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Sample records for hariliku mnni pinus

  1. Microwave synthesis and electrochemical characterization of Mn/Ni mixed oxide for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect

    Prasankumar, T.; Jose, Sujin P.; Ilangovan, R.; Venkatesh, K. S.

    2015-06-24

    Nanostructured Mn/Ni mixed metal oxide was synthesized at ambient temperature by facile microwave irradiation technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of Mn/Ni mixed oxide in rhombohedral phase and the grain size calculated was found to be 87 nm. The irregular spherical morphology of the prepared sample was exhibited by the SEM images. The characteristic peaks of FTIR at about 630 cm{sup −1} and 749 cm{sup −1} were attributed to the Mn-O and Ni-O stretching vibrations respectively. The presence of both Mn and Ni in the prepared sample was validated by the EDS spectra which in turn confirmed the formation of mixed oxide. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic chargedischarge measurements were employed to investigate the electrochemical performance of the mixed oxide. The cyclic voltammetry curves demonstrated good capacitive performance of the sample in the potential window −0.2V to 0.9V. The charge discharge study revealed the suitability of the prepared mixed oxide for the fabrication of supercapacitor electrode.

  2. Structure of the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(001) surface alloy by quantitative photoelectron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Denlinger, J.; Chen, X.

    1997-04-01

    Surface alloys are two-dimensional metallic systems that can have structures that are unique to the surface, and have no counterpart in the bulk binary phase diagram. A very unusual structure was reported for the Mn-Ni system, based on a quantitative LEED structure determination, which showed that the Mn atoms were displaced out of the surface by a substantial amount. This displacement was attributed to a large magnetic moment on the Mn atoms. The structure of the Mn-Ni surface alloy was proposed to be based on a bulk termination model. Magnetic measurements on the Mn-Ni surface alloys, however, showed conclusively that the magnetic structure of these surface alloys is completely different from the bulk alloy analogs. For example, bulk MnNi is an antiferromagnet, whereas the surface alloy is ferromagnetic. This suggests that the proposed structure based on bulk termination, may not be correct. X-ray Photoelectron Diffraction (XPD) techniques were used to investigate this structure, using both a comparison to multiple scattering calculations and photoelectron holography. In this article the authors present some of the results from the quantitative analysis of individual diffraction patterns by comparison to theory.

  3. Photoelectron diffraction k-space volumes of the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) structure

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Denlinger, J.; Chen, X.

    1997-04-01

    Traditionally, x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) studies have either been done by scanning the diffraction angle for fixed kinetic energy (ADPD), or scanning the kinetic energy at fixed exit angle (EDPD). Both of these methods collect subsets of the full diffraction pattern, or volume, which is the intensity of photoemission as a function of momentum direction and magnitude. With the high density available at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (BL 7.0) {open_quotes}ultraESCA{close_quotes} station, the authors are able to completely characterize the photoelectron diffraction patterns of surface structures, up to several hundred electron volts kinetic energy. This large diffraction `volume` can then be analyzed in many ways. The k-space volume contains as a subset the energy dependent photoelectron diffraction spectra along all emission angles. It also contains individual, hemispherical, diffraction patterns at specific kinetic energies. Other `cuts` through the data set are also possible, revealing new ways of viewing photoelectron diffraction data, and potentially new information about the surface structure being studied. In this article the authors report a brief summary of a structural study being done on the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy. This system is interesting for both structural and magnetic reasons. Magnetically, the Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy exhibits parallel coupling of the Mn and Ni moments, which is opposite to the reported coupling for the bulk, disordered, alloy. Structurally, the Mn atoms are believed to lie well above the surface plane.

  4. Coordination polymer template synthesis of hierarchical MnCo2O4.5 and MnNi6O8 nanoparticles for electrochemical capacitors electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuaibing; Xu, Jiangyan; Lu, Aimin; Shi, Ying; Lin, Zixia

    2016-08-01

    Two types of ternary metal oxides, MnCo2O4.5 and MnNi6O8 nanoparticles have been separately synthesized through chemical transformation from the corresponding bimetallic coordination polymer particles precursor under high-heating conditions. Series of electrochemical measurements are performed to examine the MnCo2O4.5 and MnNi6O8 electrodes, and the result shows that MnCo2O4.5 structure, especially for Mn/Co-600, has much higher capacitance than that of MnNi6O8 nanoparticles, indicating MnCo2O4.5 electrode is more suitable for applying in neutral electrolyte system. The Mn/Co-600 electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 158 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1, good rate capability of 53.8% with a 20 times current density increase, good cycle performance (92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles) and high power density (a specific power of 5760 W kg-1 at 4.0 A g-1) with low charge transfer resistance value of 1.8 Ω.

  5. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  6. Microstructures and Mechanical Performance of Plasma-Nitrided Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei-Yeh; Chuang, Ming-Hao; Lin, Su-Jien; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of plasma nitriding at 798 K (525 °C) on microstructures and the mechanical performance of Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys (HEAs) obtained using different cast and wrought processing. All the alloys can be well nitride, with a thickness of around 80 μm, and attain a peak hardness level around Hv 1300 near the surface. The main nitride phases are CrN, AlN, and (Mn, Fe)4N. Those of the substrates are bcc, fcc, Al-, and Ni-rich B2 precipitates, and ρ phase. Their relative amounts depend on the prior processing and also change under the heat treatment during nitriding. The formation of ρ phase during nitriding could in-situ harden the substrate to attain the suitable level required for wear applications. This gives the advantage in simplifying the processing for making a wear-resistance component or a mold since austenitizing, quench hardening, and tempering required for steels such as SACM and SKD steels are no longer required and final finishing can be accomplished before nitriding. Nitrided Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 samples have much better wear resistance than un-nitrided ones by 49 to 80 times and also exhibit superior adhesive wear resistance to conventional nitrided alloys: nitriding steel SACM-645 (AISI 7140), 316 stainless steel, and hot-mold steel SKD-61 (AISI H13) by 22 to 55 times depending on prior processing. The superiority is due to the fact that the present nitrided alloys possess a much thicker highly hardened layer than the conventional alloys.

  7. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively.

  8. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. PMID:26041181

  9. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  10. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  11. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  12. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species. PMID:23760570

  13. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  14. Identification of sex pheromone components of jack pine budworm,Choristoneura pinus pinus freeman.

    PubMed

    Silk, P J; Kuenen, L P; Tan, S H; Roelofs, W L; Sanders, C J; Alford, A R

    1985-02-01

    Chemical identification and field-trapping experiments have shown that a blend of 85∶15 (E,Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetates and 85∶15 (E,Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ols (in a 9∶1 ratio) are female sex pheromone components for jack pine budworm,Choristoneura pinus pinus. This blend of chemicals, formulated in PVC (0.1 %, w/w) sources is as effective a trap bait as virgin females. Preliminary wind tunnel observations have indicated that this blend, effective as a trap bait, is not equivalent to females.

  15. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  16. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  17. Differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, on Pinus palustris and Pinus taeda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedenberg, N.A.; Whited, B.M.; Slone, D.H.; Martinson, S.J.; Ayres, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of host use by herbivore pests can have serious consequences for natural and managed ecosystems but are often poorly understood. Here, we provide the first quantification of large differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and longleaf pine, Pinus palustris P. Mill., and evaluate putative mechanisms for the disparity. Spatially extensive survey data from recent epidemics indicate that, per square kilometre, stands of loblolly versus longleaf pine in four forests (380-1273 km2) sustained 3-18 times more local infestations and 3-116 times more tree mortality. Differences were not attributable to size or age structure of pine stands. Using pheromone-baited traps, we found no differences in the abundance of dispersing D. frontalis or its predator Thanasimus dubius Fabricius between loblolly and longleaf stands. Trapping triggered numerous attacks on trees, but the pine species did not differ in the probability of attack initiation or in the surface area of bark attacked by growing aggregations. We found no evidence for postaggregation mechanisms of discrimination or differential success on the two hosts, suggesting that early colonizers discriminate between host species before a pheromone plume is present. ?? 2007 NRC.

  18. Partial cambial mortality in high-elevation Pinus aristata (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Schauer, A J; Schoettle, A W; Boyce, R L

    2001-04-01

    Partial cambial mortality is a growth form that is characteristic of Pinus aristata trees. To better elucidate their cambial death pattern, tree size and aspect of cambial death data were gathered from three Pinus aristata forests in central Colorado, USA. Stripping frequency tended to be higher for larger diameter classes. Partial cambial mortality exhibits significant directionality within each stand. Furthermore, cambial death was measured to be most frequent on the wind-exposed side of stripped trees in two of the three study sites and appeared to be at the third. Data presented here support the hypothesis that wind plays a role in the occurrence of partial cambial mortality in Pinus aristata. The mechanisms by which wind causes cambial mortality remain unclear. PMID:11302850

  19. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  20. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)convicilin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by a combination of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography. The protein is less abundant than vicilin in low-salt extracts of matur...

  1. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Pawan; Rana, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae) is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models. PMID:22761611

  2. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  3. Genetic transformation and gene expression in white pine (pinus strobus)

    SciTech Connect

    Minocha, R.

    1987-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop protocols for transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus) embryonic tissue; and (2) to analyze the regulation of foreign gene expression in Pinus strobus. A number of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing chimeric genes for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII for kanamycin resistance) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of either a constitutive promoter (NOS-nopaline synthase) or light-inducible promoters (RuBisCO small subunit and chlorophyll a/b binding protein) were used. A variety of tissues from white pine seedlings and mature trees was used. The techniques for transformation were modified from those used for tobacco transformation. The results show that white pine tissue from young seedlings is high suitable for transformation by A. tumefaciens. Whereas the normal tissues are very sensitive to kanamycin, transformed callus was quite resistant to this antibiotic.

  4. Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

  5. Fumonisin production by Gibberella fujikuroi strains from Pinus species.

    PubMed

    Mirete, S; Patiño, B; Vázquez, C; Jiménez, M; Hinojo, M J; Soldevilla, C; González-Jaén, M T

    2003-12-31

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in Fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. In this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of Pinus pinea. P. pinea is an important and widely distributed Pinus species in the Mediterranean area where their pine nuts are consumed raw or slightly processed in diverse food products. In this work, characterization and further identification of those strains were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS) with the aid of the eight mating populations (A-H) described for G. fujikuroi species complex. The method was powerful to detect polymorphism, allowing discrimination between individuals and could be used to study the genetic relationships among them and within the G. fujikuroi species complex. Fusarium strains associated to Pinus radiata were also included in the present study. These strains did not produce fumonisins and showed no close relation with the strains isolated from P. pinea. The approach used in this work was rapid and proved to be efficient to assist identification and to characterize and analyse relatedness of new isolates within the G. fujikuroi species complex.

  6. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  7. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Cenet, Menderes; Karaaslan, Merve Göksin

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly α-pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), β-pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12% and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and biocompatible pharmaceuticals.

  8. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  9. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-06-11

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii.

  10. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Jared W.; Chhatre, Vikram E.; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Neale, David B.; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C. Dana; Peter, Gary F.; Echt, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r2, between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r2 did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  11. Composition and Structure of Pinus koraiensis Mixed Forest Respond to Spatial Climatic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2014-01-01

    Background Although some studies have indicated that climate changes can affect Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, the responses of composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forests to climatic changes are unknown and the key climatic factors controlling the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest are uncertain. Methodology/principal findings Field survey was conducted in the natural Pinus koraiensis mixed forests along a latitudinal gradient and an elevational gradient in Northeast China. In order to build the mathematical models for simulating the relationships of compositional and structural attributes of the Pinus koraiensis mixed forest with climatic and non-climatic factors, stepwise linear regression analyses were performed, incorporating 14 dependent variables and the linear and quadratic components of 9 factors. All the selected new models were computed under the +2°C and +10% precipitation and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenarios. The Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month were observed to be key climatic factors controlling the stand densities and total basal areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Increased summer temperatures and precipitations strongly enhanced the stand densities and total basal areas of broadleaf trees but had little effect on Pinus koraiensis under the +2°C and +10% precipitation scenario and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenario. Conclusions/significance These results show that the Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month are key climatic factors which shape the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Although the Pinus koraiensis would persist, the current forests dominated by Pinus koraiensis in the region would all shift and become broadleaf-dominated forests due to the dramatic increase of broadleaf trees under the future global warming and increased

  12. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  13. [Community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest on Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexiang; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Dengwu; Lei, Ruide; Lan, Guoyu

    2004-03-01

    The community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest distributed on the mid-west zone of Qinling Mountains' south slope were investigated. The results showed that there were 166 seed plants belonging to 51 families, 111 generas. Among them, 65 genera, 66.7% of the total, belonged to temperate biome. There was a closely relationship between Pinus armandi forest and the temperate biome. As regards to the physiognomy of the community, phanerophyte made up 75.9% of the total, dominating the community. In the community, 96 species with middle-sized leaves made up 57.8%, and there were 139 single leaf species, accounted for 83.7% of the total. There was a complicated vertical structure in the community, which could be divided into three layers:arbor layer, shrub layer and herb layer. In addition, there were also a lot of inter-stratum plants in the community. It is also found that the lack of seedlings, saplings and small trees was due to both the self-thinning caused by intra-specific competition and the alien-thinning by inter-specific competition for the light resource in the stand. The population of P. armandi was characterized with the patch size about 100 m2. The dynamics of the community showed that the community was stable and in a process of development.

  14. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  15. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    PubMed

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  16. [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age.

  17. [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age. PMID:23705375

  18. Needles of Pinus halepensis as Biomonitors of Bioaerosol Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped. PMID:25379901

  19. Early Holocene pinyon ( Pinus monophylla) in the northeastern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, David B.; Rhode, David

    1990-01-01

    Fine-grained excavation and analysis of a stratigraphic column from Danger Cave, northeastern Great Basin, suggests prehistoric hunter-gatherers were collecting and using singleleaf pinyon ( Pinus monophylla) near the site for at least the last 7500 yr. Human use of the cave began after the retreat of Lake Bonneville from the Gilbert level, shortly before 10,000 yr B.P. In stratum 9, culturally deposited pine nut hulls appear in the sequence by about 7900 yr B.P. and are continuously present thereafter. A hull fragment in stratum 10 is directly dated to 7410 ± 120 yr B.P. These dates are at least 2000 yr earlier than expected by extrapolation to macrofossil records from the east-central and central Great Basin, and necessitate some revision of current biogeographical models of late Quaternary pinyon migration.

  20. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito. PMID:25399814

  1. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Ian A; St John, Mark G; Yeates, Gregor W; Morse, Chris W; Bonner, Karen I; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  2. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, Ian A.; St John, Mark G.; Yeates, Gregor W.; Morse, Chris W.; Bonner, Karen I.; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  3. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0–10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0–10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05; for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10–20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0–10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  4. A single ectomycorrhizal fungal species can enable a Pinus invasion.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñnez, Martin A

    2015-05-01

    Like all obligately ectomycorrhizal plants, pines require ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts to complete their life cycle. Pines introduced into regions far from their native range are typically incompatible with local ectomycorrhizal fungi, and, when they invade, coinvade with fungi from their native range. While the identities and distributions of coinvasive fungal symbionts of pine invasions are poorly known, communities that have been studied are notably depauperate. However, it is not yet clear whether any number of fungal coinvaders is able to support a Pinaceae invasion, or whether very depauperate communities are unable to invade. Here, we ask whether there is evidence for a minimum species richness of fungal symbionts necessary to support a pine/ectomycorrhizal fungus coinvasion. We sampled a Pinus contorta invasion front near Coyhaique, Chile, using molecular barcoding to identify ectomycorrhizal fungi. We report that the site has a total richness of four species, and that many invasive trees appear to be supported by only a single ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus luteus. We conclude that a single ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus can suffice to enable a pine invasion. PMID:26236856

  5. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  6. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05 for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  7. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-24

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  8. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity. PMID:27112001

  9. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention. PMID:17474862

  10. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  11. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity.

  12. Seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance of needles of Pinus nigra and Pinus resinosa: evaluation of the electrolyte leakage method.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, M L; Palta, J P; Reich, P B

    1992-10-01

    Seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance of needles of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees were measured by an electrolyte leakage method and by visual observation. During most of the year, freezing stress resistance determined by the two methods gave similar results. The electrolyte leakage method provided a good estimate of seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance except for red pine needles in their most winter-hardy state. To obtain a reliable estimate of freezing stress resistance in winter-hardy red pine needles it was necessary to combine the electrolyte leakage method with visual observations. When red pine needles survived exposure to -80 degrees C or lower, electrolyte leakage was never more than 30% even when the needles were exposed to a slow freeze-thaw stress of -196 degrees C. However, rapid freezing of red pine needles to -196 degrees C resulted in electrolyte leakage of over 80%. Red pine needles attained a much higher freezing stress resistance during the winter than Austrian pine. Red pine needles also acclimated and deacclimated faster than Austrian pine needles. An index of injury was developed based on the electrolyte leakage method ((R(2) + R(1))/2, where R(1) is the minimum % electrolyte leakage from noninjured tissue and R(2) is the maximum % electrolyte leakage at the highest injury) that reliably predicted freezing stress resistance of pine needles for most of the year. Important aspects for developing a successful index of injury for pine needles are: use of cut needles, vacuum infiltration and shaking during incubation in water.We conclude that: (1) during cold acclimation the cell wall properties of the pine needles changed and these changes, which appeared to differ in the two species, might explain the very low leakage of electrolytes from winter-hardy needles of red pine; (2) pine needles survive winter by developing the ability to tolerate extracellular ice formation, because

  13. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during

  14. [Comparative sequence analysis of the LEA gene fragment in Pinus sibirica du tour and Pinus pumila (Pallas) regel].

    PubMed

    Mglinets, A V; Sokolov, V A; Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N

    2014-02-01

    A comparative sequence analysis of the LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA)-like gene) intron fragment was performed in Pinus sibirica and P. pumila differing in geographic origin. It was demonstrated that in P. sibirica this fragment was represented by two types of PCR products, 224 and 202 bp in size. Similarly, in accessions of P. pumila, two PCR products of 224 and 159 bp in size were identified. Comparison of 224 bp fragments in P. sibirica and P. pumila showed that they differed in single nucleotide substitutions. Analysis of the intron fragment in a plant, which was characterized as an interspecific hybrid based on morphological characters, showed that it had fragments of 224 and 159 bp in size. The sequence of 224 bp fragment was similar to that of the corresponding fragment in P. sibirica. The structure of the short fragment was the same as the structure of the corresponding fragment in P. pumila. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the use of the sequences examined for species taxonomic classification and of an analysis of species hybridization. PMID:25711024

  15. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-01-01

    Background: So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Objective: Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. Results: This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusion: The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment. PMID:26664017

  16. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  17. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  18. Intraspecific variation buffers projected climate change impacts on Pinus contorta.

    PubMed

    Oney, Brian; Reineking, Björn; O'Neill, Gregory; Kreyling, Juergen

    2013-02-01

    Species distribution modeling (SDM) is an important tool to assess the impact of global environmental change. Many species exhibit ecologically relevant intraspecific variation, and few studies have analyzed its relevance for SDM. Here, we compared three SDM techniques for the highly variable species Pinus contorta. First, applying a conventional SDM approach, we used MaxEnt to model the subject as a single species (species model), based on presence-absence observations. Second, we used MaxEnt to model each of the three most prevalent subspecies independently and combined their projected distributions (subspecies model). Finally, we used a universal growth transfer function (UTF), an approach to incorporate intraspecific variation utilizing provenance trial tree growth data. Different model approaches performed similarly when predicting current distributions. MaxEnt model discrimination was greater (AUC - species model: 0.94, subspecies model: 0.95, UTF: 0.89), but the UTF was better calibrated (slope and bias - species model: 1.31 and -0.58, subspecies model: 1.44 and -0.43, UTF: 1.01 and 0.04, respectively). Contrastingly, for future climatic conditions, projections of lodgepole pine habitat suitability diverged. In particular, when the species' intraspecific variability was acknowledged, the species was projected to better tolerate climatic change as related to suitable habitat without migration (subspecies model: 26% habitat loss or UTF: 24% habitat loss vs. species model: 60% habitat loss), and given unlimited migration may increase amount of suitable habitat (subspecies model: 8% habitat gain or UTF: 12% habitat gain vs. species model: 51% habitat loss) in the climatic period 2070-2100 (SRES A2 scenario, HADCM3). We conclude that models derived from within-species data produce different and better projections, and coincide with ecological theory. Furthermore, we conclude that intraspecific variation may buffer against adverse effects of climate change. A key

  19. [Stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Ji, Lanzhu; Li, Qiurong; Xiao, Dongmei; Liu, Hailiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, soil respiration chamber, a simple and precise method, was used to measure the stem respiration of trees. LI-6400-09 respiration chamber serving as a system is usually used in soil respiration, but we made polyvinyl chloride (PVC) collar and fixed it on the stem surface to measure the stem respiration. From May to October 2003, the stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis, the dominant tree species in Changbai Mountain, was measured in different time and different places using this technique. Meanwhile, the temperatures in the stems and in the forests were measured. The results showed that the stem respiration rate had a remarkably seasonal tendency with a single peak, the maximum was in August and the minimum was in February. The stem respiration rate had an exponential relationship with stem temperature, and the curve exponential regressions for stem respiration rate and temperature factor of trees with big DBH were better than those with small DBH. The stem respiration in different DBH trees was higher in the south stem face than that in the north stem face, and the variance of respiration rate between south and north decreased with a decrease of DBH trees. During the growing season from May to October, the average maintenance respiration accounted for 63.63% in different DBH trees, and the maintenance respiration contribution to total respiratory consumption increased with increasing DBH, which was 66.76, 73.29% and 50.84%, respectively. The stem respiration Q10 values ranged from 2.56-3.32 in different DBH of trees, and the seasonal tendency for stem R, and Rm in different DBH of trees was obtained by using respiration Q10. Therefore, the differences between different parts of stem and different DBH of trees should be considered in estimating the respiration model in ecosystem. PMID:15852948

  20. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  1. Phylogeography of Pinus subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Jardón-Barbolla, Lev; Delgado-Valerio, Patricia; Geada-López, Gretel; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Four species of Pinus subsection Australes occur in the Caribbean Basin: P. caribaea, P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis. This study analyses the phylogeography of these species to assess possible colonization events from Central America to the islands and subsequent population expansions during glacial periods driven by both drier climate and larger emerged land areas. Methods Allele size data were obtained for plastid microsatellites for 314 individuals from 24 populations, covering the distribution range of subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. Key Results In total, 113 plastid haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations of P. caribaea. Overall, Caribbean Basin populations fit the isolation by distance model. Significant phylogeographical structure was found (RST = 0·671 > permuted RST = 0·101; P < 0·0001). The haplotype network and a Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) indicated different Central American origins for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea plastids, with Central America populations in northern and south-eastern groups. Sudden expansion times for BAPS clusters were close to three glacial maxima. Conclusions Central America contains ancestral plastid haplotypes. Population expansion has played a major role in the distribution of genetic diversity in P. caribaea var. hondurensis. Two colonization events gave rise to the P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea lineages. Plastid variation in the eastern species (P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis) evolved independently from that in P. caribaea var. caribaea. Incomplete lineage sorting between P. cubensis and P. maestrensis is apparent. Inferred expansion times for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and for the eastern lineages correspond to glacial maxima, whereas those for P. caribaea var. hondurensis correspond to the beginning of the temperature decrease that

  2. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  3. [Acceleration of Embryonic Development of Pinus sibirica Trees with a One-Year Reproductive Cycle].

    PubMed

    Tret'yakova, I N; Lukina, N V

    2016-01-01

    The study of the formation of embryonic structures in Pinus sibirica forms with a one-year reproductive cycle showed that the acceleration of the embryonic process manifested itself as a reduction of the coenocytic stage of the female gametophyte development (1.5 months instead of 1 year). The egg was not fertilized because of the asynchronous maturation of male and female gametophytes. Seeds without embryos were formed. We assumed that the acceleration of the reproductive process in Pinus sibirica was caused by a mutation in the female generative organs.

  4. [Acceleration of Embryonic Development of Pinus sibirica Trees with a One-Year Reproductive Cycle].

    PubMed

    Tret'yakova, I N; Lukina, N V

    2016-01-01

    The study of the formation of embryonic structures in Pinus sibirica forms with a one-year reproductive cycle showed that the acceleration of the embryonic process manifested itself as a reduction of the coenocytic stage of the female gametophyte development (1.5 months instead of 1 year). The egg was not fertilized because of the asynchronous maturation of male and female gametophytes. Seeds without embryos were formed. We assumed that the acceleration of the reproductive process in Pinus sibirica was caused by a mutation in the female generative organs. PMID:27149748

  5. Intra-annual nutrient flux in Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, Timothy J; Allen, H Lee; Stape, Jose L; Fox, Thomas R; Rubilar, Rafael A; Price, James W

    2012-10-01

    Intra-annual nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) flux was quantified for Pinus taeda L. at a nutrient-poor, well-drained sandy site in Scotland County, NC, USA where a 2 × 2 factorial of irrigation and nutrition was applied in four replications in a 10-year-old stand with 1200 stems ha(-1). Treatments were applied with the goal of providing optimum nutrition (no nutritional deficiencies) and water availability. Component (foliage, branch, stem and root) nutrient content was estimated monthly for 2 years using nutrient concentration and phenology assessments combined with destructive harvests. Positive flux values indicated nutrient accumulation in the trees while negative values indicated nutrient loss from the trees. Fertilization significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium flux 140%, on average, over non-fertilized. Irrigation significantly increased calcium flux 28% while there was no significant irrigation effect on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or magnesium. Maximum nutrient fluxes (kg ha(-1) day(-1)) for non-fertilized and fertilized stands were 0.36 and 1.05 for nitrogen, 0.042 and 0.095 for phosphorus, 0.13 and 0.51 for potassium, 0.27 and 0.42 for calcium, and 0.04 and 0.12 for magnesium, respectively. Maximum flux was coincident with ephemeral tissue (foliage and fine root) development and likely would be higher in stands with more foliage than those observed in this study (projected leaf area indices were 1.5 and 3.0 for the non-fertilized and fertilized stands). Minimum nutrient fluxes (kg ha(-1) day(-1)) for non-fertilized and fertilized stands were -0.18 and -0.42 for nitrogen, -0.029 and -0.070 for phosphorus, -0.05 and -0.18 for potassium, -0.04 and -0.05 for calcium, and -0.02 and -0.03 for magnesium, respectively. Minimum fluxes were typically observed in the dormant season and were linked to foliage senescence and branch death. Foliage and branch component nutrient contents

  6. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  7. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS ON LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA) FOLLOWING COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite-derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in Virginia and North Carolina. In order to separate NDVI contributions of the dominantc...

  8. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  9. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stand density reductions have been proposed as a method by which old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of North America can be converted back to pre-1900 conditions, thereby reducing the danger of catastrophic forest fires and insect attacks while increasing product...

  10. MODIFYING LIGNIN IN CONIFERS: THE ROLE OF HCT DURING TRACHEARY ELEMENT FORMATION IN PINUS RADIATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) is involved in the production of methoxylated monolignols that are precursors to guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in angiosperm species. We identified and cloned a putative HCT gene from Pinus radiata, a coniferous gymnosperm, ...

  11. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  12. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  13. Stand variation in Pinus radiata and its relationship with allometric scaling and critical buckling height

    PubMed Central

    Waghorn, Matthew J.; Watt, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Allometric relationships and the determination of critical buckling heights have been examined for Pinus radiata in the past. However, how they relate to more mature Pinus radiata exhibiting a wide range of stem diameters, slenderness and modulus of elasticity (E) at operationally used stand densities is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Pinus radiata stand structure variables and allometric scaling and critical buckling height. Methods Utilizing a Pinus radiata Nelder trial with stand density and genetic breed as variables, critical buckling height was calculated whilst reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between critical height (Hcrit), actual height (H), ground line diameter (D), slenderness (S), density-specific stiffness (E/ρ) and modulus of elasticity (E). Key Results Critical buckling height was highly responsive to decreasing diameter and increasing slenderness. Safety factors in this study were typically considerably lower than previously reported margins in other species. As density-specific stiffness scaled negatively with diameter, the exponent of 0·55 between critical height and diameter did not meet the assumed value of 0·67 under constant density-specific stiffness. E scaled positively with stem slenderness to the power of 0·78. Conclusions The findings suggest that within species density-specific stiffness variation may influence critical height and the scaling exponent between critical height and diameter, which is considered so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. PMID:23388878

  14. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations and is threatened by multiple stresses, including rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and pop...

  15. EFFECTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON GROWTH AND BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The future productivity of forests will be affected by combinations of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3. Because productivity of forests will, in part, be determined by growth of young trees, we evaluated shoot growth and biomass responses of Pinus ponderosa seedlings exposed to ...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium fujikuroi CF-295141, Isolated from Pinus sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Bertoni-Mann, Michele; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; González-Menéndez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a new strain of Fusarium fujikuroi, isolated from Pinus sylvestris, which was also found to produce the mycotoxin beauvericin. The Illumina-based sequence analysis revealed an approximate genome size of 44.2 Mbp, containing 164 secondary metabolite biosynthetic clusters. PMID:27795279

  17. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp.

  18. Photosynthetic acclimation to enriched CO{sub 2} concentrations in Pinus Ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    By the middle of the 21st century earth`s ambient CO{sub 2} level is expected to increase two-fold ({approximately}350 umol/L). Higher levels of CO{sub 2} are expected to cause major changes in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits of the world`s vegetation. Therefore, we constructed an experiment designed to measure the long-term acclimation processes of Pinus Ponderosa. As a prominent forest conifer, Pinus Ponderosa is useful when assessing a large scale global carbon budget. Eighteen genetically variable families were exposed to 3 different levels of CO{sub 2} (350 umol/L, 525 umol/L, 700 umol/L), for three years. Acclimation responses were quantified by assays of photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll pigment concentrations.

  19. Voltammetric analysis of Pinus needles with physiological, phylogenetic, and forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Miranda, Annette S; König, Peter; Kahlert, Heike; Scholz, Fritz; Osete-Cortina, Laura; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenolic compounds are electrochemically active components of vegetal matter which were targeted under simple experimental conditions to produce voltammetric profiles characterizing the metabolite composition. Application to bivariate and multivariate chemometric techniques permits to discriminate the species and age of plant leaves, illustrated here for the case of six Pinus species from two different subgenera. Such responses, associated with the electrochemical oxidation of polyphenolic compounds (quercetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, among others), define a voltammetric profile which varies systematically with the age of the leaves for the different species. The application of this methodology for phylogenetic studies, plant physiology, forensic science, and chemoecology is discussed. Graphical Abstract Image of Pinus in a typical Mediterranean forest; Courtesy of the Botanic Garden of the University of Valencia. PMID:27173392

  20. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Pinus armandii (Pinaceae), an endemic conifer species to China1

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wan-Lin; Wang, Ruo-Nan; Yan, Xiao-Hao; Niu, Chuan; Gong, Lin-Lin; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Pinus armandii (Pinaceae) is an important conifer tree species in central and southwestern China, and it plays a key role in the local forest ecosystems. To investigate its population genetics and design effective conservation strategies, we characterized 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for this species. Methods and Results: Eighteen novel polymorphic and 16 monomorphic microsatellite loci of P. armandii were isolated using Illumina MiSeq technology. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.061 to 0.609 with an average of 0.384, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.063 to 0.947 with an average of 0.436. Seventeen loci could be successfully transferred to five related Pinus species (P. koraiensis, P. griffithii, P. sibirica, P. pumila, and P. bungeana). Conclusions: These novel microsatellites could potentially be used to investigate the population genetics of P. armandii and related species. PMID:27785387

  1. Effect of Pinus massoniana Lamb. bark extract on lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxia; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Xuedong; Gao, Yaqian; Qin, Xing; Wu, Kun

    2012-10-01

    Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) at a concentration of 60 microg/mL or more inhibits the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic proteins, such as Rta, Zta, and EA-D. EBV lytic cycle was blocked by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes. The results suggest that the PMBE has anti-EBV activity. Thus, the extract is potentially useful in preventing the lytic development of EBV in vitro. PMID:23214264

  2. Effect of Pinus massoniana Lamb. bark extract on lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxia; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Xuedong; Gao, Yaqian; Qin, Xing; Wu, Kun

    2012-10-01

    Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) at a concentration of 60 microg/mL or more inhibits the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic proteins, such as Rta, Zta, and EA-D. EBV lytic cycle was blocked by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes. The results suggest that the PMBE has anti-EBV activity. Thus, the extract is potentially useful in preventing the lytic development of EBV in vitro.

  3. [Major features of decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation on sandy land].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyun; Jiang, Fengqi; Li, Xiaodan; Xue, Yang; Qiu, Sufen

    2004-12-01

    In view of the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Zhanggutai sand land of Liaoning Province, this paper studied the major characteristics of the decline. The appearance of the declining man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was grey green, its needle leaf was very thin, the blooming and fruiting rate was low, the average quantity of cones per tree was only 10.4-16.5, with only 6.96 g to 7.39 g per thousand seeds, and there were many empty and astringent seeds. The seasonal dynamics of nutrients in 2-year-old pine needle leaf was similar, i.e., the N and P contents decreased, while K content increased, showing that the nutrient cycle was imbalance. The chlorophyll content in 2-year-old needle leaf of declined forest was high, while that in 1-year-old healthy forest was also high but with a wide increasing range. The infected harm of shoot blight was the clearest mark to the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. After the forest declined, the height and the DBH of the pine trees decreased evidently, and the structure of DBH distribution moved "left". The quantity of weak pine trees increased by 15.9%-27.2%, the roots decreased by 22.9%-28.9%, and the absorbing roots (diameter < 0.5 cm) decreased most seriously. PMID:15825430

  4. Chemical composition changes in eucalyptus and pinus woods submitted to heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Brito, J O; Silva, F G; Leão, M M; Almeida, G

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis woods to understand its role in wood processing. E. saligna and P. caribaea var. hondurensis woods were treated in a laboratorial electric furnace at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C to induce their heat treatment. The chemical composition of the resulting products and those from original wood were determined by gas chromatography. Eucalyptus and Pinus showed a significant reduction in arabinose, manose, galactose and xylose contents when submitted to increasing temperatures. No significant alteration in glucose content was observed. Lignin content, however, increased during the heat process. There was a significant reduction in extractive content for Eucalyptus. On the other hand, a slight increase in extractive content has been determined for the Pinus wood, and that only for the highest temperature. These different behaviors can be explained by differences in chemical constituents between softwoods and hardwoods. The results obtained in this study provide important information for future research and utilization of thermally modified wood.

  5. Chloroplast evolution in the Pinus montezumae complex: a coalescent approach to hybridization.

    PubMed

    Matos, J A; Schaal, B A

    2000-08-01

    This study addresses the evolutionary history of the chloroplast genomes of two closely related pine species, Pinus hartwegii Lindl. and P. montezumae Lamb (subsect. Ponderosae) using coalescent theory and some of the statistical tools that have been developed from it during the past two decades. Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae are closely related species in the P. montezumae complex (subsect. Ponderosae) of Mexico and Central America. Pinus hartwegii is a high elevation species, whereas P. montezumae occurs at lower elevations. The two species occur on many of the same mountains throughout Mexico. A total of 350 individuals of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae were collected from Nevado de Colima (Jalisco), Cerro Potosí (Nuevo León), Iztaccihuatl/Popocatepetl (México), and Nevado de Toluca (México). The chloroplast genome of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae was mapped using eight restriction enzymes. Fifty-one different haplotypes were characterized; 38 of 160 restriction sites were polymorphic. Clades of most parsimoniously related chloroplast haplotypes are geographically localized and do not overlap in distribution, and the geographically localized clades of haplotypes include both P. hartwegii and P. montezumae. Some haplotypes in the clades occur in only one of the two species, whereas other haplotypes occur in both species. These data strongly suggest ancient and/or ongoing hybridization between P. hartwegii and P. montezumae and a shared chloroplast genome history within geographic regions of Mexico. PMID:11005290

  6. Characterization and expression of a Pinus radiata putative ortholog to the Arabidopsis SHORT-ROOT gene.

    PubMed

    Solé, Alicia; Sánchez, Conchi; Vielba, Jesús M; Valladares, Silvia; Abarca, Dolores; Díaz-Sala, Carmen

    2008-11-01

    We characterized a Pinus radiata D. Don putative ortholog to the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. SHORT--ROOT gene (AtSHR) and analyzed its expression in different organs during vegetative development and in response to exogenous auxin during adventitious rooting. The predicted protein sequence contained domains characteristic of the GRAS protein family and showed a strong similarity to the SHORT--ROOT (SHR) proteins. Quantitative reverse transcriptase--polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization showed that the gene is predominantly expressed in roots, root primordia and in the cambial region of hypocotyl cuttings. Increased mRNA levels were observed, independently of the presence or absence of exogenous auxin, in the cambial region and rooting competent cells of hypocotyl cuttings within the first 24 h of adventitious rooting, before the activation of cell divisions and the organization of the adventitious root meristem. The expression pattern in organs and during adventitious rooting was similar to that of a Pinus radiata SCARECROW-LIKE (PrSCL1) gene, except that PrSCL1 is induced in response to exogenous auxin. Results suggest that the Pinus radiata SHORT-ROOT (PrSHR) gene has a role in root meristem formation and maintenance and in the cambial region of hypocotyl cuttings.

  7. Differences in defence responses of Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera are affected by water deficit.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; El Kayal, Walid; Copeland, Charles C J; Zaharia, L Irina; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that responses to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera will differ between the evolutionarily co-evolved host lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and the naïve host jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and that these responses will be influenced by water availability. G. clavigera inoculation resulted in more rapid stem lesion development in lodgepole than in jack pine; water deficit delayed lesion development in both species. Decreased hydraulic conductivity was observed in inoculated lodgepole pine seedlings, likely because of tracheid occlusion by fungal hyphae and/or metabolite accumulation. Drought but not inoculation significantly impacted bark abscisic acid levels. Jasmonic and salicylic acid were implicated in local and systemic responses of both species to G. clavigera, with salicylic acid appearing to play a greater role in jack pine response to G. clavigera than lodgepole pine. Water deficit increased constitutive levels and/or attenuated induced responses to G. clavigera for several monoterpenes in lodgepole but not jack pine. Instead, inoculation of well-watered but not water deficit jack pine resulted in a greater number of xylem resin ducts. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying differences in G. clavigera-induced responses between lodgepole and jack pine hosts, and how water availability modulates these responses. PMID:26205849

  8. Cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra and Pinus sylvestris at their climatic limits in the Eastern Alps in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Summary It has been frequently stressed that at distributional boundaries, like at the Alpine timberline and within dry inner Alpine environments, tree growth will be affected first by changing climate conditions. Climate in 2007 was characterized by the occurrence of exceptionally mild temperatures in spring (3.4 and 2.7 °C above long-term mean (LTM) at timberline and the valley sites, respectively) with an almost continuous drought period recorded in April and slightly warmer than average temperatures throughout summer (1.3 °C above LTM at both sites). We compared temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra at the Alpine timberline (1950 m a.s.l.) and Pinus sylvestris at a xeric inner Alpine site (750 m a.s.l.) by repeated cellular analyses of micro-cores (n = 5 trees/site). While onset of wood formation in P. sylvestris and P. cembra differed by about two weeks (12 and 27 April, respectively), maximum daily growth rates peaked on 6 May at the valley site and on 23 June at timberline. At both sites maximum tracheid production was reached prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions during summer, i.e. an increase in precipitation and temperature. Xylem formation ended on 31 August and 28 October at the xeric site and at timberline, respectively. This study demonstrates the plasticity of tree-ring formation along an altitudinal transect in response to water availability and temperature. Whether early achievement of maximum growth rates is an adaptation to cope with extreme environmental conditions prevailing at limits of tree growth needs to be analysed more closely by taking belowground carbon allocation into account. PMID:24273354

  9. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  10. The Influence of Pinus brutia on the Water Balance of Fractured Mediterranean Mountain Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lubczynski, Maciek; Christou, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In dry Mediterranean environments, both rainfall and temperature vary throughout the year and frequent droughts occur. The mountainous topography is characterized by steep slopes, often leading to shallow soil layers with limited water storage capacity. While for most of the tree species, these conditions can be characterized as unfavourable, Pinus brutia trees manage to survive and thrive. The main objective of this study is to define and quantify the water balance components of a Pinus brutia forest at tree level. Our study was conducted from 30/12/2014 until 31/09/2015 in an 8966-m2 fenced area of Pinus brutia forest. The site is located on the northern foothills of Troodos mountain at 620 m elevation, in Cyprus. The slope of the site ranged between 0 and 82%. The average daily minimum temperature is 5 0C in January and the average daily maximum temperature is 35 oC in August. The mean annual rainfall is 425 mm. We measured the diameter at breast height (DBH) from a total of 122 trees. Based on the average DBH, four trees were selected for monitoring (two were above the average DBH and two were below). We measured soil depth in a 1-m grid around each of the four selected trees. We processed soil depths in ArcGIS software (ESRI) to create a soil depth map. We used a Total Station and a differential GPS for the creation of a high resolution DEM of the area covering the four selected trees. We installed soil moisture sensors at 15-cm depth at distances of 1 and 2 m from the selected trees and a second sensor at 30-cm depth when the soil was deeper than 20 cm.. We randomly installed four metric manual rain gauges under each trees' canopy to measure throughfall and for stemflow we installed a plastic tube around each tree trunk and connected it to a manual rain gauge. We used six sap flow heat ratio method instruments to determine sap flow rates of the Pinus brutia trees. Two trees had one sensor installed at 1.3 m height facing north. The remaining trees had two sap

  11. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed

    Herron, D A; Wingfield, M J; Wingfield, B D; Rodas, C A; Marincowitz, S; Steenkamp, E T

    2015-03-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  12. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ(13)C and δ(18)O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain.

  13. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  14. Effect of habitat and age on variations in volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, R. A.; Owen, S.; Duckham, S. C.; Boissard, C.; Hewitt, C. N.

    A dynamic branch enclosure was used to measure emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under field conditions from two common native Mediterranean species, Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea. In addition to α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, limonene and cineole, a suite of lesser known compounds were tentatively identified including cis- and trans-ocimene, cis- and trans-linalool oxide and sabinaketone. Emissions of isoprene from Quercus ilex were insignificant in comparison to those of the monoterpenes and were not detected from Pinus pinea. Variability in emission rates between two habitats, the forest and the dunes, were assessed for Quercus ilex. Temperature sensitivities of emissions and total summed emission rates from Quercus ilex were clearly related to environmental conditions. Emission rates from Pinus pinea showed great variability, but differences between normalised mean emission rates from mature forest and young plantation trees may be significant. Existing emission rate models were found to inadequately describe the observed data.

  15. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora seedlings that resembles naturally occurring 'shiro'.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Ken; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    We established an in vitro ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora. Mycorrhiza formed in a substrate of Modified Norkrans' C medium and granite-based soil had features similar to those observed previously only in naturally occurring mycorrhizal system called 'shiro,' and promoted the growth of plants with smaller root/shoot ratios. The in vitro formation of 'shiro' is essential for the development of T. matsutake system to produce mushrooms and is useful for the propagation and plantation of the mycorrhizal seedlings.

  16. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  17. Price sensitivity of bioethanol produced in New Zealand from Pinus radiata wood

    SciTech Connect

    Manderson, G.J.; Spencer, K.; Paterson, A.H.J. . Dept. of Biotechnology); Qureshi, N. ); Jansen, D.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis conducted of designs for industry-scale ethanol production facilities that use both hexoses and pentoses to produce 97 to 107 tonnes of anhydrous ethanol per day from 960 tonnes of Pinus radiata wood of 50% moisture content (480 oven-dried tonnes). Various process options and available technologies were considered for cost comparisons. The base case plant design was used to assess the probable importance of not fermenting thee wood pentose fraction. When pentose sugars were not fermented, the ethanol price increased from $0.71/L to $0.75/L. The influence of various economic factors on selling price is assessed.

  18. On the specific pattern of long chain polyprenols in green needles of Pinus mugo Turra.

    PubMed

    Kazimierczak, B; Hertel, J; Swiezewska, E; Chojnacki, T; Marczewski, A

    1997-01-01

    In green needles of Pinus mugo the most abundant polyprenols occur as a mixture of prenologues in which the dominant alcohol is built of 16 isoprene units. The characteristic spectrum of polyprenols (prenol-15, -16 and -17) was the same irrespective of the location of plant and of distinct morphological differences observed in the various selected forms of this species. The constant pattern of the polyprenols spectrum was preserved throughout the 2-year life span of needles, although the level of polyprenols was increased 2-3-fold. The polyprenol pattern in Pinaceae family differs from species to species, thus it may serve as chemotaxonomic criterion within this systematic group.

  19. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of sterols from Pinus elliotti tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Evans, R.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A comparative study of the sterol components of slash pine (Pinus elliotti) callus tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings was carried out using GC-MS techniques. Cholesterol, desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cycloeucalenol were identified in all tissues while lophenol and 24-methylenelophenol were identified in only the seed and seedlings. 24-Ethylidenelophenol was detected in trace concentrations in only the seedlings. Sitosterol was the predominant sterol component, i.e., 80.8, 38.1 and 47.8% of the tissue culture, seed and seedling sterols, respectively.

  20. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2014-09-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

  1. Unique Features of the Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Megagenome Revealed Through Sequence Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyn, Jill L.; Liechty, John D.; Stevens, Kristian A.; Wu, Le-Shin; Loopstra, Carol A.; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A.; Dougherty, William M.; Lin, Brian Y.; Zieve, Jacob J.; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Yorke, James A.; Crepeau, Marc W.; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Main, Doreen; Langley, Charles H.; Neale, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The largest genus in the conifer family Pinaceae is Pinus, with over 100 species. The size and complexity of their genomes (∼20–40 Gb, 2n = 24) have delayed the arrival of a well-annotated reference sequence. In this study, we present the annotation of the first whole-genome shotgun assembly of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), which comprises 20.1 Gb of sequence. The MAKER-P annotation pipeline combined evidence-based alignments and ab initio predictions to generate 50,172 gene models, of which 15,653 are classified as high confidence. Clustering these gene models with 13 other plant species resulted in 20,646 gene families, of which 1554 are predicted to be unique to conifers. Among the conifer gene families, 159 are composed exclusively of loblolly pine members. The gene models for loblolly pine have the highest median and mean intron lengths of 24 fully sequenced plant genomes. Conifer genomes are full of repetitive DNA, with the most significant contributions from long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. In depth analysis of the tandem and interspersed repetitive content yielded a combined estimate of 82%. PMID:24653211

  2. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on stem maintenance and construction respiration in Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, E.V.; Delucia, E.H.; Ball, J.T. |

    1995-06-01

    We measured woody tissue respiration on stems of 4-year-old Pinus ponderosa growing under ambient (350 ppm) and twice ambient (700 ppm) atmospheric CO{sub 2} in open top chambers located at the Institute of Forest Genetics in Placerville, CA. Mean daily respiration rate per unit volume of wood was greater in trees growing under the elevated (700 ppm) treatment (46.75 vs 40.45 mol m{sup -3} d{sup -1}). This difference was due to a higher Q{sub 10} of respiration in the elevated (Q{sub 10}=2.20) versus the ambient (Q{sub 10}=1.67) treatment. The higher Q{sub 10} and CO{sub 2} efflux rate were not due to differences in phenology but may reflect a difference in demand for metabolic energy. In contrast to results seen in leaves growing under elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} analysis of tissue construction costs suggests no difference in wood composition between treatments. Estimates of growth respiration calculated from construction costs also did not differ. Under future predicted atmospheric conditions, changes in the maintenance respiration of woody tissue may lead to an increase in the respiration component of whole plant carbon budgets of Pinus ponderosa.

  3. Fire-adapted traits of Pinus arose in the fiery Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    He, Tianhua; Pausas, Juli G; Belcher, Claire M; Schwilk, Dylan W; Lamont, Byron B

    2012-05-01

    • The mapping of functional traits onto chronograms is an emerging approach for the identification of how agents of natural selection have shaped the evolution of organisms. Recent research has reported fire-dependent traits appearing among flowering plants from 60 million yr ago (Ma). Although there are many records of fossil charcoal in the Cretaceous (65-145 Ma), evidence of fire-dependent traits evolving in that period is lacking. • We link the evolutionary trajectories for five fire-adapted traits in Pinaceae with paleoatmospheric conditions over the last 250 million yr to determine the time at which fire originated as a selective force in trait evolution among seed plants. • Fire-protective thick bark originated in Pinus c. 126 Ma in association with low-intensity surface fires. More intense crown fires emerged c. 89 Ma coincident with thicker bark and branch shedding, or serotiny with branch retention as an alternative strategy. These innovations appeared at the same time as the Earth's paleoatmosphere experienced elevated oxygen levels that led to high burn probabilities during the mid-Cretaceous. • The fiery environments of the Cretaceous strongly influenced trait evolution in Pinus. Our evidence for a strong correlation between the evolution of fire-response strategies and changes in fire regime 90-125 Ma greatly backdates the key role that fire has played in the evolution of seed plants.

  4. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  5. Simulation of Tsunami Resistance of a Pinus Thunbergii tree in Coastal Forest in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanko, K.; Suzuki, S.; Noguchi, H.; Hagino, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests reduce fluid force of tsunami, whereas extreme tsunami sometimes breaks down the forest trees. It is difficult to estimate the interactive relationship between the fluid and the trees because fluid deform tree architecture and deformed tree changes flow field. Dynamic tree deformation and fluid behavior should be clarified by fluid-structure interaction analysis. For the initial step, we have developed dynamic simulation of tree sway and breakage caused by tsunami based on a vibrating system with multiple degrees of freedom. The target specie of the simulation was Japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii), which is major specie in the coastal forest to secure livelihood area from the damage by blown sand and salt in Japanese coastal area. For the simulation, a tree was segmented into 0.2 m long circular truncated cones. Turning moment induced by tsunami and self-weight was calculated at each segment bottom. Tree deformation was computed on multi-degree-of-freedom vibration equation. Tree sway was simulated by iterative calculation of the tree deformation with time step 0.05 second with temporally varied flow velocity of tsunami. From the calculation of bending stress and turning moment at tree base, we estimated resistance of a Pinus thunbergii tree from tsunami against tree breakage.

  6. Catalytic Conversion of Pinus densiflora Over Mesoporous Catalysts Using Pyrolysis Process.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung Kyun; Lee, In-Gu; Lee, Hyung Won; Chea, Kwang-Seok; Jo, Tae Su; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Ko, Chang Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of obtaining valuable chemicals from Pinus densiflora, a native Korean tree species occupying 21.4% of the total area under forests in South Korea. Two representative mesoporous catalysts, Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, as well as hierarchical mesoporous MFI (Meso-MFI) that has both mesopores and micropores, were used as catalysts. Compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis was shown to reduce the fractions of levoglucosan, phenolics, and acids in bio-oil, while increasing the fractions of aromatics, PAHs, and furans. Meso-MFI with strong acid sites showed a high selectivity toward aromatics and PAHs, whereas Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F with weak acid sites exhibited a high selectivity toward furanic compounds. The results of this study indicate that choosing a catalyst with an adequate quantity of acidic sites with the required strength is critical for enhancing the production of desired chemicals from Pinus densiflora. PMID:27433632

  7. [Canopy interception of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation on Longzhong Loess Plateau, Northwest China: characteristics and simulation].

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu-Min; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Jian, Sheng-Qi; Yu, Kai

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Pinus tabulaeformis plantation in the Anjiagou catchment on Longzhong Loess Plateau as test object, an observation was made on the characteristics of throughfall, stemflow, interception, and canopy structure of P. tabulaeformi during its growth season (from May to September) in 2011. Based on the observed data, the revised Gash analytical model was adopted to simulate the canopy interception, aimed to understand the ecological hydrological processes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation and related mechanisms. In the observation period, a total of 19 precipitation events were observed, with a total precipitation of 215.80 mm. The throughfall, stemflow, and canopy interception were 165.24 mm, 2.29 mm, and 48.27 mm, occupying 76.7%, 1.1%, and 22.4% of the total precipitation, respectively. The simulated canopy interception was 41.24 mm, being 7.13 mm lower than the observed value and with a relative error of 14.7%. There were 33.8% and 60.0% of interception were evaporated from the canopy during and after precipitation, respectively. The revised Gash analytical model was highly sensitive to the canopy storage capacity, forest coverage, rainfall intensity, and evaporation, but less sensitive to the stemflow rate and stem water holding capacity.

  8. Fire-adapted traits of Pinus arose in the fiery Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    He, Tianhua; Pausas, Juli G; Belcher, Claire M; Schwilk, Dylan W; Lamont, Byron B

    2012-05-01

    • The mapping of functional traits onto chronograms is an emerging approach for the identification of how agents of natural selection have shaped the evolution of organisms. Recent research has reported fire-dependent traits appearing among flowering plants from 60 million yr ago (Ma). Although there are many records of fossil charcoal in the Cretaceous (65-145 Ma), evidence of fire-dependent traits evolving in that period is lacking. • We link the evolutionary trajectories for five fire-adapted traits in Pinaceae with paleoatmospheric conditions over the last 250 million yr to determine the time at which fire originated as a selective force in trait evolution among seed plants. • Fire-protective thick bark originated in Pinus c. 126 Ma in association with low-intensity surface fires. More intense crown fires emerged c. 89 Ma coincident with thicker bark and branch shedding, or serotiny with branch retention as an alternative strategy. These innovations appeared at the same time as the Earth's paleoatmosphere experienced elevated oxygen levels that led to high burn probabilities during the mid-Cretaceous. • The fiery environments of the Cretaceous strongly influenced trait evolution in Pinus. Our evidence for a strong correlation between the evolution of fire-response strategies and changes in fire regime 90-125 Ma greatly backdates the key role that fire has played in the evolution of seed plants. PMID:22348443

  9. Crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of a vicilin-type seed storage protein from Pinus koraiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method in hanging drops. The cupin superfamily of proteins includes the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins. Many members of this family of proteins are known allergens. In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method in hanging drops. The crystals belong to the primitive cubic space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 148.174 Å. Two vicilin molecules were present in the asymmetric unit and the Matthews coefficient was determined to be 2.90 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with a corresponding solvent content of ∼58%. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained using the program Phaser. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  10. CANOPY CONDUCTANCE OF PINUS TAEDA, LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA AND QUERCUS PHELLOS UNDER VARYING ATMOSPHERIC AND SOIL WATER CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sap flow, and atmospheric and soil water data were collected in closed-top chambers under conditions of high soil water potential for saplings of Liquidambar styraciflua L., Quercus phellos L., and Pinus taeda L., three co-occurring species in the southeastern USA. Responses of c...

  11. Canopy Level Emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes from a Pinus taeda Experimental Plantation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) observed during 2007 from a Pinus taeda experimental plantation in Central North Carolina are compared with model estimates from MEGAN 2.1. Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) estimates of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) fluxes are ...

  12. [Effects of elevated O3 on the volatile organic compounds emit from Ginkgo biloba and Pinus tabulaeformis].

    PubMed

    Li, De-wen; Shi, Yi; He, Xing-yuan

    2008-02-01

    To study the impact of elevated tropospheric O3 concentrations on BVOCs emissions by Pinus tabulaeformis and Ginkgo biloba in urban area, the trees were exposed in open-top chambers. Two ozone treatments were established: ambient air (approximately 30 nmol x mol(-1) ) (CK) and elevated O3 concentrations (80 nmol x mol(-1) ) (O3 ). Elevated O3 concentrations significantly induced isoprene to emit for Pinus tabulaeformis and Ginkgo biloba (p < 0.05), and delta3-carene for Ginkgo biloba (p < 0.05). The emission rates were increased to 1.96, 9.71 and 0.09 microg/(g x h) (-1), respectively. There were no significant differences between ozone fumigation treatments for the other monoterpenes. At the same time, the relative abundances of the monoterpenes and isoprene were to be different between tree species and effect by O3 exposure. In CK chambers, the dominate BVOCs emitted by Ginkgo biloba was isoprene, and a-pinene for Pinus tabulaeformis. In the elevated O3 chambers, the isoprene accounted for 64.73% of Pinus tabulaeformis BVOCs. To sum up, the BVOCs emitting patterns were influenced by elevated O3 significantly.

  13. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). On December 9, 2008, we received a petition dated December 8, 2008, from... published in the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 42033). In that finding we determined that the... Pinus albicaulis (75 FR 42033), and received 20 letters from the public. This 12-month finding is...

  14. Correlation between infection by ophiostomatoid fungi and the presence of subterranean termites in Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations of subterranean termites feeding in pine sapwood containing ophiostomatoid fungi prompted a study to investigate the effect of infection by Leptographium fungi on the probability of encountering subterranean termites in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Root samples were collected f...

  15. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea.

  16. 75 FR 42033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Pinus albicaulis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... soil erosion by physically stabilizing soils, initiating succession as a hardy pioneer or as an early... published in the Federal Register on January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). Species Information Pinus albicaulis is... listing actions (e.g., 75 FR 13910, March 23, 2010). The petitioner also cites several other models...

  17. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  18. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea. PMID:18758977

  19. Do climate and outbreak frequency affect levels of foliar phytochemistry in different lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden) is a widely distributed tree in North American forests and is found in a variety of environments, each with different levels of disease activity. We quantified the levels of defense-associated metabolites (including soluble phenolics, lignin, and ter...

  20. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    PubMed

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance. PMID:23705379

  1. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Himejima, Masaki; Hobson, K.R.; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Wood, D.L.; Kubo, Isao )

    1992-10-01

    The oleoresin of the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) exhibited broad antimicrobial activity. In order to identify the active compounds, the oleoresin was steam distilled to give a distillate and residue. The distillate contained mainly monoterpenes and some sesquiterpenes, while the residue consisted chiefly of four structurally related diterpene acids. An antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds indicated that the monoterpenes were active primarily against fungi, but there was also some activity against gram-positive bacteria. The diterpene acids, in contrast, only exhibited activity against gram-positive bacteria. Although not all of the identified sesquiterpenes could be tested, longifolene showed activity only against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it appears that the oleoresin of P. ponderosa functions as a biochemical defense against microbial invasion.

  2. Effect of drought and osmotic stress on gene expression in Jack Pine. [Pinus banksiana

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.; Mayne, M.; Coleman, J.R.; Blumwald, E. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought and osmotic stress was studied in Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings and cultured cell suspensions, respectively. The pattern of protein syntheses during stress was studied. Seedlings and cells were in vivo labeled with ({sup 35}S)methionine and membrane-bound proteins were isolated. proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by staining and autoradiography. Several changes in protein profiles were induced by stress. Messenger RNAs were isolated, translated in vitro, and complementary DNA libraries from control and stressed plants and cells were constructed in E. coli strain JM109. Antibodies, raised against electroeluted membrane-bound proteins that were significantly induced and/or enhanced during stress, were used to isolate stress-related genes from cDNA libraries.

  3. Elastic constants of Pinus radiata D. Don by means of ultrasound transmission techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baradit, Erik; Fuentealba, Cecillia

    2001-08-01

    This work consists in applying the crystals theory and mechanical waves propagation in wood. The wood when is considered as a body of orthotropic symmetry satisfies Hooke's law in its tensor form. Therefore, from the dynamical point of view the elastic constant are expressed by means of Christoffel's equation and can be determined using the ultrasound wave propagation of different polarization through wood. To obtain the constants is necessary the measurement of longitudinal and shear waves in different directions. The experiment results show that in some cases the exact shear wave velocities are very difficult to measure due to waves superposition . In this work the elastic constants (three moduli of elasticity and three shear moduli) Pinus radiata D. Don growing in Chile by ultrasound trasmission techniques are estimated.

  4. [Effects of elevated ozone on Pinus armandii growth: a simulation study with open-top chamber].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Chen; He, Xing-Yuan; Ruan, Ya-Nan; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Peng, Jun-Jie; Li, Teng

    2013-10-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC) and the techniques of dendrochronology, this paper studied the growth of Pinus armandii under elevated ozone, and explored the evolution dynamics and adaptation mechanisms of typical forest ecosystems to ozone enrichment. Elevated ozone inhibited the stem growth of P. armandii significantly, with the annual growth of the stem length and diameter reduced by 35.0% and 12.9%, respectively. The annual growth of tree-ring width and the annual ring cells number decreased by 11.5% and 54.1%, respectively, but no significant change was observed in the diameter of tracheid. At regional scale, the fluctuation of ozone concentration showed significant correlation with the variation of local vegetation growth (NDVI).

  5. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  6. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens.

  7. [Effects of elevated ozone on Pinus armandii growth: a simulation study with open-top chamber].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Chen; He, Xing-Yuan; Ruan, Ya-Nan; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Peng, Jun-Jie; Li, Teng

    2013-10-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC) and the techniques of dendrochronology, this paper studied the growth of Pinus armandii under elevated ozone, and explored the evolution dynamics and adaptation mechanisms of typical forest ecosystems to ozone enrichment. Elevated ozone inhibited the stem growth of P. armandii significantly, with the annual growth of the stem length and diameter reduced by 35.0% and 12.9%, respectively. The annual growth of tree-ring width and the annual ring cells number decreased by 11.5% and 54.1%, respectively, but no significant change was observed in the diameter of tracheid. At regional scale, the fluctuation of ozone concentration showed significant correlation with the variation of local vegetation growth (NDVI). PMID:24483064

  8. [CYTOGENETIC RESPONSE OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) TO CADMIUM AND NICKEL].

    PubMed

    Belousov, M V; Mashkina, O S

    2015-01-01

    We studied cytogenetic polymorphism of the seeds of Pinus sylvestris L. in response to heavy metals exposure in laboratory settings over 2 years' time. We compared results obtained from the seedlings of different years: 2012 and 2013. With an increase in Ni2+ and Cd2+ concentration we observed a decrease in mitotic activity with concurrent rise in the percentage of cells in the prophase. This fact demonstrates the heavy metals act similar to both fixatives and substances that block cleavage spindle formation. In terms of pathological mitosis and the frequency of micronuclei cells, Cd2+ shows higher mutagenity compared to Ni2+. In addition, in the experimental samples, we have distinguished abnormalities such as fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes and especially C mitosis occurrence, which are not observed in the control. PMID:26495713

  9. Quantification and characterization of Si in Pinus Insignis Dougl by TXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Henry; Bennun, Leonardo; Marcó, Lué M.

    2015-03-01

    A simple quantification of silicon is described, in woods such as Pinus Insigne Dougl obtained from the 8th region of Bío-Bío, 37°15″ South-73°19″ West, Chile. The samples were prepared through fractional calcination, and the ashes were directly analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique. The analysis of 16 samples that were calcined is presented. The samples were weighed on plastic reflectors in a microbalance with sensitivity of 0.1 µg. Later, the samples were irradiated in a TXRF PICOFOX spectrometer, for 350 and 700 s. To each sample, cobalt was added as an internal standard. Concentrations of silicon over the 1 % in each sample and the self-absorption effect on the quantification were observed, in masses higher than 100 μg.

  10. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones.

  11. Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Ramos, L; Martinez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2012-05-16

    Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L. (n = 7) have been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their trimethylsilyl oximes. Besides previously reported components, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose, several soluble carbohydrates have been identified for the first time in this product, including saccharides (galactose, maltose, and planteose) and cyclitols (pinitol, galactinol, galactopinitol A1, fagopyritol B1, and other glycosyl-inositols). Most abundant cyclitols were chiro-inositol, fagopyritol B1, and pinitol, with concentrations ranging from 126.7 to 222.1 mg (100 g)(-1), 94.2 to 177.1 mg (100 g)(-1), and 51.2 to 282.8 mg (100 g)(-1), respectively.

  12. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens. PMID:17482811

  13. Chemical modification of coating of Pinus halepensis pollen by ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Naas, Oumsaad; Mendez, Maxence; Quijada, Melesio; Gosselin, Sylvie; Farah, Jinane; Choukri, Ali; Visez, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Pollen coating, located on the exine, includes an extractible lipid fraction. The modification of the pollen coating by air pollutants may have implications on the interactions of pollen with plant stigmas and human cells. Pinus halepensis pollen was exposed to ozone in vitro and the pollen coating was extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS. Ozone has induced chemical changes in the coating as observed with an increase in dicarboxylic acids, short-chain fatty acids and aldehydes. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified as the main reaction product and its formation was shown to occur both on native pollen and on defatted pollen. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde is very likely formed via the ozonolysis of acid coumaric-like monomers constitutive of the sporopollenin. Modification of pollen coating by air pollutants should be accounted for in further studies on effect of pollution on germination and on allergenicity.

  14. Application of hydrothermal treatment to affect the fermentability of Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, John; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; McDonald, Ben; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid technique incorporating a wet oxidation stage and secondary fermentation step was used to process Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge. The effect of hydrothermal oxidation at high temperature and pressure on the hydrolysis of constituents of the waste stream was studied. Biochemical acidogenic potential assays were conducted to assess acid production resulting from anaerobic hydrolysis of the wet oxidised hydrolysate under acidogenic conditions. Significant degradation of the lignin, hemicellulose, suspended solids, carbohydrates and extractives were observed with wet oxidation. In contrast, cellulose showed resistance to degradation under the experimental conditions. Extensive degradation of biologically inhibitory compounds by wet oxidation did not show a beneficial impact on the acidogenic or methanogenic potential compared to untreated samples. PMID:25125197

  15. Ectomycorrhizal specificity patterns in a mixed Pinus contorta and Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, K. W.; Vogler, D. R.; Parker, V. T.; Finley, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    We used molecular genetic methods to test two hypotheses, (i) that host plant specificity among ectomycorrhizal fungi would be common in a closed-canopy, mixed Pinus contorta-Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park and (ii) that specificity would be more common in the early successional tree species, P. contorta, than in the invader, P. engelmannii. We identified 28 ectomycorrhizal fungal species collected from 27 soil cores. The proportion of P. engelmannii to P. contorta ectomycorrhizae was nearly equal (52 and 48%, respectively). Of the 28 fungal species, 18 composed greater than 95% of the fungal community. No species was associated exclusively with P. contorta, but four species, each found in only one core, and one species found in two cores were associated exclusively with P. engelmannii. These fungi composed less than 5% of the total ectomycorrhizae. Thus, neither hypothesis was supported, and hypothesized benefits of ectomycorrhizal specificity to both trees and fungi probably do not exist in this system.

  16. Chemical modification of coating of Pinus halepensis pollen by ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Naas, Oumsaad; Mendez, Maxence; Quijada, Melesio; Gosselin, Sylvie; Farah, Jinane; Choukri, Ali; Visez, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Pollen coating, located on the exine, includes an extractible lipid fraction. The modification of the pollen coating by air pollutants may have implications on the interactions of pollen with plant stigmas and human cells. Pinus halepensis pollen was exposed to ozone in vitro and the pollen coating was extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS. Ozone has induced chemical changes in the coating as observed with an increase in dicarboxylic acids, short-chain fatty acids and aldehydes. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified as the main reaction product and its formation was shown to occur both on native pollen and on defatted pollen. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde is very likely formed via the ozonolysis of acid coumaric-like monomers constitutive of the sporopollenin. Modification of pollen coating by air pollutants should be accounted for in further studies on effect of pollution on germination and on allergenicity. PMID:27155099

  17. Growth-Form Characteristics of Ancient Rocky Mountain Bristlecone Pines (Pinus aristata), Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, F. Craig

    2006-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates growth-form characteristics of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) at several sites in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. Most of this study concentrates on 1,000- to 2,500-year-old bristlecone pines; however, the report also describes some of the growth-form characteristics of younger trees (about 20 to less than 1,000 years old) in order to show the continuous changes in tree form from youth to old age. To better describe the trees in this study, some tree-structure nomenclature is introduced and a growth-form classification system is provided. Other topics include the relationship of the trees to their substrate and the potential changes in the growth forms of some bristlecone pines due to damage caused by fire, porcupines, impacts from tumbling boulders, and lightning strikes.

  18. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    PubMed

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact. PMID:26746823

  19. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    PubMed

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact.

  20. Regeneration complexities of Pinus gerardiana in dry temperate forests of Indian Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Shamet, G S; Mehta, Harsh; Alam, N M; Kaushal, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, O P; Sharma, Navneet; Khaki, B A; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Pinus gerardiana is considered an important species in dry temperate forests of North-Western Indian Himalaya because of its influence on ecological processes and economic dependence of local people in the region. But, large numbers of biotic and abiotic factors have affected P. gerardiana in these forests; hence, there is a crucial need to understand the regeneration dynamics of this tree species. The present investigation was conducted in P. gerardiana forests to understand vegetation pattern and regeneration processes on different sites in the region. Statistical analysis was performed to know variability in growing stock and regeneration on sample plots, while correlation coefficients and regression models were developed to find the relationship between regeneration and site factors. The vegetation study showed dominance of P. gerardiana, which is followed by Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus ilex in the region. The growing stock of P. gerardiana showed steep increasing and then steadily declining trend from lower to higher diameter class. The distribution of seedling, sapling, pole and trees was not uniform at different sites and less number of plots in each site were observed to have effective conditions for continuous regeneration, but mostly showed extremely limited regeneration. Regeneration success ranging from 8.44 to 15.93 % was recorded in different sites of the region, which suggests that in different sites regeneration success is influenced by collection of cone for extracting seed, grazing/browsing and physico-chemical properties of soil. Regeneration success showed significant correlation and relationship with most of abiotic and biotic factors. The regeneration success is lower than the requirement of sustainable forest, but varies widely among sites in dry temperate forests of Himalaya. More forest surveys are required to understand the conditions necessary for greater success of P. gerardiana in the region.

  1. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities. PMID:27330857

  2. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains.

    PubMed

    Bílá, Karolína; Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities. PMID:27330857

  3. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed.

  4. Diurnal patterns of photosynthetic response to elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen supply in Pinus taeda seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.; Griffin, K.L.; Thomas, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    We examined the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen supply on diurnal patterns of photosynthesis in 22-week old Pinus taeda seedlings. Seedlings were grown at either 35 Pa or 70 Pa CO{sub 2} and with an adequate or limiting supply of nitrogen. Photosynthetic capacity (assimilation versus internal CO{sub 2} curves) was measured at 1030, 1200, 1330, 1500 and 1630 h. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly increased photosynthesis, but significantly reduced rubisco activity and RuBP regeneration capacity. Limiting nitrogen supply significantly reduced photosynthesis, rubisco activity and RuBP regeneration capacity. Photosynthetic capacity declined significantly between 1030 and 1630. There were no interactions between CO{sub 2} supply, nitrogen supply and time of measurement. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces photosynthetic capacity in Pinus taeda, but does not affect diurnal patterns of photosynthesis.

  5. Phenolic compounds of Pinus laricio needles: a bioindicator of the effects of prescribed burning in function of season.

    PubMed

    Cannac, Magali; Pasqualini, Vanina; Barboni, Toussaint; Morandini, Frederic; Ferrat, Lila

    2009-07-15

    Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Forest management includes many preventive tools, in particular for fire prevention, such as mechanical treatments and prescribed burning. Prescribed burning is a commonly used method for treating fuel loads, but fuel reduction targets for reducing wildfire hazards must be balanced against fuel retention targets in order to maintain habitat and other forest functions. This approach was used on Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. Many studies of plant phenolic compounds have been carried out concerning responses to various stresses. The aim of this study was to understand i) the effects of prescribed burning 1 to 16 months later and ii) the effects of the seasonality of burning, spring or fall, on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. After prescribed burning conducted in spring, Pinus laricio increases the synthesis of total phenolic compounds for a period of 7 months. The increase is greater after spring-burning than fall-burning. With regard to simple phenols, only dihydroferulic acid responds about 1 year after both types of prescribed burning. The causes of these increases are discussed in this paper. Total phenolic compounds could be used as a bioindicator for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenols may be useful for revealing the medium-term effects of prescribed burning. The results of this study include recommending forest managers to use prescribed burning in the fall rather than spring to reduce fuel loads and have less impact on the trees.

  6. Different patterns of genetic structure of relict and isolated populations of endangered peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann).

    PubMed

    Wachowiak, W; Prus-Glowacki, W

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in environmental conditions in populations of peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann) caused rapid decline or even extinction of the species in several stands in Central Europe. Conservation strategies for P. uliginosa require information about the evolutionary history and genetic structure of its populations. Using isozymes we assessed the genetic structure of P. uliginosa from four isolated stands in Poland and compared the results to genetic structures of other closely related pine species including eight populations of Pinus mugo, ten of Pinus sylvestris and one of Pinus uncinata. The level of genetic variability of P. uliginosa measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and average heterozygosity was similar to others related to P. uliginosa taxa from the reference group but it differs among populations. High genetic similarity was found between two populations of P. uliginosa from Low Silesian Pinewood. The populations were genetically distinct as compared to other populations including locus classicus of the species from the peat bog at Batorów Reserve. Very low genetic distance (DN = 0.002) and small genetic differentiation (GST = 0.003) were found between P. uliginosa and P. mugo in the sympatric populations of the species from Zieleniec peat bog suggesting the ongoing natural hybridisation and genetic contamination of peat-bog pine from this area. Some evidence for skew in allele frequency distribution potentially due to recent bottleneck was found in population from Low Silesian Pinewood. The analysed open pollinated progeny derived from two P. uliginosa stands from Low Silesian Pinewood showed the excess of homozygotes as compared to the maternal trees indicating high level of inbreeding (F = 0.105, F = 0.081). The results are discussed in the context of evolution of P. uliginosa populations, taxonomic relationships between the analysed species and conservation strategies for active protection of peat-bog pine. PMID:19875883

  7. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and patterns of diversification for Pinus (Pinaceae): phylogenetic tests of fossil-based hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Andrew J; Hall, Benjamin D

    2006-07-01

    Pines comprise one of the largest coniferous genera, are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, and have an abundant fossil record. Distributions of fossils have been used to derive a three-step hypothesis of early pine evolution, which postulates a Mesozoic origin for the genus, east-west expansions across Laurasia, and retraction into Eocene refugia. Here, we present phylogenetic tests of this hypothesis using chloroplast sequence data from four loci for 83 pine species. We used the fossil-based hypothesis to derive null expectations concerning monophyly of taxonomic groups, dates of cladogenesis, and patterns of diversification. Phylogenetic analyses using several algorithms subsequently provided rigorous tests of these expectations. Our inferred phylogenies illustrated broad congruence with taxonomic groups, but highlighted consistent problems within subgenus Strobus. Estimated minimum dates of divergence derived from relaxed clock methods were largely consistent with the fossil record and yielded a date for the ingroup node of Pinus of 128+/-4 mya, depending upon the calibration used for subgenus Pinus. Ancestral area reconstructions showed Pinus to have most likely originated in Eurasia. Major clades differed in biogeographic patterns, but were consistent with the fossil-based hypothesis. We found weak support, however, for a change in diversification rate in the Eocene as interpretations of fossil distributions would have predicted.

  8. 13C-isotopic fingerprint of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. wood related to the quality of standing tree mass in forests from NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Irene; González-Prieto, Serafin J; Cabaneiro, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Pine forest plantations of Pinus pinaster Ait. and P. sylvestris L. located in Galicia, NW Spain, were selected to study the 13C/12C-isotopic fingerprint in wood core samples in order to find possible relationships between the delta(13)C at natural abundance levels and the quality of the standing tree mass. For each pine species, 24 forests growing on acidic soils were studied: half developed over granite and half over schists. Two dominant trees from each plot, corresponding to all possible combinations of forest stands with high or low site index and with adults or young trees, were drilled at the basal part of trunks using a Pressler drill to obtain tree ring samples. The C-isotopic compositions of the litter and the soil organic matter from different soil depths were also determined and statistically significant correlations between these values and the 13C content of the wood were observed. Despite internal variations due to the influence of site index, tree age and parent material, the isotopic fingerprint of P. pinaster wood (mean value delta13C=-26.2+/-0.8 per thousand) significantly differed (P<0.001) from that of P. sylvestris (mean value delta13C=-24.6+/-0.7 per thousand). Relationships between the quality of the stand and the C-isotopic composition of the wood were observed, high quality stands having trees more 13C-depleted than low quality ones. A high correlation between wood delta13C and site index values for P. pinaster stands (r=-0.667, P<0.001) was found, this correlation being even clearer when only P. pinaster growing over schists (r=-0.833, P<0.001) are considered. Again, the correlation between the site index and the wood delta13C of young P. pinaster trees is higher when plots over granite or schists are separately considered. A similar fact occurs for adult P. sylvestris trees from schists stands, high quality specimens being 13C-depleted compared with low quality ones. On the other hand, 13C natural abundance of wood from P. sylvestris

  9. A Novel Semiochemical Tool for Protecting Pinus contorta From Mortality Attributed to Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Fettig, Christopher J; Munson, A Steven; Reinke, Michael; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2015-02-01

    Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregant of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a notable forest insect capable of causing extensive levels of tree mortality in western North America. Several formulations of verbenone are registered for tree protection, but failures in efficacy are not uncommon, particularly when applied during large infestations. A formulation of (-)-verbenone was developed (Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology [SPLAT] Verb, ISCA Technologies Inc., Riverside, CA) and evaluated for protecting individual lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon, and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae. SPLAT Verb applied to individual P. contorta resulted in complete tree protection, while 93.3% mortality occurred in the untreated controls. Significantly fewer P. contorta were killed by D. ponderosae within 0.041-ha circular plots surrounding P. contorta treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. In a second study, a smaller percentage of P. contorta were colonized and killed on 0.4-ha square plots treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. No significant differences in levels of tree mortality were observed between the untreated control and another formulation of verbenone (7-g pouch) or between the 7-g pouch and SPLAT Verb. In a trapping bioassay, no significant differences were observed among captures in multiple-funnel traps at 1, 2, or 4 m from the point of release of SPLAT Verb. Significantly fewer D. ponderosae were collected at 1 and 2 m compared with 8 m. Significantly more D. ponderosae were captured at the farthest distance evaluated (16 m) than at any other distance. Our data indicate that SPLAT Verb is effective for protecting individual P. contorta and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae at moderate doses. The high levels of tree

  10. Essential oil composition variability among natural populations of Pinus mugo Turra in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Ahmeti, Gresa; Pulaj, Bledar; Lukas, Brigitte; Ibraliu, Alban; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Pinus mugo Turra, is a native pine species in central and southern Europe, growing in high mountains area (altitudes 1.800-2.300 m.a.s.l.). In Kosovo, it is one of the native pines too, distributed in high altitudes in the Sharri Mountains and Albanian Alps Mountains. Its populations represent an important wealth of essential oil resources available, which make this species very important in terms of economic values. The chemical composition and yields of the essential oils of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra) needles, twigs and cones from six wild populations in Kosovo were investigated with the aim to assess their natural variability. The identity of P. mugo was confirmed by morphology and DNA barcoding. Sixty-two compounds were identified representing 69-95 % of the total identified compounds. The yield ranged from 0.3-0.8 % v/w in needles, 1.0-2.4 % v/w in twigs and 0.1-0.5 % v/w in cones, depending on the origin of plant material and plant organs. α-Pinene (needles: 16.9-24.5 %; twigs: 4.5-8.8 %; cones: 3.1-5.6 %), β-pinene (needles: 1.5-5.4 %; twigs: 2.2-15.4 %; cones: 1.3-14.2 %), δ-3-carene (needles: 15.4-27.8 %; twigs: 24.0-51.6 %; cones: 10.5-31.5 %), limonene + β-phellandrene (needles: 1.9-5.9 %; twigs: 12.6-24.2 %; cones: 2.1-9.3 %), (E)-caryophyllene (needles: 4.4-8.9 %; twigs: 4.0-10.8 %; cones: 10.3-26.9 %) and germacrene D (needles: 4.0-8.3 %; twigs: 0.2-6.19 %; cones: 0.1-12.4 %) were the major components of the essential oil. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analyses (HCA) suggests that the population of P. mugo clustering is not related to their geographic location, but rather seemed to be linked to local selective forces acting on chemotype diversity. Low variability related to their geographic location has an economic importance since samples originating from different locations in Kosovo can treated with same standards. PMID:26753115

  11. A Novel Semiochemical Tool for Protecting Pinus contorta From Mortality Attributed to Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Fettig, Christopher J; Munson, A Steven; Reinke, Michael; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2015-02-01

    Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregant of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a notable forest insect capable of causing extensive levels of tree mortality in western North America. Several formulations of verbenone are registered for tree protection, but failures in efficacy are not uncommon, particularly when applied during large infestations. A formulation of (-)-verbenone was developed (Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology [SPLAT] Verb, ISCA Technologies Inc., Riverside, CA) and evaluated for protecting individual lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon, and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae. SPLAT Verb applied to individual P. contorta resulted in complete tree protection, while 93.3% mortality occurred in the untreated controls. Significantly fewer P. contorta were killed by D. ponderosae within 0.041-ha circular plots surrounding P. contorta treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. In a second study, a smaller percentage of P. contorta were colonized and killed on 0.4-ha square plots treated with SPLAT Verb compared with the untreated control. No significant differences in levels of tree mortality were observed between the untreated control and another formulation of verbenone (7-g pouch) or between the 7-g pouch and SPLAT Verb. In a trapping bioassay, no significant differences were observed among captures in multiple-funnel traps at 1, 2, or 4 m from the point of release of SPLAT Verb. Significantly fewer D. ponderosae were collected at 1 and 2 m compared with 8 m. Significantly more D. ponderosae were captured at the farthest distance evaluated (16 m) than at any other distance. Our data indicate that SPLAT Verb is effective for protecting individual P. contorta and small stands of P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae at moderate doses. The high levels of tree

  12. Impact of drought on the temporal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    GRUBER, ANDREAS; STROBL, STEFAN; VEIT, BARBARA; OBERHUBER, WALTER

    2011-01-01

    Summary We determined the temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell differentiation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), where radial growth is strongly limited by drought in spring. Repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree ring of mature trees was carried out during 2 contrasting years at two study plots that differ in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). In 2007, when air temperature at the beginning of the growing season in April exceeded the long-term mean by 6.4 °C, cambial cell division started in early April at both study plots. A delayed onset of cambial activity of c. 2 wk was found in 2008, when average climate conditions prevailed in spring, indicating that resumption of cambial cell division after winter dormancy is temperature-controlled. Cambial cell division consistently ended about the end of June/early July in both study years. Radial enlargement of tracheids started almost 3 wk earlier in 2007 compared with 2008 at both study plots. At the xeric site, the maximum rate of tracheid production in 2007 and 2008 was reached in early and mid-May, respectively, and c. 2 wk later, at the dry-mesic site. Since in both study years, more favorable growing conditions (i.e., an increase in soil water content) were recorded during summer, we suggest a strong sink competition for carbohydrates to mycorrhizal root and shoot growth. Wood formation stopped c. 4 wk earlier at the xeric compared with the dry-mesic site in both years, indicating a strong influence of drought stress on cell differentiation. This is supported by radial widths of earlywood cells, which were found to be significantly narrower at the xeric than at the dry-mesic site (P < 0.05). Repeated cellular analyses during the two growing seasons revealed that, although spatial variability in the dynamics and duration of cell differentiation processes in Pinus sylvestris exposed to drought is strongly

  13. Effect of sonication on different quality parameters of Pinus massoniana pollen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Fu-bo; Zhou, Bin; Shan, Hu; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    A study was initiated with the objective of evaluating the effects of sonication treatment on important quality parameters of extract of Pinus massoniana pollen. Sonication of extract was done (frequency 20kHz and various amplitude levels) for 10, 30, 50min, respectively. As results, total polysaccharide, phenolics and flavonoids significantly increased (P<0.05). And sonicated P.massoniana pollen displays strong immuno-stimulating activity by increasing proliferations of splenic lymphocytes and subsets of CD4+ T cells (CD3+CD4+), CD8 T cells (CD3+CD8+), and increased Ig secretion. Sonicated P. massoniana pollen also showed anti-tumor function by inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, inhibition of ROS production, up-regulation of GSH/GSSG ration, up-regulating the gene expression of P53, Bax and down-regulating the gene expression of Bcl-2. Findings of the present study suggested the sonication treatment of P. massoniana pollen could improve the quality and bioactivity of P. massoniana pollen, indicating that sonication is effective in processing of pollen and could be a potential process in tumor prevention and treatment.

  14. Selection of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Pinus massoniana Post Nematode Inoculation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongcheng; Liu, Qinghua; Dong, Hongyu; Zhou, Zhichun; Hao, Yanping; Chen, Xuelian; Xu, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    Pinus massoniaia Lamb has gained more and more attention as the most important tree species for timber and forestation in South China. Gene expression studies are of great importance to identify new and elite cultivars. Real-time quantitative PCR, a highly sensitive and specific method, is commonly used in the analysis of gene expression. The appropriate reference genes must be employed to normalize the calculation program for ascertaining repeatable and significant results. Herein, eleven housekeeping genes were evaluated during different stages of P. massoniana post nematode inoculation in this study. Three statistical approaches such as geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were selected to analyze the stability of candidate genes. The results indicated that U2af and β-TUB were the most stable reference genes. These two genes could be used for the normalization in most of the experiments of P. massoniana, while Histone and AK were the least stable ones. In addition, EF expressed at the lowest average Ct value was the most abundant candidate gene. As an important gene associated with defense mechanisms, ABC transporter was analyzed by qRT-PCR, and the results were used to confirm the reliability of two genes. The selected reference genes in the present study will be conducive to future gene expression normalized by qRT-PCR in P. massoniana. PMID:26800152

  15. Selection of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Pinus massoniana Post Nematode Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yongcheng; Liu, Qinghua; Dong, Hongyu; Zhou, Zhichun; Hao, Yanping; Chen, Xuelian; Xu, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    Pinus massoniaia Lamb has gained more and more attention as the most important tree species for timber and forestation in South China. Gene expression studies are of great importance to identify new and elite cultivars. Real-time quantitative PCR, a highly sensitive and specific method, is commonly used in the analysis of gene expression. The appropriate reference genes must be employed to normalize the calculation program for ascertaining repeatable and significant results. Herein, eleven housekeeping genes were evaluated during different stages of P. massoniana post nematode inoculation in this study. Three statistical approaches such as geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were selected to analyze the stability of candidate genes. The results indicated that U2af and β-TUB were the most stable reference genes. These two genes could be used for the normalization in most of the experiments of P. massoniana, while Histone and AK were the least stable ones. In addition, EF expressed at the lowest average Ct value was the most abundant candidate gene. As an important gene associated with defense mechanisms, ABC transporter was analyzed by qRT-PCR, and the results were used to confirm the reliability of two genes. The selected reference genes in the present study will be conducive to future gene expression normalized by qRT-PCR in P. massoniana. PMID:26800152

  16. Association between herbivore stress and glutathione S-transferase expression in Pinus brutia Ten.

    PubMed

    Semiz, A; Çelik-Turgut, G; Semiz, G; Özgün, Ö; Şen, A

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed mechanisms to defend themselves against many factors including biotic stress such as herbivores and pathogens. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzyme and plays critical roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism in plants. Pinus brutia Ten. is a prominent native forest tree species in Turkey, due to both its economic and ecological assets. One of the problems faced by P. brutia afforestation sites is the attacks by pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams.). In this study, we investigated the changes in activity and mRNA expression of GST in pine samples taken from both resistant and susceptible clones against T. wilkinsoni over a nine month period in a clonal seed orchard. It was found that the average cytosolic GST activities of trees in March and July were significantly higher than the values obtained in November. November was considered to be the control since trees were not under stress yet. In addition, RT-PCR results clearly showed that levels of GST transcripts in March and July samples were significantly higher as compared to the level seen in November. These findings strongly suggest that GST activity from P. brutia would be a valuable marker for exposure to herbivory stress. PMID:27064879

  17. Genet Variation of Ectomycorrhizal Suillus granulatus Fruiting Bodies in Pinus strobus Stands.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2016-03-01

    The genets of Suillus granulatus in a Pinus strobus stand (13 m × 60 m) were identified using random amplified polymorphic DNA molecular markers and the DNA of mushrooms that fruited for two years, and variations in genet size and distribution were analyzed. From a total of 116 mushrooms, 73 genets were identified and were grouped into three locations. The genets of mushrooms in close proximity differed from each other. The genet sizes varied at any of the three locations. The lengths of the identified genets in the pine stand ranged from 0.09 to 2.90 m. The average number of mushrooms per genet was 1.2 to 2.3, and the percentage of genets that were represented by a single mushroom was 44% to 94%. This variation in the genets of mushrooms in close proximity suggests that the ectomycorrhizal mycelial bodies of S. granulatus propagated sexually by fusing haploid spores derived from the mushrooms gills with below-ground mycelia. Therefore, it is necessary further to investigate the formation of new genets through spores in ectomycorrhizal fungal colonies. PMID:27103849

  18. Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus halepensis growing in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Tomi, Félix; Gibernau, Marc; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2016-04-01

    The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno, and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS and (13)C-NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77 - 100% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene, myrcene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene were the major component followed by α-humulene and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. 47 Oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M = 28.1 g/100 g; SD = 10.6) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 19.0 g/100 g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 28.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.9), α-pinene (M = 12.3 g/100 g; SD = 3.6), and myrcene (M = 11.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. PMID:27103339

  19. Non-photoperiodic regulation of reproductive physiology in the flexibly breeding pine siskin (Spinus pinus).

    PubMed

    Watts, Heather E; Hahn, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breeding schedules. In this study, we investigate the use of non-photic cues, specifically food availability and social cues, to time the initiation of reproductive development in the pine siskin (Spinus pinus), a temperate-zone songbird with a flexible breeding schedule. Following winter solstice, males were housed on a 12L:12D photoperiod with either access to a preferred food, a potential mate (social cue), or both. Control birds received only maintenance diet and no mate. Access to a preferred food had a significant positive effect on testis size and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). However, we found no effect of social treatment on reproductive development. The effect of the food treatment on reproductive development did not appear to result from effects on body mass or fat, as neither measure differed across treatments. The food treatment influenced not only reproductive physiology, but also reproductive behavior in this species, as access to seeds had a positive effect on affiliation of pairs. This study demonstrates that food is a potent stimulus for the initiation of reproductive development in pine siskins.

  20. Pharmacophore Modeling and Molecular Docking Studies on Pinus roxburghii as a Target for Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Pawan; Lal Khokra, Sukhbir; Rana, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    The present study attempts to establish a relationship between ethnopharmacological claims and bioactive constituents present in Pinus roxburghii against all possible targets for diabetes through molecular docking and to develop a pharmacophore model for the active target. The process of molecular docking involves study of different bonding modes of one ligand with active cavities of target receptors protein tyrosine phosphatase 1-beta (PTP-1β), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), aldose reductase (AR), and insulin receptor (IR) with help of docking software Molegro virtual docker (MVD). From the results of docking score values on different receptors for antidiabetic activity, it is observed that constituents, namely, secoisoresinol, pinoresinol, and cedeodarin, showed the best docking results on almost all the receptors, while the most significant results were observed on AR. Then, LigandScout was applied to develop a pharmacophore model for active target. LigandScout revealed that 2 hydrogen bond donors pointing towards Tyr 48 and His 110 are a major requirement of the pharmacophore generated. In our molecular docking studies, the active constituent, secoisoresinol, has also shown hydrogen bonding with His 110 residue which is a part of the pharmacophore. The docking results have given better insights into the development of better aldose reductase inhibitor so as to treat diabetes related secondary complications. PMID:25114678

  1. Effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis in non-nutrient limited Pinus taeda plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.; Tissue, D.T.; Strain, B.R. )

    1994-06-01

    We examined the effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthetic capacity in non-nutrient limited Pinus taeda plants. Plants were grown in open-top chambers maintained at either ambient or ambient +30 Pa CO2. Leaf nitrogen levels indicated that no plants were N limited. Photosynthesis at the growth CO2 was significantly higher in plants grown at elevated CO2. However, elevated CO2 did not significantly affect rubisco activity and activation state, chlorophyll content, electron transport capacity or phosphate regeneration capacity. All parameters were significantly greater during the growing season than during the winter. Additionally, photosynthesis declined approximately 75% in elevated CO2-grown plants from May to January, but only 50% in ambient CO2-grown plants. These results indicate that elevated CO2 will not effect photosynthetic capacity grown plants. These results indicate that elevated CO2 will not affect photosynthetic capacity grown plants. These results indicate that elevated CO2 will not affect photosynthetic capacity in non-nutrient limited P. taeda, but will increase seasonal fluctuations in photosynthesis.

  2. Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. ) tree-limit surveillance during recent decades, central Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Kullman, L. )

    1993-02-01

    The altitudinal tree-limit of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been surveyed at the population level since the early- and mid-1970s in the Swedish Scandes. Elevational tree-limit advance was recorded for the majority of sites, despite statistically stable, although highly fluctuating climate with clusters of exceptionally cold winters and many relatively cool summers. The new tree-limit derived from pines established in the late 1950s. Tree-limit rise was concurrent with net population decline for the period 1972 to 1991, mainly as a result of failing regeneration. The main factor of individual vitality depression and mortality was deduced to be winter desiccation. The progressive tree-limit has a tendency for slow upslope advance during periods of climatic stability, even if punctuated by shorter events of unfavorable climate. Pine tree-limit dynamics is suggested to be a complex of climate/age/disturbance interactions. The tree-limit may decline altitudinally mainly in response to secular climate cooling, which makes it best suited for surveying sustained climatic trends and analogous paleoclimatic reconstruction. 51 refs., 12 figs., 1 tabs.

  3. Transpiration rates and canopy conductance of Pinus radiata growing with different pasture understories in agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Miller, Blair J.; Clinton, Peter W.; Buchan, Graeme D.; Robson, A. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We measured tree transpiration and canopy conductance in Pinus radiata D. Don at two low rainfall sites of differing soil fertility in Canterbury, New Zealand. At the more fertile Lincoln site, we also assessed the effects of two common pasture grasses on tree transpiration and canopy conductance. At the less fertile Eyrewell Forest site, the effect of no understory, and the effects of irrigation in combination with mixtures of grass or legume species were determined. Tree xylem sap flux (F(d)') was measured by the heat pulse method. Total canopy conductance to diffusion of water vapor (G(t)) was calculated by inverting a simplified Penman-Monteith model. The different treatment effects were modeled by the simple decaying exponential relationship G(t) = G(tmax)e((-bD)), where D = air saturation deficit. At the Lincoln site, trees with an understory of cocksfoot had lower F(d)' and G(tmax) than trees with an understory of ryegrass, although the sensitivity of G(t) to increasing D (i.e., the value of b) did not differ between treatments. At the Eyrewell site, irrigation only increased F(d)' in the absence of an understory, whereas the presence of understory vegetation, or lack of irrigation, or both, significantly reduced G(tmax) and increased b. We conclude that the selection of understory species is critical in designing successful agroforestry systems for low rainfall areas.

  4. Frequency and direction of hybridization in sympatric populations of Pinus taeda and P. echinata (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Edwards-Burke, M; Hamrick, J; Price, R

    1997-07-01

    Two naturally occurring, sympatric, northern Georgia populations of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) and P. echinata Mill. (shortleaf pine) were examined with respect to genetic diversity within populations and the frequency, spatial distribution, and morphology of putative hybrids. Shortleaf pine predominated at the "road" site while loblolly pine predominated at the "granite outcrop" site. Hybrid individuals were identified by their IDH allozyme genotype, the only such locus known to be fixed for different alleles in the two species. All allozymatically detectable hybrids (34 at the road site and two at the granite outcrop site) were juveniles that were distributed in open, sunny patches. A similar pattern of recruitment was seen for juveniles of the parental species. Hybrids were spatially distant from mature shortleaf pine, suggesting that shortleaf pine was not the seed parent. Discriminant analysis on needle characteristics indicated that loblolly pine was easily distinguished from shortleaf pine and the hybrids, but that shortleaf pine and the hybrids were barely distinguishable from each other. A diagnostic cpDNA restriction site marker indicated that shortleaf pine sired all the hybrids at both sites. No evidence of later generation hybridization was found.

  5. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Okoro, Ovie Princewill; Awojide, Shola Hezekiah; Awoniyi, Ilias Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. Results The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control. PMID:24144127

  6. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs.

  7. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6-34.9%; twigs: 11.0-24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1-27.7; twigs: 29.0-49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0-16.1; twigs: 6.9-20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  8. Ostryopsis davidiana seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi facilitate formation of mycorrhizae on Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shu-Lan; Li, Guo-Lei; Liu, Yong; Kasten Dumroese, R; Lv, Rui-Heng

    2009-08-01

    Reforestation in China is important for reversing anthropogenic activities that degrade the environment. Pinus tabulaeformis is desired for these activities, but survival and growth of seedlings can be hampered by lack of ectomycorrhizae. When outplanted in association with Ostryopsis davidiana plants on reforestation sites, P. tabulaeformis seedlings become mycorrhizal and survival and growth are enhanced; without O. davidiana, pines often remain without mycorrhizae and performance is poorer. To better understand this relationship, we initiated an experiment using rhizoboxes that restricted root and tested the hypothesis that O. davidiana seedlings facilitated ectomycorrhizae formation on P. tabulaeformis seedlings through hyphal contact. We found that without O. davidiana seedlings, inocula of five indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi were unable to grow and associate with P. tabulaeformis seedlings. Inocula placed alongside O. davidiana seedlings, however, resulted in enhanced growth and nutritional status of O. davidiana and P. tabulaeformis seedlings, and also altered rhizosphere pH and phosphatase activity. We speculate that these species form a common mycorrhizal network and this association enhances outplanting performance of P. tabulaeformis seedlings used for forest restoration.

  9. Integrated physiological and hormonal profile of heat-induced thermotolerance in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús; Pascual, Jesús; Pinto, Glória; Correia, Barbara; Amaral, Joana; Meijón, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Despite great interest, not only from the economic point of view but also in terms of basic science, research on heat stress tolerance in conifers remains scarce. To fill this gap, a time-course experiment using expected temperature increase was performed aiming to identify physiological and biochemical traits that allow the characterization of heat-induced thermotolerance and recovery in Pinus radiata D. Don plants. Several physiological parameters were assessed during heat exposure and after recovery, and multiple phytohormones-abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), gibberellins, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and brassinosteroids-were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry from unique sample. Furthermore, tissue specific stress-signaling was monitored by IAA and ABA immunolocalization. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data enabled clustering of the shorter- and longer-term effects of heat stress exposure. Two sequential physiological responses were identified: an immediate and a delayed response, essentially determined by specific phytohormones, proline, malondialdehyde and total soluble sugar patterns. Results showed that ABA and SA play a crucial role in the first stage of response to heat stress, probably due to the plant's urgent need to regulate stomatal closure and counteract the increase in oxidative membrane damage demonstrated in shorter-term exposures. However, in longer exposures and recovery, proline, total sugars, IAA and CKs seem to be more relevant. This integrated approach pinpointed some basic mechanisms of P. radiata physiological responses underlying thermotolerance processes and after recovery.

  10. Analysis of the relationships among O3 uptake, conductance, and photosynthesis in needles of pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.A.; Clark, C.S.; Hogsett, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of conductance and photosynthesis to ozone uptake is important for the prediction of the long-term response of trees to ozone exposure. The authors studied the effects of O3 uptake on conductance (gwv) and photosynthesis (A) in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings exposed for 70 days to one of three O3 regimes -- Low-O3, High-O3, and Low/High-O3. Seedlings exposed to charcoal-filtered air served as controls. Total O3 exposures, expressed as ppm-h (the sum of the average hourly concentration to ppm over the exposure period), were 77, 135, 105, and 4 for the Low-O3, High-O3, Low/High-O3, and control treatments, respectively. Conductance declined to about 60% of the value in control seedlings by Day 6 in seedlings in the High-O3 treatment and by Day 37 in seedlings in the Low/High-O3 treatment, but did not decline at all in seedlings in the Low-O3 treatment.

  11. Plasticity of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) wood-forming tissues during a growing season.

    PubMed

    Paiva, J A P; Garnier-Géré, P H; Rodrigues, J C; Alves, A; Santos, S; Graça, J; Le Provost, G; Chaumeil, G; Da Silva-Perez, D; Bosc, A; Fevereiro, P; Plomion, C

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal effect is the most significant external source of variation affecting vascular cambial activity and the development of newly divided cells, and hence wood properties. Here, the effect of edapho-climatic conditions on the phenotypic and molecular plasticity of differentiating secondary xylem during a growing season was investigated. Wood-forming tissues of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) were collected from the beginning to the end of the growing season in 2003. Data from examination of fibre morphology, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), analytical pyrolysis, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were combined to characterize the samples. Strong variation was observed in response to changes in edapho-climatic conditions. A genomic approach was used to identify genes differentially expressed during this growing season. Out of 3512 studied genes, 19% showed a significant seasonal effect. These genes were clustered into five distinct groups, the largest two representing genes over-expressed in the early- or late-wood-forming tissues, respectively. The other three clusters were characterized by responses to specific edapho-climatic conditions. This work provides new insights into the plasticity of the molecular machinery involved in wood formation, and reveals candidate genes potentially responsible for the phenotypic differences found between early- and late-wood.

  12. [Effects of artificial tending on Pinus tabulaeformis forest growth and its structural characteristics].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yun; Yang, Yie; Song, Bingyu; Huang, Heping; Yang, Mingbo; Zheng, Min

    2005-03-01

    The investigation on the growth status, community composition, and structural characteristics of Pinus tabulaeformis forest artificially tended for six years showed that there were significant differences in the average DBH, height, and crown size of the forest among the treatments DA (trimming without intermediate cutting), FA (trimming and intermediate cutting) and CK (without trending). Treatment FA had the highest values of average DBH (7.8 +/- 0.29 cm), height (5.5 +/- 0.09 m) and crown size (249 +/- 7.24 cm), while the CK had the lowest ones. The average biomass of new leaf (1-year-old), old leaf (2 or more-year-old), and branch per tree increased significantly (P<0.01) with enhancing tending treatments. The aboveground biomass of treatment FA was the biggest (44.0 t x hm(-2)), and that of CK was the smallest (14.9 t x hm(-2)). The leaf length and SLA at the early and terminal stages of development (May, June and September) had significant difference among the treatments, and the amount of community composition and the cover degree of undergrowth plants increased evidently under artificial tending treatments. PMID:15943345

  13. Transpiration and canopy conductance in an inner alpine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Gerhard; Leo, Marco; Oberhuber, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Canopy transpiration (Ec) of a 150-year old Pinus sylvestris L. stand in an inner alpine dry valley, Tyrol, Austria was estimated throughout two growing seasons 2011 and 2012 by means of xylem sap flow measurements. Although there were prolonged periods of limited soil water availability Ec did not show a clear trend with respect to soil water availability and averaged 0.4 ± 0.19 mm day-1 under conditions of non-limiting soil water availability and 0.37 ± 0.17 mm day-1 when soil water availability was limited. This is because canopy conductance declined significantly with increasing evaporative demand and thus significantly reduced tree water loss. The growing season total of Ec was 74 mm and 88 mm in 2011 and 2012, respectively, which is significantly below the values estimated for other P. sylvestris forest ecosystems in Central Europe, and thus reflecting a strong adaptation to soil drought during periods of high evaporative. PMID:27468179

  14. Extremely low nucleotide polymorphism in Pinus krempfii Lecomte, a unique flat needle pine endemic to Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baosheng; Khalili Mahani, Marjan; Ng, Wei Lun; Kusumi, Junko; Phi, Hai Hong; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Szmidt, Alfred E

    2014-01-01

    Pinus krempfii Lecomte is a morphologically and ecologically unique pine, endemic to Vietnam. It is regarded as vulnerable species with distribution limited to just two provinces: Khanh Hoa and Lam Dong. Although a few phylogenetic studies have included this species, almost nothing is known about its genetic features. In particular, there are no studies addressing the levels and patterns of genetic variation in natural populations of P. krempfii. In this study, we sampled 57 individuals from six natural populations of P. krempfii and analyzed their sequence variation in ten nuclear gene regions (approximately 9 kb) and 14 mitochondrial (mt) DNA regions (approximately 10 kb). We also analyzed variation at seven chloroplast (cp) microsatellite (SSR) loci. We found very low haplotype and nucleotide diversity at nuclear loci compared with other pine species. Furthermore, all investigated populations were monomorphic across all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions included in our study, which are polymorphic in other pine species. Population differentiation at nuclear loci was low (5.2%) but significant. However, structure analysis of nuclear loci did not detect genetically differentiated groups of populations. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) using nuclear sequence data and mismatch distribution analysis for cpSSR loci suggested recent expansion of the species. The implications of these findings for the management and conservation of P. krempfii genetic resources were discussed. PMID:25360263

  15. Response of Pinus sylvestris roots to sheet-erosion exposure: an anatomical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiales, J. M.; Bodoque, J. M.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Diez-Herrero, A.

    2008-03-01

    Anatomical changes of exposed tree roots are valuable tools to date erosion events, but the responses of diverse species under different types of erosion need still to be studied in detail. In this paper we analyze the histological changes that occur in roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) subjected to continuous denudation. A descriptive and quantitative study was conducted in the Senda Schmidt, a popular trail located on the northern slope of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Central Iberian System, Spain). Measurement of significant parameters allowed the moment of exposure of the roots to be identified. These parameters were: a) width of the growth ring; b) number of cells per ring; c) percentage of latewood and d) diameter of cellular light in earlywood. A one-way analysis ANOVA was also carried out in order to establish statistically significant differences between homogeneous groups of measurements in pre-exposed and exposed roots. Based on these analyses, Scots pine roots show a remarkable anatomical response to sheet-erosion exposure. Increased growth in the ring is accompanied by a slight reduction of the cell lumina of the earlywood tracheids. At the end of the ring, several rows of thick-walled tracheids define latewood tissue and visible annual borders very clearly. Furthermore, resin ducts often appear in tangential rows, increasing resin density in the tissue. All of these indicators made it possible to determine with precision the first year of exposure and to estimate precisely sheet erosion rates.

  16. Diversity and saline resistance of endophytic fungi associated with Pinus thunbergii in coastal shelterbelts of Korea.

    PubMed

    Min, Young Ju; Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Quan, Ying; Jung, Sungcheol; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-03-28

    The Black Pine, Pinus thunbergii, is widely distributed along the eastern coast of Korea and its importance as a shelterbelt was highlighted after tsunamis in Indonesia and Japan. The root endophytic diversity of P. thunbergii was investigated in three coastal regions; Goseong, Uljin, and Busan. Fungi were isolated from the root tips, and growth rates of pure cultures were measured and compared between PDA with and without 3% NaCl to determine their saline resistance. A total of 259 isolates were divided into 136 morphotypes, of which internal transcribed spacer region sequences identified 58 species. Representatives of each major fungi phylum were present: 44 Ascomycota, 8 Zygomycota, and 6 Basidiomycota. Eighteen species exhibited saline resistance, many of which were Penicillium and Trichoderma species. Shoreline habitats harbored higher saline-tolerant endophytic diversity compared with inland sites. This investigation indicates that endophytes of P. thunbergii living closer to the coast may have higher resistance to salinity and potentially have specific relationships with P. thunbergii.

  17. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium study of nitrogen species onto radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust.

    PubMed

    Harmayani, Kadek D; Faisal Anwar, A H M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen species (NH3-N, NO3-N, and NO2-N) are found as one of the major dissolved constituents in wastewater or stormwater runoff. In this research, laboratory experiments were conducted to remove these pollutants from the water environment using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust. A series of batch tests was conducted by varying initial concentration, dosage, particle size, pH, and contact time to check the removal performance. Test results confirmed the effectiveness of radiata pine sawdust for removing these contaminants from the aqueous phase (100% removal of NO3-N, and NO2-N; 55% removal of NH3-N). The adsorbent dosage and initial concentration showed a significantly greater effect on the removal process over pH or particle sizes. The optimum dosage for contaminant removal on a laboratory scale was found to be 12 g. Next, the adsorption kinetics were studied using intraparticle diffusion, liquid-film diffusion, and a pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption of all species followed a pseudo-second order model but NO2-N adsorption followed both models. In addition, the kinetics of NO2-N adsorption showed two-step adsorption following intraparticle diffusion and liquid-film diffusion. The isotherm study showed that NO3-N and NO2-N adsorption fitted slightly better with the Freundlich model but that NH3-N adsorption followed both Freundlich and Langmuir models. PMID:27438245

  18. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  19. [Population structure of soil arthropod in different age Pinus massoniana plantations].

    PubMed

    Tan, Bo; Wu, Fu-zhong; Yang, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Zhen-feng; Liu, Yang; Gou, Xiao-lin

    2013-04-01

    An investigation was conducted on the population structure of soil arthropod community in the 3-, 8-, 14-, 31-, and 40-years old Pinus massoniana plantations in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in spring (May) and autumn (October), 2011, aimed to search for the scientific management of the plantation. A total of 4045 soil arthropods were collected, belonging to 57 families. Both the individual density and the taxonomic group number of the soil arthropod community decreased obviously with increasing soil depth, and this trend increased with increasing stand age. The dominant groups and ordinary groups of the soil arthropod community varied greatly with the stand age of P. massoniana plantation, and a significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the individual density and taxonomic group number among different age P. massoniana plantations. In comparison with other stand age P. massoniana plantations, 3years old P. massoniana plantation had a significant difference in the structure and diversity of soil arthropod community, and the similarity index of the soil arthropod community was lower. The individual density, taxonomic group number, and diversity of soil arthropod community were the highest in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation, and then, decreased obviously with increasing stand age. It was suggested that the land fertility of the P. massoniana plantations could be degraded with increasing stand age, and it would be appropriate to make artificial regulation and restoration in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation.

  20. Pharmacophore Modeling and Molecular Docking Studies on Pinus roxburghii as a Target for Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Pawan; Lal Khokra, Sukhbir; Rana, A C; Kaushik, Dhirender

    2014-01-01

    The present study attempts to establish a relationship between ethnopharmacological claims and bioactive constituents present in Pinus roxburghii against all possible targets for diabetes through molecular docking and to develop a pharmacophore model for the active target. The process of molecular docking involves study of different bonding modes of one ligand with active cavities of target receptors protein tyrosine phosphatase 1-beta (PTP-1β), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), aldose reductase (AR), and insulin receptor (IR) with help of docking software Molegro virtual docker (MVD). From the results of docking score values on different receptors for antidiabetic activity, it is observed that constituents, namely, secoisoresinol, pinoresinol, and cedeodarin, showed the best docking results on almost all the receptors, while the most significant results were observed on AR. Then, LigandScout was applied to develop a pharmacophore model for active target. LigandScout revealed that 2 hydrogen bond donors pointing towards Tyr 48 and His 110 are a major requirement of the pharmacophore generated. In our molecular docking studies, the active constituent, secoisoresinol, has also shown hydrogen bonding with His 110 residue which is a part of the pharmacophore. The docking results have given better insights into the development of better aldose reductase inhibitor so as to treat diabetes related secondary complications. PMID:25114678

  1. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J. )

    1991-05-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution.

  2. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-03-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  3. Modeling the physiological and growth responses of mature Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. to climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Laurence, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Using the TREGRO model we simulated the effects of altered CO{sub 2} (+200 {mu}L/L), temperature (+4{degrees}C) and O{sub 3} (0.5x, 1x and 2x ambient) on the physiology and growth of Pinus ponderosa. Photosynthesis (Pn) increased at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature, enhancing total tree growth 29% and 13%, respectively. In both scenarios the greatest increase in dry matter was in fine root biomass. Ozone at all exposures reduced Pn, total tree growth was unaffected at 0.5x O{sub 3}, however, at higher O{sub 3} total growth was reduced 19% (1x) and 39% (2x). Reductions in fine root biomass and total non-structural carbohydrate dominated at all O{sub 3} exposures. Increased Pn at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature reduced, but did not eliminate, O{sub 3}-induced growth reductions. In the model changes in Pn and stomatal conductance largely determined the growth response to multiple climatic alterations, however, changes in fine root biomass may control growth response in the field.

  4. The role of endophytic fungal individuals and communities in the decomposition of Pinus massoniana needle litter.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhilin; Chen, Lianqing

    2014-01-01

    The role of fungal endophytes (FEs) as "pioneer" decomposers has recently been recognized; however, the extent to which FEs contribute to litter loss is less well understood. The genetic and enzymatic bases of FE-mediated decomposition have also rarely been addressed. The effects of populations and individuals (with an emphasis on two dominant Lophodermium taxa) of FEs on needle-litter decomposition were assessed for Pinus massoniana, a ubiquitous pine in southern China. Data from in vivo (microcosm) experiments indicated that the percentage of litter-mass loss triggered by FEs was linearly correlated with incubation time and approached 60% after seven months. In vitro decomposition tests also confirmed that endophytic Lophodermium isolates caused 14-22% mass loss within two months. Qualitative analysis of exoenzymes (cellulase and laccase, important for lignocellulose degradation) revealed that almost all of the Lophodermium isolates showed moderate or strong positive reactions. Furthermore, partial sequences of β-glucosidase (glycoside hydrolase family 3, GH3), laccase, and cellobiohydrolase (GH7) genes were amplified from Lophodermium isolates as "functional markers" to evaluate their potential for lignocellulolytic activity. Three different genes were detected, suggesting a flexible and delicate decomposition system rich in FEs. Our work highlights the possibility that the saprophytism and endophytism of FEs may be prerequisites to initiating rapid decomposition and thus may be key in Fes' contribution to litter decomposition, at least in the early stage. Potential indicators of the presence of core fungal decomposers are also briefly discussed.

  5. Genet Variation of Ectomycorrhizal Suillus granulatus Fruiting Bodies in Pinus strobus Stands

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The genets of Suillus granulatus in a Pinus strobus stand (13 m × 60 m) were identified using random amplified polymorphic DNA molecular markers and the DNA of mushrooms that fruited for two years, and variations in genet size and distribution were analyzed. From a total of 116 mushrooms, 73 genets were identified and were grouped into three locations. The genets of mushrooms in close proximity differed from each other. The genet sizes varied at any of the three locations. The lengths of the identified genets in the pine stand ranged from 0.09 to 2.90 m. The average number of mushrooms per genet was 1.2 to 2.3, and the percentage of genets that were represented by a single mushroom was 44% to 94%. This variation in the genets of mushrooms in close proximity suggests that the ectomycorrhizal mycelial bodies of S. granulatus propagated sexually by fusing haploid spores derived from the mushrooms gills with below-ground mycelia. Therefore, it is necessary further to investigate the formation of new genets through spores in ectomycorrhizal fungal colonies. PMID:27103849

  6. Indirect Evidence for Genetic Differentiation in Vulnerability to Embolism in Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paudel, Indira; Mizrachi, Maayan; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervé; Lukyanov, Victor; Badel, Eric; Capdeville, Gaelle; Shklar, Galina; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasing mean temperatures and in the eastern Mediterranean is expected to decrease annual precipitation. The resulting increase in aridity may be too rapid for adaptation of tree species unless their gene pool already possesses variation in drought resistance. Vulnerability to embolism, estimated by the pressure inducing 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (P 50), is strongly associated with drought stress resistance in trees. Yet, previous studies on various tree species reported low intraspecific genetic variation for this trait, and therefore limited adaptive capacities to increasing aridity. Here we quantified differences in hydraulic efficiency (xylem hydraulic conductance) and safety (resistance to embolism) in four contrasting provenances of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) in a provenance trial, which is indirect evidence for genetic differences. Results obtained with three techniques (bench dehydration, centrifugation and X-ray micro-CT) evidenced significant differentiation with similar ranking between provenances. Inter-provenance variation in P 50 correlated with pit anatomical properties (torus overlap and pit aperture size). These results suggest that adaptation of P. halepensis to xeric habitats has been accompanied by modifications of bordered pit function driven by variation in pit aperture. This study thus provides evidence that appropriate exploitation of provenance differences will allow continued forestry with P. halepensis in future climates of the Eastern Mediterranean. PMID:27313594

  7. Cluster analysis of Pinus taiwanensis for its ex situ conservation in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Shi, L; Wu, Z

    2015-01-01

    Pinus taiwanensis Hayata is one of the most famous sights in the Huangshan Scenic Resort, China, because of its strong adaptability and ability to survive; however, this endemic species is currently under threat in China. Relationships between different P. taiwanensis populations have been well-documented; however, few studies have been conducted on how to protect this rare pine. In the present study, we propose the ex situ conservation of this species using geographical information system (GIS) cluster and genetic diversity analyses. The GIS cluster method was conducted as a preliminary analysis for establishing a sampling site category based on climatic factors. Genetic diversity was analyzed using morphological and genetic traits. By combining geographical information with genetic data, we demonstrate that growing conditions, morphological traits, and the genetic make-up of the population in the Huangshan Scenic Resort were most similar to conditions on Tianmu Mountain. Therefore, we suggest that Tianmu Mountain is the best choice for the ex situ conservation of P. taiwanensis. Our results provide a molecular basis for the sustainable management, utilization, and conservation of this species in Huangshan Scenic Resort.

  8. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.; Helms, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment.

  9. [Effects of stand structure regulation on soil labile organic carbon in Pinus elliottii plantation].

    PubMed

    Tan, Gui-Xia; Liu, Yuan-Qiu; Li, Lian-Lian; Liu, Wu; Zan, Yu-Ting; Huo, Bing-Nan; He, Mu-Jiao

    2014-05-01

    Taking 21-year-old Pinus elliottii pure plantation as the control, effects of enrichment planting with broadleaf trees (Liquidambar fornosana) after thinning the conifer trees (P. elliottii) on soil labile organic carbon of different plantations, including 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old P. elliottii and 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantations, were investigated. The results showed that the contents of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) significantly increased in the 6-year-old and 9-year-old plantations compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. Soil labile organic carbon contents in the 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantation increased significantly than those in 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old stands, and the DOC, ROC and MBC contents increased by 113.1%, 53.3% and 54.6%, respectively, compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. The results suggested that replanting with broadleaf trees are an effective measure to improve the soil ecological function in pure P. elliottii plantation.

  10. Seasonal water stress and the resistance of Pinus yunnanensis to a bark-beetle-associated fungus.

    PubMed

    Salle, Aurelien; Ye, Hui; Yart, Annie; Lieutier, François

    2008-05-01

    We examined the influence of seasonal water stress on the resistance of Pinus yunnanensis (Franch.) to inoculation with Leptographium yunnanense, a pathogenic fungus associated with the aggressive bark beetle, Tomicus n. sp. Experiments took place between October 1997 and November 1999 in two plots located at the top and at the foot of a hill in Shaogiu, China, a region characterized by dry winters and wet summers. Following isolated and mass fungal inoculations, we observed the reaction zone length, fungal growth in the phloem, and the occlusion, blue-staining and specific hydraulic conductivity of the sapwood. Measurements of soil and needle water contents and predawn needle water potentials confirmed that trees were subject to mild water stress during winter, especially at the drier hilltop site. Measures of tree resistance to fungal infection of phloem and sapwood were congruent and indicated that trees were most susceptible to inoculation during the wet summer, especially at the lower-elevation plot. Specific hydraulic conductivity decreased after inoculation in summer. The results indicate that mild seasonal water stress is not likely responsible for the recent extensive damage to young P. yunnanensis stands by Tomicus n. sp. in the vicinity of our study plots. Rather, the results suggest that mild water stress enhances tree resistance to fungal pathogens associated with Tomicus n. sp.

  11. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions.

  12. Phytoremediation of cadmium and zinc by Populus deltoids and Pinus tada

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.; Houpis, J.; Johnson, K.; Schulz, K.; Smith, M.; Paul, G.

    1998-12-31

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to uptake contaminants and thereby lower soil contamination, is an emerging alternative to the costly and often impractical conventional methods of soil remediation. There has been limited research in using trees for metal extraction, despite their high potential for remediating contaminated soils. The authors investigated the cadmium phytoextraction capability of Pinus taeda. Cadmium uptake was investigated using a randomized design with four replicates of each treatment. Seeds were germinated, grown for 60 days and treated with cadmium at 4 mg/L [supplied as cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate (Cd-(NO{sub 3})2x4H{sub 2}O)] or with potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) as a control. Seedlings were harvested at either seven or seventeen days. Metal analysis of plant tissues was conducted by atomic absorption spectroscopy following acid digestion. A phytoextraction coefficient was determined and data were analyzed using analysis of variance. P. taeda seedlings treated with cadmium contained significantly higher Cd tissue levels than control seedlings. Cd tissue levels did not differ significantly between seedlings harvested seven days and seedlings harvested seventeen days after treatment. Cd levels also differed significantly between all plant organs (leaves, stems and roots).

  13. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  14. Regional patterns of genetic diversity in Pinus flexilis (Pinaceae) reveal complex species history.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Stacy; Hamrick, J L; Wells, P V

    2002-05-01

    Pinus flexilis (limber pine) is patchily distributed within its large geographic range; it is mainly restricted to high elevations in the Rocky Mountains and the Basin and Range region of western North America. We examined patterns of allozyme diversity in 30 populations from throughout the species' range. Overall genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.186) was high compared with that of most other pine species but was similar to that of other pines widespread in western North America. The proportion of genetic diversity occurring among populations (G(ST) = 0.101) was also high relative to that for other pines. Observed heterozygosity was less than expected in 28 of the 30 populations. When populations were grouped by region, there were notable differences. Those in the Basin and Range region had more genetic diversity within populations, a higher proportion of genetic diversity among populations, and higher levels of inbreeding within populations than populations from either the Northern or Utah Rocky Mountain regions. Patterns of genetic diversity in P. flexilis have likely resulted from a complex distribution of Pleistocene populations and subsequent gene flow via pollen and seed dispersal. PMID:21665679

  15. Effects of ammonium and aluminium on the development and nutrition of Pinus nigra in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Boxman, A W; Krabbendam, H; Bellemakers, M J; Roelofs, J G

    1991-01-01

    Application of ammonium and aluminium to young Pinus nigra var. maritima (Ait.) Melville trees resulted in a variety of negative effects. Excess ammonium led to an increase in shoot/root ratio. The biomass of the fine roots declined, resulting in an increase of the coarse/fine root ratio. The degree of mycorrhizal infection of the roots decreased. The nitrogen content of the trees increased considerably, whereas particularly the levels of calcium magnesium, manganese and zinc decreased sharply. Excess aluminium resulted in a simultaneous reduction of root and shoot biomass, a decline of the fine root system, an increase in the coarse/fine root ratio and a decrease in the degree of mycorrhizal infection. Uptake of the divalent cations calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc was restricted substantially, The nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the trees were hardly affected, whilst the potassium content of the shoot increased and of the roots decreased. This implicates that a deteriorating fine root system has to supply water and nutrients to a more demanding shoot. In the long term, high ammonium inputs and aluminium dissolution in forest ecosystems will lead to substantial nutrient deficiencies, just as has been found in the field. PMID:15092085

  16. Modeling the response of mature Pinus ponderosa Laws. to tropospheric ozone: Effects of genotypic variability

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. ); Weinstein, D.A.; Laurence, J.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Regionally distributed pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone and CO[sub 2]) can influence the growth of terrestrial plants. The mosaic of genotypes in natural populations makes it difficult to predict the ecological consequences of pollutants throughout a species' distribution. We simulated the response of Pinus ponderosa Laws to ambient, sub-ambient and above-ambient troposopheric O[sub 3] for 3 years using TREGRO, a physiologically based three growth model. Parameters controlling growth and carbon allocation were obtained from the literature and were varied to simulate intravarietal and intervarietal genotypes (western var. Ponderosa and eastern var. Scopulorum) of Ponderosa Pine. Parameter differences between the varieties include physiology, carbon allocation and phenoloy. Ozone altered 3 year biomass gain (+6% to 61%) and fine root to leaf mass ratio ([minus]8% to [minus]14%) in spite of a small effect on photosynthesis ([<=] 10%). Overall, O[sub 3] caused growth differences between varieties to be reduced. The reduction in growth differences between genotypes due to ozone has consequences for regional identification of populations sensitive to the effects of tropospheric ozone.

  17. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:27579344

  18. Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers and enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M A; Savage, T J; Croteau, R

    1999-12-01

    The turpentine fraction of conifer oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene olefins and plays important roles in defense and in the mediation of chemical communication between conifer hosts and insect predators. The stereochemistry of the turpentine monoterpenes is critical in these interactions, influencing host recognition, toxicity, and potency of derived pheromones, and the stereochemical composition of these compounds lends insight into their biogenetic origin, with implications for the numbers and types of enzymes responsible and their corresponding genes. Analysis of the oleoresin from several tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) showed the derived turpentine to consist mainly of (+)-(3R:5R)-alpha-pinene and (-)-(3S:5S)-beta-pinene. Cell-free extracts from xylem tissue yielded three monoterpene synthases which together account for the monoterpene isomer and enantiomer content of the turpentine of this tissue. The major products of these enzymes, produced from the universal precursor of monoterpenes, geranyl diphosphate, were shown to be (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, respectively. In most properties (molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa, K(m) for geranyl diphosphate of 3 microM, requirement for monovalent and divalent cations), these enzymes resemble other monoterpene synthases from conifer species.

  19. Migration and Attacking Ability of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii Stem Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Son, Joung A; Jung, Chan Sik; Han, Hye Rim

    2016-08-01

    To understand how Bursaphelenchus xylophilus kills pine trees, the differences between the effects of B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus on pine trees are usually compared. In this study, the migration and attacking ability of a non-pathogenic B. mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii were investigated. The distribution of B. mucronatus and the number of dead epithelial cells resulting from inoculation were compared with those of the pathogenic B. xylophilus. Although B. mucronatus is non-pathogenic in pines, its distribution pattern in P. thunbergii was the same as that of B. xylophilus. We therefore concluded that the non-pathogenicity of B. mucronatus could not be attributed to its migration ability. The sparse and sporadic attacking pattern of B. mucronatus was also the same as that of B. xylophilus. However, the number and area of the dead epithelial cells in pine cuttings inoculated with B. mucronatus were smaller than in those cuttings inoculated with B. xylophilus, meaning that the attacking ability of B. mucronatus is weaker than that of B. xylophilus. Therefore, we concluded that the weaker attacking ability of B. mucronatus might be the factor responsible for the non-pathogenicity. PMID:27493609

  20. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world's coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  1. [Responses of Pinus koraiensis tree ring cell scale parameters to climate elements in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Shao, Xue-mei; Fang, Xiu-qi; Yin, Zhi-yong; Chen, Li; Zhao, Dong-sheng; Wu, Shao-hong

    2011-10-01

    Based on the tree ring samples of Pinus koraiensis collected from the low altitude areas of Changbai Mountains, seven standard chronologies for tree ring width and cell scale parameters were constructed. Parts of the chronologies were chosen for the correlation analysis with the climate elements in 1959-2007 at Donggang meteorological station, and the changes of the correlations between tree ring indices and climate elements before and after 1988 in which the climate changed abruptly were discussed. In the seven standard chronologies constructed, cell number had the best correlation with tree ring width. Both precipitation and air temperature were the limiting factors for the growth of P. koraiensis, but the chronologies had better correlation with precipitation than with air temperature, mainly manifested in the significant correlation between the chronologies and the precipitation in previous September and current May and June. Comparing with tree ring width, cell size could reveal more climatic information, mainly manifested in the positive correlation between the chronologies and the air temperature in March and the precipitation in May, and the negative correlation between the chronologies and the air temperature in May. After the abrupt change of air temperature in 1988, the responses of cell size to climate elements had some changes, mainly manifested in the decreasing sensitivity to monthly climate elements and the earlier response time.

  2. Purification and characterization of the 7S vicilin from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis).

    PubMed

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Chen, Yu-Wei; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2008-09-10

    Pine nuts are economically important as a source of human food. They are also of medical importance because numerous pine nut allergy cases have been recently reported. However, little is known about the proteins in pine nuts. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize pine nut storage proteins. Reported here is the first detailed purification protocol of the 7S vicilin-type globulin from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by gel filtration, anion exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Reducing SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that purified vicilin consists of four major bands, reminiscent of post-translational protease cleavage of storage proteins during protein body packing in other species. The N-terminal ends of vicilin peptides were sequenced by Edman degradation. Circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that pine nut vicilin is stable up to 80 degrees C and its folding-unfolding equilibrium monitored by intrinsic fluorescence can be interpreted in terms of a two-state model.

  3. Phylogenetic Relationships and Species Delimitation in Pinus Section Trifoliae Inferrred from Plastid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-León, Sergio; Gernandt, David S.; Pérez de la Rosa, Jorge A.; Jardón-Barbolla, Lev

    2013-01-01

    Recent diversification followed by secondary contact and hybridization may explain complex patterns of intra- and interspecific morphological and genetic variation in the North American hard pines (Pinus section Trifoliae), a group of approximately 49 tree species distributed in North and Central America and the Caribbean islands. We concatenated five plastid DNA markers for an average of 3.9 individuals per putative species and assessed the suitability of the five regions as DNA bar codes for species identification, species delimitation, and phylogenetic reconstruction. The ycf1 gene accounted for the greatest proportion of the alignment (46.9%), the greatest proportion of variable sites (74.9%), and the most unique sequences (75 haplotypes). Phylogenetic analysis recovered clades corresponding to subsections Australes, Contortae, and Ponderosae. Sequences for 23 of the 49 species were monophyletic and sequences for another 9 species were paraphyletic. Morphologically similar species within subsections usually grouped together, but there were exceptions consistent with incomplete lineage sorting or introgression. Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated that all three subsections diversified relatively recently during the Miocene. The general mixed Yule-coalescent method gave a mixed model estimate of only 22 or 23 evolutionary entities for the plastid sequences, which corresponds to less than half the 49 species recognized based on morphological species assignments. Including more unique haplotypes per species may result in higher estimates, but low mutation rates, recent diversification, and large effective population sizes may limit the effectiveness of this method to detect evolutionary entities. PMID:23936218

  4. "Pine mouth" syndrome: cacogeusia following ingestion of pine nuts (genus: pinus). An emerging problem?

    PubMed

    Munk, Marc-David

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of cacogeusia, specifically metallogeusia (a perceived metallic or bitter taste) following pine nut ingestion. A 36-year-old male presented with cacogeusia one day following ingestion of 10-15 roasted pine nuts (genus: Pinus). Symptoms became worst on post-exposure day 2 and progressively improved without treatment over 5 days. There were no other symptoms and physical examination was unrevealing. All symptoms resolved without sequalae. We contemporaneously report a rise in pine nut-associated cacogeusia reported online during the first quarter of 2009, and a significant rise in online searches related to pine nut-associated cacogeusia (or what the online public has termed "pine mouth") during this time. Most online contributors note a similar cacogeusia 1-3 days following pine nut ingestion lasting for up to 2 weeks. All cases seem self-limited. Patients occasionally describe abdominal cramping and nausea after eating the nuts. Raw, cooked, and processed nuts (in pesto, for example) are implicated. While there appears to be an association between pine nut ingestion and cacogeusia, little is known about this condition, nor can any specific mechanism of specific cause be identified. It is not known if a specific species of pine nut can be implicated. "Pine mouth" appears to be an emerging problem.

  5. Epigenetic Variability in the Genetically Uniform Forest Tree Species Pinus pinea L

    PubMed Central

    Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Guevara, María-Ángeles; Díaz, Luis-Manuel; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Collada, Carmen; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of epigenetic variability in forest species and how it may contribute to their rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this study we have conducted a genome-wide analysis of cytosine methylation pattern in Pinus pinea, a species characterized by very low levels of genetic variation and a remarkable degree of phenotypic plasticity. DNA methylation profiles of different vegetatively propagated trees from representative natural Spanish populations of P. pinea were analyzed with the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. A high degree of cytosine methylation was detected (64.36% of all scored DNA fragments). Furthermore, high levels of epigenetic variation were observed among the studied individuals. This high epigenetic variation found in P. pinea contrasted with the lack of genetic variation based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. In this manner, variable epigenetic markers clearly discriminate individuals and differentiates two well represented populations while the lack of genetic variation revealed with the AFLP markers fail to differentiate at both, individual or population levels. In addition, the use of different replicated trees allowed identifying common polymorphic methylation sensitive MSAP markers among replicates of a given propagated tree. This set of MSAPs allowed discrimination of the 70% of the analyzed trees. PMID:25084460

  6. Epigenetic variability in the genetically uniform forest tree species Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Guevara, María-Ángeles; Díaz, Luis-Manuel; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Collada, Carmen; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of epigenetic variability in forest species and how it may contribute to their rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this study we have conducted a genome-wide analysis of cytosine methylation pattern in Pinus pinea, a species characterized by very low levels of genetic variation and a remarkable degree of phenotypic plasticity. DNA methylation profiles of different vegetatively propagated trees from representative natural Spanish populations of P. pinea were analyzed with the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. A high degree of cytosine methylation was detected (64.36% of all scored DNA fragments). Furthermore, high levels of epigenetic variation were observed among the studied individuals. This high epigenetic variation found in P. pinea contrasted with the lack of genetic variation based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. In this manner, variable epigenetic markers clearly discriminate individuals and differentiates two well represented populations while the lack of genetic variation revealed with the AFLP markers fail to differentiate at both, individual or population levels. In addition, the use of different replicated trees allowed identifying common polymorphic methylation sensitive MSAP markers among replicates of a given propagated tree. This set of MSAPs allowed discrimination of the 70% of the analyzed trees.

  7. Migration and Attacking Ability of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Son, Joung A; Jung, Chan Sik; Han, Hye Rim

    2016-01-01

    To understand how Bursaphelenchus xylophilus kills pine trees, the differences between the effects of B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus on pine trees are usually compared. In this study, the migration and attacking ability of a non-pathogenic B. mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii were investigated. The distribution of B. mucronatus and the number of dead epithelial cells resulting from inoculation were compared with those of the pathogenic B. xylophilus. Although B. mucronatus is non-pathogenic in pines, its distribution pattern in P. thunbergii was the same as that of B. xylophilus. We therefore concluded that the non-pathogenicity of B. mucronatus could not be attributed to its migration ability. The sparse and sporadic attacking pattern of B. mucronatus was also the same as that of B. xylophilus. However, the number and area of the dead epithelial cells in pine cuttings inoculated with B. mucronatus were smaller than in those cuttings inoculated with B. xylophilus, meaning that the attacking ability of B. mucronatus is weaker than that of B. xylophilus. Therefore, we concluded that the weaker attacking ability of B. mucronatus might be the factor responsible for the non-pathogenicity. PMID:27493609

  8. Genetic variation in Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana. (Lamb.) Holmboe.) populations in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Süleyman; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nebi Bilir

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out in a progeny trial established by ten population of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe.] to estimate genetic variation, heritability, genetic gain and also genetic and phenotypic correlations among the characters based on 9th year results of tree height and branch characters in the trial. Average tree height was 112.7 cm in polled population, while average of branch characters were generally similar. The results of ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (0.05>p) among the population for characters. Family x population interaction was also found statistically significant. Variation among family was lower than that of within families for the characters. Family mean heritability (0.65 < h(f)²) was higher than individual heritability (0.42 < h(i)²) for the characters. Genetic variation among population showed low ratio in total variation, while it was very high among and within the families. It emphasized importance of individual selection in breeding programme. Phenotypic correlation was statistically significant between tree height and branch diameter only. It was also highest in genotypic correlation (r = 0.81).

  9. Indirect Evidence for Genetic Differentiation in Vulnerability to Embolism in Pinus halepensis

    PubMed Central

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paudel, Indira; Mizrachi, Maayan; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervé; Lukyanov, Victor; Badel, Eric; Capdeville, Gaelle; Shklar, Galina; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasing mean temperatures and in the eastern Mediterranean is expected to decrease annual precipitation. The resulting increase in aridity may be too rapid for adaptation of tree species unless their gene pool already possesses variation in drought resistance. Vulnerability to embolism, estimated by the pressure inducing 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (P50), is strongly associated with drought stress resistance in trees. Yet, previous studies on various tree species reported low intraspecific genetic variation for this trait, and therefore limited adaptive capacities to increasing aridity. Here we quantified differences in hydraulic efficiency (xylem hydraulic conductance) and safety (resistance to embolism) in four contrasting provenances of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) in a provenance trial, which is indirect evidence for genetic differences. Results obtained with three techniques (bench dehydration, centrifugation and X-ray micro-CT) evidenced significant differentiation with similar ranking between provenances. Inter-provenance variation in P50 correlated with pit anatomical properties (torus overlap and pit aperture size). These results suggest that adaptation of P. halepensis to xeric habitats has been accompanied by modifications of bordered pit function driven by variation in pit aperture. This study thus provides evidence that appropriate exploitation of provenance differences will allow continued forestry with P. halepensis in future climates of the Eastern Mediterranean. PMID:27313594

  10. Biogenic emissions from Pinus halepensis: a typical species of the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, V.; Dumergues, L.; Solignac, G.; Torres, L.

    2005-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions by vegetation present in the Mediterranean area are not well known. They may contribute with anthropogenic VOC emissions to the tropospheric ozone formation that reaches important level in the European Mediterranean region. The present work, carried out as part of the European ESCOMPTE project «fiEld experimentS to COnstrain Models of atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions», adds a new contribution to the inventory of the main natural hydrocarbons sources likely to participate in the ozone production. The corresponding measurement campaign was conducted in La Barben, a site close to Marseilles (France), with the aim to quantify the terpenic emission pattern and the behaviour of Pinus halepensis, an important Mediterranean species slightly studied. The determination of biogenic emissions from P. halepensis was done by the enclosure of an intact branch in a Teflon cuvette. Main emitted monoterpenes were β trans-ocimene and linalool. The total monoterpenic emission rates thus recorded were found to reach maximum values around 30 μg g dry weight-1 h -1. The normalized emission rates calculated at 30 °C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 with Guenther's algorithm was 14.76, 8.65 and 4.05 μg g dry weight-1 h -1, respectively, for the total monoterpenes, β trans-ocimene and linalool.

  11. PAH detection in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles: A fast method for biomonitoring purpose.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Concha Graña, E; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J Á; López Mahía, P; Prada Rodríguez, D; Muniategui Lorenzo, S

    2016-06-01

    Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of plant matrices, new procedure should be standardized for each single biomonitor. Thus, here is described a matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction method, previously used for moss samples, improved and modified for the analyses of PAHs in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles, species widely used in biomonitoring studies across Europe. The improvements compared to the previous procedure are the use of Florisil added with further clean-up sorbents, 10% deactivated silica for pine needles and PSA for oak leaves, being these matrices rich in interfering compounds, as shown by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses acquired in full scan mode. Good trueness, with values in the range 90-120% for the most of compounds, high precision (intermediate precision between 2% and 12%) and good sensitivity using only 250mg of samples (limits of quantification lower than 3 and 1.5ngg(-1), respectively for pine and oak) were achieved by the selected procedures. These methods proved to be reliable for PAH analyses and, having advantage of fastness, can be used in biomonitoring studies of PAH air contamination. PMID:27130099

  12. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6-34.9%; twigs: 11.0-24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1-27.7; twigs: 29.0-49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0-16.1; twigs: 6.9-20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:27579344

  13. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations. PMID:27051433

  14. Multi-site modulation of flux during monolignol formation in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anterola, A. M.; van Rensburg, H.; van Heerden, P. S.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    1999-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) cell suspension cultures secrete monolignols when placed in 8% sucrose/20 mM KI solution, and these were used to identify phenylpropanoid pathway flux-modulating steps. When cells were provided with increasing amounts of either phenylalanine (Phe) or cinnamic acid, cellular concentrations of immediate downstream products (cinnamic and p-coumaric acids, respectively) increased, whereas caffeic and ferulic acid pool sizes were essentially unaffected. Increasing Phe concentrations resulted in increased amounts of p-coumaryl alcohol relative to coniferyl alcohol. However, exogenously supplied cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids resulted only in increases in their intercellular concentrations, but not that of downstream cinnamyl aldehydes and monolignols. Supplying p-coumaryl and coniferyl aldehydes up to 40, 000-320,000-fold above the detection limits resulted in rapid, quantitative conversion into the monolignols. Only at nonphysiological concentrations was transient accumulation of intracellular aldehydes observed. These results indicate that cinnamic and p-coumaric acid hydroxylations assume important regulatory positions in phenylpropanoid metabolism, whereas cinnamyl aldehyde reduction does not serve as a control point. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard B; Vitetta, Luis; Rooy, Cindy Van; Harris, Elizabeth V; Young, Joanna M; Frampton, Christopher M; Sali, Avni; Nastasi, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Dietary interventions may have the potential to counter age-related cognitive decline. Studies have demonstrated an improvement in age-related cognitive impairment in animals after supplementation with plant extracts containing flavonoids but there are few human studies. This double-blind, controlled study examined the effects on cognitive performance of a 5 week supplementation with Enzogenol Pinus radiata bark extract containing flavonoids, in 42 males aged 50-65 years, with a body mass index >25. Participants were supplemented for 5 weeks either with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, or with vitamin C only. A battery of computerized cognitive tests was administered, and cardiovascular and haematological parameters were assessed prior to and following supplementation. The speed of response for the spatial working memory and immediate recognition tasks improved after supplementation with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, whereas vitamin C alone showed no improvements. A trend in a reduction of systolic blood pressure was observed with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, but not with vitamin C alone. The blood safety parameters were unchanged. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of supplementation with Enzogenol on cognition in older individuals. Larger studies are needed to ascertain its potential as a preventive treatment for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:18683195

  16. Effective gene dispersal and female reproductive success in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, Santiago C; Burczyk, Jaroslaw; Nathan, Ran; Nanos, Nikos; Gil, Luis; Alía, Ricardo

    2006-12-01

    Understanding population-scale processes that affect allele frequency changes across generations is a long-standing interest in genetic, ecological and evolutionary research. In particular, individual differences in female reproductive success and the spatial scale of gene flow considerably affect evolutionary change and patterns of local selection. In this study, a recently developed maximum-likelihood (ML) method based on established offspring, the Seedling Neighbourhood Model, was applied and exponentially shaped dispersal kernels were fitted to both genetic and ecological data in a widespread Mediterranean pine, Pinus pinaster Aiton. The distribution of female reproductive success in P. pinaster was very skewed (about 10% of trees mothered 50% of offspring) and significant positive female selection gradients for diameter (gamma = 0.7293) and cone crop (gamma = 0.4524) were found. The selective advantage of offspring mothered by bigger trees could be due to better-quality seeds. These seeds may show more resilience to severe summer droughts and microsite variation related to water and nutrient availability. Both approaches, ecological and of parentage, consistently showed a long-distance dispersal component in saplings that was not found in dispersal kernels based on seed shadows, highlighting the importance of Janzen-Connell effects and microenvironmental variation for survival at early stages of establishment in this Mediterranean key forest tree. PMID:17107484

  17. Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus halepensis growing in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Tomi, Félix; Gibernau, Marc; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2016-04-01

    The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno, and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS and (13)C-NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77 - 100% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene, myrcene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene were the major component followed by α-humulene and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. 47 Oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M = 28.1 g/100 g; SD = 10.6) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 19.0 g/100 g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 28.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.9), α-pinene (M = 12.3 g/100 g; SD = 3.6), and myrcene (M = 11.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule.

  18. Allometry and biomass of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) in central Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Y; Hwang, J W; Kim, Z S; Lee, W K; Kim, J S

    2001-07-01

    Aboveground tree biomass of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) was determined for a natural forest of Korean pine and mixed deciduous trees and seven age classes of plantation forests in central Korea. Regression analyses of the dry weights of stem wood, stem bark, branches, and needles versus diameter at breast height were used to calculate regression equations of the form of log Y = a + b log X. Biomass of Korean pine in the mixed forest was 118 Mg ha(-1), and biomass in the plantations was linearly related to stand age, ranging from 52.3 Mg ha(-1) in 11 to 20-year-old stands to 317.9 Mg ha(-1) in 71 to 80-year-old stands. The proportions of stem wood and stem bark in the total aboveground biomass decreased with stand age while those of branch and needle increased. Specific leaf area of Korean pine ranging from 35.2 to 52.1 cm2 g(-1) was significantly different among crown positions and needle ages; in general, lower crown position and current needles had the greatest surface area per unit dry weight.

  19. Biochemical modifications in Pinus pinaster Ait. as a result of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, Rosaria; Vanella, Luca; Sorrenti, Valeria; Santangelo, Rosa; Iauk, Liliana; Russo, Alessandra; Savoca, Francesca; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Di Giacomo, Claudia

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to chemical pollution can cause significant damage to plants by imposing conditions of oxidative stress. Plants combat oxidative stress by inducing antioxidant metabolites, enzymatic scavengers of activated oxygen and heat shock proteins. The accumulation of these proteins, in particular heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase, is correlated with the acquisition of thermal and chemical adaptations and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we used Pinus pinaster Ait. collected in the areas of Priolo and Aci Castello representing sites with elevated pollution and reference conditions, respectively. The presence of heavy metals and the levels of markers of oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxide levels, thiol groups, superoxide dismutase activity and expression of heat shock protein 70, heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase) were evaluated, and we measured in field-collected needles the response to environmental pollution. P. pinaster Ait. collected from a site characterized by industrial pollution including heavy metals had elevated stress response as indicated by significantly elevated lipid hydroperoxide levels and decreased thiol groups. In particular, we observed that following a chronic chemical exposure, P. pinaster Ait. showed significantly increased expression of heat shock protein 70, heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase. This increased expression may have protective effects against oxidative stress and represents an adaptative cellular defence mechanism. These results suggest that evaluation of heme oxygenase, heat shock protein 70 and superoxide dismutase expression in P. pinaster Ait. could represent a useful tool for monitoring environmental contamination of a region and to better understand mechanisms involved in plant defence and stress tolerance.

  20. Necrotic bark of common pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a bioindicator of environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chrzan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pH and the concentration of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in aqueous extracts of necrotic bark Pinus sylvestris L. and in adjacent soil, located in two types of forest habitat in different parts in the Niepołomice Forest in southern Poland. The Niepołomice Forest is located about 35 km east of an urban-industrial agglomeration Kraków. Despite the lack of significant differences in pine bark reaction studied, there was a clear difference in contamination of both bark and soil with heavy metals. There was a correlation between the distribution of pollutants in the forest, and the direction of the prevailing winds. More heavy metals were accumulated in the pine bark and soil from the west than the east. The high content of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in the soils most likely results from the inflow of gas and dust pollutants from the urban-industrial agglomeration of Kraków. PMID:25106515

  1. Temporal dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and xylem growth in Pinus sylvestris exposed to drought

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, Walter; Swidrak, Irene; Pirkebner, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Wood formation requires a continuous supply of carbohydrates for structural growth and metabolism. In the montane belt of the central Austrian Alps we monitored the temporal dynamics of xylem growth and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in stem sapwood of Pinus sylvestris L. during the growing season 2009, which was characterized by exceptional soil dryness within the study area. Soil water content dropped below 10 % at the time of maximum xylem growth end of May. Histological analyses have been used to describe cambial activity and xylem growth. Determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays revealing that total NSC ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 % dry matter throughout the year. Significant variations (P < 0.05) of the size of the NSC pool were observed during the growing season. Starch showed persistent abundance throughout the year reaching a maximum shortly before onset of late wood formation in mid-July. Seasonal dynamics of NSC and xylem growth suggest that (i) high sink activity occurred at start of the growing season in spring and during late wood formation in summer and (ii) there was no particular shortage in NSC, which caused P. sylvestris to draw upon stem reserves more heavily during drought in 2009. PMID:22003262

  2. No evidence for depletion of carbohydrate pools in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, A.; Pirkebner, D.; Florian, C.; Oberhuber, W.

    2012-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner Alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner Alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during the year 2009, which was characterized by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to c. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations were rising in all tissues (branch, stem, root) till end of July, except in needles where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site. At the dry-mesic site NSC concentrations in the above ground tree biomass were significantly higher during the period of radial growth. An accumulation of NSC in roots at the end of July indicates a change in carbon allocation after an early cessation in above ground growth, possibly due to elevated below ground carbon demand. In conclusion our results revealed that extensive soil dryness during the growing season did not lead to carbon depletion. However, even though C-reserves were not exhausted, a sequestration of carbohydrate pools during drought periods might lead to deficits in carbon supply that weaken tree vigour and drive tree mortality. PMID:21974742

  3. [Soil carbon cycle of Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Kang, Bowen; Liu, Jianjun; Dang, Kunliang; Chen, Haibin

    2006-05-01

    With soil carbon cycle compartment model,this paper studied the carbon storage and flux of each carbon compartment of soil under Pinus tabulaeformis, a main forest type in the Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountain. The results showed that the storage of soil organic carbon was 146.071 t x hm(-2), with 130.366 t x hm(-2) in mineral soil layer and 12.626 t x hm(-2) in litter layer. The storage was lower than the average value of forest soils in China and of oak Sharptooth forest soil in Huoditang, but higher than that of the soils under temperate coniferous forest and tropical forest. The annual carbon input into litter layer was 5.939 t x hm(-2), with 56.9% from above-ground litter and 43.1% from underground dead roots, while that into mineral soil layer via humic acid was 2. 034 t x hm(-2). The annual amount of carbon released from the respiration of P. zabulaeformis forest-soil system was 14. 012 t x hm(-2), with litter layer, mineral soil layer, dead root system, and live root system occupied 15.7%, 14.5%, 11.7% and 58.1%, respectively.

  4. Maturation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings after exposure to a period of continuous light.

    PubMed

    Lascoux, D M; Notivol Paino, E; Sierra De Grado, R; Kremer, A; Dormling, I

    1993-06-01

    Nine half-sib families of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) of known adult performance were grown in continuous light at either 25 degrees C or 25/20 degrees C for 18 weeks. They were then exposed to a dormancy induction period followed by a dormancy release period and then grown for a further 9 weeks in a 16-h photoperiod at a day/night temperature of 25/20 degrees C. Seedlings exhibited great diversity in morphology at the end of the first growth period. The number of morphogenetic cycles varied between one and three and the form of the apical meristem ranged from a typical rosette to an adult-like bud. The type of seedling obtained at the end of the first growth period strongly influenced later growth, independently of the temperature regime. Maturity was proportional to the number of morphogenetic cycles achieved during the first growth period and was characterized by short growth duration, small primary needles and a high degree of fixed growth. The state of the apical meristem that underwent the dormancy period had less influence on the rate of maturation than the number of morphogenetic cycles. The time course of maturation was endogenously controlled and varied among traits. Conspicuous morphological differences were not associated with changes in the relationship between growth components at the phenotypic level. However, there seemed to be a shift in the genetic correlations between growth components after first budset.

  5. Effective gene dispersal and female reproductive success in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, Santiago C; Burczyk, Jaroslaw; Nathan, Ran; Nanos, Nikos; Gil, Luis; Alía, Ricardo

    2006-12-01

    Understanding population-scale processes that affect allele frequency changes across generations is a long-standing interest in genetic, ecological and evolutionary research. In particular, individual differences in female reproductive success and the spatial scale of gene flow considerably affect evolutionary change and patterns of local selection. In this study, a recently developed maximum-likelihood (ML) method based on established offspring, the Seedling Neighbourhood Model, was applied and exponentially shaped dispersal kernels were fitted to both genetic and ecological data in a widespread Mediterranean pine, Pinus pinaster Aiton. The distribution of female reproductive success in P. pinaster was very skewed (about 10% of trees mothered 50% of offspring) and significant positive female selection gradients for diameter (gamma = 0.7293) and cone crop (gamma = 0.4524) were found. The selective advantage of offspring mothered by bigger trees could be due to better-quality seeds. These seeds may show more resilience to severe summer droughts and microsite variation related to water and nutrient availability. Both approaches, ecological and of parentage, consistently showed a long-distance dispersal component in saplings that was not found in dispersal kernels based on seed shadows, highlighting the importance of Janzen-Connell effects and microenvironmental variation for survival at early stages of establishment in this Mediterranean key forest tree.

  6. Identification of genes differentially expressed in ectomycorrhizal roots during the Pinus pinaster-Laccaria bicolor interaction.

    PubMed

    Flores-Monterroso, Aranzazu; Canales, Javier; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal associations are of major ecological importance in temperate and boreal forests. The development of a functional ectomycorrhiza requires many genetic and biochemical changes. In this study, suppressive subtraction hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) inoculated with Laccaria bicolor, a mycorrhizal fungus. A total number of 200 unigenes were identified as being differentially regulated in maritime pine roots during the development of mycorrhiza. These unigenes were classified into 10 categories according to the function of their homologues in the GenBank database. Approximately, 40 % of the differentially expressed transcripts were genes that coded for unknown proteins in the databases or that had no homology to known genes. A group of these differentially expressed genes was selected to validate the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The transcript levels of the representative genes were compared between the non-inoculated and inoculated plants at 1, 5, 15 and 30 days after inoculation. The observed expression patterns indicate (1) changes in the composition of the wall cell, (2) tight regulation of defence genes during the development of mycorrhiza and (3) changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Ammonium excess or deficiency dramatically affected the stability of ectomycorrhiza and altered gene expression in maritime pine roots.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanosilver with antibacterial properties using Pinus densiflora young cone extract.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Jang, Jum-Suk; Lee, Kui-Jae; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Min; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-06-01

    This study describes an eco-friendly, rapid method for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate using Pinus densiflora for. multicaulis Uyeki young cone extract in a single-pot process. Color changes, ultraviolet-visible spectra (444.5 nm), X-ray diffraction peaks (2θ=39.68, 46.92, 68.12, and 79.10), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of Ag NPs and phytochemicals. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were mostly oval in shape, with a few triangular-shaped particles. Average particle size was 30-80 nm. Phytochemicals present in the young pine cone extract were likely responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions. The synthesized Ag NPs (40 μg) had a 7 mm larger zone of inhibition against the skin pathogen Brevibacterium linens than commercial Ag NPs, Propionibacterium acnes (14 mm), Bacillus cereus (9 mm) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (10mm). PMID:25846578

  8. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories. PMID:26997421

  9. Biomass expansion factor and root-to-shoot ratio for Pinus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanquetta, Carlos R; Corte, Ana Pd; da Silva, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The Biomass Expansion Factor (BEF) and the Root-to-Shoot Ratio (R) are variables used to quantify carbon stock in forests. They are often considered as constant or species/area specific values in most studies. This study aimed at showing tree size and age dependence upon BEF and R and proposed equations to improve forest biomass and carbon stock. Data from 70 sample Pinus spp. grown in southern Brazil trees in different diameter classes and ages were used to demonstrate the correlation between BEF and R, and forest inventory data, such as DBH, tree height and age. Total dry biomass, carbon stock and CO2 equivalent were simulated using the IPCC default values of BEF and R, corresponding average calculated from data used in this study, as well as the values estimated by regression equations. The mean values of BEF and R calculated in this study were 1.47 and 0.17, respectively. The relationship between BEF and R and the tree measurement variables were inversely related with negative exponential behavior. Simulations indicated that use of fixed values of BEF and R, either IPCC default or current average data, may lead to unreliable estimates of carbon stock inventories and CDM projects. It was concluded that accounting for the variations in BEF and R and using regression equations to relate them to DBH, tree height and age, is fundamental in obtaining reliable estimates of forest tree biomass, carbon sink and CO2 equivalent. PMID:21943243

  10. Realized gain and prediction of yield with genetically improved Pinus radiata in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Hayes, J.D. ); Garcia, O. . Centro de Investigacions Forestais de Lourizan)

    1999-05-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don seedlots of varying genetic quality were compared in block-plot genetic-gain trials at 10 locations representing most of the site types in New Zealand. Permanent sample plots were measured annually for growth from age 6--8 yr from planting to ages 15--17 (midrotation). Seedlots from first-generation open-pollinated seed orchards and a mix of crosses that all involved the top-performing parent were, respectively, on average 4.5 % and 5.3% taller and had 6% and 11% larger mean diameter, 12% and 30% more basal area, and 15% and 34% more stem volume than seedlots originating from mild mass selection in harvested stands (climbing select). The observed growth increases were quantified as changes in the rate of growth from that predicted by pre-existing growth models in order to account for tree size and stocking differences. Seedlots from first-generation seed orchards and crosses of the top clone, respectively, grew 5.1% and 4.5% faster in height, and functions for basal area and stocking changed 13% and 26.4% faster, respectively, than the baseline growth models, which were based on climbing select. This implies that increased basal area growth must be taken into account in order to obtain accurate prediction of gain in stem volume. The incorporation of these observed increases in growth rates into stand growth models as genetic-gain multipliers in order to extrapolate predictions of growth of genetically improved seedlots beyond the sites, silvicultures, and seedlots represented in the genetic gain trials is discussed.

  11. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill. in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Nicholas J; Renninger, Heidi J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2016-08-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots, one experiencing prescribed fire and one control (unburned) plot for comparison before and after the fire. We found that photosynthetic capacity in terms of Rubisco-limited carboxylation rate and intrinsic water-use efficiency was unaffected, while light compensation point and dark respiration rate were significantly lower in the burned vs control plots post-fire. Furthermore, quantum yield in pines in the pine-dominated stands was less affected than pines in the mixed oak/pine stand, as there was an increase in quantum yield in the oak/pine stand post-fire compared with the control (unburned) plot. We attribute this to an effect of forest type but not fire per se. Average daily sap-flux rates of the pine trees increased compared with control (unburned) plots in pine-dominated stands and decreased in the oak/pine stand compared with control (unburned) plots, potentially due to differences in fuel consumption and pre-fire sap-flux rates. Finally, when reference canopy stomatal conductance was analyzed, pines in the pine-dominated stands were more sensitive to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), while stomatal responses of pines in the oak/pine stand were less affected by VPD. Therefore, prescribed fire affects physiological functioning and water use of pines, but the effects may be modulated by forest stand type and fuel consumption pattern, which suggests that these factors may need to be taken into account for forest management in fire-dominated systems. PMID:27259637

  12. Molecular proxies for climate maladaptation in a long-lived tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Rodríguez-Quilón, Isabel; Grivet, Delphine; Lepoittevin, Camille; Sebastiani, Federico; Heuertz, Myriam; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2015-03-01

    Understanding adaptive genetic responses to climate change is a main challenge for preserving biological diversity. Successful predictive models for climate-driven range shifts of species depend on the integration of information on adaptation, including that derived from genomic studies. Long-lived forest trees can experience substantial environmental change across generations, which results in a much more prominent adaptation lag than in annual species. Here, we show that candidate-gene SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) can be used as predictors of maladaptation to climate in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an outcrossing long-lived keystone tree. A set of 18 SNPs potentially associated with climate, 5 of them involving amino acid-changing variants, were retained after performing logistic regression, latent factor mixed models, and Bayesian analyses of SNP-climate correlations. These relationships identified temperature as an important adaptive driver in maritime pine and highlighted that selective forces are operating differentially in geographically discrete gene pools. The frequency of the locally advantageous alleles at these selected loci was strongly correlated with survival in a common garden under extreme (hot and dry) climate conditions, which suggests that candidate-gene SNPs can be used to forecast the likely destiny of natural forest ecosystems under climate change scenarios. Differential levels of forest decline are anticipated for distinct maritime pine gene pools. Geographically defined molecular proxies for climate adaptation will thus critically enhance the predictive power of range-shift models and help establish mitigation measures for long-lived keystone forest trees in the face of impending climate change.

  13. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought

    PubMed Central

    OBERHUBER, Walter; GRUBER, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  14. Invasion of Pinus halepensis Mill. following a wildfire in an Argentine grassland nature reserve.

    PubMed

    Zalba, Sergio M; Cuevas, Yannina A; Boó, Roberto M

    2008-08-01

    The Ernesto Tornquist nature reserve is a relict of native Pampas vegetation in Argentina. Alien trees were introduced to the reserve in the 1950s, mainly to "improve" the natural landscape, resulting in the arrival of a totally new life form. In 1987, a fire affected an area planted with Pinus halepensis resulting in its massive expansion. In 1999, we removed trees from 17 circular plots of 10 m diameter placed systematically within the area that was colonized after the fire. Trunks were cut 20 cm from the ground and growth rings were counted. We studied the age structure of the population in order to reconstruct the colonizing events after the fire. We found that recruitment occurred throughout this period, except in the three years after the disturbance. We suggest that this delay in recruitment might be caused by low seedling survival under water stress conditions due to low rainfall, combined with scarce vegetation cover after fire. This could have been associated with an initial reduction in propagule pressure due to the scarcity of surviving trees in the vicinity and with the fact that fire occurred after the peak of seed release, during an extremely dry summer, probably killing a great number of seeds that were already in the soil. In the following years, recruitment was probably aided by pioneer trees and later by seeds shed from established pines. Alien trees had been allowed to reach maturity due to wildfire prevention and control in the years preceding the fire and the accumulated dry matter resulted in increased fire intensity that reduced the ability of grasses to re-sprout. As a consequence, the invasion window that allowed the expansion of pines remained open for at least 12 years. PMID:17467146

  15. Organ-specific metabolic responses to drought in Pinus pinaster Ait.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Marina; Guevara, M Ángeles; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de María, Nuria; Díaz, Luis Manuel; Mancha, Jose A; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Desai, Nalini; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Drought is an important driver of plant survival, growth, and distribution. Water deficit affects different pathways of metabolism, depending on plant organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the metabolic drought response of a single organ, analysis of metabolic differences between organs is essential to achieve an integrated understanding of the whole plant response. In this work, untargeted metabolic profiling was used to examine the response of roots, stems, adult and juvenile needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. full-sib individuals, subjected to a moderate and long lasting drought period. Cyclitols content showed a significant alteration, in response to drought in all organs examined, but other metabolites increased or decreased differentially depending on the analyzed organ. While a high number of flavonoids were only detected in aerial organs, an induction of the glutathione pathway was mainly detected in roots. This result may reflect different antioxidant mechanisms activated in aerial organs and roots. Metabolic changes were more remarkable in roots than in the other organs, highlighting its prominent role in the response to water stress. Significant changes in flavonoids and ascorbate metabolism were also observed between adult and juvenile needles, consistent with previously proven differential functional responses between the two developmental stages. Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes coding for a Myb1 transcription factor and a malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) were associated with different concentration of phenylalanine, phenylpropanoids and malate, respectively. The results obtained will support further research on metabolites and genes potentially involved in functional mechanisms related to drought tolerance in trees.

  16. Morphological variation of Pinus flexilis (Pinaceae), a bird-dispersed pine, across a range of elevations.

    PubMed

    Schoettle, A W; Rochelle, S G

    2000-12-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) grows across a wider range of elevations than any other tree species in the central Rockies, from ∼1600 m at Pawnee Buttes to >3300 m at Rollins Pass. In this study we investigated two possible explanations for limber pine's success across a broad range of elevations: (1) the sites on which it is found, although separated by >1000 m elevation, may not be very different with respect to environmental factors that affect tree growth, and (2) limber pine growth is insensitive to environmental factors that change with elevation. We compared site characteristics of 12 limber pine stands at elevations ranging from 1630 to 3328 m as well as the growth and morphology of trees in each of these stands. Mean daily air temperature in July decreased linearly with the elevation of the site from 22.8° to 12.6°C. The growth and morphology of limber pine leaves, shoots, and trees were, in general, not related to the elevation or July mean air temperature of the sites. There was, however, a significant decrease in stomatal density with increasing elevation, which may be an acclimational response to restrict water loss at high elevations. Our data suggest that the fundamental and realized niche of limber pine is broad with respect to air temperature. In light of the high gene flow and only slight genetic differentiation among populations of species with bird-dispersed seeds, such as limber pine, it is especially unusual to see similar growth throughout an environmental gradient. Physiological and anatomical plasticity or wide physiological tolerance ranges may enable limber pine to uncouple its growth from its environment.

  17. Effects of prescribed burning on ecophysiological, anatomical and stem hydraulic properties in Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; Savi, Tadeja; Ascoli, Davide; Castagneri, Daniele; Esposito, Assunta; Mayr, Stefan; Nardini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Prescribed burning (PB) is a widespread management technique for wildfire hazard abatement. Understanding PB effects on tree ecophysiology is key to defining burn prescriptions aimed at reducing fire hazard in Mediterranean pine plantations, such as Pinus pinea L. stands. We assessed physiological responses of adult P. pinea trees to PB using a combination of dendroecological, anatomical, hydraulic and isotopic analyses. Tree-ring widths, xylem cell wall thickness, lumen area, hydraulic diameter and tree-ring δ(13)C and δ(18)O were measured in trees on burned and control sites. Vulnerability curves were elaborated to assess tree hydraulic efficiency or safety. Despite the relatively intense thermal treatment (the residence time of temperatures above 50 °C at the stem surface ranged between 242 and 2239 s), burned trees did not suffer mechanical damage to stems, nor significant reduction in radial growth. Moreover, the PB did not affect xylem structure and tree hydraulics. No variations in (13)C-derived water use efficiency were recorded. This confirmed the high resistance of P. pinea to surface fire at the stem base. However, burned trees showed consistently lower δ(18)O values in the PB year, as a likely consequence of reduced competition for water and nutrients due to the understory burning, which increased both photosynthetic activity and stomatal conductance. Our multi-approach analysis offers new perspectives on post-fire survival strategies of P. pinea in an environment where fires are predicted to increase in frequency and severity during the 21st century. PMID:27178842

  18. Belowground carbon dynamics in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) immediately following diammonium phosphate fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gough, Christopher M; Seiler, John R

    2004-07-01

    Forest soils store an immense quantity of labile carbon (C) and a may be a large potential sink for atmospheric C. Forest management practices such as fertilization may enhance overall C storage in soils, yet changes in physiological processes following nutrient amendments have not been widely investigated. We intensively monitored belowground C dynamics for nearly 200 days following diammonium phosphate fertilization of pot-grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in an effort to examine the short-term effects of fertilization on processes involved in soil C sequestration. Soil respiration rates initially increased in fertilized pots relative to controls, followed by a brief reversal in this trend and then a final sustained pattern of elevated rates of soil respiration in the fertilized treatment. Patterns in soil respiration rates over time reflected changes in autotrophic (root) and heterotrophic (microbial) components of soil respiration. Root respiration rates were greater in the fertilized treatment 49 days following fertilization and returned to control rates by the end of the study. In contrast, microbial respiration rates and microbial activity per soil C concentration remained depressed over the same time period. Compared with control seedlings, total root biomass was 27% greater in fertilized seedlings harvested at the end of the study, indicating that the elevated soil respiration rates observed toward the end of the study were a result of increased respiring root biomass. We conclude that fertilization, at least over the short-term, may increase soil C sequestration by increasing belowground biomass production and reducing microbial driven C turnover. PMID:15123456

  19. Sensitivity of cold acclimation to elevated autumn temperature in field-grown Pinus strobus seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christine Y.; Unda, Faride; Zubilewich, Alexandra; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will increase autumn air temperature, while photoperiod decrease will remain unaffected. We assessed the effect of increased autumn air temperature on timing and development of cold acclimation and freezing resistance in Eastern white pine (EWP, Pinus strobus) under field conditions. For this purpose we simulated projected warmer temperatures for southern Ontario in a Temperature Free-Air-Controlled Enhancement (T-FACE) experiment and exposed EWP seedlings to ambient (Control) or elevated temperature (ET, +1.5°C/+3°C during day/night). Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photoprotective pigments, leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and cold hardiness were assessed over two consecutive autumns. Nighttime temperature below 10°C and photoperiod below 12 h initiated downregulation of assimilation in both treatments. When temperature further decreased to 0°C and photoperiod became shorter than 10 h, downregulation of the light reactions and upregulation of photoprotective mechanisms occurred in both treatments. While ET seedlings did not delay the timing of the downregulation of assimilation, stomatal conductance in ET seedlings was decreased by 20–30% between August and early October. In both treatments leaf NSC composition changed considerably during autumn but differences between Control and ET seedlings were not significant. Similarly, development of freezing resistance was induced by exposure to low temperature during autumn, but the timing was not delayed in ET seedlings compared to Control seedlings. Our results indicate that EWP is most sensitive to temperature changes during October and November when downregulation of photosynthesis, enhancement of photoprotection, synthesis of cold-associated NSCs and development of freezing resistance occur. However, we also conclude that the timing of the development of freezing resistance in EWP seedlings is not affected by moderate temperature increases used in our field

  20. Linking carbon and water relations to drought-induced mortality in Pinus flexilis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-07-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below -5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations.

  1. Carbon stocks across a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Matthew D.; Kolka, Randall K.; Bradford, John B.; Palik, Brian J.; Fraver, Shawn; Jurgensen, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    Forests function as a major global C sink, and forest management strategies that maximize C stocks offer one possible means of mitigating the impacts of increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We studied the effects of thinning, a common management technique in many forest types, on age-related trends in C stocks using a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands ranging from 9 to 306 years old. Live tree C stocks increased with age to a maximum near the middle of the chronosequence in unmanaged stands, and increased across the entire chronosequence in thinned stands. C in live understory vegetation and C in the mineral soil each declined rapidly with age in young stands but changed relatively little in middle-aged to older stands regardless of management. Forest floor C stocks increased with age in unmanaged stands, but forest floor C decreased with age after the onset of thinning around age 40 in thinned stands. Deadwood C was highly variable, but decreased with age in thinned stands. Total ecosystem C increased with stand age until approaching an asymptote around age 150. The increase in total ecosystem C was paralleled by an age-related increase in total aboveground C, but relatively little change in total belowground C. Thinning had surprisingly little impact on total ecosystem C stocks, but it did modestly alter age-related trends in total ecosystem C allocation between aboveground and belowground pools. In addition to characterizing the subtle differences in C dynamics between thinned and unmanaged stands, these results suggest that C accrual in red pine stands continues well beyond the 60–100 year management rotations typical for this system. Management plans that incorporate longer rotations and thinning in some stands could play an important role in maximizing C stocks in red pine forests while meeting other objectives including timber extraction, biodiversity conservation, restoration, and fuel reduction goals.

  2. Ectomycorrhiza succession patterns in Pinus sylvestris forests after stand-replacing fire in the Central Alps.

    PubMed

    Kipfer, Tabea; Moser, Barbara; Egli, Simon; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-09-01

    Fires shape fundamental properties of many forest ecosystems and climate change will increase their relevance in regions where fires occur infrequently today. In ecosystems that are not adapted to fire, post-fire tree recruitment is often sparse, a fact that might be attributed to a transient lack of mycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi play an important role for recruitment by enhancing nutrient and water uptake of their hosts. The questions arise whether and for how long the EcM community is transformed by fire. We investigated the resistance and resilience of EcM fungal communities on a chronosequence of 12 Pinus sylvestris stands in Valais (Switzerland) and Val d'Aosta (Italy) affected by fire between 1990 and 2006. Soil samples from burnt and non-burnt forests were analyzed with respect to EcM fungi by means of a bioassay. The number of EcM species was significantly lower in samples from recently (2-5 years) burnt sites than non-burnt forest, and increased with time since fire reaching levels of adjacent forests after 15-18 years. Community composition changed after fire but did not converge to that of non-burnt sites over the 18 year period. Only Rhizopogon roseolus and Cenococcum geophilum were abundant in both burnt sites and adjacent forest. Our data indicate fire resistance of some EcM fungal species as well as rapid resilience in terms of species number, but not in species composition. As long as the function of different EcM species for seedling establishment is unknown, the consequences of long-term shifts in EcM community composition for tree recruitment remain unclear. PMID:21468664

  3. Short Delay in Timing of Emergence Determines Establishment Success in Pinus sylvestris across Microhabitats

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, JORGE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The date of emergence may have far-reaching implications for seedling performance. Seedlings emerging early in the growing season often have a greater rate of survival or grow better if early emergence provides advantages with respect to an environmental cue. As a result, the benefits of early emergence may be lost if the environmental stress creating the differences among cohorts disappears. The experimental manipulation under field conditions of the factors that constitute the main sources of stress for seedling establishment is thus a straightforward method to evaluate the impact of date of emergence on seedling establishment under realistic conditions. • Methods Two field experiments were performed to analyse the effect of emergence date on survival and first-year growth of Scots pine seedlings in natural mountain forests in south-east Spain. Two main environmental factors that determine seedling success in these mountains were considered: (1) microhabitat type (monitoring the effect of date of emergence in the three most common microhabitats where seedlings recruit); (2) summer drought (monitored by an irrigation treatment with control and watered sampling points). • Key Results Overall, early emergence resulted in a higher probability of survival and better growth in the two experiments and across microhabitats. However, the reduction in summer drought did not diminish the differences observed among cohorts: all cohorts increased their survival and growth, but early cohorts still had a clear advantage. • Conclusions Date of emergence determines establishment success of Pinus sylvestris seedlings, even if cohorts are separated by only a few days, irrespective of the intensity of summer drought. The experimental design, covering a gradient of light intensity and soil moisture that simulates conditions of the regeneration niche of Scots pine across its geographical range, allows the results to be extrapolated to other areas of the

  4. Back to nature: ecological genomics of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Eckert, Andrew J; Bower, Andrew D; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Coop, Graham; Neale, David B

    2010-09-01

    Genetic variation is often arrayed in latitudinal or altitudinal clines, reflecting either adaptation along environmental gradients, migratory routes, or both. For forest trees, climate is one of the most important drivers of adaptive phenotypic traits. Correlations of single and multilocus genotypes with environmental gradients have been identified for a variety of forest trees. These correlations are interpreted normally as evidence of natural selection. Here, we use a genome-wide dataset of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) typed from 1730 loci in 682 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees sampled from 54 local populations covering the full-range of the species to examine allelic correlations to five multivariate measures of climate. Applications of a Bayesian generalized linear mixed model, where the climate variable was a fixed effect and an estimated variance-covariance matrix controlled random effects due to shared population history, identified several well-supported SNPs associating to principal components corresponding to geography, temperature, growing degree-days, precipitation and aridity. Functional annotation of those genes with putative orthologs in Arabidopsis revealed a diverse set of abiotic stress response genes ranging from transmembrane proteins to proteins involved in sugar metabolism. Many of these SNPs also had large allele frequency differences among populations (F(ST) = 0.10-0.35). These results illustrate a first step towards a ecosystem perspective of population genomics for non-model organisms, but also highlight the need for further integration of the methodologies employed in spatial statistics, population genetics and climate modeling during scans for signatures of natural selection from genomic data. PMID:20723060

  5. Controlling Factors of Soil CO2 Efflux in Pinus yunnanensis across Different Stand Ages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaojun; Zhao, Jixia; Chen, Qibo

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of soil respiration (Rs) across different stand ages have not been well investigated. In this study, we identified temporal variation of Rs and its driving factors under three nature forest stands (e.g. 15-yr-old, 30-yr-old, and 45-yr-old) of Pinus yunnanensis in the Plateau of Mid-Yunnan, China. No consistent tendency was found on the change of Rs with the stand ages. Rs was ranked in the order of 30-yr-old > 45-yr-old >15-yr-old. Rs in 15-yr-old stand was the most sensitive to soil temperature (Ts) among the three sites. However, Ts only explained 30-40% of the seasonal dynamics of Rs at the site. Soil water content (Sw) was the major controlling factor of temporal variation at the three sites. Sw explained 88-93% of seasonal variations of Rs in the 30-yr-old stand, and 63.7-72.7% in the 15-yr-old and 79.1-79.6% in the 45-yr-old stands. In addition, we found that pH, available nitrogen (AN), C/N and total phosphorus (TP) contributed significantly to the seasonal variation of Rs. Sw was significantly related with pH, total nitrogen (TN), AN and TP, suggesting that Sw can affect Rs through improving soil acid-base property and soil texture, and increasing availability of soil nutrient. The results indicated that besides soil water, soil properties (e. g. pH, AN, C/N and TP) were also the important in controlling the temporal variations of Rs across different stand ages in the nature forestry. PMID:25996943

  6. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene.

  7. Seasonal differences in needle gas exchange between mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anderson, P.D. )

    1991-05-01

    In 1990, an interactive study was initiated to understand the differing physiological and morphological response of mature tissue and seedling tissue to stress. The study was conducted at the Air Pollution and Climate Change Exposure Facility in a Pinus ponderosa seed production orchard at the US Forest Service Tree Improvement Center in Chico, CA. The orchard consists of clonal trees and the authors have planted half-sibling seedlings which correspond to the mature clones which were measured. Both the mature trees and seedlings were regularly irrigated and fertilized. The result is that they have minimized the genetic and environmental differences that might otherwise influence the physiological differences between mature and seedling tissue. One of the physiological parameters which was measured was seasonal and diurnal gas exchange using a LICOR 6200. They measured gas exchange in November 1989, March, July, and October 1990. They found that throughout the year, all gas exchange components (eg. photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance) were significantly greater for seedling tissue. Photosynthetic differences were greater during early October, with diurnal mean rates of 1.1 {mu}mol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and 0.5 {mu}mol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} for seedling and mature tissue, respectively. Transpiration differences were greater during early October, with diurnal mean rates of 2.2 mmol m{sup {minus}2}2{sup {minus}1} and 1.2 mmol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} for seedling and mature tissue, respectively. Finally, gas exchange differences between seedling and mature tissue were greater for current needles than one-year old needles. The results of this study demonstrate that gas exchange differences between seedling and mature tissue observed in the field may be the result of inherent physiological differences, and not merely genetic and environmental differences.

  8. Forest floor depth mediates understory vigor in xeric Pinus palustris ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hiers, J Kevin; O'Brien, Joseph J; Will, Rodney E; Mitchell, Robert J

    2007-04-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands and savannas are among the most frequently burned ecosystems in the world with fire return intervals of 1-10 years. This fire regime has maintained high levels of biodiversity in terms of both species richness and endemism. Land use changes have reduced the area of this ecosystem by >95%, and inadequate fire frequencies threaten many of the remnants today. In the absence of frequent fire, rapid colonization of hardwoods and shrubs occurs, and a broad-leaved midstory develops. This midstory encroachment has been the focus of much research and management concern, largely based on the assumption that the midstory reduces understory plant diversity through direction competition via light interception. The general application of this mechanism of degradation is questionable, however, because midstory density, leaf area, and hardwood species composition vary substantially along a soil moisture gradient from mesic to extremely xeric sites. Reanalysis of recently reported data from xeric longleaf pine communities suggests that the development of the forest floor, a less conspicuous change in forest structure, might cause a decline in plant biodiversity when forests remain unburned. We report here a test of the interactions among fire, litter accumulation, forest floor development, and midstory canopy density on understory plant diversity. Structural equation modeling showed that within xeric sites, forest floor development was the primary factor explaining decreased biodiversity. The only effects of midstory development on biodiversity were those mediated through forest floor development. Boundary line analysis of functional guilds of understory plants showed sensitivity to even minor development of the forest floor in the absence of fire. These results challenge the prevailing management paradigm and suggest that within xeric longleaf pine communities, the primary focus of managed fire regime should be directed toward the

  9. Organ-specific metabolic responses to drought in Pinus pinaster Ait.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Marina; Guevara, M Ángeles; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de María, Nuria; Díaz, Luis Manuel; Mancha, Jose A; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Desai, Nalini; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Drought is an important driver of plant survival, growth, and distribution. Water deficit affects different pathways of metabolism, depending on plant organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the metabolic drought response of a single organ, analysis of metabolic differences between organs is essential to achieve an integrated understanding of the whole plant response. In this work, untargeted metabolic profiling was used to examine the response of roots, stems, adult and juvenile needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. full-sib individuals, subjected to a moderate and long lasting drought period. Cyclitols content showed a significant alteration, in response to drought in all organs examined, but other metabolites increased or decreased differentially depending on the analyzed organ. While a high number of flavonoids were only detected in aerial organs, an induction of the glutathione pathway was mainly detected in roots. This result may reflect different antioxidant mechanisms activated in aerial organs and roots. Metabolic changes were more remarkable in roots than in the other organs, highlighting its prominent role in the response to water stress. Significant changes in flavonoids and ascorbate metabolism were also observed between adult and juvenile needles, consistent with previously proven differential functional responses between the two developmental stages. Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes coding for a Myb1 transcription factor and a malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) were associated with different concentration of phenylalanine, phenylpropanoids and malate, respectively. The results obtained will support further research on metabolites and genes potentially involved in functional mechanisms related to drought tolerance in trees. PMID:26897116

  10. Growth, carbon-isotope discrimination, and drought-associated mortality across a Pinus ponderosa elevational transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, N.G.; Allen, C.D.; Marshall, L.

    2010-01-01

    Drought- and insect-associated tree mortality at low-elevation ecotones is a widespread phenomenon but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Enhanced growth sensitivity to climate is widely observed among trees that die, indicating that a predisposing physiological mechanism(s) underlies tree mortality. We tested three, linked hypotheses regarding mortality using a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) elevation transect that experienced low-elevation mortality following prolonged drought. The hypotheses were: (1) mortality was associated with greater growth sensitivity to climate, (2) mortality was associated with greater sensitivity of gas exchange to climate, and (3) growth and gas exchange were correlated. Support for all three hypotheses would indicate that mortality results at least in part from gas exchange constraints. We assessed growth using basal area increment normalized by tree basal area [basal area increment (BAI)/basal area (BA)] to account for differences in tree size. Whole-crown gas exchange was indexed via estimates of the CO2 partial pressure difference between leaf and atmosphere (pa-pc) derived from tree ring carbon isotope ratios (??13C), corrected for temporal trends in atmospheric CO2 and ??13C and elevation trends in pressure. Trees that survived the drought exhibited strong correlations among and between BAI, BAI/BA, pa-pc, and climate. In contrast, trees that died exhibited greater growth sensitivity to climate than trees that survived, no sensitivity of pa-pc to climate, and a steep relationship between pa-pc and BAI/BA. The pa-pc results are consistent with predictions from a theoretical hydraulic model, suggesting trees that died had a limited buffer between mean water availability during their lifespan and water availability during drought - i.e., chronic water stress. It appears that chronic water stress predisposed low-elevation trees to mortality during drought via constrained gas exchange. Continued intensification of drought in

  11. Intraspecific variation in Pinus pinaster PSII photochemical efficiency in response to winter stress and freezing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Corcuera, Leyre; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Notivol, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    As part of a program to select maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) genotypes for resistance to low winter temperatures, we examined variation in photosystem II activity by chlorophyll fluorescence. Populations and families within populations from contrasting climates were tested during two consecutive winters through two progeny trials, one located at a continental and xeric site and one at a mesic site with Atlantic influence. We also obtained the LT₅₀, or the temperature that causes 50% damage, by controlled freezing and the subsequent analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in needles and stems that were collected from populations at the continental trial site.P. pinaster showed sensitivity to winter stress at the continental site, during the colder winter. The combination of low temperatures, high solar irradiation and low precipitation caused sustained decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), quantum yield of non-cyclic electron transport (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching (qP). The variation in photochemical parameters was larger among families than among populations, and population differences appeared only under the harshest conditions at the continental site. As expected, the environmental effects (winter and site) on the photochemical parameters were much larger than the genotypic effects (population or family). LT₅₀ was closely related to the minimum winter temperatures of the population's range. The dark-adapted F(v)/F(m) ratio discriminated clearly between interior and coastal populations.In conclusion, variations in F(v)/F(m), Φ(PSII), qP and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in response to winter stress were primarily due to the differences between the winter conditions and the sites and secondarily due to the differences among families and their interactions with the environment. Populations from continental climates showed higher frost tolerance (LT₅₀) than coastal populations that typically experience mild winters

  12. Differences in hydraulic architecture between mesic and xeric Pinus pinaster populations at the seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Corcuera, Leyre; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Notivol, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    We studied the intraspecific variability of maritime pine in a set of morphological and physiological traits: soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE, estimated by carbon isotope composition, δ(13)C), root morphology, xylem anatomy, growth and carbon allocation patterns. The data were collected from Pinus pinaster Aiton seedlings (25 half-sib families from five populations) grown in a greenhouse and subjected to water and water-stress treatments. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in water availability at the geographic location of the populations, and to study the potential trade-offs among traits. The drought-stressed seedlings demonstrated a decrease in hydraulic conductance and root surface area and increased WUE and root tip number. The relationships among the growth, morphological, anatomical and physiological traits changed with the scale of study: within the species, among/within populations. The populations showed a highly significant relationship between the percentage reduction in whole-plant hydraulic conductance and WUE. The differences among the populations in root morphology, whole-plant conductance, carbon allocation, plant growth and WUE were significant and consistent with dryness of the site of seed origin. The xeric populations exhibited lower growth and a conservative water use, as opposed to the fast-growing, less water-use-efficient populations from mesic habitats. The xeric and mesic populations, Tamrabta and San Cipriano, respectively, showed the most contrasting traits and were clustered in opposite directions along the main axis in the canonical discriminant analysis under both the control and drought treatments. The results suggest the possibility of selecting the Arenas population, which presents a combination of traits that confer increased growth and drought resistance.

  13. Attack Pattern and Reproductive Ecology of Tomicus brevipilosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Pinus yunnanensis in Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Lu, Jun; Haack, Robert A.; Ye, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tomicus brevipilosus (Eggers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) was recently discovered as a new pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet) in Yunnan Province in southwestern China. However, little was known on its reproductive biology and pattern of trunk attack on Yunnan pine. The objectives of this study were to better understand the reproductive biology of T. brevipilosus by investigating the seasonality of trunk attacks by parent adults for the purpose of reproduction (i.e., breeding attacks) and the within-tree pattern of these attacks. Our results showed that T. brevipilosus breeding attacks in P. yunnanensis generally started in early March and ended in early June in Anning County, Yunnan. T. brevipilosus exhibited two general patterns of infestation. From early March to mid-April, T. brevipilosus bred preferentially in the trunks of Yunnan pine trees that were already infested by Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig), colonizing spaces along the trunk (mostly in the mid- and lower trunk) that were not already occupied by the other two Tomicus species. Later, from about mid-April to early June, when there were no Yunnan pine trees newly infested by T. yunnanensis and T. minor, T. brevipilosus attacked Yunnan pine by itself, infesting the lower parts of the trunk first and then infesting progressively upward along the trunk into the crown. Infestation by T. brevipilosus extends the total period that P. yunnanensis trees are under attack by Tomicus beetles in southwestern China, which helps explain why Yunnan pine has suffered high levels of tree mortality in recent decades. PMID:25881631

  14. Ectomycorrhiza succession patterns in Pinus sylvestris forests after stand-replacing fire in the Central Alps.

    PubMed

    Kipfer, Tabea; Moser, Barbara; Egli, Simon; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-09-01

    Fires shape fundamental properties of many forest ecosystems and climate change will increase their relevance in regions where fires occur infrequently today. In ecosystems that are not adapted to fire, post-fire tree recruitment is often sparse, a fact that might be attributed to a transient lack of mycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi play an important role for recruitment by enhancing nutrient and water uptake of their hosts. The questions arise whether and for how long the EcM community is transformed by fire. We investigated the resistance and resilience of EcM fungal communities on a chronosequence of 12 Pinus sylvestris stands in Valais (Switzerland) and Val d'Aosta (Italy) affected by fire between 1990 and 2006. Soil samples from burnt and non-burnt forests were analyzed with respect to EcM fungi by means of a bioassay. The number of EcM species was significantly lower in samples from recently (2-5 years) burnt sites than non-burnt forest, and increased with time since fire reaching levels of adjacent forests after 15-18 years. Community composition changed after fire but did not converge to that of non-burnt sites over the 18 year period. Only Rhizopogon roseolus and Cenococcum geophilum were abundant in both burnt sites and adjacent forest. Our data indicate fire resistance of some EcM fungal species as well as rapid resilience in terms of species number, but not in species composition. As long as the function of different EcM species for seedling establishment is unknown, the consequences of long-term shifts in EcM community composition for tree recruitment remain unclear.

  15. Characterization and Biological Activity of Taishan Pinus massoniana Pollen Polysaccharide In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shifa; Wei, Kai; Jia, Fengjuan; Zhao, Xue; Cui, Guolin; Guo, Fanxia; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-01-01

    Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) improves cellular and humoral immune responses of animals and is a novel potential immunomodulator. However, the components of TPPPS have not been recognized. To investigate the composition of TPPPS, crude polysaccharide was obtained from Taishan P. massoniana pollen through water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Three homogeneous polysaccharide fractions (TPPPS1, TPPPS2, and TPPPS3) were purified from TPPPS by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The average molecular weights of the three polysaccharides were 56, 25, and 128 kDa, respectively. Results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that TPPPS comprised mannose, ribose, xylose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The biological activity assays showed that TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 significantly promoted spleen lymphocyte proliferation, and that TPPPS3 showed better effect than TPPPS2. TPPPS3 enhanced the secretion of cytokine IL-2 and TNF, whereas TPPPS2 mainly elevated IL-2 secretion. By contrast, TPPPS1 exhibited other effects, and it induced the highest amount of NO production, thereby indicating that TPPPS1 had the best antioxidant activity. TPPPS3 at 50 μg/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation of subgroup B Avian Leukosis virus (ALV-B) through virus adsorption interference in vitro. Results indicated that TPPPS comprised three main components, among which, TPPPS1 mainly showed antioxidant effects, whereas TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 played key roles in immunomodulation, especially TPPPS3. Further studies on the use of a reasonable proportion of TPPPS1-3 may facilitate the development of an effective immunomodulator. PMID:25782009

  16. Variability of the needle essential oils of Pinus peuce from different populations in Montenegro and Serbia.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2008-07-01

    The essential-oil composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. is reported at the population level. Macedonian pine is endemic high-mountain Balkan pine relict of an anthropogenically reduced area, with large morphological diversity and insufficiently clear taxonomic position. In the pine-needle terpene profile of two populations from Montenegro and one from Serbia, 78 compounds were detected, 56 of which are identified (Table 3). The dominant constituents were alpha-pinene (36.5%) and germacrene D (11.4%). The following 20 additional components were found to be present in medium-to-high amounts (0.5-10%): camphene (8.5%), bornyl acetate (6.8%), beta-pinene (6.8%), beta-caryophyllene (5.2%), beta-phellandrene (4.7%), terpinen-4-ol acetate (1.6%), (E)-hex-2-enal (1.5%), alpha-muurolene (1.2%), beta-gurjunene (1.1%), beta-myrcene (1.0%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (0.9%), alpha-phellandrene (0.8%), delta-cadinene (0.8%), alpha-humulene (0.8%), sabinene (0.7%), aromadendrene (0.6%), alpha-thujene (0.6%), gamma-muurolene (0.6%), gamma-cadinene (0.6%), alpha-terpinolene (0.5%), and one unknown component (0.5%). The similarity of the populations and the within-population variability were visualized by principle-component analysis (PCA) and genetic analysis of selected terpenes in 90 tree samples. Our study suggests a closer connection between populations II and III compared to population I. Based on the profile of the main terpene components, the studied populations are more similar to populations from Kosovo and Greece than to the population from Mt. Mokra (Montenegro) and the population in France.

  17. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West.

    PubMed

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A; Long, James N

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine's absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities. PMID:27575596

  18. Morphological variation of Pinus flexilis (Pinaceae), a bird-dispersed pine, across a range of elevations.

    PubMed

    Schoettle, A W; Rochelle, S G

    2000-12-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) grows across a wider range of elevations than any other tree species in the central Rockies, from ∼1600 m at Pawnee Buttes to >3300 m at Rollins Pass. In this study we investigated two possible explanations for limber pine's success across a broad range of elevations: (1) the sites on which it is found, although separated by >1000 m elevation, may not be very different with respect to environmental factors that affect tree growth, and (2) limber pine growth is insensitive to environmental factors that change with elevation. We compared site characteristics of 12 limber pine stands at elevations ranging from 1630 to 3328 m as well as the growth and morphology of trees in each of these stands. Mean daily air temperature in July decreased linearly with the elevation of the site from 22.8° to 12.6°C. The growth and morphology of limber pine leaves, shoots, and trees were, in general, not related to the elevation or July mean air temperature of the sites. There was, however, a significant decrease in stomatal density with increasing elevation, which may be an acclimational response to restrict water loss at high elevations. Our data suggest that the fundamental and realized niche of limber pine is broad with respect to air temperature. In light of the high gene flow and only slight genetic differentiation among populations of species with bird-dispersed seeds, such as limber pine, it is especially unusual to see similar growth throughout an environmental gradient. Physiological and anatomical plasticity or wide physiological tolerance ranges may enable limber pine to uncouple its growth from its environment. PMID:11118417

  19. The Temporal Transcriptomic Response of Pinus massoniana Seedlings to Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fuhua; Cui, Bowen; Zhang, Ting; Qiao, Guang; Ding, Guijie; Wen, Xiaopeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Several genes involved in phosphorus deficiency stress have been identified in various plant species. However, a whole genome understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in plant adaptations to low P remains elusive, and there is particularly little information on the genetic basis of these acclimations in coniferous trees. Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) is grown mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions in China, many of which are severely lacking in inorganic phosphate (Pi). In previous work, we described an elite P. massoniana genotype demonstrating a high tolerance to Pi-deficiency. Methodology/Principal Findings To further investigate the mechanism of tolerance to low P, RNA-seq was performed to give an idea of extent of expression from the two mixed libraries, and microarray whose probes were designed based on the unigenes obtained from RNA-seq was used to elucidate the global gene expression profiles for the long-term phosphorus starvation. A total of 70,896 unigenes with lengths ranging from 201 to 20,490 bp were assembled from 112,108,862 high quality reads derived from RNA-Seq libraries. We identified 1,396 and 943 transcripts that were differentially regulated (P<0.05) under P1 (0.01 mM P) and P2 (0.06 mM P) Pi-deficiency conditions, respectively. Numerous transcripts were consistently differentially regulated under Pi deficiency stress, many of which were also up- or down-regulated in other species under the corresponding conditions, and are therefore ideal candidates for monitoring the P status of plants. The results also demonstrated the impact of different Pi starvation levels on global gene expression in Masson pine. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this work provides the first insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in acclimation to long-term Pi starvation and different Pi availability levels in coniferous trees. PMID:25165828

  20. [Effects of gaps on distribution of soil aggregates and organic carbon in Pinus massoniana plantation].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Dan-Ju; Zhang, Jian; Li, Jian-Ping; Deng, Chang-Chun; Deng, Chao

    2014-11-01

    The effects of forest gap size on the distribution of soil aggregates, organic carbon and labile organic carbon were investigated in a 39-year-old Pinus massoniana plantation in Yibin, Sichuan Province. The results showed that the composition of soil aggregates was dominated by particles > 2 mm, which accounted for 51.7%-78.7% of the whole soil samples under different sized forest gaps and beneath P. massoniana plantation. Soil organic carbon content and labile organic carbon content in > 5 mm aggregates were significantly positively correlated with the soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon contents. Furthermore, the amounts of organic carbon and labile organic carbon storage > 5 mm particles were higher than those in other size particles. Therefore, particles > 5 mm of aggregates dominated the soil carbon pool. Compared with those P. massoniana plantations, the contents of organic carbon in aggregates and total topsoil decreased during the formation of forest gaps, whereas the soil organic carbon storage under 1225 m2 gap was higher. In addition, the soil labile organic carbon content under 225 and 400 m2 gaps and the labile organic carbon storage under 225, 400, 900 and 1225 m2 gaps were higher than those the plantations, but were lower than under the other gaps. It was suggested that an appropriate size of forest gap would increase the accumulation of soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon content. The size of forest gap had significant effects on the distribution of soil aggregates, organic carbon and labile organic carbon. The soil sample under 1225 m2 gap had the highest organic carbon content and storage and a better aggregate proportion, and the higher labile organic carbon storage. Therefore, it was suggested that 1225 m2 gap might be an optimal logging gap size.

  1. Species richness and soil properties in Pinus ponderosa forests: A structural equation modeling analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laughlin, D.C.; Abella, S.R.; Covington, W.W.; Grace, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Question: How are the effects of mineral soil properties on understory plant species richness propagated through a network of processes involving the forest overstory, soil organic matter, soil nitrogen, and understory plant abundance? Location: North-central Arizona, USA. Methods: We sampled 75 0.05-ha plots across a broad soil gradient in a Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) forest ecosystem. We evaluated multivariate models of plant species richness using structural equation modeling. Results: Richness was highest at intermediate levels of understory plant cover, suggesting that both colonization success and competitive exclusion can limit richness in this system. We did not detect a reciprocal positive effect of richness on plant cover. Richness was strongly related to soil nitrogen in the model, with evidence for both a direct negative effect and an indirect non-linear relationship mediated through understory plant cover. Soil organic matter appeared to have a positive influence on understory richness that was independent of soil nitrogen. Richness was lowest where the forest overstory was densest, which can be explained through indirect effects on soil organic matter, soil nitrogen and understory cover. Finally, model results suggest a variety of direct and indirect processes whereby mineral soil properties can influence richness. Conclusions: Understory plant species richness and plant cover in P. ponderosa forests appear to be significantly influenced by soil organic matter and nitrogen, which are, in turn, related to overstory density and composition and mineral soil properties. Thus, soil properties can impose direct and indirect constraints on local species diversity in ponderosa pine forests. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  2. Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov., isolated from Pinus pinaster wood from a mixed grove of pines trees.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Gabriel; Abreu, Pedro; Proença, Diogo Neves; Santos, Susana; Nobre, Maria Fernanda; Morais, Paula V

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial strain M47C3B(T) was isolated from the endophytic microbial community of a Pinus pinaster tree branch from a mixed grove of pines. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this organism represented one distinct branch within the family Sphingobacteriaceae, most closely related to the genus Mucilaginibacter. Strain M47C3B(T) formed a distinct lineage, closely related to Mucilaginibacter dorajii KACC 14556(T), with which it shared 97.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The other members of the genus Mucilaginibacter included in the same clade were Mucilaginibacter lappiensis ATCC BAA-1855(T) sharing 97.0% similarity and Mucilaginibacter composti TR6-03(T) that had a lower similarity (95.7%). The novel strain was Gram-staining-negative, formed rod-shaped cells, grew optimally at 26 °C and at pH 7, and was able to grow with up to 0.3% (w/v) NaCl. The respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids of the strain were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, representing 73.5% of the total fatty acids. The major components of the polar lipid profile of strain M47C3B(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified polar lipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 40.6 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics we propose the name Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov. for the novel species represented by strain M47C3B(T) ( = CIP 110632(T) = LMG 28160(T)).

  3. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  4. The role of genetic and chemical variation of Pinus sylvestris seedlings in influencing slug herbivory.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Iason, Glenn R; Thoss, Vera

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated the genetic and chemical basis of resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings to herbivory by a generalist mollusc, Arion ater. Using feeding trials with captive animals, we examined selective herbivory by A. ater of young P. sylvestris seedlings of different genotypes and correlated preferences with seedling monoterpene levels. We also investigated the feeding responses of A. ater to artificial diets laced with two monoterpenes, Delta(3)-carene and alpha-pinene. Logistic regression indicated that two factors were the best predictors of whether seedlings in the trial would be consumed. Individual slug variation (replicates) was the most significant factor in the model; however, alpha-pinene concentration (also representing beta-pinene, Delta(3)-carene and total monoterpenes due to multicollinearity) of needles was also a significant factor. While A. ater did not select seedlings on the basis of family, seedlings not eaten were significantly higher in levels of alpha-pinene compared to seedlings that were consumed. We also demonstrated significant genetic variation in alpha-pinene concentration of seedlings between different families of P. sylvestris. Nitrogen and three morphological seedling characteristics (stem length, needle length and stem diameter) also showed significant genetic variation between P. sylvestris families. Artificial diets laced with high (5 mg g(-1) dry matter) quantities of either Delta(3)-carene or alpha-pinene, were eaten significantly less than control diets with no added monoterpenes, supporting the results of the seedling feeding trial. This study demonstrates that A. ater selectively feed on P. sylvestris seedlings and that this selection is based, in part, on the monoterpene concentration of seedlings. These results, coupled with significant genetic variation in alpha-pinene concentration of seedlings and evidence that slug herbivory is detrimental to P. sylvestris fitness, are discussed as possible evidence for A

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide and propolis on immunosuppressed chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Wei, Kai; Yang, Shifa; Yang, Ya; Zhang, Yongbing; Zhu, Fujie; Wang, Di; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-01-01

    Co-infection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), which can cause suppressed immunity and vaccination failure, frequently occurs in chicken flocks in China. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) and propolis (PP) have been proven to possess immune modulatory effects and improve the immune effects of vaccines. This study aimed to investigate the immune modulatory ability of TPPPS and PP on chickens co-infected with immunosuppressive viruses. Prior to the study, chickens were artificially established as REV and ALV-J co-infection models. Four randomly assigned groups of these immunosuppressed chickens were successively administered with TPPPS, PP, mixture of TPPPS and PP (TPPPS-PP), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for three days. At nine days old, the four immunosuppressed groups, as well as one normal group, were inoculated with the attenuated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. During the monitoring period, the indices of immune organ weight, lymphocyte transformation rates, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood, IL-2 and IFN-γ secretions, serum antibody titers of ND vaccine, and viral loads in spleens were determined. The results showed that chickens administered with TPPPS, PP, or TPPPS-PP could significantly enhance the levels of the above immune parameters compared to chickens in the PBS group. We observed the strongest immunity in the TPPPS-PP group, which indicates that the combination of TPPPS and PP versus TPPPS or PP alone, could generate better effects on improving the immune system effectiveness of immunosuppressed chickens.

  6. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-06-25

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  7. Increased selfing and correlated paternity in a small population of a predominantly outcrossing conifer, Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Alía, R; Gil, L

    2004-09-01

    Outcrossing rate, the rates of ovule and seed abortion, and levels of correlated paternity were estimated in a small population of Pinus sylvestris, a predominantly outcrossing conifer, and were compared with estimates from two widely dispersed woodlands of the same species, showing a range of densities. On average, seed trees of the small population showed an eight-fold higher selfing rate (25 vs. 3%) and a 100-fold greater incidence of correlated paternity (19.6 vs. 0.2%) than did trees from the large populations. No evidence was found of pollen limitation within the remnant stand, as suggested by ovule abortion rates. Investigation of the mating patterns in the small population, based on the unambiguous genealogy of 778 open-pollinated seeds, showed a large departure from random mating. Only 8% of the possible mating pairs within the stand were observed. Correlated paternity rate within a maternal sibship was negatively associated (rs = -0.398, P < 0.050) with the distance to the nearest neighbour, and shared paternity among maternal sibships was negatively correlated (rs = -0.704, P < 0.001) with the distance between seed trees. Numerical simulations, based on the estimated individual pollen dispersal kernel, suggest that restricted dispersal might have been the key factor affecting mating patterns in the small population and, together with low population density, may account for the observed mating system variation between the small and the large populations. The results of this study show that a severe size reduction may substantially affect the mating system of a wind-pollinated, typically outcrossed plant species.

  8. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West

    PubMed Central

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A.; Long, James N.

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine’s absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities. PMID:27575596

  9. Effects of zinc on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-05-01

    The 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed high sensitivity to chronic exposure to zinc in hydroculture, which manifested in a significant inhibition of growth. Changes in the architecture of the root system and the suppression of its growth were shown to be the most striking effects of the toxic effect of zinc. Based on the data relating to the accumulation of zinc predominantly in the root system (by up to 35 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) and to the reduction in its translocation into the aerial organs, we concluded that P. sylvestris is related to a group of plants that exclude zinc. The seedlings developed a manganese deficiency (revealed by a reduction in Mn content in the roots and needles of up to 3.5 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) but not an iron deficiency (revealed by an increase in iron content of up to 23.7% in the roots and up to 42.3% in the needles at average). The absence of signs of oxidative stress under the effect of the zinc was detected as evidenced by the reduction in the content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals in the seedling organs. The leading role of low molecular weight antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was suggested. Under the influence of zinc, a significant increase in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity of ethanol extracts of the seedling organs was found, which was caused by an increase in the total content of (+)-catechin and proanthocyanidins. PMID:26897114

  10. Genetic variability and heritability of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Čepl, Jaroslav; Holá, Dana; Stejskal, Jan; Korecký, Jiří; Kočová, Marie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Tomášková, Ivana; Palovská, Markéta; Rothová, Olga; Whetten, Ross W; Kaňák, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying the inheritance of photosynthetic activity in forest trees is generally limited, yet it is essential both for various practical forestry purposes and for better understanding of broader evolutionary mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genetic variation underlying selected chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) parameters in structured populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on two sites under non-stress conditions. These parameters were derived from the OJIP part of the ChlF kinetics curve and characterize individual parts of primary photosynthetic processes associated, for example, with the exciton trapping by light-harvesting antennae, energy utilization in photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers (RCs) and its transfer further down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. An additive relationship matrix was estimated based on pedigree reconstruction, utilizing a set of highly polymorphic single sequence repeat markers. Variance decomposition was conducted using the animal genetic evaluation mixed-linear model. The majority of ChlF parameters in the analyzed pine populations showed significant additive genetic variation. Statistically significant heritability estimates were obtained for most ChlF indices, with the exception of DI0/RC, φD0 and φP0 (Fv/Fm) parameters. Estimated heritabilities varied around the value of 0.15 with the maximal value of 0.23 in the ET0/RC parameter, which indicates electron-transport flux from QA to QB per PSII RC. No significant correlation was found between these indices and selected growth traits. Moreover, no genotype × environment interaction (G × E) was detected, i.e., no differences in genotypes' performance between sites. The absence of significant G × E in our study is interesting, given the relatively low heritability found for the majority of parameters analyzed. Therefore, we infer that polygenic variability of these indices is

  11. Compression Wood-Responsive Proteins in Developing Xylem of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.)12

    PubMed Central

    Plomion, Christophe; Pionneau, Cédric; Brach, Jean; Costa, Paulo; Baillères, Henri

    2000-01-01

    When a conifer shoot is displaced from its vertical position, compression wood (CW) is formed on the under side and can eventually return the shoot to its original position. Changes in cell wall structure and chemistry associated with CW are likely to result from differential gene/protein expression. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of differentiating xylem proteins was combined with the physical characterization of wooden samples to identify and characterize CW-responsive proteins. Differentiating xylem was harvested from a 22-year-old crooked maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) tree. Protein extracted from different samples were revealed by high-resolution silver stained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analyzed with a computer-assisted system for single spot quantification. Growth strain (GS) measurements allowed xylem samples to be classified quantitatively from normal wood to CW. Regression of lignin and cellulose content on GS showed that an increase in the percentage of lignin and a decrease of the percentage of cellulose corresponded to increasing GS values, i.e. CW. Of the 137 studied spots, 19% were significantly associated with GS effect. Up-regulated proteins included 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (an ethylene forming enzyme), a putative transcription factor, two lignification genes (caffeic O-methyltransferase and caffeoyl CoA-O-methyltransferase), members of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine-synthase gene family, and enzymes involved in nitrogen and carbon assimilation (glutamine synthetase and fructokinase). A clustered correlation analysis was performed to study simultaneously protein expression along a gradient of gravistimulated stressed xylem tissue. Proteins were found to form “expression clusters” that could identify: (a) Gene product under similar control mechanisms, (b) partner proteins, or (c) functional groups corresponding to specialized pathways. The possibility of obtaining regulatory

  12. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  13. Comparative analysis of the small RNA transcriptomes of Pinus contorta and Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Morin, Ryan D; Aksay, Gozde; Dolgosheina, Elena; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Unrau, Peter J

    2008-04-01

    The diversity of microRNAs and small-interfering RNAs has been extensively explored within angiosperms by focusing on a few key organisms such as Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana. A deeper division of the plants is defined by the radiation of the angiosperms and gymnosperms, with the latter comprising the commercially important conifers. The conifers are expected to provide important information regarding the evolution of highly conserved small regulatory RNAs. Deep sequencing provides the means to characterize and quantitatively profile small RNAs in understudied organisms such as these. Pyrosequencing of small RNAs from O. sativa revealed, as expected, approximately 21- and approximately 24-nt RNAs. The former contained known microRNAs, and the latter largely comprised intergenic-derived sequences likely representing heterochromatin siRNAs. In contrast, sequences from Pinus contorta were dominated by 21-nt small RNAs. Using a novel sequence-based clustering algorithm, we identified sequences belonging to 18 highly conserved microRNA families in P. contorta as well as numerous clusters of conserved small RNAs of unknown function. Using multiple methods, including expressed sequence folding and machine learning algorithms, we found a further 53 candidate novel microRNA families, 51 appearing specific to the P. contorta library. In addition, alignment of small RNA sequences to the O. sativa genome revealed six perfectly conserved classes of small RNA that included chloroplast transcripts and specific types of genomic repeats. The conservation of microRNAs and other small RNAs between the conifers and the angiosperms indicates that important RNA silencing processes were highly developed in the earliest spermatophytes. Genomic mapping of all sequences to the O. sativa genome can be viewed at http://microrna.bcgsc.ca/cgi-bin/gbrowse/rice_build_3/.

  14. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  15. Adaptive Potential of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) Populations to the Emerging Pitch Canker Pathogen, Fusarium circinatum

    PubMed Central

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3–7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43–0.58 and 0.51–0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  16. Nitrogen allocation and the fate of absorbed light in 21-year-old Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Posch, Sabine; Warren, Charles R; Kruse, Jörg; Guttenberger, Helmut; Adams, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    We investigated effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and canopy position on the allocation of N to Rubisco and chlorophyll as well as the distribution of absorbed light among thermal energy dissipation, photochemistry, net CO2 assimilation and alternative electron sinks such as the Mehler reaction and photorespiration. The relative reduction state of the primary quinone receptor of photosystem II (QA) was used as a surrogate for photosystem II (PSII) vulnerability to photoinactivation. Measurements were made on needles from the lower, mid and upper canopy of 21-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don trees grown with (N+) and without (N0) added N fertilizer. Rubisco was 45 to 60% higher in needles of N+ trees than in needles of N0 trees at all canopy positions. Chlorophyll was approximately 80% higher in lower- and mid-canopy needles of N+ trees than of N0 trees, but only approximately 20% higher in upper-canopy needles. Physiological differences between N+ and N0 trees were found only in the lower- and mid- canopy positions. Needles of N+ trees dissipated up to 30% less light energy as heat than needles of N0 trees and had correspondingly more reduced QA. Net CO2 assimilation and the proportions of electrons used by alternative electron sinks such as the Mehler reaction and photorespiration were unaffected by N treatment regardless of canopy position. We conclude that the application of N fertilizer mainly affected the biochemistry and light-use physiology in lower- and mid-canopy needles by increasing the amount of chlorophyll and hence the amount of light harvested. This, however, did not improve photochemistry or safe dissipation, but increased PSII vulnerability to photoinactivation, an effect with likely significant consequences during sunflecks or sudden gap formation. PMID:18171661

  17. The impact of seed extraction on the population dynamics of Pinus maximartinezii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Mata, Lauro

    2013-05-01

    Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 × 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (λ) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, λ decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on λ. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.

  18. Effects of prescribed burning on ecophysiological, anatomical and stem hydraulic properties in Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; Savi, Tadeja; Ascoli, Davide; Castagneri, Daniele; Esposito, Assunta; Mayr, Stefan; Nardini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Prescribed burning (PB) is a widespread management technique for wildfire hazard abatement. Understanding PB effects on tree ecophysiology is key to defining burn prescriptions aimed at reducing fire hazard in Mediterranean pine plantations, such as Pinus pinea L. stands. We assessed physiological responses of adult P. pinea trees to PB using a combination of dendroecological, anatomical, hydraulic and isotopic analyses. Tree-ring widths, xylem cell wall thickness, lumen area, hydraulic diameter and tree-ring δ(13)C and δ(18)O were measured in trees on burned and control sites. Vulnerability curves were elaborated to assess tree hydraulic efficiency or safety. Despite the relatively intense thermal treatment (the residence time of temperatures above 50 °C at the stem surface ranged between 242 and 2239 s), burned trees did not suffer mechanical damage to stems, nor significant reduction in radial growth. Moreover, the PB did not affect xylem structure and tree hydraulics. No variations in (13)C-derived water use efficiency were recorded. This confirmed the high resistance of P. pinea to surface fire at the stem base. However, burned trees showed consistently lower δ(18)O values in the PB year, as a likely consequence of reduced competition for water and nutrients due to the understory burning, which increased both photosynthetic activity and stomatal conductance. Our multi-approach analysis offers new perspectives on post-fire survival strategies of P. pinea in an environment where fires are predicted to increase in frequency and severity during the 21st century.

  19. Genetic variability and heritability of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Čepl, Jaroslav; Holá, Dana; Stejskal, Jan; Korecký, Jiří; Kočová, Marie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Tomášková, Ivana; Palovská, Markéta; Rothová, Olga; Whetten, Ross W; Kaňák, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying the inheritance of photosynthetic activity in forest trees is generally limited, yet it is essential both for various practical forestry purposes and for better understanding of broader evolutionary mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genetic variation underlying selected chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) parameters in structured populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on two sites under non-stress conditions. These parameters were derived from the OJIP part of the ChlF kinetics curve and characterize individual parts of primary photosynthetic processes associated, for example, with the exciton trapping by light-harvesting antennae, energy utilization in photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers (RCs) and its transfer further down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. An additive relationship matrix was estimated based on pedigree reconstruction, utilizing a set of highly polymorphic single sequence repeat markers. Variance decomposition was conducted using the animal genetic evaluation mixed-linear model. The majority of ChlF parameters in the analyzed pine populations showed significant additive genetic variation. Statistically significant heritability estimates were obtained for most ChlF indices, with the exception of DI0/RC, φD0 and φP0 (Fv/Fm) parameters. Estimated heritabilities varied around the value of 0.15 with the maximal value of 0.23 in the ET0/RC parameter, which indicates electron-transport flux from QA to QB per PSII RC. No significant correlation was found between these indices and selected growth traits. Moreover, no genotype × environment interaction (G × E) was detected, i.e., no differences in genotypes' performance between sites. The absence of significant G × E in our study is interesting, given the relatively low heritability found for the majority of parameters analyzed. Therefore, we infer that polygenic variability of these indices is

  20. Characterization and biological activity of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shifa; Wei, Kai; Jia, Fengjuan; Zhao, Xue; Cui, Guolin; Guo, Fanxia; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-01-01

    Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) improves cellular and humoral immune responses of animals and is a novel potential immunomodulator. However, the components of TPPPS have not been recognized. To investigate the composition of TPPPS, crude polysaccharide was obtained from Taishan P. massoniana pollen through water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Three homogeneous polysaccharide fractions (TPPPS1, TPPPS2, and TPPPS3) were purified from TPPPS by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The average molecular weights of the three polysaccharides were 56, 25, and 128 kDa, respectively. Results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that TPPPS comprised mannose, ribose, xylose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The biological activity assays showed that TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 significantly promoted spleen lymphocyte proliferation, and that TPPPS3 showed better effect than TPPPS2. TPPPS3 enhanced the secretion of cytokine IL-2 and TNF, whereas TPPPS2 mainly elevated IL-2 secretion. By contrast, TPPPS1 exhibited other effects, and it induced the highest amount of NO production, thereby indicating that TPPPS1 had the best antioxidant activity. TPPPS3 at 50 μg/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation of subgroup B Avian Leukosis virus (ALV-B) through virus adsorption interference in vitro. Results indicated that TPPPS comprised three main components, among which, TPPPS1 mainly showed antioxidant effects, whereas TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 played key roles in immunomodulation, especially TPPPS3. Further studies on the use of a reasonable proportion of TPPPS1-3 may facilitate the development of an effective immunomodulator.

  1. Linking carbon and water limitations to drought-induced mortality of Pinus flexilis seedlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-01-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below −5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations.

  2. Estimating stem volume and biomass of Pinus koraiensis using LiDAR data.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Doo-Ahn; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Cho, Hyun-Kook; Lee, Seung-Ho; Son, Yowhan; Kafatos, Menas; Kim, So-Ra

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the stem volume and biomass of individual trees using the crown geometric volume (CGV), which was extracted from small-footprint light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Attempts were made to analyze the stem volume and biomass of Korean Pine stands (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) for three classes of tree density: low (240 N/ha), medium (370 N/ha), and high (1,340 N/ha). To delineate individual trees, extended maxima transformation and watershed segmentation of image processing methods were applied, as in one of our previous studies. As the next step, the crown base height (CBH) of individual trees has to be determined; information for this was found in the LiDAR point cloud data using k-means clustering. The LiDAR-derived CGV and stem volume can be estimated on the basis of the proportional relationship between the CGV and stem volume. As a result, low tree-density plots had the best performance for LiDAR-derived CBH, CGV, and stem volume (R (2) = 0.67, 0.57, and 0.68, respectively) and accuracy was lowest for high tree-density plots (R (2) = 0.48, 0.36, and 0.44, respectively). In the case of medium tree-density plots accuracy was R (2) = 0.51, 0.52, and 0.62, respectively. The LiDAR-derived stem biomass can be predicted from the stem volume using the wood basic density of coniferous trees (0.48 g/cm(3)), and the LiDAR-derived above-ground biomass can then be estimated from the stem volume using the biomass conversion and expansion factors (BCEF, 1.29) proposed by the Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI). PMID:20182905

  3. Patterns and Variability of Projected Bioclimatic Habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J.; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980–2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2–29% and 0.04–10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010–2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910–2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and

  4. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West.

    PubMed

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A; Long, James N

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine's absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities.

  5. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  6. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene. PMID:26852572

  7. [Root architecture and phosphorus efficiency of different provenance Pinus massoniana under low phosphorous stress].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Zhi-Chun; Feng, Zhong-Ping

    2012-09-01

    Taking four representative provenances of Pinus massoniana from Chun' an of Zhejiang, Wuping of Fujian, Cenxi of Guangxi, and Xinyi of Guangdong in East and South China as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their variations in root architecture and phosphorus (P) efficiency under heterogeneous and homogeneous low P stress. Large variations were detected in the major growth traits and the indices of P efficiency among the P. massoniana provenances under both heterogeneous and homogeneous low P stress. Under heterogeneous low P stress, the provenances from Xinyi of Guangdong and Wuping of Fujian exhibited higher P efficiency and greater dry matter accumulation, and their root architecture presented large adaptive changes, with the values of root parameters in P-rich soil surface layer being significantly higher than those of the P inefficient provenances from Chun'an of Zhejiang and Cenxi of Guangxi, which should be responsible for the higher P absorption efficiency and high P efficiency of the provenances from Xinyi and Wuping under heterogeneous low P condition. The root architecture parameters in P-rich soil surface layer and the plant dry matter accumulation of different provenance P. massoniana under heterogeneous low P stress had a correlation coefficient >0.95. Under homogeneous low P stress, the provenances with higher P efficiency had a significantly higher P uptake efficiency than the provenances with lower P efficiency, but the root parametres of the provenances with higher P efficiency had no significant correlation with the P efficiency of the provenances. There existed differences in the adaptive mechanism for the heterogeneous and homogeneous low P stress among the the P. massoniana provenances, and thus, different strategies should be adopted in the selection of P-efficient provenances for different forest stands.

  8. Genetic variation of piperidine alkaloids in Pinus ponderosa: a common garden study

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Elizabeth A.; Kelsey, Rick G.; St Clair, J. Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous measurements of conifer alkaloids have revealed significant variation attributable to many sources, environmental and genetic. The present study takes a complementary and intensive, common garden approach to examine genetic variation in Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa alkaloid production. Additionally, this study investigates the potential trade-off between seedling growth and alkaloid production, and associations between topographic/climatic variables and alkaloid production. Methods Piperidine alkaloids were quantified in foliage of 501 nursery seedlings grown from seed sources in west-central Washington, Oregon and California, roughly covering the western half of the native range of ponderosa pine. A nested mixed model was used to test differences among broad-scale regions and among families within regions. Alkaloid concentrations were regressed on seedling growth measurements to test metabolite allocation theory. Likewise, climate characteristics at the seed sources were also considered as explanatory variables. Key Results Quantitative variation from seedling to seedling was high, and regional variation exceeded variation among families. Regions along the western margin of the species range exhibited the highest alkaloid concentrations, while those further east had relatively low alkaloid levels. Qualitative variation in alkaloid profiles was low. All measures of seedling growth related negatively to alkaloid concentrations on a natural log scale; however, coefficients of determination were low. At best, annual height increment explained 19·4 % of the variation in ln(total alkaloids). Among the climate variables, temperature range showed a negative, linear association that explained 41·8 % of the variation. Conclusions Given the wide geographic scope of the seed sources and the uniformity of resources in the seedlings' environment, observed differences in alkaloid concentrations are evidence for genetic regulation of alkaloid

  9. Range-wide phylogeography and gene zones in Pinus pinaster Ait. revealed by chloroplast microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Gabriele; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Le Provost, Grégoire; Plomion, Christophe; Ribeiro, Maria Margarida; Sebastiani, Federico; Alía, Ricardo; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2007-05-01

    Some 1339 trees from 48 Pinus pinaster stands were characterized by five chloroplast microsatellites, detecting a total of 103 distinct haplotypes. Frequencies for the 16 most abundant haplotypes (p(k) > 0.01) were spatially interpolated over a lattice made by 430 grid points. Fitting of spatially interpolated values on raw haplotype frequencies at the same geographical location was tested by regression analysis. A range-wide 'diversity map' based on interpolated haplotype frequencies allowed the identification of one 'hotspot' of diversity in central and southeastern Spain, and two areas of low haplotypic diversity located in the western Iberian peninsula and Morocco. Principal component analysis (PCA) carried out on haplotypes frequency surfaces allowed the construction of a colour-based 'synthetic' map of the first three PC components, enabling the detection of the main range-scale genetic trends and the identification of three main 'gene pools' for the species: (i) a 'southeastern' gene pool, including southeastern France, Italy, Corsica, Sardinia, Pantelleria and northern Africa; (ii) an 'Atlantic' gene pool, including all the western areas of the Iberian peninsula; and (iii) a 'central' gene pool, located in southeastern Spain. Multivariate and AMOVA analyses carried out on interpolated grid point frequency values revealed the existence of eight major clusters ('gene zones'), whose genetic relationships were related with the history of the species. In addition, demographic models showed more ancient expansions in the eastern and southern ranges of maritime pine probably associated to early postglacial recolonization. The delineation of the gene zones provides a baseline for designing conservation areas in this key Mediterranean pine.

  10. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease.

  11. [Fire and Pinus mugo Turra communities in the western Alps (Susa Valley, Italy) during the Lateglacial-Holocene transition: an evidence of refugia area].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adam A; Martinez, Marion; Fauvart, Nicolas; Roiron, Paul; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Guendon, Jean-Louis; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Carcaillet, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    In western Italian Alps, small distinct populations of Pinus mugo Turra raise some questions concerning its ecological status and dynamics in the occidental Alps. This note present new palaeobotanical data based on cone imprints of Pinus mugo, identified in travertine systems located in the Val di Susa and dated back to the Late Dryas (11506+/-66 BP) and the Early Holocene (10145+/-225 et 9475+/-670 BP). Heliophilous species and charcoal fragments were also identified, testifying to the oldness of wildfires in this region. The data support the hypothesis that this zone was a refuge area of this pine during the last glaciation. Here we discuss about the postglacial dynamics of the Pinus mugo in the occidental Alps. PMID:16797455

  12. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Pb, Cd, and Cu in Pinus nigra L. and Eriobotrya japonica leaves used as biomonitors in environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Gokce; Ozcan, Cemile; Yaman, Mehmet

    2010-02-01

    The assessment of trace metal pollution in Gaziantep city-Turkey has been studied using plant leaves of Pinus nigra L. and Eriobotrya japonica as biomonitor. The concentrations up to 3,056 mg Pb kg(-1) in the needles of Pinus nigra L., and 367 ng Cd g(-1) in the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica were determined. The observed Cu concentrations were in range of 1.6-7.1 mg kg(-1). The Pb, Cd, and Cu levels in soils were determined to be in the range of 17-602, 0.142-0.656, and 12-38 mg kg(-1), respectively. It was concluded that Pinus nigra L. can be considered as both biomonitor of atmospheric Pb pollution and hyperaccumulator plant.

  13. Automatic classification of reforested Pinus SPP and Eucalyptus SPP in Mogi-Guacu, SP, Brazil, using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Hernandez, P. E.; Koffler, N. F.; Chen, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Single date LANDSAT CCTs were processed, by Image-100 to classify Pinus and Eucalyptus species and their age groups. The study area Mogi-Guagu was located in the humid subtropical climate zone of Sao Paulo. The study was divided into ten preliminary classes and featured selection algorithms were used to calculate Bhattacharyya distance between all possible pairs of these classes in the four available channels. Classes having B-distance values less than 1.30 were grouped in four classes: (1) class PE - P. elliottii, (2) class P0 - Pinus species other than P. elliotii, (3) class EY - Eucalyptus spp. under two years, and (4) class E0 - Eucalyptus spp. more than two years old. The percentages of correct classification ranged from 70.9% to 94.12%. Comparisons of acreage estimated from the Image-100 with ground truth data showed agreement. The Image-100 percent recognition values for the above four classes were 91.62%, 87.80%, 89.89%, and 103.30%, respectively.

  14. WEAK CROSSABILITY BARRIER BUT STRONG JUVENILE SELECTION SUPPORTS ECOLOGICAL SPECIATION OF THE HYBRID PINE PINUS DENSATA ON THE TIBETAN PLATEAU

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Meng, Jingxiang; Wang, Baosheng; Zhang, Lisha; Xu, Yulan; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Li, Yue; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Determining how a new hybrid lineage can achieve reproductive isolation is a key to understanding the process and mechanisms of homoploid hybrid speciation. Here, we evaluated the degree and nature of reproductive isolation between the ecologically successful hybrid species Pinus densata and its parental species P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. We performed interspecific crosses among the three species to assess their crossability. We then conducted reciprocal transplantation experiments to evaluate their fitness differentiation, and to examine how natural populations representing different directions of introgression differ in adaptation. The crossing experiments revealed weak genetic barriers among the species. The transplantation trials showed manifest evidence of local adaptation as the three species all performed best in their native habitats. Pinus densata populations from the western edge of its distribution have evolved a strong local adaptation to the specific habitat in that range; populations representing different directions of introgressants with the two parental species all showed fitness disadvantages in this P. densata habitat. These observations illustrate that premating isolation through selection against immigrants from other habitat types or postzygotic isolation through selection against backcrosses between the three species is strong. Thus, ecological selection in combination with endogenous components and geographic isolation has likely played a significant role in the speciation of P. densata. PMID:25065387

  15. Gene-pool variation in caledonian and European Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) revealed by chloroplast simple-sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Provan, J; Soranzo, N; Wilson, N J; McNicol, J W; Forrest, G I; Cottrell, J; Powell, W

    1998-09-22

    We have used polymorphic chloroplast simple-sequence repeats to analyse levels of genetic variation within and between seven native Scottish and eight mainland European populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Diversity levels for the Scottish populations based on haplotype frequency were far in excess of those previously obtained using monoterpenes and isozymes and confirmed lower levels of genetic variation within the derelict population at Glen Falloch. The diversity levels were higher than those reported in similar studies in other Pinus species. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that small (3.24-8.81%) but significant (p < or = 0.001) portions of the variation existed between the populations and that there was no significant difference between the Scottish and the mainland European populations. Evidence of population substructure was found in the Rannoch population, which exhibited two subgroups. Finally, one of the loci studied exhibited an allele distribution uncharacteristic of the stepwise mutation model of evolution of simple-sequence repeats, and sequencing of the PCR products revealed that this was due to a duplication rather than slippage in the repeat region. An examination of the distribution of this mutation suggests that it may have occurred fairly recently in the Wester Ross region or that it may be evidence of a refugial population.

  16. [Radiation risk assessment for plant reference species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) from the area of radium production waste storage].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    The risk of an enhanced level of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay series in the environment for reference plant species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) was assessed. 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Po, 232Th and 228Th concentration factors for plants were found to be lower than one. The aboveground parts of Vicia cracca sampled from the area of the radium production waste storage mainly accumulated 22Ra, Pinus sylvestris branches--210Pb, 226Ra and 210Po. LOEDR calculated for the chromosome aberration frequency in both plant studies was 17-71 microGy/h. LOERD values for the reproductive capacity decrease in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 17-71 microGy/h and 116-258 microGy/h, correspondingly. EDR10 for the chromosome aberration frequency in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 148 and 347 microGy/h, that is, correspondingly, 255 and 708 times higher that background values. EDR10 for the plant reproductive capacity was 11-34 microGy/h, which 19-69 times increases the background values.

  17. Effects of trichloroacetic acid on the nitrogen metabolism of Pinus sylvestris--a 13C/15N tracer study.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Christoph; Jung, Klaus; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2002-01-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) can be found in various environmental compartments like air, rain and plants all over the world. It is assumed that TCA is an atmospheric degradation product of volatile chloroorganic hydrocarbons. The herbicide effect of TCA in higher concentrations is well known, but not much is known about the phytotoxic effects in environmentally relevant concentrations. It can be shown in this study by using the 13C/15N stable isotope tracer technique that [13C]TCA is taken up by roots of two-year-old seedlings of Pinus sylvestris L. and transported into the needles. At the same time the effect of the substance on nitrogen metabolism can be analyzed by measuring the incorporation of 15NO3- into different nitrogen fractions of the plant. The more [13C]TCA incorporation, the higher the synthesis of 15N labelled amino acids and proteins is. These effects on the nitrogen metabolism are probably based on the activation of stress- and detoxification metabolism. It has to be assumed that there is an influence on N metabolism of Pinus sylvestris caused by the deposition of environmentally relevant TCA concentrations.

  18. Little Ice Age Summer Temperatures on Pindos Mountains, Greece, From a 750 Year Long Pinus Nigra Tree-Ring Chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutavas, A.; Dimitrakopoulos, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present a 750-year long tree-ring chronology from black pines (Pinus nigra) in Valia Kalda National Park, Pindos Mountains, Greece. The chronology shows a strong climate signal which consists of significant negative correlation (R=-0.5) with summer temperature (Jun-Jul-Aug-Sep), and positive correlation with summer precipitation. We exploit these relationships to reconstruct summer climate from ~1250 CE to present. In particular we investigate the character of the Little Ice Age (LIA) on mountainous Greece. We find evidence for cooler/wetter summers during the 18th and 19th centuries, but warmer/drier summers during the 14th through 17th centuries, during some of the coldest periods of the LIA in Northern Europe including the Maunder Minimum. This counter-intuitive pattern suggests the LIA had distinct signatures in the Easter Mediterranean, diverging from those of Northern Europe. The temperature pattern reconstructed here is remarkably similar to a recent reconstruction of summer temperatures from maximum latewood density (MXD) of Pinus heldreichii on Mount Olympus, just 150 km east of our site. However, because of the ambivalence of the climate signal with respect to temperature vs. precipitation in both of these reconstructions, there remains uncertainty as to whether the LIA was primarily warm, or dry, or some combination. We advocate for further reconstructions of LIA climate in the Balkan Peninsula and Eastern Mediterranean to explore relationships with Northern Europe and elucidate the broader climatic pattern and dynamical connections.

  19. Intra-annual dynamics of stem CO2 efflux in relation to cambial activity and xylem development in Pinus cembra

    PubMed Central

    GRUBER, A.; WIESER, G.; OBERHUBER, W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The relationship between stem CO2 efflux (ES), cambial activity and xylem production in Pinus cembra was determined at the timberline (1950 m a.s.l.) of the Central Austrian Alps, throughout one year. ES was measured continuously from June 2006 to August 2007 using an infrared gas-analysis system. Cambial activity and xylem production was determined by repeated microcore sampling of the developing tree ring and radial increment was monitored using automated point dendrometers. Aside of temperature, the number of living tracheids and cambial cells was predominantly responsible for ES: ES normalized to 10°C (ES10) was significantly correlated to number of living cells throughout the year (r2 = 0,574; p < 0,001). However, elevated ES and missing correlation between ES10 and xylem production was detected during cambial reactivation in April and during transition from active phase to rest, which occurred in August and lasted until early September. Results of this study indicate that (i) during seasonal variations in cambial activity non-linearity between ES and xylem production occurs and (ii) elevated metabolic activity during transition stages in the cambial activity-dormancy cycle influence the carbon budget of Pinus cembra. Daily radial stem increment was primarily influenced by the number of enlarging cells and was not correlated to ES. PMID:19203979

  20. [Development of New Mitochondrial DNA Markers in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for Population Genetic and Phylogeographic Studies].

    PubMed

    Semerikov, V L; Putintseva, Yu A; Oreshkova, N V; Semerikova, S A; Krutovsky, K V

    2015-12-01

    Fragments of genomic DNA of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) homologous to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contigs of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were resequenced in a sample of the Scots pine trees of European, Siberian, Mongolian and Caucasian origin in order to develop mtDNA markers. Flanking non-coding regions of some mitochondrial genes were also investigated and resequenced. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a single minisatellite locus were identified. Caucasian samples differed from the rest by three SNPs. Two SNPs have been linked to an early described marker in.the first intron of the nad7 gene, and all together revealed three haplotypes in European populations. No variable SNPs were found in the Siberian and Mongolian populations. The minisatellite locus contained 41 alleles across European, Siberian and Mongolian populations, but, this locus demonstrated a weak population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.058), probably due to its high mutation rate. PMID:27055298

  1. [Radiation risk assessment for plant reference species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) from the area of radium production waste storage].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    The risk of an enhanced level of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay series in the environment for reference plant species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) was assessed. 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Po, 232Th and 228Th concentration factors for plants were found to be lower than one. The aboveground parts of Vicia cracca sampled from the area of the radium production waste storage mainly accumulated 22Ra, Pinus sylvestris branches--210Pb, 226Ra and 210Po. LOEDR calculated for the chromosome aberration frequency in both plant studies was 17-71 microGy/h. LOERD values for the reproductive capacity decrease in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 17-71 microGy/h and 116-258 microGy/h, correspondingly. EDR10 for the chromosome aberration frequency in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 148 and 347 microGy/h, that is, correspondingly, 255 and 708 times higher that background values. EDR10 for the plant reproductive capacity was 11-34 microGy/h, which 19-69 times increases the background values. PMID:22690582

  2. Differential response of two Pinus spp. to avian nitrogen input as revealed by nitrogen isotope analysis for tree rings.

    PubMed

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Lopez Caceres, Maximo Larry; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nobori, Yoshihiro

    2011-03-01

    Temporal variations in N concentration and δ(15)N value of annual tree rings (1 year of time resolution) of two Japanese Black Pine (Pinus thunbergii) and three Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) trees under current breeding activity of the Great Cormorant (Pharacrocorax carbo) and the Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris), respectively, in central and northeastern Japan were studied. Both species from control sites where no avian input occurs show negative values (δ(15)N = around -4 ‰ to -2 ‰) which are common among higher plants growing under high rainfall regimes. The δ(15)N values of P. densiflora show uniformly positive values several years before and after the breeding event, indicating N translocation that moved the absorbed N of a given growth year to tree rings of the previous year while a clear historical value of soil N dynamics was kept intact in the annual rings of P. thunbergii. Long-term N trends inferred from tree rings must take into account tree species with limited translocation rates that can retain actual N annual acquisition. PMID:21271423

  3. Effects of warming treatment and precipitation manipulation on fine root length of Pinus densiflora seedlings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Li, G.; Park, M.; An, J.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Fine roots are important for water and nutrient uptake and storage of carbon and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to examine effects of climate change on fine root of Pinus densiflora seedlings, an open-field experiment with the warming treatment and precipitation manipulation had been conducted at a nursery in Seoul, South Korea. Two-year-old P. seedlings were planted in April, 2013. The air temperature of the warmed plots (W) was set to increase by 3°C compared to the temperature control plots (C) using infrared lamps. The precipitation manipulation consisted of the precipitation decreased using transparent panel (-30%; P-), the precipitation increased using pump and drip-irrigation (+30%; P+), and the precipitation control (0%; P0). The fine root length of the seedlings near the soil surface (0-15 cm depth) was estimated from January, 2014 to January, 2015 trimonthly using minirhizotrons. The mean fine root length (mm mm-2) were 115.0 (WP0), 163.7 (WP-), 90.5 (WP+), 114.4 (CP0), 130.2 (CP-), and 100.6 (CP+) during the study period, respectively. The mean fine root length was significantly affected by the precipitation manipulation (P<0.0001); however, it was not influenced by the warming treatment (P>0.1). There was no interaction between warming and precipitation effects in fine root length. The fine root length in P- plot was higher than those in P0 plot and P+ plot, regardless of the warming treatment, which indicated that water stress caused by P- might stimulate the fine root growth. Meanwhile, the no consistent patterns of fine root length by warming treatment was found under P+ plot and P0 plot, but a positive effect of warming on fine root length was observed under P+ plot only. Estimations of fine root production and mortality are required to determine the interaction between warming and precipitation effects on fine root dynamics more exactly. This study was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (2014001310008).

  4. [Influence of thinning on regeneration in a coastal pinus thunbergii forest].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiaojun; Li, Fengqin; Matsuzaki, Takeshi; Gonda, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    A coastal forest planted nearby the sea can provide many shelter benefits for the coastal regions. It is ideally if the continuity of the shelter benefits could be preserved through reasonable management. Thinning and regeneration as the most important management techniques for plantations can help the continuity of the shelter benefits of the coastal forest. However, because of the peculiarities of coastal forest, i.e., the coastal plantation nearby the sea is vulnerable to disturbances (thinning as one kind of disturbance), the study on thinning and regeneration within a coastal forest is poorly understood. The purpose of this paper is to give a primary understanding in natural regeneration for the coastal Pinus thunbergii forest with different thinning rates after four growing seasons since thinning. The experiment was carried out at the middle of the shoreline along the Japan Sea, and the investigated sites consisted of four thinning treatments (control, 0% thinned, 20% thinned, 30% thinned and 50% thinned) in a coastal P. thunbergii forest. After thinning, the regenerated seedlings, soil water content, light condition (canopy openness or canopy density), wind regime, and litter depth and quantity were investigated for four growing seasons. The relationships between the regenerated seedlings and light condition, litter, wind profile and soil water content were examined. The results showed that thinning could improve the light condition on the forest floor, increase the exchange of airflow (wind speed) in the coastal forest stand, and ameliorate the water content of the forest soil. These factors accelerated the decomposition of litters, and provided necessary conditions for natural regeneration. The results of regeneration observation indicated that the most intensively thinned treatment (50% thinned with density of about 1500 stems.hm-2) could provide a better condition for regeneration during the four growing seasons. The density and growth of seedling

  5. Effects of environmental conditions on onset of xylem growth in Pinus sylvestris under drought.

    PubMed

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Kofler, Werner; Oberhuber, Walter

    2011-05-01

    We determined the influence of environmental factors (air and soil temperature, precipitation, photoperiod) on onset of xylem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) by repeatedly sampling micro-cores throughout 2007-10 at two sites (xeric and dry-mesic) at the start of the growing season. Temperature sums were calculated in degree-days (DD) ≥5 °C from 1 January and 20 March, i.e., spring equinox, to account for photoperiodic control of release from winter dormancy. Threshold temperatures at which xylogenesis had a 0.5 probability of being active were calculated by logistic regression. Onset of xylem growth, which was not significantly different between the xeric and dry-mesic sites, ranged from mid-April in 2007 to early May in 2008. Among most study years, statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in onset of xylem growth were detected. Mean air temperature sums calculated from 1 January until onset of xylem growth were 230 ± 44 DD (mean ± standard deviation) at the xeric site and 205 ± 36 DD at the dry-mesic site. Temperature sums calculated from spring equinox until onset of xylem growth showed somewhat less variability during the 4-year study period, amounting to 144 ± 10 and 137 ± 12 DD at the xeric and dry-mesic sites, respectively. At both sites, xylem growth was active when daily minimum, mean and maximum air temperatures were 5.3, 10.1 and 16.2 °C, respectively. Soil temperature thresholds and DD until onset of xylem growth differed significantly between sites, indicating minor importance of root-zone temperature for onset of xylem growth. Although spring precipitation is known to limit radial growth in P. sylvestris exposed to a dry inner Alpine climate, the results of this study revealed that (i) a daily minimum air temperature threshold for onset of xylem growth in the range 5-6 °C exists and (ii) air temperature sum rather than precipitation or soil temperature triggers

  6. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrates and stem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exposed to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Tree growth requires a continuous supply of carbon as structural material and as a source for metabolic energy. To detect whether intra-annual stem growth is related to changes in carbon allocation, we monitored seasonal dynamics of shoot and radial growth and concentrations of mobile carbohydrates (NSC) in above- and belowground organs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study area is situated within an inner Alpine dry environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), which is characterized by recurring drought periods at the start of the growing season in spring and limited water holding capacity of nutrient deficient, shallow stony soils. Shoot elongation was monitored on lateral branches in the canopy and stem radius changes were continuously followed by electronic band dendrometers. Daily radial stem growth and tree water deficit (ΔW) were extracted from dendrometer records. ΔW is regarded a reliable measure of drought stress in trees and develops when transpirational water loss from leaves exceeds water uptake by the root system. Daily radial stem growth and ΔW were related to environmental variables and determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays. Results revealed quite early culmination of aboveground growth rates in late April (shoot growth) and late May (radial growth), and increasing accumulation of NSC in coarse roots in June. NSC content in roots peaked at the end of July and thereafter decreased again, indicating a shift in carbon allocation after an early cessation of aboveground stem growth. ΔW was found to peak in late summer, when high temperatures prevailed. That maximum growth rates of aboveground organs peaked quite before precipitation increased during summer is related to the finding that ΔW and radial stem growth were more strongly controlled by the atmospheric environment, than by soil water content. We conclude that as a response to the seasonal development of ΔW a shift in carbon allocation from aboveground

  7. Vulnerability to cavitation, hydraulic efficiency, growth and survival in an insular pine (Pinus canariensis)

    PubMed Central

    López, Rosana; López de Heredia, Unai; Collada, Carmen; Cano, Francisco Javier; Emerson, Brent C.; Cochard, Hervé; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims It is widely accepted that hydraulic failure due to xylem embolism is a key factor contributing to drought-induced mortality in trees. In the present study, an attempt is made to disentangle phenotypic plasticity from genetic variation in hydraulic traits across the entire distribution area of a tree species to detect adaptation to local environments. Methods A series of traits related to hydraulics (vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic conductivity in branches), growth performance and leaf mass per area were assessed in eight Pinus canariensis populations growing in two common gardens under contrasting environments. In addition, the neutral genetic variability (FST) and the genetic differentiation of phenotypic variation (QST) were compared in order to identify the evolutionary forces acting on these traits. Key Results The variability for hydraulic traits was largely due to phenotypic plasticity. Nevertheless, the vulnerability to cavitation displayed a significant genetic variability (approx. 5 % of the explained variation), and a significant genetic × environment interaction (between 5 and 19 % of the explained variation). The strong correlation between vulnerability to cavitation and survival in the xeric common garden (r = –0·81; P < 0·05) suggests a role for the former in the adaptation to xeric environments. Populations from drier sites and higher temperature seasonality were less vulnerable to cavitation than those growing at mesic sites. No trade-off between xylem safety and efficiency was detected. QST of parameters of the vulnerability curve (0·365 for P50 and the slope of the vulnerability curve and 0·452 for P88) differed substantially from FST (0·091), indicating divergent selection. In contrast, genetic drift alone was found to be sufficient to explain patterns of differentiation for xylem efficiency and growth. Conclusions The ability of P. canariensis to inhabit a wide range of ecosystems seemed to be associated

  8. Elevational trends in hydraulic efficiency and safety of Pinus cembra roots.

    PubMed

    Losso, Adriano; Nardini, Andrea; Nolf, Markus; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In alpine regions, elevational gradients in environmental parameters are reflected by structural and functional changes in plant traits. Elevational changes in plant water relations have also been demonstrated, but comparable information on root hydraulics is generally lacking. We analyzed the hydraulic efficiency (specific hydraulic conductivity k s, entire root system conductance K R) and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism (water potential at 50 % loss of conductivity Ψ 50) of the roots of Pinus cembra trees growing along an elevational transect of 600 m. Hydraulic parameters of the roots were compared with those of the stem and related to anatomical traits {mean conduit diameter (d), wall reinforcement [(t/b)(2)]}. We hypothesized that temperature-related restrictions in root function would cause a progressive limitation of hydraulic efficiency and safety with increasing elevation. We found that both root k s and K R decreased from low (1600 m a.s.l.: k s 5.6 ± 0.7 kg m(-1) s(-1) MPa(-1), K R 0.049 ± 0.005 kg m(-2) s (-1) MPa(-1)) to high elevation (2100 m a.s.l.: k s 4.2 ± 0.6 kg m(-1) s(-1) MPa(-1), K R 0.035 ± 0.006 kg m(-2) s(-1) MPa(-1)), with small trees showing higher K R than large trees. k s was higher in roots than in stems (0.5 ± 0.05 kg m(-1)s(-1)MPa(-1)). Ψ 50 values were similar across elevations and overall less negative in roots (Ψ 50 -3.6 ± 0.1 MPa) than in stems (Ψ 50 -3.9 ± 0.1 MPa). In roots, large-diameter tracheids were lacking at high elevation and (t/b)(2) increased, while d did not change. The elevational decrease in root hydraulic efficiency reflects a limitation in timberline tree hydraulics. In contrast, hydraulic safety was similar across elevations, indicating that avoidance of hydraulic failure is important for timberline trees. As hydraulic patterns can only partly be explained by the anatomical parameters studied, limitations and/or adaptations at the pit level are likely.

  9. Polar transport and accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid during root regeneration by Pinus lambertiana embryos.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M S; Goldsmith, M H

    1970-12-01

    The relation of indoleacetic acid (IAA) transport to accumulation of auxin at the base of cuttings and to polar root formation was investigated with small cuttings from germinating embryos of Pinus lambertiana.The transport of endogenous auxin participates in regeneration of roots. This is shown by the facts that (1) more than 40% of the cuttings rooted without addition of exogenous indoleacetic acid; (2) the first regeneration always occurred at the basal tip of a slanting cut; and (3) 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), a specific inhibitor of auxin transport, totally inhibited rooting. Addition of IAA to the medium increased the number of roots formed per rooting hypocotyl.Sections of hypocotyls excised from dormant embryos and tested immediately after 2 h hydration were capable of polar transport of IAA. This polarity increased during the first 3 days of culture because of a marked increase in basipetal transport. Culturing the cuttings in 1 μM IAA for 3-5 days doubled both the basipetal transport of 1-(14)C-IAA by hypocotyl segments and the accumulation of radioactivity at the base of cuttings.The extent of the accumulation at the base of cuttings was similar at early (2 days, first mitoses) and late stages (5 days, organized meristem) of regeneration and was not affected by removal of the regenerating region immediately prior to uptake and transport of (14)C-IAA. The accumulation was inhibited by TIBA. In terms of increase in wet and dry weight and mitotic activity, the cotyledons rather than the regenerating root meristems were the most actively growing region of the cuttings. The upper part of the hypocotyl elongated more than the region of the slanting cut where regeneration was occurring.These results provide no support for the idea that the regenerating root controls the direction of polar transport by acting as a sink. The results are consistent with the view that polar auxin transport delivers auxin to the base of the cutting and raises the local

  10. Carbon allocation belowground in Pinus pinaster using stable carbon isotope pulse labeling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannoura, M.; Bosc, A.; Chipeaux, C.; Sartore, M.; Lambrot, C.; Trichet, P.; Bakker, M.; Loustau, D.; Epron, D.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon allocation belowground competes with aboveground growth and biomass production. In the other hand, it contributes to resource acquisition such as nutrient, water and carbon sequestration in soil. Thus, a better characterization of carbon flow from plant to soil and its residence time within each compartment is an important issue for understanding and modeling forest ecosystem carbon budget. 13C pulse labeling of whole crown was conducted at 4 seasons to study the fate of assimilated carbon by photosynthesis into the root on 12 year old Pinus pinaster planted in the INRA domain of Pierroton. Maritime pine is the most widely planted species in South-West Europe. Stem, root and soil CO2 effluxes and their isotope composition were measured continuously by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with a trace gas analyzer (TGA 100A; Campbell Scientific) coupled to flow-through chambers. 13CO2 recovery and peak were observed in respiration of each compartment after labeling. It appeared sequentially from top of stem to bottom, and to coarse root. The maximum velocity of carbon transfer was calculated as the difference in time lag of recovery between two positions on the trunk or on the root. It ranged between 0.08-0.2 m h-1 in stem and between 0.04-0.12 m h-1 in coarse root. This velocity was higher in warmer season, and the difference between time lag of recovery and peak increased after first frost. Photosynthates arrived underground 1.5 to 5 days after labeling, at similar time in soil CO2 effluxes and coarse root respiration. 0.08-1.4 g of carbon was respired per tree during first 20 days following labeling. It presented 0.6 -10% of 13C used for labeling and it is strongly related to seasons. The isotope signal was detected in fine root organs and microbial biomass by periodical core sampling. The peak was observed 6 days after labeling in early summer while it was delayed more than 10 days in autumn and winter with less amount of carbon allocated

  11. Effect of long-term drought on carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Aaltonen, Heidi; Lindén, Aki; Köster, Kajar; Biasi, Christina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    Weather extremes such as drought events are expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change. The drought affects the allocation of carbon assimilated by plants e.g. by modifying the root to shoot ratio, amount of fine roots and the amount of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. We studied the effect of long term drought on the allocation of carbon in a common garden experiment with 4-year-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Half of the seedlings were exposed to long-term drought by setting the soil water content close to wilting point for over two growing seasons whereas the other half was grown in soil close to field capacity. We conducted a pulse labelling with 13CO2 in the end of the study by injecting a known amount of 13C enriched CO2 to the seedlings and measuring the CO2 uptake and distribution of 13C to the biomass of the seedlings and to the root and rhizosphere respiration. In addition, we studied the effect of drought on the decomposition of needle litter and uptake of nitrogen by 15N labelled needles buried in the soil in litter bags. The litterbags were collected and harvested in the end of the experiment and the changes in microbial community in the litterbags were studied from the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition. We also determined the 15N isotope concentrations from the needles of the seedlings to study the effect of drought on the nitrogen uptake of the seedlings. Our results indicate that the drought had a significant effect both on the biomass allocation of the seedlings and on the microbial species composition. The amount of carbon allocated belowground was much higher in the seedlings exposed to drought compared to the control seedlings. The seedlings seemed to adapt their carbon allocation to long-term drought to sustain adequate needle biomass and water uptake. The seedlings also adapted their osmotic potential and photosynthesis capacity to sustain the long-term drought as was indicated by the measurements of osmotic potential

  12. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Caetano da Silva, Sandro Donizete; Mendes de Souza, Maria Gorete; Oliveira Cardoso, Miguel Jorge; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cássio; Martins, Carlos Henrique G

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 μg/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 μg/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 μg/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for Prevotella nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm

  13. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Caetano da Silva, Sandro Donizete; Mendes de Souza, Maria Gorete; Oliveira Cardoso, Miguel Jorge; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cássio; Martins, Carlos Henrique G

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 μg/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 μg/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 μg/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for Prevotella nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm

  14. Lactarius deliciosus and Pinus radiata in New Zealand: towards the development of innovative gourmet mushroom orchards.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Cummings, Nicholas; Butler, Ruth Catherine; Willows, Anna; Hesom-Williams, Nina; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    The cultivation of Lactarius deliciosus (saffron milk cap) in New Zealand began in 2002 when fruiting bodies were produced in an Otago plantation of Pinus radiata seedlings artificially mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. In 2007, 42 P. radiata seedlings mycorrhized by L. deliciosus under controlled conditions were planted in a grass field at Plant and Food Research (Lincoln, Canterbury). The effects of pine bark mulch application and initial degree of mycorrhization of seedlings were examined to determine their influence on tree growth, development of mycorrhizae (i.e. their multiplication on the root system and their degree of branching) and fruiting body production. Mulch application increased tree growth significantly over 4 years. High initial mycorrhization slightly stimulated tree growth over 2 years. The initial degree of mycorrhization was positively, but not strongly, related to the persistence and development of L. deliciosus mycorrhizae and rhizomorphs based on root sample analyses 2 years after planting. However, mulching strongly reduced the proportion of highly branched L. deliciosus mycorrhizae compared with poorly ramified ones. A positive correlation was observed between the fruiting of L. deliciosus and the development of mycorrhizae. Mulching delayed the onset of fruiting body production. In 2010, fruiting bodies were produced only from non-mulched trees with eight of these (38 %) producing a total of 12 fruiting bodies. In 2011, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 9 mulched trees (45 %) produced 143 and 47 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 190 fruiting bodies. By 2012, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 13 mulched trees (65 %) produced 333 and 236 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 569 fruiting bodies (c. 30 kg). This study presents new information on factors influencing the onset of fruiting and the development of yields in a plantation of P. radiata mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. Projected yields as high as c. 300 kg/ha from the

  15. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of monoterpene emissions from Pinus pinea (L.) under field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, M.; Bertin, N.; Hansen, U.; Seufert, G.; Cicciolij, P.; Foster, P.; Frenzel, B.; Fugit, J.-L.

    Within the activity of the BEMA project (Biogenic Emission in the Mediterranean Area), the emission of volatile organic compounds from Pinus pinea L. was studied in a nature reservation close to Rome (Italy). Measurements were carried out during five campaigns from June 1993 to October 1994 using a dynamic branch enclosure technique. Investigations principally focused on studying diurnal and seasonal variability. P. pinea emitted mainly monoterpenes of which limonene, trans-β-ocimene, linalool, α-pinene, myrcene and 1,8-cineole were the most abundant. At a temperature of 30°C and PAR > 600 μmol photons m -2 s -1 the sum of emissions was about 2-3.5 μg g -1 leaf dry weight h -1 in spring and autumn, and about 7 to 15 μg g -1h -1 in summer. Absolute daytime emission rates were very high in summer (35 μg g -1 h -1 ) leading to a carbon loss of up to 8% of the 24 h photosynthetic carbon gain. α-pinene and limonene emissions were found in all campaigns and were emitted during day and night. Other compounds like trans-β-ocimene, linalool and 1,8-cineole occurred seasonally and were not or hardly emitted in the night. The lack of emissions during night point to a strong influence of light as confirmed by an artificial darkening experiment. Diurnal emissions of limonene and trans-β-ocimene were simulated by the monoterpene model. of Tingey et al. (1980, Plant Physiology65, 797-801) and the isoprene model of Guenther et al. (1991, J. geophys. Res., 96, 10,799-10,808), using parameters suggested by Guenther et al. (1993, J. geophys. Res., 96 ,10,799-10,808) and parameters adjusted to data by best-fit regression analysis. Model predictions were fairly good with the adjusted parameters ( R2 = 0.71 and 0.77, n = 139 and 72). Trans-β-ocimene data clearly fitted better with the isoprene model while Tingey's monoterpene model was more appropriate for limonene data. The pronounced seasonality in amount and composition of the emissions demonstrate that the existing models

  16. Analytical Modelling of Canopy Interception Loss from a Juvenile Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; Lishman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    In the central interior of British Columbia (BC), Canada, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB) has severely affected the majority of pine species in the region, especially lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson). The loss of mature lodgepole pine stands, including those lost to salvage logging, has resulted in an increase in the number of juvenile pine stands in the interior of BC through planting and natural regrowth. With this change from mature forests to juvenile forests at such a large spatial scale, the water balance of impacted areas may be altered, although the magnitude of such change is uncertain. Previous studies of rainfall partitioning by lodgepole pine and lodgepole pine dominated canopies have focused on mature stands. Thus, rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were measured and canopy interception loss was derived during the growing season of 2010 in a juvenile lodgepole pine dominated stand located approximately 60 km NNW of Kamloops, BC at 51°12'49" N 120°23'43" W, 1290 m above mean sea level. Scaling up from measurements for nine trees, throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception loss accounted for 87.7, 1.8 and 10.5 percent of the 252.9 mm of rain that fell over 38 events during the study period, respectively. The reformulated versions of the Gash and Liu analytical interception loss models estimated cumulative canopy interception loss at 24.7 and 24.6 mm, respectively, compared with the observed 26.5 mm; an underestimate of 1.8 and 1.9 mm or 6.8 and 7.2% of the observed value, respectively. Our results suggest that canopy interception loss is reduced in juvenile stands compared to their mature counterparts and that this reduction is due to the decreased storage capacity offered by these younger canopies. Evaporation during rainfall from juvenile canopies is still appreciable and may be a consequence of the increased proportion of the canopy exposed to wind during events.

  17. Simulated nitrogen cycling response to elevated CO(2) in Pinus taeda and mixed deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D. W.

    1999-04-01

    Interactions between elevated CO(2) and N cycling were explored with a nutrient cycling model (NuCM, Johnson et al. 1993, 1995) for a Pinus taeda L. site at Duke University, North Carolina, and a mixed deciduous site at Walker Branch, Tennessee. The simulations tested whether N limitation would prevent growth increases in response to elevated CO(2), and whether growth responses to CO(2) in N-limited systems could be facilitated by increasing the biomass/N ratio (reducing N concentration) or increasing litter N mineralization, or both. Nitrogen limitation precluded additional growth when target growth rates and litterfall were increased (simulating potential response to elevated CO(2)) at the Duke University site. At the Walker Branch site, increasing target growth and litterfall caused a 7% increase in growth. Reducing foliar N concentrations reduced growth because of N limitation created by reduced litter quality (C:N ratio), reduced decomposition and increased N accumulation on the forest floor. These effects were most pronounced at the Duke University site, because the forest floor N turnover rate was lower than at the Walker Branch site. Reducing wood N concentration allowed prolonged increases in growth because of greater biomass/N; however, N uptake was reduced, allowing greater N immobilization on the forest floor and in soil. Increased N mineralization caused increased growth at the Duke University site, but not at the Walker Branch site. These simulations pose the counterintuitive hypothesis that increased biogeochemical cycling of N (as a result of increased litterfall N) causes reduced growth in an N-limited system because of increased accumulations of N on the forest floor and in soil. Translocation of N from senescing leaves before litterfall mitigates this response by allowing the trees to retain a greater proportion of N taken up rather than recycle it back to the forest floor and soil where it can be immobilized. Eliminating N translocation at

  18. Investigation of the main causes of forest decay in a Hungarian Pinus forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyás, Krisztina; Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn

    2015-04-01

    Hungary has several places where the changing conditions (climate, water or soil) have an influence on the natural ecosystems. Lack of the adaptation capacity can lead to the mortality of the affected forests. In our study we try to find the reasons of the decay of a Hungarian old-growth forest (150-200 years old) in Fenyőfő - which is growing on protected area - whether it is caused by the soil properties and other abiotic variables or it is the result of the drying climate. On the studied area 119 samples from 20 soil profiles have been collected to find the causes of the tree mortality. The characteristic soil types are Luvisols, Cambisols, Arenosols mainly sand (56%) or loam (42%) by the physical assessment, but we found buried humus layer in a few cases that improves the water and nutrient supply of soils. Due to this favourable property the CaCO3 content appeared near to the surface, which hinders the vegetation in water utilization or water uptake. The average pH(H2O) of topsoil was between 4.2 and 5.5, where the leaching was characteristic and we found CaCO3 in deeper layers. The effects of climate change on the Pinus forest were also analysed. We used gridded station data from the Hungarian Meteorological Service for the time period 1961-2013. It contains daily, monthly and yearly time series for precipitation and temperature means and extremes. The meteorological data clearly show, that the mean annual temperature of the research plot increased drastically (~1°C). We also analysed the frequency of extreme high temperatures such as the total number of summer days (daily maximum temperature Tmax>25°C), hot days (Tmax>30°C) and extremely hot days (Tmax>35°C). This frequency of these days showed an increase in Fenyőfő, which caused higher water utilization and water deficiency. The annual precipitation sum decreased in the last few decades but this signal is not significant. The intensity and the variability of the precipitation in the vegetation

  19. Thinning intensity influences on soil microbial and inorganic nitrogen in Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Li, G.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J.; Kim, C.; Lee, S. T.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    With growing considerations for sustainable forest management, examining thinning effects on forest ecosystems becomes one of the principal research focuses. Soil microbial biomass and inorganic nitrogen (N) have, particularly, received increasing attentions, as they are the relevant indices for N availability in forests. Here, we investigated the influences of thinning on soil microbial biomass N (MBN) and inorganic N (NH4+ and NO3-) in two Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea. The thinning from below with different intensities based on stand density (site 1: control, 20%, and 30% thinning; site 2: control, 39%, and 74% thinning) was applied in 2008, and MBN, NH4+, and NO3- at 0-10 cm depth were measured seven years after thinning. The MBN, NH4+, and NO3- concentrations (mg kg-1) of the site 1 were 69.8, 9.8, and 6.3 in the control, 94.6, 9.3, and 4.0 in the 20% thinning plot, and 97.2, 8.4, and 5.2 in the 30% thinning plot, respectively. On the other hand, those of the site 2 were 34.5, 5.4, and 6.3 in the control, 37.3, 4.7, and 7.8 in the 39% thinning plot, and 44.4, 4.4, and 9.2 in the 74% thinning plot, respectively. The MBN of the thinning plots tended to be higher compared to those of the controls, although the analysis of variance reported the significant difference only for the MBN in the site 1 (P<0.05). This might be attributed to the incorporation of organic matter from the introduced thinning residues and from the increased understory vegetation following thinning. However, no significant difference was found for the NH4+ and NO3- (P>0.05). The results of the present study show that the application of thinning could differently affect MBN and inorganic N; accordingly, this difference might alter N availability of the study sites. This study was supported by Forest Practice Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute.

  20. Patterns of biomass and carbon distribution across a chronosequence of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forests.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinlong; Kang, Fengfeng; Wang, Luoxin; Yu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Weihong; Song, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Yanlei; Chen, Feng; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei; Han, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of biomass and carbon (C) storage distribution across Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) natural secondary forests are poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine the biomass and C pools of the major ecosystem components in a replicated age sequence of P. tabulaeformis secondary forest stands in Northern China. Within each stand, biomass of above- and belowground tree, understory (shrub and herb), and forest floor were determined from plot-level investigation and destructive sampling. Allometric equations using the diameter at breast height (DBH) were developed to quantify plant biomass. C stocks in the tree and understory biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil (0-100 cm) were estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. The results showed that the tree biomass of P. tabulaeformis stands was ranged from 123.8 Mg·ha-1 for the young stand to 344.8 Mg·ha-1 for the mature stand. The understory biomass ranged from 1.8 Mg·ha-1 in the middle-aged stand to 3.5 Mg·ha-1 in the young stand. Forest floor biomass increased steady with stand age, ranging from 14.9 to 23.0 Mg·ha-1. The highest mean C concentration across the chronosequence was found in tree branch while the lowest mean C concentration was found in forest floor. The observed C stock of the aboveground tree, shrub, forest floor, and mineral soil increased with increasing stand age, whereas the herb C stock showed a decreasing trend with a sigmoid pattern. The C stock of forest ecosystem in young, middle-aged, immature, and mature stands were 178.1, 236.3, 297.7, and 359.8 Mg C ha-1, respectively, greater than those under similar aged P. tabulaeformis forests in China. These results are likely to be integrated into further forest management plans and generalized in other contexts to evaluate C stocks at the regional scale. PMID:24736660

  1. Growth-climate relations of Larix decidua and Pinus cembra in an inner-alpine dry valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obojes, Nikolaus; Meurer, Armin; Tasser, Erich; Mayr, Stefan; Oberhuber, Walter; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    Due to climate change, increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation are expected for the southern part of the Alps. To estimate possible effects on growth conditions in mountain forests we investigated climate to tree growth relations along an elevation gradient in one of the driest regions in the Alps, the LTSER site Matsch/Mazia in South Tyrol, Italy. Besides Picea abies (27%), Larix decidua (42%) and Pinus cembra (25%) are the two most abundant tree species in the study area. While Pinus cembra is restricted to the sub-alpine zone, Larix decidua is ranging from the lowest parts of the study area up to the tree line, especially at lower elevations also due to reforestation efforts of heavily eroding pastures in the past 120 years and traditional silvopastural systems which promote Larch. The reaction of the two species to changing climatic conditions during the last 150 years were analyzed by relating tree ring width of Larix decidua from 8 sites at elevations from 1070 to 2430 m a.s.l. and of Pinus cembra from 5 sites ranging from 2030 to 2430 m a.s.l. at SE- and NW-exposed slopes to temperature and precipitation records from the nearby station at Marienberg (1310 m a.s.l.) dating back to 1860. Overall, basal area increment was highest at sites at about 2000 m a.s.l and decreased at higher and for Larch at lower sites. At lower elevations up to 1750 m a.s.l. growth rates of Larix decidua generally decreased during the last 15 years, especially during and after the 2003 heat wave, after increasing from the 1950s to the 1980s . On the contrary, at elevations of more than 2000 m a.s.l., growth of both Larch and Pinus cembra increased since the 1990s. Growth-climate correlations and extreme year analysis show a similar results: at low-elevation sites, growth was correlated positively to precipitation and reacted positively to wet and cold years and negatively to hot and dry years. On the other hand, growth was positively correlated to temperature at the

  2. Unthinned slow-growing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees contain muted isotopic signals in tree rings as compared to thinned trees

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analysed the oxygen isotopic values of wood (δ18Ow) of 12 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees from control, moderately, and heavily thinned stands and compared them with existing wood-based estimates of carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C), basal area increment (BAI), and g...

  3. Interactive effects of juvenile defoliation, light conditions, and interspecific competition on growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Weiser, Ewa; Robakowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of forest tree species are exposed to a number of abiotic (organ loss or damage, light shortage) and biotic (interspecific competition) stress factors, which may lead to an inhibition of growth and reproduction and, eventually, to plant death. Growth of the host and its mycorrhizal symbiont is often closely linked, and hence, host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. We designed a pot experiment to study the response of light-demanding Pinus sylvestris and shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica seedlings to a set of abiotic and biotic stresses and subsequent effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tip colonization, seedling biomass, and leaf nitrogen content. The light regime had a more pronounced effect on ECM colonization than did juvenile damage. The interspecific competition resulted in higher ECM root tip abundance for Pinus, but this effect was insignificant in Fagus. Low light and interspecific competition resulted in lower seedling biomass compared to high light, and the effect of the latter was partially masked by high light. Leaf nitrogen responded differently in Fagus and Pinus when they grew in interspecific competition. Our results indicated that for both light-demanding (Pinus) and shade-tolerant (Fagus) species, the light environment was a major factor affecting seedling growth and ECM root tip abundance. The light conditions favorable for the growth of seedlings may to some extent compensate for the harmful effects of juvenile organ loss or damage and interspecific competition.

  4. Effects of overcast and foggy conditions on transpiration rates of Pinus patula trees along a chronosequence within the cloud belt of the Sierra madre Oriental, central Veracrusz, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinus patula is a native tree species of the montane cloud belt of central Veracruz, Mexico, and one of the most popular species for regional reforestation efforts, both within and outside its natural range of occurrence. Projected regional climate change is likely to cause a rise in the average clo...

  5. Taxonomic Revision of Pinus fujiii (Yasui) Miki (Pinaceae) and Its Implications for the Phytogeography of the Section Trifoliae in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Pinus trifolia Miki 1939 (Pinaceae) was originally proposed based on seed cones from the upper Miocene of Aichi and Gifu Prefectures, central Japan. However, before the publication of P. trifolia, a different name (Pinus fujiii (Yasui) Miki) was given to a female cone with the same morphology. On the other hand, P. fujiii auct. non (Yasui) Miki has been used for seed cones with different morphologies from Yasui's holotype, i.e., apophyses arranged in 5:8 parastichies and a perexcentromucronate slightly-pointed umbo. As a result of re-examination on the Miki and Yasui specimens, we concluded that P. trifolia was a synonym for P. fujiii and proposed here Pinus mikii sp. nov. for cones assigned to P. fujiii auct. non (Yasui) Miki. We also emended the diagnosis of P. fujiii based on these specimens. Pinus fujiii is characterized by a large female cone in which the apophyses with a centromucronate prickle-like umbo are arranged in 8:13 parastichies, and deciduous seed wings. These characters suggest that P. fujiii belongs to the section Trifoliae of the subgenus Pinus, which is now restricted to North and Central America and the Caribbean islands. Fossil data suggest that the P. fujiii lineage firstly appeared in Japan around the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. We speculate that the P. fujiii lineage might have moved southward to Japan from a refugium located elsewhere in high-latitude areas in response to the late Eocene cooling event, as occurred with other Trifoliae species in North America. PMID:26673795

  6. Taxonomic Revision of Pinus fujiii (Yasui) Miki (Pinaceae) and Its Implications for the Phytogeography of the Section Trifoliae in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Pinus trifolia Miki 1939 (Pinaceae) was originally proposed based on seed cones from the upper Miocene of Aichi and Gifu Prefectures, central Japan. However, before the publication of P. trifolia, a different name (Pinus fujiii (Yasui) Miki) was given to a female cone with the same morphology. On the other hand, P. fujiii auct. non (Yasui) Miki has been used for seed cones with different morphologies from Yasui’s holotype, i.e., apophyses arranged in 5:8 parastichies and a perexcentromucronate slightly-pointed umbo. As a result of re-examination on the Miki and Yasui specimens, we concluded that P. trifolia was a synonym for P. fujiii and proposed here Pinus mikii sp. nov. for cones assigned to P. fujiii auct. non (Yasui) Miki. We also emended the diagnosis of P. fujiii based on these specimens. Pinus fujiii is characterized by a large female cone in which the apophyses with a centromucronate prickle-like umbo are arranged in 8:13 parastichies, and deciduous seed wings. These characters suggest that P. fujiii belongs to the section Trifoliae of the subgenus Pinus, which is now restricted to North and Central America and the Caribbean islands. Fossil data suggest that the P. fujiii lineage firstly appeared in Japan around the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. We speculate that the P. fujiii lineage might have moved southward to Japan from a refugium located elsewhere in high-latitude areas in response to the late Eocene cooling event, as occurred with other Trifoliae species in North America. PMID:26673795

  7. Seasonal development of leaf area in a young, widely spaced Pinus radiata D. Don stand.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, David; Kelliher, Francis M.; Frampton, Chris M.; Godfrey, Martin J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of needle elongation and needle death were made at two-week intervals during a year on 250 branch units spread throughout the crowns of six trees (three high-pruned, three low-pruned) in a widely spaced, 6- to 7-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in New Zealand. The trees were well supplied with nutrients and water. During the year, mean tree height increased by 1.2 m and the cross-sectional area of stem below the green crown (used to predict leaf area) for the average tree increased from 8.7 x 10(3) to 13.9 x 10(3) mm(2). The increase in stem cross-sectional area occurred throughout the year except for two months in early winter (May and June). Elongation of Age 0 needles began in Spring (October), continued through summer, and the mean date for 95% completion of elongation was in autumn (early May), approximately 200 days after elongation began. Mean maximum needle length in the canopy decreased with increasing branch order and was 136 and 94 mm for Order 1 and Order 3 units, respectively. Needle elongation was related to thermal time, using growing degree days with a base temperature of 6 degrees C. The mean maximum rate of needle elongation in the canopy was 0.11 m ( degrees C day)(-1) and this occurred in early summer (mid-December), 47 days after elogation started. Maximum needle length and the rate of elongation increased, and the time taken to reach 95% elongation decreased with increasing height in the canopy. A smaller autumn flush of needles started in summer (January) and the needles elongated linearly at a mean rate of 0.07 mm ( degrees C day)(-1) until the end of the growing season when temperatures fell below the base value. At the end of the year, the mean length of needles from the autumn flush was 66 mm. The density of needles did not change with height in the canopy and there were no significant changes seasonally. The mean density values for Age 1 and Age 0 needles were 336 and 286 kg m(-3), respectively. Dry weight per unit

  8. Limitations of Photosynthesis in Pinus taeda L. (Loblolly Pine) at Low Soil Temperatures 1

    PubMed Central

    Day, Thomas A.; Heckathorn, Scott A.; DeLucia, Evan H.

    1991-01-01

    The relative importance of stomatal and nonstomatal limitations to net photosynthesis (A) and possible signals responsible for stomatal limitations were investigated in unhardened Pinus taeda seedlings at low soil temperatures. After 2 days at soil temperatures between 13 and 7°C, A was reduced by 20 to 50%, respectively. The reduction in A at these moderate root-chilling conditions appeared to be the result of stomatal limitations, based on the decrease in intercellular CO2 concentrations (ci). This conclusion was supported by A versus ci analysis and measurements of O2 evolution at saturating CO2, which suggested increases in stomatal but not biochemical limitations at these soil temperatures. Nonuniform stomatal apertures, which were demonstrated with abscisic acid, were not apparent 2 days after root chilling, and results of our A versus ci analysis appear valid. Bulk shoot water potential (ψ) declined as soil temperature dropped below 16°C. When half the root system of seedlings was chilled, shoot ψ and gas-exchange rates did not decline. Thus, nonhydraulic root-shoot signals were not implicated in stomatal limitations. The initial decrease in leaf conductance to water vapor after root chilling appeared to precede any detectable decrease in bulk fascicle ψ, but may be in response to a decrease in turgor of epidermal cells. These reductions in leaf conductance to water vapor, which occurred within 30 minutes of root chilling, could be delayed and temporarily reversed by reducing the leaf-to-air vapor-pressure deficit, suggesting that hydraulic signals may be involved in initiating stomatal closure. By independently manipulating the leaf-to-air vapor-pressure deficit of individual fascicles, we could induce uptake of water vapor through stomata, suggesting that nonsaturated conditions occur in the intercellular airspaces. There was an anomaly in our results on seedlings maintained for 2 days at soil temperatures below 7°C. Lower A appeared primarily the

  9. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Kume, A; Tsuboi, N; Nakatani, N; Nakane, K; Sakurai, N; Nakagawa, N; Sakugawa, H

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20 degrees C. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NOx or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed.

  10. Association of Pinus banksiana Lamb. and Populus tremuloides Michx. seedling fine roots with Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Lynette R; Richter, Dana L; Jurgensen, Martin F; Dumroese, R Kasten

    2012-11-01

    Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina, Hydanaceae), commonly regarded as a wood decay fungus, was consistently isolated from bareroot nursery Pinus banksiana Lamb. seedlings. S. brinkmannii was found in ectomycorrhizae formed by Thelephora terrestris Ehrh., Laccaria laccata (Scop.) Cooke, and Suillus luteus (L.) Roussel. In pure culture combinations with sterile P. banksiana and Populus tremuloides Michx. seedlings, S. brinkmannii colonized root cortical cells while not killing seedlings. Colonization by S. brinkmannii appeared to be intracellular but typical endo- or ectomycorrhizae were not formed. The fungus did not decay roots, although it was shown to produce cellulase in enzyme tests. Results suggest a unique association between S. brinkmannii and seedling roots that is neither mycorrhizal nor detrimental; its exact function remains to be elucidated.

  11. Tannins from barks of Pinus caribaea protect Escherichia coli cells against DNA damage induced by gamma-rays.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, J L; Vernhe, M; Cuetara, E B; Sánchez-Lamar, A; Santana, J L; Llagostera, M

    2006-02-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity activity against gamma-rays of a tannin fraction obtained from barks of Pinus caribaea, as well as to elucidate the antigenotoxic mechanisms involved in radioprotection by using different approaches as pre-, co- and post-irradiation cell treatments with plant extract. The tannin fraction was not genotoxic to Escherichia coli cells in experiments using different exposure times. This extract was antigenotoxic against gamma-rays when the cells were pre- or co-treated with this extracts, but not during post-irradiation treatments, suggesting a possibly antigenotoxic action through free radical scavenging mechanisms. The results are discussed in relation to the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of the studied plant species.

  12. [GENETIC VARIABILITY OF MATERNAL PLANTS AND SEED EMBRYOS OF KOCH PINE POPULATIONS (PINUS KOCHIANA KLOTZSCH EX KOCH) IN CRIMEA].

    PubMed

    Korshykov, I I; Kalafat, L O; Vynogradova, O M; Podgornyi, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies of genetic variability were undertaken for 12 allozyme loci selections of trees and embryos of seed, and also for the crossing systems in five populations of Koch pine of (Pinus kochiana Klotzsch ex Koch) in Crimea. It was shown that in seed embryos the allelic variety peculiar to the maternal plants was restored, however the level of the available (H₀) heterozygosity was considerably lower, 0.286 and 0.189 respectively. For the embryos unlike the trees, in the majority of the analyzed loci the considerable divergence was specific in the actual distribution of genotypes from the theoretically expected according to Hardy- Weinberg law. The proportion of cross pollination at the unilocal (t(s)) estimation varied from 0.384 to 0.673 in the populations, while at the multilocal ones (t(m)) it was 0.639-0.841. PMID:27281923

  13. Green foliage losses from ponderosa pines induced by Abert squirrels and snowstorms: A comparison. [Sciurus aberti; Pinus pondersosa

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, W.S.; Gaud, W.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Abert squirrels (Sciurus aberti) are obligate herbivores on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). The inner bark of pine shoots is considered one of the predominant food resources obtained by foraging squirrels. As squirrels forage for this resource they induce green needle losses from chosen feed trees. Amounts of induced green needle losses appear to vary according to the availability of alternative foods and squirrel population densities. Weather also induces green needle losses to ponderosa pines. Results of this study indicate that, at least in some years, heavy snowstorms can induce greater amounts of green needle losses than squirrels. Squirrel herbivory was not indicated as a factor in any tree mortality. However, losses due to snowstorms are more severe since they may cause the actual depletion of trees in the forest because of the tree mortality they inflict.

  14. Dispersal ecology of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in its native environment as related to Swedish forestry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Despain, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) covers extensive areas of the mountains of western North America. It has evolved into four subspecies, each adapted to slightly different environmental conditions. All are adapted to reproduce following fire. Subspecies latifolia is the most extensive and economically important in North America. Serotiny is common in this subspecies, but trees bearing nonserotinous cones can be found in most stands, sometimes constituting more that 70% of the trees. Cone crops are produced yearly and seed loss to seed predators, insects and diseases are minimal. Germination and establishment occurs across a broad range of conditions allowing lodgepole pine to grow on poor sites as well as highly productive sites. These characteristics give lodgepole pine the ability to be highly invasive in new areas of suitable habitat.

  15. Damage to stomata and inhibition of photosynthesis by toxic pollutants in Pinus sylvestris needles as affected by the exposure time

    SciTech Connect

    Kaipiainen, L.K.; Sofronova, G.I.; Hari, P.

    1995-11-01

    The impact of persistent exposure of Pinus sylvestris L. trees of various ages to industrial emissions on stomata and photosynthesis of needles was studied in relation to the exposure time. The electron microscopic examination of the needles revealed an erosion of the epicuticular wax and damage to stomata, which increased with needle age until stomata were completely occluded by polymetallic dust. Pollutant particles wee found to contain S, Cl, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cu, Co, Ti, and Zn. Photosynthetic rates were inhibited by 20-60%, depending on the needle age and tree condition. It is concluded that a nonuniformity in the toxicant distribution over the forest canopy and the age-dependent changes in the state of the cuticular wax layer are the most likely causes of variability in the extent to which individual trees were damaged by the toxicants.

  16. Effect of simulated acid rain on quantity of epiphytic microfungi on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Ranta, H M

    1990-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain on the phyllosphere microflora of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied experimentally in northern Finland during the summer of 1988. Trees were irrigated with artificial acid rain of pH4 and pH3 (H(2)SO(4) and HNO(3), weight ratio of S:N=2.86:1). Untreated trees and trees irrigated with spring water (pH6) were used as controls. Two sampling heights (0.5m and 2m) were used. The needles were colonized exclusively by epiphytic fungi, mainly Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud. The lower branches had significantly more epiphytic fungi than the upper branches. Compared to the control trees, the numbers of epiphytic fungi were significantly decreased on the needles of trees irrigated with acid rain. Acid rain affected the number of epiphytic fungi equally at both sampling heights. The species composition of the epiphytic fungi was not affected by the acid treatments.

  17. Acidity-controlled selective oxidation of alpha-pinene, isolated from Indonesian pine's turpentine oils (pinus merkusii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masruri; Farid Rahman, Mohamad; Nurkam Ramadhan, Bagus

    2016-02-01

    Alpha-pinene was isolated in high purity from turpentine oil harvested from Pinus merkusii plantation. The recent investigation on selective oxidation of alpha-pinene using potassium permanganate was undertaken under acidic conditions. The result taught the selective oxidation of alpha-pinene in acidic using potassium permanganate lead to the formation of 2-(3-acetyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutyl)acetaldehyde or pinon aldehyde. The study method applied reaction in various different buffer conditions i.e. pH 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively, and each reaction product was monitored using TLC every hour. Product determination was undertaken on spectrometry basis such as infrared, ultra violet-visible, gas chromatography- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  18. Free radical generation in Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua seeds primed with polyethylene glycol or potassium salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Naglreiter, Christina; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Goodman, Bernard A; Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, Harald R

    2005-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua seeds show that priming with PEG+200 mg kg(-1) gibberelic acid (GA(3)) results in appreciably higher free radical contents than in unprimed control samples. Only relatively minor changes in the free radical levels were observed in seeds primed with K(+) salts. However, both priming treatments have been reported previously to result in faster germination rates compared to controls without changing the germination percentage. In measurements on individual seeds of L. decidua, there were no significant differences between the mean free radical levels in viable and non-viable seeds within each treatment group. Thus, the elevation in free radical levels in the PEG+GA(3) treatments appear to be a direct consequence of the priming treatment and do not correspond to the initiation of germination.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative determination of extractives in heartwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ekeberg, Dag; Flaete, Per-Otto; Eikenes, Morten; Fongen, Monica; Naess-Andresen, Carl Fredrik

    2006-03-24

    A method for quantitative determination of extractives from heartwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID) was developed. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.03 mg/g wood and the linear range (r = 0.9994) was up to 10 mg/g with accuracy within +/- 10% and precision of 18% relative standard deviation. The identification of the extractives was performed using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The yields of extraction by Soxhlet were tested for solid wood, small particles and fine powder. Small particles were chosen for further analysis. This treatment gave good yields of the most important extractives: pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, resin acids and free fatty acids. The method is used to demonstrate the variation of these extractives across stems and differences in north-south direction. PMID:16472534

  20. Trends in stomatal density and 13C/12C ratios of Pinus flexilis needles during last glacial-interglacial cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van De Water, Peter K.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Betancourt, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of stomatal density and ?? 13C of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) needles (leaves) preserved in pack rat middens from the Great Basin reveal shifts in plant physiology and leaf morphology during the last 30,000 years. Sites were selected so as to offset glacial to Holocene climatic differences and thus to isolate the effects of changing atmospheric CO2 levels. Stomatal density decreased ~17 percent and ?? 13C decreased ~1.5 per mil during deglaciation from 15,000 to 12,000 years ago, concomitant with a 30 percent increase in atmospheric CO2. Water-use efficiency increased ~15 percent during deglaciation, if temperature and humidity were held constant and the proxy values for CO2 and ?? 13C of past atmospheres are accurate. The ??13C variations may help constrain hypotheses about the redistribution of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere during the last glacial-interglacial cycle.

  1. Does Animal-Mediated Seed Dispersal Facilitate the Formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests. PMID:24587099

  2. Optimization of Purification, Identification and Evaluation of the in Vitro Antitumor Activity of Polyphenols from Pinus Koraiensis Pinecones.

    PubMed

    Yi, Juanjuan; Wang, Zhenyu; Bai, Haina; Yu, Xiaojin; Jing, Jing; Zuo, Lili

    2015-06-05

    In this study, an efficient purification method for the polyphenols of Pinus koraiensis pinecone (PPP) has been developed. AB-8 resin was verified to offer good adsorption and desorption ratio for PPP. Response surface methodology (RSM) indicated that the optimized purification parameters for PPP were 1.70 mg GAE/mL phenolic sample concentration, 22.00 mL sample volume, and 63.00% ethanol concentration. Under these conditions, the experimental purity of PPP was 27.93 ± 0.14% (n = 3), which matched well with the predicted purity of 28.17%. Next, the antiproliferative effects of PPP on seven cancer cell lines, including A375 (human skin melanoma cancer cell line), A549 (human lung cancer cell line), SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma cell line), LOVO (human colon cancer stem cell line), MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell line), HeLa (human cervical cancer line), and HT29 (human colon cancer line), were examined by MTT assays. The results indicated that PPP had the highest capacity for inhibiting LOVO cells growth with an EC50 value of 0.317 ± 0.0476 mg/mL. Finally, Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was used to tentatively identify twenty-four peaks in the purified PPP, of which five representative peaks were identified as catechin, methyl quercetin, o-vanillin, luteolin and coronaric acid. Our results demonstrate that Pinus koraiensis pinecone is a readily available source of polyphenols, and the purified PPP could be a promising natural antitumor agent for applications in functional foods.

  3. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Thiet, Rachel K; Boerner, R E J

    2007-09-01

    Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. ECM colonization of pine seedlings can occur by (1) hyphae growing from the roots of mature ECM pines colonizing nearby seedlings (contagion model), (2) pine seedlings being infected after germinating in open areas where spores are concentrated in feces of animals that have consumed sporocarps (centers of infection model), and (3) colonization from spores that are wind-dispersed across the landscape (background model). To test these models of dispersal of ECM fungal inoculum into these barrens, we used autocorrelation and spatially explicit mapping techniques (semivariance analysis and kriging) to characterize the distribution and abundance of ECM inoculum in soil. Our results strongly suggest that ECM fungi most often disperse into open barrens by contagion, thereby facilitating rapid pine colonization in an advancing front from mature pine forests bordering the barrens. Spatial patterns consistent with the centers of infection model were present but less common. Thus, current management techniques that rely on cutting and fire to reverse pine invasion may be ineffective because they do not kill or disrupt hyphal mats attached to mature roots of neighboring pines. Management alternatives are discussed. PMID:17356853

  4. A 2-component system is involved in the early stages of the Pisolithus tinctorius-Pinus greggii symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Martínez, Aseneth; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Galván-Gordillo, Santiago Valentín; Toscano Morales, Roberto; Gómez-Silva, Lidia; Valdés, María; Hinojosa-Moya, Jesús; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis results in profound morphological and physiological modifications in both plant and fungus. This in turn is the product of differential gene expression in both co-symbionts, giving rise to specialized cell types capable of performing novel functions. During the precolonization stage, chemical signals from root exudates are sensed by the ectomycorrizal fungus, and vice versa, which are in principle responsible for the observed change in the developmental symbionts program. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the signaling and recognition between ectomycorrhizal fungi and their host plants. In the present work, we characterized a novel lactone, termed pinelactone, and identified a gene encoding for a histidine kinase in Pisolithus tictorius, which function is proposed to be the perception of the aforementioned metabolites. In this study, the use of closantel, a specific inhibitor of histidine kinase phosphorylation, affected the capacity for fungal colonization in the symbiosis between Pisolithus tinctorius and Pinus greggii, indicating that a 2-component system (TCS) may operate in the early events of plant-fungus interaction. Indeed, the metabolites induced the accumulation of Pisolithus tinctorius mRNA for a putative histidine kinase (termed Pthik1). Of note, Pthik1 was able to partially complement a S. cerevisiae histidine kinase mutant, demonstrating its role in the response to the presence of the aforementioned metabolites. Our results indicate a role of a 2-component pathway in the early stages of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis before colonization. Furthermore, a novel lactone from Pinus greggii root exudates may activate a signal transduction pathway that contributes to the establishment of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

  5. Decomposition of litter in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a Pinus radiata plantation in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockford, R. H.; Richardson, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    This study of litter decomposition was part of an extensive project examining the partitioning of rainfall, the associated chemistry, and litterfall in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a Pinus radiata plantation in southeastern Australia. The eucalypt species studied were Eucalyptus rossii, E. mannifera and E. dives. The components tested were Pinus radiata needles, leaves of the three eucalypt species, and the bark of E. rossii and E. mannifera.During the first 16 weeks of the decomposition experiment there was a rapid decrease in the concentrations of potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus; this was attributed to leaching. During this period, concentrations of nitrogen and calcium increased for most components. After this period, decomposition became the dominant process, during which the concentrations of most elements increased. By the end of the experiment there was, compared with the initial values, a marked reduction in concentrations of sodium, magnesium and potassium for all eucalypt and pine litter. Calcium concentrations increased through time, with eucalypt bark showing a mid-period decline. Phosphorus concentrations decreased for the eucalypt leaves but increased substantially for the pine needles and the eucalypt bark. For all components of both the eucalypts and pines, total nitrogen concentrations rose consistently throughout the decomposition period. This was attributed to the formation of nitrogen-substituted lignin, which was more resistant to decomposition than the other nitrogen-containing compounds, as well as some nitrogen being stored in the micro-organisms responsible for decomposition. Because of loss of fragmented litter from the litter bags after 16 weeks, the weight changes could not be confidently measured after this period.

  6. Degree of Hybridization in Seed Stands of Pinus engelmannii Carr. In the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ávila-Flores, Israel Jaime; Hernández-Díaz, José Ciro; González-Elizondo, Maria Socorro; Prieto-Ruíz, José Ángel; Wehenkel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization is an important evolutionary force, because interspecific gene transfer can introduce more new genetic material than is directly generated by mutations. Pinus engelmannii Carr. is one of the nine most common pine species in the pine-oak forest ecoregion in the state of Durango, Mexico. This species is widely harvested for lumber and is also used in reforestation programmes. Interspecific hybrids between P.engelmannii and Pinus arizonica Engelm. have been detected by morphological analysis. The presence of hybrids in P. engelmannii seed stands may affect seed quality and reforestation success. Therefore, the goals of this research were to identify introgressive hybridization between P. engelmannii and other pine species in eight seed stands of this species in Durango, Mexico, and to examine how hybrid proportion is related to mean genetic dissimilarity between trees in these stands, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers and morphological traits. Differences in the average current annual increment of putative hybrids and pure trees were also tested for statistical significance. Morphological and genetic analyses of 280 adult trees were carried out. Putative hybrids were found in all the seed stands studied. The hybrids did not differ from the pure trees in vigour or robustness. All stands with putative P. engelmannii hybrids detected by both AFLPs and morphological traits showed the highest average values of the Tanimoto distance, which indicates: i) more heterogeneous genetic material, ii) higher genetic variation and therefore iii) the higher evolutionary potential of these stands, and iv) that the morphological differentiation (hybrid/not hybrid) is strongly associated with the Tanimoto distance per stand. We conclude that natural pairwise hybrids are very common in the studied stands. Both morphological and molecular approaches are necessary to confirm the genetic identity of forest reproductive material. PMID:27064490

  7. Soil respiration patterns in root gaps 27 years after small scale experimental disturbance in Pinus contorta forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S.; Berryman, E.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Ewers, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    While much attention has been focused on large scale forest disturbances such as fire, harvesting, drought and insect attacks, small scale forest disturbances that create gaps in forest canopies and below ground root and mycorrhizal networks may accumulate to impact regional scale carbon budgets. In a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest near Fox Park, WY, clusters of 15 and 30 trees were removed in 1988 to assess the effect of tree gap disturbance on fine root density and nitrogen transformation. Twenty seven years later the gaps remain with limited regeneration present only in the center of the 30 tree plots, beyond the influence of roots from adjacent intact trees. Soil respiration was measured in the summer of 2015 to assess the influence of these disturbances on carbon cycling in Pinus contorta forests. Positions at the centers of experimental disturbances were found to have the lowest respiration rates (mean 2.45 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.17 C/m2/s), control plots in the undisturbed forest were highest (mean 4.15 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.63 C/m2/s), and positions near the margin of the disturbance were intermediate (mean 3.7 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.34 C/m2/s). Fine root densities, soil nitrogen, and microclimate changes were also measured and played an important role in respiration rates of disturbed plots. This demonstrates that a long-term effect on carbon cycling occurs when gaps are created in the canopy and root network of lodgepole forests.

  8. Effects of experimentally modified soil temperatures and nutrient availability on growth and mycorrhization of Pinus cembra at the alpine treeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Andreas; Peintner, Ursula; Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Soil temperature affects litter decomposition, nutrient uptake, root growth and respiration and it is suggested that soil temperature has direct impact on tree growth at the alpine treeline. We have evaluated the impact of experimentally modified soil temperatures and nutrient availability on growth and mycorrhization of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Eastern Alps (c. 2150 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria). Soil temperature in the rooting zone of naturally grown c. 25 year old trees (n=6 trees per treatment) was altered by shading and heat-trapping using non-transparent and glasshouse foils mounted c. 20 cm above soil surface. Additional trees were selected for a nitrogen fertilisation treatment and as controls. During the study period, mean soil temperatures at 10 cm depth were reduced by c. 3°C at the cooled vs. warmed plots. Soil moisture was not influenced due to soil water transport along the slope. Results revealed that changed soil temperatures did not significantly affect tree growth, gas exchange, needle nutrient content and specific leaf area. We also found no significant difference in degree of mycorrhization or number of mycorrhized root tips between treatments. On the other hand, nitrogen fertilization and a reduction of interspecific root competition led to significantly raised radial stem growth. Results indicate that tree growth at the selected study area was not limited by soil temperature, while interspecific competition for nutrients among trees and low stature vegetation (dwarf shrubs, grasses) had significant impact. Therefore, we suggest that root competition with alpine grassland and dwarf-shrub communities will hamper temperature driven advance of alpine treeline in the course of climate warming. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF Project No. P22836-B16, 'Growth response of Pinus cembra to experimentally modified soil temperatures at the treeline').

  9. [Dynamics of microbes and enzyme activities during litter decomposition of Pinus massoniana forest in mid-subtropical area].

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Gu, Xi-Rong; Yan, Hai-Yuan; Mao, Wen-Tao; Wu, Xue-Lian; Wan, Yu-Xuan

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of microbial quantity and enzyme activities during decomposition process of masson pine (Pinus massoniana) leaf litter, oak (Quercus aliena) leaf litter and their mixture (at natural mass ratio, 8: 2) were studied with litterbag method in the pinus forest typical vegetations of mid-subtropical Jinyun Mountain nature reserve. The results showed that the decomposition constant K of leaf litter ranked as follows: mixture (0.94) > oak (0.86) > masson pine (0.67). Microbial groups and enzyme activity exhibited some similar responses to the litter decomposition process. After 135 days, fungal and microbial quantities reached the maximum while bacterial and actinomycetic number reached the minimum, presumably due to the high-temperature environment. The correlative analysis showed that the cellulase and acid phosphatase activity had significant positive relationship with the dry weight remaining rate (P < 0.05), which played a key role for microbes in utilizing the substrates at early stages. Meanwhile, the polyphenol oxidase activity showed highly significant negative correlation with the dry weight remaining rate (P < 0.01) in pine litter and the mixed litter, which worked on further decay of recalcitrant compound at late stages. Through the whole process, the microbial quantity and polyphenol oxidase activity were generally in the order of oak litter > mixed litter > pine litter, while in most cases the oak litter showed the lowest acid phosphatase activity, the ranking of which had some differences with the order of the decomposition constant K, indicating that litter decomposition was the result of integrated action by microbe and many kinds of enzymes. The results suggested that differences in litter composition and seasonal climate strongly influenced the microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they mediate. When mixed with oak leaves in given stand, the pine litter had an accelerating decomposition rate, which might depend on the higher

  10. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Thiet, Rachel K; Boerner, R E J

    2007-09-01

    Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. ECM colonization of pine seedlings can occur by (1) hyphae growing from the roots of mature ECM pines colonizing nearby seedlings (contagion model), (2) pine seedlings being infected after germinating in open areas where spores are concentrated in feces of animals that have consumed sporocarps (centers of infection model), and (3) colonization from spores that are wind-dispersed across the landscape (background model). To test these models of dispersal of ECM fungal inoculum into these barrens, we used autocorrelation and spatially explicit mapping techniques (semivariance analysis and kriging) to characterize the distribution and abundance of ECM inoculum in soil. Our results strongly suggest that ECM fungi most often disperse into open barrens by contagion, thereby facilitating rapid pine colonization in an advancing front from mature pine forests bordering the barrens. Spatial patterns consistent with the centers of infection model were present but less common. Thus, current management techniques that rely on cutting and fire to reverse pine invasion may be ineffective because they do not kill or disrupt hyphal mats attached to mature roots of neighboring pines. Management alternatives are discussed.

  11. Identification and characterization of water-stress-responsive genes in hydroponically grown maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dubos, Christian; Le Provost, Gregoire; Pot, David; Salin, Franck; Lalane, Celine; Madur, Delphine; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Plomion, Christophe

    2003-02-01

    Growth, development and productivity of long-lived organisms such as forest trees are continuously challenged by abiotic stresses, and may also be greatly affected by predicted climatic change. As a first step toward creating stress-resistant maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) varieties by marker-assisted breeding, we describe the identification and characterization of water-stress-responsive genes in hydroponically grown seedlings that were well watered (-0.08 MPa) or subjected to water deprivation (-0.45 MPa) by the addition of polyethylene glycol. The cDNA amplified fragment-length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique was used to identify genes regulated by water deprivation. Approximately 4000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were screened, of which 28 increased and 20 decreased in seedlings subjected to water deprivation. Of these 48 TDFs, 62.6% corresponded to proteins of known function, which indicate the main mechanisms involved in the osmotic stress response (photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall synthesis and plant defense). We found that 16.6% of the 48 TDFs were similar to Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh gene products, 10.4% were similar to Pinus taeda L. expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 10.4% did not match any sequences in the public databases. The relative abundance of these transcripts was quantitatively analyzed by reverse northern of both needle and root tissues, confirming the effectiveness of the cDNA-AFLP technique in detecting differentially expressed genes. The identification and characterization of water-stress-responsive genes provide new insights into the nature of the machinery involved in the response to water deprivation in a forest tree.

  12. Degree of Hybridization in Seed Stands of Pinus engelmannii Carr. In the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ávila-Flores, Israel Jaime; Hernández-Díaz, José Ciro; González-Elizondo, Maria Socorro; Prieto-Ruíz, José Ángel; Wehenkel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization is an important evolutionary force, because interspecific gene transfer can introduce more new genetic material than is directly generated by mutations. Pinus engelmannii Carr. is one of the nine most common pine species in the pine-oak forest ecoregion in the state of Durango, Mexico. This species is widely harvested for lumber and is also used in reforestation programmes. Interspecific hybrids between P.engelmannii and Pinus arizonica Engelm. have been detected by morphological analysis. The presence of hybrids in P. engelmannii seed stands may affect seed quality and reforestation success. Therefore, the goals of this research were to identify introgressive hybridization between P. engelmannii and other pine species in eight seed stands of this species in Durango, Mexico, and to examine how hybrid proportion is related to mean genetic dissimilarity between trees in these stands, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers and morphological traits. Differences in the average current annual increment of putative hybrids and pure trees were also tested for statistical significance. Morphological and genetic analyses of 280 adult trees were carried out. Putative hybrids were found in all the seed stands studied. The hybrids did not differ from the pure trees in vigour or robustness. All stands with putative P. engelmannii hybrids detected by both AFLPs and morphological traits showed the highest average values of the Tanimoto distance, which indicates: i) more heterogeneous genetic material, ii) higher genetic variation and therefore iii) the higher evolutionary potential of these stands, and iv) that the morphological differentiation (hybrid/not hybrid) is strongly associated with the Tanimoto distance per stand. We conclude that natural pairwise hybrids are very common in the studied stands. Both morphological and molecular approaches are necessary to confirm the genetic identity of forest reproductive material.

  13. Degree of Hybridization in Seed Stands of Pinus engelmannii Carr. In the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ávila-Flores, Israel Jaime; Hernández-Díaz, José Ciro; González-Elizondo, Maria Socorro; Prieto-Ruíz, José Ángel; Wehenkel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization is an important evolutionary force, because interspecific gene transfer can introduce more new genetic material than is directly generated by mutations. Pinus engelmannii Carr. is one of the nine most common pine species in the pine-oak forest ecoregion in the state of Durango, Mexico. This species is widely harvested for lumber and is also used in reforestation programmes. Interspecific hybrids between P.engelmannii and Pinus arizonica Engelm. have been detected by morphological analysis. The presence of hybrids in P. engelmannii seed stands may affect seed quality and reforestation success. Therefore, the goals of this research were to identify introgressive hybridization between P. engelmannii and other pine species in eight seed stands of this species in Durango, Mexico, and to examine how hybrid proportion is related to mean genetic dissimilarity between trees in these stands, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers and morphological traits. Differences in the average current annual increment of putative hybrids and pure trees were also tested for statistical significance. Morphological and genetic analyses of 280 adult trees were carried out. Putative hybrids were found in all the seed stands studied. The hybrids did not differ from the pure trees in vigour or robustness. All stands with putative P. engelmannii hybrids detected by both AFLPs and morphological traits showed the highest average values of the Tanimoto distance, which indicates: i) more heterogeneous genetic material, ii) higher genetic variation and therefore iii) the higher evolutionary potential of these stands, and iv) that the morphological differentiation (hybrid/not hybrid) is strongly associated with the Tanimoto distance per stand. We conclude that natural pairwise hybrids are very common in the studied stands. Both morphological and molecular approaches are necessary to confirm the genetic identity of forest reproductive material. PMID:27064490

  14. Materials Data on MnNi3 (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on MnNi (SG:123) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-23

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on Mn(Ni3O4)2 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on Mn(Ni9O10)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  19. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  20. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  1. Aerobic moving bed bioreactor performance: a comparative study of removal efficiencies of kraft mill effluents from Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus as raw material.

    PubMed

    Villamar, C A; Jarpa, M; Decap, J; Vidal, G

    2009-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated during 333 days. Two different effluents were fed in six different phases. Phases I and II were fed with effluent where Pinus radiata was used as raw material, while phases III to VI were fed with effluent where Eucalyptus globulus was used as raw material. The HRT was reduced from 85 to 4 h, and the BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1, 100:3:1 and 100:1:1) was also simultaneously evaluated as an operation strategy. When MBBR was operated with Pinus radiata influent, the performance presents a high BOD(5) removal level (above 95%), although COD removal is below 60%. Most of the recalcitrant COD contained in the effluent has a molecular weight higher than 10,000 Da. When MBBR was operated with Eucalyptus globulus influent, the performance is around 97.9-97.6% and 68.6-65.1% for BOD(5) and COD, respectively (with HRT up to 17 h). In the Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globus effluents, the color was mainly found in the molecular weight fraction up to 10,000 Daltons. PMID:19214005

  2. Discovering candidate genes that regulate resin canal number in Pinus taeda stems by integrating genetic analysis across environments, ages, and populations.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Walker, Alejandro R; Neves, Leandro G; Munoz, Patricio; Resende, Marcio F R; Neale, David B; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Huber, Dudley A; Kirst, Matias; Davis, John M; Peter, Gary F

    2015-01-01

    Genetically improving constitutive resin canal development in Pinus stems may enhance the capacity to synthesize terpenes for bark beetle resistance, chemical feedstocks, and biofuels. To discover genes that potentially regulate axial resin canal number (RCN), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4027 genes were tested for association with RCN in two growth rings and three environments in a complex pedigree of 520 Pinus taeda individuals (CCLONES). The map locations of associated genes were compared with RCN quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in a (P. taeda × Pinus elliottii) × P. elliottii pseudo-backcross of 345 full-sibs (BC1). Resin canal number was heritable (h(2) ˜ 0.12-0.21) and positively genetically correlated with xylem growth (rg ˜ 0.32-0.72) and oleoresin flow (rg ˜ 0.15-0.51). Sixteen well-supported candidate regulators of RCN were discovered in CCLONES, including genes associated across sites and ages, unidirectionally associated with oleoresin flow and xylem growth, and mapped to RCN QTLs in BC1. Breeding is predicted to increase RCN 11% in one generation and could be accelerated with genomic selection at accuracies of 0.45-0.52 across environments. There is significant genetic variation for RCN in loblolly pine, which can be exploited in breeding for elevated terpene content.

  3. A mitochondrial DNA minisatellite reveals the postglacial history of jack pine (Pinus banksiana), a broad-range North American conifer.

    PubMed

    Godbout, Julie; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2005-10-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is a broadly distributed North American conifer and its current range was covered by the Laurentian ice sheet during the last glacial maximum. To infer about the history and postglacial colonization of this boreal species, range-wide genetic variation was assessed using a new and highly variable minisatellite-like marker of the mitochondrial genome. Among the 543 trees analysed, 14 distinct haplotypes were detected, which corresponded to different repeat numbers of the 32-nucleotide minisatellite-like motif. Several haplotypes were rare with limited distribution, suggesting recent mutation events during the Holocene. At the population level, an average of 2.6 haplotypes and a mean haplotype diversity (H) of 0.328 were estimated. Population subdivision of genetic diversity was quite high with G(ST) and R(ST) values of 0.569 and 0.472, respectively. Spatial analyses identified three relatively homogeneous groups of populations presumably representative of genetically distinct glacial populations, one west and one east of the Appalachian Mountains in the United States and a third one presumably on the unglaciated northeastern coastal area in Canada. These results indicate the significant role of the northern part of the US Appalachian Mountains as a factor of vicariance during the ice age. A fourth distinct group of populations was observed in central Québec where the continental glacier retreated last. It included populations harbouring haplotypes present into the three previous groups, and it had higher level of haplotype diversity per population (H = 0.548) and lower population differentiation (G(ST) = 0.265), which indicates a zone of suture or secondary contact between the migration fronts of the three glacial populations. Introgression from Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm. was apparent in one western population from Alberta. Altogether, these results indicate that the mitochondrial DNA variation of jack pine is

  4. Structure and development of old-growth, unmanaged second-growth, and extended rotation Pinus resinosa forests in Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silver, Emily J.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Fraver, Shawn; Palik, Brian J.; Bradford, John B.

    2013-01-01

    The structure and developmental dynamics of old-growth forests often serve as important baselines for restoration prescriptions aimed at promoting more complex structural conditions in managed forest landscapes. Nonetheless, long-term information on natural patterns of development is rare for many commercially important and ecologically widespread forest types. Moreover, the effectiveness of approaches recommended for restoring old-growth structural conditions to managed forests, such as the application of extended rotation forestry, has been little studied. This study uses several long-term datasets from old growth, extended rotation, and unmanaged second growth Pinus resinosa (red pine) forests in northern Minnesota, USA, to quantify the range of variation in structural conditions for this forest type and to evaluate the effectiveness of extended rotation forestry at promoting the development of late-successional structural conditions. Long-term tree population data from permanent plots for one of the old-growth stands and the extended rotation stands (87 and 61 years, respectively) also allowed for an examination of the long-term structural dynamics of these systems. Old-growth forests were more structurally complex than unmanaged second-growth and extended rotation red pine stands, due in large part to the significantly higher volumes of coarse woody debris (70.7 vs. 11.5 and 4.7 m3/ha, respectively) and higher snag basal area (6.9 vs. 2.9 and 0.5 m2/ha, respectively). In addition, old-growth forests, although red pine-dominated, contained a greater abundance of other species, including Pinus strobus, Abies balsamea, and Picea glauca relative to the other stand types examined. These differences between stand types largely reflect historic gap-scale disturbances within the old-growth systems and their corresponding structural and compositional legacies. Nonetheless, extended rotation thinning treatments, by accelerating advancement to larger tree diameter

  5. Transcriptome analysis of Pinus monticola primary needles by RNA-seq provides novel insight into host resistance to Cronartium ribicola

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Five-needle pines are important forest species that have been devastated by white pine blister rust (WPBR, caused by Cronartium ribicola) across North America. Currently little transcriptomic and genomic data are available to understand molecular interactions in the WPBR pathosystem. Results We report here RNA-seq analysis results using Illumina deep sequencing of primary needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola) infected with WPBR. De novo gene assembly was used to generate the first P. monticola consensus transcriptome, which contained 39,439 unique transcripts with an average length of 1,303 bp and a total length of 51.4 Mb. About 23,000 P. monticola unigenes produced orthologous hits in the Pinus gene index (PGI) database (BLASTn with E values < e-100) and 6,300 genes were expressed actively (at RPKM ≥ 10) in the healthy tissues. Comparison of transcriptomes from WPBR-susceptible and -resistant genotypes revealed a total of 979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a significant fold change > 1.5 during P. monticola- C. ribicola interactions. Three hundred and ten DEGs were regulated similarly in both susceptible and resistant seedlings and 275 DEGs showed regulatory differences between susceptible and resistant seedlings post infection by C. ribicola. The DEGs up-regulated in resistant seedlings included a set of putative signal receptor genes encoding disease resistance protein homologs, calcineurin B-like (CBL)-interacting protein kinases (CIPK), F-box family proteins (FBP), and abscisic acid (ABA) receptor; transcriptional factor (TF) genes of multiple families; genes homologous to apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), flowering locus T-like protein (FT), and subtilisin-like protease. DEGs up-regulated in resistant seedlings also included a wide diversity of down-stream genes (encoding enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways, pathogenesis-related -PR proteins of multiple families, and anti-microbial proteins). A large proportion

  6. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosario del P; Araya, Juan; Troncoso, Eduardo; Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) - Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus koraiensis Cone Bark Extracts Prepared by Micro-Wave Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sun-Ae; Kim, Dong-Hee; Hong, Shin-Hyub; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Hyun; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; An, Bong-Jeun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Cho, Young-Je

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared the anti-inflammatory activity of Pinus koraiensis cone bark extracts prepared by conventional extraction and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts prepared using MAE were applied to RAW 264.7 cell at 5, 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL of concentrations, and tested for cytoxicity. The group treated with 50 μg/mL of 50% ethanol extracts showed toxicity. In order to investigate the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, extracts of water and ethanol were treated with 5, 10, and 25 μg/mL concentrations. The inhibitory activity of water and 50% ethanol extracts groups were determined as 40% and 60% at 25 μg/mL concentration, respectively. We found concentration dependent decreases on inducible NO synthase. The inhibitory effect against forming inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, was also superior in the 25 μg/mL treated group than the control group. According to these results, the water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts both inhibited inflammatory mediators by reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, The MAE extracts of P. koraiensis cone bark can be developed as a functional ingredient with anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27752500

  8. A Model for Predicting Spring Emergence of Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Korean white pine, Pinus koraiensis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chan Sik; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Nam, Youngwoo; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Lee, Cha Young; Choi, Won I L

    2015-08-01

    Monochamus saltuarius Gebler is a vector that transmits the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to Korean white pine, Pinus koraiensis, in Korea. To reduce the damage caused by this nematode in pine forests, timely control measures are needed to suppress the cerambycid beetle population. This study sought to construct a forecasting model to predict beetle emergence based on spring temperature. Logs of Korean white pine were infested with M. saltuarius in 2009, and the infested logs were overwintered. In February 2010, infested logs were then moved into incubators held at constant temperature conditions of 16, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30 or 34°C until all adults had emerged. The developmental rate of the beetles was estimated by linear and nonlinear equations and a forecasting model for emergence of the beetle was constructed by pooling data based on normalized developmental rate. The lower threshold temperature for development was 8.3°C. The forecasting model relatively well predicted the emergence pattern of M. saltuarius collected from four areas in northern Republic of Korea. The median emergence dates predicted by the model were 2.2-5.9 d earlier than the observed median dates. PMID:26470325

  9. Fertilization with urea, ammonium and nitrate produce different effects on growth, hydraulic traits and drought tolerance in Pinus taeda seedlings.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Laura I; Moretti, Ana P; Graciano, Corina

    2015-10-01

    Urea fertilization decreases Pinus taeda L. growth in clay soils of subtropical areas. The negative effect of urea is related to changes in some hydraulic traits, similar to those observed in plants growing under drought. The aims of this work were (i) to determine whether different sources of nitrogen applied as fertilizers produce similar changes in growth and hydraulic traits to those observed by urea fertilization and (ii) to analyze the impact of those changes in plant drought tolerance. Plants fertilized with urea, nitrate [Formula: see text] or ammonium [Formula: see text] were grown well watered or with reduced water supply. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilization reduced plant growth and increased root hydraulic conductance scaled by root dry weight (DW). [Formula: see text] fertilization did not reduce plant growth and increased shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that [Formula: see text] is the ion involved in the changes linked to the negative effect of urea fertilization on P. taeda growth. [Formula: see text] fertilization does not change drought susceptibility and it produces changes in shoot hydraulic traits, therefore plants avoid the depressive effect of fertilization. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilizers induce changes in DW and root hydraulic conductance and consequently plants are less affected by drought.

  10. The mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during the succession in subtropical forest ecosystems: light competition or stoichiometric homoeostasis?

    PubMed

    Yan, Junhua; Li, Kun; Peng, Xingju; Huang, Zhongliang; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei

    2015-06-05

    Competition for light has traditionally been considered as the main mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during succession in subtropical forest ecosystems. However, both long-term inventories and a seedling cultivation experiment showed that growth of mature individuals and young seedlings of P. massoniana was not limited by available light, but was strongly influenced by stoichiometric homoeostasis. This is supported by the results of homoeostatic regulation coefficients for nitrogen (HN) and phosphorus (HP) estimated using the measured data from six transitional forests across subtropical China. Among three dominant tree species in subtropical forests, P. massoniana and Castanopsis chinensis had the lowest values of HP and HN, respectively. Therefore P. massoniana cannot survive in the advanced stage due to soil phosphorus limitation and C. chinensis cannot successfully grow in the pioneer stage due to soil nitrogen limitation. Our results support that stoichiometric homeostasis is the main reason for gradual exclusion of P. massoniana from the transitional forest and the eventual elimination from the advanced forest during the subtropical forest succession. Therefore greater attention should be paid to stoichiometric homeostasis as one of the key mechanisms for species exclusion during forest succession.

  11. Composition of essential oils isolated from the needles of Pinus uncinata and P. uliginosa grown in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bonikowski, Radosław; Celiński, Konrad; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The compositions of mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) and peat-bog pine (P. uliginosa) needle essential oils were investigated. Enantiomeric compositions of selected monoterpene hydrocarbons were also examined. Respectively, fifty-three and seventy-six components of the essential oils were identified using GC-MS and retention indexes. The main group of essential oil components of mountain pine needles were monoterpenes, and bornyl acetate constituted approximately 30% (46.3 g/100 g) of the oil. In peat-bog pine essential oil, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes exhibited a similar content (ca. 40%). Bornyl acetate and α-pinene were the main constituents of both essential oils. In the essential oil of P. uncinata needles, limonene, camphene, myrcene and (E)-β-caryophyllene were also noticeable, while in the essential oil of P. uliginosa needles, Δ-car-3-ene, (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, δ-cadinene, germacrene D 4-ol and α-cadinol were present in notable quantities. In both essential oils, borneol propionate, isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate and isovalerate were detected. Their presence was confirmed by synthesis and analysis of the standards; retention indexes on a non-polar column are published herein.

  12. Linking nonstructural carbohydrate dynamics to gas exchange and leaf hydraulic behavior in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, David R; Meinzer, Frederick C; Marias, Danielle E; Sevanto, Sanna; Jenkins, Michael W; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-04-01

    Leaf hydraulics, gas exchange and carbon storage in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma, two tree species on opposite ends of the isohydry-anisohydry spectrum, were analyzed to examine relationships between hydraulic function and carbohydrate dynamics. Leaf hydraulic vulnerability, leaf water potential (Ψl ), leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) content were analyzed throughout the growing season. Leaf hydraulic vulnerability was significantly lower in the relatively anisohydric J. monosperma than in the more isohydric P. edulis. In P. edulis, Ψl dropped and stayed below 50% loss of leaf hydraulic conductance (P₅₀) early in the day during May, August and around midday in September, leading to sustained reductions in Kleaf . In J. monosperma, Ψl dropped below P₅₀ only during August, resulting in the maintenance of Kleaf during much of the growing season. Mean A and gs during September were significantly lower in P. edulis than in J. monosperma. Foliar total NSC was two to three times greater in J. monosperma than in P. edulis in June, August and September. Consistently lower levels of total NSC in P. edulis suggest that its isohydric strategy pushes it towards the exhaustion of carbon reserves during much of the growing season.

  13. Identification of water stress genes in Pinus pinaster Ait. by controlled progressive stress and suppression-subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Collada, Carmen; Barbero, María Del Carmen; García Casado, Gloria; Cervera, María Teresa; Soto, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge particularly for forest tree species, which will have to face the severe alterations of environmental conditions with their current genetic pool. Thus, an understanding of their adaptive responses is of the utmost interest. In this work we have selected Pinus pinaster as a model species. This pine is one of the most important conifers (for which molecular tools and knowledge are far more scarce than for angiosperms) in the Mediterranean Basin, which is characterised in all foreseen scenarios as one of the regions most drastically affected by climate change, mainly because of increasing temperature and, particularly, by increasing drought. We have induced a controlled, increasing water stress by adding PEG to a hydroponic culture. We have generated a subtractive library, with the aim of identifying the genes induced by this stress and have searched for the most reliable expressional candidate genes, based on their overexpression during water stress, as revealed by microarray analysis and confirmed by RT-PCR. We have selected a set of 67 candidate genes belonging to different functional groups that will be useful molecular tools for further studies on drought stress responses, adaptation, and population genomics in conifers, as well as in breeding programs.

  14. Modelling available crown fuel for Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in the "Cazorla, Segura and Las Villas Natural Park" (Spain).

    PubMed

    Molina, Juan Ramón; Rodríguez y Silva, Francisco; Mérida, Enrique; Herrera, Miguel Ángel

    2014-11-01

    One of the main limiting aspects in the application of crown fire models at landscape scale has been the uncertainty derived to describe canopy fuel stratum. Available crown fuel and canopy bulk density are essential in order to simulate crown fire behaviour and are of potential use in the evaluation of silvicultural treatments. Currently, the more accurate approach to estimate these parameters is to develop allometric models from common stand inventory data. In this sense, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) trees were destructively sampled in the South of the Iberian Peninsula, covering natural and artificial stands. Crown fine fuel was separated into size classes and allometric equations that estimate crown fuel load by biomass fractions were developed. Available crown fuel was determined according to the fuel load differences between un-burned and burned trees with similar characteristics. Taking our destructive post-fire inventory into account, available crown fuel was estimated as the sum of needles biomass, 87.63% of the twigs biomass and 62.79% of the fine branches biomass. In spite of the differences between natural and artificial stands, generic models explained 82% (needles biomass), 89% (crown fuel), 92% (available crown fuel) and 94% (canopy bulk density) of the observed variation. Inclusion of the fitted models in fire management decision-making can provide a decision support system for assessing the potential crown fire of different silvicultural alternatives.

  15. Actinobacteria possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities isolated from the pollen of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grown on the Baikal shore.

    PubMed

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Penzina, Tatyana A; Gornostay, Tatyana G; Adelshin, Renat V; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2016-10-01

    Isolated ecosystems existing under specific environmental conditions have been shown to be promising sources of new strains of actinobacteria. The taiga forest of Baikal Siberia has not been well studied, and its actinobacterial population remains uncharacterized. The proximity between the huge water mass of Lake Baikal and high mountain ranges influences the structure and diversity of the plant world in Siberia. Here, we report the isolation of eighteen actinobacterial strains from male cones of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) growing on the shore of the ancient Lake Baikal in Siberia. In addition to more common representative strains of Streptomyces, several species belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, and Micromonospora were isolated. All isolated strains exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. We identified several strains that inhibited the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans but did not hinder the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several isolates were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The high proportion of biologically active strains producing antibacterial and specific antifungal compounds may reflect their role in protecting pollen against phytopathogens. PMID:27392610

  16. Essential Oil of Pinus koraiensis Exerts Antiobesic and Hypolipidemic Activity via Inhibition of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Gamma Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Sohn, Eun Jung; Yun, Miyong; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Our group previously reported that essential oil of Pinus koraiensis (EOPK) exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A. In the present study, we investigated the antiobesity and hypolipidemic mechanism of EOPK using in vitro 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo HFD-fed rats. EOPK markedly suppressed fat accumulation and intracellular triglyceride associated with downregulation of adipogenic transcription factor expression, including PPARγ and CEBPα in the differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, EOPK attenuated the expression levels of FABP and GPDH as target genes of PPARγ during adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 enhanced the decreased expression of FABP and PPARγ and fat accumulation induced by EOPK. To confirm the in vitro activity of EOPK, animal study was performed by administering normal diet, HFD, and/or EOPK at the dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Consistently, EOPK significantly suppressed body weight gain, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and AI value and increased HDL cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry revealed that EOPK treatment abrogated the expression of PPARγ in the liver tissue sections of EOPK-treated rats. Taken together, our findings suggest that EOPK has the antiobesic and hypolipidemic potential via inhibition of PPARγ-related signaling. PMID:23997801

  17. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper.

    PubMed

    Roitto, M; Rautio, P; Julkunen-Tiitto, R; Kukkola, E; Huttunen, S

    2005-10-01

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg(-1) soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg(-1) soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil.

  18. Use of dendrochronological method in Pinus halepensis to estimate the soil erosion in the South East of Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Marques, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramón

    2007-05-25

    The rate of soil erosion in pine forests (Pinus halepensis) located in the Southeast of Madrid has been estimated using dendrochronological analysis based on the change in ring-growth pattern from concentric to eccentric when the root is exposed. Using 49 roots spread across five inclined areas, it has been found that the length and direction of the hillsides, as well as their vegetation cover affect the rate of erosion, while the slope itself does not. The erosion rates found for the different areas studied vary between 3.5 and 8.8 mm year(-1), that is between 40 and 101 t ha(-1) year(-1) respectively. These values are between 2 and 3 times greater than those predicted by USLE, for which this equation underestimates soil loss for Central Spain's Mediterranean conditions. Nonetheless, both methods (using dendrochronology to determine actual soil loss and theoretical prediction with USLE) are able to establish the same significant differences among the areas studied, allowing for the comparative estimate of the severity of the area's erosion problem.

  19. Tree rings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology.

  20. [Dendroclimatic potentials for the tree rings of Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanensis ) at Xiaolinhai in the western Dabie Mountains, China].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Ling-Ling

    2014-07-01

    By using the dendrochronology research methods, this paper developed the 1915-2011 tree ring-width standard chronology of the Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanesis) at the north slope of western Dabie Mountains in the junction of Hubei, Henan and Anhui provinces. High mean sensitivity (MS) indicated that there was conspicuous high-frequency climate signals and high first-order autocorrelation (AC) showed there were significant lag-effects of tree previous growth. The higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and expressed population signal (EPS) indicated that the trees had high levels of common climate signals. Correlations between the tree ring-width standard chronology and climatic factors (1959-2011) revealed the significant influences of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the tree width growth of Huangshan pine by the end of growing season (September and October). Significant positive correlations were found between the tree-ring indices and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) of current September and October. In conclusion, the combination of water and heat of September and October is the major effect factor for the growth of Huangshan pine in western Dabie Mountains.

  1. Molecular identification and relative abundance of cryptic Lophodermium species in natural populations of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Reignoux, Sabrina N A; Green, Sarah; Ennos, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The multi-locus phylogenetic species recognition approach and population genetic analysis of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to delineate Lophodermium taxa inhabiting needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in native pinewoods within Scotland. These analyses revealed three major lineages corresponding to the morphological species Lophodermium seditiosum and Lophodermium conigenum, fruiting on broken branches, and Lophodermium pinastri, fruiting on naturally fallen needles. Within L. pinastri three well supported sister clades were found representing cryptic taxa designated L. pinastri I, L. pinastri II, and L. pinastri III. Significant differences in mean growth rate in culture were found among the cryptic taxa. Taxon-specific primers based on ITS sequences were designed and used to classify over 500 Lophodermium isolates, derived from fallen needles of P. sylvestris in three Scottish and one French pinewood site, into the three L. pinastri cryptic taxa. Highly significant differences in the relative abundance of the three taxa were found among the Scottish pinewood sites, and between the French and all of the Scottish sites.

  2. Effect of diflubenzuron on the development of Pinus pinaster seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Miguel A; Sousa, Nadine R; Franco, Albina R; Costa, Vítor; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-01-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB) is an insecticide commonly used to control forest pests. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of diflubenzuron on the development of Pinus pinaster seedlings and Pisolithus tinctorius under laboratory conditions and to study the possible protective role of this ectomycorrhizal fungus against the effects of diflubenzuron. In vitro experiments revealed that diflubenzuron inhibited fungal growth at all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg L(-1)). Root growth was inhibited at the two highest diflubenzuron concentrations. The activity of the antioxidant defence system of non-inoculated P. pinaster increased at 1 and 10 mg DFB kg(-1) substrate, and inoculation increased the threshold to the highest concentration. The protective role of the ectomycorrhizal fungus was seen in the increase of CAT activity. This study revealed that despite causing no mortality, diflubenzuron has the ability to cause sub-lethal damage to P. pinaster. The disproportionate use of this insecticide may lead to higher amounts of its residues in soil and the biosphere, endangering trees, fungi and their symbiosis.

  3. Secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase by Pleurotus strains cultivate in solid-state using Pinus spp. sawdust

    PubMed Central

    Camassola, Marli; da Rosa, Letícia O.; Calloni, Raquel; Gaio, Tamara A.; Dillon, Aldo J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Pleurotus species secrete phenol oxidase enzymes: laccase (Lcc) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). New genotypes of these species show potential to be used in processes aiming at the degradation of phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dyes. Hence, a screening of some strains of Pleurotus towards Lcc and MnP production was performed in this work. Ten strains were grown through solid-state fermentation on a medium based on Pinus spp. sawdust, wheat bran and calcium carbonate. High Lcc and MnP activities were found with these strains. Highest Lcc activity, 741 ± 245 U gdm−1 of solid state-cultivation medium, was detected on strain IB11 after 32 days, while the highest MnP activity occurred with strains IB05, IB09, and IB11 (5,333 ± 357; 4,701 ± 652; 5,999 ± 1,078 U gdm−1, respectively). The results obtained here highlight the importance of further experiments with lignocellulolytic enzymes present in different strains of Pleurotus species. Such results also indicate the possibility of selecting more valuable strains for future biotechnological applications, in soil bioremediation and biological biomass pre-treatment in biofuels production, for instance, as well as obtaining value-added products from mushrooms, like phenol oxidase enzymes. PMID:24159307

  4. Measurement of transpiration in Pinus taeda L. and Liquidambar styraciflua L. in an environmental chamber using tritiated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, G. F.; Sonenshine, D. E.; Czoch, J. K.

    1976-01-01

    Transpiration rates of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) were measured at two different atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits (V.P.D.) in a controlled environment growth chamber using tritiated water as a tracer. The trees were maintained in a sealed plant bed containing a hydroponic nutrient solution into which labeled water (spike) was introduced. Samples of leaves, chamber air, spiked nutrient solution and control water were assayed for ratio-activity using liquid scintillation techniques to determine transpiration rates. The transpiration rate of sweetgum in ml./hr./gm. (4.95) was found to be 5 times greater than that of loblolly pine (1.03) at 1.84 V.P.D. and 8 times greater at 6.74 V.P.D. (15.99 for sweetgum vs. 2.19 for pine). Transpiration (based on measurements of leaf radioactivity) in both species rose with increasing deficit; however sweetgum increased its output by 3 times while pine only doubled its rate. Cyclical changes in transpiration rates were noted in both species; the sweetgum cycle required a 6 hour interval whereas the pine cycle required a 9 hour interval.

  5. Fungal endophytic communities on twigs of fast and slow growing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Ros, Antonio V; Müller, Michael M; San Martín, Roberto; Diez, Julio J

    2015-10-01

    Most plant species harbour a diverse community of endophytic, but their role is still unknown in most cases, including ecologically and economically important tree species. This study describes the culturable fungal endophytic community of Pinus sylvestris L. twigs in northern Spain and its relationship with diametric growth of the host. In all, 360 twig samples were collected from 30 Scots pines in fifteen stands. Isolates were obtained from all twig samples and 43 fungal taxa were identified by morphogrouping and subsequent ITS rDNA sequencing. All isolates were Ascomycetes, being Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes the most abundant classes. Half of the species were host generalists while the others were conifer or pine specialists. We found three new endophytic species for the Pinaceae: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Phaeomoniella effusa and Plectania milleri, and additional six new species for P. sylvestris: Daldinia fissa, Hypocrea viridescens, Nigrospora oryzae, Ophiostoma nigrocarpum, Penicillium melinii and Penicillium polonicum. The endophytic community of fast and slow growing trees showed differences in species composition, abundance and evenness, but not in diversity. Phoma herbarum was associated to fast growing trees and Hypocrea lixii to those growing slow. Our results support the hypothesis that some endophytic species may affect growth of P. sylvestris.

  6. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on physicochemical properties of biochar obtained from the fast pyrolysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Tae-Su; Choi, Joon Weon

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical properties and structure of biochar. Biochar was produced by fast pyrolysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida) using a fluidized bed reactor at different pyrolysis temperatures (300, 400 and 500 °C). The produced biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, particle size distributions, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The yield of biochar decreased sharply from 60.7% to 14.4%, based on the oven-dried biomass weight, when the pyrolysis temperature rose from 300 °C to 500 °C. In addition, biochars were further carbonized with an increase in pyrolysis temperature and the char's remaining carbons were rearranged in stable form. The experimental results suggested that the biochar obtained at 400 and 500 °C was composed of a highly ordered aromatic carbon structure.

  7. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  8. Ozone uptake and effects on transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration in Scots pine. [Pinus sylvestris L

    SciTech Connect

    Skaerby, L.; Troeng, E.; Bostroem, C.

    1987-09-01

    Ozone uptake, transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration were studied in the field by using an open gas exchange system in a 20-year-old stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). A current shoot was treated with ozone concentrations ranging from 120 to 400 ..mu..g x m/sup -3/ during one month. During daytime there was a linear relationship between ozone concentration and ozone uptake, and the deposition rate varied between 0.05 and 0.13 cm x s/sup -1/. Ozone at the highest concentrations seemed to decrease transpiration somewhat during daytime. At night, ozone was taken up only at the highest concentration. Both transpiration and stomatal conductance increased at night when ozone concentration was 250..mu..g x m/sup -3/ and higher. There was no significant influence on the net photosynthetic performance during exposure to ozone. Dark respiration, however, increased throughout the experimental period, and the accumulated respiration was about 60% higher for the ozone-exposed shoot at the end of the experiment.

  9. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled "The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata" (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow.

  10. Microfibril angle in wood of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) after irradiation from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Tulik, Mirela; Rusin, Aleksandra

    2005-03-01

    The secondary cell wall structure of tracheids of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), especially the angle of microfibrils in the S(2) layer, was examined in wood deposited prior to and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Microscopic analysis was carried out on wood samples collected in October 1997 from breast height of three pine trees 16, 30 and 42 years old. The polluted site was located in a distance of 5 km south from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant where radioactive contamination in 1997 was 3.7 x 10(5) kBq m(-2). Anatomical analysis showed that the structure of the secondary cell wall in tracheids formed after the Chernobyl accident was changed. Changes occurred both in S(2) and S(3) layers. The angle of microfibrils in S(2) layer in wood deposited after the Chernobyl accident was different in comparison to this measured in wood formed prior to the disaster. The intensity of the changes, i.e. alteration of the microfibrils angle in S(2) layer and unusual pattern of the S(3) layer, depended on the age of the tree and was most intensive in a young tree.

  11. Genetic Structure of a Naturally Regenerating Post-Fire Seedling Population: Pinus halepensis As a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Gershberg, Anna; Ne'eman, Gidi; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To study the effects of wildfire on population genetics of a wind pollinated and wind dispersed tree, we have analyzed the genetic structure of a post-fire, naturally regenerating seedling population of Pinus halepensis Miller, on Mt. Carmel, Israel. We tested the existence of spatial genetic structure, which is expected due to the special spatial demographic structure of the post-fire seedling and sapling populations of this species. Explicitly, we asked whether or not seedlings that germinated under large, burned, dead pine trees are also their offspring. The results revealed that the post-fire seedling population is polymorphic, diverse, and reflects the pre-fire random mating system. In contrast to our prediction, we found no division of the post-fire seedling population to distinct sub-populations. Furthermore, as a result of post-fire seed dispersal to longer range than the average pre-fire inter-tree distance, seedlings found under individual burned trees were not necessarily their sole offspring. Although the population as a whole showed a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, significant excess of heterozygotes was found within each tallest seedlings group growing under single, large, burned pine trees. Our finding indicates the possible existence of intense natural selection for the most vigorous heterozygous genotypes that are best adapted to the special post-fire regeneration niche, which is the thick ash bed under large, dead, pine trees. PMID:27200024

  12. Genetic diversity and structure of native and non-native populations of the endangered plant Pinus dabeshanensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Wang, H; Chen, W; Pang, X M; Li, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Owing to a severe decline in its abundance, Pinus dabeshanensis has been listed as an endangered species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Although several restoration events have been undertaken since the 1960s, the natural population genetic structure of this species remains to be investigated. Herein, we examined the level of genetic diversity and structure of two native and two non-native populations using 10 microsatellite loci. A relatively high level of genetic variation (HO = 0.586 ± 0.039) and a low level of population differentiation (FST = 0.016 ± 0.011) were revealed. For forensic investigation, an assignment test was performed. To better understand the genetic differentiation between the native and non-native populations, the individuals in the transplanted and cultivated populations may have derived from populations that were not surveyed in this study. In light of our results, we discuss the real problems faced by all four populations and provide useful information for management decision-making. PMID:27323170

  13. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts. PMID:26399186

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of differential responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Simon, Martin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-03-12

    Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive) and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant) are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species.

  15. Impact of experimentally elevated ozone on seed germination and growth of Russian pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea spp.) provenances.

    PubMed

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-12-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies x P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finland, over a span of 2 y. The AOT40 value (accumulated ozone dose over the threshold 40 ppb during daylight hours) was 11 ppm hr per growing season, which was 1.4 times higher than the ambient air concentration. The plants were measured for germination rate; shoot increment; needle length; and dry mass of needles, shoots, and roots. Significant differences between pine and spruce provenance response to ozone were found in all parameters. Ozone stress immediately reduced the germination rate of Northern pine provenances, whereas biomass reductions became evident during the second year of the exposure in all pine provenances. Spruce species were more tolerant to elevated ozone concentrations. Our results indicate that seedling development is vulnerable to increasing ozone concentrations and that attention must be paid to the provenance selection.

  16. Modeling climate change, urbanization, and fire effects on Pinus palustris ecosystems of the southeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Jennifer K; Terando, Adam J; McKerrow, Alexa J; Collazo, Jaime A

    2015-03-15

    Managing ecosystems for resilience and sustainability requires understanding how they will respond to future anthropogenic drivers such as climate change and urbanization. In fire-dependent ecosystems, predicting this response requires a focus on how these drivers will impact fire regimes. Here, we use scenarios of climate change, urbanization and management to simulate the future dynamics of the critically endangered and fire-dependent longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem. We investigated how climate change and urbanization will affect the ecosystem, and whether the two conservation goals of a 135% increase in total longleaf area and a doubling of fire-maintained open-canopy habitat can be achieved in the face of these drivers. Our results show that while climatic warming had little effect on the wildfire regime, and thus on longleaf pine dynamics, urban growth led to an 8% reduction in annual wildfire area. The management scenarios we tested increase the ecosystem's total extent by up to 62% and result in expansion of open-canopy longleaf by as much as 216%, meeting one of the two conservation goals for the ecosystem. We find that both conservation goals for this ecosystem, which is climate-resilient but vulnerable to urbanization, are only attainable if a greater focus is placed on restoration of non-longleaf areas as opposed to maintaining existing longleaf stands. Our approach demonstrates the importance of accounting for multiple relevant anthropogenic threats in an ecosystem-specific context in order to facilitate more effective management actions.

  17. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  18. 2, 6-dichlorobenzonitrile Causes Multiple Effects on Pollen Tube Growth beyond Altering Cellulose Synthesis in Pinus bungeana Zucc

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Huaiqing; Chen, Tong; Fan, Lusheng; Li, Ruili; Wang, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose is an important component of cell wall, yet its location and function in pollen tubes remain speculative. In this paper, we studied the role of cellulose synthesis in pollen tube elongation in Pinus bungeana Zucc. by using the specific inhibitor, 2, 6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). In the presence of DCB, the growth rate and morphology of pollen tubes were distinctly changed. The organization of cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking were also disturbed. Ultrastructure of pollen tubes treated with DCB was characterized by the loose tube wall and damaged organelles. DCB treatment induced distinct changes in tube wall components. Fluorescence labeling results showed that callose, and acidic pectin accumulated in the tip regions, whereas there was less cellulose when treated with DCB. These results were confirmed by FTIR microspectroscopic analysis. In summary, our findings showed that inhibition of cellulose synthesis by DCB affected the organization of cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking in pollen tubes, and induced changes in the tube wall chemical composition in a dose-dependent manner. These results confirm that cellulose is involved in the establishment of growth direction of pollen tubes, and plays important role in the cell wall construction during pollen tube development despite its lower quantity. PMID:24146903

  19. Prescribed burning and clear-cutting effects on understory vegetation in a Pinus canariensis stand (Gran Canaria).

    PubMed

    Arévalo, José Ramón; Fernández-Lugo, Silvia; García-Domínguez, Celia; Naranjo-Cigala, Agustín; Grillo, Federico; Calvo, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Prescribed fires are a powerful tool for reducing fire hazards by decreasing amounts of fuel. The main objective is to analyze the effects of prescribed burning on the understory vegetation composition as well as on the soil characteristics of a reforested stand of Pinus canariensis. The study attempts to identify the effects of the preburning treatment of cutting understory vegetation on the floristic parameters of the vegetation community. This study was carried out for two years following a prescribed fire in a Canarian pine stand. Cutting and burning treatment affected species composition and increased diversity. Burnt and cut plots were characterized by a diverse array of herbaceous species and by a lower abundance of Teline microphylla (endemic legume), although burning apparently induced its germination. Cut treatment was more consistently differentiated from the control plots than burnt treatment. Soil K decreased after both treatments, pH slightly decreased after cutting, while P and Ca increased after fire. From an ecological point of view, prescribed burning is a better management practice than cutting the woody species of the understory. However, long-term studies would be necessary to evaluate the effects of fire intensity, season and frequency in which the prescribed burning is applied.

  20. [Dynamics of unprotected soil organic carbon with the restoration process of Pinus massoniana plantation in red soil erosion area].

    PubMed

    Lü, Mao-Kui; Xie, Jin-Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Xiang; Zeng, Hong-Da; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Xi-Xiang; Xu, Chao; Chen, Tan; Fu, Lin-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By the method of spatiotemporal substitution and taking the bare land and secondary forest as the control, we measured light fraction and particulate organic carbon in the topsoil under the Pinus massoniana woodlands of different ages with similar management histories in a red soil erosion area, to determine their dynamics and evaluate the conversion processes from unprotected to protected organic carbon. The results showed that the content and storage of soil organic carbon increased significantly along with ages in the process of vegetation restoration (P < 0.01). The unprotected soil organic carbon content and distribution proportion to the total soil organic carbon increased significantly (P < 0.05) after 7-11 years' restoration but stabilized after 27 and 30 years of restoration. It suggested that soil organic carbon mostly accumulated in the form of unprotected soil organic carbon during the initial restoration period, and reached a stable level after long-term vegetation restoration. Positive correlations were found between restoration years and the rate constant for C transferring from the unprotected to the protected soil pool (k) in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, which demonstrated that the unprotected soil organic carbon gradually transferred to the protected soil organic carbon in the process of vegetation restoration. PMID:24765840

  1. Progress report for the project: Comparison of the response of mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anderson, P.D.; Benes, S.E.; Phelps, S.P.; Loeffler, A.T.

    1990-09-01

    This progress report details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) performance regarding the projects Comparison of the Response of Mature Branches and Seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to Atmospheric Pollution'' and Effects of Ozone, acid Precipitation, and Their Interactions on Mature Branches and Seedlings of Ponderosa Pine'' for the months of November 1989 to June 1990. During the last eight months, we have initiated ozone and acid precipitation exposures, and we began intensive growth, morphological, and physiological measurements. During these major physiological measurement periods, we measured photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, respiration, antioxidant activity, pigmentation, and foliar nutrient concentration. We have also concluded the analysis of our branch autonomy experiment, which we conducted in the fall. We determined that virtually no carbon is exported among branches in close proximity to one another. This conclusion assists in validating the approach of using branches and branch exposure chambers as a means of assessing the effects of air pollution on mature trees of Ponderosa pine. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. [Microelement contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus koraiensis and broad-leaved mixed forest].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-qin; Li, Jin-xia; Dong, Wei-hua

    2007-02-01

    The analysis on the Mn, Zn and Cu contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus korazenszis and broad-leaved mixed forest in Liangshui Natural Reserve of Xiaoxing' an Mountains showed that the test microelement contents in the litter, soil fauna and soil all followed the sequence of Mn > Zn > Cu, but varied with these environmental components, being in the sequence of soil > litter > soil fauna for Mn, soil fauna > litter and soil for Zn, and soil fauna > soil > litter for Cu. The change range of test microelement contents in litter was larger in broad-leaved forest than in coniferous forest. Different soil fauna differed in their microelement-enrichment capability, e. g. , earthworm, centipede, diplopod had the highest content of Mn, Zn and Cu, respectively. The contents of test microelements in soil fauna had significant correlations with their environmental background values, litter decomposition rate, food habit of soil fauna, and its absorbing selectivity and enrichment to microelements. The microelements contained in 5-20 cm soil layer were more than those in 0-5 cm soil layer, and their dynamics differed in various soil layers.

  3. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (-19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. PMID:24697679

  4. Tree rings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology. PMID:21174127

  5. [Dendroclimatic potentials for the tree rings of Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanensis ) at Xiaolinhai in the western Dabie Mountains, China].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Ling-Ling

    2014-07-01

    By using the dendrochronology research methods, this paper developed the 1915-2011 tree ring-width standard chronology of the Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanesis) at the north slope of western Dabie Mountains in the junction of Hubei, Henan and Anhui provinces. High mean sensitivity (MS) indicated that there was conspicuous high-frequency climate signals and high first-order autocorrelation (AC) showed there were significant lag-effects of tree previous growth. The higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and expressed population signal (EPS) indicated that the trees had high levels of common climate signals. Correlations between the tree ring-width standard chronology and climatic factors (1959-2011) revealed the significant influences of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the tree width growth of Huangshan pine by the end of growing season (September and October). Significant positive correlations were found between the tree-ring indices and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) of current September and October. In conclusion, the combination of water and heat of September and October is the major effect factor for the growth of Huangshan pine in western Dabie Mountains. PMID:25345032

  6. Use of dendrochronological method in Pinus halepensis to estimate the soil erosion in the South East of Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Marques, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramón

    2007-05-25

    The rate of soil erosion in pine forests (Pinus halepensis) located in the Southeast of Madrid has been estimated using dendrochronological analysis based on the change in ring-growth pattern from concentric to eccentric when the root is exposed. Using 49 roots spread across five inclined areas, it has been found that the length and direction of the hillsides, as well as their vegetation cover affect the rate of erosion, while the slope itself does not. The erosion rates found for the different areas studied vary between 3.5 and 8.8 mm year(-1), that is between 40 and 101 t ha(-1) year(-1) respectively. These values are between 2 and 3 times greater than those predicted by USLE, for which this equation underestimates soil loss for Central Spain's Mediterranean conditions. Nonetheless, both methods (using dendrochronology to determine actual soil loss and theoretical prediction with USLE) are able to establish the same significant differences among the areas studied, allowing for the comparative estimate of the severity of the area's erosion problem. PMID:17379273

  7. [Soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zha, Tong-Gang; Wang, Yi-Kun; Wang, Gao-min

    2013-03-01

    Based on the field survey and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area. In the two plantations, the contents of soil macro-aggregates decreased with soil depth. In P. tabulaeformis plantation, soil macro-aggregates (>0.25 mm) occupied the majority, accounting for 71% -77% of the total; whereas in Q. variabilis plantation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of soil macro-aggregates and micro-aggregates (< or =0.25 mm), which accounted for 51% -58% and 42% -49%, respectively. Both the mean mass diameter and the geometrical mean mass diameter of the soil aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation were significantly higher than those in Q. variabilis plantation, and the fractal dimension (D) of the soil water-stable aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation was lower than that in Q. variabilis plantation, suggesting that P. tabulaeformis plantation was more favorable for the soil aggregate stability than Q. variabilis plantation. Also in the two plantations, the organic carbon content in soil water-stable aggregates decreased with soil depth. The organic carbon content in soil macro-aggregates was significantly higher in P. tabulaeformis plantation (58% -83%) than in Q. variabilis plantation (49% -66% ). It was suggested that in Beijing area, P. tabulaeformis plantation was more beneficial to the soil organic carbon protection, as compared with Q. variabilis plantation.

  8. Structure and species composition of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities colonizing seedlings and adult trees of Pinus montezumae in Mexican neotropical forests.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Ortega-Larrocea, María del Pilar; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    Mexico is a center of diversity for pines, but few studies have examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities associated with pines in this country. We investigated the ECM communities associated with Pinus montezumae seedlings and mature trees in neotropical forests of central Mexico and compared their structure and species composition. Root tips were sampled on both planted seedlings and naturally occurring adult trees. A total of 42 ECM operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found on P. montezumae. Diversity and similarity indices showed that community structure was similar for both plant growth stages, but phylogenetic diversity and Chao-estimated richness were higher for seedlings. Species composition differed between communities. The dominant OTUs belonged to the families Atheliaceae, Cortinariaceae, and Sebacinaceae, although different taxa appeared to colonize seedlings and adults. Only 12 OTUs were shared between seedlings and adults, which suggests that ECM fungi which colonize seedlings are still not fully incorporated into mycelial networks and that ECM taxa colonizing young individuals of P. montezumae are likely to come from fungal propagules. Intra-generic diversity could be an insurance mechanism to maintain forest productivity under stressed conditions. This is the first report describing the abundance of Atheliaceae in tree roots in neotropical ecosystems.

  9. [Distribution of the genetic diversity of the Siberian stone pine, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, along the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles].

    PubMed

    Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S; Politov, D V

    2014-05-01

    The Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the main forest-forming coniferous species of the boreal ecosystems of Western Siberia. We used the isozyme method to analyze 11 ecotypes representing the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles within the species range, including samples from the geographic boundaries of the distribution. The genetic structure of the ecotypes is described on the basis of the variability for 26 isozyme loci encoding for 16 enzyme systems. The greatest genetic diversity was observed in the taiga ecotypes in the central part of the studied area, while the ecotypes along the species range boundaries were shown to be genetically depauperized. Approximately 8.1% of the observed genetic diversity is attributed to differences between the studied ecotypes. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the Fest_2, Pgm_1, Sod_4, and a few otherloci, as well as a correlation between allele frequencies and geographical locations of the populations. The results of multivariate analysis of allelic frequencies as well as cluster analysis allowed us to discriminate three major groups of ecotypes: north-eastern, central and south-western. In view of our results, we compare two hypotheses: one which attributes the spatial distribution of genetic variations to the selectivity for some of the polymorphic allozyme loci, and the other based in the history of the formation of the range of the Siberian stone pine.

  10. Impact of Site Disturbances from Harvesting and Logging on Soil Physical Properties and Pinus kesiya Tree Growth.

    PubMed

    Missanjo, Edward; Kamanga-Thole, Gift

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impacts of soil disturbance and compaction on soil physical properties and tree growth and the effectiveness of tillage in maintaining or enhancing site productivity for intensively managed Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon sites in Dedza, Malawi. The results indicate that about fifty-two percent of the area of compacted plots was affected by the vehicular traffic. Seventy percent of the trees were planted on microsites with some degree of soil disturbance. Soil bulk density at 0-20 cm depth increased from 0.45 to 0.66 Mg m(-3) in the most compacted portions of traffic lanes. Soil strength in traffic lanes increased at all 60 cm depth but never exceeded 1200 kPa. Volumetric soil water content in compacted traffic lanes was greater than that in noncompacted soil. Total soil porosity decreased 13.8% to 16.1% with compaction, while available water holding capacity increased. The study revealed no detrimental effects on tree height and diameter from soil disturbance or compaction throughout the three growing season. At the ages of two and three, a tree volume index was actually greater for trees planted on traffic lanes than those on nondisturbed soil. PMID:27355043

  11. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings to the interaction between Suillus luteus and Trichoderma virens.

    PubMed

    Yin, D; Deng, X; Chet, Ilan; Song, R

    2014-09-01

    The effects of the interaction between Suillus luteus (L.) Roussel and Trichoderma virens (J.H. Mill., Giddens & A.A. Foster) Arx on Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv. were studied using plant physiology, mycorrhizal science, forest pathology, and biochemistry. Seedling growth and physiological parameters were determined, including the colonization rate of mycorrhizal fungi, biomass, root activity, photosynthetic pigment content, soluble protein content, antioxidant enzyme activities, rhizosphere soil enzyme activities, and protective enzyme activities. In addition, an optimal resistance system involving T. virens, mycorrhizal fungus (S. luteus), and P. sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings was constructed. Synergies between S. luteus and T. virens were observed, and most of the parameters of P. sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings inoculated with S. luteus 30 days + T. virens were higher than other treatments. After three months, when compared the control, the S. luteus 30 days + T. virens treatment gave increases in height (42.3 %); collar diameter (66.7 %); fresh weight (54 %); dry weight (50 %); soluble protein content (69.86 %); root activity (150 %); chlorophyll a (77.6 %); chlorophyll b (70.5 %); carotenoids (144 %); CAT activity (876.9 %); POD activity (268.3 %); SOD activity (66.18 %); β-1,3-glucanase activity (125.8 %); chitinase activity (40 %); rhizosphere soil catalase activity (97.8 %); and phosphatase activity (266.7 %). These results indicate that there may be a stimulating factor between S. luteus and T. virens when they are inoculated together (S. luteus 30 days + T. virens).

  12. Ecological studies of the bio-inoculant Trichoderma hamatum LU592 in the root system of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, Elisabeth Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2012-06-01

    The plant health- and growth-promoting biological inoculant (bio-inoculant) Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was transformed with the constitutively expressed green fluorescent protein (gfp) and hygromycin B resistance (hph) genes to specifically monitor the isolate in the root system of Pinus radiata within a strong indigenous Trichoderma population. A modified dilution plating technique was developed to allow the determination of the mycelia proportion of total propagule levels. LU592 was shown to colonize the rhizosphere most effectively when 10(5)  spores per pot were applied compared with inoculum concentrations of 10(3) and 10(7)  spores per pot. LU592 extended its zone of activity beyond the rhizosphere to at least 1 cm away from the root surface. A positive relationship was shown between P. radiata root maturation and the spatial and temporal proliferation of LU592 in the root system. A steep increase in mycelia levels and proportion of penetrated root segments was observed after 12 weeks. This study reinforces the value of genetic markers for use in ecological studies of filamentous fungi. However, despite isolate-specific recovery of the introduced isolate, it was shown that total propagule counts do not always correlate with the amount of viable mycelium present in the root system. Therefore, it is proposed that the differentiation of mycelia from spores and root penetration is used as more accurate measures of fungal activity.

  13. Prescribed Burning and Clear-Cutting Effects on Understory Vegetation in a Pinus canariensis Stand (Gran Canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo, José Ramón; García-Domínguez, Celia; Naranjo-Cigala, Agustín; Grillo, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Prescribed fires are a powerful tool for reducing fire hazards by decreasing amounts of fuel. The main objective is to analyze the effects of prescribed burning on the understory vegetation composition as well as on the soil characteristics of a reforested stand of Pinus canariensis. The study attempts to identify the effects of the preburning treatment of cutting understory vegetation on the floristic parameters of the vegetation community. This study was carried out for two years following a prescribed fire in a Canarian pine stand. Cutting and burning treatment affected species composition and increased diversity. Burnt and cut plots were characterized by a diverse array of herbaceous species and by a lower abundance of Teline microphylla (endemic legume), although burning apparently induced its germination. Cut treatment was more consistently differentiated from the control plots than burnt treatment. Soil K decreased after both treatments, pH slightly decreased after cutting, while P and Ca increased after fire. From an ecological point of view, prescribed burning is a better management practice than cutting the woody species of the understory. However, long-term studies would be necessary to evaluate the effects of fire intensity, season and frequency in which the prescribed burning is applied. PMID:25147839

  14. Seasonal Course of Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Distribution of 14C in Young Pinus resinosa Trees as Related to Wood Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, John C.; Larson, Philip R.

    1968-01-01

    Rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration, and distribution of 14C were determined for new (current season's) and old (previous season's) needles at 10 times during the seasonal development of young Pinus resinosa Ait. trees. The seasonal changes in these factors associated with the development of the new shoot were related to known seasonal patterns of wood formation. Net photosynthesis per gram of needle dry weight (photosynthetic efficiency) was maximum in the old needles at the time of first new needle elongation; at the same time translocation of 14C from old to new needles was greatest. Photosynthetic efficiency of new needles was maximum at the end of the period of rapid new needle elongation, when the new needles also began exporting much greater quantities of 14C to other plant parts. In particular, the amount translocated from the new needles to the stem was greatly increased. At this time thick-walled xylem cells were first observed in the stem. These results, together with those of previous studies, indicate that the production of thick-walled xylem tracheids normally associated with latewood is physiologically correlated with maturation of the current season's needles. Because there is a lesser demand for photosynthate in the new shoot and a high rate of photosynthesis in the whole plant at the time of new needle maturity, a sharply increased amount of photosynthate becomes available for wall synthesis by cambial derivatives. PMID:16656946

  15. Description of Cryptaphelenchus iranicus n. sp. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) recovered from bark samples of Pinus nigra from Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Mehrab; Heydari, Ramin; Taheri, Zahra Majd; Fang, Yiwu; Li, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Cryptaphelenchus iranicus n. sp., recovered from bark and wood samples of a weakened Pinus nigra in Kermanshah Province, western Iran, is described. The new species has females with body length of 250-330 µm and males 230-275 µm long, lip region set-off from body contour, 7-8 μm long stylet with small basal swellings, excretory pore located at 1.5-2.0 body diam. posterior to median bulb, post-vulval uterine sac short, 7-10 µm long and conical female posterior body end (tail) ending to a pointed tip. Males of the new species have seven (1+2+2+2) caudal papillae and a short mucro at tail tip. Based on morphological characters, the new species is close to C. cirrus, C. latus and C. leptocaudus. Phylogenetic analyses using the D2/D3 fragment of 28S rDNA show the new species forming a clade with other Cryptaphelenchus species with maximal (1.00) Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) in Bayesian inference and 100% bootstrap value (BS) in the maximum likelihood method. The Cryptaphelenchus clade forms a monophyletic group with members of subfamily Ektaphelenchinae. PMID:27470789

  16. Effects of climate variables on intra-annual stem radial increment in Pinus cembra (L.) along the alpine treeline ecotone

    PubMed Central

    GRUBER, Andreas; ZIMMERMANN, Jolanda; WIESER, Gerhard; OBERHUBER, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Within the alpine treeline ecotone tree growth is increasingly restricted by extreme climate conditions. Although intra-annual stem growth recorded by dendrometers can be linked to climate, stem diameter increments in slow-growing subalpine trees are masked by changes in tree water status. We tested the hypothesis that intra-annual radial stem growth in Pinus cembra is influenced by different climate variables along the treeline ecotone in the Austrian Alps. Dendrometer traces were compared with dynamics of xylem cell development to date onset of cambial activity and radial stem growth in spring. Daily fluctuations in stem radius reflected changes in tree water status throughout the treeline ecotone. Extracted daily radial increments were significantly correlated with air temperature at the timberline and treeline only, where budburst, cambial activity and enlargement of first tracheids also occurred quite similarly. A close relationship was detected between radial increment and number of enlarging tracheids throughout the treeline ecotone. We conclude that (i) the relationship between climate and radial stem growth within the treeline ecotone is dependent on a close coupling to atmospheric climate conditions and (ii) initiation of cambial activity and radial growth in spring can be distinguished from stem re-hydration by histological analysis. PMID:21423861

  17. Effects of climate variables on intra-annual stem radial increment in Pinus cembra (L.) along the alpine treeline ecotone.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Andreas; Zimmermann, Jolanda; Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter

    2009-08-01

    Within the alpine treeline ecotone tree growth is increasingly restricted by extreme climate conditions. Although intra-annual stem growth recorded by dendrometers can be linked to climate, stem diameter increments in slow-growing subalpine trees are masked by changes in tree water status.We tested the hypothesis that intra-annual radial stem growth in Pinus cembra is influenced by different climate variables along the treeline ecotone in the Austrian Alps. Dendrometer traces were compared with dynamics of xylem cell development to date onset of cambial activity and radial stem growth in spring.Daily fluctuations in stem radius reflected changes in tree water status throughout the treeline ecotone. Extracted daily radial increments were significantly correlated with air temperature at the timberline and treeline only, where budburst, cambial activity and enlargement of first tracheids also occurred quite similarly. A close relationship was detected between radial increment and number of enlarging tracheids throughout the treeline ecotone.We conclude that (i) the relationship between climate and radial stem growth within the treeline ecotone is dependent on a close coupling to atmospheric climate conditions and (ii) initiation of cambial activity and radial growth in spring can be distinguished from stem re-hydration by histological analysis. PMID:21423861

  18. Functional characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein gene family from Pinus tabuliformis (Pinaceae) in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Lan, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a large and highly diverse gene family present in a wide range of plant species. LEAs are proposed to play a role in various stress tolerance responses. Our study represents the first-ever survey of LEA proteins and their encoding genes in a widely distributed pine (Pinus tabuliformis) in China. Twenty–three LEA genes were identified from the P. tabuliformis belonging to seven groups. Proteins with repeated motifs are an important feature specific to LEA groups. Ten of 23 pine LEA genes were selectively expressed in specific tissues, and showed expression divergence within each group. In addition, we selected 13 genes representing each group and introduced theses genes into Escherichia coli to assess the protective function of PtaLEA under heat and salt stresses. Compared with control cells, the E. coli cells expressing PtaLEA fusion protein exhibited enhanced salt and heat resistance and viability, indicating the protein may play a protective role in cells under stress conditions. Furthermore, among these enhanced tolerance genes, a certain extent of function divergence appeared within a gene group as well as between gene groups, suggesting potential functional diversity of this gene family in conifers. PMID:26781930

  19. Trade-Offs between Growth Rate, Tree Size and Lifespan of Mountain Pine (Pinus montana) in the Swiss National Park.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Christof

    2016-01-01

    A within-species trade-off between growth rates and lifespan has been observed across different taxa of trees, however, there is some uncertainty whether this trade-off also applies to shade-intolerant tree species. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between radial growth, tree size and lifespan of shade-intolerant mountain pines. For 200 dead standing mountain pines (Pinus montana) located along gradients of aspect, slope steepness and elevation in the Swiss National Park, radial annual growth rates and lifespan were reconstructed. While early growth (i.e. mean tree-ring width over the first 50 years) correlated positively with diameter at the time of tree death, a negative correlation resulted with lifespan, i.e. rapidly growing mountain pines face a trade-off between reaching a large diameter at the cost of early tree death. Slowly growing mountain pines may reach a large diameter and a long lifespan, but risk to die young at a small size. Early growth was not correlated with temperature or precipitation over the growing period. Variability in lifespan was further contingent on aspect, slope steepness and elevation. The shade-intolerant mountain pines follow diverging growth trajectories that are imposed by extrinsic environmental influences. The resulting trade-offs between growth rate, tree size and lifespan advance our understanding of tree population dynamics, which may ultimately improve projections of forest dynamics under changing environmental conditions.

  20. Functional characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein gene family from Pinus tabuliformis (Pinaceae) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Lan, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a large and highly diverse gene family present in a wide range of plant species. LEAs are proposed to play a role in various stress tolerance responses. Our study represents the first-ever survey of LEA proteins and their encoding genes in a widely distributed pine (Pinus tabuliformis) in China. Twenty-three LEA genes were identified from the P. tabuliformis belonging to seven groups. Proteins with repeated motifs are an important feature specific to LEA groups. Ten of 23 pine LEA genes were selectively expressed in specific tissues, and showed expression divergence within each group. In addition, we selected 13 genes representing each group and introduced theses genes into Escherichia coli to assess the protective function of PtaLEA under heat and salt stresses. Compared with control cells, the E. coli cells expressing PtaLEA fusion protein exhibited enhanced salt and heat resistance and viability, indicating the protein may play a protective role in cells under stress conditions. Furthermore, among these enhanced tolerance genes, a certain extent of function divergence appeared within a gene group as well as between gene groups, suggesting potential functional diversity of this gene family in conifers. PMID:26781930

  1. Biochemical responses of the mycorrhizae in Pinus massoniana to combined effects of Al, Ca and low pH.

    PubMed

    Kong, F X; Liu, Y; Hu, W; Shen, P P; Zhou, C L; Wang, L S

    2000-02-01

    Biochemical responses of Pinus massoniana, with and without the inoculation mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius at the root, to artificial acid rain (pH 2.0) and various Ca/Al ratios were investigated. Some enzymes associated with the nutritive metabolism, such as acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, mannitol dehydrogenase and trehalase, in the roots, stems and leaves of plant were obviously inhibited by the artificial acid rain and Al. After treatment with pH 2.0 + Ca/Al (0/1 or 1/10) artificial acid rain, the protein content in the organs was decreased. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations were induced. It demonstrated that acid rain and Al could induce oxygen radicals in plant. Compared with the treatments with lower pH or Al, respectively, the combination of lower pH and Al concentration was more toxic to P. massoniana. Al toxicity could be ameliorated by the addition of Ca and the amelioration was the most when the ratio was 1/1 among the various Ca/Al ratio. Infection with mycorrhizal fungus P. tinctorius at the root of P. massoniana increased the ability of the plant to resist the toxicity of artificial acid rain and Al stress.

  2. Impact of Site Disturbances from Harvesting and Logging on Soil Physical Properties and Pinus kesiya Tree Growth

    PubMed Central

    Missanjo, Edward

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impacts of soil disturbance and compaction on soil physical properties and tree growth and the effectiveness of tillage in maintaining or enhancing site productivity for intensively managed Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon sites in Dedza, Malawi. The results indicate that about fifty-two percent of the area of compacted plots was affected by the vehicular traffic. Seventy percent of the trees were planted on microsites with some degree of soil disturbance. Soil bulk density at 0–20 cm depth increased from 0.45 to 0.66 Mg m−3 in the most compacted portions of traffic lanes. Soil strength in traffic lanes increased at all 60 cm depth but never exceeded 1200 kPa. Volumetric soil water content in compacted traffic lanes was greater than that in noncompacted soil. Total soil porosity decreased 13.8% to 16.1% with compaction, while available water holding capacity increased. The study revealed no detrimental effects on tree height and diameter from soil disturbance or compaction throughout the three growing season. At the ages of two and three, a tree volume index was actually greater for trees planted on traffic lanes than those on nondisturbed soil. PMID:27355043

  3. The effects of drought and disturbance on the growth and developmental instability of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, John H.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Michelle L.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Emlen, John M.; Malol, Jagadish; Bankstahl, Elizabeth; Krzysik, Anthony J.; Balbach, Harold E.; Freeman, D. Carl

    2012-01-01

    Ecological indicators provide early warning of adverse environmental change, helping land managers adaptively manage their resources while minimizing costly remediation. In 1999 and 2000, we studied two such indicators, growth and developmental instability, of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) influenced by mechanized infantry training at Fort Benning, Georgia. Disturbed areas were used for military training; tracked and wheeled vehicles damaged vegetation and soils. Highly disturbed sites had fewer trees, diminished ground cover, warmer soils in the summer, and more compacted soils with a shallower A-horizon. We hypothesized that disturbance would decrease the growth of needles, branches, and tree rings, increase the complexity of tree rings, and increase the developmental instability of needles. Contrary to our expectations, however, disturbance enhanced growth in the first year of the study, possibly by reducing competition. In the second year, a drought reduced growth of branches and needles, eliminating the stimulatory effect of disturbance. Growth-ring widths increased with growing-season precipitation, and decreased with growing-season temperature over the last 40 years. Disturbance had no effect on tree-ring complexity, as measured by the Hurst exponent. Within-fascicle variation of current-year needle length, a measure of developmental instability, differed among the study populations, but appeared unrelated to mechanical disturbance or drought.

  4. [Dynamics of unprotected soil organic carbon with the restoration process of Pinus massoniana plantation in red soil erosion area].

    PubMed

    Lü, Mao-Kui; Xie, Jin-Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Xiang; Zeng, Hong-Da; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Xi-Xiang; Xu, Chao; Chen, Tan; Fu, Lin-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By the method of spatiotemporal substitution and taking the bare land and secondary forest as the control, we measured light fraction and particulate organic carbon in the topsoil under the Pinus massoniana woodlands of different ages with similar management histories in a red soil erosion area, to determine their dynamics and evaluate the conversion processes from unprotected to protected organic carbon. The results showed that the content and storage of soil organic carbon increased significantly along with ages in the process of vegetation restoration (P < 0.01). The unprotected soil organic carbon content and distribution proportion to the total soil organic carbon increased significantly (P < 0.05) after 7-11 years' restoration but stabilized after 27 and 30 years of restoration. It suggested that soil organic carbon mostly accumulated in the form of unprotected soil organic carbon during the initial restoration period, and reached a stable level after long-term vegetation restoration. Positive correlations were found between restoration years and the rate constant for C transferring from the unprotected to the protected soil pool (k) in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, which demonstrated that the unprotected soil organic carbon gradually transferred to the protected soil organic carbon in the process of vegetation restoration.

  5. Trade-Offs between Growth Rate, Tree Size and Lifespan of Mountain Pine (Pinus montana) in the Swiss National Park

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, Christof

    2016-01-01

    A within-species trade-off between growth rates and lifespan has been observed across different taxa of trees, however, there is some uncertainty whether this trade-off also applies to shade-intolerant tree species. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between radial growth, tree size and lifespan of shade-intolerant mountain pines. For 200 dead standing mountain pines (Pinus montana) located along gradients of aspect, slope steepness and elevation in the Swiss National Park, radial annual growth rates and lifespan were reconstructed. While early growth (i.e. mean tree-ring width over the first 50 years) correlated positively with diameter at the time of tree death, a negative correlation resulted with lifespan, i.e. rapidly growing mountain pines face a trade-off between reaching a large diameter at the cost of early tree death. Slowly growing mountain pines may reach a large diameter and a long lifespan, but risk to die young at a small size. Early growth was not correlated with temperature or precipitation over the growing period. Variability in lifespan was further contingent on aspect, slope steepness and elevation. The shade-intolerant mountain pines follow diverging growth trajectories that are imposed by extrinsic environmental influences. The resulting trade-offs between growth rate, tree size and lifespan advance our understanding of tree population dynamics, which may ultimately improve projections of forest dynamics under changing environmental conditions. PMID:26930294

  6. Changes in Dehydrodiferulic Acids and Peroxidase Activity against Ferulic Acid Associated with Cell Walls during Growth of Pinus pinaster Hypocotyl.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, M.; Pena, M. J.; Revilla, G.; Zarra, I.

    1996-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids associated with hypocotyl cell walls of dark-grown seedlings of Pinus pinaster Aiton were extracted with 1 N NaOH and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main hydroxycinnamic acid found was ferulic acid. Diferulic acid dehydrodimers were also found, with the 8,8-coupled isomer (compound 11) being the dehydrodiferulate present in the highest amount. However, the 5,5-coupled isomer, commonly referred to referred to as diferulic acid, was not detected. Two truxillic acids, 4-4[prime]-dihydroxy-3-3[prime]-dimethoxy-[alpha]-truxillic acids I and II, were tentatively identified. The 8,8-coupled dehydrodiferulic acid (compound 11) was the phenolic acid that showed the most conspicuous changes with hypocotyl age as well as along the hypocotyl axis. Peroxidase activity against ferulic acid was found in the apoplastic fluid as well as being ionically and covalently bound to the cell walls. The peroxidase activity increased with hypocotyl age as well as from the subapical toward the basal region of the hypocotyls. A key role in the cell-wall stiffening of 8,8 but not 5,5 dimerization of ferulic acid catalyzed by cell-wall peroxidases is proposed. PMID:12226339

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of differential responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Simon, Martin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive) and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant) are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species. PMID:24625662

  8. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled “The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata” (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow. PMID:27182543

  9. Endogenous cytokinin and auxin profiles during in vitro organogenesis from vegetative buds of Pinus radiata adult trees.

    PubMed

    Montalbán, Itziar Aurora; Novák, Ondrej; Rolčik, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; Moncaleán, Paloma

    2013-06-01

    In Pinus radiata D. Don, the transition from the juvenile to the mature phase is characterized by a reduction in the tree's organogenic potential, which is usually reverted in breeding programs by reinvigoration procedures to enable vegetative propagation. In this work, we have determined the best culture conditions for in vitro reinvigoration of radiata pine buds, tested different cytokinin (CK) types [N⁶-benzyladenine (BA), meta-topolin (mT) and trans-zeatin] and concentrations (25 and 50 µM), and studied the effect of culture conditions on endogenous CK and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels at different stages of the organogenic process. To this end, the levels of 43 CKs and IAA were determined in P. radiata buds before and during the reinvigoration process. When BA or mT was applied to the induction medium, we did not observe any significant increase or decrease in endogenous isoprenoid CK content. We also report for the first time the presence of O-glucosides in non-treated P. radiata explants from the field and remark the importance of O-glucosides as storage forms.

  10. Hydroalcoholic extract of needles of Pinus eldarica enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep: possible involvement of GABAergic system

    PubMed Central

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Insomnia is accompanied by several health complications and the currently used soporific drugs can induce several side effects such as psychomotor impairment, amnesia, and tolerance. The present study was planned to investigate the sleep prolonging effect of Pinus eldarica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of P. eldarica, its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were injected (intraperitoneally) to mice 30 min before administration of pentobarbital. Then, the latent period and continuous sleeping time were recorded. Also, LD50 of P. eldarica extract was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells. Results: The HAE and NBF decreased the latency of sleep (p<0.05) and significantly increased duration of sleep (p<0.05) induced by pentobarbital. These effects of P. eldarica were reversed by flumazenil. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/Kg. HAE and its fractions did not show neurotoxic effects in cultured PC12-cell line. Conclusion: The present data indicate that P. eldarica potentiated pentobarbital hypnosis without major toxic effect. Most probably, the main components responsible for this effect are non-polar agents which are found in NBF of this plant. PMID:27516986

  11. A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C.; Yanchuk, A.D.

    1996-03-01

    We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Genetic Structure of a Naturally Regenerating Post-Fire Seedling Population: Pinus halepensis As a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Gershberg, Anna; Ne'eman, Gidi; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To study the effects of wildfire on population genetics of a wind pollinated and wind dispersed tree, we have analyzed the genetic structure of a post-fire, naturally regenerating seedling population of Pinus halepensis Miller, on Mt. Carmel, Israel. We tested the existence of spatial genetic structure, which is expected due to the special spatial demographic structure of the post-fire seedling and sapling populations of this species. Explicitly, we asked whether or not seedlings that germinated under large, burned, dead pine trees are also their offspring. The results revealed that the post-fire seedling population is polymorphic, diverse, and reflects the pre-fire random mating system. In contrast to our prediction, we found no division of the post-fire seedling population to distinct sub-populations. Furthermore, as a result of post-fire seed dispersal to longer range than the average pre-fire inter-tree distance, seedlings found under individual burned trees were not necessarily their sole offspring. Although the population as a whole showed a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, significant excess of heterozygotes was found within each tallest seedlings group growing under single, large, burned pine trees. Our finding indicates the possible existence of intense natural selection for the most vigorous heterozygous genotypes that are best adapted to the special post-fire regeneration niche, which is the thick ash bed under large, dead, pine trees. PMID:27200024

  13. Tree rings of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology.

  14. Protective Effect of Pinus koraiensis Needle Water Extract Against Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells and Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Won, Sae Bom; Jung, Ga-young; Kim, Juhae; Chung, Young Shin; Hong, Eun Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Needles of pine species are rich in polyphenols, which may exert beneficial effects on human health. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of Pinus koraiensis needle water extracts (PKW). HepG2 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of PKW (from 10−3 to 1 mg/mL) and oxidative stress was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). In the animal model, male ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity, and then mice were continually fed a high-fat diet with or without orally administered PKW (400 mg/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. Pretreatment with PKW prevented significant increases in cytotoxicity and catalase activity induced by t-BOOH in HepG2 cells. Similarly, the catalase protein expression levels elevated by t-BOOH were abrogated in cells pretreated with PKW. In mice fed a high-fat diet, PKW significantly increased hepatic activities of catalase and glutathione reductase and lower lipid peroxidation levels were observed in the liver and kidney of mice with PKW supplementation. The present study demonstrates that PKW protects against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells treated with t-BOOH and in mice fed a high-fat diet. PMID:23822143

  15. The mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during the succession in subtropical forest ecosystems: light competition or stoichiometric homoeostasis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Junhua; Li, Kun; Peng, Xingju; Huang, Zhongliang; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei

    2015-06-01

    Competition for light has traditionally been considered as the main mechanism for exclusion of Pinus massoniana during succession in subtropical forest ecosystems. However, both long-term inventories and a seedling cultivation experiment showed that growth of mature individuals and young seedlings of P. massoniana was not limited by available light, but was strongly influenced by stoichiometric homoeostasis. This is supported by the results of homoeostatic regulation coefficients for nitrogen (HN) and phosphorus (HP) estimated using the measured data from six transitional forests across subtropical China. Among three dominant tree species in subtropical forests, P. massoniana and Castanopsis chinensis had the lowest values of HP and HN, respectively. Therefore P. massoniana cannot survive in the advanced stage due to soil phosphorus limitation and C. chinensis cannot successfully grow in the pioneer stage due to soil nitrogen limitation. Our results support that stoichiometric homeostasis is the main reason for gradual exclusion of P. massoniana from the transitional forest and the eventual elimination from the advanced forest during the subtropical forest succession. Therefore greater attention should be paid to stoichiometric homeostasis as one of the key mechanisms for species exclusion during forest succession.

  16. [Distribution of the genetic diversity of the Siberian stone pine, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, along the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles].

    PubMed

    Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S; Politov, D V

    2014-05-01

    The Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the main forest-forming coniferous species of the boreal ecosystems of Western Siberia. We used the isozyme method to analyze 11 ecotypes representing the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles within the species range, including samples from the geographic boundaries of the distribution. The genetic structure of the ecotypes is described on the basis of the variability for 26 isozyme loci encoding for 16 enzyme systems. The greatest genetic diversity was observed in the taiga ecotypes in the central part of the studied area, while the ecotypes along the species range boundaries were shown to be genetically depauperized. Approximately 8.1% of the observed genetic diversity is attributed to differences between the studied ecotypes. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the Fest_2, Pgm_1, Sod_4, and a few otherloci, as well as a correlation between allele frequencies and geographical locations of the populations. The results of multivariate analysis of allelic frequencies as well as cluster analysis allowed us to discriminate three major groups of ecotypes: north-eastern, central and south-western. In view of our results, we compare two hypotheses: one which attributes the spatial distribution of genetic variations to the selectivity for some of the polymorphic allozyme loci, and the other based in the history of the formation of the range of the Siberian stone pine. PMID:25715470

  17. Allelochemicals of Pinus halepensis as drivers of biodiversity in Mediterranean open mosaic habitats during the colonization stage of secondary succession.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Catherine; Santonja, Mathieu; Gros, Raphael; Monnier, Yogan; Chomel, Mathilde; Baldy, Virginie; Bousquet-Mélou, Anne

    2013-02-01

    The Mediterranean region is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, over the last 50 years or so, the cessation of traditional farming has given way to strong afforestation at the expense of open habitats. Pinus halepensis Miller, known to synthesize a wide range of secondary metabolites, is a pioneer expansionist species colonizing abandoned agricultural land that present high species richness. Here, laboratory bioassays were used to study the potential impact of P. halepensis on plant diversity through allelopathy, and the role of microorganisms in these interactions. Germination and growth of 12 target species naturally present in fallow farmlands were tested according to concentration of aqueous extracts obtained from shoots of young pines (aged about 5 years), with or without the presence of soil microorganisms (autoclaved or natural soil). Under the highest concentrations and autoclaved soil, more than 80 % of target species were germination and/or growth-inhibited, and only two species were non-sensitive. Under more natural conditions (lower extracts concentrations and natural soil with microorganisms), only 50 % of species were still inhibited, one was non-sensitive, and five were stimulated. Thus, microorganisms alter the expression of allelochemicals released into the ecosystem, which highlights their key role in chemical plant-plant interactions. The results of allelopathic experiments conducted in the lab are consistent with the community patterns observed in the field. These findings suggest that allelopathy is likely to shape vegetation composition and participate to the control of biodiversity in Mediterranean open mosaic habitats. PMID:23328817

  18. Decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and pine (Pinus nigra) litter along an Alpine elevation gradient: Decay and nutrient release

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Torsten W.; Duboc, Olivier; Djukic, Ika; Tatzber, Michael; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Zehetner, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is an important process for cycling of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct and indirect effects of climate on litter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient in a temperate Alpine region. Foliar litter of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Black pine (Pinus nigra) was incubated in litterbags during two years in the Hochschwab massif of the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria. Eight incubation sites were selected following an altitudinal/climatic transect from 1900 to 900 m asl. The average remaining mass after two years of decomposition amounted to 54% (beech) and 50% (pine). Net release of N, P, Na, Al, Fe and Mn was higher in pine than in beech litter due to high immobilization (retention) rates of beech litter. However, pine litter retained more Ca than beech litter. Altitude retarded decay (mass loss and associated C release) in beech litter during the first year only but had a longer lasting effect on decaying pine litter. Altitude comprises a suite of highly auto-correlated characteristics (climate, vegetation, litter, soil chemistry, soil microbiology, snow cover) that influence litter decomposition. Hence, decay and nutrient release of incubated litter is difficult to predict by altitude, except during the early stage of decomposition, which seemed to be controlled by climate. Reciprocal litter transplant along the elevation gradient yielded even relatively higher decay of pine litter on beech forest sites after a two-year adaptation period of the microbial community. PMID:26240437

  19. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris)

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (−19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. PMID:24697679

  20. Eucalyptus urograndis and Pinus taeda enhance removal of chlorobenzene and benzene in sand culture: A greenhouse study.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Diego; Morris, Lawrence A; Nzengung, Valentine; Moura, Tiago; Mantripragada, Nehru; Thompson, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Contamination of soils and groundwater by chlorobenzene and benzene is a common problem at industrial sites worldwide. Since chemical remediation techniques are rarely completely effective, remnants of these contaminants often persist at levels that can still influence ecosystem health. We evaluated the potential of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus urograndis to accelerate the removal of these compounds from sand/water systems using a completely randomized block greenhouse experiment with a no-plant control. At 2-day intervals, we added a solution containing both chlorobenzene and benzene with the same concentration of 50 mg L(-1) (25 mg pot(-1)), and we monitored leachate concentrations daily. The planted treatments showed greater decrease of contaminants over time. In the absence of plants, the contaminant mass decreased 50-60% during each 2-day cycle; whereas, in the planted treatments the contaminant mass decreased 91-98%. At the end of the experiment the plant roots, leaves, and the sand-substrate each contained less than 1 mg kg(-1) of contaminants, which is ∼1% of the total contaminant mass added. In addition, we observed no tree mortality even at concentrations exceeding the aqueous solubility limit of both compounds. Our results suggest both trees are good candidates for remediating chlorobenzene and benzene in soils and groundwater. PMID:27159839

  1. Carboxylic acids in PM 2.5 over Pinus morrisonicola forest and related photoreaction mechanisms identified via Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Su-Ching; Tsai, Ying I.; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Hsieh, Li-Ying

    2011-12-01

    The PM 2.5 aerosol from within an area of Pinus morrisonicola Hayata in Taiwan was collected and analyzed for its low molecular weight carboxylic acid (LMWCAs) content. Oxalic acid was the major LMWCA in the aerosol, followed by acetic, tartaric and maleic acids. This differs significantly from the LMWCA composition of PM 2.5 aerosol reported for a southern Taiwan suburban region (oxalic > succinic > malonic) [Atmospheric Environment 42, 6836-6850 (2008)]. P. morrisonicola Hayata emits oxalic, malic and formic acids and yet there was an abundance of maleic and tartaric acids in the PM 2.5 forest aerosol, indicating that tartaric acid is derived from the transformation of other P. morrisonicola Hayata emissions. Raman spectroscopy was applied and 28 species of LMWCAs and inorganic species were identified. The photochemical mechanisms of maleic and tartaric acids were studied and it was found that the abundant tartaric acid in forest aerosol is most probably the photochemical product from reactions of maleic acid. Furthermore, tartaric acid is photochemically transformed into formic acid and ultimately into CO 2.

  2. Modeling climate change, urbanization, and fire effects on Pinus palustris ecosystems of the southeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Jennifer K; Terando, Adam J; McKerrow, Alexa J; Collazo, Jaime A

    2015-03-15

    Managing ecosystems for resilience and sustainability requires understanding how they will respond to future anthropogenic drivers such as climate change and urbanization. In fire-dependent ecosystems, predicting this response requires a focus on how these drivers will impact fire regimes. Here, we use scenarios of climate change, urbanization and management to simulate the future dynamics of the critically endangered and fire-dependent longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem. We investigated how climate change and urbanization will affect the ecosystem, and whether the two conservation goals of a 135% increase in total longleaf area and a doubling of fire-maintained open-canopy habitat can be achieved in the face of these drivers. Our results show that while climatic warming had little effect on the wildfire regime, and thus on longleaf pine dynamics, urban growth led to an 8% reduction in annual wildfire area. The management scenarios we tested increase the ecosystem's total extent by up to 62% and result in expansion of open-canopy longleaf by as much as 216%, meeting one of the two conservation goals for the ecosystem. We find that both conservation goals for this ecosystem, which is climate-resilient but vulnerable to urbanization, are only attainable if a greater focus is placed on restoration of non-longleaf areas as opposed to maintaining existing longleaf stands. Our approach demonstrates the importance of accounting for multiple relevant anthropogenic threats in an ecosystem-specific context in order to facilitate more effective management actions. PMID:25576696

  3. [Spectral characteristics of Pinus tabulaeformis canopy with different damaged rates of needle leaf in western Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui; Zhang, Yu-Shu; Yu, Wen-Ying; Wu, Jin-Wen; Wang, Pei-Juan; Ji, Rui-Peng; Che, Yu-Sheng; Zhu, Yong-Ning

    2012-07-01

    Through the measurement of the spectral reflectance of large areas Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. ) canopy in western Liaoning Province, this paper analyzed the difference of the spectral reflectance of the canopies with different damaged rates of needle leaf. In visible band, the characteristics of the spectral reflectance of P. tabulaeformis canopies with healthy and damaged needle leaf were in accordance with the spectral characteristics of green plants, but the position of red valley was not obvious when the damaged rate of needle leaf was higher than 60%. In near-infrared band, with the decrease of the damaged rate of needle leaf, the canopy spectral reflectance increased at 780-1350 nm, but decreased at 1450-1800 and 1950-2350 nm. With the increase of the damaged rate, the position of red-edge inflection moved to the short-wave direction. There were significant correlations between the damaged rate of needle leaf and the red edge feature variables and some vegetation indices. The model based on DVI (1470, 860) could be more reliable for predicting the damaged rate of needle leaf in P. tabulaeformis canopy in western Liaoning Province. PMID:23173448

  4. Modeling climate change, urbanization, and fire effects on Pinus palustris ecosystems of the southeastern U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costanza, Jennifer; Terando, Adam; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for resilience and sustainability requires understanding how they will respond to future anthropogenic drivers such as climate change and urbanization. In fire-dependent ecosystems, predicting this response requires a focus on how these drivers will impact fire regimes. Here, we use scenarios of climate change, urbanization and management to simulate the future dynamics of the critically endangered and fire-dependent longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem. We investigated how climate change and urbanization will affect the ecosystem, and whether the two conservation goals of a 135% increase in total longleaf area and a doubling of fire-maintained open-canopy habitat can be achieved in the face of these drivers. Our results show that while climatic warming had little effect on the wildfire regime, and thus on longleaf pine dynamics, urban growth led to an 8% reduction in annual wildfire area. The management scenarios we tested increase the ecosystem's total extent by up to 62% and result in expansion of open-canopy longleaf by as much as 216%, meeting one of the two conservation goals for the ecosystem. We find that both conservation goals for this ecosystem, which is climate-resilient but vulnerable to urbanization, are only attainable if a greater focus is placed on restoration of non-longleaf areas as opposed to maintaining existing longleaf stands. Our approach demonstrates the importance of accounting for multiple relevant anthropogenic threats in an ecosystem-specific context in order to facilitate more effective management actions.

  5. Thigmomorphogenesis: anatomical, morphological and mechanical analysis of genetically different sibs of Pinus taeda in response to mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-three open pollinated families (half-sibs) and four controlled pollinated families (full-sibs) of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) were grown in a greenhouse and analyzed for changes induced by mechanical perturbation (MP). These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, bracing of branch nodes, and increased radial growth in the direction of the MP. Inhibition of stem elongation was the least variable feature measured. Leaf extension and stem diameter were highly variable between half-sibs. MP induced increased drag in greenhouse grown P. taeda in wind-tunnel tests. In P. taeda, MP induced decreased flexibility and increased elasticity and plasticity of the stem. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in an overall decrease in flexibility. MP trees had a higher rupture point than non-MP controls. Increased radial growth is a result of more rapid cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decreased leader growth is partly due to a decreased tracheid length in response to MP.

  6. Genetic diversity of the endemic flat-needle pine Pinus krempfii (Pinaceae) from Vietnam revealed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Phong, D T; Lieu, T T; Hien, V T T; Hiep, N T

    2015-01-01

    Pinus krempfii Lecomte (Pinaceae) is an endemic tree to Vietnam with restricted habitats at higher altitudes in the highlands. In this study, genetic variation of four populations of P. krempfii was assessed using 17 microsatellite markers (single sequence repeats). Of these 17 markers, eight were polymorphic, and among the 42 putative alleles amplified, 32 were polymorphic (accounting for 76.19%). The Cong Troi population was found to be the most genetically diverse (Shannon's information index, I = 0.415, and percentage of polymorphic bands, PPB = 52.95%), whereas the Hon Giao population was found to have the lowest diversity (I = 0.330 and PPB = 47.06%). The genetic diversity at species level was also estimated (I = 0.414, PPB = 76.19%). Molecular variance was found to be low among populations (11.94%) and high among individuals within the populations (88.06%). Private alleles were not detected in the Hon Giao population. The Yang Ly population had a positive FIS (inbreeding coefficient) value of 0.071, while the three remaining populations had negative values (-0.116 for Cong Troi, -0.316 for Chu Yang Sin, and -0.350 for Hon Giao). The results obtained show an excess of homozygosity in the Yang Ly population, and also suggest a deficiency of heterozygosity for this population. Several approaches and measures of conservation for P. krempfii are discussed and proposed. PMID:26214454

  7. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled "The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata" (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow. PMID:27182543

  8. Soil respiration and root biomass responses to burning in calabrian pine (Pinus brutia) stands in Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Kucuk, Mehmet; Bilmis, Tuncay; Altun, Lokman; Yilmaz, Murat

    2010-01-01

    In this study soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-30 year-old calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) stands in Edirne, Turkey. The stands were established by planting and were subjected to prescribed burning in July 2005. Soil respiration rates were determined every two months using the soda-lime method over a two-year period. Fine (> or = 2 mm diameter) and small root (> 2-5 mm diameter) biomass were sampled approximately bimonthly using the sequential coring method. Soil respiration rates in burned sites were significantly higher than in control sites during the summer season but there was no significant difference in the other seasons. Soil respiration rates were correlated significantly with soil moisture and soil temperature. Fine and small root biomass were significantly lower in burned sites than in control sites. Mean fine root biomass values were 3204 kg ha(-1) for burned and 3772 kg ha(-1) for control sites. Annual soil CO2 releases totaled 515 g Cm(-2) for burned and 418 g C m(-2) for control sites. Our results indicate that, depending on site conditions, fire could be used successfully as a tool in the management of calabrian pine stands in the study area.

  9. Seasonality of monoterpene emission potentials in Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea: Implications for regional VOC emissions modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Trevor; Niinemets, ÜLo; Sabate, Santi; Gracia, Carlos; PeñUelas, Josep

    2009-11-01

    VOC emissions from terrestrial ecosystems provide one of the principal controls over oxidative photochemistry in the lower atmosphere and the resulting air pollution. Such atmospheric processes have strong seasonal cycles. Although similar seasonal cycles in VOC emissions from terrestrial ecosystems have been reported, regional emissions inventories generally omit the effect of seasonality on emissions. We compiled measurement data on seasonal variations in monoterpene emissions potentials for two evergreen species (Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea) and used these data to construct two contrasting seasonal response functions for the inclusion in monoterpene emission models. We included these responses in the Niinemets et al. model and compared simulation results to those of the MEGAN model, both with and without its predicted seasonality. The effect of seasonality on regional monoterpene emissions inventories for European Mediterranean forests dominated by these species was tested for both models, using the GOTILWA+ biosphere model platform. The consideration of seasonality in the Niinemets et al. model reduced total estimated annual monoterpene emissions by up to 65% in some regions, with largest reductions at lower latitudes. The MEGAN model demonstrated a much weaker seasonal response than that in the Niinemets et al. model, and did not capture the between species seasonality differences found in this study. Results suggest that previous regional model inventories based on one fixed emission factor likely overestimate regional emissions, and species-specific expressions of seasonality may be necessary. The consideration of seasonality both largely reduces monoterpene emissions estimates, and changes their expected seasonal distribution.

  10. Manipulation of VOC emissions with methyl jasmonate and carrageenan in the evergreen conifer Pinus sylvestris and evergreen broadleaf Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Semiz, G; Blande, J D; Heijari, J; Işik, K; Niinemets, U; Holopainen, J K

    2012-03-01

    Plant defence can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) or its volatile ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Carrageenans (Carr) - sulphated D-galactans extracted from red algae - can also induce plant defences. In this study, the effects of exogenous MeJA and Carr application (concentration 300 and 12.7 μmol, respectively) on volatile emissions from two widespread evergreen woody species, Pinus sylvestris (nine Turkish and one Finnish provenance) and Quercus ilex (Italian provenance) were investigated. We collected headspace samples from seedlings and analysed the quality and quantity of volatile compounds emitted by treated and control plants. In total, 19 monoterpenes, 10 sesquiterpenes, 10 green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and two aromatic compounds were emitted by P. sylvestris from all the provenances studied. Foliar MeJA application clearly affected the volatile profiles of trees from all the provenances. Effects of Carr were genotype specific. In Q. ilex, emissions of sesquiterpenes, GLVs and the homoterpene (E)-DMNT were all induced by MeJA application. However, emissions of most constitutively emitted monoterpenes were significantly reduced. Carr application also led to a significant reduction in monoterpene emissions, but without corresponding increases in other emissions. Our results indicate that exogenously applied MeJA and Carr can both significantly modify the volatile profiles of P. sylvestris and Q. ilex, but also that there are important provenance- and species-specific differences in the overall degree of elicitation and compositions of elicited compounds. PMID:21973325

  11. The atmospheric potential of biogenic volatile organic compounds from needles of White Pine (Pinus strobus) in Northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, S.; Bertman, S.

    2011-09-01

    The key role biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) play in atmospheric chemistry requires a detailed understanding of how BVOC concentrations will be affected by environmental change. Large-scale screening of ecosystems is difficult with enclosure methods. In this study, BVOC in needles of 71 white pine trees (Pinus strobus), which are becoming a large part of Midwest forests, are tracked for three summers at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). α-pinene, the dominant terpene in all samples, accounts for 30-50% of all terpenes on a mole basis. The most abundant sesquiterpenoid was a C15 alcohol identified as germacrene-D-4-ol. The abundance of this material and its atmospheric relevance has not been considered previously. The relationship between limonene and α-pinene clearly shows two distinct trends in the population of these forests. About 15% of the trees showed high levels of limonene (up to 36% of the total BVOC) in the same trees every year. With this mixture, limonene contributes 11% of the α-pinene contribution to total gas-phase OH loss at UMBS compared to less than 2% considering the composition of the majority trees. Hence we show that chemotypic variation within forests can affect atmospheric chemistry and that large-scale screening of BVOC can be used effectively to study the importance of BVOC variation for predicting atmospheric chemistry in future forests.

  12. The atmospheric potential of biogenic volatile organic compounds from needles of white pine (Pinus strobus) in Northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, S.; Bertman, S.

    2012-02-01

    The key role that biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) play in atmospheric chemistry requires a detailed understanding of how BVOC concentrations will be affected by environmental change. Large-scale screening of BVOC emissions from whole forest ecosystems is difficult with enclosure methods. Leaf composition of BVOC, as a surrogate for direct emissions, can more easily reflect the distribution of BVOC compounds in a forest. In this study, BVOC composition in needles of 92 white pine trees (Pinus strobus), which are becoming a large part of Midwest forests, are tracked for three summers at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). α-Pinene, the dominant terpene in all samples, accounts for 30-50% of all terpenes on a mole basis. The most abundant sesquiterpenoid was a C15 alcohol identified as germacrene D-4-ol. The relationship between limonene and total other monoterpenes shows two distinct trends in the population of these forests. About 14% (n = 13) of the trees showed high levels of limonene (up to 36% of the total BVOC) in the same trees every year. Assuming that needle concentrations scale with emission rate, we estimate that hydroxyl radical reactivity due to reaction with monoterpenes from white pine increases approximately 6% at UMBS when these elevated concentrations are included. We suggest that chemotypic variation within forests has the potential to affect atmospheric chemistry and that large-scale screening of BVOC can be used to study the importance of BVOC variation.

  13. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda)

    PubMed Central

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS–LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts. PMID:26399186

  14. Soil warming increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matyssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    This study quantified the effect of soil warming on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra L. at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3 and 1.0 °C at 5, 10 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and environmental parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no warming effect was detected on Qs. However, soil warming caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from warming-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapour, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ(13)C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil warming, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future warming environment.

  15. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    PubMed

    Vizcaíno-Palomar, Natalia; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara; Zavala, Miguel A; Alía, Ricardo; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover) in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any) was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local) origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  16. Eucalyptus urograndis and Pinus taeda enhance removal of chlorobenzene and benzene in sand culture: A greenhouse study.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Diego; Morris, Lawrence A; Nzengung, Valentine; Moura, Tiago; Mantripragada, Nehru; Thompson, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Contamination of soils and groundwater by chlorobenzene and benzene is a common problem at industrial sites worldwide. Since chemical remediation techniques are rarely completely effective, remnants of these contaminants often persist at levels that can still influence ecosystem health. We evaluated the potential of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus urograndis to accelerate the removal of these compounds from sand/water systems using a completely randomized block greenhouse experiment with a no-plant control. At 2-day intervals, we added a solution containing both chlorobenzene and benzene with the same concentration of 50 mg L(-1) (25 mg pot(-1)), and we monitored leachate concentrations daily. The planted treatments showed greater decrease of contaminants over time. In the absence of plants, the contaminant mass decreased 50-60% during each 2-day cycle; whereas, in the planted treatments the contaminant mass decreased 91-98%. At the end of the experiment the plant roots, leaves, and the sand-substrate each contained less than 1 mg kg(-1) of contaminants, which is ∼1% of the total contaminant mass added. In addition, we observed no tree mortality even at concentrations exceeding the aqueous solubility limit of both compounds. Our results suggest both trees are good candidates for remediating chlorobenzene and benzene in soils and groundwater.

  17. [Spatial patterns of different age-class individuals in Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Songshan Nature Reserve of Beijing, China].

    PubMed

    Niu, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Xiao; Yue, Yong-Jie

    2008-07-01

    By the method of point pattern analysis, this paper studied the spatial patterns of different age-class individuals in the Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Songshan Nature Reserve of Beijing, and the spatial association between the individuals. The results showed that there existed greater differences in the densities of different age-class P. tabulaeformis individuals, e.g., age-class I had the density of 15 plants per hectare, while age-class III had the density of 924 plants per hectare. The spatial patterns of different age-class individuals and the spatial association between the individuals had a close relationship with the spatial scale. In the scale of < 40 m, the individuals of all age-classes tended to clump, and there was a stronger spatial association between the individuals of different age-classes. When the scale was larger than 30 m or 40 m, the individuals of all age-classes would disperse randomly, and their spatial association would be weakened greatly. PMID:18839896

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus peuce (Pinaceae) growing wild in R. Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Karapandzova, Marija; Stefkova, Gjose; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Trajkovska-Dokik, Elena; Kaftandzieva, Ana; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils isolated from twigs with needles (T+N) and from twigs without needles (T-N) from wild Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae), from three different locations in R. Macedonia, were investigated. Essential oil yields of T+N ranged from 7.5 mL/kg to 12.5 mL/kg and for T-N from 13.8 mL/kg to 17.3 mL/kg. GC/FID/MS analysis of the essential oils revealed eighty-four components, representing 93.7-95.7% and 91.2-92.0% of the T+N and T-N oils, respectively. The major components in T+N and T-N oils were monoterpenes: α-pinene (23.8-39.9%, 21.2-23.3%), camphene (2.2-5.5%, 0.7-2.0%), β-pinene (10.1-17.1%, 8.2-16.4%), myrcene (1.2-1.41%, 1.6-2.5%), limonene+β-phellandrene (6.8-14.0%, 8.8-23.6%) and bornyl acetate (2.3-6.9%, 1.1-3.4%), followed by the sesquiterpenes: trans-(E)-caryophyllene (3.6-4.3%, 3.2-7.3%), germacrene D (7.1-9.5%, 5.0-10.3%) and δ-cadinene (2.1-3.1%, 3.3-4.2%, respectively). Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disk diffusion and broth dilution methods against 13 bacterial isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. T-N essential oils showed antimicrobial activity toward Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Candida albicans as well as Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Haemophilus influenzae. The antimicrobial activity of T+N essential oils was greater, especially against Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pyogenes, Enterococcus and Candida albicans, followed by Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all tested essential oils ranged from 15-125 μL/mL. Summarizing the obtained results, the antimicrobial activity of Pinus peuce T+N and T-N essential oils collected from different localities in R. Macedonia varied considerably. These alterations in the

  19. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd.

    2005-11-30

    divisions in the cambial meristem as expected. We isolated a promoter from a cambial specific gene and commenced development of transformation protocols for loblolly pine. Since our results show that cyclin D expression correlates with increased growth we continued with experiments to demonstrate the effect of cyclin overexpression upon tree growth. Vectors which constitutively express the cyclin D cDNA were constructed and transformed into a transgenic pine system through the collaboration with Forest Research, New Zealand. The transformation system for Pinus radiata is well established and we hoped to gain phenotypic information in a closely related pine, rather than await development of a robust loblolly pine transformation method. Transformation experiments were conducted by a biolistic method developed at Forest Research, NZ. A total of 78 transgenic embryogenic lines were generated and bulked up with a good representation of transgenic lines per construct. Transformed calli were originally identified by resistance to the antibiotic Geneticin contained in the medium. The transgenic nature of the selected lines was subsequently confirmed using histochemical GUS staining. To date, 10 out of 13 selected transgenic lines have produced embryos and we are currently harvesting the first transgenic plantlets. At present time 22 of those plantlets have been moved to GMO facilities. We will soon develop a strategy for assessing potential phenotypic differences between the transclones and non-transformed controls. Transgenic plants are being grown to a stage (approx. 1 year) when meaningful phenotypic evaluation can be conducted. The recent availability of 10,000 element loblolly pine cDNA microarray will permit the evaluation of cyclinD overexpression upon gene expression in transgenic Pinus.

  20. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zinck, John W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD) were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation. PMID:27387485

  1. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of textile dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Ozkan; Ucun, Handan

    2010-09-15

    This study investigated the biosorption of Reactive Red 195 (RR 195), an azo dye, from aqueous solution by using cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris Linneo. To this end, pH, initial dye concentration, biomass dosage and contact time were studied in a batch biosorption system. Maximum pH for efficient RR 195 biosorption was found to be 1.0 and the initial RR 195 concentration increased with decreasing percentage removal. Biosorption capacity increased from 6.69 mg/g at 20 degrees C to 7.38 mg/g at 50 degrees C for 200mg/L dye concentration. Kinetics of the interactions was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, the Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Moreover, the Elovich equation also showed a good fit to the experimental data. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium data. The activation energy of biosorption (Ea) was found to be 8.904 kJ/mol by using the Arrhenius equation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the study also evaluated the thermodynamic constants of biosorption (DeltaG(o), DeltaH(o) and DeltaS). The results indicate that cone biomass can be used as an effective and low-cost biosorbent to remove reactive dyes from aqueous solution.

  2. Effects of elevated CO(2) and Pb on the microbial community in the rhizosphere of Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghyun; Hong, Sun Hwa; Cho, Kyungsook; Lee, Insook; Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) may stimulate forest productivity in the future, resulting in increased carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems. However, heavy metal contamination may interfere with this, though the response is not yet known. In this study, we investigated the effect of elevated CO(2) and Pb contamination on microorganisms and decomposition in pine tree forest soil. Three-year old pine trees (Pinus densiflora) were planted in Pb contaminated soils (500 mg/kg-soil) and uncontaminated soils and cultivated for three months in a growth chamber where the CO(2) concentration was controlled at 380 or 760 mg/kg. Structures of the microbial community were comparatively analyzed in bulk and in rhizosphere soil samples using community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) and 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Additionally, microbial activity in rhizospheric soil, growth and the C/N ratio of the pine trees were measured. Elevated CO(2) significantly increased microbial activities and diversity in Pb contaminated soils due to the increase in carbon sources, and this increase was more distinctive in rhizospheric soil than in bulk soils. In addition, increased plant growth and C/N ratios of pine needles at elevated CO(2) resulted in an increase in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the rhizosphere in Pb contaminated soil. Taken together, these findings indicate that elevated CO(2) levels and heavy metals can affect the soil carbon cycle by changing the microbial community and plant metabolism.

  3. Dry weight partitioning and hydraulic traits in young Pinus taeda trees fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus in a subtropical area.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Laura I; Bulfe, Nardia M L; Pinazo, Martín A; Monteoliva, Silvia E; Graciano, Corina

    2013-03-01

    Plants of Pinus taeda L. from each of four families were fertilized with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) or N + P at planting. The H family had the highest growth in dry mass while the L family had the lowest growth. Measurements of plant hydraulic architecture traits were performed during the first year after planting. Stomatal conductance (gs), water potential at predawn (Ψpredawn) and at midday (Ψmidday), branch hydraulic conductivity (ks and kl) and shoot hydraulic conductance (K) were measured. One year after planting, dry weight partitioning of all aboveground organs was performed. Phosphorus fertilization increased growth in all four families, while N fertilization had a negative effect on growth. L family plants were more negatively affected than H family plants. This negative effect was not due to limitations in N or P uptake because plants from all the families and treatments had the same N and P concentration in the needles. Phosphorus fertilization changed some hydraulic parameters, but those changes did not affect growth. However, the negative effect of N can be explained by changes in hydraulic traits. L family plants had a high leaf dry weight per branch, which was increased by N fertilization. This change occurred together with a decrease in shoot conductance. Therefore, the reduction in gs was not enough to avoid the drop in Ψmidday. Consequently, stomatal closure and the deficient water status of the needles resulted in a reduction in growth. In H family plants, the increase in the number of needles per branch due to N fertilization was counteracted by a reduction in gs and also by a reduction in tracheid lumen size and length. Because of these two changes, Ψmidday did not drop and water availability in the needles was adequate for sustained growth. In conclusion, fertilization affects the hydraulic architecture of plants, and different families develop different strategies. Some of the hydraulic changes can explain the negative effect of N

  4. In vitro study on the antioxidant activity of a polyphenol-rich extract from Pinus brutia bark and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Cretu, Elena; Karonen, Maarit; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Mircea, Cornelia; Trifan, Adriana; Charalambous, Christiana; Constantinou, Andreas I; Miron, Anca

    2013-11-01

    A crude hydromethanolic extract from Pinus brutia bark and its fractions (diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions) were studied with regard to their phenolic content and antioxidant activities. The total phenolics and proanthocyanidins in each extract were quantified by spectrophotometric methods; the polyphenolic profile was analyzed by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. All extracts were tested with regard to their ability to scavenge free radicals (ABTS radical cation, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals), reduce ferric ions, and inhibit 15-lipoxygenase. P. brutia bark extracts had high phenolic contents (303.79±7.34-448.90±1.39 mg/g). Except diethyl ether extract, all other extracts contained proanthocyanidins ranging from 225.79±3.94 to 250.40±1.44 mg/g. Several polyphenols were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS: taxifolin in diethyl ether extract, a taxifolin-O-hexoside, catechin, procyanidin dimers, and trimers in ethyl acetate extract. Except diethyl ether extract, all other extracts were effective scavengers of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals (EC₅₀=33.5±1.1-54.93±2.85 μg/mL and 0.47±0.06-0.6±0.0 mg/mL, respectively). All extracts had noticeable 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects (EC₅₀=22.47±0.75-34.43±2.25 μg/mL). We conclude that P. brutia bark is very promising for the dietary supplements industry due to its high free radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects.

  5. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Rajora, Om P; Eckert, Andrew J; Zinck, John W R

    2016-01-01

    Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD) were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation. PMID:27387485

  6. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Kurz-Besson, Cathy B; Lousada, José L; Gaspar, Maria J; Correia, Isabel E; David, Teresa S; Soares, Pedro M M; Cardoso, Rita M; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M; Gouveia, Célia M

    2016-01-01

    Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster's vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster's production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region.

  7. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rúa, Megan A.; Wilson, Emily C.; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R.; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Frank, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors — biotic or abiotic — in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic

  8. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on growth and phosphorus efficiency of Pinus massoniana under low phosphorus stress].

    PubMed

    Pang, Li; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Zhi-Chun; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Chu, De-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition dramatically raised in recent decades, resulting in increases of soil N availability and N/P ratio, which would impact plant growth and P efficiency under low P stress. Taking breeding population of Pinus massoniana as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to simulate two P conditions, i. e., homogeneous low P availability vs. heterogeneous low P among soil layers, in combination with two N deposition levels on growth traits and P absorption and utilization efficiency of P. massoniana. Under the homogeneous low phosphorus condition, growth traits and P efficiency of P. massoniana were not significantly improved by simulated nitrogen deposition, but significant nitrogen x family interaction effect was detected, with the biomass of family 40x44 and 71x20 being increased, 36x29 and 73x23 being decreased. Under the heterogeneous low P condition, significant N effects on the seedling height, biomass and P absorption efficiency were observed, due to promoted root length and root distribution ratio of topsoil. In addition, the effects of simulated N deposition on growth and P efficiency of P. massoniana were relevant to the N/P ratio. Under the homogeneous low P condition, the N/P ratio of P. massoniana plant was 13.8, plants exhibited a low sensitivity to simulated N deposition, root secreted APase activity was increased but the plant growth was not promoted. In comparison, the plant N/P ratio was 9.7 under the heterogeneous low P condition, and the plant growth and P efficiency were significantly promoted, while no obvious change occurred in root secreted APase activity.

  9. Effect of benfluralin on Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii--study of plant antioxidant response.

    PubMed

    Franco, Albina R; Pereira, Sofia I A; Castro, Paula M L

    2015-02-01

    In this study, Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with selected ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF), Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii, were exposed to the herbicide benfluralin. Non-mycorrhized P. pinea seedlings and seedlings mycorrhized with ECMF were transferred to benfluralin-spiked soils at levels of 0.165, 1.65 and 16.5 mg kg(-1). Plant growth and the fungal role on plant antioxidant response were assessed. In the presence of benfluralin, higher plant growth was observed in mycorrhized plants compared to non-mycorrhized plants, but ECMF colonisation and nutrient uptake were affected by the herbicide. Benfluralin showed no effect on lipid peroxidation in P. pinea seedlings. However, seedlings mycorrhized with S. bellinii showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation when compared to non-mycorrhized ones, both in the presence and absence of benfluralin. The increase of lipid peroxidation could be related to seedling growth induced by the fungus and not to benfluralin toxicity. A similar trend was observed in seedlings mycorrhized with P. tinctorius when exposed to higher benfluralin concentrations, suggesting that the antioxidant response to benfluralin is related not only to fungus species, but also to the level of stress applied in the soil. The higher amount of superoxide dismutase activity in P. pinea seedlings tissues exposed to benfluralin could indicate a plant adaptative response to benfluralin toxicity. Catalase activity showed no increase with benfluralin exposure. Pre-established P. tinctorius mycorrhization conferred root protection and enhanced plant growth in benfluralin spiked soil, inferring that P. tinctorius - P. pinea association could advantageous for plant growth in soils contaminated with pesticides.

  10. The bi-directional exchange of oxygenated VOCs between a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Rasmussen, R.; Baker, B.; Jardine, K.; Nemitz, E.

    2005-11-01

    Using new in-situ field observations of the most abundant oxygenated VOCs (methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, C3/C4 carbonyls, MVK+MAC and acetic acid) we were able to constrain emission and deposition patterns above and within a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation with a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) understory. During the day canopy scale measurements showed significant emission of methanol and acetone, while methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, acetaldehyde and acetic acid were mainly deposited during the day. All oxygenated compounds exhibited strong losses during the night that could not be explained by conventional dry deposition parameterizations. Accompanying leaf level measurements indicated substantial methanol and acetone emissions from loblolly pine. The exchange of acetaldehyde was more complex. Laboratory measurements made on loblolly pine needles indicated that acetaldehyde may be either emitted or taken up depending on ambient concentrations, with the compensation point increasing exponentially with temperature, and that mature needles tended to emit more acetaldehyde than younger needles. Canopy scale measurements suggested mostly deposition. Short-term (approx. 2 h) ozone fumigation in the laboratory had no detectable impact on post-exposure emissions of methanol and acetone, but decreased the exchange rates of acetaldehyde. The emission of a variety of oxygenated compounds (e.g. carbonyls and alcohols) was triggered or significantly enhanced during laboratory ozone fumigation experiments. These results suggest that higher ambient ozone levels in the future might enhance the biogenic contribution of some oxygenated compounds. Those with sufficiently low vapor pressures may potentially influence secondary organic aerosol growth. Compounds recently hypothesized to be primarily produced in the canopy atmosphere via ozone plus terpenoid-type reactions can also originate from the oxidation reaction of ozone with leaf surfaces and inside the leaf

  11. The bi-directional exchange of oxygenated VOCs between a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Baker, B.; Jardine, K.; Nemitz, E.; Guenther, A.

    2005-08-01

    Using new in-situ field observations of the most abundant oxygenated VOCs (methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, C3/C4 carbonyls, MVK+MAC and acetic acid) we were able to constrain emission and deposition patterns above and within a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation with a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) understory. Canopy scale measurements showed significant emission of methanol and acetone, while MVK+MAC, acetaldehyde and acetic acid were mainly deposited during the day. All oxygenated compounds exhibited strong losses during the night that could not be explained by conventional dry deposition parameterizations. Accompanying leaf level measurements indicated that methanol and acetone were primarily emitted from loblolly pine. The exchange of acetaldehyde was more complex. Laboratory measurements made on loblolly pine needles indicated that acetaldehyde may be either emitted or taken up depending on ambient concentrations, with the compensation point increasing exponentially with temperature, and that older needles tended to emit more acetaldehyde than younger needles. Canopy scale measurements suggested mostly deposition. Short-time (approx. 2 h) ozone fumigation had no detectable impact on post-exposure emissions of methanol and acetone, but modified the exchange rates of acetaldehyde. The emission of a variety of oxygenated compounds (e.g. carbonyls and alcohols) was triggered or significantly enhanced during ozone fumigation. These results suggest that increasing ozone levels in the future might enhance the biogenic contribution of some oxygenated compounds; those with sufficiently low vapor pressures may potentially influence secondary organic aerosol growth. Compounds recently hypothesized to be primarily produced in the canopy atmosphere via ozone plus terpenoid-type reactions can also originate from the reaction of ozone with leaf surfaces. This needs to be taken into account when scaling up very reactive biogenic compounds.

  12. Evidence that creation of a Pinus radiata plantation in south-eastern Australia has reduced habitat for frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, Kirsten M.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2004-03-01

    Loss and fragmentation of habitat resulting from the clearing of forests for agriculture and urban development threaten the persistence of thousands of species worldwide. The clearing of native forest to plant a monoculture of exotic trees may also reduce and fragment the habitat available for indigenous plants and animals. Metacommunity theory suggests that the species richness of a community in a patch of habitat will increase with patch size but decrease with patch isolation. We investigated whether replacement of native Eucalyptus forest with a plantation of Pinus radiata has reduced and fragmented habitat for frogs, leading to a lower species richness of frog communities in the pine plantation and in small and/or isolated remnant patches of native forest. We surveyed frogs at 60 sites at streams and wetlands in the pine plantation, remnant patches of native forest surrounded by pines, and adjacent areas of contiguous native forest near Tumut in New South Wales, Australia. Only two of eight species of frogs were recorded in the pine plantation, and regression modelling indicated that streams and wetlands in the pines supported fewer frog species than those in remnant patches or the intact native forest. In addition, species richness tended to be higher at wide, shallow swamps and marshes near the headwaters of streams, with herbs, grasses, shrubs, reeds, sedges and rushes in the emergent and fringing vegetation. There was little evidence to suggest that larger eucalypt remnants supported more species of frogs, or that remnants isolated by greater expanses of pines supported fewer species, but we had low power to detect these effects with our data set. Our results support the preservation of all remnants of native forest along drainage lines and around swamps, soaks and bogs, regardless of size. Where new pine plantations are established, for example, on cleared agricultural land, care should be taken to maintain the structural and vegetative characteristics of

  13. Effects of litter addition on ectomycorrhizal associates of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Kenneth W; New, Michael H; Makhija, Shilpa; Parker, V Thomas

    2003-07-01

    Increasing soil nutrients through litter manipulation, pollution, or fertilization can adversely affect ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities by inhibiting fungal growth. In this study, we used molecular genetic methods to determine the effects of litter addition on the EM community of a Pinus contorta stand in Yellowstone National Park that regenerated after a stand-replacing fire. Two controls were used; in unmodified control plots nothing was added to the soil, and in perlite plots perlite, a chemically neutral substance, was added to maintain soil moisture and temperature at levels similar to those under litter. We found that (i) species richness did not change significantly following perlite addition (2.6 +/- 0.3 species/core in control plots, compared with 2.3 +/- 0.3 species/core in perlite plots) but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) following litter addition (1.8 +/- 0.3 species/core); (ii) EM infection was not affected by the addition of perlite but increased significantly (P < 0.001) in response to litter addition, and the increase occurred only in the upper soil layer, directly adjacent to the added litter; and (iii) Suillus granulatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, and agaricoid DD were the dominant organisms in controls, but the levels of W. mikolae and agaricoid DD decreased significantly in response to both perlite and litter addition. The relative levels of S. granulatus and a fourth fungus, Cortinariaceae species 2, increased significantly (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) following litter addition. Thus, litter addition resulted in some negative effects that may be attributable to moisture-temperature relationships rather than to the increased nutrients associated with litter. Some species respond positively to litter addition, indicating that there are differences in their physiologies. Hence, changes in the EM community induced by litter accumulation also may affect ecosystem function. PMID:12839743

  14. Effects of litter addition on ectomycorrhizal associates of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, Kenneth W.; New, Michael H.; Makhija, Shilpa; Parker, V. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Increasing soil nutrients through litter manipulation, pollution, or fertilization can adversely affect ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities by inhibiting fungal growth. In this study, we used molecular genetic methods to determine the effects of litter addition on the EM community of a Pinus contorta stand in Yellowstone National Park that regenerated after a stand-replacing fire. Two controls were used; in unmodified control plots nothing was added to the soil, and in perlite plots perlite, a chemically neutral substance, was added to maintain soil moisture and temperature at levels similar to those under litter. We found that (i) species richness did not change significantly following perlite addition (2.6 +/- 0.3 species/core in control plots, compared with 2.3 +/- 0.3 species/core in perlite plots) but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) following litter addition (1.8 +/- 0.3 species/core); (ii) EM infection was not affected by the addition of perlite but increased significantly (P < 0.001) in response to litter addition, and the increase occurred only in the upper soil layer, directly adjacent to the added litter; and (iii) Suillus granulatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, and agaricoid DD were the dominant organisms in controls, but the levels of W. mikolae and agaricoid DD decreased significantly in response to both perlite and litter addition. The relative levels of S. granulatus and a fourth fungus, Cortinariaceae species 2, increased significantly (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) following litter addition. Thus, litter addition resulted in some negative effects that may be attributable to moisture-temperature relationships rather than to the increased nutrients associated with litter. Some species respond positively to litter addition, indicating that there are differences in their physiologies. Hence, changes in the EM community induced by litter accumulation also may affect ecosystem function.

  15. Yeast diversity associated with invasive Dendroctonus valens killing Pinus tabuliformis in China using culturing and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qiao-Zhe; Lu, Min; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Bark beetle-associated yeasts are much less studied than filamentous fungi, yet they are also considered to play important roles in beetle nutrition, detoxification, and chemical communication. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, an invasive bark beetle introduced from North America, became one of the most destructive pests in China, having killed more than 10 million Pinus tabuliformis as well as other pine species. No investigation of yeasts associated with this bark beetle in its invaded ranges has been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of yeast communities in different microhabitats and during different developmental stages of Den. valens in China using culturing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches and to compare the yeast flora between China and the USA. The yeast identity was confirmed by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of LSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In total, 21 species (13 ascomycetes and eight basidiomycetes) were detected by culturing method, and 12 species (11 ascomycetes and one basidiomycetes) were detected by molecular methods from China. The most frequent five species in China were Candida piceae (Ogataea clade), Cyberlindnera americana, Candida oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade), Candida nitratophila (Ogataea clade) and an undescribed Saccharomycopsis sp., detected by both methods. Seven species were exclusively detected by DGGE. Ca. oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade) was the most frequently detected species by DGGE method. Eight species (all were ascomycetes) from the USA were isolated; seven of those were also found in China. We found significant differences in yeast total abundance as well as community composition between different developmental stages and significant differences between the surface and the gut. The frass yeast community was more similar to that of Den. valens surface or larvae than to the community of the gut or adults. Possible functions of the yeast associates are

  16. A fire history derived from Pinus resinosa Ait. for the Islands of Eastern Lac La Croix, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lane B; Kipfmueller, Kurt F

    2016-06-01

    We reconstructed fire occurrence near a fur-trade era canoe travel corridor (used ca. 1780-1802) in the Quetico-Superior region west of Lake Superior to explore the possibility of human influence on pre-fire suppression rates of fire occurrence. Our research objectives were to (1) examine the spatial and temporal patterns of fire in the study area, (2) test fires' strength of association with regional drought, and (3) assess whether reconstructed fire frequencies could be explained by observed rates of lightning fire ignition over the modern period of record. We developed a 420-year fire history for the eastern portion of Lac La Croix in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW). Seventy-one fire-scarred samples were collected from remnant Pinus resinosa Ait. (red pine) stumps and logs from thirteen distinct island and three mainland forest stands. Collectively these samples contained records of 255 individual fire scars representing 79 fire events from 1636 to 1933 (study area mean fire intervals [MFI] 3.8 yr). Reconstructed fires were spatially and temporally asynchronous and not strongly associated with regional drought (P > 0.05). When compared to the conservative, tree-ring reconstructed estimate of historical fire occurrence and modern lightning-caused fires (1929-2012), a noticeable change in the distribution and frequency of fires within the study area was evident with only two lightning-ignited island fires since 1934 in the study area. Our results suggest a high likelihood that indigenous land use contributed to surface fire ignitions within our study area and highlights the importance of examining the potential effects of past indigenous land use when determining modern approaches to fire and wilderness management in fire-adapted ecosystems.

  17. Growth of mycorrhizal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings planted in oil sands reclaimed areas.

    PubMed

    Onwuchekwa, Nnenna E; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Quoreshi, Ali; Khasa, Damase P

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal inoculation at the tree nursery seedling production stage on growth and survival was examined in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) planted in oil sands reclamation sites. The seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme strain # UAMH 5247, Suillus tomentosus strain # UAMH 6252, and Laccaria bicolor strain # UAMH 8232, as individual pure cultures and in combinations. These treatments were demonstrated to improve salinity resistance and water uptake in conifer seedlings. The field responses of seedlings to ectomycorrhizal inoculation varied between plant species, inoculation treatments, and measured parameters. Seedling inoculation resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal colonization rates compared with non-inoculated control, which had also a relatively small proportion of roots colonized by the nursery contaminant fungi identified as Amphinema byssoides and Thelephora americana. Seedling inoculation had overall a greater effect on relative height growth rates, dry biomass, and stem volumes in jack pine compared with white spruce. However, when examined after two growing seasons, inoculated white spruce seedlings showed up to 75% higher survival rates than non-inoculated controls. The persistence of inoculated fungi in roots of planted seedlings was examined at the end of the second growing season. Although the inoculation with H. crustuliniforme triggered growth responses, the fungus was not found in the roots of seedlings at the end of the second growing season suggesting a possibility that the observed growth-promoting effect of H. crustuliniforme may be transient. The results suggest that the inoculation of conifer seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi could potentially be carried out on a large scale in tree nurseries to benefit postplanting performance in oil sands reclamation sites. However, these practices should take into consideration the differences in responses between the different

  18. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

  19. Adaptive consequences of human-mediated introgression for indigenous tree species: the case of a relict Pinus pinaster population.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Valiente, José Alberto; Robledo-Arnuncio, Juan José

    2014-12-01

    Human-induced gene movement via afforestation and restoration programs is a widespread phenomenon throughout the world. However, its effects on the genetic composition of native populations have received relatively little attention, particularly in forest trees. Here, we examine to what extent gene flow from allochthonous plantations of Pinus pinaster Aiton impacts offspring performance in a neighboring relict natural population and discuss the potential consequences for the long-term genetic composition of the latter. Specifically, we conducted a greenhouse experiment involving two contrasting watering treatments to test for differences in a set of functional traits and mortality rates between P. pinaster progenies from three different parental origins: (i) local native parents, (ii) exotic parents and (iii) intercrosses between local mothers and exotic fathers (intraspecific hybrids). Our results showed differences among crosses in cumulative mortality over time: seedlings of exotic parents exhibited the lowest mortality rates and seedlings of local origin the highest, while intraspecific hybrids exhibited an intermediate response. Linear regressions showed that seedlings with higher water-use efficiency (WUE, δ(13)C) were more likely to survive under drought stress, consistent with previous findings suggesting that WUE has an important role under dry conditions in this species. However, differences in mortality among crosses were only partially explained by WUE. Other non-measured traits and factors such as inbreeding depression in the relict population are more likely to explain the lower performance of native progenies. Overall, our results indicated that intraspecific hybrids and exotic individuals are more likely to survive under stressful conditions than local native individuals, at least during the first year of development. Since summer drought is the most important demographic and selective filter affecting tree establishment in Mediterranean ecosystems

  20. A functional and structural Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) model integrating architecture, biomass and effects of precipitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  1. Seasonal climate signals from multiple tree ring metrics: A case study of Pinus ponderosa in the upper Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Matthew P.; Wise, Erika K.

    2016-04-01

    Projected changes in the seasonality of hydroclimatic regimes are likely to have important implications for water resources and terrestrial ecosystems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The tree ring record, which has frequently been used to position recent changes in a longer-term context, typically relies on signals embedded in the total ring width of tree rings. Additional climatic inferences at a subannual temporal scale can be made using alternative tree ring metrics such as earlywood and latewood widths and the density of tree ring latewood. Here we examine seasonal precipitation and temperature signals embedded in total ring width, earlywood width, adjusted latewood width, and blue intensity chronologies from a network of six Pinus ponderosa sites in and surrounding the upper Columbia River Basin of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. We also evaluate the potential for combining multiple tree ring metrics together in reconstructions of past cool- and warm-season precipitation. The common signal among all metrics and sites is related to warm-season precipitation. Earlywood and latewood widths differ primarily in their sensitivity to conditions in the year prior to growth. Total and earlywood widths from the lowest elevation sites also reflect cool-season moisture. Effective correlation analyses and composite-plus-scale tests suggest that combining multiple tree ring metrics together may improve reconstructions of warm-season precipitation. For cool-season precipitation, total ring width alone explains more variance than any other individual metric or combination of metrics. The composite-plus-scale tests show that variance-scaled precipitation reconstructions in the upper Columbia River Basin may be asymmetric in their ability to capture extreme events.

  2. A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic

  3. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness