06-01

    Although diamond is the hardest material for cutting tools, poor thermal stability has limited its applications, especially at high temperatures. Simultaneous improvement of the hardness and thermal stability of diamond has long been desirable. According to the Hall-Petch effect, the hardness of diamond can be enhanced by nanostructuring (by means of nanograined and nanotwinned microstructures), as shown in previous studies. However, for well-sintered nanograined diamonds, the grain sizes are technically limited to 10-30 nm (ref. 3), with degraded thermal stability compared with that of natural diamond. Recent success in synthesizing nanotwinned cubic boron nitride (nt-cBN) with a twin thickness down to ~3.8 nm makes it feasible to simultaneously achieve smaller nanosize, ultrahardness and superior thermal stability. At present, nanotwinned diamond (nt-diamond) has not been fabricated successfully through direct conversions of various carbon precursors (such as graphite, amorphous carbon, glassy carbon and C60). Here we report the direct synthesis of nt-diamond with an average twin thickness of ~5 nm, using a precursor of onion carbon nanoparticles at high pressure and high temperature, and the observation of a new monoclinic crystalline form of diamond coexisting with nt-diamond. The pure synthetic bulk nt-diamond material shows unprecedented hardness and thermal stability, with Vickers hardness up to ~200 GPa and an in-air oxidization temperature more than 200 °C higher than that of natural diamond. The creation of nanotwinned microstructures offers a general pathway for manufacturing new advanced carbon-based materials with exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties.

  18. Dynamic Hardness Tester and Cure Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madigosky, Walter M.; Fiorito, Ralph B.

    1993-01-01

    The Shore hardness tester is used extensively throughout industry to determine the static modulus of materials. The new apparatus described here extends the capability of an indentor-type tester into the dynamic regime, and provides a measurement of the dynamic shear or Young's modulus and loss factor as a function of frequency. The instrument, model and data of typical rubber samples are given and compared to other dynamic measurements.

  19. Experiments on asteroids using hard landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkevich, A.; Economou, T.

    1978-01-01

    Hard lander missions to asteroids are examined using the Westphal penetrator study as a basis. Imagery and chemical information are considered to be the most significant science to be obtained. The latter, particularly a detailed chemical analysis performed on an uncontaminated sample, may answer questions about the relationships of asteroids to meteorites and the place of asteroids in theories of the formation of the solar system.

  20. Comparative study of mobile Raman instrumentation for art analysis.

    PubMed

    Vandenabeele, P; Castro, K; Hargreaves, M; Moens, L; Madariaga, J M; Edwards, H G M

    2007-04-01

    In archaeometry, one of the main concerns is to extract information from an art object, without damaging it. Raman spectroscopy is being applied in this research field with recent developments in mobile instrumentation facilitating more routine analysis. This research paper evaluates the performances of five mobile Raman instruments (Renishaw RA100, Renishaw Portable Raman Analyser RX210, Ocean Optics RSL-1, Delta Nu Inspector Raman, Mobile Art Analyser--MArtA) in three different laboratories. A set of samples were collected, in order to obtain information on the spectral performances of the instruments including: spectral resolution, calibration, laser cut-off, the ability to record spectra of organic and inorganic pigments through varnish layers and on the possibilities to identify biomaterials. Spectra were recorded from predefined regions on a canvas painting to simulate the investigation of artworks and the capabilities to record spectra from hardly accessible areas was evaluated. PMID:17386799

  1. Hard and soft spectral states of ULXs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, R.

    2011-05-01

    I discuss some differences between the observed spectral states of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) and the canonical scheme of spectral states defined in Galactic black holes. The standard interpretation of ULXs with a curved spectrum, or a moderately steep power-law with soft excess and high-energy downturn, is that they are an extension of the very high state, up to luminosities {≈ 1}-3 L_Edd. Two competing models are Comptonization in a warm corona, and slim disk; I suggest bulk motion Comptonization in the radiatively-driven outflow as another possibility. The interpretation of ULXs with a hard power-law spectrum is more problematic. Some of them remain in that state over a large range of luminosities; others switch directly to a curved state without going through a canonical high/soft state. I suggest that those ULXs are in a high/hard state not seen in Galactic black holes; that state may overlap with the low/hard state at lower accretion rates, and extend all the way to Eddington accretion rates. If some black holes can reach Eddington accretion rates without switching to a standard-disk-dominated state, it is also possible that they never quench their steady jets.

  2. Hard Constraints in Optimization Under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for the analysis and design of systems subject to parametric uncertainty where design requirements are specified via hard inequality constraints. Hard constraints are those that must be satisfied for all parameter realizations within a given uncertainty model. Uncertainty models given by norm-bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value, i.e., hyper-spheres, and by sets of independently bounded uncertain variables, i.e., hyper-rectangles, are the focus of this paper. These models, which are also quite practical, allow for a rigorous mathematical treatment within the proposed framework. Hard constraint feasibility is determined by sizing the largest uncertainty set for which the design requirements are satisfied. Analytically verifiable assessments of robustness are attained by comparing this set with the actual uncertainty model. Strategies that enable the comparison of the robustness characteristics of competing design alternatives, the description and approximation of the robust design space, and the systematic search for designs with improved robustness are also proposed. Since the problem formulation is generic and the tools derived only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, this methodology is applicable to a broad range of engineering problems.

  3. Hardness variability in commercial and hardened technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-03-01

    Over the past 10 years, there have been a number of advances in methods to assess and assure the radiation hardness of microelectronics in military and space applications. At the forefront of these is the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology, in which the hardness of product is ``built-in`` through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to varying radiation scenarios. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in the use of commercial technology -- with its enhanced performance, reduced cost, and higher reliability -- in military and space systems. In this paper, we initially demonstrate the application of QML techniques to assure and control the radiation response of hardened technologies. Through several examples, we demonstrate intra-die, wafer-to-wafer, and lot-to-lot variations in a hardened technology. We observe 10 to 30% variations in key technology parameters that result from variability in geometry, process, and design layout. Radiation-induced degradation is seen to mirror preirradiation characteristics. We then evaluate commercial technologies and report considerably higher variability in radiation hardness, i.e., variations by a factor of two to five. This variability is shown to arise from a lack of control of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, which a commercial manufacturer has no interest in controlling in a normal process flow.

  4. Hardness variability in commercial and hardened technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Winokur, P. S.; Meisenheimer, T. L.; Sexton, F. W.; Roeske, S. B.; Knoll, M. G.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, there have been a number of advances in methods to assess and assure the radiation hardness of microelectronics in military and space applications. At the forefront of these is the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology, in which the hardness of product is 'built-in' through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to varying radiation scenarios. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in the use of commercial technology -- with its enhanced performance, reduced cost, and higher reliability -- in military and space systems. In this paper, we initially demonstrate the application of QML techniques to assure and control the radiation response of hardened technologies. Through several examples, we demonstrate intra-die, wafer-to-wafer, and lot-to-lot variations in a hardened technology. We observe 10 to 30% variations in key technology parameters that result from variability in geometry, process, and design layout. Radiation-induced degradation is seen to mirror preirradiation characteristics. We then evaluate commercial technologies and report considerably higher variability in radiation hardness, i.e., variations by a factor of two to five. This variability is shown to arise from a lack of control of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, which a commercial manufacturer has no interest in controlling in a normal process flow.

  5. Playback of multimedia data in low-power mobile drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jungwan; Won, Youjip

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we present the novel scheduling algorithm of the multimedia data retrieval for the mobile disk drive. Our algorithm is focused on minimizing the power consumption in multimedia data retrieval. While the disk based storage devices, e.g. hard disk and optical disk becomes small enough to be used in mobile devices, the practical usage of which leaves much to be desired due to the stringent power consumption restriction of the mobile device. The playback of multimedia data requires that data blocks are delivered to the destination in periodic fashion. The major issue here has been how to guarantee the continuous flow of data. Most of preceding works assume that the disk drive always operates in the steady state. However, this does not hold in modern disk drive for the mobile device. Modern low power disk drive for mobile device goes into standby state when it is not in use. While this feature can significantly extend the battery life, it adds another dimension of complexity in scheduling of the multimedia data retrieval. We elaborately model the power consumption behavior of the low power mobile drive and develop an Adaptive Round Merge(ARM) scheduling algorithm which guarantees a certain disk bandwidth for the multimedia playback while minimizing the power consumption of the storage device. According to our simulation based experiment, the ARM algorithm reduces the power consumption by as much as 23%. It manifests itself when the video clip is relatively short, typically less than 30 sec.

  6. Libraries and the Mobile Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cody

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, cell phones and mobile devices are ubiquitous. The vast majority of Americans now own cell phones, and over half of them have mobile access to the Internet through a phone or other mobile device. For libraries to stay relevant, they must be able to offer content and services through the mobile web. In this issue of "Library Technology…

  7. Mobility. Snapshot Report, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents information on student mobility for 2011. It offers data on the following: (1) Mobility Rates by Student Enrollment Status; (2) Mobile Student Enrollment at 2-/4-Year Institutions; and (3) Mobile Student Enrollment at Public/Private Institutions.

  8. The electronic structure of hard materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarski, Robert Paul

    This research dissertation involves an experimental as well as a theoretical examination of the electronic structure of hard materials. The materials that are presented in this dissertation cover a wide class of materials, consisting of transition metal borides, irradiated polymer films, theoretically predicted superhard semiconductors, doped intermetallic alloys, and transition metal carbides. The borides are traditionally used in high temperature, hard coating applications, such as rocket nozzle linings, extreme wear surfaces, and corrosion coatings. Measurements of the borides appear to show that the bonding in these hard materials is primarily between the boron atoms in these systems. Also of note are the remarkably short interatomic distances between the boron atoms and between the boron and metal atoms in these materials. Irradiated polymer films are being developed for electronic applications, in the hopes that circuits can be developed that can benefit from the high thermal stability, dielectric properties, and mechanical properties provided by these materials. C3N4 is a theoretically predicted superhard material, and some of the first soft x-ray emission measurements of well-characterized samples of this compound are discussed in this work. Intermetallic alloys, in particular Ni3Al, are rather hard, but brittle metallic alloys. It has been found that the addition of boron atoms, in rather low concentrations, can increase the ductility of these alloys, allowing them to be utilized in a wider variety of applications. Measurements of this system have examined a question regarding the positioning of the boron atoms in the structures of this alloy. Finally, the transition metal carbides are used extensively as coatings in industrial applications such as cutting and grinding tools, and polishing compounds. Measurements of these materials suggest that the high degree of covalency between the metal and carbon atoms is primarily responsible for the hardness of

  9. Fault-Tolerant, Radiation-Hard DSP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czajkowski, David

    2011-01-01

    Commercial digital signal processors (DSPs) for use in high-speed satellite computers are challenged by the damaging effects of space radiation, mainly single event upsets (SEUs) and single event functional interrupts (SEFIs). Innovations have been developed for mitigating the effects of SEUs and SEFIs, enabling the use of very-highspeed commercial DSPs with improved SEU tolerances. Time-triple modular redundancy (TTMR) is a method of applying traditional triple modular redundancy on a single processor, exploiting the VLIW (very long instruction word) class of parallel processors. TTMR improves SEU rates substantially. SEFIs are solved by a SEFI-hardened core circuit, external to the microprocessor. It monitors the health of the processor, and if a SEFI occurs, forces the processor to return to performance through a series of escalating events. TTMR and hardened-core solutions were developed for both DSPs and reconfigurable field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This includes advancement of TTMR algorithms for DSPs and reconfigurable FPGAs, plus a rad-hard, hardened-core integrated circuit that services both the DSP and FPGA. Additionally, a combined DSP and FPGA board architecture was fully developed into a rad-hard engineering product. This technology enables use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) DSPs in computers for satellite and other space applications, allowing rapid deployment at a much lower cost. Traditional rad-hard space computers are very expensive and typically have long lead times. These computers are either based on traditional rad-hard processors, which have extremely low computational performance, or triple modular redundant (TMR) FPGA arrays, which suffer from power and complexity issues. Even more frustrating is that the TMR arrays of FPGAs require a fixed, external rad-hard voting element, thereby causing them to lose much of their reconfiguration capability and in some cases significant speed reduction. The benefits of COTS high

  10. Comparative study of microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistive oscillations induced by circularly- and linearly- polarized photo-excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Tianyu; Liu, Han -Chun; Wang, Zhuo; Wegscheider, W.; Mani, Ramesh G.

    2015-10-09

    A comparative study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron system (2DES) under linearly- and circularly- polarized microwave excitation indicates a profound difference in the response observed upon rotating the microwave launcher for the two cases, although circularly polarized microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed at low magnetic fields are similar to the oscillations observed with linearly polarized radiation. For the linearly polarized radiation, the magnetoresistive response is a strong sinusoidal function of the launcher rotation (or linear polarization) angle, θ. As a result, for circularly polarized radiation, the oscillatory magnetoresistive response is hardly sensitive to θ.

  11. Hard Times May Exact a Toll on Brain Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161283.html Hard Times May Exact a Toll on Brain Health Poverty ... a cause-and-effect relationship between hard economic times and brain health and aging. The findings were ...

  12. Roles of hardness in the sliding behavior of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigney, D. A.

    1994-06-01

    It is generally recognized that hardness is one of the key factors which influence the sliding behavior of different materials combinations. However, in many discussions the only hardness value considered is that of the softer of the two materials in a tribological pair. This is usually the case when a simple linear wear equation (Holm, Archard, Khruschov) is cited. Observations on many materials combinations demonstrate that the effects of hardness are much more complex. Hardness varies with position and time. It can depend on temperature, sliding speed and the chemical environment. The sign of hardness gradients adjacent to the sliding surface affects sliding behavior. Transfer and subsequent mechanical mixing strongly influence local hardness. Changes in hardness can affect transitions in friction and wear. Relative hardness values can help to explain differences in debris and in smooth and rough sliding. They can also help us to understand geometric effects such as those noted when materials are interchanged in a test system. Examples are described.

  13. Nanolubrication: patterned lubricating films using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on hard disks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Hsu, S M; Liew, Y F

    2007-01-01

    Nanolubrication is emerging to be the key technical barrier in many devices. One of the key attributes for successful device lubrication is self-sustainability using only several molecular layers. For single molecular species lubrication, one desires bonding strength and molecular mobility to repair the contact by diffusing back to the contact. One way to achieve this is the use of mask to shield the surface with a patterned surface texture, put a monolayer on the surface and induce bonding. Then re-deposit mobile molecules on the surface to bring the thickness back to the desired thickness. This paper describes the use of long wavelength UV irradiation (320-390 nm) to induce bonding of a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) on CN(x) disks for magnetic hard disk application. This allows the use of irradiation to control the degree of bonding on CN(x) coatings. The effect of induced bonding based on this wavelength was studied by comparing 100% mobile PFPE, 100% bonded PFPE, and a mixture of mobile and bonded PFPE in a series of laboratory tests. Using a lateral force microscope, a diamond-tipped atomic force microscope, and a ball-on-inclined plane apparatus, the friction and wear characteristics of these three cases were obtained. Results suggested that the mixed PFPE has the highest shear rupture strength. PMID:17455493

  14. European Ariane 5 launcher readied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covault, Craig

    1994-04-01

    Key propulsion and system tests for the Ariane 5 are beginning. Its first launch is expected in late 1995 from Kourou, French Guiana. This $6.37-billion European Space Agency program involves 100 major contractors. With a storable propellant upper stage, the Ariane 5 will place up to 15,224 pounds (6,920 kg) into geosynchronous transfer orbit, or 39,600 pounds (18,000 kg) into low Earth orbit. Applicaions for the Ariane 5, along with its design and construction are discussed in this article. Programmatic issues are also addressed.

  15. Exploring Uncertainty with Projectile Launchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orzel, Chad; Reich, Gary; Marr, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The proper choice of a measurement technique that minimizes systematic and random uncertainty is an essential part of experimental physics. These issues are difficult to teach in the introductory laboratory, though. Because most experiments involve only a single measurement technique, students are often unable to make a clear distinction between…

  16. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6

    PubMed Central

    Jebaseeli Samuelraj, Ananthi; Jayapal, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6) is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node's mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO) in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node's mobility should be modified to support group nodes' mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point. PMID:26366431

  17. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6.

    PubMed

    Samuelraj, Ananthi Jebaseeli; Jayapal, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6) is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node's mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO) in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node's mobility should be modified to support group nodes' mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point.

  18. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6.

    PubMed

    Samuelraj, Ananthi Jebaseeli; Jayapal, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6) is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node's mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO) in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node's mobility should be modified to support group nodes' mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point. PMID:26366431

  19. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  20. Autonomous mobile communication relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, Hobart R.; Manouk, Narek; Verma, Ambrish

    2002-07-01

    Maintaining a solid radio communication link between a mobile robot entering a building and an external base station is a well-recognized problem. Modern digital radios, while affording high bandwidth and Internet-protocol-based automatic routing capabilities, tend to operate on line-of-sight links. The communication link degrades quickly as a robot penetrates deeper into the interior of a building. This project investigates the use of mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to extend the effective range of a mobile robot exploring a complex interior environment. Each relay node is a small mobile slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and 802.11b radio repeater. For demonstration purposes, four Pioneer 2-DX robots are used as autonomous mobile relays, with SSC-San Diego's ROBART III acting as the lead robot. The relay robots follow the lead robot into a building and are automatically deployed at various locations to maintain a networked communication link back to the remote operator. With their on-board external sensors, they also act as rearguards to secure areas already explored by the lead robot. As the lead robot advances and RF shortcuts are detected, relay nodes that become unnecessary will be reclaimed and reused, all transparent to the operator. This project takes advantage of recent research results from several DARPA-funded tasks at various institutions in the areas of robotic simulation, ad hoc wireless networking, route planning, and navigation. This paper describes the progress of the first six months of the project.

  1. Mobile systems capability plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered.

  2. Group Formation in Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Contexts: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amara, Sofiane; Macedo, Joaquim; Bendella, Fatima; Santos, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Learners are becoming increasingly divers. They may have much personal, social, cultural, psychological, and cognitive diversity. Forming suitable learning groups represents, therefore, a hard and time-consuming task. In Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (MCSCL) environments, this task is more difficult. Instructors need to consider…

  3. Equation of state for hard convex body fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, C.; Solana, J. R.

    A model previously developed for the equation of state of pure fluids consisting of hard convex body molecules is extended to mixtures. The parameters of the model can be determined from the geometrical characteristics of the molecules which form the mixture. The equation of state is in excellent agreement with simulation data for mixtures of hard spheres with hard spherocylinders.

  4. 21 CFR 133.148 - Hard grating cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hard grating cheeses. 133.148 Section 133.148 Food... Related Products § 133.148 Hard grating cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are hard grating cheeses for which specifically...

  5. 75 FR 4031 - Streamlining Hard-Copy Postage Statement Processing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... 111 Streamlining Hard-Copy Postage Statement Processing AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Proposed... Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ), to reflect changes in the processing of hard-copy postage... complete the ``USPS Use Only'' section of, or round date, hard-copy postage statements...

  6. Study of hot hardness characteristics of tool steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Hardness measurements of tool steel materials in electric furnace at elevated temperatures and low oxygen environment are discussed. Development of equation to predict short term hardness as function of intial room temperature hardness of steel is reported. Types of steel involved in the process are identified.

  7. Traceability in hardness measurements: from the definition to industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germak, Alessandro; Herrmann, Konrad; Low, Samuel

    2010-04-01

    The measurement of hardness has been and continues to be of significant importance to many of the world's manufacturing industries. Conventional hardness testing is the most commonly used method for acceptance testing and production quality control of metals and metallic products. Instrumented indentation is one of the few techniques available for obtaining various property values for coatings and electronic products in the micrometre and nanometre dimensional scales. For these industries to be successful, it is critical that measurements made by suppliers and customers agree within some practical limits. To help assure this measurement agreement, a traceability chain for hardness measurement traceability from the hardness definition to industry has developed and evolved over the past 100 years, but its development has been complicated. A hardness measurement value not only requires traceability of force, length and time measurements but also requires traceability of the hardness values measured by the hardness machine. These multiple traceability paths are needed because a hardness measurement is affected by other influence parameters that are often difficult to identify, quantify and correct. This paper describes the current situation of hardness measurement traceability that exists for the conventional hardness methods (i.e. Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers and Knoop hardness) and for special-application hardness and indentation methods (i.e. elastomer, dynamic, portables and instrumented indentation).

  8. SAW based systems for mobile communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, R. C.; Miller, N.; Lee, M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern mobile communications satellites, such as INMARSAT 3, EMS, and ARTEMIS, use advanced onboard processing to make efficient use of the available L-band spectrum. In all of these cases, high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are used. SAW filters can provide high selectivity (100-200 kHz transition widths), combined with flat amplitude and linear phase characteristics; their simple construction and radiation hardness also makes them especially suitable for space applications. An overview of the architectures used in the above systems, describing the technologies employed, and the use of bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) is given. The tradeoffs to be considered when specifying a SAW based system are analyzed, using both theoretical and experimental data. Empirical rules for estimating SAW filter performance are given. Achievable performance is illustrated using data from the INMARSAT 3 engineering model (EM) processors.

  9. Mobile Phone Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  10. Mobility of Plasmids†

    PubMed Central

    Smillie, Chris; Garcillán-Barcia, M. Pilar; Francia, M. Victoria; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Plasmids are key vectors of horizontal gene transfer and essential genetic engineering tools. They code for genes involved in many aspects of microbial biology, including detoxication, virulence, ecological interactions, and antibiotic resistance. While many studies have decorticated the mechanisms of mobility in model plasmids, the identification and characterization of plasmid mobility from genome data are unexplored. By reviewing the available data and literature, we established a computational protocol to identify and classify conjugation and mobilization genetic modules in 1,730 plasmids. This allowed the accurate classification of proteobacterial conjugative or mobilizable systems in a combination of four mating pair formation and six relaxase families. The available evidence suggests that half of the plasmids are nonmobilizable and that half of the remaining plasmids are conjugative. Some conjugative systems are much more abundant than others and preferably associated with some clades or plasmid sizes. Most very large plasmids are nonmobilizable, with evidence of ongoing domestication into secondary chromosomes. The evolution of conjugation elements shows ancient divergence between mobility systems, with relaxases and type IV coupling proteins (T4CPs) often following separate paths from type IV secretion systems. Phylogenetic patterns of mobility proteins are consistent with the phylogeny of the host prokaryotes, suggesting that plasmid mobility is in general circumscribed within large clades. Our survey suggests the existence of unsuspected new relaxases in archaea and new conjugation systems in cyanobacteria and actinobacteria. Few genes, e.g., T4CPs, relaxases, and VirB4, are at the core of plasmid conjugation, and together with accessory genes, they have evolved into specific systems adapted to specific physiological and ecological contexts. PMID:20805406

  11. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  12. Results on hard diffraction from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K.

    1997-05-01

    We present results from studies of hard diffractive processes in {anti p}p collisions at {radical}s=1.8 TeV at the Tevatron using the CDF detector. Diffractive events are identified by the characteristic signature of a rapidity gap and/or by detecting a recoil antiproton with high forward momentum. Reactions studied include the diffractive production of W-bosons and of two-jet (dijet) events, diffractive heavy quark production, and dijet production by double-pomeron exchange.

  13. Justified hard paternalism: a response to Ten.

    PubMed

    Rainbolt, George W

    1989-04-01

    In a brief response to C.L. Ten's critique in the same issue of Bioethics of an earlier article by Rainbolt, Rainbolt defends his thesis that prescription drug laws are examples of permissible hard paternalism. They are not justifiable by soft paternalism, which permits interference with people's conduct only when their choices are insufficiently voluntary, because people who buy prescription drugs have good metaknowledge, i.e., they know that they do not know much about drugs and are making a decision based on this knowledge. PMID:11649244

  14. Arching in tapped deposits of hard disks.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Luis A; Valluzzi, Marcos G; Valluzzi, Lucas G

    2006-05-01

    We simulate the tapping of a bed of hard disks in a rectangular box by using a pseudodynamic algorithm. In these simulations, arches are unambiguously defined and we can analyze their properties as a function of the tapping amplitude. We find that an order-disorder transition occurs within a narrow range of tapping amplitudes as has been seen by others. Arches are always present in the system although they exhibit regular shapes in the ordered regime. Interestingly, an increase in the number of arches does not always correspond to a reduction in the packing fraction. This is in contrast with what is found in three-dimensional systems.

  15. Nonvolatile Rad-Hard Holographic Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Han-Ying; Reyes, George; Dragoi, Danut; Hanna, Jay

    2001-01-01

    We are investigating a nonvolatile radiation-hardened (rad-hard) holographic memory technology. Recently, a compact holographic data storage (CHDS) breadboard utilizing an innovative electro-optic scanner has been built and demonstrated for high-speed holographic data storage and retrieval. The successful integration of this holographic memory breadboard has paved the way for follow-on radiation resistance test of the photorefractive (PR) crystal, Fe:LiNbO3. We have also started the investigation of using two-photon PR crystals that are doubly doped with atoms of iron group (Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu) and of rare-earth group (Nd, Tb) for nonvolatile holographic recordings.

  16. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  17. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rohde, Steven B.

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  18. Segway robotic mobility platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Morrell, John; Mullens, Katherine D.; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Miles, Susan; Farrington, Nathan; Thomas, Kari M.; Gage, Douglas W.

    2004-12-01

    The Segway Robotic Mobility Platform (RMP) is a new mobile robotic platform based on the self-balancing Segway Human Transporter (HT). The Segway RMP is faster, cheaper, and more agile than existing comparable platforms. It is also rugged, has a small footprint, a zero turning radius, and yet can carry a greater payload. The new geometry of the platform presents researchers with an opportunity to examine novel topics, including people-height sensing and actuation modalities. This paper describes the history and development of the platform, its characteristics, and a summary of current research projects involving the platform at various institutions across the United States.

  19. Mobile transporter path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui

    1990-01-01

    The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.

  20. Equation of state for fluid mixtures of hard spheres and linear homonuclear fused hard spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largo, J.; Solana, J. R.

    1998-08-01

    This paper develops a theoretically based equation of state for fluid mixtures consisting of hard spheres and linear homonuclear fused hard spheres. The procedure is based on the equation of state previously developed for monocomponent athermal fluids. The equation of state only requires two parameters, namely the averaged effective molecular volume of the molecules in the mixture and the corresponding effective nonsphericity parameter. These parameters can be obtained from the geometry of the molecules forming the mixture. The results are in excellent agreement with simulation data and compare favorably with those obtained from other theories for athermal fluid mixtures.