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Sample records for hardwood hybrid poplar

  1. Induction of cambial reactivation by localized heating in a deciduous hardwood hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii x P. grandidentata).

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahanara; Nakaba, Satoshi; Oribe, Yuichiro; Kubo, Takafumi; Funada, Ryo

    2007-09-01

    The timing of cambial reactivation plays an important role in the control of both the quantity and the quality of wood. The effect of localized heating on cambial reactivation in the main stem of a deciduous hardwood hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii x P. grandidentata) was investigated. Electric heating tape (20-22 degrees C) was wrapped at one side of the main stem of cloned hybrid poplar trees at breast height in winter. Small blocks were collected from both heated and non-heated control portions of the stem for sequential observations of cambial activity and for studies of the localization of storage starch around the cambium from dormancy to reactivation by light microscopy. Cell division in phloem began earlier than cambial reactivation in locally heated portions of stems. Moreover, the cambial reactivation induced by localized heating occurred earlier than natural cambial reactivation. In heated stems, well-developed secondary xylem was produced that had almost the same structure as the natural xylem. When cambial reactivation was induced by heating, the buds of trees had not yet burst, indicating that there was no close temporal relationship between bud burst and cambial reactivation. In heated stems, the amount of storage starch decreased near the cambium upon reactivation of the cambium. After cambial reactivation, storage starch disappeared completely. Storage starch appeared again, near the cambium, during xylem differentiation in heated stems. The results suggest that, in deciduous diffuse-porous hardwood poplar growing in a temperate zone, the temperature in the stem is a limiting factor for reactivation of phloem and cambium. An increase in temperature might induce the conversion of storage starch to sucrose for the activation of cambial cell division and secondary xylem. Localized heating in poplar stems provides a useful experimental system for studies of cambial biology.

  2. Case history development of a hybrid poplar nursery at Reynolds Metals Company, Massena, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marler, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    Intensive cultivation of fast-growing hardwoods, such as hybrid poplars, is a promising method of assuring adequate supplies of biomass for energy purposes. This report details the establishment of a hybrid poplar nursery on formerly unused land at the Reynolds Metals Company's reduction plant in Massena, NY and presents the results obtained during the first growing season. Cuttings from the nursery replanted during the Spring of 1982 are the first phase of a 600-acre hybrid poplar plantation at the Reynolds site.

  3. Responses of hybrid poplar clones and red maple seedlings to ambient O(3) under differing light within a mixed hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Wei, C; Skelly, J M; Pennypacker, S P; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E; Davis, D D

    2004-07-01

    The responses of ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) (HP) clones NE388 and NE359, and seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) to ambient ozone (O(3)) were studied during May-September of 2000 and 2001 under natural forest conditions and differing natural sunlight exposures (sun, partial shade and full shade). Ambient O(3) concentrations at the study site reached hourly peaks of 109 and 98 ppb in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Monthly 12-h average O(3) concentrations ranged from 32.3 to 52.9 ppb. Weekly 12-h average photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) within the sun, partial shade and full shade plots ranged from 200 to 750, 50 to 180, and 25 to 75 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Ambient O(3) exposure induced visible foliar symptoms on HP NE388 and NE359 in both growing seasons, with more severe injury observed on NE388 than on NE359. Slight foliar symptoms were observed on red maple seedlings during the 2001 growing season. Percentage of total leaf area affected (%LAA) was positively correlated with cumulative O(3) exposures. More severe foliar injury was observed on plants grown within the full shade and partial shade plots than those observed on plants grown within the sun plot. Lower light availability within the partial shade and full shade plots significantly decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(wv)). The reductions in Pn were greater than reductions in g(wv), which resulted in greater O(3) uptake per unit Pn in plants grown within the partial shade and full shade plots. Greater O(3) uptake per unit Pn was consistently associated with more severe visible foliar injury in all species and/or clones regardless of differences in shade tolerance. These studies suggest that plant physiological responses to O(3) exposure are likely complicated due to multiple factors under natural forest conditions.

  4. Hybrid poplar planting in the Lake States

    Treesearch

    Paul O. Rudolf

    1948-01-01

    Poplars are among our fastest growing trees. Many of them are also relatively easy to grow from cuttings and to hybridize by means of cut flower-bearing twigs. Their wood is in demand for pulpwood, veneer for match and crate production, boxboards, and other uses. For these reasons there has been interest in many countries in selecting and breeding poplars. The tree...

  5. Observations on a hybrid poplar test planting in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Arthur R. Eschner

    1960-01-01

    Hybrid poplars, crosses between European and American Aigeiros poplars, have been grown in Europe for about 200 years. The rapid growth and high productivity of some of these hybrids on sites to which they are adapted has stimulated interest in poplar growing in this country. And demand for these poplars is developing in many parts of the United States.

  6. Decay in yellow-poplar, maple, black gum, and ash in the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry

    1977-01-01

    In a study of decay in yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), and ash (Fraxinus spp.) in the central hardwood region, decay was found in 57 of 148 study trees. Extent of...

  7. Hybrid Poplar Plantations Outgrow Deer Browsing Effects

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Netzer

    1984-01-01

    Good plantation establishment techniques along with fast growing clones result in minimal deer damage to hybrid poplar plantations. Although deer prefer certain clones, as food becomes scarce they eventually browse all clones. With proper establishment trees grow to or beyond the reach of browsing deer in the first year and well beyond in the second. Poorly...

  8. Surface sterilization of hybrid poplar cuttings

    Treesearch

    Alma M. Waterman

    1954-01-01

    Fungus diseases of hybrid poplars may be spread by spores that lodge in the resinous coating of buds of dormant cuttings, and in the lenticels. Surface sterilization by dipping the cuttings in fungicides was tested to determine whether such treatment would prevent the germination of spores of the canker-producing fungi Septoria musiva and Dothichiza populea and the...

  9. Progress in developing disease control strategies for hybrid poplars

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Ostry

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid poplars are being grown throughout many regions of the world for purposes including the production of fiber and energy, ornamental landscape plantings, and soil stabilization. Disease has often been responsible for planting failures resulting in poplars being labeled the universal host to many damaging pathogens. However, many of the poplar species and their...

  10. Use of Sulfometuron in Hybrid Poplar Energy Plantations

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Netzer

    1995-01-01

    Reports that low rates of sulfometuron, 70 grams per hactare (1 ounce product or 0.75 ounces active ingredient per acre), applied when hybrid poplars are completely dormant, can provide season-long weed control and increase hybrid poplar growth. If plantation access is not possible before growth activity begins in the spring, late fall application of this herbicide...

  11. Methods of establishing plantations of hybrid-poplar cuttings

    Treesearch

    Frank E. Cunningham

    1954-01-01

    Fast-growing hybrid poplars are now being tested in plantations scattered from Maine to West Virginia to find out how the different hybrids respond to a wide range of environmental conditions throughout the Northeast.

  12. Establishing intensively cultured hybrid poplar plantations for fuel and fiber.

    Treesearch

    Edward Hansen; Lincoln Moore; Daniel Netzer; Michael Ostry; Howard Phipps; Jaroslav Zavitkovski

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a step-by-step procedure for establishing commercial size intensively cultured plantations of hybrid poplar and summarizes the state-of-knowledge as developed during 10 years of field research at Rhinelander, Wisconsin.

  13. Comparative growth of hybrid poplars and native northern black cottonwoods.

    Treesearch

    Roy R. Silen

    1947-01-01

    Beginning in the early 1920's, some fast-growing hybrid poplars were developed by the Oxford Paper Company in New England. In 1938 cuttings of the 25 best hybrids developed were sent to the Northwest for trial. These were planted on Lady Island near Camas, Washington, on lands of the Crown Zellerbach Corporation. During 1946 the eighth-year measurement was made of...

  14. Survey of twenty-six hybrid poplar lines for poplar borer

    Treesearch

    W. Doug Stone; T. Keith Beatty; T. Evan Nebeker

    2006-01-01

    An insect survey was completed on 26 lines of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) that had the Roundup® Ready and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) genes. The survey was conducted in Kentucky in cooperation with MeadWestvaco. A total of 260 trees were evaluated. Survival rate averaged...

  15. Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: I. Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers impacting a native poplar hybrid stand

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Amanda D; MacQuarrie, Chris J K; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Simpson, J Dale; Lamarche, Josyanne; Beardmore, Tannis; Thompson, Stacey L; Tanguay, Philippe; Isabel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression are pervasive evolutionary phenomena that provide insight into the selective forces that maintain species boundaries, permit gene flow, and control the direction of evolutionary change. Poplar trees (Populus L.) are well known for their ability to form viable hybrids and maintain their distinct species boundaries despite this interspecific gene flow. We sought to quantify the hybridization dynamics and postzygotic fitness within a hybrid stand of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides Marsh.), and their natural hybrids to gain insight into the barriers maintaining this stable hybrid zone. We observed asymmetrical hybrid formation with P. deltoides acting as the seed parent, but with subsequent introgression biased toward P. balsamifera. Native hybrids expressed fitness traits intermediate to the parental species and were not universally unfit. That said, native hybrid seedlings were absent from the seedling population, which may indicate additional selective pressures controlling their recruitment. It is imperative that we understand the selective forces maintaining this native hybrid zone in order to quantify the impact of exotic poplar hybrids on this native system. PMID:24967081

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from intercropping switchgrass and hybrid poplar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highly productive, commercial hybrid poplar plantations are being managed in the Pacific Northwest for high-value timber production at relatively low stocking densities under irrigation. The open understory was used to produce switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) prior to canopy closure. The objectives ...

  17. Growth, photosynthesis, and herbicide tolerance of genetically modified hybrid poplar

    Treesearch

    Raymond A. Donahue; Tim D. Davis; Charles H. Michler; Don E. Riemenschneider; Doug R. Carter; Paula E. Marquardt; Daksha Sankhla; Narendra Sankhla; Bruce E. Haissig; J. G. Isebrands

    1994-01-01

    Poplar hybrids have high light-saturated photosynthetic rates and potential utility as a renewable biofuel, but they lack tolerance to commercially important herbicides that may be needed for successful plantation management. Tolerance to glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) has been conferred to many plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transfor-...

  18. Feeding Preference of Penned Whitetailed Deer for Hybrid Poplar Clones

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Verch

    1979-01-01

    Five hybrid poplar clones were presented to 16 penned white-tailed deer on a feeding board over a 3-day period in September, 1978. A definite order of preference was observed over a 3-hour period fore each of 3 trials. Over a longer period (8-24 hours), all 5 clones were completely consumed.

  19. Economic investigations of short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplars

    Treesearch

    David C. Lothner

    1983-01-01

    The history of the economic analyses is summarized for short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplar at the North Central Forest Experiment Station. Early break-even analyses with limited data indicated that at a price of $25-30 per dry ton for fiber and low to medium production costs, several systems looked profitable. Later cash flow analyses indicated that two...

  20. Summer is the best time to thin hybrid poplar plantations

    Treesearch

    Harold F. Ford; Albert G., Jr. Snow

    1954-01-01

    Hybrid poplar plantations are established by planting dormant cuttings in close spacing, usually 4 x 4 feet. They are cultivated during the first growing season to eliminate competition from grasses and weeds. After the first year, the more vigorous trees effectively shade out lower vegetation. But rapid tree growth often makes thinning necessary after 2 or 3 growing...

  1. Seasonal variation in hybrid poplar tolerance to glyphosate.

    Treesearch

    Daniel Netzer; Edward Hansen

    1992-01-01

    Reports that glyphosate applied during April or May in hybrid poplar plantations usually results in tree growth increases and that later summer applications often result in tree damage, growth loss, or mortality. Introduces the concept of "physiological" and "morphological" herbicide tolerance.

  2. Planting Depth of Hybrid Poplar Cuttings Influences Number of Shoots

    Treesearch

    Edward Hansen; David Tolsted; Matthew Tower

    1991-01-01

    Reports that planting unrooted hybrid poplar cuttings flush with the soil surface resulted in significantly fewer multiple-stem shoots compared to letting the cutting protrude 2.5 or 5.0 cm above the soil surface. There were no significant effects on shoot height growth or cutting mortality.

  3. Weed Control for Establishing Intensively Cultured Hybrid Poplar Plantations

    Treesearch

    Edward Hansen; Daniel Netzer; W.J. Rietveld

    1984-01-01

    Compares effeects of various wee-control methods, including hericides, cultivation, and legume cover crop, on tree survival and height growth of 2-year-old hybrid poplars. Cultivation and herbicides singly or in combination gave consistently better results than the other treatment tested.

  4. Growth of hybrid poplars in Pennsylvania and Maryland clonal tests

    Treesearch

    Maurice E., Jr. Demeritt

    1981-01-01

    Average 4-year-height of 199 hybrid poplar clones ranged from 5.1 to 26.0 feet in Pennsylvania and 5.6 to 22.7 feet in Maryland. Several rapid-growing clones grew well at both locations, but height growth was affected by interactions of clones and location. The clones that grew best on both sites averaged 4 to 6 feet of height growth per year.

  5. Sulfur content of hybrid poplar cuttings fumigated with sulfur dioxide

    Treesearch

    Keith F. Jensen

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid poplar cuttings were fumigated with sulfur dioxide ranging in concentration from 0.1 to 5 ppm for periods of 5 to 80 hours. At the end of the fumigation periods, the cuttings were harvested and the sulfur and chlorophyll contents of the leaves were measured. At 0.1 ppm and 0.25 ppm the sulfur content initially increased, but decreased as fumigation continued. At...

  6. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J.; Fountain, Mackenzie; Ralph, John; Hodge, David B.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-02-09

    Background: Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Results: Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10 h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin

  7. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar

    DOE PAGES

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J.; ...

    2016-02-09

    Background: Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Results: Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10more » h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar. In conclusion: This study demonstrated that the fed

  8. Hybrid poplar pulpwood and lumber from a reclaimed strip-mine

    Treesearch

    Walter H. Davidson

    1979-01-01

    A 2-acre hybrid poplar planting on a reclaimed strip-mine was harvested at age 16. The commercial clearcut yielded 90 tons of pulpwood and 9,400 board feet of lumber. This is equal to a growth rate of approximately 2 cords per acre per year. Selected physical properties of the hybrid poplars were compared with those of other commercial eastern species.

  9. CsRAV1 induces sylleptic branching in hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Cortés, Alicia; Hernández-Verdeja, Tamara; Sánchez-Jiménez, Paloma; González-Melendi, Pablo; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Allona, Isabel

    2012-04-01

    • Sylleptic branching in trees may increase significantly branch number, leaf area and the general growth of the tree, particularly in its early years. Although this is a very important trait, so far little is known about the genes that control this process. • This article characterizes the Castanea sativa RAV1 gene, homologous to Arabidopsis TEM genes, by analyzing its circadian behavior and examining its winter expression in chestnut stems and buds. Transgenic hybrid poplars over-expressing CsRAV1 or showing RNA interference down-regulated PtaRAV1 and PtaRAV2 expression were produced and analyzed. • Over-expression of the CsRAV1 gene induces the early formation of sylleptic branches in hybrid poplar plantlets during the same growing season in which the lateral buds form. Only minor growth differences and no changes in wood anatomy are produced. • The possibility of generating trees with a greater biomass by manipulating the CsRAV1 gene makes CsRAV1 transgenic plants promising candidates for bioenergy production. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Effect of sterilizing treatments on survival and growth of hybrid poplar cuttings

    Treesearch

    Harold F. Ford

    1954-01-01

    Fungus diseases of poplars might be spread to new locations if hybrid poplar cuttings (now being test-planted in various parts of the northeast) were not sterilized before shipment. Among these diseases are the canker-producing fungi Septoria musiva and Dothichiza populea and the leafblotch fungus Septotinia populiperda.

  11. Hybrid poplars: fast-growing, disease-resistant species has multiple uses

    Treesearch

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2004-01-01

    The production of alternative fuels as a source of energy is a focus of concern in the United States. Intensively cultured hybrid poplar plantations have been used to supplement industrial fiber supplies in several areas of the United States, and have therefore gained attention in the North Central region. Attention is focused on poplars because they are fast growing...

  12. Biological Control of Septoria Leaf Spot Disease of Hybrid Poplar in the Field

    Treesearch

    Laszlo Gyenis; Neil A. Anderson; Michael E. Ostry

    2003-01-01

    Biological control of Septoria leaf spot of hrhrid poplars was investigated using disease-suppressive Streptomyces strains. Field experiments were conducted in 1998 and 1999 on potted trees placed in a hybrid poplar plantation near Rosemount, MN, and on field-planted trees in 1998 at St. Paul. At both locations, one resistant and three susceptible...

  13. Deep sequencing and microarray hybridization identify conserved and species-specific microRNAs during somatic embryogenesis in hybrid yellow poplar.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Chen, Jinhui; Qiu, Shuai; Zhang, Yanjuan; Wang, Pengkai; Yang, Liwei; Lu, Ye; Shi, Jisen

    2012-01-01

    To date, several studies have indicated a major role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating plant development, but miRNA-mediated regulation of the developing somatic embryo is poorly understood, especially during early stages of somatic embryogenesis in hardwood plants. In this study, Solexa sequencing and miRNA microfluidic chips were used to discover conserved and species-specific miRNAs during somatic embryogenesis of hybrid yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera×L. chinense). A total of 17,214,153 reads representing 7,421,623 distinct sequences were obtained from a short RNA library generated from small RNAs extracted from all stages of somatic embryos. Through a combination of deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses, we discovered 83 sequences with perfect matches to known miRNAs from 33 conserved miRNA families and 273 species-specific candidate miRNAs. MicroRNA microarray results demonstrated that many conserved and species-specific miRNAs were expressed in hybrid yellow poplar embryos. In addition, the microarray also detected another 149 potential miRNAs, belonging to 29 conserved families, which were not discovered by deep sequencing analysis. The biological processes and molecular functions of the targets of these miRNAs were predicted by carrying out BLAST search against Arabidopsis thaliana GenBank sequences and then analyzing the results with Gene Ontology. Solexa sequencing and microarray hybridization were used to discover 232 candidate conserved miRNAs from 61 miRNA families and 273 candidate species-specific miRNAs in hybrid yellow poplar. In these predicted miRNAs, 64 conserved miRNAs and 177 species-specific miRNAs were detected by both sequencing and microarray hybridization. Our results suggest that miRNAs have wide-ranging characteristics and important roles during all stages of somatic embryogenesis in this economically important species.

  14. Isolation and characterization of galactinol synthases from hybrid poplar

    PubMed Central

    Unda, Faride; Canam, Thomas; Preston, Lindsay; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2012-01-01

    The raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) serve as transport carbohydrates in the phloem, storage compounds in sink tissues, and putative biological agents to combat both abiotic and biotic stress in several plant species. To investigate further the functional roles of this class of compounds in trees, two cDNAs encoding galactinol synthase (GolS, EC 2.4.1.123), which catalyses the first step in the biosynthesis of RFOs, were identified and cloned from hybrid poplar (Populus alba×grandidentata). Phylogenetic analyses of the Populus GolS isoforms with other known GolS proteins suggested a putative role for these enzymes during biotic or abiotic stress in hybrid poplar. The predicted protein sequences of both isoforms (Pa×gGolSI and Pa×gGolSII) showed characteristics of GolS proteins from other species, including a serine phosphorylation site and the ASAAP pentapeptide hydrophobic domain. Kinetic analyses of recombinant Pa×gGolSI and Pa×gGolSII resulted in Km values for UPD-galactose of 0.80 and 0.65 mM and Vmax values of 657.5 and 1245 nM min−1, respectively. Pa×gGolSI inherently possessed a broader pH and temperature range when compared with Pa×gGolSII. Interestingly, spatial and temporal expression analyses revealed that Pa×gGolSII transcript levels varied seasonally, while Pa×gGolSI did not, implying temperature-regulated transcriptional control of this gene in addition to the observed thermosensitivity of the respective enzyme. This evidence suggested that Pa×gGolSI may be involved in basic metabolic activities such as storage, while Pa×gGolSII is probably involved in seasonal mobilization of carbohydrates. PMID:22197892

  15. Biodegradation of hardwood lignocellulosics by the western poplar clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards).

    PubMed

    Ke, Jing; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti Dey; Chen, Shulin

    2011-05-09

    Lignin in plant cell wall is a source of useful chemicals and also the major barrier for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for producing biofuel and bioproducts. Enzymatic lignin degradation/modification process could bypass the need for chemical pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation. Herein, we reveal our new discovery in elucidating the process of hardwood lignin modification/degradation by clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae . The wood-boring clearwing borer, P. robiniae , effectively tunnels hardwood structures during the larval stage; its digestion products from wood components, however, has not yet been investigated. A series of analysis conducted in this study on tunnel walls and frass produced provided evidence of structural alterations and lignin degradation during such hardwood digestion process. The analysis included solid state (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis; the results strongly suggest that the structural alteration of lignin primarily involved a preferential degradation of syringyl units accompanied by oxidation on the side chains of lignin guaiacyl moieties. This study also further indicated that unlike the wood-feeding termite the clearwing borer does not target cellulose as an energy source, and thus its lignin degradation ability should provide potential information on how to disassemble and utilize hardwood lignin. Overall, this biological model with an efficient lignin disruption system will provide the new insight into novel enzyme system required for effective plant cell wall disintegration for enhanced cellulose accessibility by enzymes and production of value-added lignin derived products.

  16. Genetic variation of hydraulic and wood anatomical traits in hybrid poplar and trembling aspen.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Stefan G; Hacke, Uwe G; Hamann, Andreas; Thomas, Barb R

    2011-04-01

    Intensive forestry systems and breeding programs often include either native aspen or hybrid poplar clones, and performance and trait evaluations are mostly made within these two groups. Here, we assessed how traits with potential adaptive value varied within and across these two plant groups. Variation in nine hydraulic and wood anatomical traits as well as growth were measured in selected aspen and hybrid poplar genotypes grown at a boreal planting site in Alberta, Canada. Variability in these traits was statistically evaluated based on a blocked experimental design. We found that genotypes of trembling aspen were more resistant to cavitation, exhibited more negative water potentials, and were more water-use-efficient than hybrid poplars. Under the boreal field test conditions, which included major regional droughts, height growth was negatively correlated with branch vessel diameter (Dv ) in both aspen and hybrid poplars and differences in Dv were highly conserved in aspen trees from different provenances. Differences between the hybrid poplars and aspen provenances suggest that these two groups employ different water-use strategies. The data also suggest that vessel diameter may be a key trait in evaluating growth performance in a boreal environment.

  17. Growth of five hybrid poplar genotypes exposed to interacting elevated CO2 and O3

    Treesearch

    R.E. Dickson; M.D. Coleman; D.E. Riemenschneider; J.G. Isebrands; G.D. Hogan; D.F. Karnosky

    1998-01-01

    A wide variety of hybrid poplar clones are being introduced for intensive culture biomass production, but the potential clonal or genotypic response to increasing tropospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and their interactions are unknown. To study these effects, we exposed five different hybrid Populus...

  18. Analysis of genetic and environmental effects on hybrid poplar rooting in Central and Northern Minnesota, USA

    Treesearch

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Don Riemenschneider; Edmund Bauer

    2000-01-01

    We studied genetic and environmental effects on adventitious root initiation and growth because rooting is biologically prerequisite to the establishment of hybrid poplar plantations. Six clones from two pedigrees (pure Populus deltoides "cottonwoods" and P. deltoides x P. maximowiczii hybrids) were...

  19. Nitrogen fertilizer and sewage sludge effects on hybrid poplars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, S.R.; Senesac, G.P.; Naylor, L.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments conducted in the greenhouse compared the growth and nutrient and heavy metal uptake in two clones of hybrid poplar grown in soil amended with nitrogen fertilizer or sewage sludge. In addition, poplar responses to weed competition and to rooting prior to planting were investigated. Both fertilizer and sludge application increased poplar stem biomass. Weeds reduced poplar biomass. The large difference in root biomass of the two poplar clones may account for different effects weed and sludge application had on nutrient and heavy metal uptake in each clone. The relatively small root biomass of I-45/51 increased with increasing sludge application, as did the uptake of nutrients and heavy metals. The relatively large root biomass of clone NE-510 was reduced when weeds were present, as was nutrient and heavy metal uptake. Other results suggest that poplars with low root-to-stem ratios may be most affected by weed competition, especially after their first year, and that nitrogen fertilization may alleviate effects of weeds on their growth. Poplars grown in sludge-amended soil did not accumulate more of any nutrient or heavy metal studied compared to those grown in nitrogen-fertilized soil. 17 refs., 5 figs., 57 tabs.

  20. Polyphenol oxidase from hybrid poplar. Cloning and expression in response to wounding and herbivory.

    PubMed

    Constabel, C P; Yip, L; Patton, J J; Christopher, M E

    2000-09-01

    The inducible expression of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), a presumed antiherbivore enzyme, was examined in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoides). Following mechanical wounding simulating insect damage, PPO activity increased dramatically in wounded and unwounded leaves on wounded plants beginning at 24 and 48 h, respectively. A hybrid poplar PPO cDNA was isolated and its nucleotide sequence determined. On northern blots, PPO transcripts were detected within 8 h of wounding, and reached peak levels at 16 and 24 h in wounded and unwounded leaves, respectively. Methyl jasmonate spray and feeding by forest tent caterpillar also induced PPO expression. The induction of PPO was strongest in the youngest four leaves, which were generally avoided by caterpillars in free feeding experiments. This wound- and herbivore-induced expression of PPO in hybrid poplar supports the defensive role of this protein against insect pests.

  1. Polyphenol Oxidase from Hybrid Poplar. Cloning and Expression in Response to Wounding and Herbivory1

    PubMed Central

    Constabel, C. Peter; Yip, Lynn; Patton, Joseph J.; Christopher, Mary E.

    2000-01-01

    The inducible expression of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), a presumed antiherbivore enzyme, was examined in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × Populus deltoides). Following mechanical wounding simulating insect damage, PPO activity increased dramatically in wounded and unwounded leaves on wounded plants beginning at 24 and 48 h, respectively. A hybrid poplar PPO cDNA was isolated and its nucleotide sequence determined. On northern blots, PPO transcripts were detected within 8 h of wounding, and reached peak levels at 16 and 24 h in wounded and unwounded leaves, respectively. Methyl jasmonate spray and feeding by forest tent caterpillar also induced PPO expression. The induction of PPO was strongest in the youngest four leaves, which were generally avoided by caterpillars in free feeding experiments. This wound- and herbivore-induced expression of PPO in hybrid poplar supports the defensive role of this protein against insect pests. PMID:10982443

  2. Transgenic Hybrid Poplar for Sustainable and Scalable Production of the Commodity/Specialty Chemical, 2-Phenylethanol

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Michael A.; Marques, Joaquim V.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Herman, Barrington; Bedgar, Diana L.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Fast growing hybrid poplar offers the means for sustainable production of specialty and commodity chemicals, in addition to rapid biomass production for lignocellulosic deconstruction. Herein we describe transformation of fast-growing transgenic hybrid poplar lines to produce 2-phenylethanol, this being an important fragrance, flavor, aroma, and commodity chemical. It is also readily converted into styrene or ethyl benzene, the latter being an important commodity aviation fuel component. Introducing this biochemical pathway into hybrid poplars marks the beginnings of developing a platform for a sustainable chemical delivery system to afford this and other valuable specialty/commodity chemicals at the scale and cost needed. These modified plant lines mainly sequester 2-phenylethanol via carbohydrate and other covalently linked derivatives, thereby providing an additional advantage of effective storage until needed. The future potential of this technology is discussed. MALDI metabolite tissue imaging also established localization of these metabolites in the leaf vasculature. PMID:24386157

  3. Temperature responses of cambial reactivation and xylem differentiation in hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii x P. grandidentata) under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahanara; Nakaba, Satoshi; Bayramzadeh, Vilma; Oribe, Yuichiro; Kubo, Takafumi; Funada, Ryo

    2008-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that localized heating of tree stems induces localized cambial reactivation. We analyzed by light microscopy the effects of early spring increases in ambient temperature in 2005 and 2007 on the timing of cambial reactivation and xylem differentiation in stems of two trees of a cloned deciduous hardwood hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii Miquel. x P. grandidentata Michx.) growing under natural conditions. Meteorological data at the study site showed that temperatures in late winter and early spring differed markedly between 2005 and 2007, with trends toward higher temperatures starting around April 3 in 2005 and around March 20 in 2007. Cambial reactivation occurred about 17 days earlier in 2007 than in 2005. The cumulative daily maximum temperature in excess of 15 degrees C (maximum daily temperatures minus 15 degrees C) in late winter and early spring before cambial reactivation was defined as the cambial reactivation index (CRI(15)). Cambial reactivation, which began when the minimum temperature rose above 0 degrees C, occurred when the CRI(15) was 93 and 96 degrees C in 2005 and 2007, respectively. The differentiation of secondary xylem started earlier in 2007 than in 2005. On May 27, we found a wider current-year band of xylem and a higher frequency of small-diameter vessel elements in 2007 than in 2005. We propose that the timing of cambial reactivation is controlled by air temperature and that earlier cambial reactivation induces earlier differentiation of xylem in hybrid poplar under natural conditions. Our results indicate that the CRI might be a useful indicator of the timing of cambial reactivation.

  4. Post-establishment fertilization of Minnesota hybrid poplar plantations.

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, M., D.; Tolsted, D.; Nichols, T.; Johnson, W., D.; Ween, E.G.; Houghtaling, T.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental plantings were installed at five sites in three locations in western Minnesota. Aboveground biomass production increased 43-82% as a result of three annual applications of urea or balanced nutrient blend fertilizer beginning near canopy closure. There were no production differences between the type of fertilizer used, indicating that N was the major limiting nutrient. Responses were consistent from site to site, indicating that hybrid poplar stands in this region at this stage of development would be very responsive to fertilization. Leaf tissue N, P, and K concentrations increased in response to both fertilizer treatments; P and K increased more frequently in response to the blend treatment compared to the N-only urea treatment. The diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS) indices indicated that the stands were near optimal nutritional balance prior to fertilization. Treatments increased individual leaf area and leaf litter production up to 33% and 37%, respectively. Canopy leaf area, leaf N concentration and the sum of DRIS indices were correlated with aboveground production. Growth efficiency, the ratio of production to canopy leaf area, increased with both fertilizer treatment and successive years of treatment, indicating improved stand vigor due to nutrient amendments. Stand production increased more in response to changes in leaf N concentration as stands aged. Plantation production continued to increase with increased internal N concentration even when deficiency levels or levels defined as sufficient for fast growth were exceeded. The correlation between aboveground production and the sum of DRIS indices shows that optimal nutrition at canopy closure may result in current aboveground dry matter production exceeding 13Mgha-1 yr-1. Multiple small-dose amendments appear to be effective in increasing production by maintaining high internal N concentrations.

  5. Case history development of a hybrid poplar nursery at Reynolds Metals Company, Massena, NY. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marler, R.L.

    1983-03-01

    The methods used to establish the hybrid poplar nursery and the results obtained in the first year's operation are discussed. It also documents the history of the project. Hybrid poplar clones were established in the nursery in 1980 and their growth performance was evaluated after one growing season. The results were most promising. The mean survivability rate ranged from 84.92% to 90.58% per clone, while the clone height growth ranged from 58.16 inches to 76.47 inches over the first growing season. Approximately 71,000 cuttings were estimated to be available for outplanting during the Spring of 1982.

  6. Assessing Changes in Soil Carbon Quantity and Chemistry in Short-Rotation Hybrid Poplar Plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, C. M.; Magrini, K. A.; Davis, M. F.

    2003-12-01

    There is increasing interest in using short-rotation woody biomass plantations as a source of fiber and as a carbon neutral energy supply. Willow, poplar, and alder are currently used in plantations in areas ranging from the Lake States to the Northwest. As with any cropping system, maintaining soil productivity through succeeding rotations is a key management goal. Where plantations are used to provide carbon sequestration benefits (i.e. bioenergy production), building and maintaining soil carbon stocks is of particular concern. We sampled three hybrid poplar farms in the Northwestern United States; all three farms are in the rain shadow of the Cascades and are on sandy soils. The farms share a similar land use history; originally sagebrush, the land was in annual crops such as peas, onions, and alfalfa, before conversion to poplar. At each farm, soil cores were taken from a field in annual crops, a first rotation poplar stand, and a second rotation poplar stand. Although results varied by farm, soil carbon concentrations were generally higher in the first and second rotation poplar stands than in the row-cropped fields; this was more pronounced in the 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths. There were no apparent declines in soil carbon concentration between the first and second rotations. Soil carbon concentrations under poplar were also higher than those in soils from native sagebrush, the original land cover. Analysis of the chemical composition of the carbon using pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry indicates that by the second rotation, the chemical signature of the carbon resembled that found in materials taken from the poplar trees.

  7. Gaseous NO2 effects on stomatal behavior, photosynthesis and respiration of hybrid poplar leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2, 4 microliter per liter) on stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, dark- and photorespiration of Populus alba x Populus berolinensis hybrid leaves using the photosynthesis system and scanning...

  8. Leafing-out date not indicative of growth rate in hybrid poplars

    Treesearch

    Harold F. Ford; Edward I. Sucoff

    1961-01-01

    In breeding trees for rapid growth, testing the progeny usually requires many years. To shorten the testing period, geneticists have tried to find characteristics in juvenile trees that would indicate mature-tree performance. With hybrid poplars (Populus spp.), work at the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station has shown that the thickness of bark on...

  9. Sprouting of thinned hybrid poplars on bituminous strip-mine spoils in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Walter H. Davidson; Grant Davis

    1972-01-01

    Various thinning techniques were applied to 5-year old hybrid poplar stands on bituminous strip-mine spoils. Basal and stump sprays of 2, 4, 5-T in diesel oil were effective for killing the trees. There was no evidence that chemical treatments affected adjacent trees. Where trees were cut and stumps were not chemically treated, all clones sprouted prolifically....

  10. Somaclonal variation in hybrid poplars for resistance to Septoria leaf spot

    Treesearch

    M.E. Ostry; D. D. Skilling

    1987-01-01

    Tissue culture techniques have been used to obtain hybrid poplars with putative resistance to leaf spot caused by Septoria musiva from clones previously susceptible to the disease. Stem internode explants were used to obtain proliferating callus cultures. Adventitious bud formation and shoot proliferation were then induced. Elongated shoots were excised and rooted in a...

  11. Fiber Recovery with Chain Flail Delimbing/Debarking and Chipping of Hybrid Poplar

    Treesearch

    Bruce Hartsough; Raffaele Spinelli; Steve Pottle; John Klepac

    2000-01-01

    This study determined how much wood was potentially available From short rotation hybrid poplar, and how mtich was actually recovered when trees were delimbed and debarked with chain flails and chipped. 3 1 groups of five trees each were measured and then processed. For trees larger than 50 kg total dry weight, potentially recoverable wood averaged 75% oftotal weight...

  12. Diseases of intensively cultured hybrid poplars: a summary of recent research in the north central region

    Treesearch

    M. E. Ostry; H. S. McNabb

    1983-01-01

    Several potentially damaging diseases of hybrid poplars hue been identified in the north-central United States. Among the most serious are leaf and stem diseases caused by Melampsora, Marssonina, and Septoria. Short-term chemical controls are of limited usefulness. The most practical control strategy appears to be the use of resistant clones obtained through local...

  13. Hybrid poplar on two anthracite coal-mine spoils: 10-year results

    Treesearch

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj

    1978-01-01

    Unrooted dormant cuttings of 28 hybrid poplar clones were planted on two graded anthracite coal-mine spoils derived from sandstone or from glacial till. Ten-year results show that the plantation survived very well (82 percent), but that growth was extremely varied. Spoil Characteristics and performance of individual clones are presented.

  14. Hybrid poplar cultivars for maximizing phytomass production on gold mine tailings in the Black Hills

    Treesearch

    Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-six hybrid poplar clones were planted as cuttings on a gold mine tailings in the Black Hills. Four exhibited very good survival and growth. Other clones had relatively high (exceeding 50 percent) survival but slow growth (below 60 cm) over a 5-year period.

  15. The bionomics of the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fab., on tissue culture hybrid poplars

    Treesearch

    T.R. Burkot; D.M. Benjamin

    1977-01-01

    Tissue culture methods are applied to poplars of the Aigeiros group in attempts to overcome premature decline thought to be associated with viral infections. Hybrid selections from such cultures outplanted in 1975 at the F. G. Wilson Nursery in Boscobel, Wisconsin subsequently were severely infested by the Cottonwood Leaf Beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fab. Beetle...

  16. Production of Hybrid Poplar under Short-Term, Intensive Culture in Western Colorado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An irrigated study was conducted at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita for 6 yr to evaluate eight hybrid poplar clones under short-term, intensive culture. The eight clones included in the study were Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii (NM6), P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides (52225, OP367), and...

  17. Light-use efficiency of native and hybrid poplar genotypes at high levels of intracanopy competition

    Treesearch

    D. Scott Green; Eric L. Kruger; Glen R, Stanosz; J. G. Isebrands

    2001-01-01

    In southern Wisconsin, U.S.A., tree growth and associated canopy traits were compared among five native and hybrid genotypes of poplar (Populus spp.) in replicated, monoclonal stands planted at a 1 x 1 m spacing. The overall objective of this study was to assess clonal suitability to cultural conditions entailing high levels of intracanopy...

  18. Thaumatin-like proteins are differentially expressed and localized in phloem tissue of hybrid poplar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) were previously identified in phloem exudate of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) using proteomics methods, and their sieve element localization confirmed by immunofluorescence. In the current study, we analyzed different tissues to further underst...

  19. Evaluating hybrid poplar rooting. I. genotype x environment interactions in three contrasting sites

    Treesearch

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Don E. Riemenschneider; Richard B. Hall

    2002-01-01

    We need to learn more about environmental conditions that promote or hinder rooting of unrooted dormant hybrid poplar cuttings. Planting cuttings and recording survival after the growing season is not suitable to keep up with industrial demands for improved stock. This method does not provide information about specific genotype x environment interactions. We know very...

  20. Sapflow of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NM6') during phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    Treesearch

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Edmund O. Bauer; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2006-01-01

    Poplars are ideal for phytoremediation because of their high water usage, fast growth, and deep root systems. We measured in 2002 and 2003 the sapflow of hybrid poplars (Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NM6') planted in 1999 for phytoremediation of a landfill in Rhinelander, WI, USA (45.6?N, 89.4?W).

  1. Isoprene biosynthesis in hybrid poplar impacts ozone tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, K.; Kleist, E.; Uerlings, R.; Wildt, J.; Rennenberg, H.; Schnitzler, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant volatile compound emitted by vegetation. It influences air chemistry and is thought to take part in plant defense reactions against abiotic stress such as high temperature or ozone. However, whether or not isoprene emission interacts with ozone tolerance of plants is still in discussion. We exploited transgenic non-isoprene emitting Grey poplar (Populus x canescens) in a biochemical and physiological model study to investigate the effect of acute ozone stress on the elicitation of defense-related emissions of plant volatiles, photosynthesis and the antioxidative system. We recorded that non-isoprene emitting poplars are more resistant to ozone as indicated by less damaged leaf area and higher assimilation rates compared to ozone-exposed wild type plants. The integral of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions was different between the two poplar phenotypes and a reliable early marker for subsequent leaf damage. For other stress-induced volatiles like mono-, homo-, and sesquiterpenes, and methyl salicylate similar time profiles, pattern and emission intensities were observed in both transgenic and wild type plants. However, un-stressed non-isoprene emitting poplars are characterized by elevated levels of ascorbate and α-tocopherol as well as a more effective de-epoxidation ratio of xanthophylls than in wild type plants. Since ozone quenching properties of ascorbate are much higher than those of isoprene and furthermore α-tocopherol also is an essential antioxidant, non-isoprene emitting poplars might benefit from changes within the antioxidative system by providing them with enhanced ozone tolerance.

  2. Predictive relationships for uptake of organic contaminants by hybrid poplar trees

    SciTech Connect

    Burken, J.G.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1998-11-01

    Twelve organic compounds commonly found at hazardous waste sites were studied for uptake by hybrid poplar trees. The vegetative uptake of many of these compounds has not previously been demonstrated for plant species being utilized for phytoremediation, such as hybrid poplar trees. Experiments were conducted hydroponically utilizing {sup 14}C-labeled compounds to ascertain translocation and fate. Predictive relationships for the translocation and partitioning to plant tissues were developed from the experimental data. Translocation and partitioning relationships based on compounds` octanol-water partitioning coefficients produced the best results, but the relationships did not allow for fully accurate prediction of each contaminant`s fate. Translocation and subsequent transpiration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the leaves to the atmosphere was shown to be a significant pathway. As full-scale phytoremediation systems are deliberated, the pathways investigated here should be considered in terms of a contaminant removal mechanism and potential contamination of the vegetation.

  3. Hybrid poplar grows poorly on acid spoil banks at high elevations in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1963-01-01

    In the early 1950s, a region-wide series of hybrid poplar clonal tests was begun in the Northeast to evaluate the performance of 50 selected clones under a variety of site and climatic conditions. The basic test unit was a block of 50 randomized plots-1 plot for each of the 50 clones. In each plot, 16 cuttings were planted at 4-foot spacing.

  4. Effects of chronic and acute exposure to sulphur dioxide on the growth of hybrid poplar cuttings

    Treesearch

    Leon S. Dochinger; Keith F. Jensen

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid poplar clones were fumigated in controlled-environment chambers with either 5 ppm sulphur dioxide for 1½, 3, and 6 h or with 0.25 ppm sulphur dioxide for six weeks. Multivariate analyses were made from shoot-growth data before and after treatment and on the foliar injury induced by S02. Both short- and long-term fumigation produced similar...

  5. Biochar as a substitute for vermiculite in potting mix for hybrid poplar

    Treesearch

    William L. Headlee; Catherine E. Brewer; Richard B. Hall

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate biochar as a substitute for vermiculite in potting mixes for unrooted vegetative cuttings of hybrid poplar as represented by the clone ‘NM6’ (Populus nigra L. × Populus suaveolens Fischer subsp. maximowiczii A. Henry). We compared three treatments (peat moss (control), peat moss mixed with vermiculite, and peat moss mixed with...

  6. Exploring the Role of Plant Genetics to Enhance Soil Carbon Sequestration in Hybrid Poplar Plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Garten, C. T.; Classen, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased in recent decades and are projected to increase even further during the coming century. These projections have prompted scientists and policy-makers to consider how plants and soils can be used to stabilize CO2 concentrations. Although storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems represents an attractive near-term option for mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, enhancing the sequestration potential of managed systems will require advancements in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that control rates of carbon transfer and turnover in plants and soils. To address this challenge, a mathematical model was constructed to evaluate how changes in particular plant traits and management practices could affect soil carbon storage beneath hybrid poplar (Populus) plantations. The model was built from four sub-models that describe aboveground biomass, root biomass, soil carbon dynamics, and soil nitrogen transformations for trees growing throughout a user-defined rotation. Simulations could be run over one or multiple rotations. A sensitivity analysis of the model indicated changes in soil carbon storage were affected by variables that could be linked to hybrid poplar traits like rates of aboveground production, partitioning of carbon to coarse and fine roots, and rates of root decomposition. A higher ratio of belowground to aboveground production was especially important and correlated directly with increased soil carbon storage. Faster decomposition rates for coarse and fine dead roots resulted in a greater loss of carbon to the atmosphere as CO2 and less residual organic carbon for transfer to the fast soil carbon pool. Hence, changes in root chemistry that prolonged dead root decomposition rates, a trait that is under potential genetic control, were predicted to increase soil carbon storage via higher soil carbon inputs. Nitrogen limitation of both aboveground biomass production and soil carbon sequestration was

  7. Biotechnology and genetic selection of fast-growing hardwoods

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Maynard, C.A. . Research Foundation)

    1989-07-01

    Hybrid poplar have been shown to be useful for a wide variety of products. Their fast growth and ease in maintaining desirable genetic character make hybrid poplar highly suited to intensive culture systems. This study was initiated to evaluate a genetic selection trail consisting of 54 hybrid poplar clones and to locate and sample eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees for obtainment of scion material to be included in a poplar germplasm archive for future breeding purposes. Because the basis of an effective and cost efficient fast-growing hardwood plantation program is a gene pool with a broad genetic base, the quality and diversity of the genetic resource are of prime concern to the long-term success of biotechnology, agroforestry programs. Additionally, tests of the captured gene pool in site-specific genetic selection and clone-site trials are the necessary successive steps to establish a viable woody crop biomass program. The current project sought to address both of these basic issues so as to improve management opportunities for short-rotation hybrid poplar energy plantations in New York State. Results of the studies showed that short rotation intensive culture hybrid poplar systems are feasible in New York State, and can be successfully used if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used.

  8. Stimulation of hybrid poplar growth in petroleum-contaminated soils through oxygen addition and soil nutrient amendments.

    PubMed

    Rentz, Jeremy A; Chapman, Brad; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34) were grown in a green-house using hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from a phytoremediation demonstration site in Health, Ohio. Two independent experiments investigated the effect of nutrient addition on poplar growth and the importance of oxygen addition to root development and plant growth. Biomass measurements, poplar height, and leaf color were used as indicators of plant health in the selection of a 10/5/5 NPK fertilizer applied at 1121 kg/ha (112 kg-N, 24.4 kg-P, 46.5 kg-K per ha) to enhance hybrid poplar growth at the Health site. Five passive methods of oxygen delivery were examined, including aeration tubes, gravel addition, and an Oxygen Release Compound (ORC). When ORC was placed in coffee filters above hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, a statistically significant increase of 145% was observed in poplar biomass growth, relative to unamended controls. The ORC in filters also stimulated significant increases in root density. A 15.2-cm interval of soil directly below ORC addition exhibited an increase from 2.6 +/- 1.0 mg/cm3 to 4.8 +/- 1.0 mg/cm3, showing stimulation of root growth in hydrocarbon-stained soil. The positive response of hybrid poplars to oxygen amendments suggests that overcoming oxygen limitation to plants should be considered in phytoremediation projects when soil contamination exerts a high biochemical oxygen demand, such as in former refinery sites.

  9. Engineering functional artificial hybrid proteins between poplar peroxiredoxin II and glutaredoxin or thioredoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Rouhier, Nicolas . E-mail: nrouhier@scbiol.uhp-nancy.fr; Gama, Filipe; Wingsle, Gunnar; Gelhaye, Eric; Gans, Pierre; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre

    2006-03-24

    The existence of natural peroxiredoxin-glutaredoxin hybrid enzymes in several bacteria is in line with previous findings indicating that poplar peroxiredoxin II can use glutaredoxin as an electron donor. This peroxiredoxin remains however unique since it also uses thioredoxin with a quite good efficiency. Based on the existing fusions, we have created artificial enzymes containing a poplar peroxiredoxin module linked to glutaredoxin or thioredoxin modules. The recombinant fusion enzymes folded properly into non-covalently bound homodimers or homotetramers. Two of the three protein constructs exhibit peroxidase activity, a reaction where the two modules need to function together, but they also display enzymatic activities specific of each module. In addition, mass spectrometry analyses indicate that the Prx module can be both glutathiolated or overoxidized in vitro. This is discussed in the light of the Prx reactivity.

  10. Biochemical response of hybrid black poplar tissue culture (Populus × canadensis) on water stress.

    PubMed

    Popović, B M; Štajner, D; Ždero-Pavlović, R; Tari, I; Csiszár, J; Gallé, Á; Poór, P; Galović, V; Trudić, B; Orlović, S

    2017-02-27

    In this study, poplar tissue culture (hybrid black poplar, M1 genotype) was subjected to water stress influenced by polyethyleneglycol 6000 (100 and 200 mOsm PEG 6000). The aim of the research was to investigate the biochemical response of poplar tissue culture on water deficit regime. Antioxidant status was analyzed including antioxidant enzymes, superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guiacol-peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-reductase, reduced glutathione, total phenol content, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH radical antioxidant power. Polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine-ammonium-lyase were determined as enzymatic markers of polyphenol metabolism. Among oxidative stress parameters lipid peroxidation, carbonyl-proteins, hydrogen-peroxide, reactive oxygen species, nitric-oxide and peroxynitrite were determined. Proline, proline-dehydrogenase and glycinebetaine were measured also as parameters of water stress. Cell viability is finally determined as a biological indicator of osmotic stress. It was found that water stress induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation in leaves of hybrid black poplar and reduced cell viability. Antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GPx, CAT and GSH-Px were induced but total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were reduced by PEG 6000 mediated osmotic stress. The highest biochemical response and adaptive reaction was the increase of proline and GB especially by 200 mOsm PEG. While long term molecular analysis will be necessary to fully address the poplar potentials for water stress adaptation, our results on hybrid black poplar suggest that glycine-betaine, proline and PDH enzyme might be the most important markers of poplar on water stress and that future efforts should be focused on these markers and strategies to enhance their concentration in poplar.

  11. Effect of clonal variation among hybrid poplars on susceptibility of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Nichole A; Vasquez, Eric; Handelsman, Jo; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2010-06-01

    Trees in the genus Populus can provide substantial commercial and ecological benefits, including sustainable alternatives to traditional forestry. Realization of this potential requires intensive management, but damage by defoliating insects can severely limit productivity in such systems. Two approaches to limiting these losses include cultivation of poplar varieties with inherent resistance to pests and application of microbial pesticides. Little is known about the interaction between host resistance and the ability of poplars to support the efficacy of biocontrol agents. The research described here was conducted to survey the effect of hybrid poplar clones on gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a pest on these trees. We assessed the effect of various poplar clones on larval performance and susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Larvae were reared from hatching on the foliage of 25 hybrid poplar clones and we monitored larval survival, development time, and weight at fourth instar. Eight of these clones showed high resistance against gypsy moth. The remaining clones showed high variation in their effect on larval performance. We evaluated the susceptibility of third-instar larvae to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki when reared on the 17 remaining clones. There was a significant effect of poplar clone on time to death after ingestion of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. The susceptibility of gypsy moth larvae to B. thuringiensis on various clones was not correlated with the effects of these clones on larval performance in the absence of B. thuringiensis, suggesting this interaction is more complex than merely reflecting higher mortality to previously stressed larvae.

  12. Thaumatin-like proteins are differentially expressed and localized in phloem tissues of hybrid poplar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Two thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) were previously identified in phloem exudate of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides) using proteomics methods, and their sieve element localization confirmed by immunofluorescence. In the current study, we analyzed different tissues to further understand TLP expression and localization in poplar, and used immunogold labelling to determine intracellular localization. Results Immunofluorescence using a TLP antiserum confirmed the presence of TLP in punctate, organelle-like structures within sieve elements. On western blots, the antiserum labeled two constitutively expressed proteins with distinct expression patterns. Immunogold labelling suggested that TLPs are associated with starch granules and starch-containing plastids in sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells. In addition, the antiserum recognized TLPs in the inner cell wall and sieve plate region of sieve elements. Conclusions TLP localization in poplar cells and tissues is complex. TLP1 is expressed predominantly in tissues with a prominent vascular system such as midveins, petioles and stems, whereas the second TLP is primarily expressed in starch-storing plastids found in young leaves and the shoot apex. PMID:20796310

  13. Thaumatin-like proteins are differentially expressed and localized in phloem tissues of hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, Nicole J; Gowen, Brent E; Constabel, C Peter

    2010-08-26

    Two thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) were previously identified in phloem exudate of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) using proteomics methods, and their sieve element localization confirmed by immunofluorescence. In the current study, we analyzed different tissues to further understand TLP expression and localization in poplar, and used immunogold labelling to determine intracellular localization. Immunofluorescence using a TLP antiserum confirmed the presence of TLP in punctate, organelle-like structures within sieve elements. On western blots, the antiserum labeled two constitutively expressed proteins with distinct expression patterns. Immunogold labelling suggested that TLPs are associated with starch granules and starch-containing plastids in sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells. In addition, the antiserum recognized TLPs in the inner cell wall and sieve plate region of sieve elements. TLP localization in poplar cells and tissues is complex. TLP1 is expressed predominantly in tissues with a prominent vascular system such as midveins, petioles and stems, whereas the second TLP is primarily expressed in starch-storing plastids found in young leaves and the shoot apex.

  14. Insect enemies of yellow-poplar

    Treesearch

    Denver P. Burns; Denver P. Burns

    1970-01-01

    Yellow-poplar, like the other desirable hardwoods, is attacked by a variety of insects. However, only four species of insects are considered economically important: the tuliptree scale, the yellow-poplar weevil, the root-collar borer, and the Columbian timber beetle. These are native enemies of yellow-poplar (Liriodendvon tzllipifera L.) wherever the tree grows.

  15. Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations.

  16. Land use and wind direction drive hybridization between cultivated poplar and native species in a Mediterranean floodplain environment.

    PubMed

    Paffetti, Donatella; Travaglini, Davide; Labriola, Mariaceleste; Buonamici, Anna; Bottalico, Francesca; Materassi, Alessandro; Fasano, Gianni; Nocentini, Susanna; Vettori, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Deforestation and intensive land use management with plantations of fast-growing tree species, like Populus spp., may endanger native trees not only by eliminating or reducing their habitats, but also by diminishing their species integrity via hybridization and introgression. The genus Populus has persistent natural hybrids because clonal and sexual reproduction is common. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of land use management of poplar plantations on the spatial genetic structure and species composition in poplar stands. Specifically, we studied the potential breeding between natural and cultivated poplar populations in the Mediterranean environment to gain insight into spontaneous hybridization events between exotic and native poplars; we also used a GIS-based model to evaluate the potential threats related to an intensive land use management. Two study areas, both near to poplar plantations (P.×euramericana), were designated in the native mixed stands of P. alba, P. nigra and P.×canescens within protected areas. We found that the spatial genetic structure differed between the two stands and their differences depended on their environmental features. We detected a hybridization event with P.×canescens that was made possible by the synchrony of flowering between the poplar plantation and P.×canescens and facilitated by the wind intensity and direction favoring the spread of pollen. Taken together, our results indicate that natural and artificial barriers are crucial to mitigate the threats, and so they should be explicitly considered in land use planning. For example, our results suggest the importance of conserving rows of trees and shrubs along rivers and in agricultural landscapes. In sum, it is necessary to understand, evaluate, and monitor the spread of exotic species and genetic material to ensure effective land use management and mitigation of their impact on native tree populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Fuzzy-logic modeling of land suitability for hybrid poplar across the Prairie Provinces of Canada.

    PubMed

    Joss, B N; Hall, R J; Sidders, D M; Keddy, T J

    2008-06-01

    Determining the feasibility of a large-scale afforestation program is one approach being investigated by the Government of Canada to increase Canada's potential to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Large-scale afforestation, however, requires knowledge of where it is suitable to establish and grow trees. Spatial models based on Boolean logic and/or statistical models within a geographic information system may be used for this purpose, but empirical environmental data are often lacking, and the association of these data to land suitability is most often a subjective process. As a solution to this problem, this paper presents a fuzzy-logic modeling approach to assess land suitability for afforestation of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) over the Prairie Provinces of Canada. Expert knowledge regarding the selection and magnitudes of environmental variables were integrated into fuzzy rule sets from which estimates of land suitability were generated and presented in map form. The environmental variables selected included growing season precipitation, climate moisture index, growing degree days, and Canada Land Inventory capability for agriculture and elevation. Approximately 150,000 km2, or 28% of the eligible land base within the Prairie Provinces was found to be suitable for afforestation. Accuracy assessments conducted with fuzzy accuracy methods provided a more descriptive assessment of the resulting land suitability map than figures generated from a more conventional Boolean-based accuracy measure. Modeling, mapping and accuracy assessment issues were identified for future extension of this work to map hybrid poplar land suitability over Canada.

  18. Predicting yields of short-rotation hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) for the United States through model-data synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; LeBauer, David; Dietze, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) is an important biomass crop being evaluated for cellulosic ethanol production. Predictions of poplar growth, rotation period, and soil carbon sequestration under various growing conditions, soils, and climates are critical for farmers and managers planning to establish short-rotation forestry (SRF) plantations. In this study, we used an ecoinformatics workflow, the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn), to integrate literature data and field measurements into the Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2) model to estimate yield potential of poplar plantations. Within PEcAn 164 records of seven different traits from the literature were assimilated using a Bayesian meta-analysis. Next, variance decomposition identified seven variables for further constraint that contributed > 80% to the uncertainty in modeled yields: growth respiration, dark respiration, quantum efficiency, mortality coefficient, water conductance, fine-root allocation, and root turnover rate. Assimilation of observed yields further constrained uncertainty in model parameters (especially dark respiration and root turnover rate) and biomass estimates. Additional measurements of growth respiration, mortality, water conductance, and quantum efficiency would provide the most efficient path toward further constraint of modeled yields. Modeled validation demonstrated that ED2 successfully captured the interannual and spatial variability of poplar yield observed at nine independent sites. Site-level analyses were conducted to estimate the effect of land use change to SRF poplar on soil C sequestration compared to alternate land uses. These suggest that poplar plantations became a C sink within 18 years of conversion from corn production or existing forest. Finally, poplar yields were estimated for the contiguous United States at a half degree resolution in order to determine potential productivity, estimate the optimal rotation period, and compare poplar to perennial grass yields. This

  19. Bt-Cry3Aa expression reduces insect damage and improves growth in field-grown hybrid poplar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated growth and insect resistance in hybrid poplar expressing the cry3Aa gene in two field trials. An initial screening of 502 trees comprising 51 transgenic gene insertion events in four clonal backgrounds (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides, clones 24-305, 50-197, and 198-434; and P. d...

  20. Second-year results of hybrid poplar test plantings on bituminous strip-mine spoils in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Grant Davis

    1964-01-01

    During the period 1946-49, The Pennsylvania State University established 22 experimental plantings of trees and shrubs on strip-mine spoil banks in the Bituminous Region of Pennsylvania to determine which species were best suited for revegetating such sites. When 10-year growth on the experimental plots was evaluated, a clone of hybrid poplar was found to have outgrown...

  1. Clonal variation in survival and growth of hybrid poplar and willow in an in situ trial on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Treesearch

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Joshua Kunzman; Chris J. Rog; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2005-01-01

    Species and hybrids between species belonging to the genera Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) have been used successfully for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate the potential for establishing genotypes of poplar and willow on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and 2)...

  2. Bud set in poplar--genetic dissection of a complex trait in natural and hybrid populations.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Antje; Storme, Véronique; Jorge, Véronique; Gaudet, Muriel; Vitacolonna, Nicola; Fabbrini, Francesco; Ruttink, Tom; Zaina, Giusi; Marron, Nicolas; Dillen, Sophie; Steenackers, Marijke; Sabatti, Maurizio; Morgante, Michele; Boerjan, Wout; Bastien, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    • The seasonal timing of growth events is crucial to tree distribution and conservation. The seasonal growth cycle is strongly adapted to the local climate that is changing because of global warming. We studied bud set as one cornerstone of the seasonal growth cycle in an integrative approach. • Bud set was dissected at the phenotypic level into several components, and phenotypic components with most genetic variation were identified. While phenotypic variation resided in the timing of growth cessation, and even so more in the duration from growth cessation to bud set, the timing of growth cessation had a stronger genetic component in both natural and hybrid populations. • Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for the most discriminative phenotypic bud-set components across four poplar pedigrees. The QTL from different pedigrees were recurrently detected in six regions of the poplar genome. • These regions of 1.83-4.25 Mbp in size, containing between 202 and 394 genes, form the basis for further molecular-genetic dissection of bud set. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  3. Prioritization of copper for the use in photosynthetic electron transport in developing leaves of hybrid poplar

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ravet, Karl; Peers, Graham; Pilon, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Plastocyanin (PC) is an essential and abundant copper (Cu) protein required for photosynthesis in higher plants. Severe copper deprivation has the potential to cause a defect in photosynthetic electron transport due to a lack in PC. The Cu-microRNAs, which are up-regulated under Cu deficiency, down-regulate the expression of target Cu proteins other than PC, cytochrome-c oxidase and the ethylene receptors. It has been proposed that this mechanism saves Cu for PC maturation. We aimed to test how hybrid poplar, a species that has capacity to rapidly expand its photosynthetically active tissue, responds to variations in Cu availability over time. Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence after Cu depletion revealed a drastic effect on photosynthesis in hybrid poplar. The decrease in photosynthetic capacity was correlated with a reduction in PC protein levels. Compared to older leaves, PC decreased more strongly in developing leaves, which also lost more photosynthetic electron transport capacity. The effect of Cu depletion on older and more developed leaves was minor and these leaves maintained much of their photosynthetic capacity. Interestingly, upon resupply of Cu to the medium a very rapid recovery of Cu levels was seen in the younger leaves with a concomitant rise in the expression and activity of PC. In contrast, the expression of those Cu proteins, which are targets of microRNAs was under the same circumstances delayed. At the same time, Cu resupply had only minor effects on the older leaves. The data suggest a model where rapid recovery of photosynthetic capacity in younger leaves is made possible by a preferred allocation of Cu to PC in younger leaves, which is supported by Cu-microRNA expression. PMID:26089828

  4. Uptake and translocation of lesser-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in whole hybrid poplar plants after hydroponic exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiyan; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2008-11-01

    Mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are congeners with greater volatility which remain in air, soils and sediments requiring treatment. In this study, the fate of these PCBs was investigated within whole poplar plants (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) with application for a treatment system such as a confined disposal facility for dredged material. Whole hybrid poplars were exposed hydroponically to a mixture of five congeners, common in the environment, having one to four chlorine atoms per molecule. Results indicated that PCB 3, 15, 28, 52, and 77 were initially sorbed to the root systems. The root concentration factor (RCF) of PCBs during the exposure was calculated and correlated with K(ow). PCB congeners were taken up by the roots of hybrid poplar, and the translocation of PCBs to stems was inversely related to congener hydrophobicity (log K(ow)). PCB 3 and 15 were translocated to the upper stem at small but significant rates. PCB 28 was translocated to the wood of the main stem but no farther; translocation from the roots was not detected for PCB 52 and 77. The distribution of PCBs within poplars was determined, and mass balances were completed to within 15% for each chemical except for PCB 3, the most volatile congener. This is the first report on the transport of PCBs through whole plants designed for use in treatment at disposal facilities.

  5. Uptake and Translocation of Lesser-Chlorinated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Whole Hybrid Poplar Plants after Hydroponic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiyan; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2009-01-01

    Mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are congeners with greater volatility which remain in air, soils and sediments requiring treatment. In this study, the fate of these PCBs was investigated within whole poplar plants (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) with application for a treatment system such as a confined disposal facility for dredged material. Whole hybrid poplars were exposed hydroponically to a mixture of five congeners, common in the environment, having one to four chlorine atoms per molecule. Results indicated that PCB 3, 15, 28, 52, and 77 were initially sorbed to the root systems. The Root Concentration Factor (RCF) of PCBs during the exposure was calculated and correlated with Kow. PCB congeners were taken up by the roots of hybrid poplar, and the translocation of PCBs to stems was inversely related to congener hydrophobicity (Log Kow). PCB 3 and 15 were translocated to the upper stem at small but significant rates. PCB 28 was translocated to the wood of the main stem but no farther; translocation from the roots was not detected for PCB 52 and 77. The distribution of PCBs within poplars was determined, and mass balances were completed to within 15% for each chemical except for PCB 3, the most volatile congener. This is the first report on the transport of PCBs through whole plants designed for use in treatment at disposal facilities. PMID:18793792

  6. Phytohormones and shoot growth in a three-generation hybrid poplar family.

    PubMed

    Pearce, David W; Rood, Stewart B; Wu, Rongling

    2004-02-01

    Hybrid vigor for secondary growth in poplar has been linked with increased gibberellin (GA) concentration in cambial tissue, but the relationship between concentrations of GAs and hybrid vigor of primary growth has not been investigated. We explored associations between concentrations of GAs, abscisic acid (ABA) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) and shoot extension in a hybrid family of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. (Clone ILL-129) and P. trichocarpa Torr. & Gray (Clone 93-968) and two F1 and 67 F2 genotypes. Rapidly elongating subapical internodes from shoots of 4-year-old clonal saplings were selected for hormone analysis. The F1 hybrids displayed heterosis (hybrid vigor) for primary growth as a result of the complementation of dominance for increased internode length from the P. trichocarpa parent and dominance for increased diameter from the P. deltoides parent. Internodes from the faster-elongating shoots of the P. trichocarpa parent had a fourfold higher concentration of bioactive GA1 and higher concentrations of GA20, GA44, GA29 and GA8 than the P. deltoides parent. However, the two fast-growing F1 hybrids had low concentrations of all five GAs, with concentrations similar to those of the slower-elongating P. deltoides parent. Concentrations of ABA and IAA were correlated with GA concentrations and there was thus no evidence of a consistent promoting or inhibiting effect of ABA or IAA within the F1 family. These results indicate that heterosis for internode growth was not primarily regulated by hormone concentration. The segregating population of F2 hybrids was analyzed to assess the possible utility of hormone screening as a selection tool. The internodes of most of the F2 hybrids were smaller than those of their F1 parents and the larger P. trichocarpa parent. Among the F2 hybrids, mature internode length varied fourfold, and was correlated with lengths of young, subapical internodes from which hormones were analyzed. In these internodes, GA1 concentrations

  7. Hardwood siding performance.

    Treesearch

    Glenn A. Cooper

    1967-01-01

    A 6-year exposure test of three styles of siding made from nine hardwoods and given three treatments showed that full-length yellow-poplar vertical tongue-and-groove siding dip-treated in a water-repellent preservative performed best.

  8. Cobalt-60 gamma-ray irradiation pretreatment and sludge protein for enhancing enzymatic saccharification of hybrid poplar sawdust.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yulin; Xiang, Yuxiu; Wang, Lipeng

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve the enzymatic saccharification of hybrid poplar sawdust, gamma irradiation pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in the presence of sludge protein were investigated. The cellulose crystallinity index were significantly decreased after irradiation pretreatment, and adding sludge protein improved enzyme activity and increased the reducing sugar yield. The conditions of irradiation pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in the presence of sludge protein were systematically examined. The maximum reducing sugar yield was 519mg/g under an irradiation dose of 300kGy, a sludge protein dosage of 2mg/mL, an enzymatic hydrolysis temperature of 45°C, an enzymatic hydrolysis time of 84h, and a 90FPU/g enzyme loading. This work indicated that the combined method of gamma irradiation pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in the presence of sludge protein was a promising potential for the saccharification of hybrid poplar sawdust.

  9. Investigating the drought-stress response of hybrid poplar genotypes by metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Barchet, Genoa L H; Dauwe, Rebecca; Guy, Robert D; Schroeder, William R; Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Campbell, Malcolm M; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2014-11-01

    Drought stress is perhaps the most commonly encountered abiotic stress plants experience in the natural environment, and it is one of the most important factors limiting plant productivity. Here, we employed untargeted metabolite profiling to examine four drought-stressed hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) genotypes for their metabolite content, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The primary objective of these analyses was to characterize the metabolite profile of poplar trees to assess relative drought resistance and to investigate the underlying biochemical mechanisms employed by the genotypes to combat drought. Metabolite profiling identified key metabolites that increased or decreased in relative abundance upon exposure to drought stress. Overall, amino acids, the antioxidant phenolic compounds catechin and kaempferol, as well as the osmolytes raffinose and galactinol exhibited increased abundance under drought stress, whereas metabolites involved in photorespiration, redox regulation and carbon fixation showed decreased abundance under drought stress. One clone in particular, Okanese, displayed unique responses to the imposed drought conditions. This clone was found to have higher leaf water potential, but lower growth rate relative to the other clones tested. Okanese also had lower accumulation of osmolytes such as raffinose, galactinol and proline, but higher overall levels of antioxidants such as catechin and dehydroascorbic acid. As such, it was proposed that osmotic adjustment as a mechanism for drought avoidance in this clone is not as well developed in comparison with the other clones investigated in this study, and that a possible alternative mechanism for the enhanced drought avoidance displayed by Okanese may be due to differential allocation of resources or better retention of water.

  10. A comparison of height growth and leaf parameters of hybrid poplar cuttings grown in ozone-fumigated atmospheres

    Treesearch

    Keith F. Jensen

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid poplar cuttings were fumigated with an ozone dosage of 15 ppm-hours. One treatment was a steady fumigation at 0.2 ppm while the second fumigation fluctuated between 0.1 and 0.3 ppm. No significant differences were found in cutting height, leaf area, leaf width, and leaf dry weight, but significant differences were found in chlorophyll content and carbohydrate...

  11. Efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of commercial hybrid poplar Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry.

    PubMed

    Yevtushenko, Dmytro P; Misra, Santosh

    2010-03-01

    Many economically important species of Populus, especially those in sections Aigeiros and Tacamahaca, remain recalcitrant to genetic transformation. In this study, a simple and reliable protocol was developed for the efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a difficult-to-transform, but commercially viable, hybrid poplar Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry (NM6). A plant transformation vector designed to express the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was used to detect transformation events at early stages of plant regeneration and to optimize parameters affecting poplar transformation. The use of zeatin riboside in shoot-induction medium, regeneration of shoots via indirect organogenesis, and early selection pressure were the major modifications that drastically improved the efficiency of poplar transformation and minimized the number of untransformed regenerants. Transgenic shoots were routinely obtained 4-10 weeks after co-culture with A. tumefaciens, with a greater than 90% rate of plant recovery. Stable transgene integration, ranging from a single insertion to ten copies per genome, was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The mean transformation frequency was 36.3% and about two-thirds of the lines had 1-2 transgene copies. Among the explants, petioles and leaves had a higher transformation frequency than did stem segments. Growth characteristics and the morphology of transgenic poplar plants were identical to untransformed controls. These findings will accelerate the development of P. nigra x P. maximowiczii plants with novel traits, and may also be useful to improve transformation procedures for other Populus species.

  12. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-06-20

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

  13. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from hybrid poplar depend on CO2 concentration and genotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, A. S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Monson, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Hybrid poplar is a fast-growing tree species that is likely to be an important source of biomass for the production of cellulose-based biofuels and may influence regional atmospheric chemistry through the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We used proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry to measure VOC emissions from the leaves of four different hybrid poplar genotypes grown under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (650 ppm) carbon dioxide concentration (CO2). The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether VOC emissions are different among genotypes and whether these emissions are likely to change as atmospheric CO2 rises. Methanol and isoprene made up over 90% of the VOC emissions and were strongly dependent on leaf age, with young leaves producing primarily methanol and switching to isoprene production as they matured. Monoterpene emissions were small, but tended to be higher in young leaves. Plants grown under elevated CO2 emitted smaller quantities of both methanol and isoprene, but the magnitude of the effect was dependent on genotype. Isoprene emission rates from mature leaves dropped from ~35 to ~28 nmol m-2 s-1 when plants were grown under elevated CO2. Emissions from individuals grown under ambient CO2 varied more based on genotype than those grown under elevated CO2, which means that we might expect smaller differences between genotypes in the future. Genotype and CO2 also affected how much carbon (C) individuals allocated to the production of VOCs. The emission rate of C from VOCs was 0.5 - 2% of the rate at which C was assimilated via net photosynthesis. The % C emitted was strongly related to genotype; clones from crosses between Populus deltoides and P. trichocarpa (T x D) allocated a greater % of their C to VOC emissions than clones from crosses of P. deltoids and P. nigra (D x N). Individuals from all four genotypes allocated a smaller % of their C to the emission of VOCs when they were grown under elevated CO2. These results

  14. Cultivation of fast-growing hardwoods

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P. . Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry)

    1991-10-01

    The intensive culture of hybrid poplar has received in-depth study as part of the Fast-Growing Hardwood Program. Research has concentrated on short-rotation intensive culture systems. Specific studies and operations included establishing and maintaining a nursery/cutting orchard, installing clone-site trials in central and southern New York State and initiating studies of no-till site preparation, nutrient utilization efficiency, wood quality and soil solution chemistry. The nursery/cutting orchard was used to provide material for various research plantings and as a genotype repository. Clone- site trials results showed that hybrid poplar growth potential was affected by clone type and was related to inherent soil-site conditions. No-till techniques were shown to be successful in establishing hybrid poplar in terms of survival and growth when compared to conventional clean tillage and/or no competition control, and can be considered for use on sites that are particularly prone to erosion. Nutrient use efficiency was significantly affected by clone type, and should be a consideration when selecting clones for operational planting if fertilization is to be effectively and efficiently used. Wood quality differed among clones with site condition and tree age inferred as important factors. Soil solution chemistry was minimally affected by intensive cultural practices with no measured adverse effect on soil water quality. Generally, results of these studies showed that appropriate hybrid poplar clones grown in short-rotation intensively cultured systems can be used successfully in New York State if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used. 37 refs., 4 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Uptake of trichloroethylene by hybrid poplar trees grown hydroponically in flow-through plant growth chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, B.J.; Doucette, W.J.; Chard, J.K.; Bugbee, B.

    2000-04-01

    Phytoremediation in being promoted as a cost-effective treatment option for shallow groundwater and soils contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). However, its effectiveness is difficult to assess due to contradictory reports regarding the magnitude of plant uptake and phytovolatilization. Experimental artifacts and plants stress, resulting from the use of static or low-flow plants growth laboratory systems, may account for part of the discrepancy. High exposure concentrations and short durations may also cause artifacts in laboratory studies. A dual-chamber plant growth system designed to minimize experimental artifacts was used to determine the uptake of [{sup 14}C] TCE by hydroponically grown hybrid poplar as a function of plant stress, exposure concentration, and exposure duration. The [{sup 14}]TCE recoveries ranged from 92 to 101% in 11 dosed chambers. Trichloroethylene mass equivalent concentrations in the shoot tissue were dependent on the amount of water transpired and the exposure concentration. Root-zone oxygen status die not significantly impact TCE uptake. Transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCFs) determined in these studies were independent of exposure duration and are much lower than those previously reported and predicted. The role of TSCF and other factors in estimating the significance of plant uptake in the phytoremediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater is discussed.

  16. In vitro shoot regeneration from leaf mesophyll protoplasts of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii).

    PubMed

    Park, Y G; Son, S H

    1992-02-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from leaf mesophyll of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra X P. maximowiczii) with a mean yield of 10.4 x 10(6) protoplasts per g fresh weight using 2.0% Cellulase 'Onozuka' R-10, 0.8% Macerozyme R-10, 1.2% Hemicellulase, 2.0% Driselase, and 0.05% Pectolyase Y-23 with CPW salts solution containing 0.6 M mannitol, 0.002 M DTT, 3 mM MES at pH 5.6. A liquid plating method produced the highest frequency of dividing protoplasts (48.6%) using an MS medium without NH4NO3. The highest percent of colony formation was 22.8%, produced with fabric supported semi-solid (0.5% w/v) agar plating method using the same culture medium. Growing cell colonies and/or micro-calli were transferred to a fresh semisolid agar medium containing 0.44 μM BAP and 9.0 μM 2,4-D. Multiple shoots were produced from protoplast-derived callus after culture on MS medium containing 6.8 μM zeatin. After root induction on half-strength MS medium that lacked growth regulators, shoots were transferred to pots containing artificial soil mix.

  17. Defining hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus trichocarpa) tolerance to ozone: identifying key parameters.

    PubMed

    Ryan, A; Cojocariu, C; Possell, M; Davies, W J; Hewitt, C N

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether two genotypes of hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus trichocarpa), previously classified as ozone tolerant and ozone sensitive, had differing physiological and biochemical responses when fumigated with 120 nL L(-1) ozone for 6 h per day for eight consecutive days. Isoprene emission rate, ozone uptake and a number of physiological and biochemical parameters were investigated before, during and after fumigation with ozone. Previous studies have shown that isoprene protects plants against oxidative stress. Therefore, it was hypothesized that these two genotypes would differ in either their basal isoprene emission rates or in the response of isoprene to fumigation by ozone. Our results showed that the basal emission rates of isoprene, physiological responses and ozone uptake rates were all similar. However, significant differences were found in visible damage, carotenoids, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), thiobarbituric acid reactions (TBARS) and post-fumigation isoprene emission rates. It is shown that, although the classification of ozone tolerance or sensitivity had been previously clearly and carefully defined using one particular set of parameters, assessment of other key variables does not necessarily lead to the same conclusions. Thus, it may be necessary to reconsider the way in which plants are classified as ozone tolerant or sensitive.

  18. A National Assessment of Promising Areas for Switchgrass, Hybrid Poplar, or Willow Energy Crop Production

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to systematically assess the cropland acreage that could support energy crops and the expected farm gate and delivered prices of energy crops. The assessment is based on output from two modeling approaches: (1) the Oak Ridge County-Level Energy Crop (ORECCL) database (1996 version) and (2) the Oak Ridge Integrated Bioenergy Analysis System (ORIBAS). The former provides county-level estimates of suitable acres, yields, and farmgate prices of energy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, willow) for all fifty states. The latter estimates delivered feedstock prices and quantities within a state at a fine resolution (1 km2) and considers the interplay between transportation costs, farmgate prices, cropland density, and facility demand. It can be used to look at any type of feedstock given the appropriate input parameters. For the purposes of this assessment, ORIBAS has been used to estimate farmgate and delivered switchgrass prices in 11 states (AL, FL, GA, IA, M N, MO, ND, NE, SC, SD, and TN). Because the potential for energy crop production can be considered from several perspectives, and is evolving as policies, economics and our basic understanding of energy crop yields and production costs change, this assessment should be viewed as a snapshot in time.

  19. Delimbing hybrid poplar prior to processing with a flail/chipper

    Treesearch

    Bruce Hartsough; Raffaele Spinelli; Steve Pottle

    2000-01-01

    We compared the performance of a flail/chipper for processing a) whole poplar trees and b) poplar trees that had been roughly delimbed with a pull-through delimber. Production rate was about 10% higher for the delimbed trees. The reduced cost of flail/chipping would not cover the additional cost of delimbing with the machine mix tested, but changes to equipment might...

  20. Hydrolyzable tannins as "quantitative defenses": limited impact against Lymantria dispar caterpillars on hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Jaros, Adam; Lee, Grace; Mozola, Cara; Weir, Quentin; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2009-04-01

    The high levels of tannins in many tree leaves are believed to cause decreased insect performance, but few controlled studies have been done. This study tested the hypothesis that higher foliar tannin levels produce higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals (from tannin oxidation) in caterpillar midguts, and that elevated levels of radicals are associated with increased oxidative stress in midgut tissues and decreased larval performance. The tannin-free leaves of hybrid poplar (Populus tremulaxP. alba) were treated with hydrolyzable tannins, producing concentrations of 0%, 7.5% or 15% dry weight, and fed to Lymantria dispar caterpillars. As expected, larvae that ingested control leaves contained no measurable semiquinone radicals in the midgut, those that ingested 7.5% hydrolyzable tannin contained low levels of semiquinone radicals, and those that ingested 15% tannin contained greatly increased levels of semiquinone radicals. Ingested hydrolyzable tannins were also partially hydrolyzed in the midgut. However, increased levels of semiquinone radicals in the midgut were not associated with oxidative stress in midgut tissues. Instead, it appears that tannin consumption was associated with increased metabolic costs, as measured by the decreased efficiency of conversion of digested matter to body mass (ECD). Decreased ECD, in turn, decreased the overall efficiency of conversion of ingested matter to body mass (ECI). Contrary to our hypothesis, L. dispar larvae were able to maintain similar growth rates across all tannin treatment levels, in part, because of compensatory feeding. We conclude that hydrolyzable tannins act as "quantitative defenses" in the sense that high levels appear to be necessary to increase levels of semiquinone radicals in the midguts of caterpillars. However, these putative resistance factors are not sufficient to decrease the performance of tannin-tolerant caterpillars such as L. dispar.

  1. How does drought tolerance compare between two improved hybrids of balsam poplar and an unimproved native species?

    PubMed

    Larchevêque, Marie; Maurel, Marion; Desrochers, Annie; Larocque, Guy R

    2011-03-01

    Poplars are one of the woody plants that are very sensitive to water stress, which may reduce the productivity of fast-growing plantations. Poplars can exhibit several drought tolerance strategies that may impact productivity differently. Trees from two improved hybrids, Populus balsamifera × Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray (clone B × T) and P. balsamifera × Populus maximowiczii A. Henry (clone B × M), having P. balsamifera L. as a parent and trees from native and unimproved P. balsamifera were subjected to a 1-month drying cycle in a growth chamber and then rewatered. The unimproved and native B clone maintained higher stomatal conductance (g(s)) than the hybrids, and high photosynthetic activity and transpiration, even when soil water content was nearly zero. As a result, both instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE(i)) and leaf carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) indicated that this clone was less affected by drought than both hybrids at maximal drought stress. However, this clone shed its leaves when the drought threshold was exceeded, which implied a greater loss of productivity. The B × M hybrid showed a relatively conservative response to water stress, with the greatest decrease in transpiring versus absorbing surface (total leaf area to root biomass ratio). This clone was also the only one to develop new leaves after rewatering, and its total biomass production was not significantly decreased by drought. Among the two hybrids, clone B × T was the most vigorous, with the greatest transpiration (E(i)) and net CO(2) assimilation (A) rates, allowing for high biomass production. However, it had a more risky strategy under drought conditions by keeping its stomata open and high E(i) rates under moderate drought, resulting in a lower recovery rate after rewatering. The opposite drought response strategies of the two hybrids were reflected by clone B × T having lower WUE(i) values than clone B × M at maximal drought, with a

  2. Influence of brick air scrubber by-product on growth and development of corn and hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Carla N; Bauerle, William L; Owino, Tom O; Chastain, John P; Klaine, Stephen J

    2007-03-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of spent reagent from air pollution control scrubbers used at a brick manufacturing facility on emergence, growth, and physiological responses of corn and hybrid poplar plants. Scrubber by-product was obtained from General Shale Brick, Louisville, KY. Potting substrate was weighed and quantities of scrubber by-product were added to the substrate to obtain treatments of 0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% scrubber by-product (w:w) for the corn study. Each treatment mix was potted into nine replicate polyethylene pots and four corn seeds were sown per pot. The pots were randomized in a greenhouse at Clemson University and the number of seedlings emerging from each treatment, dark-adapted leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence, and shoot heights were measured at the end of a 21-day growth period. Then, dry shoot biomass was determined for plants from each treatment and plant tissues were analyzed for selected constituents. For the poplar study, nine-inch cuttings of hybrid poplar clone 15-29 (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) and clone OP367 (P. deltoides x P. nigra) were planted in treatments of scrubber by-product-potting soil mixes of 0% , 5% , 10% , and 25% w:w. Leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured over six weeks and cumulative leaf area, dry biomass, and nutrient content of tissues were determined upon harvest. Results of these studies indicate that percent seedling emergence for corn plants decreased with increasing scrubber by-product application rates. Application rates up to 12.5% scrubber by-product w:w had no adverse effect on corn seedling emergence. Shoot elongation, biomass production, and the status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the seedlings were also not severely impaired at applications below this level. A critical value of 58.2% w:w scrubber by-product was estimated to cause 25% inhibition of seedling emergence. Biomass production, cumulative leaf area, and chlorophyll a fluorescence of

  3. Spatial variability of soil carbon and nitrogen in two hybrid poplar-hay crop systems in southern Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winans, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Canadian agricultural operations contribute approximately 8% of national GHG emissions each year, mainly from fertilizers, enteric fermentation, and manure management (Environment Canada, 2010). With improved management of cropland and forests, it is possible to mitigate GHG emissions through carbon (C) sequestration while enhancing soil and crop productivity. Tree-based intercropped (TBI) systems, consisting of a fast-growing woody species such as poplar (Populus spp.) planted in widely-spaced rows with crops cultivated between tree rows, were one of the technologies prioritized for investigation by the Agreement for the Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Program (AAGGP), because fast growing trees can be a sink for atmospheric carbon-dioxide (CO2) as well as a long-term source of farm income (Montagnini and Nair, 2004). However, there are relatively few estimates of the C sequestration in the trees or due to tree inputs (e.g., fine root turnover, litterfall that gets incorporated into SOC), and hybrid poplars grow exponentially in the first 8-10 years after planting. With the current study, our objectives were (1) to evaluate spatial variation in soil C and nitrogen (N) storage, CO2 and nitrogen oxide (N20), and tree and crop productivity for two hybrid poplar-hay intercrop systems at year 9, comparing TBI vs. non-TBI systems, and (2) to evaluate TBI systems in the current context of C trading markets, which value C sequestration in trees, unharvested crop components, and soils of TBI systems. The study results will provide meaningful measures that indicate changes due to TBI systems in the short-term and in the long-term, in terms of GHG mitigation, enhanced soil and crop productivity, as well as the expected economic returns in TBI systems.

  4. Secondary successional trajectories of structural and catabolic bacterial communities in oil-polluted soil planted with hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shinjini; Sipilä, Timo; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Yrjälä, Kim

    2015-02-01

    Poplars have widely been used for rhizoremediation of a broad range of organic contaminants for the past two decades. Still, there is a knowledge gap regarding the rhizosphere-associated bacterial communities of poplars and their dynamics during the remediation process. It is envisaged that a detailed understanding of rhizosphere-associated microbial populations will greatly contribute to a better design and implementation of rhizoremediation. To investigate the long-term succession of structural and catabolic bacterial communities in oil-polluted soil planted with hybrid poplar, we carried out a 2-year field study. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) seedlings were planted in polluted soil excavated from an accidental oil-spill site. Vegetated and un-vegetated soil samples were collected for microbial community analyses at seven different time points during the course of 2 years and sampling time points were chosen to cover the seasonal variation in the boreal climate zone. Bacterial community structure was accessed by means of 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, whereas catabolic diversity was monitored by pyrosequencing of alkane hydroxylase and extradiol dioxygenase genes. We observed a clear succession of bacterial communities on both structural and functional levels from early to late-phase communities. Sphingomonas type extradiol dioxygenases and alkane hydroxylase homologs of Rhodococcus clearly dominated the early-phase communities. The high-dominance/low-diversity functional gene communities underwent a transition to low-dominance/high-diversity communities in the late phase. These results pointed towards increased catabolic capacities and a change from specialist to generalist strategy of bacterial communities during the course of secondary succession.

  5. Effect of hybrid poplar trees on microbial populations important to hazardous waste bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jordahl, J.L.; Foster, L.; Schnoor, J.L.; Alvarez, P.J.J.

    1997-06-01

    Microbial concentrations of denitrifiers, pseudomonads, and monoaromatic petroleum hydrocarbon (BTX) degraders were significantly higher (p < 0.1) in soil samples from the rhizosphere of poplar trees than in adjacent agricultural soils, and atrazine degraders were found only in one rhizosphere sample. The relative abundance of these phenotypes (as a fraction of total heterotrophs) was not significantly different between rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Therefore, the poplar rhizosphere enhanced the growth of microbial populations that participate in natural bioremediation without exerting selective pressure for them.

  6. Specific gravity of hybrid poplars in the north-central region, USA: within-tree variability and site × genotype effects

    Treesearch

    William L. Headlee; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Richard B. Hall; Edmund O. Bauer; Bradford Bender; Bruce A. Birr; Raymond O. Miller; Jesse A. Randall; Adam H. Wiese

    2013-01-01

    Specific gravity is an important consideration for traditional uses of hybrid poplars for pulp and solid wood products, as well as for biofuels and bioenergy production. While specific gravity has been shown to be under strong genetic control and subject to within-tree variability, the role of genotype × environment interactions is poorly understood. Most...

  7. Using a process-based model (3-PG) to predict and map hybrid poplar biomass productivity in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    Treesearch

    William L. Headlee; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Deahn M. Donner; Richard B. Hall

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid poplars have demonstrated high biomass productivity in the North Central USA as short rotation woody crops (SRWCs). However, our ability to quantitatively predict productivity for sites that are not currently in SRWCs is limited. As a result, stakeholders are also limited in their ability to evaluate different areas within the region as potential supply sheds...

  8. Evaluation of two hybrid poplar clones as constructed wetland plant species for treating saline water high in boron and selenium, or waters only high in boron

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wetland mesocosms were constructed to assess two salt- and B-tolerant hybrid poplar clones (Populus trichocarpa ×P. deltoides×P. nigra '345-1' and '347-14') for treating saline water high in boron (B) and selenium (Se). In addition, a hydroponic experiment was performed to test the B tolerance and B...

  9. Soil Management in Hardwood Plantations

    Treesearch

    B. G. Blackmon

    1978-01-01

    Several soil management techniques--fertilization, deep plowing, cover cropping, summer fallowing, Irrigation, and cultivation--can benefit hardwood plantations. The applicability of the treatments to plantations of cottonwood, sweetgum, sycamore, green ash, yellow-poplar, and oaks depends largely on site conditions.

  10. Growth of hybrid poplars, white spruce, and jack pine under various artificial lights.

    Treesearch

    Pamela S. Roberts; J. Zavitkovski

    1981-01-01

    Describes the energy consumption and biological effects of fluorescent, incandescent, and high pressure sodium lighting on the growth of poplars, white spruce, and jack pine in a greenhouse. At similar light levels the biological effects of all three light sources were similar. The incandescent lamps consumed several times more energy than the other two light...

  11. Reduced Expression of the SHORT-ROOT Gene Increases the Rates of Growth and Development in Hybrid Poplar and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiehua; Andersson-Gunnerås, Sara; Gaboreanu, Ioana; Hertzberg, Magnus; Tucker, Matthew R.; Zheng, Bo; Leśniewska, Joanna; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Laux, Thomas; Sandberg, Göran; Jones, Brian

    2011-01-01

    SHORT-ROOT (SHR) is a well characterized regulator of cell division and cell fate determination in the Arabidopsis primary root. However, much less is known about the functions of SHR in the aerial parts of the plant. In this work, we cloned SHR gene from Populus trichocarpa (PtSHR1) as an AtSHR ortholog and down-regulated its expression in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides Michx-clone T89) in order to determine its physiological functions in shoot development. Sharing a 90% similarity to AtSHR at amino acid level, PtSHR1 was able to complement the Arabidopsis shr mutant. Down regulation of PtSHR1 led to a strong enhancement of primary (height) and secondary (girth) growth rates in the transgenic poplars. A similar approach in Arabidopsis showed a comparable accelerated growth and development phenotype. Our results suggest that the response to SHR could be dose-dependent and that a partial down-regulation of SHR could lead to enhanced meristem activity and a coordinated acceleration of plant growth in woody species. Therefore, SHR functions in plant growth and development as a regulator of cell division and meristem activity not only in the roots but also in the shoots. Reducing SHR expression in transgenic poplar was shown to lead to significant increases in primary and secondary growth rates. Given the current interest in bioenergy crops, SHR has a broader role as a key regulator of whole plant growth and development and SHR suppression has considerable potential for accelerating biomass accumulation in a variety of species. PMID:22194939

  12. Reduced expression of the SHORT-ROOT gene increases the rates of growth and development in hybrid poplar and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiehua; Andersson-Gunnerås, Sara; Gaboreanu, Ioana; Hertzberg, Magnus; Tucker, Matthew R; Zheng, Bo; Leśniewska, Joanna; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Laux, Thomas; Sandberg, Göran; Jones, Brian

    2011-01-01

    SHORT-ROOT (SHR) is a well characterized regulator of cell division and cell fate determination in the Arabidopsis primary root. However, much less is known about the functions of SHR in the aerial parts of the plant. In this work, we cloned SHR gene from Populus trichocarpa (PtSHR1) as an AtSHR ortholog and down-regulated its expression in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides Michx-clone T89) in order to determine its physiological functions in shoot development. Sharing a 90% similarity to AtSHR at amino acid level, PtSHR1 was able to complement the Arabidopsis shr mutant. Down regulation of PtSHR1 led to a strong enhancement of primary (height) and secondary (girth) growth rates in the transgenic poplars. A similar approach in Arabidopsis showed a comparable accelerated growth and development phenotype. Our results suggest that the response to SHR could be dose-dependent and that a partial down-regulation of SHR could lead to enhanced meristem activity and a coordinated acceleration of plant growth in woody species. Therefore, SHR functions in plant growth and development as a regulator of cell division and meristem activity not only in the roots but also in the shoots. Reducing SHR expression in transgenic poplar was shown to lead to significant increases in primary and secondary growth rates. Given the current interest in bioenergy crops, SHR has a broader role as a key regulator of whole plant growth and development and SHR suppression has considerable potential for accelerating biomass accumulation in a variety of species.

  13. Cellulose and lignin biosynthesis is altered by ozone in wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × alba).

    PubMed

    Richet, Nicolas; Afif, Dany; Huber, Françoise; Pollet, Brigitte; Banvoy, Jacques; El Zein, Rana; Lapierre, Catherine; Dizengremel, Pierre; Perré, Patrick; Cabané, Mireille

    2011-06-01

    Wood formation in trees is a dynamic process that is strongly affected by environmental factors. However, the impact of ozone on wood is poorly documented. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ozone on wood formation by focusing on the two major wood components, cellulose and lignin, and analysing any anatomical modifications. Young hybrid poplars (Populus tremula × alba) were cultivated under different ozone concentrations (50, 100, 200, and 300 l l(-1)). As upright poplars usually develop tension wood in a non-set pattern, the trees were bent in order to induce tension wood formation on the upper side of the stem and normal or opposite wood on the lower side. Biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin (enzymes and RNA levels), together with cambial growth, decreased in response to ozone exposure. The cellulose to lignin ratio was reduced, suggesting that cellulose biosynthesis was more affected than that of lignin. Tension wood was generally more altered than opposite wood, especially at the anatomical level. Tension wood may be more susceptible to reduced carbon allocation to the stems under ozone exposure. These results suggested a coordinated regulation of cellulose and lignin deposition to sustain mechanical strength under ozone. The modifications of the cellulose to lignin ratio and wood anatomy could allow the tree to maintain radial growth while minimizing carbon cost.

  14. Post-treatment mechanical refining as a method to improve overall sugar recovery of steam pretreated hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Dou, Chang; Ewanick, Shannon; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of mechanical refining to improve the sugar yield from biomass processed under a wide range of steam pretreatment conditions. Hybrid poplar chips were steam pretreated using six different conditions with or without SO2. The resulting water insoluble fractions were subjected to mechanical refining. After refining, poplar pretreated at 205°C for 10min without SO2 obtained a 32% improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis and achieved similar overall monomeric sugar recovery (539kg/tonne) to samples pretreated with SO2. Refining did not improve hydrolyzability of samples pretreated at more severe conditions, nor did it improve the overall sugar recovery. By maximizing overall sugar recovery, refining could partially decouple the pretreatment from other unit operations, and enable the use of low temperature, non-sulfur pretreatment conditions. The study demonstrates the possibility of using post-treatment refining to accommodate potential pretreatment process upsets without sacrificing sugar yields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiplication and growth of hybrid poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) shoots on a hormone-free medium.

    PubMed

    Ziauka, J; Kuusienė, Sigutė

    2014-09-01

    The present study explored an alternative approach for poplar micropropagation, based on the restriction of gas exchange between inside and outside environments of culture vessel, rather than on the application of exogenous hormones. Apical and nodal stem segments (explants) excised from in vitro-developed shoots of hybrid white poplar (Populus alba L. × P. tremula L.) were incubated in either sealed (with Parafilm) or unsealed capped glass culture tubes (150 × 20 mm) on a hormone-free Woody Plant Medium. Shoot proliferation on apical explants was observed in sealed culture tubes but not in the unsealed ones; the difference between these two samples in respect of shoot number increased in the course of time and became threefold after three months of culture, with 3.2 ± 0.4 (mean ± SE) shoots per explant in the sealed tubes versus 1.1 ± 0.1 in the unsealed ones (for comparison, the mean shoot numbers on nodal explants were 2.4 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.4 in the unsealed and sealed culture tubes, respectively). Moreover, the shoots taken from the sealed culture tubes could be distinguished by superior shoot length, if compared to the shoots from the unsealed tubes, during the subsequent culture stage under uniform conditions.

  16. Cellulose and lignin biosynthesis is altered by ozone in wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×alba)

    PubMed Central

    Richet, Nicolas; Afif, Dany; Huber, Françoise; Pollet, Brigitte; Banvoy, Jacques; El Zein, Rana; Lapierre, Catherine; Dizengremel, Pierre; Perré, Patrick; Cabané, Mireille

    2011-01-01

    Wood formation in trees is a dynamic process that is strongly affected by environmental factors. However, the impact of ozone on wood is poorly documented. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ozone on wood formation by focusing on the two major wood components, cellulose and lignin, and analysing any anatomical modifications. Young hybrid poplars (Populus tremula×alba) were cultivated under different ozone concentrations (50, 100, 200, and 300 nl l−1). As upright poplars usually develop tension wood in a non-set pattern, the trees were bent in order to induce tension wood formation on the upper side of the stem and normal or opposite wood on the lower side. Biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin (enzymes and RNA levels), together with cambial growth, decreased in response to ozone exposure. The cellulose to lignin ratio was reduced, suggesting that cellulose biosynthesis was more affected than that of lignin. Tension wood was generally more altered than opposite wood, especially at the anatomical level. Tension wood may be more susceptible to reduced carbon allocation to the stems under ozone exposure. These results suggested a coordinated regulation of cellulose and lignin deposition to sustain mechanical strength under ozone. The modifications of the cellulose to lignin ratio and wood anatomy could allow the tree to maintain radial growth while minimizing carbon cost. PMID:21357770

  17. Boron accumulation and toxicity in hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × euramericana).

    PubMed

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Menon, Manoj; Lehmann, Eberhard; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schulin, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra × euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations <900 mg kg(-1) only <10% of the poplar leaf area showed signs of toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra × euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue.

  18. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Anne; Kleinschmit, Jörg R. G.; Schoneberg, Sebastian; Löffler, Sonja; Janßen, Alwin; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Woody crops such as poplars (Populus) can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested 9-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L.) × P. tremuloides (Michx.) lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites. PMID:26042130

  19. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Anne; Kleinschmit, Jörg R G; Schoneberg, Sebastian; Löffler, Sonja; Janßen, Alwin; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Woody crops such as poplars (Populus) can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested 9-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L.) × P. tremuloides (Michx.) lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites.

  20. Effects of thermo-hygro-mechanical densification on the surface characteristics of trembling aspen and hybrid poplar wood veneers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diouf, Papa Niokhor; Stevanovic, Tatjana; Cloutier, Alain; Fang, Chang-Hua; Blanchet, Pierre; Koubaa, Ahmed; Mariotti, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    The effect of thermo-hygro-mechanical (THM) densification temperature on the surface color, roughness, wettability, and chemical composition of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and hybrid poplar (Populus maximowiczii × P. balsamifera) veneers was investigated. Veneers were subjected to four THM densification temperatures (160 °C, 180 °C, 200 °C, and 220 °C). Veneer color darkened with increasing THM densification temperature. Surface roughness decreased between 160 °C and 200 °C. Wettability decreased after THM densification, but no significant difference was found between treated specimens. ATR-FTIR and XPS results confirmed that THM densification caused major chemical changes in veneer surfaces, and more pronounced at temperatures higher than 160 °C.

  1. Organosolv ethanol lignin from hybrid poplar as a radical scavenger: relationship between lignin structure, extraction conditions, and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xuejun; Kadla, John F; Ehara, Katsunobu; Gilkes, Neil; Saddler, Jack N

    2006-08-09

    Twenty-one organosolv ethanol lignin samples were prepared from hybrid poplar (Populus nigra xP. maximowiczii) under varied conditions with an experimental matrix designed using response surface methodology (RSM). The lignin preparations were evaluated as potential antioxidants. Results indicated that the lignins with more phenolic hydroxyl groups, less aliphatic hydroxyl groups, low molecular weight, and narrow polydispersity showed high antioxidant activity. Processing conditions affected the functional groups and molecular weight of the extracted organosolv ethanol lignins, and consequently influenced the antioxidant activity of the lignins. In general, the lignins prepared at elevated temperature, longer reaction time, increased catalyst, and diluted ethanol showed high antioxidant activity. Regression models were developed to enable the quantitative prediction of lignin characteristics and antioxidant activity based on the processing conditions.

  2. A preliminary investigation of the role of auxin and cytokinin in sylleptic branching of three hybrid poplar clones exhibiting contrasting degrees of sylleptic branching.

    PubMed

    Cline, Morris G; Dong-IL, Kim

    2002-09-01

    Sylleptic branches grow out from lateral buds during the same growing season in which the buds are formed. This type of branching is present in poplar and in many tropical species. It results in the production of more branches, more leaves and expanded photosynthetic capacity and is thought to assist in increasing the overall growth and biomass of the tree at a young age. However, very little is known about the physiology of sylleptic branching in poplar, which is an extremely important source of fibre and fuel. In the present study of three hybrid poplar clones (11-11, 47-174 and 49-177) of Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides exhibiting contrasting degrees of sylleptic branching, an analysis was carried out on parent shoot elongation and sylleptic branching, together with a preliminary comparison of the parent shoots' sensitivity to auxin (naphthaleneacetic acid) as a repressor of lateral bud outgrowth, and cytokinin (benzyladenine) as a promoter. Suggestive evidence was found for an inverse correlation between parent shoot sensitivity to auxin and the degree of sylleptic branching, as well as a partially positive correlation with respect to sensitivity to cytokinin. The present data are consistent with the hypothesis that auxin and cytokinin may play repressive and promotive roles, respectively, in the sylleptic branching of hybrid poplar.

  3. Planting yellow-poplar, white ash, black cherry, and black locust

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Williams; Calvin F. Bey

    1989-01-01

    Hardwood plantations that include yellow-poplar, white ash, black cherry, and black locust can be established on upland sites in the central hardwoods region (see Note 3.06 Seeding and Planting Upland Oaks, and Note 3.08 Seeding and Planting Walnut). Even though hardwoods are more difficult to establish than conifers, there are...

  4. Tree and stand water fluxes of hybrid poplar clone (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) in short rotation coppice culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M.; Trnka, M.; Kucera, J.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    This study reports on evapotranspiration and tree water use in short rotation coppice culture of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) for biomass energy in the Czech Republic. The high density poplar plantation (10 000 trees per ha) was established in 2003 on arable land in Czech-Moravian Highland (49°32´ N, 16°15´ E, 530 m a.s.l.) and has been coppiced in rotation period of 7 years. Firstly, evapotranspiration of the stand has been estimated by applying the Bowen ratio-energy budget method, which is considered as reliable, robust, quite simple and inexpensive technique with comparable results to eddy covariance and lysimeters. The gaps in evapotranspiration diurnal patterns caused by limitation of the bowen ratio method were filled with simple linear regression model based on relation between potential and actual evapotranspiration with regard to soil water availability and leaf area index and thus the daily, monthly and seasonal totals could be calculated. The amount of evapotranspiration during the growing season 2009 (1 March - 31 October) was 593 mm with highest monthly total 116 mm in June. Mean daily water loss over the season reached 2.43 mm per day. During the hot summer day, the maximal value 5.73 mm per day, which presented 89 % of potential evapotranspiration calculated by Penman equation, was recorded with a peak rate 0.94 mm per hour. Secondly, the transpiration was measured by sap flow tissue heat balance techniques on four individual trees with greatest stem diameters (11 - 12 cm d.b.h.) and height of 12 - 12.5 m. Relatively high transpiration values by the poplars were found during the measured part of growing season (18 June - 31 October), with maximum and mean daily transpiration of 44.41 dm3 and 16.69 dm3 per day, respectively. The seasonal transpiration of the most vigorous from the investigated individuals amounted 2542 dm3. Because in this study we didńt evaluate the transpiration of thinner trees (technical features of sap

  5. Phasing Variants in Poplar Trees using a Hybrid of Short & Long Read Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Schackwitz, Wendy; Martin, Joel; Lipzen, Anna; Pennacchio, Len; Tuskan, Gerald

    2013-03-26

    Poplar grow throughout the West coast & are adapted to extremely variable conditions. To examine what allows for this wide range of growth conditions, Jerry Tuskan's team has collected 1000 different individuals from British Columbia to California. In 2009, three Common Gardens were established where each individual was cloned in triplicate. Nearly all of these trees have been sequenced using short read technology, revealing a huge degree of variation in genotype. Correlating this genomic variation to phenotype would be greatly be strengthened if the variants could be phased into long haplotype blocks.

  6. Development of a Southern Appalachian Hardwood Stand After Clearcutting

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck; Ralph M. Hooper

    1986-01-01

    A mixed hardwood stand composed of 53% oak (Quercus spp.), 33% yellow-poplar(Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and 14% other species, was clearcut in 1963. Twenty years later a developing, even-aged stand of predominantly sprout origin is dominated by yellow-poplar, black locust(Robinia pseudoacacia L.), redmaple (...

  7. Chemical responses to modified lignin composition in tension wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba).

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Jameel M; Kang, Kyu-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D; Telewski, Frank W

    2013-04-01

    The effect of altering the expression level of the F5H gene was investigated in three wood tissues (normal, opposite and tension wood) in 1-year-old hybrid poplar clone 717 (Populus tremula × Populus alba L.), containing the F5H gene under the control of the C4H promoter. Elevated expression of the F5H gene in poplar has been previously reported to increase the percent syringyl content of lignin. The wild-type and three transgenic lines were inclined 45° for 3 months to induce tension wood formation. Tension and opposite wood from inclined trees, along with normal wood from control trees, were analyzed separately for carbohydrates, lignin, cellulose crystallinity and microfibril angle (MFA). In the wild-type poplar, the lignin in tension wood contained a significantly higher percentage of syringyl than normal wood or opposite wood. However, there was no significant difference in the percent syringyl content of the three wood types within each of the transgenic lines. Increasing the F5H gene expression caused an increase in the percent syringyl content and a slight decrease in the total lignin in normal wood. In tension wood, the addition of a gelatinous layer in the fiber walls resulted in a consistently lower percentage of total lignin in the tissue. Acid-soluble lignin was observed to increase by up to 2.3-fold in the transgenic lines. Compared with normal wood and opposite wood, cell wall crystallinity in tension wood was higher and the MFA was smaller, as expected, with no evidence of an effect from modifying the syringyl monomer ratio. Tension wood in all the lines contained consistently higher total sugar and glucose percentages when compared with normal wood within the respective lines. However, both sugar and glucose percentages were lower in the tension wood of transgenic lines when compared with the tension wood of wild-type trees. Evaluating the response of trees with altered syringyl content to gravity will improve our understanding of the changes

  8. Cloning, Functional Expression, and Subcellular Localization of Multiple NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductases from Hybrid Poplar1

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Dae-Kyun; Ehlting, Jürgen; Douglas, Carl J.

    2002-01-01

    NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) provides reducing equivalents to diverse cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. We isolated cDNAs for three CPR genes (CPR1, CPR2, and CPR3) from hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × Populus deltoides). Deduced CPR2 and CPR3 amino acid sequences were 91% identical, but encoded isoforms divergent from CPR1 (72% identity). CPR1 and CPR2 were co-expressed together with the P450 enzyme cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Microsomes isolated from strains expressing CPR1/C4H or CPR2/C4H enhanced C4H activities approximately 10-fold relative to the C4H-only control strain, and catalyzed NADPH-dependent cytochrome c reduction. The divergent CPR isoforms (CPR1 and CPR2/3) contained entirely different N-terminal sequences, which are conserved in other plant CPRs and are diagnostic for two distinct classes of CPRs within the angiosperms. C-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions to CPR1 and CPR2 were constructed and expressed in both yeast and Arabidopsis. The fusion proteins expressed in yeast retained the ability to support C4H activity and, thus, were catalytically active. Both CPR::green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were strictly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in transgenic Arabidopsis. The lack of localization of either isoform to chloroplasts, where P450s are known to be present, suggests that an alternative P450 reduction system may be operative in this organelle. Transcripts for the three poplar CPR genes were present ubiquitously in all tissues examined, but CPR2 showed highest expression in young leaf tissue. PMID:12481067

  9. Green revolution trees: semidwarfism transgenes modify gibberellins, promote root growth, enhance morphological diversity, and reduce competitiveness in hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Elias, Ani A; Busov, Victor B; Kosola, Kevin R; Ma, Cathleen; Etherington, Elizabeth; Shevchenko, Olga; Gandhi, Harish; Pearce, David W; Rood, Stewart B; Strauss, Steven H

    2012-10-01

    Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA(20) and GA(8), in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations.

  10. Mycorrhizae of poplars

    Treesearch

    R. C. Schultz; J. G. Isebrands; P. P. Kormanik

    1983-01-01

    Poplar hybrids, being screened for short-rotation intensive culture, can form ecto-, endo-, or ectendo-mycorrhizae or may be autotrophic. Different sections of the genus Populus tend to be selective in the type of mycorrhizae formed. Knowledge of which types are formed influences the kinds of propagule production, site preparation, and herbicide...

  11. Properties and utilization of poplar wood

    Treesearch

    John J. Balatinecz; David E. Kretschmann

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid poplars are fast-growing, moisture-loving, full-sun-loving large trees that can be a rapid source of wood fiber. With the introduction of waferboard, oriented strandboard (OSB), and laminated strand lumber (LSL), aspen utilization has dramatically increased. Indigenous and hybrid poplars, however, present their own challenges, such as high discoloration...

  12. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  13. Effects of low levels of ozone and sulfur dioxide on growth and physiology of hybrid poplar and soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted to assess the effects of low levels (< 0.15 ..mu..l l/sup -1/) of O/sub 3/ and/or SO/sub 2/ on plant growth and physiology. A new technique was used to expose unenclosed soybean (Glycine max cv Hark) and hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x trichocarpa) plants in the field with low levels of these two pollutants. Results of field studies indicated that: there were no significant interactions between the pollutants; exposure to low concentrations of either pollutant had negative, linear effects on plant growth and productivity; O/sub 3/ was approximately three times as phytotoxic as SO/sub 2/ on a concentration or dosage basis; and plant growth and productivity were significantly affected by levels of O/sub 3/ which are frequently found in ambient air, while effects of ambient levels of SO/sub 2/ were minimal. Results of these studies suggest that vegetation growing in areas that experience elevated O/sub 3/ levels probably suffer deleterious effects of such exposure. Low level O/sub 3/ pollution is widespread and therefore, this scenario has potentially far-reaching implications. In contrast, the lesser effects of low levels of SO/sub 2/ suggests that concern over this pollutant should be largely directed at sensitive species, areas of high concentrations, potential interactions, and/or as a contributing factor to acid precipitation.

  14. Physiology and Thermal Imaging of Poplar Hybrids with Varying Temperature Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, P.; Van Leeuwen, W. J. D.; McCorkel, J.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Moore, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    : Plants growing in high temperatures may suffer from reduced photosynthetic efficiency, increased water demand and thermal damage to tissue. Leaves may mitigate heat stress through physiological or physical strategies which include minimizing heat load, maximizing evaporative cooling or biochemical stabilization. In this study, leaf temperature of wild-type and genetically modified (GM) poplar trees was monitored using a thermal infrared camera and fine wire thermocouples. The GM trees did not have the capacity to produce the compound isoprene, hypothesized to biochemically protect plants against heat stress. One genotype had GM process applied, but retained isoprene making capacity (empty-vector). Temperature of ambient air and of an artificial leaf of similar size/color were also monitored. Photosynthesis and transpiration were measured using an infra-red gas analyzer. Leaf reflectance in an integrating sphere was determined using a spectrometer. Leaf temperature was maintained close to or below air temperature and was always lower than the fake (non-transpiring leaf). Different genetic lines maintained different leaf temperatures, especially during peak temperature in the mid afternoon. The variance in leaf temperature is explored in relation to its effects on transpiration, photosynthesis and growth across isoprene and non-isoprene emitting trees.

  15. The Effects on Lignin Structure of Overexpression of Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase in Hybrid Poplar1[W

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jaclyn J.; Akiyama, Takuya; Chapple, Clint; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2009-01-01

    Poplar (Populus tremula × alba) lignins with exceedingly high syringyl monomer levels are produced by overexpression of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene driven by a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) promoter. Compositional data derived from both standard degradative methods and NMR analyses of the entire lignin component (as well as isolated lignin fraction) indicated that the C4H∷F5H transgenic's lignin was comprised of as much as 97.5% syringyl units (derived from sinapyl alcohol), the remainder being guaiacyl units (derived from coniferyl alcohol); the syringyl level in the wild-type control was 68%. The resultant transgenic lignins are more linear and display a lower degree of polymerization. Although the crucial β-ether content is similar, the distribution of other interunit linkages in the lignin polymer is markedly different, with higher resinol (β-β) and spirodienone (β-1) contents, but with virtually no phenylcoumarans (β-5, which can only be formed from guaiacyl units). p-Hydroxybenzoates, acylating the γ-positions of lignin side chains, were reduced by >50%, suggesting consequent impacts on related pathways. A model depicting the putative structure of the transgenic lignin resulting from the overexpression of F5H is presented. The altered structural features in the transgenic lignin polymer, as revealed here, support the contention that there are significant opportunities to improve biomass utilization by exploiting the malleability of plant lignification processes. PMID:19386808

  16. Hardwood Fertilization: Research Progress in the Midsouth

    Treesearch

    B. G. Blackmon

    1974-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand for wood and wood products, the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory is investigating silvicultural techniques such as fertilization. Sweetgum, water oak, and willow oak have responded to N and NPK on clay soils of the Mississippi River floodplain. Yellow-poplar growth has been improved by NPK fertilizers on eroded sites in the Silty Uplands, and...

  17. Targeting hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demand for hardwood seedlings has prompted research to identify target seedling characteristics that promote hardwood plantation establishment. Operational establishment of hardwood plantations has typically emphasized seed collection from non-improved genetic sources, bareroot nursery seedling production, and spring planting using machine planters. The...

  18. Hardwood planting

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Hardwood planting used to be most common on private land. Now more and more hardwoods are being planted on public land. Not much hardwood planting research is going on but recent summaries of earlier trials allow us to give you the following guidelines.

  19. Transcriptome profiles of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) reveal rapid changes in undamaged, systemic sink leaves after simulated feeding by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria).

    PubMed

    Philippe, Ryan N; Ralph, Steven G; Mansfield, Shawn D; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2010-11-01

    Poplar has been established as a model tree system for genomic research of the response to biotic stresses. This study describes a series of induced transcriptome changes and the associated physiological characterization of local and systemic responses in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) after simulated herbivory. • Responses were measured in local source (LSo), systemic source (SSo), and systemic sink (SSi) leaves following application of forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) oral secretions to mechanically wounded leaves. • Transcriptome analyses identified spatially and temporally dynamic, distinct patterns of local and systemic gene expression in LSo, SSo and SSi leaves. Galactinol synthase was strongly and rapidly upregulated in SSi leaves. Genome analyses and full-length cDNA cloning established an inventory of poplar galactinol synthases. Induced changes of galactinol and raffinose oligosaccharides were detected by anion-exchange high-pressure liquid chromatography. • The LSo leaves showed a rapid and strong transcriptome response compared with a weaker and slower response in adjacent SSo leaves. Surprisingly, the transcriptome response in distant, juvenile SSi leaves was faster and stronger than that observed in SSo leaves. Systemic transcriptome changes of SSi leaves have signatures of rapid change of metabolism and signaling, followed by later induction of defense genes.

  20. Plantation forestry under global warming: hybrid poplars with improved thermotolerance provide new insights on the in vivo function of small heat shock protein chaperones.

    PubMed

    Merino, Irene; Contreras, Angela; Jing, Zhong-Ping; Gallardo, Fernando; Cánovas, Francisco M; Gómez, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Climate-driven heat stress is a key factor affecting forest plantation yields. While its effects are expected to worsen during this century, breeding more tolerant genotypes has proven elusive. We report here a substantial and durable increase in the thermotolerance of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×Populus alba) through overexpression of a major small heat shock protein (sHSP) with convenient features. Experimental evidence was obtained linking protective effects in the transgenic events with the unique chaperone activity of sHSPs. In addition, significant positive correlations were observed between phenotype strength and heterologous sHSP accumulation. The remarkable baseline levels of transgene product (up to 1.8% of total leaf protein) have not been reported in analogous studies with herbaceous species. As judged by protein analyses, such an accumulation is not matched either by endogenous sHSPs in both heat-stressed poplar plants and field-grown adult trees. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses supported these observations and allowed us to identify the poplar members most responsive to heat stress. Interestingly, sHSP overaccumulation was not associated with pleiotropic effects that might decrease yields. The poplar lines developed here also outperformed controls under in vitro and ex vitro culture conditions (callus biomass, shoot production, and ex vitro survival), even in the absence of thermal stress. These results reinforce the feasibility of improving valuable genotypes for plantation forestry, a field where in vitro recalcitrance, long breeding cycles, and other practical factors constrain conventional genetic approaches. They also provide new insights into the biological functions of the least understood family of heat shock protein chaperones.

  1. Investigation on metal tolerance and phytoremoval activity in the poplar hybrid clone "Monviso" under Cu-spiked water: Potential use for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pietrini, Fabrizio; Di Baccio, Daniela; Iori, Valentina; Veliksar, Sofia; Lemanova, Natalia; Juškaitė, Liudvika; Maruška, Audrius; Zacchini, Massimo

    2017-08-15

    A serious concern for the environmental and human health is represented by the increasing copper (Cu) occurrence in agricultural soils and waters, because of the possible food contamination and bioaugmentation along the trophic chain. The request for the decontamination of different matrices with an environmentally sustainable technology as the phytoremediation should be addressed by selecting plant materials with improved pollutant tolerance and removal capability. With this purpose, plants of the hybrid poplar clone "Monviso" (Populus×generosa A. Henry×P. nigra L.) were grown in growth chamber under hydroponics and exposed to excess Cu concentrations (T1, 75μM Cu; T2, 150μM Cu), selected as about 5 and 10 times higher than those allowed by the Italian regulation on water use. Results evidenced a notable Cu tolerance by poplar plants, particularly at the lowest Cu concentration. At organ level, the root system was the most affected by Cu treatment, especially in T2-exposed plants. Copper determinations revealed that the metal was mostly bioaccumulated in the roots, with a limited amount reaching the shoots. Chlorophyll content and fluorescence analyses confirmed the visible symptoms in leaves, highlighting a good physiological status in T1-exposed plants. Contrarily, an impairment of the main processes associated to photosynthesis was observed in T2-exposed plants also by gas exchange measurements. Remarkably, the Cu content analysis of the spiked water solutions revealed that poplar plants succeeded in removing almost the 50% of the total Cu amount added. These results strengthen the evidence that poplar plants represent a useful eco-friendly bio-tool for the decontamination of metal polluted waters.

  2. Plantation Forestry under Global Warming: Hybrid Poplars with Improved Thermotolerance Provide New Insights on the in Vivo Function of Small Heat Shock Protein Chaperones1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Irene; Contreras, Angela; Jing, Zhong-Ping; Gallardo, Fernando; Cánovas, Francisco M.; Gómez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Climate-driven heat stress is a key factor affecting forest plantation yields. While its effects are expected to worsen during this century, breeding more tolerant genotypes has proven elusive. We report here a substantial and durable increase in the thermotolerance of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) through overexpression of a major small heat shock protein (sHSP) with convenient features. Experimental evidence was obtained linking protective effects in the transgenic events with the unique chaperone activity of sHSPs. In addition, significant positive correlations were observed between phenotype strength and heterologous sHSP accumulation. The remarkable baseline levels of transgene product (up to 1.8% of total leaf protein) have not been reported in analogous studies with herbaceous species. As judged by protein analyses, such an accumulation is not matched either by endogenous sHSPs in both heat-stressed poplar plants and field-grown adult trees. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses supported these observations and allowed us to identify the poplar members most responsive to heat stress. Interestingly, sHSP overaccumulation was not associated with pleiotropic effects that might decrease yields. The poplar lines developed here also outperformed controls under in vitro and ex vitro culture conditions (callus biomass, shoot production, and ex vitro survival), even in the absence of thermal stress. These results reinforce the feasibility of improving valuable genotypes for plantation forestry, a field where in vitro recalcitrance, long breeding cycles, and other practical factors constrain conventional genetic approaches. They also provide new insights into the biological functions of the least understood family of heat shock protein chaperones. PMID:24306533

  3. Predicting the effect of deep-rooted hybrid poplars on the groundwater flow system at a large-scale phytoremediation site.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J. J.; Negri, M. C.; Hinchman, R. R.; Moos, L. P.; Wozniak, J. B.; Gatliff, E. G.; Applied Natural Sciences, Inc.

    2001-03-01

    Estimating the effect of phreatophytes on the groundwater flow field is critical in the design or evaluation of a phytoremediation system. Complex hydrogeological conditions and the transient water use rates of trees require the application of numerical modeling to address such issues as hydraulic containment, seasonality, and system design. In 1999, 809 hybrid poplars and willows were planted to phytoremediate the 317 and 319 Areas of Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, Illinois. Contaminants of concern are volatile organic compounds and tritium. The site hydrogeology is a complex framework of glacial tills interlaced with sands, gravels, and silts of varying character, thickness, and lateral extent. A total of 420 poplars were installed using a technology to direct the roots through a 25-ft (8-m)-thick till to a contaminated aquifer. Numerical modeling was used to simulate the effect of the deep-rooted poplars on this aquifer of concern. Initially, the best estimates of input parameters and boundary conditions were determined to provide a suitable match to historical transient ground-water flow conditions. The model was applied to calculate the future effect of the developing deep-rooted poplars over a 6 year period. The first 3 years represent the development period of the trees. In the fourth year, canopy closure is expected to occur; modeling continues through the first 3 years of the mature plantation. Monthly estimates of water use by the trees are incorporated. The modeling suggested that the mature trees in the plantation design will provide a large degree of containment of groundwater from the upgradient source areas, despite the seasonal nature of the trees' water consumption. The results indicate the likely areas where seasonal dewatering of the aquifer may limit the availability of water for the trees. The modeling also provided estimates of the residence time of groundwater in the geochemically altered rhizosphere of the plantation.

  4. Phenotypic and developmental plasticity of xylem in hybrid poplar saplings subjected to experimental drought, nitrogen fertilization, and shading

    PubMed Central

    Plavcová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Variation in xylem structure and function has been extensively studied across different species with a wide taxonomic, geographical, and ecological coverage. In contrast, our understanding of how xylem of a single species can adjust to different growing condition remains limited. Here phenotypic and developmental plasticity in xylem traits of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides) was studied. Clonally propagated saplings were grown under experimental drought, nitrogen fertilization, and shade for >30 d. Xylem hydraulic and anatomical traits were subsequently examined in stem segments taken from two different vertical positions along the plant’s main axis. The experimental treatments affected growth and development and induced changes in xylem phenotype. Across all treatments, the amount of leaf area supported by stem segments (AL) scaled linearly with stem native hydraulic conductivity (K native), suggesting that the area of assimilating leaves is constrained by the xylem transport capacity. In turn, K native was mainly driven by the size of xylem cross-sectional area (AX). Moreover, the structural and functional properties of xylem varied significantly. Vulnerability to cavitation, measured as the xylem pressure inducing 50% loss of conductivity (P50), ranged from –1.71MPa to –0.15MPa in saplings subjected to drought and nitrogen fertilization, respectively. Across all treatments and stem segment positions, P50 was tightly correlated with wood density. In contrast, no relationship between P50 and xylem-specific conductivity (K S) was observed. The results of this study enhance our knowledge of plant hydraulic acclimation and provide insights into common trade-offs that exist in xylem structure and function. PMID:23095999

  5. Phenotypic and developmental plasticity of xylem in hybrid poplar saplings subjected to experimental drought, nitrogen fertilization, and shading.

    PubMed

    Plavcová, Lenka; Hacke, Uwe G

    2012-11-01

    Variation in xylem structure and function has been extensively studied across different species with a wide taxonomic, geographical, and ecological coverage. In contrast, our understanding of how xylem of a single species can adjust to different growing condition remains limited. Here phenotypic and developmental plasticity in xylem traits of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides) was studied. Clonally propagated saplings were grown under experimental drought, nitrogen fertilization, and shade for >30 d. Xylem hydraulic and anatomical traits were subsequently examined in stem segments taken from two different vertical positions along the plant's main axis. The experimental treatments affected growth and development and induced changes in xylem phenotype. Across all treatments, the amount of leaf area supported by stem segments (A(L)) scaled linearly with stem native hydraulic conductivity (K (native)), suggesting that the area of assimilating leaves is constrained by the xylem transport capacity. In turn, K (native) was mainly driven by the size of xylem cross-sectional area (A(X)). Moreover, the structural and functional properties of xylem varied significantly. Vulnerability to cavitation, measured as the xylem pressure inducing 50% loss of conductivity (P50), ranged from -1.71 MPa to -0.15 MPa in saplings subjected to drought and nitrogen fertilization, respectively. Across all treatments and stem segment positions, P50 was tightly correlated with wood density. In contrast, no relationship between P50 and xylem-specific conductivity (K (S)) was observed. The results of this study enhance our knowledge of plant hydraulic acclimation and provide insights into common trade-offs that exist in xylem structure and function.

  6. Altering carbon allocation in hybrid poplar ( Populus alba × grandidentata ) impacts cell wall growth and development

    DOE PAGES

    Unda, Faride; Kim, Hoon; Hefer, Charles; ...

    2017-03-04

    Galactinol synthase is a pivotal enzyme involved in the synthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) that function as transport carbohydrates in the phloem, as storage compounds in sink tissues and as soluble metabolites that combat both abiotic and biotic stress in several plant species. For hybrid poplar (Populus alba 9 grandidentata) overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana GolS3 (AtGolS3) gene showed clear effects on development; the extreme overexpressing lines were stunted and had cell wall traits characteristic of tension wood, whereas lines with only moderate up-regulation grew normally and had moderately altered secondary cell wall composition and ultrastructure. Stem cross-sectionsmore » of the developing xylem revealed a significant increase in the number of vessels, as well as the clear presence of a G-layer in the fibres. Furthermore, AtGolS3-OE lines possessed higher cellulose and lower lignin contents, an increase in cellulose crystallinity, and significantly altered hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates, notably manifested by their mannose and xylose contents. Additionally, the transgenic plants displayed elevated xylem starch content. Transcriptome interrogation of the transgenic plants showed a significant up-regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of myo-inositol, along with genes involved in sucrose degradation. Our results suggest that the over expression of GolS and its product galactinol may serve as a molecular signal that initiates metabolic changes, culminating in a change in cell wall development and potentially the formation of tension wood.« less

  7. Altering carbon allocation in hybrid poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata) impacts cell wall growth and development.

    PubMed

    Unda, Faride; Kim, Hoon; Hefer, Charles; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2017-07-01

    Galactinol synthase is a pivotal enzyme involved in the synthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) that function as transport carbohydrates in the phloem, as storage compounds in sink tissues and as soluble metabolites that combat both abiotic and biotic stress in several plant species. Hybrid poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata) overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana GolS3 (AtGolS3) gene showed clear effects on development; the extreme overexpressing lines were stunted and had cell wall traits characteristic of tension wood, whereas lines with only moderate up-regulation grew normally and had moderately altered secondary cell wall composition and ultrastructure. Stem cross-sections of the developing xylem revealed a significant increase in the number of vessels, as well as the clear presence of a G-layer in the fibres. Furthermore, AtGolS3-OE lines possessed higher cellulose and lower lignin contents, an increase in cellulose crystallinity, and significantly altered hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates, notably manifested by their mannose and xylose contents. In addition, the transgenic plants displayed elevated xylem starch content. Transcriptome interrogation of the transgenic plants showed a significant up-regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of myo-inositol, along with genes involved in sucrose degradation. The results suggest that the overexpression of GolS and its product galactinol may serve as a molecular signal that initiates metabolic changes, culminating in a change in cell wall development and potentially the formation of tension wood. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Threshold response of mesophyll CO2 conductance to leaf hydraulics in highly transpiring hybrid poplar clones exposed to soil drying

    PubMed Central

    Pepin, Steeve

    2014-01-01

    Mesophyll conductance (g m) has been shown to impose significant limitations to net CO2 assimilation (A) in various species during water stress. Net CO2 assimilation is also limited by stomatal conductance to water (g sw), both having been shown to co-vary with leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf). Lately, several studies have suggested a close functional link between K leaf, g sw, and g m. However, such relationships could only be circumstantial since a recent study has shown that the response of g m to drought could merely be an artefactual consequence of a reduced intercellular CO2 mole fraction (C i). Experiments were conducted on 8-week-old hybrid poplar cuttings to determine the relationship between K leaf, g sw, and g m in clones of contrasting drought tolerance. It was hypothesized that changes in g sw and K leaf in response to drought would not impact on g m over most of its range. The results show that K leaf decreased in concert with g sw as drought proceeded, whereas g m measured at a normalized C i remained relatively constant up to a g sw threshold of ~0.15mol m–2 s–1. This delayed g m response prevented a substantial decline in A at the early stage of the drought, thereby enhancing water use efficiency. Reducing the stomatal limitation of droughted plants by diminishing the ambient CO2 concentration of the air did not modify g m or K leaf. The relationship between gas exchange and leaf hydraulics was similar in both drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive clones despite their contrasting vulnerability to stem cavitation and stomatal response to soil drying. The results support the hypothesis of a partial hydraulic isolation of the mesophyll from the main transpiration pathway. PMID:24368507

  9. Potential Utilization of Sweetgum and Yellow-Poplar for Structural Lumber

    Treesearch

    Timothy D. Faust; Robert H. McAlister; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Christopher B. Stephens

    1991-01-01

    The forest resource base in the Southeast is rapidly changing. Dwindling reserves of high quality pine sawlogs will provide incentive to utilize low-density hardwoods such as yellow-poplar and sweetgum for structural lumber. Inventories of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua, L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera, L.) are currently high and growth is exceeding...

  10. Ecology and silviculture of poplar plantations.

    SciTech Connect

    Stanturf, John A.; Van Oosten, Cees; Netzer, Daniel A.

    2002-07-01

    D.I.; Isebrands, J.G.; Eckenwalder, J.E.; Richardson, J., eds. Poplar culture in North America, part A, chapter 5. Ottawa: NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada: 153-206. ABSTRACT. Poplars are some of the fastest growing trees in North America and foresters have sought to capitalize on this potential since the 1940s. Interest in growing poplars has fluctuated, and objectives have shifted between producing sawlogs, pulp-wood, or more densely spaced "woodgrass" or biofuels. Currently, most poplar plantations are established for pulpwood or chip production on rotations of 10 years or less, but interest in sawlog production is increasing. Sid McKnight characterized cottonwood as a prima donna species: under ideal conditions, growth rates are just short of spectacular. Just as this can be applied to all poplars, it is equally true that all poplars are demanding of good sites and careful establishment. Growing poplars in plantations is challenging, and good establishment the first year is critical to long-term success. If a grower lacks the commitment or resources to provide needed treatments at critical times, then species other than poplars should be considered. Our objective in this chapter is to provide growers with current information for establishing and tending poplar plantations, as practiced in North America. Where we have sufficient information, differences between the poplar-growing regions of the United States and Canada will be noted. Mostly information is available on eastern and black cottonwood and their hybrids.

  11. Enhanced expression of glutamine synthetase (GS1a) confers altered fibre and wood chemistry in field grown hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X alba) (717-1B4).

    PubMed

    Coleman, Heather D; Cánovas, Francisco M; Man, Huimin; Kirby, Edward G; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2012-09-01

    Hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X P. alba) genetically engineered to express the pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene (GS1a) has been previously shown to display desirable field performance characteristics, including enhancements in growth and nitrogen use efficiency. Analysis of wood samples from a 3-year-old field trial of three independently transformed GS1a transgenic hybrid poplar lines revealed that, when compared with wild-type controls, ectopic expression of GS1a resulted in alterations in wood properties and wood chemistry. Included were significant enhancements in wood fibre length, wood density, microfibre angle, per cent syringyl lignin and elevated concentrations of wood sugars, specifically glucose, galactose, mannose and xylose. Total extractive content and acid-insoluble lignin were significantly reduced in wood of GS1a transgenics when compared with wild-type trees. Together, these cell wall characteristics resulted in improved wood pulping attributes, including improved lignin solubilization with no concurrent decrease in yield. Trees with increased GS1a expression have improved characteristics for pulp and paper production and hold potential as a feedstock for biofuels production.

  12. Grade Distribution and Drying Degrade of Sweetgum and Yellow-poplar Structural Lumber

    Treesearch

    Timothy D. Faust

    1990-01-01

    The fact that the supply of southern pine timber is changing to include more lower quality plantation stock may provide incentive for utilizing lower density hardwoods for structural lumber. Yellow-poplar and sweetgum are potential substitutes for southern pine. A major problem in utilizing soft hardwoods for structural lumber is the difficulties associated with drying...

  13. Growth of Planted Yellow-Poplar After Vertical Mulching and Fertilization on Eroded Soils

    Treesearch

    J.B. Baker; B.G. Blackmon

    1976-01-01

    Fertilization and vertical mulching improved height growth of yellow-poplars planted on eroded soils. A growing demand for hardwood timber accompanied by a diminishing land base has prompted land managers to consider planting hardwoods on marginal sites such as the eroded soils in the Silty Uplands of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Many of these areas were well...

  14. Characterization of hemizygous deletions in citrus using array-comparative genomic hybridization and microsynteny comparisons with the poplar genome.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Gabino; Naranjo, Miguel A; Iglesias, Domingo J; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; Geraud, Marion; Usach, Antonio; Talón, Manuel

    2008-08-09

    Many fruit-tree species, including relevant Citrus spp varieties exhibit a reproductive biology that impairs breeding and strongly constrains genetic improvements. In citrus, juvenility increases the generation time while sexual sterility, inbreeding depression and self-incompatibility prevent the production of homozygous cultivars. Genomic technology may provide citrus researchers with a new set of tools to address these various restrictions. In this work, we report a valuable genomics-based protocol for the structural analysis of deletion mutations on an heterozygous background. Two independent fast neutron mutants of self-incompatible clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tan. cv. Clemenules) were the subject of the study. Both mutants, named 39B3 and 39E7, were expected to carry DNA deletions in hemizygous dosage. Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) using a Citrus cDNA microarray allowed the identification of underrepresented genes in these two mutants. Subsequent comparison of citrus deleted genes with annotated plant genomes, especially poplar, made possible to predict the presence of a large deletion in 39B3 of about 700 kb and at least two deletions of approximately 100 and 500 kb in 39E7. The deletion in 39B3 was further characterized by PCR on available Citrus BACs, which helped us to build a partial physical map of the deletion. Among the deleted genes, ClpC-like gene coding for a putative subunit of a multifunctional chloroplastic protease involved in the regulation of chlorophyll b synthesis was directly related to the mutated phenotype since the mutant showed a reduced chlorophyll a/b ratio in green tissues. In this work, we report the use of array-CGH for the successful identification of genes included in a hemizygous deletion induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. The study of gene content and order into the 39B3 deletion also led to the unexpected conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity in

  15. Characterization of hemizygous deletions in Citrus using array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization and microsynteny comparisons with the poplar genome

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Gabino; Naranjo, Miguel A; Iglesias, Domingo J; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; Geraud, Marion; Usach, Antonio; Talón, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Many fruit-tree species, including relevant Citrus spp varieties exhibit a reproductive biology that impairs breeding and strongly constrains genetic improvements. In citrus, juvenility increases the generation time while sexual sterility, inbreeding depression and self-incompatibility prevent the production of homozygous cultivars. Genomic technology may provide citrus researchers with a new set of tools to address these various restrictions. In this work, we report a valuable genomics-based protocol for the structural analysis of deletion mutations on an heterozygous background. Results Two independent fast neutron mutants of self-incompatible clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tan. cv. Clemenules) were the subject of the study. Both mutants, named 39B3 and 39E7, were expected to carry DNA deletions in hemizygous dosage. Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) using a Citrus cDNA microarray allowed the identification of underrepresented genes in these two mutants. Subsequent comparison of citrus deleted genes with annotated plant genomes, especially poplar, made possible to predict the presence of a large deletion in 39B3 of about 700 kb and at least two deletions of approximately 100 and 500 kb in 39E7. The deletion in 39B3 was further characterized by PCR on available Citrus BACs, which helped us to build a partial physical map of the deletion. Among the deleted genes, ClpC-like gene coding for a putative subunit of a multifunctional chloroplastic protease involved in the regulation of chlorophyll b synthesis was directly related to the mutated phenotype since the mutant showed a reduced chlorophyll a/b ratio in green tissues. Conclusion In this work, we report the use of array-CGH for the successful identification of genes included in a hemizygous deletion induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. The study of gene content and order into the 39B3 deletion also led to the unexpected conclusion that microsynteny

  16. Species composition changes under individual tree selection cutting in cove hardwoods

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1965-01-01

    In the past, uncontrolled clearcutting on many of the good to excellent hardwood sites in the Appalachians has resulted in forest stands composed of the so-called cove hardwoods, a high proportion of which are intolerant species. Characteristically these stands run heavily to yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), northern red oak (...

  17. Weight, Volume, and Physical Properties of Major Hardwood Species in the Upland-South

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Douglas R. Phillips; Douglas J. Frederick

    1986-01-01

    The weight, volume, and physical properties oftrees1 to 20 inchesd.b.h.were determined for sweetgum, yellow-poplar, hickory, post oak, scarlet oak, southern red oak, and white oakin northern Alabama and Mississippi, eastern Arkansas, southern Kentucky and Tennessee. Hard hardwoods, soft hardwoods, and individual species equations are presented for predicting green and...

  18. Weight, Volume, and Physical Properties of Major Hardwood Species in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Douglas R. Phillips; Douglas J. Frederick

    1985-01-01

    The weight, volume, and physical properties of trees 1 to 20 inches d.b.h. were determined for green ash, blackgum, red maple, sweetgum, water tupelo, yellow-poplar, hickory, laurel oak, water oak, and white oak in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Hard hardwood, soft hardwood, and individual species equations are presented for predicting green and dry weight...

  19. Locust sprouts reduce growth of yellow-poplar seedlings

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck; Charles E. McGee

    1974-01-01

    Dense thickets of black locust which often appear after clearcutting in the Southern Appalachians and Piedmont, can severely reduce growth of other desirable hardwoods. Released yellow-poplar seedlings were 51 percent taller and 79 percent larger in diameter than unreleased ones 6 years after treatment.

  20. The low fertility of Chinese white poplar: dynamic changes in anatomical structure, endogenous hormone concentrations, and key gene expression in the reproduction of a naturally occurring hybrid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kaifeng; Song, Yuepeng; Huang, Zhen; Lin, Liyuan; Zhang, Zhiyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We report that low fertility during intraspecific hybridization in Chinese white poplar was caused by prefertilization barriers, reduced ovules, and embryonic abortion. Hormone concentrations and gene expression patterns were also evaluated during the fertilization process. Hybrid vigor holds tremendous potential for yield increases and trait improvement; however, some hybridization combinations within Populus show very low fertility. To explore the causes of this low fertility in intraspecific hybridization of Chinese white poplar, we examined anatomical structure, hormone levels and expression of key genes in two unique crossing combinations of Populus × tomentosa "Pt02" × P. × tomentosa "LM50", and (P. × tomentosa × P. alba cv. bolleana "Ptb") × P. × tomentosa "LM50". The seed set potential in the intraspecific hybridization P. × tomentosa "Pt02" × P. × tomentosa "LM50" was quite low, which was likely caused by prefertilization barriers, reduced ovule numbers, and embryonic abortion in ovaries. During intraspecific hybridization, we found reduced indoleacetic acid (IAA) in pistils, which may cause pollen tube deformations and increased IAA in heart-stage embryos, which may affect embryo development. Gibberellin A3 (GA3) decreased from the zygote dormancy stage to globular-stage embryos, which may be caused by failure of fertilization in specific embryos. The maximum zeatin (Z) concentration was found in heart-stage embryos, but Z concentrations quickly decreased, which may affect endosperm development. Increasing concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) during zygote dormancy and eight-cell proembryo stages likely induced abscission of the infructescence. High ABA concentrations also regulated embryo maturity. Measurement of genes expression showed that high expression of SRK and/or SLG may result in rejection of pollen by stigmatic papillae through a mechanism, reminiscent of self-incompatibility. Also, low expression of

  1. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.; Colcord, A.R.; Faass, S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Roberts, R.S.

    1982-08-01

    To produce ethanol from hardwood it is desirable to fractionate the hardwood in order to produce a relatively pure cellulosic pulp for dilute acid hydrolysis. An experimental investigation of continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar wood chips indicates that over 90% of the lignin present can be extracted by 0.1N sodium hydroxide, resulting in a cellulose pulp containing over 90% hexosan. The study was performed using a Stake Technology, Ltd., continuous digester rated at one oven dry ton per hour of wood chips. The yields of hexosans, hexoses, xylan, xylose, lignin, furfural, acetic acid and methanol were determined as a function of residence time and steam pressure in the digester. The information provides a basis for establishing a material and energy balance for a hardwood to ethanol plant.

  2. Physiological, vascular and nanomechanical assessment of hybrid poplar leaf traits in micropropagated plants and plants propagated from root cuttings: A contribution to breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Husárová, Hana; Javoříková, Lucia; Čaňová, Ingrid; Šuleková, Miriama; Kardošová, Monika; Lukáčik, Ivan; Mamoňová, Miroslava; Lagaňa, Rastislav

    2017-09-01

    Micropropagated plants experience significant stress from rapid water loss when they are transferred from an in vitro culture to either greenhouse or field conditions. This is caused both by inefficient stomatal control of transpiration and the change to a higher light intensity and lower humidity. Understanding the physiological, vascular and biomechanical processes that allow micropropagated plants to modify their phenotype in response to environmental conditions can help to improve both field performance and plant survival. To identify changes between the hybrid poplar [Populus tremula × (Populus × canescens)] plants propagated from in vitro tissue culture and those from root cuttings, we assessed leaf performance for any differences in leaf growth, photosynthetic and vascular traits, and also nanomechanical properties of the tracheary element cell walls. The micropropagated plants showed significantly higher values for leaf area, leaf length, leaf width and leaf dry mass. The greater leaf area and leaf size dimensions resulted from the higher transpiration rate recorded for this stock type. Also, the micropropagated plants reached higher values for chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and for the nanomechanical dissipation energy of tracheary element cell walls which may indicate a higher damping capacity within the primary xylem tissue under abiotic stress conditions. The performance of the plants propagated from root cuttings was superior for instantaneous water-use efficiency which signifies a higher acclimation capacity to stressful conditions during a severe drought particularly for this stock type. Similarities were found among the majority of the examined leaf traits for both vegetative plant origins including leaf mass per area, stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate, hydraulic axial conductivity, indicators of leaf midrib vascular architecture, as well as for the majority of cell wall nanomechanical traits. This research revealed that

  3. Yields of ten and eleven year-old hybrid poplars in the north central United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Netzer, D.; Tolsted, D.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this research is to determine commercially attainable biomass yields given the best site tending possible under the constraints of this extensive network. Biomass yields are reported from the best clones planted in one acre blocks on 8 sites over the four states. Biomass yields are presented of short rotation intensively cultured poplar plantations established in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North and South Dakota during 1987--88. It was reported at that time that the mean annual increment had not peaked in the plantations. Growth measurements were continued through the 1997 growing season when the plantations had completed their 10th and 11th growing season.

  4. Butt-log grade distributions for five Appalachian hardwood species

    Treesearch

    John R. Myers; Gary W. Miller; Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Joseph E. Barnard; Joseph E. Barnard

    1986-01-01

    Tree quality is an important factor in determining the market value of hardwood timber stands, but many forest inventories do not include estimates of tree quality. Butt-log grade distributions were developed for northern red oak, black oak, white oak, chestnut oak, and yellow-poplar using USDA Forest Service log grades on more than 4,700 trees in West Virginia. Butt-...

  5. Evaluation of two hybrid poplar clones as constructed wetland plant species for treating saline water high in boron and selenium, or waters only high in boron.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Bañuelos, Gary

    2017-03-21

    Wetland mesocosms were constructed to assess two hybrid poplar clones (Populustrichocarpa×P. deltoides×P. nigra '345-1' and '347-14') for treating saline water high in boron (B) and selenium (Se), and a hydroponic experiment was performed to test the B tolerance and B accumulation in both clones. In the mesocosm experiment, clone 345-1 exhibited no toxic symptoms at an EC of 10mScm(-1), while clone 347-14 showed slight toxic symptoms at 7.5mScm(-1). The removal percentages of B, Se, sodium (Na), and chloride (Cl) ranged from 26.7-45.6%, 50-69.4%, 18.4-24.0%, and 15.8-23.2%, respectively, by clone 345-1, and from 22.9-29.4%, 31.7-43.8%, 16.5-24.2%, and 14.9-23.9%, respectively, by clone 347-1. In the hydroponic experiment, B toxic symptoms were observed at treatments of 150 and 200mg B L(-1) for clones 345-1 and 347-14, respectively. The greatest leaf B concentrations of 3699 and 1913mgkg(-1) were found in clone 345-1 and clone 347-14, respectively. The translocation factor (TF) of clone 347-14 was less than clone 345-1. Clone 345-1 only showed significantly greater (P<0.05) B removal percentages than clone 347-14 when B treatment was <20mg B L(-1). In conclusion, both tested poplar clones competitively accumulated and removed B and Se in constructed wetlands.

  6. Species Diversity in Planted Pine and Natural Hardwoods 24 years After Sharing and Chipping on the Cumberland Plateau, TN

    Treesearch

    Karen Kuers

    2002-01-01

    Plant species richness in 24 year-old planted lobiolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), naturally regenerated hardwoods, and mature hardwoods was compared using the North Carolina Vegetation Survey protocol. Comparisons were made in...

  7. Green Revolution Trees: Semidwarfism Transgenes Modify Gibberellins, Promote Root Growth, Enhance Morphological Diversity, and Reduce Competitiveness in Hybrid Poplar1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Ani A.; Busov, Victor B.; Kosola, Kevin R.; Ma, Cathleen; Etherington, Elizabeth; Shevchenko, Olga; Gandhi, Harish; Pearce, David W.; Rood, Stewart B.; Strauss, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA20 and GA8, in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations. PMID:22904164

  8. Inoculation of hybrid poplar with the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638 increases biomass but does not impact leaf level physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.; McDonald, K.; Muehlbauer, M. F.; Hoffman, A.; Koenig, K.; Newman, L.; Taghavi, S.; Van Der Lelie, D.

    2011-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria have been shown to provide several advantages to their host, including enhanced growth. Inoculating biofuel species with endophytic bacteria is therefore an attractive option to increase the productivity of biofuel feedstocks. Here, we investigated the effect of inoculating hard wood cuttings of Populus deltoides Bartr. x Populus. nigra L. clone OP367 with Enterobacter sp. 638. After 17 weeks, plants inoculated with Enterobacter sp. 638 had 55% greater total biomass than un-inoculated control plants. Study of gas exchange and fluorescence in developing and mature leaves over a diurnal cycle and over a 5 week measurement campaign revealed no effects of inoculation on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency or the maximum and operating efficiency of photosystem II. However, plants inoculated with Enterobacter sp. 638 had a canopy that was 39% larger than control plants indicating that the enhanced growth was fueled by increased leaf area, not by improved physiology. Leaf nitrogen content was determined at two stages over the 5 week measurement period. No effect of Enterobacter sp. 638 on leaf nitrogen content was found indicating that the larger plants were acquiring sufficient nitrogen. Enterobacter sp. 638 lacks the genes for N{sub 2} fixation, therefore the increased availability of nitrogen likely resulted from enhanced nitrogen acquisition by the 84% larger root system. These data show that Enterobacter sp. 638 has the potential to dramatically increase productivity in poplar. If fully realized in the production environment, these results indicate that an increase in the environmental and economic viability of poplar as a biofuel feedstock is possible when inoculated with endophytic bacteria like Enterobacter sp. 638.

  9. Hardwood Diseases

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1981-01-01

    Damping-off and root-rot continue to cause the most losses of young hardwood seedlings. We know how to control these losses but we gamble by not taking preventative methods. The most effective control is to use soil fumigation or solar soil sterilization.

  10. Planting Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1983-01-01

    Southern hardwood forests contain many species and grow on a wide range of sites. This diversity among species represents a challenge to managers whose primary tool in the natural forest is stand manipulation. Even-aged management has been applied to many natural stands during the past 25 years which led, in the 1960s, to clearcutting as the primary silvicultural...

  11. Impacts of supplyshed-level differences in productivity and land Costs on the economics of hybrid poplar production in Minnesota, USA

    Treesearch

    William Lazarus; William L. Headlee; Ronald S. Zalesny

    2015-01-01

    The joint effects of poplar biomass productivity and land costs on poplar production economics were compared for 12 Minnesota counties and two genetic groups, using a process-based model (3-PG) to estimate productivity. The counties represent three levels of productivity and a range of land costs (annual rental rates) from $128/ha to $534/ha. An optimal rotation age...

  12. Ozone sensitivity in hybrid poplar correlates with insensitivity to both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The role of programmed cell death in lesion formation.

    PubMed

    Koch, J R; Creelman, R A; Eshita, S M; Seskar, M; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-06-01

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels increased in both clones in response to ozone, but only minimal increases in SA levels were measured for either clone. Treatment with SA and methyl jasmonate induced defense gene expression only in NE-245, indicating that NE-388 is insensitive to these signal molecules. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of programmed cell death (PCD), was detected in NE-245 treated with either ozone or an avirulent phytopathogen, but was not detected in NE-388. We conclude that these clones undergo two distinct mechanisms of ozone-induced lesion formation. In NE-388, lesions appear to be due to toxic cell death resulting from a limited ability to perceive and subsequently activate SA- and/or JA-mediated antioxidant defense responses. In NE-245, SA-dependent PCD precedes lesion formation via a process related to the PCD pathway activated by phytopathogenic bacteria. These results support the hypothesis that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response.

  13. Rapid Activation of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Elicitor-Treated Hybrid Poplar (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray × Populus deltoides Marsh) Suspension-Cultured Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Mário Moniz; Subramaniam, Rajgopal; Williams, Frank E.; Douglas, Carl J.

    1992-01-01

    Elicitor induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism was investigated in suspension-cultured cells of the fast-growing poplar hybrid (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray × Populus deltoides Marsh) H11-11. Treatment of cells with polygalacturonic acid lyase or two fungal elicitors resulted in rapid and transient increases in extractable l-phenylalanine ammonia lyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activities. The substrate specificity of the inducible 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity appeared to differ from substrate specificity of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity in untreated control cells. Large and transient increases in the accumulation of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase mRNAs preceded the increases in enzyme activities and were detectable by 30 minutes after the start of elicitor treatment. Chalcone synthase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and coniferin β-glucosidase enzyme activities were unaffected by the elicitors, but a large and transient increase in β-glucosidase activity capable of hydrolyzing 4-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside was observed. Subsequent to increases in l-phenylalanine ammonialyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activities, cell wall-bound thioglycolic acid-extractable compounds accumulated in elicitor-treated cultures, and these cells exhibited strong staining with phloroglucinol, suggesting the accumulation of wall-bound phenolic compounds. ImagesFigure 7Figure 9 PMID:16668702

  14. Ozone-induced changes in photosynthesis and photorespiration of hybrid poplar in relation to the developmental stage of the leaves.

    PubMed

    Bagard, Matthieu; Le Thiec, Didier; Delacote, Emilien; Hasenfratz-Sauder, Marie-Paule; Banvoy, Jacques; Gérard, Joëlle; Dizengremel, Pierre; Jolivet, Yves

    2008-12-01

    Young poplar trees (Populus tremula Michx. x Populus alba L. clone INRA 717-1B4) were subjected to 120 ppb of ozone for 35 days in phytotronic chambers. Treated trees displayed precocious leaf senescence and visible symptoms of injury (dark brown/black upper surface stippling) exclusively observed on fully expanded leaves. In these leaves, ozone reduced parameters related to photochemistry (Chl content and maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport) and photosynthetic CO(2) fixation [net CO(2) assimilation, Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) activity and maximum velocity of Rubisco for carboxylation]. In fully expanded leaves, the rate of photorespiration as estimated from Chl fluorescence was markedly impaired by the ozone treatment together with the activity of photorespiratory enzymes (Rubisco and glycolate oxidase). Immunoblot analysis revealed a decrease in the content of serine hydroxymethyltransferase in treated mature leaves, while the content of the H subunit of the glycine decarboxylase complex was not modified. Leaves in the early period of expansion were exempt from visible symptoms of injury and remained unaffected as regards all measured parameters. Leaves reaching full expansion under ozone exposure showed potential responses of protection (stimulation of mitochondrial respiration and transitory stomatal closure). Our data underline the major role of leaf phenology in ozone sensitivity of photosynthetic processes and reveal a marked ozone-induced inhibition of photorespiration.

  15. Handling Hardwood Seed

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1967-01-01

    The long-predicted surge in demand tor southern hardwoods is now being felt. Wood-using industries feel it in dwindling supplies of raw material; the forester feels it in increasing hardwood mill quotas, and you nurserymen feel it in increasing demands for hardwood seedling production. The hardwood boom has presented us with many problems. some of which we cannot yet...

  16. Genetic Modification of Short Rotation Poplar Biomass Feedstock for Efficient Conversion to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Dinus, R.J.

    2000-08-30

    The Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing poplars (Populus species and hybrids) as sources of renewable energy, i.e., ethanol. Notable increases in adaptability, volume productivity, and pest/stress resistance have been achieved via classical selection and breeding and intensified cultural practices. Significant advances have also been made in the efficiencies of harvesting and handling systems. Given these and anticipated accomplishments, program leaders are considering shifting some attention to genetically modifying feedstock physical and chemical properties, so as to improve the efficiency with which feedstocks can be converted to ethanol. This report provides an in-depth review and synthesis of opportunities for and feasibilities of genetically modifying feedstock qualities via classical selection and breeding, marker-aided selection and breeding, and genetic transformation. Information was collected by analysis of the literature, with emphasis on that published since 1995, and interviews with prominent scientists, breeders, and growers. Poplar research is well advanced, and literature is abundant. The report therefore primarily reflects advances in poplars, but data from other species, particularly other shortrotation hardwoods, are incorporated to fill gaps. An executive summary and recommendations for research, development, and technology transfer are provided immediately after the table of contents. The first major section of the report describes processes most likely to be used for conversion of poplar biomass to ethanol, the various physical and chemical properties of poplar feedstocks, and how such properties are expected to affect process efficiency. The need is stressed for improved understanding of the impact of change on both overall process and individual process step efficiencies. The second part documents advances in trait measurement instrumentation and methodology

  17. Microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization analyses of gene expression in hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus tremula var. glandulosa) cell suspension cultures after exposure to NaCl.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Hyoshin; Lee, Jae-Soon; Noh, Eun-Woon; Choi, Young-Im; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Choi, Dong-Woog

    2012-09-01

    The gene expression profiles of hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus tremula var. glandulosa) cells in suspension culture after exposure to salinity (NaCl) induced stress were examined by constructing two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries. cDNA from non-treated cells was used as a driver and cDNA samples from cell suspension cultures exposed to 150 mM NaCl for 2 or 10 h were used as testers. Randomly selected clones from each SSH library were sequenced and 727 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained and analyzed. Four novel ESTs were identified. Between the two libraries, 542 unique SSH clones were selected for placement on a cDNA microarray. In total, 18 differentially expressed genes were identified with 4 and 12 genes being significantly differentially expressed 2 and 10 h after the treatment, respectively. Genes related to metabolism and protein synthesis and several genes whose protein products are implicated in salt or other abiotic stress-related responses were expressed in the salt-stressed cells.

  18. RNAi-mediated suppression of p-coumaroyl-CoA 3′-hydroxylase in hybrid poplar impacts lignin deposition and soluble secondary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Heather D.; Park, Ji-Young; Nair, Ramesh; Chapple, Clint; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2008-01-01

    p-Coumaroyl-CoA 3′-hydroxylase (C3′H) is a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the 3′-hydroxylation of p-coumaroyl shikimate and p-coumaroyl quinate. We used RNA interference to generate transgenic hybrid poplar suppressed in C3′H expression and analyzed them with respect to transcript abundance, cell wall structure and chemical composition, and soluble metabolite levels. RT-PCR expression profiles confirmed the down-regulation of C3′H in a number of lines, which generally correlated very well with reduced total cell wall lignin content. The most strongly repressed line was chosen for further analysis and compared with the wild-type trees. In-depth characterization revealed that along with the significant decrease in total lignin content, a significant shift in lignin monomer composition was observed, favoring the generation of p-hydroxyphenyl units at the expense of guaiacyl units while the proportion of syringyl moieties remained constant. Suppression of C3′H also resulted in the accumulation of substantial pools of 1-O-p-coumaroyl-β-d-glucoside and other phenylpropanoid glycosides, and p-coumaroyl shikimate, providing further insight into the role of C3′H in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. The data presented indicate that when down-regulated, C3′H becomes a rate-limiting step in lignin biosynthesis and further support the involvement of hydroxycinnamic acid shikimate esters in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:18316744

  19. Dynamics of planted cherrybark oak seedlings and yellow-poplar from seed following a regeneration clearcut

    Treesearch

    Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2011-01-01

    A bottomland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stand originating from an early 1940s planting on a minor stream bottom of the Coastal Plain in west Tennessee was harvested in 1992 and allowed to regenerate to hardwoods. Although the pines had been planted, a few naturally regenerated yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and sweetgum...

  20. Strength and Stiffness Properties of Sweetgum and Yellow-poplar Structural Lumber

    Treesearch

    Timothy D. Faust; Robert H. McAlister; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1990-01-01

    The forest resource base in the Southeast is rapidly changing. Dwindling reserves of high quality pine sawlogs will provide incentives to utilize low-density hardwoods such as yellow-poplar and sweetgum for structural lumber. Inventories of sweetgum (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) are currently high and growth is exceeding removals. The mechanical propertiees of dimension...

  1. Evaluation of cement-excelsior boards made from yellow-poplar and sweetgum

    Treesearch

    Andy W.C. Lee; Chung Y Hse

    1993-01-01

    Previous research conducted in the laboratory pointed out several hardwood species which were either superior, comparable, marginal, or unsuitable for manufacturing cement-excelsior board (CEB). In this study, forty full-sized boards were manufactured in a commercial production facility with the following species: yellow-poplar, sweetgum, southern pine, and sweetgum/...

  2. Some effects of competition on the survival of yellow-poplar seedlings

    Treesearch

    J. J. Phillips

    1962-01-01

    In the upper Coastal Plain and northward in New Jersey, yellow-poplar is an important component of the hardwood forests because of its rapid growth, straight and clear bole, and desirable wood characteristics. But attempts to reproduce this species naturally after harvest cuttings have often been unsuccessful. Though poor seed crops and unfavorable seedbed conditions...

  3. Effect of ammate on unwanted growth in oak--yellow-poplar stands in New Jersey

    Treesearch

    S. Little; H. A. Somes

    1954-01-01

    Stands of mixed oaks and yellow-poplar form the most valuable forest crop on many sites in central and northern New Jersey and in the Delaware Valley of southern New Jersey. However, these stands often contain shrubs and low-value hardwood trees that prevent satisfactory restocking of cutover areas.

  4. Effect of thinning on height and diameter growth of oak & yellow-poplar saplings

    Treesearch

    Rufus H., Jr. Allen; David A. Marquis; David A. Marquis

    1970-01-01

    Studying the response to thinning of a 7- to 9-year-old upland hardwood sapling stand, we found that height growth of yellow-poplar and oak trees was markedly reduced by heavy thinning. This suggests that stand density should be carefully controlled to achieve maximum benefit from thinnings in very young stands.

  5. Examination of lumber price trends for major hardwood species

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, trends in interspecies and intergrade hardwood lumber prices have been erratic. In the early 1960s, high- and midgrade hard maple commanded high prices while red oak was the least valuable lumber regardless of grade. In the 1980s, high- and midgrade oak prices surged, but prices of all grades of maple and yellow-poplar declined. During the 1990s...

  6. Chemical Weed Control Increases Survival and Growth in Hardwood Plantings

    Treesearch

    Gayne G. Erdmann

    1967-01-01

    In a plantation of four hardwood species on a silt loam soil planted to 1-0 stock, 4 pounds of active atrazine or simazine controlled weeds effectively without injuring the trees. Chemical weed control was better on plowed and disked ground than on unprepared ground. Yellow-poplar and white ash grew faster on prepared ground. Black walnut and red oak did not respond...

  7. Appalachian hardwood stump sprouts are potential sawlog crop trees

    Treesearch

    Neil I. Lamson

    1976-01-01

    A survey of 8- and 12-year-old hardwood stump sprouts was made in north-central West Virginia. Species surveyed were yellow-poplar, black cherry, red oak, red maple, and basswood. Of the stumps cut 12 years ago, 66 percent produced at least one dominant or codominant sprout that originated at groundline and was free from forks in the lower 25 feet of the bole. The...

  8. Developing xylem-preferential expression of PdGA20ox1, a gibberellin 20-oxidase 1 from Pinus densiflora, improves woody biomass production in a hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Jin-Seong; Park, Eung-Jun; Han, Kyung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Im; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2016-04-01

    Woody biomass has gained popularity as an environmentally friendly, renewable and sustainable resource for liquid fuel production. Here, we demonstrate biotechnological improvement of the quantity and quality of woody biomass by employing developing xylem (DX)-preferential production of gibberellin (GA), a phytohormone that positively regulates stem growth. First, for the proof of concept experiment, we produced transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing GA20-oxidase, a key enzyme in the production of bioactive GAs, from Pinus densiflora (PdGA20ox1) under the control of either a constitutive 35S promoter, designated 35S::PdGA20ox1, or a DX-specific promoter (originated from poplar), designated DX15::PdGA20ox1. As we hypothesized, both transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S::PdGA20ox1 and DX15::PdGA20ox1) exhibited an accelerated stem growth that resulted in a large increase of biomass, up to 300% compared to wild-type control plants, together with increased secondary wall thickening and elongation of fibre cells. Next, we applied our concept to the production of transgenic poplar trees. Both transgenic poplar trees (35S::PdGA20ox1 and DX15::PdGA20ox1) showed dramatic increases in biomass, up to 300%, with accelerated stem growth and xylem differentiation. Cell wall monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that in both Arabidopsis and poplar, glucose and xylose contents were significantly increased. However, undesirable phenotypes of 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplar, including poor root growth and leaf development, were found. Interestingly, DX15::PdGA20ox1 poplar resulted in a reduction of undesirable phenotypes. Our results indicate that the controlled production of GAs through a tissue-specific promoter can be utilized as an efficient biotechnological tool for producing enhanced plant biomass, minimizing unwanted effects. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of in vitro ozone treatment on proteolysis of purified rubisco from two hybrid poplar clones. [Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, L.G.; Pell, E.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Plants exposed to ozone (O{sub 3}) exhibited symptoms of premature senescence, including early decline in quantity of rubisco. O{sub 3}-induced oxidation may cause changes in protein conformation of rubisco, resulting in enhanced proteolysis. To test this hypothesis, rubisco was purified from two hybrid clones of Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa, clones 388 and 245, and treated in vitro with O{sub 3} or air. Rubisco was then challenged with bromelain, papain, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, or endoproteinase Glu-C and percent degradation measured by SDS-PAGE and densitometric scanning of the gels. Degree of rubisco sensitivity to oxidation may be related to available sulfhydryl (SH) groups on the protein. The number of SH groups in native and denatured rubisco was measured for purified rubisco of both clones by DTNB titration method. The relationship between sensitivity to proteolysis and number and availability of SH groups is discussed.

  10. Potential sources of variation that influence the final moisture content of kiln-dried hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Hongmei Gu; Timothy M. Young; William W. Moschler; Brian H. Bond

    2004-01-01

    Excessive variability in the final moisture content (MC) of hardwood lumber may have a significant impact on secondary wood processing and final product performance. Sources of final MC variation during kiln- drying have been studied in prior research. A test examining the final MC of red oak (Quercus spp.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) lumber after kiln-...

  11. 1973 Mississippi River Flood's Impact on Natural Hardwood Forests and Plantations

    Treesearch

    H. E. Kennedy; R. M. Krinard

    1974-01-01

    Through October, the 1979 Mississippi River flood had not caused extensive damage to natural hardwood forests or plantations that were 1 year or older and had been flooded only during the first 2 months of the growing season. New plantings of cottonwood were virtually destroyed, however, and 1-year-old sweetgum, flooded about 9 months, was killed. All yellow-poplar...

  12. Resistance of 22 southern hardwoods to wood-decay fungi and subterranean termites

    Treesearch

    F.Y. Carter; T.L. Amburgey; F.G. Manwiller

    1976-01-01

    Of 22 hardwood species growing on southern pine sites, blackjack, white, and post oaks proved most resistant to attack by the brown-rot fungus, Lenzites trabea. The amount of decay ranged from 8 percent for blackjack and white oak to 67 percent for red maple. Winged elm, yellow-poplar, and post, black, white, and southern red oaks were the most...

  13. Nanofibrillated cellulose from appalachian hardwoods logging residues as template for antimicrobial copper

    Treesearch

    Masoumeh Hassanzadeh; Ronald Sabo; Alan Rudie; Richard Reiner; Roland Gleisner; Gloria S. Oporto

    2017-01-01

    TEMPO nanofibrillated cellulose (TNFC) fromtwo underutilized Appalachian hardwoods, Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), was prepared to determine its feasibility to be used as template for antimicrobial metallic copper particles. In addition, a comparison of the TNFC from the two...

  14. Regeneration trends 10 years after clearcutting of an Appalachian hardwood stand

    Treesearch

    Charles E. McGee; Ralph M. Hooper

    1975-01-01

    Ten years after a Southern Appalachian hardwood stand was clearcut, numbers of stems of desirable species appear adequate to restock the area. Yellow-poplar will dominate on the better sites. Some problems are anticipated from grapevines, black locust thickets, and red maple clumps.

  15. Growth and Survival of Interplanted Hardwoods in Southern Wisconsin Oak Clearcuttings

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Johnson

    1971-01-01

    Four years after planting in oak clearcuttings, 1-1 white ash transplants had the best survival and growth of seven hardwood species. Other species tests were yellow-poplar, sugar maple, red maple, northern red oak, and American basswood. The relatively high success of white ash makes it the safest selection for Upper Mississippi Valley clearcut interplantings....

  16. Individual Tree Release and Enrichment Planting in Young Natural Upland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Robison; Jamie L. Schuler; Larry Jervis; Joseph L. Cox; Peter J. Birks

    2004-01-01

    Individual naturally regenerated trees of red oak, white oak, and yellow poplar in upland North Carolina Piedmont hardwood stands aged 1 to 13 were treated with mechanical clearing, herbicide of competition, and fertilization. These treatments produced significant changes in height and diameter growth 2 to 3 years posttreatment. Generally, height growth was negatively...

  17. Weight, Volume, and Physical Properties of Major Hardwood Species in the Piedmont

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Douglas R. Phillips; Douglas J. Frederick

    1986-01-01

    Weight, volume, and physical properties of trees 1 to 20 inches d.b.h.were determined for red maple, sweetgum, sycamore, yellow-poplar, elm, hickory, chestnut oak, scarlet oak, southern red oak, and white oak in the Piedmont of the Southeastern United States. A total of 772 trees were destructively sampled at 16 locations from Viryinia to Alabama. Hard hardwoods, soft...

  18. Dimension yields from short logs of low-quality hardwood trees.

    Treesearch

    Howard N. Rosen; Harold A. Stewart; David J. Polak

    1980-01-01

    Charts are presented for determining yields of 4/4 dimension cuttings from short hardwood logs of aspen, soft maple, black cherry, yellow-poplar, and black walnut for several cutting grades and bolt sizes. Cost comparisons of short log and standard grade mixes show sizes. Cost comparisons of short log and standard grade mixes show the estimated least expensive...

  19. Bud removal affects shoot, root, and callus development of hardwood Populus cuttings

    Treesearch

    A.H. Wiese; J.A. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2006-01-01

    The inadvertent removal and/or damage of buds during processing and planting of hardwood poplar (Populus spp.) cuttings are a concern because of their potential impact on shoot and root development during establishment. The objective of the current study was to test for differences in shoot dry mass, root dry mass, number of roots, length of the...

  20. Midsouth's Changing Hardwood Forests

    Treesearch

    Herbert S. Sternitzke; Robert L. Johnson

    1979-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred in the Midsouth's hardwood resources over the past quarter century. Prime hardwood acreage has declined alarmingly in some areas due to expansion of soybean cropland. Selective cutting and lack of forest management have diminished the overall quality of available hardwood, too.

  1. Hardwood Seedling Nutrition

    Treesearch

    C. B. Davey

    2005-01-01

    Hardwood seedling production presents several challenges that differ considerably from pine seedling production. Because of a nearly double water requirement, hardwoods need to be planted where they can be irrigated separately from pines. Nutrient requirements are generally higher for hardwoods, including especially nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and...

  2. The central hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    F. Bryan Clark

    1989-01-01

    The central hardwood forest covers a vast area of the United States where the dominant native vegetation is hardwood trees. It is one of the largest forest areas in the country and contains about 100 million acres. The forests include more than 70 hardwood tree species, several conifers, many shrubs and herbaceous plants, and a large number of animal species.

  3. Central hardwood notes

    Treesearch

    F. Bryan Clark; Jay G. Hutchinson

    1989-01-01

    The central hardwood forest covers a vast area of the United States where the dominant native vegetation is hardwood trees. It is one of the largest forest areas in the country and contains about 100 million acres. The forests include more than 70 hardwood tree species, several conifers, many shrubs and herbaceaous plants, and a large number of animal species. This...

  4. What are northern hardwoods?

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    The term "northern hardwoods" was used in the early 1900's to separate the hardwoods of the northern region from those growing in the South. With continued usage in the North the term now represents all dense hardwood species both in the Lake States and Northeast. Unfortunately, this has complicated describing and applying silvicultural practices for...

  5. Water stress reduces evaporative cooling in hybrid poplars during hot drought: genotype influences degree of coupling between thermal stress and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fojtik, A. C.; Barnes, M.; Breshears, D. D.; Law, D.; Moore, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is projected to increase global temperatures as well as the frequency and severity of drought in many regions worldwide. Potential consequences of hotter drought include widespread forest mortality and ecosystem reorganization. Of concern is the response of woody plants, especially commercially significant species, to drought exacerbated by higher temperatures. Quantifying the physiological effects of hot drought on woody plants can improve understanding of their limitations and ability to adapt to projected conditions. Here we test an association between water stress and thermal stress in two genotypes of hybrid poplar trees during a naturally occurring hot drought in Southern Arizona. Genotype 57-276 had small, diamond-shaped leaves, while genotype R-270 had large, rounded leaves. We hypothesized that the degree of coupling between the atmosphere and leaf temperature would vary with genotype due to the effects of leaf size on boundary layer. We compared pre-dawn water potential (Ψ) to the difference between leaf and air temperature (ΔT; a proxy for thermal stress), and meteorological variables including vapor pressure deficit (VPD), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and wind speed as the drought progressed. In both genotypes, Ψ was negatively related to ΔT when leaf temperature was higher than air temperature; this relationship was stronger in the large leaf genotype than the small leaf genotype. Leaves from highly stressed plants were the hottest compared to ambient air temperature. This suggests that water stress results in a reduction in leaf transpiration and associated evaporative cooling. Each genotype also had unique factors affecting ΔT. The small leaf genotype was more tightly coupled to the atmosphere, with ΔT influenced by PAR, and wind speed. This is consistent with smaller, diamond-shaped leaves, which result in a smaller leaf boundary layer that is more sensitive to atmospheric conditions. For the large leaf genotype,

  6. Gaseous NO2 effects on epidermis and stomata related physiochemical characteristics of hybrid poplar leaves: chemical elements composition, stomatal functions, photosynthesis and respiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mechanisms controlling effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide on epidermis and stomata dynamics, and photosynthesis and respirations processes are still not fully understood. In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (4 microliters per lite...

  7. Overexpression of PtrMYB119, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor from Populus trichocarpa, promotes anthocyanin production in hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Seong; Nguyen, Van Phap; Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Min-Ha; Eom, Seok Hyun; Lim, You Jin; Kim, Won-Chan; Park, Eung-Jun; Choi, Young-Im; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2016-09-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of colorful and bioactive natural pigments with important physiological and ecological functions in plants. We found an MYB transcription factor (PtrMYB119) from Populus trichocarpa that positively regulates anthocyanin production when expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that PtrMYB119 is highly homologous to Arabidopsis PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1), a well-known transcriptional activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Independently produced transgenic poplars overexpressing PtrMYB119 or PtrMYB120 (a paralogous gene to PtrMYB119) (i.e., 35S::PtrMYB119 and 35S::PtrMYB120, respectively) showed elevated accumulation of anthocyanins in the whole plants, including leaf, stem and even root tissues. Using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, we confirmed that the majority of the accumulated anthocyanin in our transgenic poplar is cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. Gene expression analyses revealed that most of the genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were highly upregulated in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars compared with the nontransformed control poplar. Among these genes, expression of PtrCHS1 (Chalcone Synthase1) and PtrANS2 (Anthocyanin Synthase2), which catalyze the initial and last steps of anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively, was upregulated by up to 350-fold. Subsequent transient activation assays confirmed that PtrMYB119 activated the transcription of both PtrCHS1 and PtrANS2 Interestingly, expression of MYB182, a repressor of both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis, was largely suppressed in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars, while expression of MYB134, an activator of PA biosynthesis, was not changed significantly. More interestingly, high-level accumulation of anthocyanins in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars did not have an adverse effect on plant growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PtrMYB119 and PtrMYB120

  8. Durability of yellow-poplar and sweetgum and service life of finishes after long-term exposure

    Treesearch

    R. Sam Williams; William C. Feist

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of long-term outdoor exposure on durability of hardwood plywood and the service life of various finishes. Smooth (abrasive-planed) and rough (saw-textured) yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plywood panelswere exposed outdoors for 16 years near Madison, Wisconsin. The performance of...

  9. Growth and Development of Yellow-Poplar Plantations On Three Sites Ranging From 9 to 18 Years

    Treesearch

    Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2004-01-01

    Planting pine for conversion of former agricultural land to managed forests is well-documented, but little informa-tion is available for hardwood plantings. This study references three yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) plantations (ages 9, 12, and 18 years) on different sites totaling 95 acres. The sites were located in middle Tennessee...

  10. Evaluation of veneer yields and grades from yellow-poplar, white oak, and sweetgum from the southeast

    Treesearch

    Robert H. McAlister

    1980-01-01

    Dry volume yields and standard grades of veneer are given for yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and white oak by tree diameter and location within the stem. Results show that the typical stands of mixed southern pine and hardwood timer yield enough veneer to utilize almost 90 percent of the stand volume in the production of COM-PLY lumber and panels

  11. Response to crop-tree release by 7-year-old stems of yellow-poplar and black cherry

    Treesearch

    G.R. Jr. Trimble; G.R. Jr. Trimble

    1973-01-01

    Five years after crop-tree release of yellow-poplar and black cherry sterns in a 7-year-old stand of Appalachian hardwoods, measurements indicated that released trees were but slightly superior to control trees in height, diameter, and crown position. Sprout regrowth of cut tree stems and grapevines had largely nullified the effects of release. Indications are that for...

  12. Overexpression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 from Pinus densiflora results in enhanced wood formation with gelatinous fiber development in a transgenic hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Park, Eung-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Choi, Young-Im; Lee, Chanhui; Nguyen, Van Phap; Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Jin-Seong; Funada, Ryo; Pharis, Richard P; Kurepin, Leonid V; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2015-11-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are important regulators of plant shoot biomass growth, and GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox) is one of the major regulatory enzymes in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Previously, we showed that the expression levels of a putative GA20ox1 (i.e., PdGA20ox1) in stem tissue of 3-month-old seedlings of 12 families of Pinus densiflora were positively correlated with stem diameter growth across those same families growing in an even-aged 32-year-old pine forest (Park EJ, Lee WY, Kurepin LV, Zhang R, Janzen L, Pharis RP (2015) Plant hormone-assisted early family selection in Pinus densiflora via a retrospective approach. Tree Physiol 35:86-94). To further investigate the molecular function of this gene in the stem wood growth of forest trees, we produced transgenic poplar lines expressing PdGA20ox1 under the control of the 35S promoter (designated as 35S::PdGA20ox1). By age 3 months, most of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplar trees were showing an exceptional enhancement of stem wood growth, i.e., up to fourfold increases in stem dry weight, compared with the nontransformed control poplar plants. Significant increases in endogenous GA1, its immediate precursor (GA20) and its catabolite (GA8) in elongating internode tissue accompanied the increased stem growth in the transgenic lines. Additionally, the development of gelatinous fibers occurred in vertically grown stems of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars. An analysis of the cell wall monosaccharide composition of the 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars showed significant increases in xylose and glucose contents, indicating a qualitative increase in secondary wall depositions. Microarray analyses led us to find a total of 276 probe sets that were upregulated (using threefold as a threshold) in the stem tissues of 35S::PdGA20ox1 poplars relative to the controls. 'Cell organization or biogenesis'- and 'cell wall'-related genes were overrepresented, including many of genes that are involved in cell wall modification. Several transcriptional

  13. A comprehensive database of poplar research in North America from 1980 - 2010

    Treesearch

    David R. Coyle; Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops such as Populus species and hybrids (hereafter referred to as poplars) are renewable energy feedstocks that can potentially be used to offset electricity generation and natural gas use in many temperature regions. Highly productive poplars grown primarily on marginal agricultural sites are an important component of the...

  14. An approach for siting poplar energy production systems to increase productivity and associated ecosystem services

    Treesearch

    R.S. Jr. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; D.R. Coyle; W.L. Headlee; R.B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as Populus species and hybrids (i.e., poplars) are renewable energy feedstocks that are vital to reducing our dependence on non-renewable and foreign sources of energy used for heat, power, and transportation fuels. Highly productive poplars grown primarily on marginal agricultural sites are an important...

  15. Environmental benefits of poplar culture

    Treesearch

    J. G. Isebrands; D.F. Karnosky.

    2001-01-01

    Poplars have important values above and beyond wood or fiber production. Poplars have been planted for environmental purposes for centuries. There are reports of poplar plantings dating back to early Chinese history and biblical times in the Middle East, When immigrants came to North America in the 18th and 19th century, they often brought cuttings of their favorite...

  16. Predicted Cubic-foot Yields of Lumber, Sawdust, and Sawmill Residue from the Sawtimber Portions of Hardwood Trees

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks

    1977-01-01

    We have presented prediction equations and tables for estimating the gross cubic-foot volume of sawtimber for hardwood trees, and cubic-foot yields of lumber, sawdust, and sawmill residue that are produced during the sawing process. Yields are presented for northern red oak, black oak, white oak, chestnut oak, red maple, sugar maple, yellow-poplar, yellow birch, paper...

  17. Response to prescribed burning of 5-year-old hardwood regeneration on a mesic site in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab; Erik C. Berg; Ted M. Oprean

    2013-01-01

    Five years after a Southern Appalachian cove was regenerated, vegetation was dominated by a dense stand of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), which averaged 9,181±13,042 stems per acre, and other mesophytic hardwood seedlings and saplings. The stand was prescribed burned during late spring to improve habitat for turkey by reducing density of...

  18. Hardwood sawyer trainer

    Treesearch

    Luis G. Occeña; Eknarin Santitrakul; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2000-01-01

    It is well understood by now that the initial breakdown of hardwood logs into lumber has a tremendous impact on the total lumber value and conversion efficiency. The focus of this research project is the development of a computer-aided sawing trainer tool for the primary breakdown of hardwood logs. Maximum lumber recovery is dependent on the proper log orientation as...

  19. Utilization of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1978-01-01

    During the rest of the century, hardwood supplies will likely be sufficient for the nation's rising needs for paper and for structural and architectural products; but sawlogs will be in short supply. Therefore, the products mix will incorportate increasing quantities of reconstituted and composite products. Using hardwoods on sites better suited to pine--the South...

  20. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  1. Container hardwood seedling production

    Treesearch

    John McRae

    2005-01-01

    Container production of hardwood seedlings requires larger cavities, more space, and the ability to easily sort seedlings (as compared to conifers) very early during the germination phase of production. This presentation demonstrates the most productive system, based upon past experience, to commercially produce container hardwoods. The container system of choice is...

  2. Defects in hardwood timber

    Treesearch

    Roswell D. Carpenter; David L. Sonderman; Everette D. Rast; Martin J. Jones

    1989-01-01

    Includes detailed information on all common defects that may aRect hardwood trees and logs. Relationships between manufactured products and those forms of round material to be processed from the tree for conversion into marketable products are discussed. This handbook supersedes Agriculture Handbook No. 244, Grade defects in hardwood timber and logs, by C.R. Lockard, J...

  3. Planting bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Karl Tennant

    1989-01-01

    Diverse problems confront the forest manager when planting bottomland hardwoods. Bottomland vegetation types and sites are complex and differ markedly from uplands. There are different and more numerous hardwood species that grow faster in denser stands. Sites are subject to varying intensities and duration of flooding and the action of overflow river currents that...

  4. Grading hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Brisbin

    1989-01-01

    Tree grading provides a way to evaluate the quality characteristics and value of standing hardwood trees. This is important because the differences in price between high-quality and low-quality end products can be very large. Since hardwood timber varies greatly in quality and value among species, within species, and even within specific geographic areas, timber...

  5. Fertilization of Northern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. Lea; D.G. Brockway

    1986-01-01

    Northern hardwoods grow over a considerable range of climatic and edaphic conditions and exhibit a wide range in productivity.Many northern hardwood forests are capable of high production relative to other forest types, but are often slow to reach maximum productivity because of low nutrient availability.Altering the patterns of biomass accumulation so that managers...

  6. Pruning central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Schlesinger; Alex L. Shigo

    1989-01-01

    Pruning, properly done, is one of the best ways to assure high quality wood. Although the overall volume of hardwood has been increasing during the last several years, the volume of high quality hardwood continues to be in short supply. So high quality logs will continue to be worth more at market time. Potentially, pruning can be an important silvicultural treatment...

  7. Upland hardwood silviculture DVD

    Treesearch

    Claire Payne; Donna Burnett

    2010-01-01

    The Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management unit of the Southern Research Station offers a week-long course that provides practicing foresters with information about current silvicultural practices and emerging issues based on scientific research and applied techniques that affect managing upland hardwoods. This DVD captures the course that took place in July 2007....

  8. Pruning Allegheny hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. D. Zeedyk; A. F. Hough

    1958-01-01

    The continuing heavy demand for high-quality Allegheny hardwoods, particularly black cherry and sugar maple, impresses on us the need for more information responses of hardwoods to pruning. Pruning may have beneficial effects: it may increase quality without sacrificing growth. Or it may have detrimental effects: it may cause dieback of cambium, decay, staining and...

  9. Overexpression of a pine Dof transcription factor in hybrid poplars: A comparative study in trees growing under controlled and natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Rueda-López, Marina; Pascual, María Belén; Pallero, Mercedes; Henao, Luisa María; Lasa, Berta; Jauregui, Ivan; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the role of the pine transcriptional regulator Dof 5 in carbon and nitrogen metabolism has been examined in poplar trees. The overexpression of the gene and potential effects on growth and biomass production were compared between trees growing in a growth chamber under controlled conditions and trees growing in a field trial during two growth seasons. Ten-week-old transgenic poplars exhibited higher growth than untransformed controls and exhibited enhanced capacity for inorganic nitrogen uptake in the form of nitrate. Furthermore, the transgenic trees accumulated significantly more carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch. Lignin content increased in the basal part of the stem likely due to the thicker stem of the transformed plants. The enhanced levels of lignin were correlated with higher expression of the PAL1 and GS1.3 genes, which encode key enzymes involved in the phenylalanine deamination required for lignin biosynthesis. However, the results in the field trial experiment diverged from those observed in the chamber system. The lines overexpressing PpDof5 showed attenuated growth during the two growing seasons and no modification of carbon or nitrogen metabolism. These results were not associated with a decrease in the expression of the transgene, but they can be ascribed to the nitrogen available in the field soil compared to that available for growth under controlled conditions. This work highlights the paramount importance of testing transgenic lines in field trials.

  10. Contrasting colonization and plant growth promoting capacity between wild type and gfp-derative of the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 in hybrid poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens N.; van der Lelie D.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, D.; Timmermans, J.-P.; Prinsen, E.; Van Oevelen, S.; D"Haen, J.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2011-06-09

    This study aims to investigate the colonization of poplar by the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 and its capacity to promote plant growth. Poplar cuttings were inoculated with P. putida W619 (wild-type or gfp-labelled). The colonization of both strains was investigated and morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed to evaluate plant growth promotion. Inoculation with P. putida W619 (wild-type) resulted in remarkable growth promotion, decreased activities of antioxidative defence related enzymes, and reduced stomatal resistance, all indicative of improved plant health and growth in comparison with the non-inoculated cuttings. In contrast, inoculation with gfp-labelled P. putida W619 did not promote growth; it even had a negative effect on plant health and growth. Furthermore, compared to the wildtype strain, colonization by the gfp-labelled P. putida W619::gfp1 was much lower; it only colonized the rhizosphere and root cortex while the wild-type strain also colonized the root xylem vessels. Despite the strong plant growth promoting capacity of P. putida W619 (wild-type), after gfp labelling its growth promoting characteristics disappeared and its colonization capacity was strongly influenced; for these reasons gfp labelling should be applied with sufficient caution.

  11. Overexpression of a pine Dof transcription factor in hybrid poplars: A comparative study in trees growing under controlled and natural conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rueda-López, Marina; Pascual, María Belén; Pallero, Mercedes; Henao, Luisa María; Lasa, Berta; Jauregui, Ivan; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M.; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the role of the pine transcriptional regulator Dof 5 in carbon and nitrogen metabolism has been examined in poplar trees. The overexpression of the gene and potential effects on growth and biomass production were compared between trees growing in a growth chamber under controlled conditions and trees growing in a field trial during two growth seasons. Ten-week-old transgenic poplars exhibited higher growth than untransformed controls and exhibited enhanced capacity for inorganic nitrogen uptake in the form of nitrate. Furthermore, the transgenic trees accumulated significantly more carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch. Lignin content increased in the basal part of the stem likely due to the thicker stem of the transformed plants. The enhanced levels of lignin were correlated with higher expression of the PAL1 and GS1.3 genes, which encode key enzymes involved in the phenylalanine deamination required for lignin biosynthesis. However, the results in the field trial experiment diverged from those observed in the chamber system. The lines overexpressing PpDof5 showed attenuated growth during the two growing seasons and no modification of carbon or nitrogen metabolism. These results were not associated with a decrease in the expression of the transgene, but they can be ascribed to the nitrogen available in the field soil compared to that available for growth under controlled conditions. This work highlights the paramount importance of testing transgenic lines in field trials. PMID:28376100

  12. Photodegradation of heat treated hardwood veneers.

    PubMed

    Denes, Levente; Lang, Elemer M

    2013-01-05

    This paper outlines an investigation pertaining to color changes of hardwood veneers exposed to elevated temperature. The effects of convection and contact type heat applications on the different species were separately evaluated. The experimental analyses included two-factor, three-level randomized block designs, where the factors were the temperature and the duration of the exposure. Examined species included: Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated major overall effects with significant interactions between the factors for all species/heat-treatment combinations. However, pair wise comparisons (Tukey tests) revealed lack of significant differences within factors for certain levels. The gained information might be useful for adjusting drying or pressing time/temperature relations. Setting the desired colors by necessary processing operations has certain technological, economical and environmental advantages. The use of additional chemicals to create dark surfaces may be reduced or eliminated.

  13. Fertilization Increases Growth of Sawlog-Size Yellow-Poplar and Red Oak in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    N. I. Lamson

    1978-01-01

    Sawlog-size even-aged hardwood stands in north-central West Virginia were fertilized with N, P, and K, singly and in combinations. Applications of N alone increased the annual basal area growth of yellow-poplar more than that of red oak during the first 7 years after fertilization, whereas P alone increased the annual basal area growth of red oak more than that of...

  14. Assessments of the efficacy of a long-term application of a phytoremediation system using hybrid poplar trees at former oil tank farm sites.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ahmed S; Svingos, Sotero; Brice, Donald; Garretson, Joel H; Schnoor, Jerald

    2009-05-01

    A poplar tree-phytoremediation system was installed at former refinery and tank farm sites in Cabin Creek, West Virginia, to cleanup petroleum-contaminated-soils and groundwater. Groundwater and soils in both sites were sampled and analyzed on a regular basis to monitor changes in contaminant concentration since 1999. The concentration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and gasoline range organics (GRO) decreased an average of 81%, 90%, 67%, 78%, and 82%, respectively, in the lower soil horizons and 34%, 84%, 12%, 19%, and 59%, respectively, in groundwater. In addition, concentrations of oxygen, methane, and carbon dioxide in soil gas demonstrated that tree roots dewatered soils and allowed penetration of oxygen deep into the soil profile, creating necessary conditions for rhizosphere bioremediation. Although required clean-up time can limit phytoremediation, it has proven to be a cost-effective strategy for site improvement if imminent pathways for human exposure and risk are not an issue.

  15. A system for dosage-based functional genomics in poplar

    Treesearch

    Isabelle M. Henry; Matthew S. Zinkgraf; Andrew T. Groover; Luca Comai

    2015-01-01

    Altering gene dosage through variation in gene copy number is a powerful approach to addressing questions regarding gene regulation, quantitative trait loci, and heterosis, but one that is not easily applied to sexually transmitted species. Elite poplar (Populus spp) varieties are created through interspecific hybridization, followed by...

  16. Response to Crop-Tree Release: Sugar Maple, Red Oak, Black Cherry, and Yellow-Poplar Saplings in a 9-Year-Old Stand

    Treesearch

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith

    1978-01-01

    Crop trees were released in an Appalachian hardwood stand (site index 70 for northern red oak) that had been clearcut 9 years earlier. We released 134 yellow-poplar, red oak, black cherry, and sugar maple stems of seedling origin to a 5-foot radius around the bole of each study tree; 140 comparable stems were not released. These trees were dominant, codominant, or...

  17. Hardwood Growth and Foliar Nutrient Concentratios Best in Clean Cultivation Treatments

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy

    1984-01-01

    Nine hardwood species were planted at a 3 m by 3 m spacing on a Mississippi River front soil (Aeric Fluvaquents) in western Mississippi and subjected to three intensities of cultural treatments. Because of the death of yellow-poplar during a severe spring flood (1973) and severe iron deficiency in three oaks caused from high soil pH, only five species are discussed in...

  18. Precommercial crop-tree release increases diameter growth of Appalachian hardwood saplings

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Neil I. Lamson

    1983-01-01

    Codominant seedling-origin crop trees 25 to 39 feet tall in even-aged, precommercial-size hardwood stands were released in West Virginia. Trees were located on two sites: good oak site index 75 and fair oak site 63. Species studied were black cherry, sweet birch, and yellow-poplar. Three-year results indicated that the trees generally responded to release; the 3-year...

  19. Influence of over-expression of the Flowering Promoting Factor 1 gene (FPF1) from Arabidopsis on wood formation in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.).

    PubMed

    Hoenicka, Hans; Lautner, Silke; Klingberg, Andreas; Koch, Gerald; El-Sherif, Fadia; Lehnhardt, Denise; Zhang, Bo; Burgert, Ingo; Odermatt, Jürgen; Melzer, Siegbert; Fromm, Jörg; Fladung, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Constitutive expression of the FPF1 gene in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) showed a strong effect on wood formation but no effect on flowering time. Gene expression studies showed that activity of flowering time genes PtFT1, PtCO2, and PtFUL was not increased in FPF1 transgenic plants. However, the SOC1/TM3 class gene PTM5, which has been related to wood formation and flowering time, showed a strong activity in stems of all transgenic lines studied. Wood density was lower in transgenic plants, despite significantly reduced vessel frequency which was overcompensated by thinner fibre cell walls. Chemical screening of the wood by pyrolysis GC/MS showed that FPF1 transgenics have higher fractions of cellulose and glucomannan products as well as lower lignin content. The latter observation was confirmed by UV microspectrophotometry on a cellular level. Topochemical lignin distribution revealed a slower increase of lignin incorporation in the developing xylem of the transgenics when compared with the wild-type plants. In line with the reduced wood density, micromechanical wood properties such as stiffness and ultimate stress were also significantly reduced in all transgenic lines. Thus, we provide evidence that FPF1 class genes may play a regulatory role in both wood formation and flowering in poplar.

  20. Herbicide options for hardwood management

    Treesearch

    Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of the most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for such applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed at Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...

  1. Hardwood Blanks Expand Export Opportunities

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Hansen; Philip A. Araman

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the latest statistics pertaining to the export of hardwood lumber to the Pacific Rim; discusses possible reasons for the emergence and growth of this market; offers alternatives to rough hardwood lumber (two forms of value-added, hardwood blanks); and develops estimates of prices needed at the mill to earn a 30% return on investment from the...

  2. Nursery Diseases of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    S. J. Rowan; T. H. Filer; W. R. Phelps

    1983-01-01

    Numerous diseases may be encountered in hardwood plantings in Southern nurseries. Although severe disease losses have been observed in only a few hardwood species, some loss occurs in nursery plantings of all species and can be expected to continue. The lack of an effective post-emergence herbicide to control weeds in hardwood nursery seedbeds and the high cost of hand...

  3. Seeding and Planting Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Franklin T. Bonner

    1965-01-01

    I would like to start by giving a complete prescription for planting any hardwood species by a cheap and simple method that will insure excellent survival and good growth. Unfortunately, this is impossible, for we at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory are still several years away from such prescriptions with nearly all of our important hardwoods. With most species,...

  4. Hardwoods management options hold promise

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson; Dr. Roy C. Beltz

    1985-01-01

    Since the 1950s, dramatic changes have occurred in the hardwood resources of the Midsouth - Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Thousands of acres of upland hardwood forests have been converted to pasture for beef cattle. Clearing for agricultural crops, mainly soybeans, has removed more than 4 million acres of prime hardwoods in the bottomlands.

  5. Sequencing the genome of Marssonina brunnea reveals fungus-poplar co-evolution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fungus Marssonina brunnea is a causal pathogen of Marssonina leaf spot that devastates poplar plantations by defoliating susceptible trees before normal fall leaf drop. Results We sequence the genome of M. brunnea with a size of 52 Mb assembled into 89 scaffolds, representing the first sequenced Dermateaceae genome. By inoculating this fungus onto a poplar hybrid clone, we investigate how M. brunnea interacts and co-evolves with its host to colonize poplar leaves. While a handful of virulence genes in M. brunnea, mostly from the LysM family, are detected to up-regulate during infection, the poplar down-regulates its resistance genes, such as nucleotide binding site domains and leucine rich repeats, in response to infection. From 10,027 predicted proteins of M. brunnea in a comparison with those from poplar, we identify four poplar transferases that stimulate the host to resist M. brunnea. These transferas-encoding genes may have driven the co-evolution of M. brunnea and Populus during the process of infection and anti-infection. Conclusions Our results from the draft sequence of the M. brunnea genome provide evidence for genome-genome interactions that play an important role in poplar-pathogen co-evolution. This knowledge could help to design effective strategies for controlling Marssonina leaf spot in poplar. PMID:22876864

  6. Yellow-poplar seedfall pattern

    Treesearch

    LaMont G. Engle

    1960-01-01

    Knowing the pattern of seedfall can be helpful when trying to regenerate yellow-poplar. This is especially true if the stand contains only scattered yellow-poplar seed trees. Information obtained from seed collections in Indiana shows that most of the seed falls north and northeast of seed trees.

  7. Silvical Characteristics of Yellow-Poplar

    Treesearch

    David F. Olson

    1969-01-01

    Yellow-poplar (Liriorlentlron tulipifera L.) is also commonly known as tulip poplar, tulip tree, white-poplar, whitewood, and "poplar" (60). It gets its name from the tulip-like flowers which it bears in the late spring. Because of the excellent form and rapid growth of the tree, plus the fine working qualities of the wood, yellow-poplar is one of the most...

  8. Volume and Availability of Eastern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; William A. Bechtold

    1990-01-01

    In the Eastern United States, some 354 million acres of timberland are classified as a hardwood or pine-hardwood forest type. The inventory of hardwood growing stock totals 275 billion cubic feet, or 90 percent of the hardwood inventory in the United States. Whereas hardwood inventories have increased by 70 percent since 1952, the availability of this resource for use...

  9. Crop-tree release increases growth of 12-year-old yellow-poplar and black cherry

    Treesearch

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Precommercial thinning was done in a 12-year-old Appalachian hardwood sapling stand in West Virginia. Two crop-tree release techniques were used--crown touching and crown touching plus 5 feet. Results indicated that both treatments significantly increased 5-year d.b.h. growth for released yellow-poplar and black cherry crop trees. Although there was a major increase in...

  10. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, Robert J.; Reutebuch, Stephen E.

    2012-10-15

    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the

  11. Wounding and hardwood diseases

    Treesearch

    James W. Walters

    1992-01-01

    Most hardwood diseases are spread by spores that are carried either by wind or insects. The spores enter into the host tree through natural wounds (fire scars, bark splits, sunscald, cankers, and branch stubs) or artificial wounds (bark carving, improper pruning, logging damage). Fresh wounds attract certain insects that can carry spores into the exposed part of the...

  12. Computer Integrated Hardwood Processing

    Treesearch

    Luis G. Occeña; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1997-01-01

    The planning of how the hardwood log can be sawn to improve recovery of high-value lumber has always been hampered by the limited information provided by external defects, and whatever internal defects are eventually revealed on the cut log faces by the sawing pattern. With expanded export and domestic markets, low-quality logs, increased competition from non-wood...

  13. Look to the hardwoods!

    Treesearch

    W. E. McQuilken

    1957-01-01

    The northeast is hardwood country. To be sure, central and northern Maine and the higher elevations of the Green Mountains, White Mountains, and Adirondacks have their spruce-fir; cool, moist sites throughout the region typically support some hemlock; and white pine - the original foundation of the lumber industry in North America - is widely represented by scattered...

  14. Hardwoods of North America

    Treesearch

    H. A. Alden

    1995-01-01

    This report describes 53 taxa of hardwoods of North America, which are organized alphabetically by genus. Descriptions include scientific name, trade name, distribution, tree characteristics, wood characteristics (general, weight, mechanical properties, drying, shrinkage, working properties, durability, preservation, toxicity and uses) and additional sources for...

  15. Hardwood price reporting.

    Treesearch

    Brent L. Sohngen; Richard W. Haynes

    1994-01-01

    Prices for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) hardwood logs are published and analyzed for reliability, consistency, and robustness. Timberland managers can use these prices to make decisions about land management. They show that values for red alder logs have been increasing steadily for the last 11 years.

  16. Drying hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Joseph. Denig; Eugene M. Wengert; William T. Simpson

    2000-01-01

    Drying Hardwood Lumber focuses on common methods for drying lumber of different thickness, with minimal drying defects, for high quality applications. This manual also includes predrying treatments that, when part of an overall quality-oriented drying system, reduce defects and improve drying quality, especially of oak lumber. Special attention is given to drying white...

  17. Site Evaluation for Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1985-01-01

    Foresters evaluate sites for an indication of potential growth and yield, for an ecological descriptor, and to correctly match the hardwood species to be planted with sites suitable for them. Site indexes measured directly from trees on the site are the preferable means of quantifying site. Because this method is not always possible, other means based on soil and...

  18. Where to Plant Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker; Walter M. Broadfoot

    1978-01-01

    Before anyone invests in planting hardwoods, he wants to know that his trees are suited to the site and will grow well. That assurance is now available to those interested in green ash, cottonwood, sweetgum, sycamore, or Nuttall, water, willow or cherrybark oaks.

  19. A Guide to Hardwood Log Grading

    Treesearch

    Everette D. Rast; David L. Sonderman; Glenn L. Gammon

    1973-01-01

    A guide to hardwood log grading (revised) was developed as a teaching aid and field reference in grading hardwood logs. Outlines basic principles and gives detailed practical applications, with illustrations, in grading hardwood logs. Includes standards for various use classes.

  20. Yellow-Poplar Rooting Habits

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1979-01-01

    Although the configuration of pole-sized yellow-poplar root systems in Tennessee is quite variable, a branched taproot with several widely spreading laterals is typical. Rooting depth is particularly limited by clayey texture, wetness, and firmness of subsoils.

  1. A GIS-based approach to stand visualization and spatial pattern analysis in a mixed hardwood forest in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Benktesh D. Sharma; Jingxin Wang; Gary Miller

    2008-01-01

    Tree spatial patterns were characterized for a 75-year-old mixed hardwood forest dominated by northern red oak, chestnut oak, red maple and yellow-poplar. All trees ≥5 inches diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) were measured for diameter, total height, crown height, and crown width along with their locations in the field over an area of 8 acres. The spatial...

  2. Butt Rot of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    F. I. McCracken

    1977-01-01

    Butt rot is the most serious cause of cull throughout the South, and affects all hardwood species. Defined as any decay at the base of a living tree, butt rot accounts for the loss of millions of board feet of southern hardwood timber annually. In one study of loess and alluvial hardwood sites in the Midsouth, butt rot was found in 40 percent of the trees being...

  3. Molecular dissection of xylan biosynthesis during wood formation in poplar.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanhui; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2011-07-01

    Xylan, being the second most abundant polysaccharide in dicot wood, is considered to be one of the factors contributing to wood biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. To better utilize wood as biofuel feedstock, it is crucial to functionally characterize all the genes involved in xylan biosynthesis during wood formation. In this report, we investigated roles of poplar families GT43 and GT8 glycosyltransferases in xylan biosynthesis during wood formation. There exist seven GT43 genes in the genome of poplar (Populus trichocarpa), five of which, namely PtrGT43A, PtrGT43B, PtrGT43C, PtrGT43D, and PtrGT43E, were shown to be highly expressed in the developing wood and their encoded proteins were localized in the Golgi. Comprehensive genetic complementation coupled with chemical analyses demonstrated that overexpression of PtrGT43A/B/E but not PtrGT43C/D was able to rescue the xylan defects conferred by the Arabidopsis irx9 mutant, whereas overexpression of PtrGT43C/D but not PtrGT43A/B/E led to a complementation of the xylan defects in the Arabidopsis irx14 mutant. The essential roles of poplar GT43 members in xylan biosynthesis was further substantiated by RNAi down-regulation of GT43B in the hybrid poplar (Populus alba x tremula) leading to reductions in wall thickness and xylan content in wood, and an elevation in the abundance of the xylan reducing end sequence. Wood digestibility analysis revealed that cellulase digestion released more glucose from the wood of poplar GT43B RNAi lines than the control wood, indicating a decrease in wood biomass recalcitrance. Furthermore, RNAi down-regulation of another poplar wood-associated glycosyltransferase, PoGT8D, was shown to cause decreases in wall thickness and xylan content as well as in the abundance of the xylan reducing end sequence. Together, these findings demonstrate that the poplar GT43 members form two functionally non-redundant groups, namely PtrGT43A/B/E as functional orthologs of Arabidopsis IRX9 and Ptr

  4. Hardwood sawmill downtime costs

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Kyle Blackwell

    2003-01-01

    How time flies when you don't pay attention to it. With hardwood sawmill operating costs ranging from $4 to $25 per operating minute ($95/MBF to $335/MBF) and gross profit margins ranging from $0.10/BF to $0.35/BF, five extra minutes of downtime per day will cost a sawmill that produces an average of 20,000 BF per day (5 MMBF annually) between $21 and $73 per day...

  5. Hydroponic screening of poplar for trace element tolerance and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Migeon, Aude; Richaud, Pierre; Guinet, Frédéric; Blaudez, Damien; Chalot, Michel

    2012-04-01

    Using the nutrient film technique, we screened 21 clones of poplar for growth in the presence of a mix of trace elements (TE) and for TE accumulation capacities. Poplar cuttings were exposed for four weeks to a multipollution solution consisting in 10 microM Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb, and 200 microM Zn. Plant biomass and TE accumulation patterns in leaves varied greatly between clones. The highest Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves were detected in P. trichocarpa and P. trichocarpa hybrids, with the clone Skado (P. trichocarpa x P. maximowiczii) accumulating up to 108 mg Cd kg(-1) DW and 1510 mg Zn kg(-1) DW when exposed to a multipollution context. Our data also confirm the importance of pH and multipollution, as these factors greatly affect TE accumulation in above ground biomass. The NFT technique applied here to a large range of poplar clones also revealed the potential of the Rochester, AFO662 and AFO678 poplar clones for use in phytostabilization programs and bioenergy production, where production of less contaminated above ground biomass is suitable.

  6. Genomics of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpax deltoides) interacting with forest tent caterpillars (Malacosoma disstria): normalized and full-length cDNA libraries, expressed sequence tags, and a cDNA microarray for the study of insect-induced defences in poplar.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Steven; Oddy, Claire; Cooper, Dawn; Yueh, Hesther; Jancsik, Sharon; Kolosova, Natalia; Philippe, Ryan N; Aeschliman, Dana; White, Rick; Huber, Dezene; Ritland, Carol E; Benoit, François; Rigby, Tracey; Nantel, André; Butterfield, Yaron S N; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Chun, Elizabeth; Liu, Jerry; Palmquist, Diana; Wynhoven, Brian; Stott, Jeffrey; Yang, George; Barber, Sarah; Holt, Robert A; Siddiqui, Asim; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Ellis, Brian E; Douglas, Carl J; Ritland, Kermit; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2006-04-01

    As part of a genomics strategy to characterize inducible defences against insect herbivory in poplar, we developed a comprehensive suite of functional genomics resources including cDNA libraries, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and a cDNA microarray platform. These resources are designed to complement the existing poplar genome sequence and poplar (Populus spp.) ESTs by focusing on herbivore- and elicitor-treated tissues and incorporating normalization methods to capture rare transcripts. From a set of 15 standard, normalized or full-length cDNA libraries, we generated 139,007 3'- or 5'-end sequenced ESTs, representing more than one-third of the c. 385,000 publicly available Populus ESTs. Clustering and assembly of 107,519 3'-end ESTs resulted in 14,451 contigs and 20,560 singletons, altogether representing 35,011 putative unique transcripts, or potentially more than three-quarters of the predicted c. 45,000 genes in the poplar genome. Using this EST resource, we developed a cDNA microarray containing 15,496 unique genes, which was utilized to monitor gene expression in poplar leaves in response to herbivory by forest tent caterpillars (Malacosoma disstria). After 24 h of feeding, 1191 genes were classified as up-regulated, compared to only 537 down-regulated. Functional classification of this induced gene set revealed genes with roles in plant defence (e.g. endochitinases, Kunitz protease inhibitors), octadecanoid and ethylene signalling (e.g. lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase), transport (e.g. ABC proteins, calreticulin), secondary metabolism [e.g. polyphenol oxidase, isoflavone reductase, (-)-germacrene D synthase] and transcriptional regulation [e.g. leucine-rich repeat transmembrane kinase, several transcription factor classes (zinc finger C3H type, AP2/EREBP, WRKY, bHLH)]. This study provides the first genome-scale approach to characterize insect-induced defences in a woody perennial providing a solid platform for

  7. Metagenome of an Anaerobic Microbial Community Decomposing Poplar Wood Chips

    SciTech Connect

    van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Li, L. L.; Malfatti, S. A.; Monteleone, D.; Donohoe, B. S.; Ding, S. Y.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Tringe, S. G.

    2012-05-01

    This study describes the composition and metabolic potential of a lignocellulosic biomass degrading community that decays poplar wood chips under anaerobic conditions. We examined the community that developed on poplar biomass in a non-aerated bioreactor over the course of a year, with no microbial inoculation other than the naturally occurring organisms on the woody material. The composition of this community contrasts in important ways with biomass-degrading communities associated with higher organisms, which have evolved over millions of years into a symbiotic relationship. Both mammalian and insect hosts provide partial size reduction, chemical treatments (low or high pH environments), and complex enzymatic 'secretomes' that improve microbial access to cell wall polymers. We hypothesized that in order to efficiently degrade coarse untreated biomass, a spontaneously assembled free-living community must both employ alternative strategies, such as enzymatic lignin depolymerization, for accessing hemicellulose and cellulose and have a much broader metabolic potential than host-associated communities. This would suggest that such a community would make a valuable resource for finding new catalytic functions involved in biomass decomposition and gaining new insight into the poorly understood process of anaerobic lignin depolymerization. Therefore, in addition to determining the major players in this community, our work specifically aimed at identifying functions potentially involved in the depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and to assign specific roles to the prevalent community members in the collaborative process of biomass decomposition. A bacterium similar to Magnetospirillum was identified among the dominant community members, which could play a key role in the anaerobic breakdown of aromatic compounds. We suggest that these compounds are released from the lignin fraction in poplar hardwood during the decay process, which would point to

  8. Ecology and silviculture of poplar plantations

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Cees van Oosten; Daniel A. Netzer; Mark D. Coleman; C. Jeffrey Portwood

    2002-01-01

    Poplars are some of the fastest growing trees in North America and foresters have sought to capitalize on this potential since the 1940s. Interest in growing poplars has fluctuated, and objectives have shifted between producing sawlogs, pulp-wood, or more densely spaced "woodgrass" or biofuels. Currently, most poplar plantations are established for pulpwood...

  9. The Techniques of Growing Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. S. McKnight; Robert L. Johnson

    1966-01-01

    In the South, high-quality hardwoods grow on river and stream bottoms and other moist, rich sites in the Coastal Plains; true swamps; and the loess bluffs of the lower Mississippi Valley. Fine hardwoods are also produced in the mountains and the Piedmont, but these areas are not discussed in this article. Landowners and forest managers recognize that a considerable...

  10. Hardwood Seed Collection and Handling

    Treesearch

    Franklin T. Bonner

    1970-01-01

    In a surprisingly few years a major proportion of the South's timber stands will be artificially regenerated with selected or genetically improved stock. Success with southern pines and high stumpage prices for certain species will spur efforts in hardwood stands. Intensive hardwood forestry will require better methods of seed production and handling than those...

  11. Changing Markets for Hardwood Roundwood

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Albert Schuler

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, hardwood roundwood has been used to produce lumber, cabinet plywood, and veneer. Hardwoods also have been a major part of the pulpwood consumption in the northern tier of the eastern United States since the early 1960?s, while southern pines have been the predominant species used in southern tier states. However, since the 1960's there has been a...

  12. Insects affecting hardwood tree plantings

    Treesearch

    Bradley D. Barnd; Paula M. Pijut; Matthew D. Ginzel

    2008-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Region (CHR) is one of the largest forested areas in the country, covering more than 100 million acres, and is dominated by oakhickory and mixed hardwoods. Although large areas of forest have been cleared to make way for agriculture and urban growth, the number of trees in the CHR is increasing as farm and pasture lands are reverting back to forest...

  13. The determinants of hardwood lumber price

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Jennifer M. Jacobsen; Jennifer M. Jacobsen

    1985-01-01

    Econometric equations were estimated to determine the effects of domestic foreign hardwood lumber demands on oak and hardwood lumber prices. Oak price seemed to be more sensitive to changes in exports than overall hardwood lumber price. However, the main determinants of hardwood lumber and oak lumber prices were found to be domestic demand and millstock levels.

  14. Is Eastern Hardwood Sawtimber Becoming Scarcer?

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the hardwood lumber industry has become increasingly concerned about the availability and quality of hardwood sawtimber. However, these concerns seem to contradict USDA Forest Service estimates of increased volume and quality of hardwood sawtimber. This paper examines changes in eastern hardwood sawtimber inventories and the apparent contradiction...

  15. Studies in Site Evaluation for Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Nelson; William R. Beaufait

    1956-01-01

    SOUTHERN HARDWOODS, which supply more than half of the nation's hardwood lumber, are a complex and varied mixture of nearly 40 commercial species. On a good share of the 112 million acres of southern hardwood types the hardwoods are mixed with or have replaced southern pines. Faced with this profusion of species, the silviculturist's first problem is to know...

  16. Microwave Moisture Measurement System for Hardwood Lumber Drying

    SciTech Connect

    Moschler, William W; Hanson, Gregory R

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a prototype microwave-based moisture sensor system suitable for the kiln drying of hardwood lumber. The moisture sensors developed are battery powered and are capable of communicating with a host kiln control system via spread spectrum wireless communications. We have developed two designs of the sensors working at 4.5 to 6 GHz with linear response to moisture content (MC) over a range of 6-100%. These sensors allow us to make a swept frequency microwave transmission measurement through a small area of a board. Using the prototype electronics and sensors, we have obtained measurements of MC over the above MC range for red oak and yellow poplar with standard deviations of less than 1.5% MC. We have developed data for board thickness corrections and for temperature corrections for the MC measurement system.

  17. Recent advances in research of some pest problems of hybrid populus in Michigan and Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Lincoln M. Moore; Louis F. Wilson

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid Populus clones were examined for impact from and resistance to attack from several insects and diseases. Cottonwood leaf beetle, poplar-and-willow borer, and Septoria canker were most injurious. The spotted poplar aphid and poplar-gall saperda, even when abundant, caused only minor impact. The tarnished plant bug, a newly identified pest of...

  18. Revealing the molecular structural transformation of hardwood and softwood in dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Libing; Pu, Yunqiao; Cort, John R.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2016-10-03

    To understand better the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, the main hurdle to its efficient deconstruction, the effects of dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment on the dissolution chemistry of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin for both hardwood (e.g., poplar wood) and softwood (e.g., lodgepole pine wood) were investigated at temperatures of 200 to 270 °C and a flow rate of 25 mL/min with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4. Results suggested that the softwood cellulose was more readily degraded into monomeric sugars than that of hardwood under same pretreatment conditions. However, while the hardwood lignin was completely removed into hydrolysate, ~30% of the softwood lignin remained as solid residues under identical conditions, which was plausibly caused by vigorous C5-active recondensation reactions (C–C5). As a result, effects of molecular structural features (i.e., lignin molecular weight, cellulose crystallinity, and condensed lignin structures) on the recalcitrance of hardwood and softwood to dilute acid pretreatment were identified for the first time in this study, providing important insights to establish the effective biomass pretreatment.

  19. Revealing the Molecular Structural Transformation of Hardwood and Softwood in Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Libing; Pu, Yunqiao; Cort, John R.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2016-12-05

    To better understand the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, the main hurdle to its efficient deconstruction, the effects of dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment on the dissolution chemistry of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin for both hardwood (e.g. poplar wood) and softwood (e.g. lodgepole pine wood) were investigated at temperatures of 200 °C to 270 °C and a flow rate of 25 mL/minute with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4. Results suggested that the softwood cellulose was more readily to be degraded into monomeric sugars than that of hardwood under same pretreatment conditions. However, while the hardwood lignin was completely removed into hydrolysate, ~30% of the softwood lignin remained as solid residues under identical conditions, which was plausibly caused by vigorous C5-active recondensation reactions (C-C5). Unique molecular structural features that pronounced the specific recalcitrance of hardwood and softwood to dilute acid pretreatment were identified for the first time in this study, providing important insights to establish the effective biomass pretreatment.

  20. Revealing the molecular structural transformation of hardwood and softwood in dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Libing; Pu, Yunqiao; Cort, John R.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2016-10-03

    To understand better the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, the main hurdle to its efficient deconstruction, the effects of dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment on the dissolution chemistry of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin for both hardwood (e.g., poplar wood) and softwood (e.g., lodgepole pine wood) were investigated at temperatures of 200 to 270 °C and a flow rate of 25 mL/min with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4. Results suggested that the softwood cellulose was more readily degraded into monomeric sugars than that of hardwood under same pretreatment conditions. However, while the hardwood lignin was completely removed into hydrolysate, ~30% of the softwood lignin remained as solid residues under identical conditions, which was plausibly caused by vigorous C5-active recondensation reactions (C–C5). As a result, effects of molecular structural features (i.e., lignin molecular weight, cellulose crystallinity, and condensed lignin structures) on the recalcitrance of hardwood and softwood to dilute acid pretreatment were identified for the first time in this study, providing important insights to establish the effective biomass pretreatment.

  1. Revealing the molecular structural transformation of hardwood and softwood in dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Libing; Pu, Yunqiao; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; ...

    2016-10-03

    To understand better the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, the main hurdle to its efficient deconstruction, the effects of dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment on the dissolution chemistry of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin for both hardwood (e.g., poplar wood) and softwood (e.g., lodgepole pine wood) were investigated at temperatures of 200 to 270 °C and a flow rate of 25 mL/min with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4. Results suggested that the softwood cellulose was more readily degraded into monomeric sugars than that of hardwood under same pretreatment conditions. However, while the hardwood lignin was completely removed into hydrolysate, ~30% of the softwood ligninmore » remained as solid residues under identical conditions, which was plausibly caused by vigorous C5-active recondensation reactions (C–C5). As a result, effects of molecular structural features (i.e., lignin molecular weight, cellulose crystallinity, and condensed lignin structures) on the recalcitrance of hardwood and softwood to dilute acid pretreatment were identified for the first time in this study, providing important insights to establish the effective biomass pretreatment.« less

  2. Mercury uptake into poplar leaves.

    PubMed

    Assad, Mohamad; Parelle, Julien; Cazaux, David; Gimbert, Frédéric; Chalot, Michel; Tatin-Froux, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    Tailings dumps require mercury stabilization to prevent air pollution by evaporated mercury, which can be achieved through plant covers. Plants are considered a net sink for atmospheric Hg via incorporation into leaf tissues. However, most studies related to Hg uptake by plants have considered plants exposed to only atmospheric Hg, whereas in the case of tailings dumps, plants are potentially exposed to both soil and atmospheric Hg. The goal of this work is to evaluate the relative contributions of root and atmospheric pathways by growing poplar (Populus trichocarpa X Populus maximowiczii/var Skado) cuttings on either control or polluted substrates and under either natural or controlled exposure conditions. We showed that foliar Hg concentrations significantly increased with age, reaching 120 ng g(-1) dry mass when poplars were exposed to Hg-contaminated substrate under natural exposure. Remarkably, we did not observe significantly different Hg concentrations in poplar leaves grown on either the control or polluted substrates when cultivated together in growth chambers. Our set of data prompted us to conclude that Hg entry into poplar leaves is exclusively through an atmospheric pathway. Our results are discussed in line with existing literature.

  3. Upgrading Yellow-Poplar Seeds

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner; G. L. Switzer

    1971-01-01

    Yellow-poplar seed lots can be upgraded considerably by dewinging in a debearder and then cleaning and separating the seeds into four specific-gravity fractions with a fractionating aspirator or a gravity separator. By this process, lots with an original soundness of 6 to 10 percent were upgraded to between 60 and 65 percent full seeds.

  4. Estimating cull in northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W.M. Zillgitt; S.R. Gevorkiantz

    1946-01-01

    Cull in northern hardwood stands is often very heavy and is difficult to estimate. To help clarify this situation and aid the average cruiser to become more accurate in his estimates, the study reported here should prove very helpful.

  5. Structural lumber properties of hybrid poplar

    Treesearch

    David E. Kretschmann; J. G.. Isebrands; Glen. Stanosz; John R. Dramm; Adele. Olstad; David. Cole; Jay. Samsel

    The Lake States of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin consist of 49.4 million hectares (122 million acres) of land, 19.8 million hectares (49 million acres) of which are forested, with 6% of those having been removed by law from timber production. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) is an important component of this resource. In recent years, a concern that the aspen cut will...

  6. U.S. hardwood product exports, hardwood exports to Korea, hardwood resource situation, and the future of U.S. exports to Korea

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    The exerpts from this seminar are intended to give an overview of U.S. hardwood exports, hardwood exports to Korea, the hardwood resource situation, and the future of U.S. hardwood exports to Korea. It includes 1) some basic information about total U.S. hardwood exports and products, 2) information on hardwood exports to Korea from the U.S., 3) U.S. hardwood resources...

  7. An economic and energy analysis of poplar intensive cultures in the Lake States.

    Treesearch

    Dietmar Rose; Karen Ferguson; David C. Lothner; J. Zavitkovski

    1981-01-01

    Short- (5 to 10 years) and long- (15 years) rotation, irrigated and nonirrigated intensive cultures of hybrid poplar were analyzed economically via cash flow analysis. Energy balances we also calculated for each alternative. Nonirrigated systems offer reasonable economic returns whereas irrigated systems do not. All systems produce more energy than they use as...

  8. Transgenic poplars with reduced lignin show impaired xylem conductivity, growth efficiency and survival

    Treesearch

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter Kitin; Steven H. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    We studied xylem anatomy and hydraulic architecture in 14 transgenic insertion events and a control line of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) that varied in lignin content. Transgenic events had different levels of down-regulation of two genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL). Two-year-old trees were characterized after...

  9. Contrasting fine-root production, survival and soil CO2 efflux in pine and poplar plantation

    Treesearch

    M. D. Coleman; Richard E. Dickson; J. G. Isebrands

    2000-01-01

    Tree root activity, including fine-root production, turnover and metabolic activity are significant components of forest productivity and nutrient cycling. Differences in root activity among forest types are not well known. A 3-year study was undertaken in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and hybrid poplar (Populus tristis X P.

  10. Contrasting fine-root production, survival and soil CO2 efflux in pine and poplar plantations

    Treesearch

    M.D. Coleman; R.E. Dickson; J.G. Isebrands

    2000-01-01

    Tree root activity, including fine-root production, turnover and metabolic activity are significant components of forest productivity and nutrient cycling. Differences in root activity among forest types are not well known. A 3-year study was undertaken in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and hybrid poplar (Populus tristis X P.

  11. An approach for siting poplar energy production systems to increase productivity and associated ecosystem services

    Treesearch

    Ronald S. Zalesny; Deahn M. Donner; David R. Coyle; William L. Headlee

    2012-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops such as Populus spp. and their hybrids (i.e., poplars) are a significant component of the total biofuels and bioenergy feedstock resource in the USA. Production of these dedicated energy crops may result in large-scale land conversion, which leads to questions about their economic, logistic, and ecologic feasibility. To...

  12. Effects of irrigating poplar energy crops with landfill leachate on soil micro- and meso-fauna

    Treesearch

    Jill A. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generated worldwide combined with substantial demand for renewable energy has prompted testing and deployment of woody feedstock production systems that reuse and recycle wastewaters as irrigation and fertilization for the trees. Populus species and hybrids (i.e., poplars) are ideal for such systems given their fast...

  13. 78 FR 68297 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ..., Research and Information Order (Order). Hardwood lumber and hardwood plywood are used in products like... varies according to the product manufactured. The purpose of the program would be to strengthen the... hardwood plywood. Hardwood lumber products are used in residential and commercial construction...

  14. 1997 Hardwood Research Award Winner: "Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts"

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    The National Hardwood Lumber Association's 1997 Hardwood Research Award was presented to D. Earl Kline, Richard Conners, Qiang Lu and Philip Araman at the 25th Annual Hardwood Symposium for developing an automatic system for color sorting hardwood edge-glued panel parts. The researchers comprise a team from Virginia Tech University and the USDA Forest Service in...

  15. Bottomland Hardwoods Research on Site Preparation, Planation Establishment, and Cultural Treatments, at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy

    1980-01-01

    The South contains about 219 million acres of forests, 70 million acres of which are most productive when managed as hardwoods. Bottomland hardwoods cover about 22 million of this 70 million acres. Hardwood plantation management has been increasing during the last few years, but natural stand management still accounts for more than 99 percent of hardwood production in...

  16. New estimates of hardwood lumber exports from the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    W. Luppold; E. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Exports have become an increasingly important part of the overall hardwood lumber market. However, recent findings indicate that much of the reported growth of hardwood lumber exports in the 1980's was based on inflated volume data. This paper presents new estimates of hardwood lumber exports to Asia and Europe with emphasis on the central hardwood region of the...

  17. 78 FR 67979 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1211 RIN 0581-AD24 Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... determine whether issuance of a proposed Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and...

  18. Poplar for the phytomanagement of boron contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B H; Green, S R; Chancerel, B; Mills, T M; Clothier, B E

    2007-11-01

    Boron (B) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is mobile relative to other trace elements. We investigated the potential of hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) for B phytomanagement using a lysimeter experiment and a field trial on B-contaminated wood-waste. In both studies, poplars enhanced evapotranspiration from the wood-waste, reduced B leaching, and accumulated B in the aerial portions of the tree. When grown in a substrate containing 30 mg/kg B, poplar leaves had an average B concentration of 845 mg/kg, while the stems contained 21 mg/kg B. Leaf B concentrations increased linearly with leaf age. A decomposition experiment revealed that abscised leaves released 14% of their B during the winter months. Fertiliser application enhanced tree growth without decreasing the leaf B concentrations. Harvesting alternate rows of trees on a contaminated site would reduce leaching from the site while removing B. Harvested plant material may provide bioenergy, stock fodder, or an amendment for B-deficient soils.

  19. Hardwood thinning opportunities in the Lake States.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos

    1986-01-01

    The symposium presents and discusses new information on the hardwood resource, silviculture, harvesting, economics, and product potential from hardwood thinnings in the Lake States. Included are forest management perspectives from the logger, private industry, and state and federal forest managers.

  20. Hydrologic Evaluation of a Humid Climate Poplar Phytoremediation Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swensen, K.; Rabideau, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The emplacement of hybrid poplar trees to function as phytoremediation barriers is an appealing and sustainable groundwater management strategy because of low maintenance costs and the potential to extract large amounts of groundwater without pumping. While the effectiveness of poplar barriers has been assessed by groundwater quality monitoring, less attention has been given to physical hydrologic evaluations needed to improve barrier designs. In this research, a five year hydrologic evaluation was conducted at a poplar phytoremediation site in western NY, with the goal of quantifying ETg (evapotranspiration from groundwater) as a measure of the barrier's effectiveness in a humid climate. To consider transpiration from both vadose zone and groundwater, the hydrologic evaluation included four components: physical ET measurements, theoretical ET calculations, analysis of diurnal groundwater table fluctuations, and vadose zone modeling. The direct measurements of ETT (total) were obtained using sap flow meters installed on multiple trees within the barrier. These data were interpreted using a regression model that included theoretical ET calculations and site-specific measurements of weather parameters and poplar trunk area. Application of this model was challenged by the spatial variation in rooting depth as determined by tree excavations. To further quantify the removal of groundwater by the phytobarrier (ETg), the White Method was applied to interpret diurnal groundwater fluctuations from monitoring wells located within the barrier, in conjunction with a variably saturated-saturated flow model configured to confirm water extraction from ETg. Taken together, the results of this five year hydrologic evaluation highlight the complexity in quantifying humid climate groundwater extraction, as a large number of variables were found to influence these rates. Improved understanding of these controls will contribute to improved barrier designs that maximize ETg.

  1. Analysis of 4,664 high-quality sequence-finished poplar full-length

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, S.; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Douglas, Carl; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Bohlmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Populus includes poplars, aspens and cottonwoods, which will be collectively referred to as poplars hereafter unless otherwise specified. Poplars are the dominant tree species in many forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere and are of substantial economic value in plantation forestry. Poplar has been established as a model system for genomics studies of growth, development, and adaptation of woody perennial plants including secondary xylem formation, dormancy, adaptation to local environments, and biotic interactions. As part of the poplar genome sequencing project and the development of genomic resources for poplar, we have generated a full-length (FL)-cDNA collection using the biotinylated CAP trapper method. We constructed four FLcDNA libraries using RNA from xylem, phloem and cambium, and green shoot tips and leaves from the P. trichocarpa Nisqually-1 genotype, as well as insect-attacked leaves of the P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides hybrid. Following careful selection of candidate cDNA clones, we used a combined strategy of paired end reads and primer walking to generate a set of 4,664 high-accuracy, sequence-verified FLcDNAs, which clustered into 3,990 putative unique genes. Mapping FLcDNAs to the poplar genome sequence combined with BLAST comparisons to previously predicted protein coding sequences in the poplar genome identified 39 FLcDNAs that likely localize to gaps in the current genome sequence assembly. Another 173 FLcDNAs mapped to the genome sequence but were not included among the previously predicted genes in the poplar genome. Comparative sequence analysis against Arabidopsis thaliana and other species in the non-redundant database of GenBank revealed that 11.5% of the poplar FLcDNAs display no significant sequence similarity to other plant proteins. By mapping the poplar FLcDNAs against transcriptome data previously obtained with a 15.5 K cDNA microarray, we identified 153 FLcDNA clones for genes that were differentially expressed in

  2. Economics of herbicide application methods in hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller

    1988-01-01

    Forest managers can use the data presented here to determine the least-cost herbicide application method for precommercial thinning treatments in hardwood sapling stands. Herbicides used in managing immature hardwood stands must be applied ustng individual-tree methods: broadcast applications in hardwoods are not selective and may result in signtficant damage to...

  3. Insect and Disease Pests of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    L. P. Abrahamson; F. I. McCracken

    1971-01-01

    Insects and diseases seldom kill southern hardwood trees in managed stands, but they cause major economic losses by lowering wood quality and reducing tree growth. In discussing the most important insects and diseases of southern hardwoods, let us consider first those that attack natural hardwood stands and then those associated with plantation culture.

  4. Use of hardwood flooring in mobile homes

    Treesearch

    David G. Martens; Leonard J. Koenick; Leonard J. Koenick

    1970-01-01

    The hardwood flooring industry is losing a new and vigorous market by default. The mobile-home industry produced over 250 million square feet of single-family housing space last year, and very little of this floor space was covered with hardwood flooring. A preliminary glance at this situation seems to uncover an industry that offers many opportunities for hardwood...

  5. Harvesting costs and utilization of hardwood plantations

    Treesearch

    Tim P. McDonald; Bryce J. Stokes

    1994-01-01

    The use of short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) practices in hardwoods to meet fiber supply needs is becoming increasingly widespread. Total plated area of short rotation hardwood fiber plantations is currently about 22,000 ha (McDonald and Stokes 1993). That figure should certainly to grow in response to public concerns over loss of natural hardwood stands. With...

  6. Hyd-Mech FB7 short rotation hardwood feller-buncher test

    Treesearch

    Dennis Curtin; Bryce Stokes; Doug Fredericks

    1985-01-01

    The FB7 is a first-generation prototype continuous feller-buncher manufactured by Hyd-Mech Engineering, Ltd. of Woodstock, Ontario. It was developed and funded by the National Research Council of Canada to harvest short-rotational bioenergy plantations of hybrid poplar. The development specifications were for stumps with diameters of up to eight inches and with a...

  7. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 – Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Seol Ah Choi, Young-Im Cho, Jin-Seong Lee, Hyoshin

    2015-06-19

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. - Highlights: • We identify the BEE3-like gene form hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). • We examine effects of overexpression of PagBEE3L on growth in poplar. • We found that 35S:BEE3L transgenic plants showed more rapid growth than wild-type plants. • BEE3L protein plays an important role in the development of plant stem.

  8. Poplar MYB115 and MYB134 Transcription Factors Regulate Proanthocyanidin Synthesis and Structure1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dawei; Mellway, Robin; Yoshida, Kazuko; Tran, Lan; Stewart, Don; Reichelt, Michael; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Séguin, Armand

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of proanthocyanidins is regulated by a complex of transcription factors composed of R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix, and WD40 proteins that activate the promoters of biosynthetic genes. In poplar (genus Populus), MYB134 is known to regulate proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by activating key flavonoid genes. Here, we characterize a second MYB regulator of proanthocyanidins, MYB115. Transgenic poplar overexpressing MYB115 showed a high-proanthocyanidin phenotype and reduced salicinoid accumulation, similar to the effects of MYB134 overexpression. Transcriptomic analysis of MYB115- and MYB134-overexpressing poplar plants identified a set of common up-regulated genes encoding proanthocyanidin biosynthetic enzymes and several novel uncharacterized MYB transcriptional repressors. Transient expression experiments demonstrated the capacity of both MYB134 and MYB115 to activate flavonoid promoters, but only in the presence of a basic helix-loop-helix cofactor. Yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed the direct interaction of these transcription factors. The unexpected identification of dihydromyricetin in leaf extracts of both MYB115- and MYB134-overexpressing poplar led to the discovery of enhanced flavonoid B-ring hydroxylation and an increased proportion of prodelphinidins in proanthocyanidin of the transgenics. The dramatic hydroxylation phenotype of MYB115 overexpressors is likely due to the up-regulation of both flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylases and cytochrome b5. Overall, this work provides new insight into the complexity of the gene regulatory network for proanthocyanidin synthesis in poplar. PMID:28348066

  9. Poplar MYB115 and MYB134 Transcription Factors Regulate Proanthocyanidin Synthesis and Structure.

    PubMed

    James, Amy Midori; Ma, Dawei; Mellway, Robin; Gesell, Andreas; Yoshida, Kazuko; Walker, Vincent; Tran, Lan; Stewart, Don; Reichelt, Michael; Suvanto, Jussi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Séguin, Armand; Constabel, C Peter

    2017-05-01

    The accumulation of proanthocyanidins is regulated by a complex of transcription factors composed of R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix, and WD40 proteins that activate the promoters of biosynthetic genes. In poplar (genus Populus), MYB134 is known to regulate proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by activating key flavonoid genes. Here, we characterize a second MYB regulator of proanthocyanidins, MYB115. Transgenic poplar overexpressing MYB115 showed a high-proanthocyanidin phenotype and reduced salicinoid accumulation, similar to the effects of MYB134 overexpression. Transcriptomic analysis of MYB115- and MYB134-overexpressing poplar plants identified a set of common up-regulated genes encoding proanthocyanidin biosynthetic enzymes and several novel uncharacterized MYB transcriptional repressors. Transient expression experiments demonstrated the capacity of both MYB134 and MYB115 to activate flavonoid promoters, but only in the presence of a basic helix-loop-helix cofactor. Yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed the direct interaction of these transcription factors. The unexpected identification of dihydromyricetin in leaf extracts of both MYB115- and MYB134-overexpressing poplar led to the discovery of enhanced flavonoid B-ring hydroxylation and an increased proportion of prodelphinidins in proanthocyanidin of the transgenics. The dramatic hydroxylation phenotype of MYB115 overexpressors is likely due to the up-regulation of both flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylases and cytochrome b5 Overall, this work provides new insight into the complexity of the gene regulatory network for proanthocyanidin synthesis in poplar. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Yield of Unthinned Yellow-Poplar

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck; Lino Della-Bianca

    1970-01-01

    Cubic-foot and board-foot yields of unthinned yellow-poplar (Liriodendron Tulipiferi L.) stands are described in relation to stand age, site index, and number of trees per acre. The yield tables are based on analysis of diameter distributions and height-diameter relationships obtained from 141 natural, unthinned yellow-poplar stands in the...

  11. Environmental applications of poplars and willows

    Treesearch

    J.G. Isebrands; P. Aronsson; M. Carlson; R. Ceulemans; M. Coleman; N. Dickinson; J. Dimitriou; S. Doty; E. Gardiner; K. Heinsoo; J.D. Johnson; Y.B. Koo; J. Kort; J. Kuzovkina; L. Licht; A.R. McCracken; I. McIvor; P. Mertens; K. Perttu; D. Riddell-Black; B. Robins; G. Scarascia-Mugnozza; W.R. Schroeder; John Stanturf; T.A. Volk; M. Weih

    2014-01-01

    Poplars and willows have been planted for environmental purposes for millennia. There are reports that poplars were planted to improve the human environment 4000 years ago in the third dynasty of Ur, for streamside stabilization 2000 years ago in what is now the south-western USA by native North Americans and for urban amenities by the early Chinese dynasties (see...

  12. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Treesearch

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  13. Yellow-Poplar Site Index Curves

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck

    1962-01-01

    Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) occurs naturally throughout the eastern and central United States from southern New England west to Michigan and south to Florida and Louisiana. Because of its wide occurrence, yellow-poplar grows under a variety of climatic, edaphic, and biotic conditions. Combinations of these different environmental...

  14. More New Carbon in the Soil of a Poplar Plantation Under Free Air Carbon Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoosbeek, M. R.

    2002-12-01

    Early 1999 three FACE (Free Air Carbon Enrichment) and three control rings were installed on former agricultural fields near Viterbo, Italy. A 9 ha poplar plantation was established using hardwood cuttings. Within the rings two Populus species and one hybrid were planted (P. nigra, P. alba, P.x euramericana) at a density of 10000 per ha. The 314 m2 circular plots were divided in six sectors, with two sectors per species. Carbon enrichment was achieved by injection of pure CO2 through laser drilled holes in tubing mounted on telescopic poles. The average CO2 concentration was 544 +/- 48 micromol mol-1. During the first year the total C content of the soils decreased on average from 1.05% to 0.95%. During the second and third year the total soil carbon content remained more or less stable, while no treatment effects could be detected due to the large C pool as compared to the annual C influx. The d13C signature of the CO2 enrichment gas was close to that of ambient CO2, and could therefore not be used as an isotopic signal to follow the incorporation of new carbon into the soil carbon pool. Instead we used root ingrowth cores (40 cm deep, 4 cm in diameter) filled with sieved and well mixed C4 soil. This C4 soil with a d13C value of -18.33 was obtained from a similar soil that had been under corn for many years. For each incubation period, species and rings, two ingrowth cores were placed in the C3 soil. Fractions of new carbon were calculated with a simple mixing model. Multiplying these fractions with the total C content yielded the new C contents (by weight percentage). During the first year no treatment effect was detected. During the second year, new soil C% under P. alba was respectively 0.12 under ambient and 0.15 under increased CO2 treatment (P= 0.07). The third year showed the same effect on new soil C%, i.e. with P. alba respectively 0.07 under ambient and 0.13 under increased CO2 treatment (P= 0.02), and with P. nigra respectively 0.08 under ambient and 0

  15. Enzymatic digestibility and pretreatment degradation products of AFEX-treated hardwoods (Populus nigra).

    PubMed

    Balan, Venkatesh; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Marshall, Derek; Sharma, Lekh N; Chambliss, C Kevin; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing need to find alternatives to crude oil as the primary feed stock for the chemicals and fuel industry and ethanol has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative. Among the various feed stocks for producing ethanol, poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) is considered to have great potential as a biorefinery feedstock in the United States, due to their widespread availability and good productivity in several parts of the country. We have optimized AFEX pretreatment conditions (180 degrees C, 2:1 ammonia to biomass loading, 233% moisture, 30 minutes residence time) and by using various combinations of enzymes (commercical celluloses and xylanases) to achieve high glucan and xylan conversion (93 and 65%, respectively). We have also identified and quantified several important degradation products formed during AFEX using liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). As a part of degradation product analysis, we have also quantified oligosaccharides in the AFEX water wash extracts by acid hydrolysis. It is interesting to note that corn stover (C4 grass) can be pretreated effectively using mild AFEX pretreatment conditions, while on the other hand hardwood poplar requires much harsher AFEX conditions to obtain equivalent sugar yields upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Comparing corn stover and poplar, we conclude that pretreatment severity and enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency are dictated to a large extent by lignin carbohydrate complexes and arabinoxylan cross-linkages for AFEX.

  16. Native hardwood trees of the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut

    2005-01-01

    Trees are planted for various reasons including, timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation (Indiana NRCS 2002). Establishment of hardwood plantings requires planning, a commitment of time and resources, proper planting, maintenance, and protection....

  17. An Examination of Regional Hardwood Roundwood Markets in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Delton Alderman; Delton Alderman

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia?s hardwood resource is large and diverse ranging from oak-hickory forests in the southern and western portions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia also has a diverse group of primary hardwood- processing industries, including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  18. Strategic plans for the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Michler; Keith E. Woeste

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) at Purdue University is to advance the science of hardwood tree improvement and genomics in the central hardwood region of the United States by: developing and disseminating knowledge on improving the genetic quality of hardwood tree species; conserving fine hardwood germplasm; developing...

  19. Examination of regional hardwood roundwood markets in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman; William Luppold

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia's large and diverse hardwood resource ranges from oak-hickory forests in the southern and northwestern regions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia is home to a diverse group of primary hardwood processing industries including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  20. Inventory of Commercial Hardwoods in the High Sierra

    Treesearch

    Norman H. Pillsbury; George L. McCaskill

    1991-01-01

    A hardwood resources assessment was completed for the Sierra Economic Development District in the north central Sierra Nevada. The assessment included the development of a tree grading system for the major hardwood species in the area, an inventory of the hardwood resources, and recommendations for hardwood management. Hardwood volumes of total wood available for...

  1. Establishment and early growth of Populus hybrids irrigated with landfill leachate

    Treesearch

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Edmund O. Bauer; Jill A. Zalesny

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid poplar genotypes exhibit great potential for tree establishment and growth when irrigated with municipal solid waste landfill leachate. We evaluated the potential for establishment on leachate-irrigated soils by testing: 1) aboveground growth of hybrid poplar during repeated irrigation with landfill leachate and 2) aboveground and belowground biomass after 70 d...

  2. Lignin content versus syringyl to guaiacyl ratio amongst poplars.

    PubMed

    Bose, Samar K; Francis, Raymond C; Govender, Mark; Bush, Tamara; Spark, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    Two oxidation techniques that afford high yields of monomers and dimers were used to more accurately estimate the syringyl to guaiacyl (S:G) ratio of hardwood lignins. Permanganate oxidation of the woodmeal after a CuO pre-hydrolysis step gave poor results and this was attributed to preferential oxidation and degradation of syringyl nuclei by CuO. However, this procedure did provide a good estimate of the percentages of both S and G phenylpropane (C(9)) units that were uncondensed. When the total S and G products from nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO) of the uncondensed fractions were corrected, credible S:G ratios were obtained. These ratios were in good agreement with results from KMnO4 oxidation of dissolved kraft lignin without CuO pre-hydrolysis. The corrected NBO method was used to determine the S:G ratio of 13 poplars, and the values ranged from 1.01 to 1.68. Unlike results from other investigations, an excellent linear correlation (R(2) =0.846) was obtained for a decreasing lignin content (28% to 16.5%) with an increase in the S:G ratio.

  3. Symplastic phloem loading in poplar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cankui; Han, Lu; Slewinski, Thomas L; Sun, Jianlei; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Turgeon, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Sap is driven through phloem sieve tubes by an osmotically generated pressure gradient between source and sink tissues. In many plants, source pressure results from thermodynamically active loading in which energy is used to transfer sucrose (Suc) from mesophyll cells to the phloem of leaf minor veins against a concentration gradient. However, in some species, almost all trees, correlative evidence suggests that sugar migrates passively through plasmodesmata from mesophyll cells into the sieve elements. The possibility of alternate loading mechanisms has important ramifications for the regulation of phloem transport and source-sink interactions. Here, we provide experimental evidence that, in gray poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba), Suc enters the phloem through plasmodesmata. Transgenic plants were generated with yeast invertase in the cell walls to prevent Suc loading by this route. The constructs were driven either by the constitutive 35S promoter or the minor vein-specific galactinol synthase promoter. Transgenic plants grew at the same rate as the wild type without symptoms of loading inhibition, such as accumulation of carbohydrates or leaf chlorosis. Rates of photosynthesis were normal. In contrast, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants, which have limited numbers of plasmodesmata between mesophyll and phloem, displayed typical symptoms of loading inhibition when transformed with the same DNA constructs. The results are consistent with passive loading of Suc through plasmodesmata in poplar. We also noted defense-related symptoms in leaves of transgenic poplar when the plants were abruptly exposed to excessively high temperatures, adding to evidence that hexose is involved in triggering the hypersensitive response.

  4. Chloroplast parameters differ in wild type and transgenic poplars overexpressing gsh1 in the cytosol.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, L A; Ronzhina, D A; Ivanov, L A; Stroukova, L V; Peuke, A D; Rennenberg, H

    2009-07-01

    Poplar mutants overexpressing the bacterial genes gsh1 or gsh2 encoding the enzymes of glutathione biosynthesis are among the best-characterised transgenic plants. However, this characterisation originates exclusively from laboratory studies, and the performance of these mutants under field conditions is largely unknown. Here, we report a field experiment in which the wild-type poplar hybrid Populus tremula x P. alba and a transgenic line overexpressing the bacterial gene gsh1 encoding gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in the cytosol were grown for 3 years at a relatively clean (control) field site and a field site contaminated with heavy metals. Aboveground biomass accumulation was slightly smaller in transgenic compared to wild-type plants; soil contamination significantly decreased biomass accumulation in both wild-type and transgenic plants by more than 40%. Chloroplasts parameters, i.e., maximal diameter, projection area and perimeter, surface area and volume, surface/volume ratio and a two-dimensional form coefficient, were found to depend on plant type, leaf tissue and soil contamination. The greatest differences between wild and transgenic poplars were observed at the control site. Under these conditions, chloroplast sizes in palisade tissue of transgenic poplar significantly exceeded those of the wild type. In contrast to the wild type, palisade chloroplast volume exceeded that of spongy chloroplasts in transgenic poplars at both field sites. Chlorophyll content per chloroplast was the same in wild and transgenic poplars. Apparently, the increase in chloroplast volume was not connected to changes in the photosynthetic centres. Chloroplasts of transgenic poplar at the control site were more elongated in palisade cells and close to spherical in spongy mesophyll chloroplasts. At the contaminated site, palisade and spongy cell chloroplasts of leaves from transgenic trees and the wild type were the same shape. Transgenic poplars also had a smaller chloroplast

  5. Sawlog weights for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Floyd G. Timson; Floyd G. Timson

    1972-01-01

    The tables are presented in this paper as reference material needed as a foundation for further work in the field of hardwood log weights. Such work may be undertaken by researchers, engineers, and equipment designers in the form of formal and informal studies, or by timbermen in the normal course of action to improve their operations.

  6. Improvement Cutting in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. W. Johnson

    1951-01-01

    Do bottomland hardwood forests respond to improvement cuts? Do growth rate and stand quality increase enough to make up for the extra effort and, sometimes, outright expense of improvement cutting? Ten years of growth on some plots on the Delta Experimental Forest near Stoneville, Mississippi, indicates that the answer to both questions is "yes".

  7. Soil Management for Hardwood Production

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot; B. G. Blackmon; J. B. Baker

    1971-01-01

    Soil management is the key to successful hardwood management because soil properties are probably the most important determinants of forest productivity. Because of the lack of soil uniformity, however, many foresters have become frustrated with attempts to relate soil to satisfactory growth. Since soil scientists have been unable to predict site quality for trees in...

  8. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Treesearch

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  9. Silvicultural systems for bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1989-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests normally regenerate with species found in the overstory. These species reflect the timing, duration, depth of water, and nature of the sediment in past flooding. The longer water stands during the growing season and the deeper the sediment, the fewer the species that are able to survive. Flooding patterns often change over the life of a...

  10. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  11. Bottomland Hardwood Ecosystem Management Project

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Marianne K. Burke; Calvin E. Meier

    1994-01-01

    Federal agency approaches to land management are undergoing a shift from parcel-specific concerns toward a more holistic, ecosystem management approach. Southern bottomland hardwood ecosystems provide important environmental services and commodity goods (Wharton et al. 1982), yet much of our knowledge of these systems comes from anecdotal information. The Bottomland...

  12. Use Hardwoods for Building Components

    Treesearch

    Glenn A. Cooper; William W. Rice

    1968-01-01

    Describes a system for prefabricating structural units from hardwoods for use in floors, roofs, and walls of a-frame or post-and-beam type construction. The interior face of the unit is decorative paneling; the exterior face is sheathing. Use of the system could reduce prefabricated house construction costs compared to conventional construction costs.

  13. Simulation of hardwood log sawing

    Treesearch

    D.B. Richards; W.K. Adkins; H. Hallock; E.H. Bulgrin

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical modeling computer programs for several hardwood sawing systems have been developed and are described. One has judgment capabilities. Several of the subroutines are common to all of the models. These models are the basis for further research which examines the question of best-grade sawing method in terms of lumber value yield.

  14. Ownership Patterns on Hardwood Lands

    Treesearch

    Sam C. Doak

    1991-01-01

    The pattern of land use and ownership—including sizes of ownerships, types of landowners, and their various management objectives—affects the level of benefits available from the California's hardwood resource. Geographic information system (GIS) databases of ownership and population characteristics were developed for two California counties using local assessors...

  15. Hardwood planting in southern Ontario

    Treesearch

    F. W. von Althen

    1977-01-01

    Successful hardwood afforestation is possible provided the following conditions can be met: (1) a deep, moist but well-drained soil; (2) intensive site preparation, preferably plowing and disking of the total plantation area; (3) careful planting of healthy, sturdy planting stock; (4) effective weed control for at least the first two and preferably three years after...

  16. Grazing in central hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Robert A. McQuilkin; Harold Scholten

    1989-01-01

    Woodland grazing is a major forestry and land management problem in parts of the central hardwood region. Most forest grazing is by cattle and, to a lesser extent, hogs in woodlands adjacent to pastures or feedlots. The practice is particularly common in the cattle producing areas of the Corn Belt where often 50 percent or more of the upland forest is grazed. Woodland...

  17. Bottomland hardwoods for structual flakeboards

    Treesearch

    Eddie W. Price; Chung-Yun Hse

    1983-01-01

    Seven species found growing in bottomland hardwood sites were evaluated for their potential in being utilized in a structural flakeboard. The evaluation process consisted of three phases of investigation. Phase I investigated properties of flakeboards fabricated with several flake lengths and thicknesses using all seven species. In Phase II, properties of panels made...

  18. Herbicide practices in hardwood plantings

    Treesearch

    Brian D. Beheler; Charles H. Michler

    2013-01-01

    Control of competing vegetation is an important early cultural practice that can improve survival and vigor in hardwood tree plantings. The type of program used depends on landowner objectives, species of weeds present, equipment available, and types of herbicides available. Pre-planting planning can greatly increase effectiveness of an herbicide program for the first...

  19. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Planting hardwood seedlings in the Central Hardwood Region.

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut

    2003-01-01

    Forest tree planting in the United States on public and private land exceeded 2.6 million acres in 1999. Of that total, approximately 1.3 million acres (48 percent) were planted by private individuals (AF & PA 2001). In the Central Hardwood Region forest tree planting by private landowners exceeded 100,000 acres in 1999. Trees are planted for various reasons...

  20. Stomatal factors and vulnerability of stem xylem to cavitation in poplars.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Thomas, Barb R; Tyree, Melvin T

    2011-10-01

    The relationships between the vulnerability of stem xylem to cavitation, stomatal conductance, stomatal density, and leaf and stem water potential were examined in six hybrid poplar (P38P38, Walker, Okanese, Northwest, Assiniboine and Berlin) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) clones. Stem xylem cavitation resistance was examined with the Cavitron technique in well-watered plants grown in the greenhouse. To investigate stomatal responses to drought, plants were subjected to drought stress by withholding watering for 5 (mild drought) and 7 (severe drought) days and to stress recovery by rewatering severely stressed plants for 30 min and 2 days. The clones varied in stomatal sensitivity to drought and vulnerability to stem xylem cavitation. P38P38 reduced stomatal conductance in response to mild stress while the balsam poplar clone maintained high leaf stomatal conductance under more severe drought stress conditions. Differences between the severely stressed clones were also observed in leaf water potentials with no or relatively small decreases in Assiniboine, P38P38, Okanese and Walker. Vulnerability to drought-induced stem xylem embolism revealed that balsam poplar and Northwest clones reached loss of conductivity at lower stem water potentials compared with the remaining clones. There was a strong link between stem xylem resistance to cavitation and stomatal responsiveness to drought stress in balsam poplar and P38P38. However, the differences in stomatal responsiveness to mild drought suggest that other drought-resistant strategies may also play a key role in some clones of poplars exposed to drought stress. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  1. Impact of RAV1-engineering on poplar biomass production: a short-rotation coppice field trial.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Cortés, Alicia; Ramos-Sánchez, José Manuel; Hernández-Verdeja, Tamara; González-Melendi, Pablo; Alves, Ana; Simões, Rita; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Guijarro, Mercedes; Canellas, Isabel; Sixto, Hortensia; Allona, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Early branching or syllepsis has been positively correlated with high biomass yields in short-rotation coppice (SRC) poplar plantations, which could represent an important lignocellulosic feedstock for the production of second-generation bioenergy. In prior work, we generated hybrid poplars overexpressing the chestnut gene RELATED TO ABI3/VP1 1 (CsRAV1), which featured c. 80% more sylleptic branches than non-modified trees in growth chambers. Given the high plasticity of syllepsis, we established a field trial to monitor the performance of these trees under outdoor conditions and a SRC management. We examined two CsRAV1-overexpression poplar events for their ability to maintain syllepsis and their potential to enhance biomass production. Two poplar events with reduced expression of the CsRAV1 homologous poplar genes PtaRAV1 and PtaRAV2 were also included in the trial. Under our culture conditions, CsRAV1-overexpression poplars continued developing syllepsis over two cultivation cycles. Biomass production increased on completion of the first cycle for one of the overexpression events, showing unaltered structural, chemical, or combustion wood properties. On completion of the second cycle, aerial growth and biomass yields of both overexpression events were reduced as compared to the control. These findings support the potential application of CsRAV1-overexpression to increase syllepsis in commercial elite trees without changing their wood quality. However, the syllepsis triggered by the introduction of this genetic modification appeared not to be sufficient to sustain and enhance biomass production.

  2. Drying hardwoods with impinging jets.

    Treesearch

    Howard N. Rosen

    1980-01-01

    Silver maple, yellow poplar, and black walnut lumber was dried in a prototype jet dryer over a range of temperatures from 120 degrees to 400 degrees Fahrenheit and air velocities from 1,000 to 9,000 fpm. Different drying schedules were developed for each type of wood. The quality of the jet-dried lumber was good and compared favorably with kiln-dried lumber.

  3. Utilization of the Eastern Hardwood Resource by the Hardwood Sawmilling Industry

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    The eastern hardwood resource contains numerous species that differ in grain, color, texture, and workability. Because the value of hardwoods is derived from appearance, these variations in physical attributes can cause the price for identical grades of hardwood lumber to vary by as much as 600% between species. As a result, there is incentive for primary processors to...

  4. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center: its strategic plans for sustaining the hardwood resource

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Michler; Michael J. Bosela; Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste

    2003-01-01

    A regional center for hardwood tree improvement, genomics, and regeneration research, development and technology transfer will focus on black walnut, black cherry, northern red oak and, in the future, on other fine hardwoods as the effort is expanded. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) will use molecular genetics and genomics along with...

  5. Finding Fingerprints of Selection in Poplar Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, Gerald

    2014-10-02

    Jerry Tuskan of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the DOE JGI talks about poplar trees as models for selective adaptation to an environment. This video complements a study published ahead online August 24, 2014 in Nature Genetics.

  6. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.A.; Roberts, R.S.; Faass, G.S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Colcord, A.R.; Bery, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous hydrolysis of poplar chips by steam at 300-350 psi resulted in the separation of hemicellulose (I) cellulose and lignin components. The I fraction was readily depolymerised by steam to acetic acid, furfural, methanol, and xylose.

  7. Finding Fingerprints of Selection in Poplar Genomes

    ScienceCinema

    Tuskan, Gerald

    2017-05-12

    Jerry Tuskan of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the DOE JGI talks about poplar trees as models for selective adaptation to an environment. This video complements a study published ahead online August 24, 2014 in Nature Genetics.

  8. Hardwood Culture in the Eastern United States

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson

    1978-01-01

    Many hardwood plantations are being established in the East. Populus deltoides, Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Juglans nigra are the species that have been planted and studied most.

  9. Computer-Integrated Breakdown of Hardwood Sawlogs

    Treesearch

    Luis G. Occeña; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes work in progress concerning the development of an integrated approach to hardwood processing. The motivation for this work, research direction, and research developments are presented.

  10. Antisense down-regulation of 4CL expression alters lignification, tree growth, and saccharification potential of field-grown poplar

    Treesearch

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Michael Jourdes; Chanyoung Ki; Ann M. Patten; Laurence B. Davin; Norman G. Lewis; Gerald A. Tuskan; Lee Gunter; Stephen R. Decker; Michael J. Selig; Robert Sykes; Michael E. Himmel; Peter Kitin; Olga Shevchenko; Steven H. Strauss

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic down-regulation of the Pt4CL1 gene family encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) has been reported as a means for reducing lignin content in cell walls and increasing overall growth rates, thereby improving feedstock quality for paper and bioethanol production. Using hybrid poplar (Populus tremula...

  11. Canker Rots in Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    F.I. McCracken

    1978-01-01

    Canker-rot fungi cause serious degrade and cull in southern hardwoods, especially the red oaks. Heartwood decay is the most serious form of damage, but the fungi also kill the cambium and decay the sapwood for as much as 3 feet (.91 m) above and below the entrance point into the tree. The ability of these fungi to kill the cambium and cause cankers distinguishes them...

  12. Hardwood tree survival in heavy ground cover on reclaimed land in West Virginia: mowing and ripping effects.

    PubMed

    Skousen, Jeff; Gorman, Jim; Pena-Yewtukhiw, Eugenia; King, Jim; Stewart, Jason; Emerson, Paul; Delong, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    Current West Virginia coal mining regulations emphasize reforestation as a preferred postmining land use on surface mined areas. Some mined sites reclaimed to pasture are being converted to forests. In the spring of 2001, we compared the establishment and growth of five hardwood tree species on a reclaimed West Virginaia surface mine with compacted soils and a heavy grass groundcover. We planted 1-yr-old seedlings of five species (black cherry [Prunus serotina Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra L.], yellow poplar [Liriodendron tulipifera L.], black walnut [Juglans nigra L.], and white ash [Fraxinus americana L.]) into sites that were mowed and unmowed on north- and south-facing aspects. We applied a ripping treatment, which loosened the compacted soils and disturbed the heavy ground cover. First year results showed >80% survival for all species. After 7 yr black cherry survival averaged 36%, red oak 47%, yellow poplar 66%, black walnut 80%, and white ash 98% across all sites and treatments. Seedling survival was best on north, unmowed, and ripped areas. Average growth (height x diameter(2)) of trees after 7 yr was greatest with white ash (434 cm(3)), followed by yellow poplar (256 cm(3)) and black walnut (138 cm(3)), then by black cherry (31 cm(3)) and red oak (27 cm(3)). Browsing by wildlife had a negative impact on tree growth especially on south aspect sites. Overall, mowing reduced survival of black cherry, red oak, and yellow poplar, but not for black walnut and white ash. Ripping increased survival of black cherry, red oak, and yellow poplar. Growth of all species was improved with ripping. Using inverse linear-quadratic plateau models, the time required for tree survival to stabilize varied from 1 yr for white ash to 6 to 9 yr for the other species.

  13. Nucleotide diversity among natural populations of a North American poplar (Populus balsamifera, Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Breen, Amy L; Glenn, Elise; Yeager, Adam; Olson, Matthew S

    2009-01-01

    Poplars (Populus spp.) comprise an important component of circumpolar boreal forest ecosystems and are the model species for tree genomics. In this study, we surveyed genetic variation and population differentiation in three nuclear genes among populations of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) in North America. We examined nucleotide sequence variation in alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), two well-studied nuclear loci in plants, and abscisic acid insensitivity 1B (ABI1B), a locus coincident with timing of seasonal dormancy in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies of hybrid poplars. We compared estimates of baseline population genetic parameters for these loci with those obtained in studies of other poplar species, particularly European aspen (Populus tremula). Average pairwise nucleotide diversity (pi(tot) = 0.00216-0.00353) was equivalent to that in Populus trichocarpa, but markedly less than that in P. tremula. Elevated levels of population structure were observed in ABI1B between the northern and southern regions (F(CT) = 0.184, P < 0.001) and among populations (F(ST) = 0.256, P < 0.001). These results suggest that geographic or taxonomic factors are important for understanding patterns of variation throughout the genus Populus. Our findings have the potential to aid in the design of sampling regimes for conservation and breeding stock and contribute to historical inferences regarding the factors that shaped the genetic diversity of boreal plant species.

  14. A handy aid for hardwood log graders

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander

    1952-01-01

    In hardwood log grading, the beginner encounters a formidable task: to memorize the specifications, exceptions to general rules, etc., as set down in the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's "Hardwood Log Grades for Standard Lumber." He must refer to this text repeatedly until he becomes familiar with all the ins and outs of the job. This slows him down...

  15. Sources of the Indiana hardwood industry's competitiveness

    Treesearch

    Silas Tora; Eva Haviarova

    2008-01-01

    The estimated 1,600 forest products-related firms in Indiana employ more than 56,000 workers. Hardwood manufacturers are the largest segment, adding approximately $2 billion per year of raw product value. A recent report by BioCrossroads ranked the hardwood industry as the most important in the agricultural sector in Indiana. Like most of the other forest products...

  16. Advances in fertilization for hardwood regeneration

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing fertilization programs in the nursery and field may help improve regeneration and restoration of temperate deciduous hardwoods. Our research program has demonstrated the applicability of nutrient loading in fine hardwood systems to promote seedling uptake and storage of nutrients during the nursery phase. We also have shown the benefits of nutrient loading...

  17. The use of herbicides in hardwood forestery

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1987-01-01

    Herbicides can play an important role in hardwood management by providing foresters and landowners with a means to eliminate undesirable stand components. Although herbicide technology for hardwood management still needs much development, some methods are available and MU be used to enhance the value of the stand. With an emphasis on safety, detailed information about...

  18. Market shifts: assessing changes in hardwood demand

    Treesearch

    Matthew Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood lumber production has trended downward nationally since 1999 as marginal mills have closed and others have consolidated in response to market conditions. Still, forests throughout Ohio continue to provide multiple benefits to landowners and all Ohioans. Important changes are taking place in hardwood markets, both domestically and abroad. With a knowledge of...

  19. Simplified Guidelines to Hardwood Lumber Grading

    Treesearch

    Walton R. Smith

    1967-01-01

    All native hardwood lumber is graded according to the rules established by the National Hardwood Lumber Association. The rules are complete and detailed so that they permit accurate lumber grading with a minimum of personal judgment. To the student lumber grader, the many fine points and exceptions by species are often confusing and hide the basic rules of standard...

  20. Proceedings: guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Arlyn W. Perkey; William E. Kidd

    1988-01-01

    This proceedings will provide field foresters and landowners with an update of current available information for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. We wanted a "state-of-the-art" proceedings for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. We asked the authors to make recommendations based on the current literature, their knowledge, and experience. Though...

  1. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Sandra L.C., eds. Fosbroke

    1995-01-01

    Two invited papers, 57 volunteer papers, and 22 volunteer poster summaries presented at the 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Presentation topics included economics, forest amenities, harvesting, logging safety, utilization, physiology, genetics, ecology, regeneration, silviculture, protection, management, hydrology, soils, nutrient cycling, and hardwood markets...

  2. TREEGRAD: a grading program for eastern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J.W. Stringer; D.W. Cremeans

    1991-01-01

    Assigning tree grades to eastern hardwoods is often a difficult task for neophyte graders. Recently several "dichotomous keys" have been developed for training graders in the USFS hardwood tree grading system. TREEGRAD uses the Tree Grading Algorithm (TGA) for determining grades from defect location data and is designed to be used as a teaching aid.

  3. Cutting hardwood cants can boost sawmill profits

    Treesearch

    George R. Niskala; Thomas W., Jr. Church

    1966-01-01

    The markets for hardwood lumber are now strong, and sawmill profits are increasing. But this favorable market-price situation is the exception rather than the rule. Usually hardwood sawmill operators are confronted with ever-decreasing profit margins. During the past decade, while lumber prices have remained relatively constant, most logging and sawmilling costs have...

  4. Identifying and Prioritizing Critical Hardwood Resources

    Treesearch

    Sam C. Doak; Sharon Johnson; Marlyce Myers

    1991-01-01

    A logical framework is required to provide a focus for the implementation of a variety of landowner incentive techniques in accordance with existing goals to protect and enhance hardwood resources. A system is presented for identifying and prioritizing critical hardwood resources for site specific conservation purposes. Flexibility is built into this system so that...

  5. Regeneration of southern hardwoods: some ecological concepts

    Treesearch

    David L. Loftis

    1989-01-01

    Classical concepts of post-disturbance succession through well-defined seral stages to a well-defined ,climax stage( s) are not a useful conceptual framework for predicting species composition of regeneration resulting from the application of regeneration treatments in complex southern hardwood forests. Hardwood regeneration can be better understood, and more useful...

  6. Optimum Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Carmen Regalado; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Before the adoption of an automated system for optimizing edging and trimming in hardwood mills, the performance of present manual systems must be evaluated to provide a basis for comparison. a study was made in which lumber values recovered in actual hardwood operations were compared to the output of a computer-based procedure for edging and trimming optimization. The...

  7. Automated computer grading of hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; J.P. Franklin; Charles W. McMillin; R.W. Conners; H.A. Huber

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an improved computer program to grade hardwood lumber. The program was created as part of a system to automate various aspects of the hardwood manufacturing industry. It enhances previous efforts by considering both faces of the board and provides easy application of species dependent rules. The program can be readily interfaced with a computer...

  8. The hardwood resource in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    John H. Poppino; Donald R. Gedney

    1984-01-01

    The hardwood resource in western Oregon is described by species and ownership. Changes in the private hardwood resource between 1961-62 and 1973-76 are shown. Statistics of size, volume, and ownership by county are presented for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh).

  9. Hardwood Lumber Edger and Trimmer Training System

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman; Powsiri Klinkhachorn

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a computerized hardwood lumber edger and trimming training system. The purpose of the training system is to help edger and trimmer operators and sawmill managers better understand how hardwood lumber grade, surface measure, and price interact to affect lumber value. The training system can be used both as a training tool and as a testing tool. As a...

  10. Automatic Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...

  11. Proceedings, 8th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Larry H. McCormick; Kurt W., eds. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    Two invited papers, forty-five volunteer papers, and twenty volunteer poster summaries presented at the 8th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Presentations were on economics, forest amenities, harvesting, utilization, physiology, genetics, ecology, regeneration, silviculture, protection, management, hydrology, soils, nutrient cycling, and hardwood markets of central...

  12. Stand density management of southern bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz; J.S. Meadows

    1997-01-01

    We present tools to guide stand density management of southern bottomiand hardwoods and we provide guidance in their implementation. We present stocking guides for southern bottomland hardwoods and variants for associated forest types, water tupelo (Nyssa aquarica L.) and sweetgum (Liquidumbar styraciflua L.). The A-line...

  13. Direct seeding of fine hardwood tree species

    Treesearch

    Lenny D. Farlee

    2013-01-01

    Direct seeding of fine hardwood trees has been practiced in the Central Hardwoods Region for decades, but results have been inconsistent. Direct seeding has been used for reforestation and afforestation based on perceived advantages over seedling planting, including cost and operational efficiencies, opportunities for rapid seedling establishment and early domination...

  14. A profile of Pennsylvania's hardwood sawmill industry

    Treesearch

    Paul M. Smith; Sudipta Dasmohapatra; William G. Luppold

    2004-01-01

    A mail survey of all identified hardwood sawmills in Pennsylvania was conducted in the fall of 2000 to better understand firm size, species used, origin of logs, processing technology employed, the hardwood lumber grades produced, and the value-added features performed by these sawmills in 1999. An adjusted response rate of 31 percent was obtained for the study's...

  15. The pallet industry: a changing hardwood market

    Treesearch

    G.P. Dempsey; D.G. Martens

    1991-01-01

    From its inception during World War II, the wooden pallet industry has grown to become the Nation's largest industrial consumer of hardwood lumber products. Since most of the raw material in wooden pallets is lower grade lumber, the pallet industry's growth, efficiency, and changing raw material inputs must be of concern to the grade hardwood lumber industry...

  16. Gluing of Eastern Hardwoods: A Review

    Treesearch

    Terry Sellers; James R. McSween; William T. Nearn

    1988-01-01

    Over a period of years, inrreasing demand for softwoods in the Eastern United States has led to an increase in the growth of hardwoods on cut-over softwood sites. Unfortunately these hardwood trees are often of a size and shape unsuitable for the production of high-grade lumber and veneer. They do, however, represent a viable, economic soures of raw material for...

  17. Microcomputer Techniques for Developing Hardwood Conservation Strategies

    Treesearch

    Steve McNiel

    1991-01-01

    Hardwoods are disappearing from the California landscape at alarming rates. This is due to a variety of influences, both natural and man made. It is clear that conservation and rehabilitation of hardwood resources will require a large effort on the part of research institutes, universities, government agencies, special interest groups, private developers, maintenance...

  18. Flexural Properties of Eastern Hardwood Pallet Parts

    Treesearch

    John A. McLeod; Marshall S. White; Paul A. Ifju; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the flexural properties of pallet parts are critical to the safe, yet efficient, design of wood pallets. To develop more accurate data for hardwood pallet parts, 840 stringers and 2,520 deckboards, representing 14 hardwood species, were sampled from 35 mills distributed throughout the Eastern United States. The parts were sorted by species,...

  19. Hardwood timber supplies in the United States

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1991-01-01

    Long recognized for their wildlife, watershed, and aesthetic value, hardwoods are becoming increasingly important from the standpoint of timber production. The abundance of hardwood inventory volume, technological advances allowing greater substitution into softwood markets, and relatively low stumpage prices have generated a growing interest in increased utilization...

  20. The Metagenome of an Anaerobic Microbial Community Decomposing Poplar Wood Chips

    PubMed Central

    van der Lelie, Daniel; Taghavi, Safiyh; McCorkle, Sean M.; Li, Luen-Luen; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Monteleone, Denise; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ding, Shi-You; Adney, William S.; Himmel, Michael E.; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the composition and metabolic potential of a lignocellulosic biomass degrading community that decays poplar wood chips under anaerobic conditions. We examined the community that developed on poplar biomass in a non-aerated bioreactor over the course of a year, with no microbial inoculation other than the naturally occurring organisms on the woody material. The composition of this community contrasts in important ways with biomass-degrading communities associated with higher organisms, which have evolved over millions of years into a symbiotic relationship. Both mammalian and insect hosts provide partial size reduction, chemical treatments (low or high pH environments), and complex enzymatic ‘secretomes’ that improve microbial access to cell wall polymers. We hypothesized that in order to efficiently degrade coarse untreated biomass, a spontaneously assembled free-living community must both employ alternative strategies, such as enzymatic lignin depolymerization, for accessing hemicellulose and cellulose and have a much broader metabolic potential than host-associated communities. This would suggest that such a community would make a valuable resource for finding new catalytic functions involved in biomass decomposition and gaining new insight into the poorly understood process of anaerobic lignin depolymerization. Therefore, in addition to determining the major players in this community, our work specifically aimed at identifying functions potentially involved in the depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and to assign specific roles to the prevalent community members in the collaborative process of biomass decomposition. A bacterium similar to Magnetospirillum was identified among the dominant community members, which could play a key role in the anaerobic breakdown of aromatic compounds. We suggest that these compounds are released from the lignin fraction in poplar hardwood during the decay process, which would point

  1. The metagenome of an anaerobic microbial community decomposing poplar wood chips

    SciTech Connect

    van der Lelie D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Li, L.-L.; Malfatti, S. A.; Monteleone, D.; Donohoe, B. S.; Ding, S.-Y.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Tringe, S. G.

    2012-05-01

    This study describes the composition and metabolic potential of a lignocellulosic biomass degrading community that decays poplar wood chips under anaerobic conditions. We examined the community that developed on poplar biomass in a non-aerated bioreactor over the course of a year, with no microbial inoculation other than the naturally occurring organisms on the woody material. The composition of this community contrasts in important ways with biomass-degrading communities associated with higher organisms, which have evolved over millions of years into a symbiotic relationship. Both mammalian and insect hosts provide partial size reduction, chemical treatments (low or high pH environments), and complex enzymatic 'secretomes' that improve microbial access to cell wall polymers. We hypothesized that in order to efficiently degrade coarse untreated biomass, a spontaneously assembled free-living community must both employ alternative strategies, such as enzymatic lignin depolymerization, for accessing hemicellulose and cellulose and have a much broader metabolic potential than host-associated communities. This would suggest that such a community would make a valuable resource for finding new catalytic functions involved in biomass decomposition and gaining new insight into the poorly understood process of anaerobic lignin depolymerization. Therefore, in addition to determining the major players in this community, our work specifically aimed at identifying functions potentially involved in the depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and to assign specific roles to the prevalent community members in the collaborative process of biomass decomposition. A bacterium similar to Magnetospirillum was identified among the dominant community members, which could play a key role in the anaerobic breakdown of aromatic compounds. We suggest that these compounds are released from the lignin fraction in poplar hardwood during the decay process, which would point to

  2. Low-grade hardwood lumber production, markets, and issues

    Treesearch

    Dan Cumbo; Robert Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Due to recent downturn in the economy and changes in traditional hardwood markets. U.S. hardwood manufacturers are facing significant difficulties. In particular, markets for low-grade lumber have been diminishing, while increased levels of the material are being produced at hardwood sawmills in the United States. A nationwide survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers...

  3. Hardwoods are now being harvested at record levels

    Treesearch

    R.H. Widmann

    1991-01-01

    Recent canvasses by the USDA Forest Service of the sawmills and pulpmills in the central hardwood region show large increases in the harvests of hardwood species. In Kentucky, the production of hardwood sawlogs rose from 457 million board feet in 1974 to 775 million board feet in 1986, a 70 percent increase. In West Virginia, hardwood sawlog production also increased....

  4. Forest survey results for higher grade hardwood sawtimber

    Treesearch

    Roy C. Beltz

    1991-01-01

    The 1987 Forest Survey of Mississippi shows a slight increase in forest area and a substantial gain in hardwood inventory. Hardwood gains, appearing in all diameter classes, suggest an increase in quality but hardwood users generally believe quality is declining. By our analysis, volume of top quality hardwood declined while volume in other grades increased. Forest...

  5. Hardwood supply in the Pacific Northwest-a policy perspective.

    Treesearch

    Terry L. Raettig; Kent P. Connaughton; Glenn R. Ahrens

    1995-01-01

    The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but...

  6. Reproducing Southern Hardwoods is Easier Than You Think

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson; R. C. Biesterfeldt

    1971-01-01

    Throughout the South poor upland hardwood stands are being converted to pine, while bottom-land hardwood stands are largely ignored. Why are Southern foresters preoccupied with pines? Uncertainties about hardwood markets and gaps in available information about hardwood management are contributing causes, but fear is probably a key factor. Foresters much prefer the well...

  7. Epicormic branching on Central Appalachian hardwoods 10 years after deferment cutting. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.W.

    1996-03-01

    Epicormic branching as monitored over a 10-year period following deferment cutting in four central Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia. Data from 545 codominant residual trees indicated that the average number of epicormic branches on the butt and second 16-food log sections increased significantly for the first 2 years after treatment. For upper log sections of basswood, northern red oak, and black cherry, significant increases continued from the second to the tenth year. The net effect on quality was that 11 percent of residual trees exhibited a reduction in butt-log grade due to epicormic branching. Of the few grade reductions observed, white oak, northern red oak, and black cherry were the most susceptible. Less than 1 percent of yellow-poplar trees had lower grades due to epicormic branching.

  8. Greater efficiency of water use in poplar clones having a delayed response of mesophyll conductance to drought.

    PubMed

    Théroux Rancourt, Guillaume; Éthier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve

    2015-02-01

    Improvement of water use efficiency is a key objective to improve the sustainability of cultivated plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. It is well known that water use efficiency (WUE) varies considerably among poplar genotypes, and it was recently suggested that the use of the mesophyll-to-stomatal conductance ratio (gm/gs) would be an appropriate trait to improve WUE. The responses of 7-week-old cuttings of four hybrid poplar clones and one native Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) to a water stress-recovery cycle were examined to evaluate the relation between the gm/gs ratio and transpiration efficiency (TE), a leaf-level component of WUE. A contrasting gs response to water stress was observed among the five clones, from stomatal closure early on during soil drying up to limited closure in Balsam poplar. However in the hybrids, the decline in gm was consistently delayed by a few days compared with gs. Moreover, in the most water use-efficient hybrids, the recovery following rehydration occurred faster for gm than for gs. Thus, the delay in the response of gm to drought and its faster recovery upon rewatering increased the gm/gs of the hybrids and this ratio scaled positively with TE. Our results support the use of the gm/gs ratio to select genotypes with improved WUE, and the notion that breeding strategies focusing mainly on stomatal responses to soil drying should also look for a strong curvilinearity between net carbon assimilation rate and gs, the indication of a significant increase in gm/gs in the earlier stages of stomatal closure.

  9. Forest biorefinery: Potential of poplar phytochemicals as value-added co-products.

    PubMed

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Rakshit, Sudip K; Dekker, Robert F H

    2015-11-01

    The global forestry industry after experiencing a market downturn during the past decade has now aimed its vision towards the integrated biorefinery. New business models and strategies are constantly being explored to re-invent the global wood and pulp/paper industry through sustainable resource exploitation. The goal is to produce diversified, innovative and revenue generating product lines using on-site bioresources (wood and tree residues). The most popular product lines are generally produced from wood fibers (biofuels, pulp/paper, biomaterials, and bio/chemicals). However, the bark and other tree residues like foliage that constitute forest wastes, still remain largely an underexploited resource from which extractives and phytochemicals can be harnessed as by-products (biopharmaceuticals, food additives and nutraceuticals, biopesticides, cosmetics). Commercially, Populus (poplar) tree species including hybrid varieties are cultivated as a fast growing bioenergy crop, but can also be utilized to produce bio-based chemicals. This review identifies and underlines the potential of natural products (phytochemicals) from Populus species that could lead to new business ventures in biorefineries and contribute to the bioeconomy. In brief, this review highlights the importance of by-products/co-products in forest industries, methods that can be employed to extract and purify poplar phytochemicals, the potential pharmaceutical and other uses of >160 phytochemicals identified from poplar species - their chemical structures, properties and bioactivities, the challenges and limitations of utilizing poplar phytochemicals, and potential commercial opportunities. Finally, the overall discussion and conclusion are made considering the recent biotechnological advances in phytochemical research to indicate the areas for future commercial applications from poplar tree species.

  10. Removal of boron from wastewater: Evaluation of seven poplar clones for B accumulation and tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifan; Taylor, Alicia A; Astor, Savina R; Xin, Junliang; Terry, Norman

    2017-01-01

    Boron (B) contamination of wastewater is a serious environmental and health problem, which has proved difficult to remediate. One potential approach is phytoremediation, i.e., the use of plants to extract B into the shoot systems, which can then be harvested and removed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of seven hybrid poplar clones to accumulate and tolerate B at different levels of B and salinity. The clones were grown in quarter strength Hoagland's nutrient solution and exposed to four B treatments: 0.25, 25, 75 and 125 mg B L(-1) in factorial combination with three salinity treatments: 0, 0.5 and 5 g L(-1). Measurements were made of biomass (dry weight) and B concentrations (analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy) of plant tissues. The results showed that, with increasing level of B supply, the B concentrations in the shoot tissue of the poplar clones increased, while shoot biomass decreased. Comparison of the seven different poplar clones revealed that the clone designated 195-529 exhibited the greatest ability for B accumulation and tolerance. Generally, the 0.5 g L(-1) level of salinity was beneficial for poplar growth and B removal, while the high salinity level of 5 g L(-1) significantly inhibited poplar growth and B translocation from roots to shoots. Based on the results obtained with this hydroponic system, the clone 195-529 (P. trichocarpa × P. deltoides) is likely to be the most useful for the removal of B from B contaminated wastewater.

  11. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.

    2015-11-01

    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  12. Overexpression of DEMETER, a DNA demethylase, promotes early apical bud maturation in poplar.

    PubMed

    Conde, Daniel; Moreno-Cortés, Alicia; Dervinis, Christopher; Ramos-Sánchez, José M; Kirst, Matias; Perales, Mariano; González-Melendi, Pablo; Allona, Isabel

    2017-08-15

    The transition from active growth to dormancy is critical for the survival of perennial plants. We identified a DEMETER-like (CsDML) cDNA from a winter-enriched cDNA subtractive library in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), an economically and ecologically important species. Next, we characterized this DNA demethylase and its putative orthologue in the more experimentally tractable hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x alba), under the signals that trigger bud dormancy in trees. We performed phylogenetic and protein sequence analysis, gene expression profiling and 5mC immunodetection studies to evaluate the role of CsDML and its homologue in poplar, PtaDML6. Transgenic hybrid poplars overexpressing CsDML were produced and analyzed. Short days (SD) and cold temperatures induced CsDML and PtaDML6. Overexpression of CsDML accelerated SD-induced bud formation, specifically from stage 1 to 0. Bud acquired a red-brown coloration earlier than wild type (WT) plants, alongside with the up regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis enzymes and accumulation of flavonoids in the SAM and bud scales. Our data shows that the CsDML gene induces bud formation needed for the survival of the apical meristem under the harsh conditions of winter. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. A System for Dosage-Based Functional Genomics in Poplar[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Altering gene dosage through variation in gene copy number is a powerful approach to addressing questions regarding gene regulation, quantitative trait loci, and heterosis, but one that is not easily applied to sexually transmitted species. Elite poplar (Populus spp) varieties are created through interspecific hybridization, followed by clonal propagation. Altered gene dosage relationships are believed to contribute to hybrid performance. Clonal propagation allows for replication and maintenance of meiotically unstable ploidy or structural variants and provides an alternative approach to investigating gene dosage effects not possible in sexually propagated species. Here, we built a genome-wide structural variation system for dosage-based functional genomics and breeding of poplar. We pollinated Populus deltoides with gamma-irradiated Populus nigra pollen to produce >500 F1 seedlings containing dosage lesions in the form of deletions and insertions of chromosomal segments (indel mutations). Using high-precision dosage analysis, we detected indel mutations in ∼55% of the progeny. These indels varied in length, position, and number per individual, cumulatively tiling >99% of the genome, with an average of 10 indels per gene. Combined with future phenotype and transcriptome data, this population will provide an excellent resource for creating and characterizing dosage-based variation in poplar, including the contribution of dosage to quantitative traits and heterosis. PMID:26320226

  14. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on height and stem specific gravity of Populus hybrids

    Treesearch

    Roy L. Patton

    1981-01-01

    Unfumigated hybrid poplars (Populus spp.) were compared with poplars of the same nine clones fumigated with 0.15 pprn ozone or 0.25 ppm sulfur dioxide. After 102 days, plant height and stem specific gravity were measured to determine whether specific gravity is altered by the fumigants and to compare that response to height suppression, an accepted...

  15. Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi subsp. nov., isolated from bark canker of poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Tímea; Lakatos, Tamás; Koltay, András

    2013-06-01

    Seven Gram-negative bacterial strains were isolated from oozing bark canker of poplar (Populus × euramericana) trees in Hungary. They showed high (>98.3%) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Lonsdalea quercina; however, they differed from this species in several phenotypic characteristics. Multilocus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, atpD and infB) revealed, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis confirmed, that this group of bacterial strains forms a distinct lineage within the species Lonsdalea quercina. A detailed study of phenotypic and physiological characteristics confirmed the separation of isolates from poplars from other subspecies of L. quercina; therefore, a novel subspecies, Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi, type strain NY060(T) (=DSM 25466(T)=NCAIM B 02483(T)), is proposed.

  16. Use of wetlands for production of woody plants for fuels and petrochemical substitutes. [Alders, willows, poplars

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, R.S.; Read, P.

    1981-03-01

    Work performed on this project in the past year has included the evaluations of natural stands productivity for wetland biomass species; propagation studies with alder, willow and poplar species; nursery establishment for production of cultivars and evaluation of wetland soils suitable for production of woody biomass species. Also a biomass research facility has been established in N. Minnesota suitable for long-term research and demonstration. Propagation research has included both micro and macro propagation techniques with native willows, selected willow clones from Sweden, alder seed selection from Finland and hybrid poplar clones from US Forest Service, Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Approximately 100,000 rooted plants will be available for field research by June 1, 1981.

  17. Mammalian cytochrome CYP2E1 triggered differential gene regulation in response to trichloroethylene (TCE) in a transgenic poplar

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun Won; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M.; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P.; Strand, Stuart E.

    2011-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important environmental contaminant of soil, groundwater, and air. Studies of the metabolism of TCE by poplar trees suggest that cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved. Using poplar genome microarrays, we report a number of putative genes that are differentially expressed in response to TCE. In a previous study, transgenic hybrid poplar plants expressing mammalian cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) had increased metabolism of TCE. In the vector control plants for this construct, 24 h following TCE exposure, 517 genes were upregulated and 650 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed vector control plants. However, in the transgenic CYP2E1 plant, line 78, 1,601 genes were upregulated and 1,705 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed transgenic CYP2E1 plant. It appeared that the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants overexpressing mammalian CYP2E1 showed a larger number of differentially expressed transcripts, suggesting a metabolic pathway for TCE to metabolites had been initiated by activity of CYP2E1 on TCE. These results suggest that either the over-expression of the CYP2E1 gene or the abundance of TCE metabolites from CYP450 2E1 activity triggered a strong genetic response to TCE. Particularly, cytochrome p450s, glutathione S-transferases, glucosyltransferases, and ABC transporters in the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants were highly expressed compared with in vector controls. PMID:20213342

  18. U.S. hardwood exports, hardwood exports to Japan, hardwood resource situation, and the future of U.S. exports to Japan

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper looks at some basic information about total U.S. hardwood exports and products as well as hardwood exports to Japan. It also discusses the U.S. hardwood resource situation and how we can best use the resource base to suppy Japanâs needs.

  19. Mowing of northern hardwood reproduction not profitable

    Treesearch

    Victor S. Jensen; Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1951-01-01

    Many northern hardwood stands in the Northeast contain a number of large, worthless trees that were left over from earlier logging jobs. The seedlings and saplings under such stands are usually misshapen by having been overtopped and suppressed for years.

  20. Innovative Harvesting Systems In Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; Robert B. Rummer

    1997-01-01

    Current and innovative machines and systems for harvesting bottomland hardwoods are described. Four systems are evaluated for production and costs: (1) grapple skidder, (2) clambunkskidder, (3) tree-length forwarder, and (4) shovel logging.

  1. Weight/volume ratios for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Floyd G. Timson

    1975-01-01

    Weight/volume relationships are presented in both English and metric systems for 15 commercial species of Appalachian hardwoods. Two ratios are presented: weight of wood volume alone, and weight of wood plus bark.

  2. Proceedings. 14th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; David M. Hix; Robert P. Long; P. Charles, eds. Goebel

    2004-01-01

    Proceedings of the 14th Central Hardwood Forest conference held 16-19 March in Wooster Ohio. Includes 102 papers and abstracts dealing with silviculture, wildlife, human dimensions, harvesting and utilization, physiology, genetics, soils, nutrient cycling, and biometrics.

  3. Management and inventory of southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John A. Putnam; George M. Furnival; J.S. McKnight

    1960-01-01

    The valleys and uplands of the South outside the mountains and upper Piedmont have, since 1915, been responsible for about 45 percent of the national production of hardwood sawtimber. They are strong indications that this situation may continue indefinitely.

  4. Bud-grafting yellow-poplar

    Treesearch

    David T. Funk

    1963-01-01

    Several years ago we began work on the vegetative propagation of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) with the aim of eventually establishing a clonal seed orchard. We tried field grafting, field budding, and air layering. We then attempted rooting cuttings in the greenhouse and in an indoor propagation bench. The best we could do with any of these methods was 4...

  5. Yellow-Poplar: Characteristics and Management

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck; Lino Della-Bianca

    1981-01-01

    This reference tool and field guide for foresters and other landmanagers includes a synthesis of information on the characteristics of yellow-poplar with guidelines for managing the species. It is based on research conducted by many individuals in State and Federal forestry organizations and in universities throughout the Eastern United States. This handbook...

  6. Rating poplars for Melampsora leaf rust infection

    Treesearch

    Ernst J. Schreiner

    1959-01-01

    Melampsora leaf rust occurs in all countries where poplars are native or where they have been introduced for ornamental use or timber culture. The rust is easily recognized by the bright orange-yellow spore masses on the undersides of the leaves during most of the growing season.

  7. North American Trading Outlook For Hardwood

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    The United States has become a major player in the world market for hardwood logs, lumber, dimension stock, and veneer. For the last 10 years, U.S. exports of these products have been growing, and the future looks bright. The major hardwood species demanded on the export market are the select red and white oaks, yellow birch, hard maple, black walnut, black cherry and...

  8. Small Hardwoods Reduce Growth of Pine Overstory

    Treesearch

    Charles X. Grano

    1970-01-01

    Dense understory hardwoods materially decreased the growth of a 53-year-old and a 47-year-old stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines. Over a 14-year period, hardwood eradication with chemicals increased average annual yield from the 53-year-old stand by 14.3 cubic feet, or 123 board-feet per acre. In the 47-year-old stand the average annual treatment advantage was...

  9. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  10. California's hardwood resource: history and reasons for lack of a sustained hardwood industry

    Treesearch

    Dean W. Huber; Philip M. McDonald

    1992-01-01

    Interest in utilizing California's forest-zone hardwoods for lumber and wood products has waxed and waned for more than 140 years. In spite of many unsuccessful ventures, strong interest is once again evident from landowners, processors, consumers, and policy makers. Their interest suggests a need to know past pitfalls, to recognize some realities of hardwood...

  11. Hardwood lumber and stumpage prices in two eastern hardwood markets: The real story

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; Paul S. DeBald; Paul S. DeBald

    1987-01-01

    Current and real prices of hardwood lumber and stumpage prices are discussed. Results show that inflation wiped out most of the apparent price increases in two major hardwood lumber markets. Stumpage prices also failed to increase in real terms for most species in Ohio. Current and real prices trends for eight major eastern species are shown for the period 1964 through...

  12. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Nursery production of hardwood seedlings

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2003-01-01

    Access to quality tree seedlings is an essential component of a successful hardwood reforestation project. Hardwood plantations may be established by sowing seed directly to a field site, but the success of direct seeding operations has been inconsistent for many species, which indicates that more research is needed before this practice can be recommended. For...

  13. Volume growth of pine and hardwood in uneven-aged loblolly pine-upland hardwood mixtures

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Farrar; Paul A. Murphy; Daniel J. Leduc

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from an exploratory investigation of stand-level periodic volume growth of uneven-aged mixed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)-upland hardwood stands on good sites in southeastern Arkansas. A restricted set of replicated observations was extracted from an extensive CFI database involving varying pine-hardwood mixtures to form an array of plots with...

  14. Innovative and Coordinated Solutions for the Hardwood Industry: The Hardwood Utilization Consortium

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Cynthia West

    1996-01-01

    Many varied efforts have been underway to help the hardwood industry make more effective and efficient use of the hardwood resource while meeting market needs. The efforts range from training, extension, utilization and marketing research and development, to educational activities. The activities are disjointed and unorganized and individually struggling to maintain...

  15. Hardwood Lumber Scaling [and] Hardwood Log Scaling and Grading. Slide Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, D. E.; Touse, Robert D.

    These two slide scripts, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deal with scaling and grading hardwood logs and lumber. The first script includes narrations for use with 39 slides, which explain the techniques of scaling and grading hardwood logs, and the second script contains the narrations to…

  16. Repeated unidirectional introgression towards Populus balsamifera in contact zones of exotic and native poplars.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stacey Lee; Lamothe, Manuel; Meirmans, Patrick G; Périnet, Pierre; Isabel, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    As the evolutionary significance of hybridization is largely dictated by its extent beyond the first generation, we broadly surveyed patterns of introgression across a sympatric zone of two native poplars (Populus balsamifera, Populus deltoides) in Quebec, Canada within which European exotic Populus nigra and its hybrids have been extensively planted since the 1800s. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that appeared fixed within each species were characterized by DNA-sequencing pools of pure individuals. Thirty-five of these diagnostic SNPs were employed in a high-throughput assay that genotyped 635 trees of different age classes, sampled from 15 sites with various degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. The degree of admixture within sampled trees was then assessed through Bayesian clustering of genotypes. Hybrids were present in seven of the populations, with 2.4% of all sampled trees showing spontaneous admixture. Sites with hybrids were significantly more disturbed than pure stands, while hybrids comprised both immature juveniles and trees of reproductive age. All three possible F1s were detected. Advanced-generation hybrids were consistently biased towards P. balsamifera regardless of whether hybridization had occurred with P. deltoides or P. nigra. Gene exchange between P. deltoides and P. nigra was not detected beyond the F1 generation; however, detection of a trihybrid demonstrates that even this apparent reproductive isolation does not necessarily result in an evolutionary dead end. Collectively, results demonstrate the natural fertility of hybrid poplars and suggest that introduced genes could potentially affect the genetic integrity of native trees, similar to that arising from introgression between natives.

  17. [Silviculture of poplar plantation in China: a review].

    PubMed

    Fang, Sheng-Zuo

    2008-10-01

    There are more than 7.0 million hm2 of poplar plantation in China, ranking top one in the world. To meet the needs of a growing world for social-economic development, environmental improvement, and sustainable development through poplar plantation establishment is a main research interest in the globe. This paper introduced the regionalizing cultivation, key planting clones, and productivities of poplar plantations in China, and summarized the recent 10 years research progress in China in the site quality evaluation, seedling propagation techniques, management patterns, mixed plantation establishment, agroforestry management system, water and nutrient management techniques, site productivity maintenance, and ecological functions of poplar plantation. The potential productivity, general allocation, oriented silviculture, and environmental function study of poplar plantation were also discussed and prospected. The contents of this paper would provide some references for the silviculture and sustainable management of poplar plantation in China.

  18. Carpenterworm Moths and Cerambycid Hardwood Borers Caught in Light Traps

    Treesearch

    J. D. Solomon; L. Newsome; W. N. Darwin

    1972-01-01

    A portable, battery-operated light trap was used in hardwood stands in Mississippi. Ten species of hardwood borers were captured with carpenterworm moths being taken in the greatest numbers. Many cerambycid borers were also captured.

  19. Recovery of residue tops in selectively cut northern hardwood stands.

    Treesearch

    James A. Johnson; Rodger A. Arola; Edwin S. Miyata

    1982-01-01

    Tests the feasibility and economics of compacting hardwood tops with a prototype shearing and bunching device prior to skidding. Presents productivity levels and costs associated with compacting, skidding, and chipping hardwood tops.

  20. REMOVAL OF SELECTED POLLUTANTS FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA BY HARDWOOD MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mix...

  1. A management guide for northern hardwoods in New England

    Treesearch

    Adrian M. Gilbert; Victor S. Jensen

    1958-01-01

    Northern hardwood forests occupy about 9 million acres of land in New England. In recent years, these hardwood forests have made increasing contributions to the economy of this region. Their future management should be even more rewarding.

  2. REMOVAL OF SELECTED POLLUTANTS FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA BY HARDWOOD MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mix...

  3. Isolation and expression analysis of low temperature-induced genes in white poplar (Populus alba).

    PubMed

    Maestrini, Pierluigi; Cavallini, Andrea; Rizzo, Milena; Giordani, Tommaso; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Durante, Mauro; Natali, Lucia

    2009-09-15

    Poplar is an important crop and a model system to understand molecular processes of growth, development and responses to environmental stimuli in trees. In this study, we analyzed gene expression in white poplar (Populus alba) plants subjected to chilling. Two forward suppression-subtractive-hybridization libraries were constructed from P. alba plants exposed to low non-freezing temperature for 6 or 48h. Hundred and sixty-two cDNAs, 54 from the 6-h library and 108 from the 48-h library, were obtained. Isolated genes belonged to six categories of genes, specifically those that: (i) encode stress and defense proteins; (ii) are involved in signal transduction; (iii) are related to regulation of gene expression; (iv) encode proteins involved in cell cycle and DNA processing; (v) encode proteins involved in metabolism and energetic processes; and (vi) are involved in protein fate. Different expression patterns at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48h at 4 degrees C and after a recovery of 24h at 20 degrees C were observed for isolated genes, as expected according to the class in which the gene putatively belongs. Forty-four of 162 genes contained DRE/LTRE cis-elements in the 5' proximal promoter of their orthologs in Populus trichocarpa, suggesting that they putatively belong to the CBF regulon. The results contribute new data to the list of possible candidate genes involved in cold response in poplar.

  4. Short day length-induced decrease of cesium uptake without altering potassium uptake manner in poplar

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Yusaku; Furukawa, Jun; Aohara, Tsutomu; Nihei, Naoto; Hirose, Atsushi; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Satoh, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    Short day length-induced alteration of potassium (K) localization in perennial trees is believed to be a mechanism for surviving and adapting to severe winters. To investigate the relationship between cesium (Cs) and K localizations, a model tree poplar, hybrid aspen T89, was employed. Under short day length conditions, the amount of 137Cs absorbed through the root and translocated to the root was drastically reduced, but 42K was not. Potassium uptake from the rhizosphere is mediated mainly by KUP/HAK/KT and CNGC transporters. In poplar, however, these genes were constantly expressed under short-day conditions except for a slight increase in the expression a KUP/HAK/KT gene six weeks after the onset of the short-day treatment. These results indicated that the suppression of 137Cs uptake was triggered by short day length but not regulated by competitive Cs+ and K+ transport. We hypothesize that there are separately regulated Cs+ and K+ transport systems in poplar. PMID:27924824

  5. Effects of jasmonic acid, branching and girdling on carbon and nitrogen transport in poplar.

    PubMed

    Appel, Heidi M; Arnold, Thomas M; Schultz, Jack C

    2012-07-01

    • Here, we examined the impact of jasmonate (JA) treatment, branching and phloem girdling on ¹³C and ¹⁵N import, invertase activity and polyphenol accumulation in juvenile tissues of unbranched and branched hybrid poplar saplings (Populus nigra × P. deltoides). • The import of ¹³C to juvenile tissues was positively correlated with invertase activity at the treatment site and enhanced by JA. Both invertase activity and ¹³C import were greater in shorter, younger branches and smaller, younger leaves. By contrast, JA treatments, branching and girdling had little or no impact on ¹⁵N import. • In poplar saplings with multiple lateral branches, we observed almost no ¹³C movement from subtending source leaves into lateral branches above them, with or without JA treatment. The presence of potentially competing branches, treated with JA or not, girdled or not, had no impact on carbohydrate (CHO) import or polyphenol accumulation in target branches. • We conclude that poplar branches comprise modules that are relatively independent from each other and from the stem below in terms of CHO movement, carbon-based defence production and response to elicitors. By contrast, branches are closely linked modules in terms of nitrogen movement. This should produce trees that are highly heterogeneous in quality for herbivores. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Rapid characterization of biomass using near infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis: Part 1. Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.).

    PubMed

    Nkansah, Kofi; Dawson-Andoh, Benjamin; Slahor, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    This paper is the first of a two series papers on the use of near infrared (NIR) coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for the rapid characterization of physical and chemical properties of two common West Virginian hardwood species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These two wood species are potential feed stock for the bio-refinery industry. In Part 1, we report our results on yellow-poplar. The results of this study demonstrated that some preprocessing operations on the NIR spectra (first derivative) greatly improved all the prediction models developed in the study. Predictive PLS1 models developed using selective spectra regions, 1300-1800 nm and the full NIR region (800-2400 nm), were similar. The selective spectra region, 1300-1800 nm, included the first and second overtone of the NIR spectrum (1300-1800 nm). Measured and predicted physical and chemical properties of yellow-poplar yielded moderate to high correlation (R2). (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Hardwood pulpwood stumpage price trends in the northeast.

    Treesearch

    Lloyd C. Irland; Paul E. Sendak; Richard H. Widmann

    2001-01-01

    Hardwood pulpwood consumption has increased in five leading Northeastern states from 1.2 million cords in 1963 to 4.6 million cords in 1997. A shift from the reliance on softwoods has occurred and by the mid-1970s hardwood use exceeded softwood. This increases the importance of the markets for hardwood pulpwood. These five states?Maine, New Hampshire, New York,...

  8. Pacific Rim and Midle East Markets for Hardwood Products

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1988-01-01

    Dramatic changes have taken place in the U.S. hardwood export market since 1975. World demand for U.S. hardwood logs, lumber, and veneer has quadrupled. Exports to Europe and particularly the Pacific Rim, have grown significantly. The focus of this presentation is on the Pacific Rim and Middle East markets. Reasons for overseas demand of U.S. hardwood products are...

  9. Silviculture and management strategies applicable to southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Ray R. Hicks; William H. Conner; Robert C. Kellison; David Van Lear

    2004-01-01

    Southern hardwood forests stretch from the Virginias to Florida and from the mid-Atlantic to Missouri. They can generally be grouped into upland forests and bottomland forests. The upland hardwood forests of the southern region are usually associated with the mountainous topography of the Appalachians and Ozarks. Bottomland hardwoods are found along the floodplains of...

  10. Primary detection of hardwood log defects using laser surface scanning

    Treesearch

    Ed Thomas; Liya Thomas; Lamine Mili; Roger Ehrich; A. Lynn Abbott; Clifford Shaffer; Clifford Shaffer

    2003-01-01

    The use of laser technology to scan hardwood log surfaces for defects holds great promise for improving processing efficiency and the value and volume of lumber produced. External and internal defect detection to optimize hardwood log and lumber processing is one of the top four technological needs in the nation's hardwood industry. The location, type, and...

  11. Growth and shifts in eastern hardwood lumber production

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of recent trends in eastern U.S. hardwood lumber production indicates that total output increased sharply between 1977 and 1991. The increase, however, was much more pronounced in the East's northern tier of states than in the southern. This paper first examines recent hardwood lumber usage trends and historic hardwood lumber production trends. Changes...

  12. Economic and operational feasibility of short rotation hardwood inventory

    Treesearch

    Tom Gallagher; Robert Shaffer

    2002-01-01

    Procuring wood during the winter months for a pulpmill in the Southeast has some difficulties, especially in hardwood. Soft ground reduces the operational feasibility of many sites, forcing companies to store hardwood in woodyards for retrieval during wet weather. Intensively managed, short rotation hardwood grown on dry sites could economically supply a pulpmill...

  13. Effect of vertical integration on the utilization of hardwood resources

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of vertical integration in promoting the efficient utilization of the hardwood resource in the eastern United States was assessed during a series of interviews with vertically integrated hardwood manufacturers in the Appalachian region. Data from 19 companies that responded to the 1996 phone survey indicate that: 1) vertically integrated hardwood...

  14. Are there regional differences in US hardwood product exports?

    Treesearch

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; William Luppold

    2016-01-01

    Exporting is a critical component of the product mix for many domestic hardwood firms. Previous research has identified factors associated with hardwood lumber exporting behavior, but less is known about the advantages and disadvantages to exporting associated with the region within which a firm is located, or about exporting of secondary hardwood products. A procedure...

  15. The Central Hardwood Forest: its boundaries and physiographic provinces

    Treesearch

    James S. Fralish

    2003-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) refers to the area where deciduous hardwood species overwhelmingly, but not exclusively, dominate the stands and cover types that occur as repeating units across the landscape. Transition zones where Central Hardwood species mix with species from adjacent regions identify boundaries of the region. These regions are the Northern...

  16. U.S. hardwood lumber production: 1963 to 2003

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    Between 1963 and 2003 northern hardwood lumber production more than doubled while production in the southern regions increased by less than 25 percent. In 1963 the major users of hardwood lumber were the furniture manufacturers located in the southeast region, and hardwood flooring producers located in the south central region. By contrast more than 60 percent of the...

  17. The Central Hardwood Forest: Its Boundaries and Physiographic Provinces

    Treesearch

    James S. Fralish

    2003-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) refers to the area where deciduous hardwood species overwhelmingly, but not exclusively, dominate the stands and cover types that occur as repeating units across the landscape. Transition zones where Central Hardwood species mix with species from adjacent regions identify boundaries of the region. These regions are the Northern...

  18. 40 years of hardwood lumber comsumption: 1963 to 2002

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of hardwood lumber consumption found that demand has changed dramatically over the past four decades as a result of material substitution, changes in construction and remodeling products markets, and globalization. In 1963 furniture producers consumed 36 percent of the hardwood products lumber used by domestic manufacturers. Producers of hardwood...

  19. Supplying the Pacific Rim With U.S. Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. grows much more hardwood timber each year than is used for domestic and export markets. However, we do have some problems. We present a quick look at our Eastern hardwood resource situation (species, quality, availability), and suggest necessary cooperation by our export customers in the Pacific Rim to help assure adequate supplies of hardwood products....

  20. Soil Nutrients and pH in Southern Hardwood Nurseries

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner; W. M. Broadfoot

    1964-01-01

    The rapidly expanding interest in hardwoods in the South has caused many forest nurseries, to begin growing hardwood as well as pine seedlings. Apparently most nurserymen have been able to accomplish this change without great difficulty. Nursery sites and soil conditions suitable for pines should be basically satisfactory for hardwoods also.

  1. U.S. Hardwood Imports Grow as World Supplies Expand

    Treesearch

    William C. Siegel; Clark Row

    1965-01-01

    Rapidly increasing imports have captured a significant share of America's hardwood markets. Total imports of hardwood raw materials and building products are now four times as large as exports. Before World War II the U. S. was a net exporter of hardwoods, and imports were limited to high-quality mahogany and specialty logs and lumber. Availability of large...

  2. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Keeland, B.D.; Stanturf, J.A.; Clewell, A.F.; Kennedy, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    During the last century, a large amount of the original bottomland hardwood forest area in the United States has been lost, with losses greatest in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and East Texas. With a holistic approach in mind, this manual describes methods to restore bottomland hardwoods in the lower Midwest, including the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the southeastern United States. Bottomland hardwoods in this guide include not only the hardwood species that predominate in most forested floodplains of the area but also the softwood species such as baldcypress that often co-occur. General restoration planning considerations are discussed as well as more specific elements of bottomland hardwood restoration such as species selection, site preparation, direct seeding, planting of seedlings, and alternative options for revegetation. We recognize that most projects will probably fall more within the realm of reforestation or afforestation rather than a restoration, as some site preparation and the planting of seeds or trees may be the only actions taken. Practical information needed to restore an area is provided in the guide, and it is left up to the restorationist to decide how complete the restoration will be. Postplanting and monitoring considerations are also addressed. Restoration and management of existing forests are included because of the extensive areas of degraded natural forests in need of rehabilitation.

  3. Overexpression of Poplar Pyrabactin Resistance-Like Abscisic Acid Receptors Promotes Abscisic Acid Sensitivity and Drought Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingling; Yang, Lei; Liu, Xiaobing; Tang, Renjie; Wang, Yuan; Ge, Haiman; Wu, Mengting; Zhang, Jiang; Zhao, Fugeng; Luan, Sheng; Lan, Wenzhi

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting productivity of plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that positively regulates seed dormancy and drought resistance. The PYR1 (Pyrabactin Resistance 1)/ PYRL (PYR-Like)/ RCAR (Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor) (PYR/PYL/RCAR) ABA receptor family has been identified and widely characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their functions in poplars remain unknown. Here, we report that 2 of 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologues in poplar (Populus trichocarpa) (PtPYRLs) function as a positive regulator of the ABA signal transduction pathway. The Arabidopsis transient expression and yeast two-hybrid assays showed the interaction among PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, a clade A protein phosphatase 2C, and a SnRK2, suggesting that a core signalling complex for ABA signaling pathway exists in poplars. Phenotypic analysis of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 transgenic Arabidopsis showed that these two genes positively regulated the ABA responses during the seed germination. More importantly, the overexpression of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 substantially improved ABA sensitivity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic plants. In summary, we comprehensively uncovered the properties of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, which might be good target genes to genetically engineer drought-Resistant plants.

  4. Overexpression of Poplar Pyrabactin Resistance-Like Abscisic Acid Receptors Promotes Abscisic Acid Sensitivity and Drought Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaobing; Tang, Renjie; Wang, Yuan; Ge, Haiman; Wu, Mengting; Zhang, Jiang; Zhao, Fugeng; Luan, Sheng; Lan, Wenzhi

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting productivity of plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that positively regulates seed dormancy and drought resistance. The PYR1 (Pyrabactin Resistance 1)/ PYRL (PYR-Like)/ RCAR (Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor) (PYR/PYL/RCAR) ABA receptor family has been identified and widely characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their functions in poplars remain unknown. Here, we report that 2 of 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologues in poplar (Populus trichocarpa) (PtPYRLs) function as a positive regulator of the ABA signal transduction pathway. The Arabidopsis transient expression and yeast two-hybrid assays showed the interaction among PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, a clade A protein phosphatase 2C, and a SnRK2, suggesting that a core signalling complex for ABA signaling pathway exists in poplars. Phenotypic analysis of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 transgenic Arabidopsis showed that these two genes positively regulated the ABA responses during the seed germination. More importantly, the overexpression of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 substantially improved ABA sensitivity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic plants. In summary, we comprehensively uncovered the properties of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, which might be good target genes to genetically engineer drought-Resistant plants. PMID:27992471

  5. Poplar island restoration in Chesapeake Bay: from Morton's wrens to tern Mecca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The island complex of Poplar-Jefferson-Coaches islands has had a long history that including brief ownership by the Smithsonian Institution. In the 1800s, the island was more than 1100 acres of mostly mixed pine-hardwoods, shrubs, and salt marsh with a few freshwater ponds. By the early 1990s, Jefferson and Coaches had split off, and Poplar had eroded to only a few acres. An Army Corps-MD Port Administration project was funded in the mid 1990s, and construction of a large contained dredge material disposal- 'Beneficial Use' facility was begun in 1999. Wetland cell planting began in 2003 in one cell. The future plan for restoration calls for a 50:50 mix of upland habitat and tidal marshes. Shell/sand islands have been especially designed to attract terns within the wetland cells. Target breeding species to attract are: Least and Common Terns, Snowy Egrets (and other waders), Ospreys, American Black Ducks, and American Oystercatchers. For the past two years, more than 800 pairs of Common Terns and 60 pairs of Least Terns have attempted nesting, along with 5-6 pairs of Ospreys, and in 2004, about 50 pairs of Snowy Egrets. The terns have produced no fledglings however either in 2003 or 2004, and research is underway to determine factors. Egrets, in contrast, did very well in 2004, as did Ospreys. Along with these species, however, came> 400 pairs of Double-crested Cormorants, Herring and Great Black-backed Gulls, Canada Geese and Mute Swans. USDA has implemented partial control measures.

  6. Estimating yellow-poplar growth and yield

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck

    1989-01-01

    Yellow-poplar grows in essentially pure, even-aged stands, so you can make growth and yield estimates from relatively few stand characteristics. The tables and models described here require only measures of stand age, stand basal area in trees 4.5 inches and larger, and site index. They were developed by remeasuring (at 5-year intervals over a 20-year period) many...

  7. A technique for predicting clear-wood production in hardwood stems: A model for evaluating hardwood plantation development and management

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Dave R. Larsen

    2011-01-01

    The management of artificial hardwood stands suffers from a paucity of information. As a result, many managers and scientists turn to conventional pine plantation management as a source for informing silvicultural decisions. Such an approach when managing hardwoods ignores the development occurring in natural hardwood stands, which produce stems prized for their growth...

  8. U.S. Hardwood Product Exports to Canada and a Look at U.S. Hardwood Resources

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    Canada became the largest market for primary product hardwood exports in 1987 after slipping to No. 3 in 1986. Preferences for fine hardwoods and limited Canadian supplies of species such as oak should assure continued strong demands for U.S. hardwoods. Another reason for continued strong demand is that some Canadian firms process U.S. lumber and logs for export. This...

  9. Electrochemically assisted pyrolysis of hardwoods

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.R.

    1986-08-01

    This project explored the low-temperature, electrochemically assisted pyrolysis of lignocellulosic material to low-molecular-weight organic chemicals. Through the agency of low temperature AlCl{sub 3}-based molten salts, aspen hardwood flour was reacted in AlCl{sub 3}:NaCl, AlCl{sub 3}:NaCl:KCl, and AlCl{sub 3}:BPC (n-butylpyridinium chloride) media at temperatures from 30-220 C. A wide variety of water soluble products were formed comprising CO, CO{sub 2}, keto-alcohols and low molecular weight phenolic compounds as determined by GC and FTIR spectroscopy. The compounds represented about 32% by weight of the aspen wood flour. Owing to the narrow (2 volt) electrochemical window versus an Al reference electrode, neither the wood flour nor the reaction products manifested any electro-activity. Authentic samples of cellulose, hemicellulose, and Klason lignin were also subjected to low temperature pyrolysis. Only the hemicellulose reacted to give CO{sub 2} and keto-alcohols.

  10. Effective energy output per cord of air-dried wood in five native, american hardwoods from a typical Tennessee woodpile

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.L. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    Calories per gram, moisture content, and density were determined for five species of equally seasoned hardwood. These data were used to calculate the effective British Thermal Unit (BTU) per cord in Quercus alba (white oak), Quercus velutina (black oak), Liriodendron tulipifera (yellow poplar), Carya ovata (shagbark hickory), and Cornus florida (flowering dogwood). These species were compared at typical moisture contents on an available-heat-per-volume basis to determine the best woodfuel value for the homeowner as well as for industry. While calories per gram were similar across species, the differing moisture contents and densities produced significant differences in the amount of available heat per volume of wood. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. 7. GENERAL VIEW EAST FROM ROOFTOP OF POPLAR FOREST TOWARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GENERAL VIEW EAST FROM ROOFTOP OF POPLAR FOREST TOWARDS SUMMER KITCHEN (FOREGROUND) AND DAIRY; CHIMNEY OF SOUTH TENANT HOUSE BARELY VISIBLE THROUGH TREES; EAST PRIVY RARELY VISIBLE OVER EAST MOUND (1987) - Poplar Forest, Summer Kitchen, State Route 661, Forest, Bedford County, VA

  12. Harvesting systems and costs for short rotation poplar

    Treesearch

    B. Rummer; D. Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to compare the cost of coppice and longer rotation poplar harvesting technology. Harvesting technology for short rotation poplar has evolved over the years to address both coppice harvest and single-stem harvest systems. Two potential approaches for coppice harvesting are modified forage harvesters and modified mulcher-balers. Both of...

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization of two Aphelenchoides from poplar leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During a long-term, large network study of the ecology of plant endophytes in native habitats, various nematodes were found. Two poplar species, Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) and P. trichocarpa (black poplar) represent important ecological and genomic models now used in ongoing plant...

  14. Relative price trends for hardwood stumpage, sawlogs, and lumber in Ohio

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; William G. Luppold

    1993-01-01

    During the 1980's, the hardwood lumber industry experienced a rapidly changing domestic and international hardwood product market. These changes have significantly affected prices of hardwood lumber, and subsequently affected prices of hardwood sawlogs and stumpage. To illustrate these changes, this paper examines deflated prices and price trends for hardwood...

  15. Chapter 6:Engineered trusses from undervalued hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    A significant volume of softwood lumber is used in engineered truss assemblies. Metal plate connected (MPC) trusses are commonly used in residential construction for both roof and floor applications. Currently, there are no truss manufacturers producing MPC trusses with hardwood lumber, primarily as a consequence of a lack of technical data on the performance of...

  16. Chapter 10:Hardwoods for timber bridges

    Treesearch

    James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  17. Chapter 2:Basic properties of undervalued hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John I. Zerbe

    2005-01-01

    Among the most abundant of our undervalued hardwoods are the soft maples. However, other species that are also underutilized include some species of birch and some lower grades of the hard maples. This chapter covers physical, mechanical, and other important properties of different soft maples, hard maples, and yellow birch and compares them with the properties of...

  18. Hardwood Diseases in Plantations and Nurseries

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1979-01-01

    Root disease is the most important problem of hardwoods in nurseries with most mortality from damping-off occurring during the first 6 weeks of seedling emergence. The root rots can persist throughout the growing season and cause stunting that makes seedlings unsaleable. Chemical fumigation of nursery beds is the best control method available for root disease. Methyl...

  19. Release Speeds Growth of Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. W. Johnson

    1951-01-01

    This article reports early changes in growth rate brought about by partial cutting in two bottomland hardwood stands. Better information will be forthcoming as re-measurements are made over longer periods. Indications are, however, that the acceleration of growth caused by release is large enough to be a vital factor in planning future cuts.

  20. New ideas about regeneration of hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R.L. Johnson

    1980-01-01

    Hardwoods reproduce naturally through seedlings established in the understory, through sprouts that emerge from the stump or roots of cut trees, and through seedlings that start in new openings. Some species reproduce in all three ways. Understory reproduction is usually of shade-tolerant species with inherently slow early growth rates. Generally, the taller an...

  1. Silvics of North America: Volume 2. Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Russell M. Burns; Barbara H. Honkala; [Technical coordinators

    1990-01-01

    The silvical characteristics of about 200 forest tree species and varieties are described. Most are native to the 50 United States and Puerto Rico, but a few are introduced and naturalized. Information on habitat, life history, and genetics is given for 15 genera, 63 species, and 20 varieties of conifers and for 58 genera, 128 species, and 6 varieties of hardwoods....

  2. Selection Management in Southern Appalachian Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Lino Della-Bianca; Donald E. Beck

    1985-01-01

    A woodland tract of southern Appalachian cove hardwoods and mixed oak has been managed under the selection satem of silviculture since 1946.Simply cutting in all commercial diameter classes (i.e. 6.0 inches and larger), as was the practice during the first 24 years, failed to develop enough desirable saplings and poles to maintain the system.After 1970,...

  3. Nutrient Drain Associated with Hardwood Plantation Culture

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker

    1978-01-01

    Past research and a tentative evaluation indicate that nutrient drain and possible site degradation could occur in southern hardwood plantations. The extent of nutrient drain on a given site would depend on the species, length of the rotation, and harvesting system used. The evaluation for cottonwood plantations in Mississippi indicates that nutrient drain is most...

  4. Can eastern hardwoods offset timber cutbacks?

    Treesearch

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    Efforts to conserve habitat of the northern spotted owl in the Pacific Northwest have placed softwood timber supplies under a great deal of pressure and driven up the price of softwood lumber. Hardwoods could meet some of the demand for products that previously have been made from softwood species. Research in this field has been under way for some time; more is needed...

  5. Relative Performance of Hardwood Sawing Machines

    Treesearch

    Philip H. Steele; Michael W. Wade; Steven H. Bullard; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Only limited information has been available to hardwood sawmillers on the performance of their sawing machines. This study analyzes a large database of individual machine studies to provide detailed information on 6 machine types. These machine types were band headrig, circular headrig, band linebar resaw, vertical band splitter resaw, single arbor gang resaw and...

  6. Harvesting systems for the northern forest hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Harvesting systems available in the region today are summarized. Equations for estimating harvesting costs are...

  7. Proceedings, 16th central hardwood forest conference

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Charles H., eds. Michler

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of the 16th Central Hardwood Forest Conference held April 8-9, 2008, in West Lafayette, IN. Includes 64 papers pertaining to forest regeneration and propagation, forest products, ecology and forest dynamics, human dimensions and economics, forest biometrics and modeling, silviculture and genetics, forest health and protection, and soil and mineral nutrition...

  8. Identifying Hardwoods Growing on Pine Sites

    Treesearch

    Clair A. Brown; Harold E. Grelen

    1977-01-01

    This publication illustrates and describes 26 hardwood species or varieties, including 16 oaks and hickories with photographs of leaves, bark, buds, flowers, and fruits. Line drawings feature the winter silhouette of each species and a key is included to assist in identification.

  9. Mechanized systems for harvesting eastern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2010-01-01

    In the central Appalachian region, hardwoods traditionally have been harvested by chainsaw felling with trees and logs extracted from the forest to landings by rubber-tired skidders, bulldozers, and crawler tractors. In recent years, mechanized systems that include feller bunchers and cut-to-length (CTL) processors coupled with forwarders and clambunk and grapple...

  10. Natural Regeneration of Southern Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; J. Steven Meadows

    1994-01-01

    Many mixed hardwood stands found in bottomlands have been degraded by past harvesting practices that resulted in high grading the stand, thereby leaving the forester few options other than regeneration. Economic considerations usually constrain the choices to some form of complete overstory removal if adequate advance regeneration or sprouting potential is available....

  11. Damage From Increment Borings in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    E. Richard Toole; John L. Gammage

    1959-01-01

    THIS PAPER REPORTS a study of the amount of stain and decay that developed from increment-borer holes in five species of bottomland hardwoods. Though the 0.2-inch holes made by conventional borers are often considered insignificant, it appears that they may result in serious defect.

  12. Compatible taper algorithms for California hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James W. Flewelling

    2007-01-01

    For 13 species of California hardwoods, cubic volume equations to three merchantability standards had been developed earlier. The equations predict cubic volume from the primary bole, forks, and branches, but do not differentiate between the sources of the wood. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program needed taper equations that are compatible with the volume...

  13. The hardwood ecosystem experiment: extension and outreach

    Treesearch

    Brian J. MacGowan; Lenny D. Farlee; Robert N. Chapman

    2013-01-01

    The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana is a long-term, large-scale experimental study of forest management and its impacts on plants and animals. Information from the HEE should and will be made available to a diverse group of potential users. This paper summarizes educational efforts during the pre-treatment period and highlights potential mechanisms and...

  14. Development of Hardwood Seed Zones for

    Treesearch

    Lisa S. Post; Frank van Manen; R. A. Cecich; A. M. Saxton; J. F. Schneider

    2003-01-01

    For species that have no or limited information on genetic variation and adaptability to nonnative sites, there is a need for seed collection guidelines based on biological, climatological, and/or geographical criteria. Twenty-eight hardwood species are currently grown for reforestation purposes at the East Tennessee State Nursery. The majority of these species have...

  15. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    Treesearch

    J.A. Allen; B.D. Keeland; John A. Stanturf; A.F. Clewell; Harvey E.. Jr. Kennedy

    2001-01-01

    The primary focus of this guide is to provide information for land managers and landowners who want to reestablish bottomland hardwood forest vegetation, particularly the trees, on lands where they formerly occurred. Restoration and reforestation are approached with the realization that hydrology, as the driving force of wetland ecosystems, must be explicitly...

  16. SOLVE The performance analyst for hardwood sawmills

    Treesearch

    Jeff Palmer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth Porterfield

    2009-01-01

    Presents the users manual and CD-ROM for SOLVE, a computer program that helps sawmill managers improve efficiency and solve problems commonly found in hardwood sawmills. SOLVE provides information on key operational factors including log size distribution, lumber grade yields, lumber recovery factor and overrun, and break-even log costs. (Microsoft Windows? Edition)...

  17. A Dynamic Model of California's Hardwood Rangelands

    Treesearch

    Richard B. Standiford; Richard E. Howitt

    1991-01-01

    Low profitability of hardwood rangeland management, and oak tree harvesting for firewood markets and forage enhancement has led to concern about the long-term sustainability of the oak resource on rangelands. New markets for recreational hunting may give value to oaks for the habitat they provide for game species, and broaden the economic base for managers. A ranch...

  18. When is hardwood cable logging economical?

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1985-01-01

    Using cable logging to harvest eastern hardwood logs on steep terrain can result in low production rates and high costs per unit of wood produced. Logging managers can improve productivity and profitability by knowing how the interaction of site-specific variables and cable logging equipment affect costs and revenues. Data from selected field studies and forest model...

  19. Stocking chart for upland central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Martin E. Dale; Donald E. Hilt

    1989-01-01

    The upland hardwoods stocking chart, introduced by Gingrich in 1967, has become one of the forest manager's most useful tools. The chart allows you to determine the condition of the present stand in relation to a stocking standard. The stocking of a stand is extremely helpful in prescribing various silvicultural treatments such as intermediate thinnings,...

  20. Guide to Regeneration of Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Martha R. McKevlin

    1992-01-01

    This guide will help landowners, consulting foresters, and public service foresters regenerate bottomland hardwoods. It discusses (1) interpretation of site characteristics, (2) selection of species, and (3) selection of regeneration methods. A dichotomous key for selection of appropriate regeneration methods under various conditions is presented.

  1. Eradicating Understory Hardwoods By Repeated Prescribed Burning

    Treesearch

    Charles X. Grano

    1970-01-01

    In a loblolly-shorleaf pine stand contained abundant litter, one winter fire killed 94 percent of the stems of understory hardwoods up to 3.5 inches in diameter at teh base. Prolific sprouting ensued. Eleven annual summer burns eliminated sprouting on 85 percent of the rootstocks, and seven biennial summer burns eliminated sprouting on 59 percent of them.

  2. Processing hardwood bark residues by screening

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1978-01-01

    Most of the hardwood bark residues removed by floating-cutterhead or rosserhead debarkers can be processed into acceptable bark products by screening alone. And by prescreening bark residues, operators of bark processing plants can use smaller hammermills than otherwise are required, thus lowering investment and energy costs.

  3. Interim hardwood tree grades for factory lumber

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Leland F. Hanks

    1971-01-01

    Hardwood trees have for many years been measured in such a way that tree volume could be estimated; and in recent years the prediction of tree quality by using tree grades has become of interest to owners, sellers, and buyers of timber. Several tree-grading systems have been developed, but none has been publicized and used on a widespread scale. The Forest Service...

  4. Hardwood log grading scale stick improved

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander; G. H. Englerth

    1953-01-01

    In February 1952 the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station described ( Research Note 13) a new log-grading scale stick developed by the Station for use as a visual aid in grading hardwood factory logs. It was based on the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's log-grade specifications.

  5. Snag longevity in managed northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak

    2006-01-01

    Little information on standing snag and coarse woody debris longevity exists for New England forest types. Forest managers thus lack the information on changes over time of the habitat components influenced by the decay process. We examined the fate of 568 snags that occurred on a long-term hardwood growth study on the Bartlett Experimental Forest, NH. Approximately...

  6. Automation for Primary Processing of Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1992-01-01

    Hardwood sawmills critically need to incorporate automation and computer technology into their operations. Social constraints, forest biology constraints, forest product market changes, and financial necessity are forcing primary processors to boost their productivity and efficiency to higher levels. The locations, extent, and types of defects found in logs and on...

  7. Stand development and silviculture in bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. Steven Meadows

    1993-01-01

    Silviculture for the production of high-quality timber in southern bottomland hardwood forests involves the application of environmentally sound practices in order to enhance the growth and quality of both individual trees and stands. To accomplish this purpose, silvicultural practices are typically used to regulate stand density, species composition, and stem quality...

  8. 13th Central Hardwoods Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    J.W. Van Sambeek; Jeffrey O. Dawson; Felix Jr Ponder; Edward F. Loewenstein; James S. Fralish

    2003-01-01

    This conference was the 13th in a series of biennial meetings that have been hosted by numerous universities and research stations of the USDA Forest Service in the Central Hardwood forest region in the eastern United States. The purpose of the Conference has remained the same since it's inception -- that is to provide a forum for the formal and informal exchange...

  9. 12th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey W. Stringer; David L. Loftis; Michael Lacki; Thomas Barnes; Robert A. Muller

    1999-01-01

    There were 32 oral presentations, 11 abstracts, and 22 poster presentations presented at the 12th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Presentation topics included wildlife management, nutrient dynamics, stand structure, reforestation/reclamation, timber harvesting, modeling and inventory, silviculture, disturbance effects, and genetics/tree improvement.

  10. Medium density fiberboard from mixed southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    George E. Woodson

    1977-01-01

    Medium-density fiberboards of acceptable quality were made from a mixture of barky chips from 14 southern hardwoods. Boards made from fiber refined at three different plate clearances did not vary significantly in bending, internal bond (IB), or linear expansion. but, lack of replications and the fact that the refiner was not loaded to capacity caused these results to...

  11. Sampling the quality of hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1959-01-01

    Anyone acquainted with the conversion of hardwood trees into wood products knows that timber has a wide range in quality. Some trees will yield better products than others. So, in addition to rate of growth and size, tree values are affected by the quality of products yielded.

  12. Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    Any automatic hardwood grading system must have two components. The first of these is a computer vision system for locating and identifying defects on rough lumber. The second is a system for automatically grading boards based on the output of the computer vision system. This paper presents research results aimed at developing the first of these components. The...

  13. Applying group selection in upland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Gary w. Miller; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Interest in applying group selection in upland hardwoods has grown in recent years, primarily in response to public opposition to the aesthetic effects of clearcutting. Critics suggest that an uneven-aged silvicultural practice such as group selection might be a suitable compromise--drastically reducing negative visual effects of harvesting trees while continuing to...

  14. Charcoal from chemi-peeled hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Fenton

    1959-01-01

    Removing bark from standing trees with sodium arsenite is an inexpensive but efficient way to produce peeled pulpwood. About 200,000 cords, principally hardwoods, are produced annually by chemi-peeling, a technique that is fast replacing old-fashioned sap-peeling as a means of debarking in the woods.

  15. Defining Hardwood Veneer Log Quality Attributes

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...

  16. Proceedings 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    John W. Groninger; Eric J. Holzmueller; Clayton K. Nielsen; Daniel C., eds. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2014 Central Hardwood Forest Conference in Carbondale, IL. The published proceedings include 27 papers and 47 abstracts pertaining to research conducted on biofuels and bioenergy, forest biometrics, forest ecology and physiology, forest economics, forest health including invasive species, forest soils and hydrology, geographic information systems,...

  17. Hardwood price reporting. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sohngen, B.L.; Haynes, R.W.

    1994-02-01

    The prices for red alder (Alnus rubra) hardwood logs are published and analyzed for reliability, consistency, and robustness. Timberland managers can use these prices to make decisions about land management. They show that values for red alder logs have been increasing steadily for the last 11 years.

  18. Simulated yields for managed northern hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon; William B. Leak; William B. Leak

    1986-01-01

    Board-foot and cubic-foot yields developed with the forest growth model SlMTlM are presented for northern hardwood stands grown with and without management. SIMTIM has been modified to include more accurate growth rates by species, a new stocking chart, and yields that reflect species values and quality classes. Treatments range from no thinning to intensive quality...

  19. Unsound defect volume in hardwood pallet cants

    Treesearch

    Philip Araman; Matt Winn; Firoz Kabir; Xavier Torcheux; Guillaume Loizeaud

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the percentage of unsound defect volume to sound/clear wood in pallet cants at selected sawmills in Virginia and West Virginia. Splits,wane, shake, holes, decay, unsound knots, bark pockets, and mechanical defects were all considered to be unsound. Data were collected from seven Appalachian area sawmills for four hardwood species: red...

  20. Can Hardwoods Be Eradicated From Pine Sites?

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Cain; D.A. Yaussy

    1984-01-01

    Intensive mechanical and chemical treatments were used annually for 12 years to eradicate hardwoods from a selectively managed loblolly (pinus taeda L.) shortleaf (P. echinata Mill.) pine stand in south Arkansas.Although temporarily effective, a succession of indigenous shrubs and trees followed the cessation of eradication...