NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.
1990-01-01
The paper reviews nonlinear bulk compressional wave acoustic measurement systems and the applications of measurements from such systems to engineering materials. Preliminary measurements indicate that it is possible to determine percent second phase precipitates in aluminum alloys, while other measurements show promise in the determination of properties related to the fatigue states of metals. It is also shown that harmonic generation can be used for the study of crack opening loads in compact tension specimens, which in turn gives useful information about the fatigue properties of various engineering materials.
Cumulative Second Harmonic Generation in Lamb Waves for the Detection of Material Nonlinearities
Bermes, Christian; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin
2007-03-21
An understanding of the generation of higher harmonics in Lamb waves is of critical importance for applications such as remaining life prediction of plate-like structural components. The objective of this work is to use nonlinear Lamb waves to experimentally investigate inherent material nonlinearities in aluminum plates. These nonlinearities, e.g. lattice anharmonicities, precipitates or vacancies, cause higher harmonics to form in propagating Lamb waves. The amplitudes of the higher harmonics increase with increasing propagation distance due to the accumulation of nonlinearity while the Lamb wave travels along its path. Special focus is laid on the second harmonic, and a relative nonlinearity parameter is defined as a function of the fundamental and second harmonic amplitude. The experimental setup uses an ultrasonic transducer and a wedge for the Lamb wave generation, and laser interferometry for detection. The experimentally measured Lamb wave signals are processed with a short-time Fourier transformation (STFT), which yields the amplitudes at different frequencies as functions of time, allowing the observation of the nonlinear behavior of the material. The increase of the relative nonlinearity parameter with propagation distance as an indicator of cumulative second harmonic generation is shown in the results for the alloy aluminum 1100-H14.
Organic materials for second harmonic generation. Final report
Twieg, R.J.
1985-03-31
Materials were chosen by screening the Cambridge Crystallographic Index for new noncentrosymmetric crystalline compounds, by screening commercially available materials or by synthesis of unique new substances. Measurements were then made on the powder form of these materials. Langmuir-Blodgett films were deposited and studied. In addition to the above studies, a computer program was developed to calculate (hyper) polarizabilities of organic molecules and thus aid in the selection of materials for testing. The nonlinear molecules have been divided into three classes according to absorption cutoff: 400 to 500 nm, 300 to 400 nm, and 200 to 300 nm. 108 refs., 7 tabs. (WRF)
Ultrafast Material Science Probed Using Coherent X-ray Pulses from High-Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathias, Stefan; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.
X-rays represent one of the most powerful tools for understanding materials at the nanoscale, uncovering important information related to magnetism, photochemistry, materials, biology, nanoscience and many other areas of science and technology. The recent availability of ultrashort x-ray pulses paves the way for a completely new generation of experiments that can capture the coupled dynamics of elementary excitations in materials. Ultrashort x-ray pulses can access the fundamental interactions between charge, lattice, orbital, and spin dynamics in real time, which eventually determine the intrinsic physical limits at which, for example, a phase-transition in a correlated-electron material occurs, the magnetic state of a material can be switched, or a chemical reaction on a surface evolves. The goal of this chapter is to review recent breakthroughs in using ultrashort x-ray pulses from high-harmonic generation for the study of ultrafast material science.
Investigation of the Higher Harmonic Lamb Wave Generation in Hyperelastic Isotropic Material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauter, Natalie; Lammering, Rolf
Micro-structural damages, such as micro-cracks and voids, give locally rise to stresses and may initiate subsequent failure of structural components. Therefore, the development of methods for the detection of microstructural damage and the observation of their growth is an important and ongoing area of research, especially for thin-walled structures. The proposed method for the detection is based on the nonlinearity caused by the micro-structural damages. Lamb waves are generated which induce simultaneously higher harmonic modes due the inherent nonlinearity. For detailed investigations, numerical simulations are essential. In this work, the nonlinearity is modeled by the material law, which is based on the Neo- Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin material models. In contrast to previous studies, which used third order elastic coefficients, these hyperelastic material models are widely accepted, frequently used, and implemented in commonly available FEM software. In the numerical investigations, Lamb waves are generated in a thin-walled aluminum plate with windowed sine burst signals. Due to the nonlinearity in the material law, the waves are not only observed at the excitation frequency, but also at higher harmonic frequencies. Excitation at especially selected frequencies evoke the cumulative effect, and thus gives rise to the amplitudes of the higher harmonics. Comparing the S1-S2 and S2-S4 mode pairs clearly show the higher sensitivity of the latter to the material nonlinearity. This matches with previous published experimental results. Finally, it is shown that the results obtained agree qualitatively well with numerical analyses, in which the micro-structural damages are modeled directly by a respective finite element discretization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thangaraj, M.; Ravi, G.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.
2014-09-01
An organic second harmonic generation (SHG) active material, ethylenediaminium di(2-nitrophenolate) (EDA2NP) was synthesized through proton transfer reaction. Good quality single crystals of dimension 6×4×2 mm3 were grown by solvent evaporation method using ethanol as a solvent for the first time in literature. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectrum was recorded to identify the presence of various functional groups and the molecular structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum. Thermal analyses of the grown crystal were carried out using thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. Optical (UV-vis-NIR) analysis shows that the grown crystals were found to be transparent (450-2500 nm) in the entire visible region. The existence of second harmonic generation signals was observed by using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm.
Summers, Mark A.; Eimerl, David; Boyd, Robert D.
1985-01-01
A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The "extraordinary" or "e" directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90.degree.). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude "o" and "e" components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has "o" and "e" components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 ("o":"e" reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10.degree.. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axes ("o").
Summers, M.A.; Eimerl, D.; Boyd, R.D.
1982-06-10
A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The extraordinary or e directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90/sup 0/). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude o and e components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has o and e components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 (o:e reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10/sup 0/. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axeses (o).
Next generation data harmonization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armstrong, Chandler; Brown, Ryan M.; Chaves, Jillian; Czerniejewski, Adam; Del Vecchio, Justin; Perkins, Timothy K.; Rudnicki, Ron; Tauer, Greg
2015-05-01
Analysts are presented with a never ending stream of data sources. Often, subsets of data sources to solve problems are easily identified but the process to align data sets is time consuming. However, many semantic technologies do allow for fast harmonization of data to overcome these problems. These include ontologies that serve as alignment targets, visual tools and natural language processing that generate semantic graphs in terms of the ontologies, and analytics that leverage these graphs. This research reviews a developed prototype that employs all these approaches to perform analysis across disparate data sources documenting violent, extremist events.
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation
Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.
1990-01-01
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Putzeys, T.; Wübbenhorst, M.; van der Veen, M. A.
2015-06-01
Bio-organic materials such as bones, teeth, and tendon generally show nonlinear optical (Masters and So in Handbook of Biomedical Nonlinear Optical Microscopy, 2008), pyro- and piezoelectric (Fukada and Yasuda in J Phys Soc Jpn 12:1158, 1957) properties, implying a permanent polarization, the presence of which can be rationalized by describing the growth of the sample and the creation of a polar axis according to Markov's theory of stochastic processes (Hulliger in Biophys J 84:3501, 2003; Batagiannis et al. in Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 17:107, 2010). Two proven, versatile techniques for probing spontaneous polarization distributions in solids are scanning pyroelectric microscopy (SPEM) and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM). The combination of pyroelectric scanning with SHG-microscopy in a single experimental setup leading to complementary pyroelectric and nonlinear optical data is demonstrated, providing us with a more complete image of the polarization in organic materials. Crystals consisting of a known polar and hyperpolarizable material, CNS (4-chloro-4-nitrostilbene) are used as a reference sample, to verify the functionality of the setup, with both SPEM and SHGM images revealing the same polarization domain information. In contrast, feline and human nails exhibit a pyroelectric response, but a second harmonic response is absent for both keratin containing materials, implying that there may be symmetry-allowed SHG, but with very inefficient second harmonophores. This new approach to polarity detection provides additional information on the polar and hyperpolar nature in a variety of (bio) materials.
Harmonic generation at high intensities
Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.
1993-06-01
Atomic electrons subject to intense laser fields can absorb many photons, leading either to multiphoton ionization or the emission of a single, energetic photon which can be a high multiple of the laser frequency. The latter process, high-order harmonic generation, has been observed experimentally using a range of laser wavelengths and intensities over the past several years. Harmonic generation spectra have a generic form: a steep decline for the low order harmonics, followed by a plateau extending to high harmonic order, and finally an abrupt cutoff beyond which no harmonics are discernible. During the plateau the harmonic production is a very weak function of the process order. Harmonic generation is a promising source of coherent, tunable radiation in the XUV to soft X-ray range which could have a variety of scientific and possibly technological applications. Its conversion from an interesting multiphoton phenomenon to a useful laboratory radiation source requires a complete understanding of both its microscopic and macroscopic aspects. We present some recent results on the response of single atoms at intensities relevant to the short pulse experiments. The calculations employ time-dependent methods, which we briefly review in the next section. Following that we discuss the behavior of the harmonics as a function of laser intensity. Two features are notable: the slow scaling of the harmonic intensities with laser intensity, and the rapid variation in the phase of the individual harmonics with respect to harmonic order. We then give a simple empirical formula that predicts the extent of the plateau for a given ionization potential, wavelength and intensity.
Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation
Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC
2012-06-28
A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaya, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Ogawa, T.; Tanaka, K.
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate mechanisms of higher-order harmonic generation in solid-state materials under a high-intensity ac electric field. A new theoretical framework presented in this Letter holds the legitimacy of Bloch's theorem even under the influence of the high-intensity electric field and provides an exact treatment of the diabatic processes of Bloch electrons. Utilizing this framework, we first discovered that the diabatic processes, namely, ac Zener tunneling and semimetallization of semiconductors, are key factors for nonperturbative mechanisms of HHG. These mechanisms are classified by the field intensity and could be understood by an extended simple man model based on an analogy between tunnel ionization in gaseous media and Zener tunneling in semiconductors. These conclusions would stimulate the universal understanding of HHG mechanisms in both atomic and solid cases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.
1990-01-01
The effects of material structure on the nonlinearity parameters are reviewed. Problems discussed include definition of nonlinearity parameters, square-law nonlinearity and collinear beam-mixing, structure dependence of the nonlinearity parameters, negative nonlinearity parameters, and implications for materials characterization.
Organic salts of guanazole - Seeking for new materials for second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matulková, Irena; Císařová, Ivana; Němec, Petr; Kroupa, Jan; Vaněk, Přemysl; Tesařová, Nad'a.; Němec, Ivan
2013-07-01
Four novel organic salts of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (guanazole) with malonic, glutaric, adipic and L-malic acids have been prepared and X-ray structural analyses have been performed within our project focused on the preparation of new non-linear optical materials. The salts guanazolium(1+) hydrogen adipate and guanazolium(1+) hydrogen L-malate crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric space groups of monoclinic (Cc) and orthorhombic systems (P212121), respectively. Unfortunately, the remaining two salts guanazolium(1+) hydrogen malonate and guanazolium(1+) hydrogen glutarate belong to the centrosymmetric space group P-1 of the triclinic system.
Optical High Harmonic Generation in C60
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Guoping
2005-03-01
C60 et al. Physical Review Letters Physical Review B High harmonic generation (HHG) requires a strong laser field, but in a relatively weak laser field is sufficient. Numerical results presented here show while its low order harmonics result from the laser field, its high order ones are mainly from the multiple excitations. Since high order harmonics directly correlate electronic transitions, the HHG spectrum accurately measures transition energies. Therefore, is not only a promising material for HHG, but may also present an opportunity to develop HHG into an electronic structure probing tool. References: G. P. Zhang, 91, 176801 (2003); G. P. Zhang and T. F. George, 68, 165410 (2003); P. B. Corkum, 71, 1994 (1993); G. P. Zhang and Thomas F. George, 93, 147401 (2004); H. Niikura ,ature 417, 917 (2002); ibid. 421, 826 (2003); Y. Mairesse ,cience 302, 1540 (2003); A. Baltuska ,ature 421, 611 (2003).
Ultrafast adiabatic second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahan, Asaf; Levanon, Assaf; Katz, Mordechai; Suchowski, Haim
2017-03-01
We introduce a generalization of the adiabatic frequency conversion method for an efficient conversion of ultrashort pulses in the full nonlinear regime. Our analysis takes into account dispersion as well as two-photon processes and Kerr effect, allowing complete analysis of any three waves with arbitrary phase mismatched design and any nonlinear optical process. We use this analysis to design an efficient and robust second harmonic generation, the most widely used nonlinear process for both fundamental and applied research. We experimentally show that such design not only allows for very efficient conversion of various of ultrashort pulses, but is also very robust to variations in the parameters of both the nonlinear crystal and the incoming light. These include variation of more than 100 °C in the crystal temperature, a wide bandwidth of up to 75 nm and a chirp variation of 300 fs to 3.5 ps of the incoming pulse. Also, we show the dependency of the adiabatic second harmonic generation design on the pump intensity and the crystal length. Our study shows that two photon absorption plays a critical role in such high influence nonlinear dynamics, and that it must be considered in order to achieve agreement with experimental results.
Ultrafast adiabatic second harmonic generation.
Dahan, Asaf; Levanon, Assaf; Katz, Mordechai; Suchowski, Haim
2017-03-01
We introduce a generalization of the adiabatic frequency conversion method for an efficient conversion of ultrashort pulses in the full nonlinear regime. Our analysis takes into account dispersion as well as two-photon processes and Kerr effect, allowing complete analysis of any three waves with arbitrary phase mismatched design and any nonlinear optical process. We use this analysis to design an efficient and robust second harmonic generation, the most widely used nonlinear process for both fundamental and applied research. We experimentally show that such design not only allows for very efficient conversion of various of ultrashort pulses, but is also very robust to variations in the parameters of both the nonlinear crystal and the incoming light. These include variation of more than 100 °C in the crystal temperature, a wide bandwidth of up to 75 nm and a chirp variation of 300 fs to 3.5 ps of the incoming pulse. Also, we show the dependency of the adiabatic second harmonic generation design on the pump intensity and the crystal length. Our study shows that two photon absorption plays a critical role in such high influence nonlinear dynamics, and that it must be considered in order to achieve agreement with experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moovendaran, K.; Natarajan, S.
2014-08-01
Single crystals of the organic non-linear optical materials L-threonine (I) and L-prolinium tartrate (II) were grown using a home-made crystal growth setup (MKN setup). The grown crystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Infrared (IR), UV-vis-NIR and Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Measurements of Vicker’s microhardness, laser damage threshold (LDT) values and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiencies are reported. Thermal and dielectric studies were also carried out.
Promoting Spontaneous Second Harmonic Generation through Organogelation.
Marco, A Belén; Aparicio, Fátima; Faour, Lara; Iliopoulos, Konstantinos; Morille, Yohann; Allain, Magali; Franco, Santiago; Andreu, Raquel; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Gindre, Denis; Canevet, David; Sallé, Marc
2016-07-27
An organogelator based on the Disperse Red nonlinear optical chromophore was synthesized according to a simple and efficient three-step procedure. The supramolecular gel organization leads to xerogels which display a spontaneous second harmonic generation (SHG) response without any need for preprocessing, and this SHG activity appears to be stable over several months. These findings, based on an intrinsic structural approach, are supported by favorable intermolecular supramolecular interactions, which promote a locally non-centrosymmetric NLO-active organization. This is in sharp contrast with most materials designed for SHG purposes, which generally require the use of expensive or heavy-to-handle external techniques for managing the dipoles' alignment.
Generating Second Harmonics In Nonlinear Resonant Cavities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kozlovsky, William J.; Nabors, C. David; Byer, Robert L.
1990-01-01
Single-axial-mode lasers pump very-low-loss doubling crystals. Important advance in making resonant generation of second harmonics possible for diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers is recent development of monolithic nonplanar ring geometries in neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers that produce frequency-stable single-mode outputs. Other advance is development of high-quality MgO:LiNbO3 as electro-optically nonlinear material. Series of experiments devised to improve doubling efficiency of low-power lasers, and particularly of diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG lasers.
Second harmonic generation in collagen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiser, Karen M.; Stoller, Patrick; Celliers, Peter; Rubenchik, Alexander; Bratton, Clay; Yankelevich, Diego
2003-11-01
Collagen possesses a strong second order nonlinear susceptibility; when it is irradiated with intense laser light, some of the reflected and transmitted light will have twice the frequency of the incident beam, a phenomenon known as second harmonic generation (SHG). Polarization modulation of an ultra-short pulse laser beam can be used to simultaneously measure collagen fiber orientation, SHG intensity, and a parameter related to the second order non-linear susceptibility. This technique has made it possible to discriminate among patterns of fibrillar orientation in many tissues. In the present study the role that organizational complexity plays in the relationship between nonlinear optical properties and collagen structure is investigated. As a component of tissues and organs, collagen"s structure and function is inextricably intertwined with that of the many other matrix components; to what extent do these noncollagenous components affect its nonlinear properties? To answer this, we investigated SHG in two different collagenous tissues, liver and cartilage; in addition we looked at the effect of progressive pathological changes in these tissues on SHG. At the other end of the spectrum, we studied collagen organized at the minimal level of complexity necessary for SHG detection: fibrils generated from solutions containing only a single type of collagen. Data obtained from these studies suggest that collagen"s strong nonlinear susceptibility, a property no other biologically significant macromolecule shares to the same degree, may serve as more than the basis of a novel imaging device for soft tissue. Collagen"s nonlinear optical properties in conjunction with its vast capacity for self-initiated conformational change--through self-assembly, site recognition, post-translational modification, and the like -make it an attractive candidate molecule for any of several demanding engineering applications, such as nanopatterning.
High Orbital Angular Momentum Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vieira, J.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Alves, E. P.; Fonseca, R. A.; Mendonça, J. T.; Bingham, R.; Norreys, P.; Silva, L. O.
2016-12-01
We identify and explore a high orbital angular momentum (OAM) harmonics generation and amplification mechanism that manipulates the OAM independently of any other laser property, by preserving the initial laser wavelength, through stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma. The high OAM harmonics spectra can extend at least up to the limiting value imposed by the paraxial approximation. We show with theory and particle-in-cell simulations that the orders of the OAM harmonics can be tuned according to a selection rule that depends on the initial OAM of the interacting waves. We illustrate the high OAM harmonics generation in a plasma using several examples including the generation of prime OAM harmonics. The process can also be realized in any nonlinear optical Kerr media supporting three-wave interactions.
Harmonic generation with a dual frequency pulse.
Keravnou, Christina P; Averkiou, Michalakis A
2014-05-01
Nonlinear imaging was implemented in commercial ultrasound systems over the last 15 years offering major advantages in many clinical applications. In this work, pulsing schemes coupled with a dual frequency pulse are presented. The pulsing schemes considered were pulse inversion, power modulation, and power modulated pulse inversion. The pulse contains a fundamental frequency f and a specified amount of its second harmonic 2f. The advantages and limitations of this method were evaluated with both acoustic measurements of harmonic generation and theoretical simulations based on the KZK equation. The use of two frequencies in a pulse results in the generation of the sum and difference frequency components in addition to the other harmonic components. While with single frequency pulses, only power modulation and power modulated pulse inversion contained odd harmonic components, with the dual frequency pulse, pulse inversion now also contains odd harmonic components.
High order harmonic generation in rare gases
Budil, Kimberly Susan
1994-05-01
The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I ~10^{13}-10^{14} W/cm^{2}) is focused into a dense (~10^{17} particles/cm^{3}) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic "source". A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.
Imaging with Second-Harmonic Generation Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Chia-Lung
Second-harmonic generation nanoparticles show promise as imaging probes due to their coherent and stable signal with a broad flexibility in the choice of excitation wavelength. In this thesis, we developed and demonstrated barium titanate nanoparticles as second-harmonic radiation imaging probes. We studied the absolute second-harmonic generation efficiency of the nanoparticles on single-particle level. The polarization dependent second-harmonic signal of single nanoparticles was studied in detail. From the measured polar response, we were able to find the orientation of the nanoparticle. We developed a biochemical interface for using the second-harmonic nanoprobes as biomarkers, including in vitro cellular imaging and in vivo live animal imaging. The nanoparticles were surface functionalized with primary amine groups for stable colloidal dispersion. We achieved specific labeling of the second-harmonic nanoprobes via immunostaining where the antibodies were covalently conjugated onto the nanoparticles. We observed no toxicity of the functionalized nanoparticles to biological cells. The coherent second-harmonic signal radiated from the nanoparticles offers opportunities for new imaging techniques. Using interferometric detection, namely harmonic holography, both amplitude and phase of the second-harmonic field can be captured. Through digital beam propagation, three-dimensional field distribution, reflecting three-dimensional distribution of the nanoparticles, can be reconstructed. We achieved a scan-free three-dimensional imaging of nanoparticles in biological cells with sub-micron spatial resolution by using the harmonic holographic microscope. We further exploited the coherent second-harmonic signal for imaging through scattering media by performing optical phase conjugation of the second-harmonic signal. We demonstrated an all-digital optical phase conjugation of the second-harmonic signal originated from a nanoparticle by combining harmonic holography and
Asymmetric Gaussian harmonic steering in second-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, M. K.
2013-11-01
Intracavity second-harmonic generation is one of the simplest of the quantum optical processes and is well within the expertise of most optical laboratories. It is well understood and characterized, both theoretically and experimentally. We show that it can be a source of continuous-variable asymmetric Gaussian harmonic steering with fields which have a coherent excitation, hence combining the important effects of harmonic entanglement and asymmetric steering in one easily controllable device, adjustable by the simple means of tuning the cavity loss rates at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. We find that whether quantum steering is available via the standard measurements of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations can depend on which quadrature measurements are inferred from output spectral measurements of the fundamental and the harmonic. Altering the ratios of the cavity loss rates can be used to tune the regions where symmetric steering is available, with the results becoming asymmetric over all frequencies as the cavity damping at the fundamental frequency becomes significantly greater than at the harmonic. This asymmetry and its functional dependence on frequency is a potential new tool for experimental quantum information science, with possible utility for quantum key distribution. Although we show the effect here for Gaussian measurements of the quadratures, and cannot rule out a return of the steering symmetry for some class of non-Gaussian measurements, we note here that the system obeys Gaussian statistics in the operating regime investigated and Gaussian inference is at least as accurate as any other method for calculating the necessary correlations. Perhaps most importantly, this system is simpler than any other methods we are aware of which have been used or proposed to create asymmetric steering.
A Model for Generative Harmonic Dictation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bales, W. Kenton
This BASIC computer program designed to help music theory students practice harmonic dictation generates examples for students to use in a drill and practice approach in developing aural skills. To facilitate the implementation of effective generative algorithms, the author has used a non-linear analytical technique similar to the chord symbol…
Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Sung-Young; Dadap, Jerry I.; Petrone, Nicholas; Yeh, Po-Chun; Hone, James; Osgood, Richard M., Jr.
2013-04-01
We report strong third-harmonic generation in monolayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to an amorphous silica (glass) substrate; the photon energy is in three-photon resonance with the exciton-shifted van Hove singularity at the M point of graphene. The polarization selection rules are derived and experimentally verified. In addition, our polarization- and azimuthal-rotation-dependent third-harmonic-generation measurements reveal in-plane isotropy as well as anisotropy between the in-plane and out-of-plane nonlinear optical responses of graphene. Since the third-harmonic signal exceeds that from bulk glass by more than 2 orders of magnitude, the signal contrast permits background-free scanning of graphene and provides insight into the structural properties of graphene.
Third harmonic generation as a probe of ultrafast phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gundrum, Bryan Charles
2007-12-01
This thesis explores the potential for using third harmonic generation of light as a probe of phase transitions in solid materials. Third harmonic generation is a nonlinear optical process, whereby a portion of the fundamental light, of frequency o, interacts with a solid to produce photons at 3o. It is possibly useful for monitoring phase transitions, since the magnitude of the third harmonic light depends on crystal symmetry, an isotropic sample, such as a liquid, for example, does not generate third harmonic when probed with circularly polarized light. The work described here represents the first application of third harmonic generation as a time-resolved probe of the state of a material using single laser pulses. Using 175 fs laser pulses at 800 nm, the melting threshold fluence for (001) Si is measured to be 120 mJ cm-2. It is shown, moreover, that the solid-liquid phase transition for (001) Si takes ˜1 ps when irradiated with 135 mJ cm-2, evidence of homogenously nucleated melting. The potential of third harmonic generation as a thermometer for transient events was also explored. First, the temperature dependence of the third harmonic generation from (001) Si using circularly polarized light is measured between 300 < T < 1200 K under static conditions. The magnitude of the third harmonic signal drops by 70% from its room temperature value at 1200 K. It is then shown that temperatures deduced by time resolved third harmonic generation in dynamic measurements agree well with a one-dimensional heat transfer calculation. This result illustrates that time resolved ultrafast thermometry using third harmonic generation is capable of determining surface temperatures with ˜200 fs time resolution for both small and large temperature excursions. Also presented are initial efforts to measure the solidification rate of metal samples using linear methods, including the design and operation of a deferential photo detector as well as the first quantitative measurements of
Harmonic generation with multiple wiggler schemes
Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P.
1995-02-01
In this paper the authors give a simple theoretical description of the basic physics of the single pass high gain free electron laser (FEL), describing in some detail the FEL bunching properties and the harmonic generation technique with a multiple-wiggler scheme or a high gain optical klystron configuration.
Nonlinear harmonic generation in distributed optical klystrons
H.P. Freund; George R. Neil
2001-12-01
A distributed optical klystron has the potential for dramatically shortening the total interaction length in high-gain free-electron lasers (INP 77-59, Novosibirsk, 1977; Nucl. Instr. and Meth A 304 (1991) 463) in comparison to a single-wiggler-segment configuration. This shortening can be even more dramatic if a nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism is used to reach the desired wavelength. An example operating at a 4.5{angstrom} fundamental and a 1.5{angstrom} harmonic is discussed.
Plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation in graphene
Cox, Joel D.; Marini, Andrea; de Abajo, F. Javier García
2017-01-01
High-harmonic generation in condensed-matter systems is both a source of fundamental insight into quantum electron motion and a promising candidate to realize compact ultraviolet and ultrafast light sources. While graphene is anticipated to efficiently generate high-order harmonics due to its anharmonic charge-carrier dispersion, experiments performed on extended samples using THz illumination have revealed only a weak effect. The situation is further complicated by the enormous electromagnetic field intensities required by this highly nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon. Here we argue that the large light intensity required for high-harmonic generation to occur can be reached by exploiting localized plasmons in doped graphene nanostructures. We demonstrate through rigorous time-domain simulations that the synergistic combination of strong plasmonic near-field enhancement and a pronounced intrinsic nonlinearity result in efficient broadband high-harmonic generation within a single material. Our results support the strong potential of nanostructured graphene as a robust, electrically tunable platform for high-harmonic generation. PMID:28224998
Plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation in graphene.
Cox, Joel D; Marini, Andrea; de Abajo, F Javier García
2017-02-22
High-harmonic generation in condensed-matter systems is both a source of fundamental insight into quantum electron motion and a promising candidate to realize compact ultraviolet and ultrafast light sources. While graphene is anticipated to efficiently generate high-order harmonics due to its anharmonic charge-carrier dispersion, experiments performed on extended samples using THz illumination have revealed only a weak effect. The situation is further complicated by the enormous electromagnetic field intensities required by this highly nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon. Here we argue that the large light intensity required for high-harmonic generation to occur can be reached by exploiting localized plasmons in doped graphene nanostructures. We demonstrate through rigorous time-domain simulations that the synergistic combination of strong plasmonic near-field enhancement and a pronounced intrinsic nonlinearity result in efficient broadband high-harmonic generation within a single material. Our results support the strong potential of nanostructured graphene as a robust, electrically tunable platform for high-harmonic generation.
Plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Joel D.; Marini, Andrea; de Abajo, F. Javier García
2017-02-01
High-harmonic generation in condensed-matter systems is both a source of fundamental insight into quantum electron motion and a promising candidate to realize compact ultraviolet and ultrafast light sources. While graphene is anticipated to efficiently generate high-order harmonics due to its anharmonic charge-carrier dispersion, experiments performed on extended samples using THz illumination have revealed only a weak effect. The situation is further complicated by the enormous electromagnetic field intensities required by this highly nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon. Here we argue that the large light intensity required for high-harmonic generation to occur can be reached by exploiting localized plasmons in doped graphene nanostructures. We demonstrate through rigorous time-domain simulations that the synergistic combination of strong plasmonic near-field enhancement and a pronounced intrinsic nonlinearity result in efficient broadband high-harmonic generation within a single material. Our results support the strong potential of nanostructured graphene as a robust, electrically tunable platform for high-harmonic generation.
Super/subradiant second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koganov, Gennady A.; Shuker, Reuben
2017-04-01
A scheme for active second harmonics generation is suggested. The system comprises N three-level atoms in ladder configuration, situated into a resonant cavity. The system generates the field whose frequency is twice the frequency of the pumping laser, and the field phase is locked to the phase of the pumping field. It is found that the system can lase in either superradiant or subradiant regime, depending on the number of atoms N. When N passes some critical value the transition from the super to subradiance occurs in a phase-transition-like manner. Stability study of the steady state supports this conclusion. For experimental realization of the super/subradiant second harmonics generation we propose semiconductor quantum well structures, superconducting quantum circuits, and evanescently coupled waveguides in which equally spaced levels relevant to this study exist.
High-order harmonic generation in alkanes
Altucci, C.; Velotta, R.; Heesel, E.; Springate, E.; Marangos, J. P.; Vozzi, C.; Benedetti, E.; Calegari, F.; Sansone, G.; Stagira, S.; Nisoli, M.; Tosa, V.
2006-04-15
We have investigated the process of high-order harmonic generation in light alkanes by using femtosecond laser pulses. We show the experimental results cannot be matched by a model that assumes a single active electron only in a hydrogenic s orbital. Clear evidences are shown of the important role played by the p-like character originating from the covalent C-H bond. By constructing a suitable mixture of s-type and p-type atomic wave functions, an excellent agreement between measurements in methane and simulations is found, thus confirming the validity of the developed method as a general tool for the analysis of high-order harmonic generation in complex molecules.
Coulomb time delays in high harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torlina, Lisa; Smirnova, Olga
2017-02-01
Measuring the time it takes to remove an electron from an atom or molecule during photoionization has been the focus of a number of recent experiments using newly developed attosecond spectroscopies. The interpretation of such measurements, however, depends critically on the measurement protocol and the specific observables available in each experiment. One such protocol relies on high harmonic generation. In this paper, we derive rigorous and general expressions for ionisation and recombination times in high harmonic generation experiments. We show that these times are different from, but related to, ionisation times measured in photoelectron spectroscopy: that is, those obtained using the attosecond streak camera, RABBITT and attoclock methods. We then proceed to use the analytical R-matrix theory to calculate these times and compare them with experimental values.
Fast interferometric second harmonic generation microscopy
Bancelin, Stéphane; Couture, Charles-André; Légaré, Katherine; Pinsard, Maxime; Rivard, Maxime; Brown, Cameron; Légaré, François
2016-01-01
We report the implementation of fast Interferometric Second Harmonic Generation (I-SHG) microscopy to study the polarity of non-centrosymmetric structures in biological tissues. Using a sample quartz plate, we calibrate the spatially varying phase shift introduced by the laser scanning system. Compensating this phase shift allows us to retrieve the correct phase distribution in periodically poled lithium niobate, used as a model sample. Finally, we used fast interferometric second harmonic generation microscopy to acquire phase images in tendon. Our results show that the method exposed here, using a laser scanning system, allows to recover the polarity of collagen fibrils, similarly to standard I-SHG (using a sample scanning system), but with an imaging time about 40 times shorter. PMID:26977349
Monitoring microstructural evolution in irradiated steel with second harmonic generation
Matlack, Kathryn H.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Wall, James J.; Qu, Jianmin
2015-03-31
Material damage in structural components is driven by microstructural evolution that occurs at low length scales and begins early in component life. In metals, these microstructural features are known to cause measurable changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter. Physically, the interaction of a monochromatic ultrasonic wave with microstructural features such as dislocations, precipitates, and vacancies, generates a second harmonic wave that is proportional to the acoustic nonlinearity parameter. These nonlinear ultrasonic techniques thus have the capability to evaluate initial material damage, particularly before crack initiation and propagation occur. This paper discusses how the nonlinear ultrasonic technique of second harmonic generation can be used as a nondestructive evaluation tool to monitor microstructural changes in steel, focusing on characterizing neutron radiation embrittlement in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels. Current experimental evidence and analytical models linking microstructural evolution with changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter are summarized.
Second harmonic generation from tyrosine containing peptides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasir, M. N.; Bergmann, E.; Benichou, E.; Russier-Antoine, I.; Lascoux, N.; Jonin, Ch.; Besson, F.; Brevet, P. F.
2013-10-01
The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) response from Tyrosine-containing peptides at the air-water interface is presented. First, the quadratic hyperpolarizability of the aromatic amino acid Tyrosine obtained by Hyper Rayleigh Scattering is reported, demonstrating its potentiality as an endogenous molecular probe for SHG studies. Then, the single Tyrosine antimicrobial peptide Mycosubtilin is monitored at the air-water interface and compared to another peptide, Surfactin, lacking a Tyrosine residue. Adsorption kinetics and polarization analysis of the SHG intensity for the peptide monolayers clearly demonstrate that the SHG response from Mycosubtilin arises from Tyrosine. Besides, it confirms that indeed Tyrosine can be targeted as an endogenous molecular probe.
Wiggler magnetic field assisted second harmonic generation in clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aggarwal, Munish; Vij, Shivani; Kant, Niti
2015-06-01
Wiggler magnetic field assisted second harmonic generation in clusters has been investigated theoretically. An intense short-pulse laser propagating through a gas embedded with atomic clusters, converts it into hot plasma balls. For clusters with radius less than one tenth of the laser wavelength, the nonlinear restoration force dominates, which leads to second harmonic generation. The magnetic wiggler provides the uncompensated momentum to second harmonic photon, to make the process of harmonic generation resonant. We explore the impact of laser intensity and cluster size on the efficiency of second harmonic generation. Pulse slippage of second harmonic pulse out of the domain of fundamental laser pulse has been observed on account of group velocity mismatch between the fundamental and second harmonic pulse. Enhancement in the efficiency of the second harmonic is seen for the optimum values of wiggler magnetic field.
Limitations and improvements for harmonic generation measurements
Best, Steven; Croxford, Anthony; Neild, Simon
2014-02-18
A typical acoustic harmonic generation measurement comes with certain limitations. Firstly, the use of the plane wave-based analysis used to extract the nonlinear parameter, β, ignores the effects of diffraction, attenuation and receiver averaging which are common to most experiments, and may therefore limit the accuracy of a measurement. Secondly, the method usually requires data obtained from a through-transmission type setup, which may not be practical in a field measurement scenario where access to the component is limited. Thirdly, the technique lacks a means of pinpointing areas of damage in a component, as the measured nonlinearity represents an average over the length of signal propagation. Here we describe a three-dimensional model of harmonic generation in a sound beam, which is intended to provide a more realistic representation of a typical experiment. The presence of a reflecting boundary is then incorporated into the model to assess the feasibility of performing single-sided measurements. Experimental validation is provided where possible. Finally, a focusing acoustic source is modelled to provide a theoretical indication of the afforded advantages when the nonlinearity is localized.
Diode end pumped laser and harmonic generator using same
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byer, Robert L. (Inventor); Dixon, George J. (Inventor); Kane, Thomas J. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A second harmonic, optical generator is disclosed in which a laser diode produces an output pumping beam which is focused by means of a graded, refractive index rod lens into a rod of lasant material, such as Nd:YAG, disposed within an optical resonator to pump the lasant material and to excite the optical resonator at a fundamental wavelength. A non-linear electro-optic material such as MgO:LiNbO.sub.3 is coupled to the excited, fundamental mode of the optical resonator to produce a non-linear interaction with the fundamental wavelength producing a harmonic. In one embodiment, the gain medium and the non-linear material are disposed within an optical resonator defined by a pair of reflectors, one of which is formed on a face of the gain medium and the second of which is formed on a face of the non-linear medium. In another embodiment, the non-linear, electro-optic material is doped with the lasant ion such that the gain medium and the non-linear doubling material are co-extensive in volume. In another embodiment, a non-linear, doubling material is disposed in an optical resonator external of the laser gai medium for improved stability of the second harmonic generation process. In another embodiment, the laser gain medium andthe non-linear material are bonded together by means of an optically transparent cement to form a mechanically stable, monolithic structure. In another embodiment, the non-linear material has reflective faces formed thereon to define a ring resonator to decouple reflections from the non-linear medium back to the gain medium for improved stability.
Modelling harmonic generation measurements in solids.
Best, S R; Croxford, A J; Neild, S A
2014-02-01
Harmonic generation measurements typically make use of the plane wave result when extracting values for the nonlinearity parameter, β, from experimental measurements. This approach, however, ignores the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and receiver integration which are common features in a typical experiment. Our aim is to determine the importance of these effects when making measurements of β over different sample dimensions, or using different input frequencies. We describe a three-dimensional numerical model designed to accurately predict the results of a typical experiment, based on a quasi-linear assumption. An experiment is designed to measure the axial variation of the fundamental and second harmonic amplitude components in an ultrasonic beam, and the results are compared with those predicted by the model. The absolute β values are then extracted from the experimental data using both the simulation and the standard plane wave result. A difference is observed between the values returned by the two methods, which varies with axial range and input frequency.
Application of organic compounds for high-order harmonic generation of ultrashort pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganeev, R. A.
2016-02-01
The studies of the high-order nonlinear optical properties of a few organic compounds (polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene, sugar, coffee, and leaf) are reported. Harmonic generation in the laser-produced plasmas containing the molecules and large particles of above materials is demonstrated. These studies showed that the harmonic distributions and harmonic cutoffs from organic compound plasmas were similar to those from the graphite ablation. The characteristic feature of observed harmonic spectra was the presence of bluesided lobes near the lower-order harmonics.
Harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser beams propagating in plasma
Agrawal, Ekta; Hemlata,; Jha, Pallavi
2015-04-15
An analytical theory is developed for studying the phenomenon of generation of harmonics by the propagation of an obliquely incident, circularly polarized laser beam in homogeneous, underdense plasma. The amplitudes of second and third harmonic radiation as well as detuning distance have been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. The amplitude of harmonic radiation increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning distance decreases, for a given plasma electron density. It is observed that the generated second and third harmonic radiation is linearly and elliptically polarized, respectively. The harmonic radiation vanishes at normal incidence of the circularly polarized laser beam.
Multivariable Harmonic Balance for Central Pattern Generators.
Iwasaki, Tetsuya
2008-12-01
The central pattern generator (CPG) is a nonlinear oscillator formed by a group of neurons, providing a fundamental control mechanism underlying rhythmic movements in animal locomotion. We consider a class of CPGs modeled by a set of interconnected identical neurons. Based on the idea of multivariable harmonic balance, we show how the oscillation profile is related to the connectivity matrix that specifies the architecture and strengths of the interconnections. Specifically, the frequency, amplitudes, and phases are essentially encoded in terms of a pair of eigenvalue and eigenvector. This basic principle is used to estimate the oscillation profile of a given CPG model. Moreover, a systematic method is proposed for designing a CPG-based nonlinear oscillator that achieves a prescribed oscillation profile.
Goos-Hänchen shifts in harmonic generation from metals.
Yallapragada, V J; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Agarwal, G S
2013-05-06
We present the first calculation of the Goos-Hänchen shifts in the context of the nonlinear generation of fields. We specifically concentrate on shifts of second harmonic generated at metallic surfaces. At metallic surfaces the second harmonic primarily arises from discontinuities of the field at surfaces which not only result in large harmonic generation but also in significant Goos-Hänchen shifts of the generated second harmonic. Our results can be extended to other shifts like angular shifts and Fedorov-Imbert shifts.
Generation mechanism of power line harmonic radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostrov, Alexander; Gushchin, Mikhail; Korobkov, Sergei
The questions concerning the generation of power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) and magne-tospheric line radiation (MLR) are discussed, including the effective source of high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, and fine dynamic structure of the frequency spectrum of PLHR and MLR. It is shown, that thyristor-based power regulators used by large electrical power consumers produce the periodic sequences of current pulses with duration of about 10 microseconds in a power line. The repetition rate of these pulses is typically 100/120 Hz; the bandwidth is as broad as 100 kHz. For high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, the power line represents an effective traveling-wave (or Beverage) antenna, especially in a frequency range of several kHz corresponding to VLF whistler band in Earth ionosphere and magnetosphere. For the fixed length of the power line, which acts as antenna, radiation directivity diagram in relation to horizon depends of frequency. Hence the spatial separation of whistlers emitted at various frequencies (1-10 kHz in a consid-ered case) is possible, with subsequent propagation of whistlers with different frequencies along different L-shells. Estimations show that the efficiency of power line as travelling-wave antenna can be changed by variations of its load, but not more than twice ("weekend effect"). Since the PLHR can represent the sequence of short electromagnetic bursts, then careful se-lection of frequency-time resolution of the data acquisition equipment is needed. Typically, the time constant of the data recording and processing is too large, and the spectra of PLHR or MLR are characterized by a well-known line structure. At the same time, original bursty structure of PLHR can not be defined. Fine structure of MLR is also discussed. Frequency drift of MLR can be explained by the perturbations of the magnetospheric plasma by intense ULF waves and particle flows affecting the propagation of PLHR. Hence the physical nature of PLHR and MLR is the same, excepting the
Maximizing the yield and cutoff of high-order harmonic generation from plasma plume
Ganeev, Rashid A.; Elouga Bom, Luc B.; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Redkin, Pavel V.
2007-11-15
We study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from various lowly ionized laser plasmas. We study harmonic generation from targets of Al (Z=13) to Bi (Z=83). Varying the wavelength, chirp, and pulse duration of the femtosecond pump laser resulted in the change in the harmonic distribution, cutoff, and conversion efficiency of HHG. We also study the use of doubly charged ions, and resonances for some materials. We were able to obtain high HHG conversion efficiency and harmonic cutoff by implementing the above approaches and by observing the time-resolved spectra of the laser plasma.
High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gholam-Mirzaei, Shima; Beetar, John; Chini, Michael
2017-02-01
We generate high-order harmonics in a-cut (11-20) ZnO at a high repetition rate of 50 kHz, using the tunable mid-infrared pulses (3-4 μm wavelength) from a high-power optical parametric amplifier. For driving laser pulses with 3.8 μm central wavelength, we observe nonperturbative harmonic spectra that well exceed the material band gap. The harmonic spectra depend strongly on the orientation of the crystal with respect to the laser polarization, with odd harmonics exhibiting periodicities of π/2 for a polarization within the (11-20) crystal plane. Energy conversion efficiencies of ˜10-6 per harmonic are measured for the 9th-13th harmonics, yielding an average power of more than 0.2 μW for the 13th harmonic.
Symmetry-selective third-harmonic generation from plasmonic metacrystals.
Chen, Shumei; Li, Guixin; Zeuner, Franziska; Wong, Wing Han; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Zentgraf, Thomas; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zhang, Shuang
2014-07-18
Nonlinear processes are often governed by selection rules imposed by the symmetries of the molecular configurations. The most well-known examples include the role of centrosymmetry breaking for the generation of even harmonics, and the selection rule related to the rotational symmetry in harmonic generation for fundamental beams with circular polarizations. While the role of centrosymmetry breaking in second harmonic generation has been extensively studied in plasmonic systems, the investigation of selection rules pertaining to circular polarization states of harmonic generation is limited to crystals, i.e., symmetries at the atomic level. In this Letter we demonstrate the rotational symmetry dependent third harmonic generation from nonlinear plasmonic metacrystals. We show that the selection rule can be imposed by the rotational symmetry of metacrystals embedded into an isotropic organic nonlinear thin film. The results presented here may open new avenues for designing symmetry-dependent nonlinear optical responses with tailored plasmonic nanostructures.
Waveguide Harmonic Generator for the SIM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Daniel; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Mulder, Jerry
2008-01-01
A second-harmonic generator (SHG) serves as the source of the visible laser beam in an onboard calibration scheme for NASA's planned Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), which requires an infrared laser beam and a visible laser beam coherent with the infrared laser beam. The SHG includes quasi-phase-matched waveguides made of MgO-doped, periodically poled lithium niobate, pigtailed with polarization- maintaining optical fibers. Frequency doubling by use of such waveguides affords the required combination of coherence and sufficient conversion efficiency for the intended application. The spatial period of the poling is designed to obtain quasi-phase- matching at a nominal middle excitation wavelength of 1,319.28 nm. The SHG is designed to operate at a warm bias (ambient temperature between 20 and 25 C) that would be maintained in its cooler environment by use of electric heaters; the heater power would be adjusted to regulate the temperature precisely and thereby maintain the required precision of the spatial period. At the state of development at the time of this reporting, the SHG had been packaged and subjected to most of its planned space-qualification tests.
Chaos and nonlinearities in high harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiordilino, Emilio
2016-11-01
Linearity is a fundamental postulate of quantum mechanics which is occasionally the subject of debate. This paper investigates the possibility of checking this assumption by using a laser field. We study the corrections caused by the presence of a small nonlinearity in the Hamiltonian of a quantum system. As a model we use a simplified two-level quantum system whose states are coupled by a small off-diagonal term proportional to the population of the upper level. The nonlinearity causes spontaneous decay of the upper level, shift and broadening of the line and the sensitive dependence of the final state on the initial condition. The presence of a strong laser field, resonant with the atomic transition, enhances the population transfer among the levels and introduces quantitative and qualitative modifications of the spectra of high order harmonic generation (HHG); these are cumulative effects which can be subject to experimental checks. Experiments are needed in order to set an upper limit to the nonlinear term.
Second harmonic generation polarization properties of myofilaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samim, Masood; Prent, Nicole; Dicenzo, Daniel; Stewart, Bryan; Barzda, Virginijus
2014-05-01
Second harmonic generation (SHG) polarization microscopy was used to investigate the organization of myosin nanomotors in myofilaments of muscle cells. The distribution of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility component ratio χzzz(2)/χzxx(2) along anisotropic bands of sarcomeres revealed differences between the headless and head-containing regions of myofilaments. The polarization-in polarization-out SHG measurements of headless myosin mutants of indirect flight muscle in Drosophila melanogaster confirmed a lower susceptibility component ratio compared to the head-containing myocytes with wild-type myosins. The increase in the ratio is assigned to the change in the deflection angle of the myosin S2 domain and possible contribution of myosin heads. The nonlinear susceptibility component ratio is a sensitive indicator of the myosin structure, and therefore, it can be used for conformational studies of myosin nanomotors. The measured ratio values can also be used as the reference for ab initio calculations of nonlinear optical properties of different parts of myosins.
Role of Excited States In High-order Harmonic Generation.
Beaulieu, S; Camp, S; Descamps, D; Comby, A; Wanie, V; Petit, S; Légaré, F; Schafer, K J; Gaarde, M B; Catoire, F; Mairesse, Y
2016-11-11
We investigate the role of excited states in high-order harmonic generation by studying the spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of the radiation produced near the ionization threshold of argon by few-cycle laser pulses. We show that the population of excited states can lead either to direct extreme ultraviolet emission through free induction decay or to the generation of high-order harmonics through ionization from these states and recombination to the ground state. By using the attosecond lighthouse technique, we demonstrate that the high-harmonic emission from excited states is temporally delayed by a few femtoseconds compared to the usual harmonics, leading to a strong nonadiabatic spectral redshift.
Nonlinear harmonic generation and proposed experimental verification in SASE FELs.
Biedron, S. G.; Freund, H. P.; Milton, S. V.
1999-08-24
Recently, a 3D, polychromatic, nonlinear simulation code was developed to study the growth of nonlinear harmonics in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs). The simulation was applied to the parameters for each stage of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) SASE FEL, intended for operation in the visible, UV, and short UV wavelength regimes, respectively, to study the presence of nonlinear harmonic generation. Significant nonlinear harmonic growth is seen. Here, a discussion of the code development, the APS SASE FEL, the simulations and results, and, finally, the proposed experimental procedure for verification of such nonlinear harmonic generation at the APS SASE FEL will be given.
Role of Excited States In High-order Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beaulieu, S.; Camp, S.; Descamps, D.; Comby, A.; Wanie, V.; Petit, S.; Légaré, F.; Schafer, K. J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Catoire, F.; Mairesse, Y.
2016-11-01
We investigate the role of excited states in high-order harmonic generation by studying the spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of the radiation produced near the ionization threshold of argon by few-cycle laser pulses. We show that the population of excited states can lead either to direct extreme ultraviolet emission through free induction decay or to the generation of high-order harmonics through ionization from these states and recombination to the ground state. By using the attosecond lighthouse technique, we demonstrate that the high-harmonic emission from excited states is temporally delayed by a few femtoseconds compared to the usual harmonics, leading to a strong nonadiabatic spectral redshift.
High average power second harmonic generation in air
Beresna, Martynas; Kazansky, Peter G.; Svirko, Yuri; Barkauskas, Martynas; Danielius, Romas
2009-09-21
We demonstrate second harmonic vortex generation in atmospheric pressure air using tightly focused femtosecond laser beam. The circularly polarized ring-shaped beam of the second harmonic is generated in the air by fundamental beam of the same circular polarization, while the linear polarized beam produces two-lobe beam at the second harmonic frequency. The achieved normalized conversion efficiency and average second harmonic power are two orders of magnitude higher compared to those previously reported and can be increased up to 20 times by external gas flow. We demonstrate that the frequency doubling originates from the gradient of photoexcited free electrons created by pondermotive force.
Second-harmonic generation with Bessel beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shatrovoy, Oleg
We present the results of a numerical simulation tool for modeling the second-harmonic generation (SHG) interaction experienced by a diffracting beam. This code is used to study the simultaneous frequency and spatial profile conversion of a truncated Bessel beam that closely resembles a higher-order mode (HOM) of an optical fiber. SHG with Bessel beams has been investigated in the past and was determined have limited value because it is less efficient than SHG with a Gaussian beam in the undepleted pump regime. This thesis considers, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, whether most of the power from a Bessel-like beam could be converted into a second-harmonic beam (full depletion), as is the case with a Gaussian beam. We study this problem because using HOMs for fiber lasers and amplifiers allows reduced optical intensities, which mitigates nonlinearities, and is one possible way to increase the available output powers of fiber laser systems. The chief disadvantage of using HOM fiber amplifiers is the spatial profile of the output, but this can be transformed as part of the SHG interaction, most notably to a quasi-Gaussian profile when the phase mismatch meets the noncollinear criteria. We predict, based on numerical simulation, that noncollinear SHG (NC-SHG) can simultaneously perform highly efficient (90%) wavelength conversion from 1064 nm to 532 nm, as well as concurrent mode transformation from a truncated Bessel beam to a Gaussian-like beam (94% overlap with a Gaussian) at modest input powers (250 W, peak power or continuous-wave operation). These simulated results reveal two attractive features -- the feasibility of efficiently converting HOMs of fibers into Gaussian-like beams, and the ability to simultaneously perform frequency conversion. Combining the high powers that are possible with HOM fiber amplifiers with access to non-traditional wavelengths may offer significant advantages over the state of the art for many important applications
Higher-Order Harmonic Generation from Fullerene by Means of the Plasma Harmonic Method
Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ozaki, T.; Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J. P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.
2009-01-09
We demonstrate, for the first time, high-order harmonic generation from C{sub 60} by an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. Laser-produced plasmas from C{sub 60}-rich epoxy and C{sub 60} films were used as the nonlinear media. Harmonics up to the 19th order were observed. The harmonic yield from fullerene-rich plasma is about 25 times larger compared with those produced from a bulk carbon target. Structural studies of plasma debris confirm the presence and integrity of fullerenes within the plasma plume, indicating fullerenes as the source of high-order harmonics.
Efficient millimeter wave 1140 GHz/ diode for harmonic power generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1967-01-01
Epitaxial gallium arsenide diode junction formed in a crossed waveguide structure operates as a variable reactance harmonic generator. This varactor diode can generate power efficiently in the low-millimeter wavelength.
Second harmonic generation in graphene-coated nanowires.
Gao, Yixiao; Shadrivov, Ilya V
2016-08-01
We study second harmonic generation in a pair of graphene-coated nanowires. We show that the phase matching condition for harmonic generation can be engineered in a wide range of frequencies by tuning the spacing between graphene nanowires. We derive coupled mode equations describing the process of second harmonic generation using an unconjugated Lorentz reciprocity theorem. We show that the highest harmonic generation efficiency can be achieved by phase matching the fundamental mode with the two lowest order symmetric modes at the second harmonic frequency. Despite losses in graphene, we predict that the efficiency can be further enhanced by reducing the radius of nanowires due to larger mode overlap and lower propagation loss.
Improved Efficiency Type II Second Harmonic Generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Reichle, Donald J., Jr.
2009-01-01
Second harmonic efficiency is limited by lateral and temporal separation of the ordinary and extraordinary components of the fundamental. A mode locked dual beam laser demonstrated these effects and a novel method to minimize them.
SEVENTH HARMONIC 20 GHz CO-GENERATOR
Hirshfield, Jay L
2014-04-08
To satisfy the need for multi-MW rf sources in frequency ranges where commercial sources do not exist, a study was undertaken on a class of devices based on gyro-harmonic frequency multiplication. This mechanism relies upon adding energy in gyrating motion to a linear electron beam that traverses a rotating-mode TE111-mode drive cavity in a dc magnetic field. The beam then drifts along the magnetic field into a second cavity, operating in the TEn11-mode tuned to the nth harmonic of the drive cavity. Studies of this configuration have been carried out for 2 < n < 7. Results are given for multi-MW, efficient operation of a 7th harmonic device operating at 20 GHz, and a 2nd harmonic device operating at 22.4 GHz.
Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon
Zeng, Y.; Roland, I.; Checoury, X.; Han, Z.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Boucaud, P.; Gayral, B.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Mexis, M.; Semond, F.
2015-02-23
We demonstrate second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride photonic crystal cavity embedded in a two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal platform on silicon. The photonic crystal nanocavity is optically pumped with a continuous-wave laser at telecom wavelengths in the transparency window of the nitride material. The harmonic generation is evidenced by the spectral range of the emitted signal, the quadratic power dependence vs. input power, and the spectral dependence of second harmonic signal. The harmonic emission pattern is correlated to the harmonic polarization generated by the second-order nonlinear susceptibilities χ{sub zxx}{sup (2)}, χ{sub zyy}{sup (2)} and the electric fields of the fundamental cavity mode.
Impedance matching in photonic crystal microcavities for second-harmonic generation.
Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio; Assanto, Gaetano
2006-01-15
By numerically integrating the three-dimensional Maxwell equations in the time domain with reference to a dispersive quadratically nonlinear material, we study second-harmonic generation in planar photonic crystal microresonators. The proposed scheme allows efficient coupling of the pump radiation to the defect resonant mode. The outcoupled generated second harmonic is maximized by impedance matching the photonic crystal cavity to the output waveguide.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alejo-Molina, Adalberto; Hingerl, Kurt; Hardhienata, Hendradi
2015-04-01
We report for the first time a comprehensive study of the fourth rank tensor describing third harmonic generation (THG) and electric field induced second harmonic (EFISH) in centrosymmetric material from two different viewpoints: Group Theory (GT) and the Simplified Bond Hyperpolarizability Model (SBHM). We show that the fourth rank tensor related to THG and direct current (DC) EFISH can be reduced to two independent elements whereas SBHM always gives only one, reproducing perfectly well EFISH experimental results in Metal Oxyde Semiconductor (MOS). We argue that it is possible to reduce the fourth rank tensor describing EFISH to a third rank tensor and further deliver a classical explanation of EFISH regarding symmetry breaking where the term containing $r^3$ in the potential immediately leads to second harmonic generation (SHG).
Spectrum of second-harmonic radiation generated from incoherent light
Stabinis, A.; Pyragaite, V.; Tamosauskas, G.; Piskarskas, A.
2011-10-15
We report on the development of the theory of second-harmonic generation by an incoherent pump with broad angular and frequency spectra. We show that spatial as well as temporal walk-off effects in a nonlinear crystal result in angular dispersion of the second-harmonic radiation. We demonstrate that the acceptance angle in second-harmonic generation by incoherent light is caused by the width of the pump angular spectrum and the resulting angular dispersion of second-harmonic radiation but does not depend on crystal length. In this case the frequency spectrum of second-harmonic radiation is determined by its angular dispersion and the pump angular spectrum. The theory is supported by an experiment in which a LiIO{sub 3} crystal was pumped by a tungsten halogen lamp.
Frequency-resolved optical grating using third-harmonic generation
Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; Delong, K.W.
1995-12-01
We demonstrate the first frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of an laser oscillator without the time ambiguity using third-harmonic generation. The experiment agrees well with the phase-retrieved spectrograms.
High order harmonic generation in dual gas multi-jets
Tosa, Valer E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro
2013-11-13
High order harmonic generation (HHG) in gas media suffers from a low conversion efficiency that has its origins in the interaction of the atom/molecule with the laser field. Phase matching is the main way to enhance the harmonic flux and several solutions have been designed to achieve it. Here we present numerical results modeling HHG in a system of multi-jets in which two gases alternate: the first gas jet (for example Ne) generates harmonics and the second one which ionizes easier, recover the phase matching condition. We obtain configurations which are experimentally feasible with respect to pressures and dimensions of the jets.
Harmonic measurements from a group connected generator HVdc converter scheme
Macdonald, S.J.; Enright, W.; Arrillaga, J.; O`Brien, M.T.
1995-10-01
A recent CIGRE document published in ELECTRA has described the potential benefits of a direct connection of generators to HVdc converters. While many theoretical contributions have been made, no practical test data has become available so far. This paper reports on harmonic tests carried out at the Benmore end of the New Zealand HVdc link operating as a group connected scheme. It was found that the measured harmonic current levels were well below specified generator ratings. Dynamic simulation accurately predicted the harmonic currents whereas the results of a steady state formulation were less reliable.
Rotational Doppler effect in harmonic generation from spinning molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faucher, O.; Prost, E.; Hertz, E.; Billard, F.; Lavorel, B.; Milner, Alexander A.; Milner, Valery A.; Zyss, Joseph; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.
2016-11-01
We present an observation of the rotational Doppler shift in the frequency of optical harmonic generated in fast rotating molecules. Conservation of energy and angular momentum in the light-molecule interaction suggests four different kinds of shifts depending on the mutual handedness of the circularly polarized fundamental and harmonic fields, as well as the handedness of the molecular rotation. All four types of the frequency shifts were observed in our experiments on third-harmonic generation in a gas of fast spinning O2 molecules.
Double-pulse induced harmonic generation in laser-produced plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganeev, Rashid A.; Suzuki, Masayuki; Yoneya, Shin; Kuroda, Hiroto
2015-12-01
We report the studies of the metals, non-metals, powders, and nanoparticles as the targets for laser ablation induced high-order harmonic generation of ultrashort pulses using the double-pulse technique. The proposed technique demonstrates the attractiveness as the method for the studies of the high-order nonlinear optical properties of various materials. The comparative analysis of the harmonic generation using different targets showed that the species allowing easier ablation (powders, nanoparticles) produce stronger harmonic yield in the extreme ultraviolet range.
Thomas, Alexander Roy; Krushelnick, Karl
2016-09-08
We have studied ion motion effects in high harmonic generation, including shifts to the harmonics which result in degradation of the attosecond pulse train, and how to mitigate them. We have examined the scaling with intensity of harmonic emission. We have also switched the geometry of the interaction to measure, for the first time, harmonics from a normal incidence interaction. This was performed by using a special parabolic reflector with an on axis hole and is to allow measurements of the attosecond pulses using standard techniques. Here is a summary of the findings: First high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions at 10^{21} Wcm^{-2}, demonstration of harmonic focusing, study of ion motion effects in high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions, and demonstration of harmonic amplification.
High Harmonic Generation at Long Wavelengths
Sheehy, B.; Martin, J. D. D.; DiMauro, L. F.; Agostini, P.; Schafer, K. J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Kulander, K. C.
1999-12-20
High harmonic radiation spectra up to 19th order in alkali metal vapors excited by an intense, picosecond mid-infrared (3-4 {mu} m ) laser are reported and compared to theory. The strong-field dynamics in the alkali metal atoms exhibit significant differences from all previously studied systems due to the strong coupling between their ground and first excited states. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.
Inherently unstable internal gravity waves due to resonant harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yong; Zareei, Ahmad; Alam, Mohammad-Reza
2017-01-01
Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not obtain for a linearly-stratified fluid if a simplified boundary condition such as rigid lid or linear form is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance presented here also provides a mechanism for the transfer of the energy of the internal waves to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum where internal waves are more prone to breaking, hence losing energy to turbulence and heat and contributing to oceanic mixing.
R-dependent molecular harmonic generation from H2+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Liqiang; Liu, Hang
2017-03-01
R-dependent high-order harmonic spectra (R is the nuclear distance) from H2+ have been investigated through solving the Non-Bohn-Oppenheimer time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We found that (i) for the case of the few-cycle pulse, the harmonic emission mainly occurs from R = 3.7 to R = 6, caused by the charge-resonance-enhanced-ionization (CREI) process. (ii) For the case of the multi-cycle pulse, the harmonic emission can be separated into two parts, that is the charge-resonance-enhanced-ionization region from R = 3.7 to R = 8; and the dissociative ionization region when R > 10. (iii) Isotopic investigation showed that the R-dependent harmonic emission process can be moved towards the smaller-R region as the masses of the nuclei are increased (D2+ and T2+). (iv) Multi-minima on the harmonic spectra can be obtained, which is attributed to the two-center interference and the electron-nuclear coupling during the generation of the harmonics. The R-dependent ionization probabilities, the time-dependent nuclear motions and the time-frequency analyses of the harmonic spectra have been shown to explain the R-dependent molecular harmonic emission process.
Electromagnetic study of second harmonic generation by a corrugated waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neviere, Michel; Popov, E.; Reinisch, Raymond
1995-09-01
When an incident plane wave with circular frequency (omega) falls on a grating coated by a layer of nonlinear material, it generates a nonlinear polarization PNL(2(omega) ) which acts as a source term and produces a second harmonic (SH) field called signal. The excitation of an electromagnetic resonance like surface plasmon or a guided wave increases the local field and thus the signal. The problem is to be able to compute and optimize the latter. We have developed a new theory which uses a coordinate transformation mapping the grating profile onto a plane. This simplifies the boundary conditions but complicates the propagation equation. Taking advantage of the psuedoperiodicity of the problem, the Fourier harmonics of the field are solution of a set of first order differential equations with constant coefficients. The resolution of this system via eigenvalue and eigenvector technique avoid numerical instabilities and lead to accurate results which agree perfectly with those found via the Rayleigh method or by the Differential method, when they work. A phenomenological approach is then developed to explain the unusual shape of the resonance lines at 2(omega) , which is based on the poles and zeros of the scattering operator S at (omega) and 2(omega) . It is shown that S(2(omega) ) presents 3 complex poles with 3 associated complex zeros. Their knowledge, plus the nonlinear reflectivity of the plane device allows predicting all the possible shapes of the 2(omega) signal as a function of angle of incidence. The phenomenological study explains an experimental result, found a few years ago, that if 2(omega) lies inside the absorption band of the guiding material instead of the transparent region, the enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG) is changed into a reduced one. It means that in the case phase matching can lead to a minimum instead of maximum. An algorithm is then proposed to maximize the signal intensity; with polyurethane as a guiding material a conversion
Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voronov, S. L.; Kohl, I.; Madsen, J. B.; Simmons, J.; Terry, N.; Titensor, J.; Wang, Q.; Peatross, J.
2001-09-01
Relatively weak counterpropagating light is shown to disrupt the emission of laser high-harmonic generation. Harmonic orders ranging from the teens to the low thirties produced by a 30-femtosecond pulse in a narrow argon jet are ``shut down'' with a contrast as high as 2 orders of magnitude by a chirped 1-picosecond counterpropagating laser pulse (60 times less intense). Alternatively, under poor phase-matching conditions, the counterpropagating light boosts harmonic production by similar contrast through quasiphase matching where out-of-phase emission is suppressed.
Optical fiber tip for field-enhanced second harmonic generation.
Pal, Sudipta Sarkar; Mondal, Samir K; Bajpai, Phun Phun; Kapur, Pawan
2012-10-01
We propose a simple optical fiber tip for field-enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG). The tip shows nonlinear phenomena of SHG over a wide range of sources, at least from 630 to 830 nm. The optical field corresponding to the second harmonic appears as a nondiffracting bottle beam with voids due to the surface curvature of the tip. The field-enhanced second harmonic can also induce surface plasmons, converting the tip to a plasmonic probe with reduced background signal. The tip can be useful in nanophotonics characterization. As an example, we demonstrate the tip's response as a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy probe.
Optical second harmonic generation from Pt nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, N.; Aratake, K.; Okushio, R.; Iwai, T.; Sugawara, A.; Sano, H.; Mizutani, G.
2007-09-01
We have measured optical second harmonic intensity from arrays of Pt nanowires of 20 nm and 9 nm average widths, as a function of the incident and output light polarizations, the azimuthal angle, and the excitation photon energy. The nanowires were fabricated through shadow deposition on self-organized NaCl(1 1 0) faceted templates. The anisotropy of the SH intensity from the Pt nanowires was found to be stronger than that from the Au nanowires reported previously. The effective nonlinear susceptibility element χ222(2), with the suffix 2 indicating the direction [1 1¯ 0], was observed for Pt nanowires, although it was not observed for Au nanowires. This difference is suggested to be due to the weaker suppression of the incident fundamental fields by the depolarization field in the Pt nanowires and the larger anisotropy in the nonlinearity of Pt nanowires due to the thinner widths.
Generation of higher odd harmonics in a defective photonic crystal
Ramanujam, N. R.; Wilson, K. S. Joseph
2015-06-24
A photonic crystal (AB){sup 2}(DB)(AB){sup 2} with high refractive index medium as silicon and low refractive medium as air is considered. Using the transfer matrix method, the transmission properties as a function of wavelength with photonic band gaps has been obtained. We are able to demonstrate the generation of third, fifth, seventh and ninth harmonics in the present work. We show that if the air medium is removed in the defect, the defect modes are generated but not harmonics. It can be designed to have a frequency conversion, and have a potential for becoming the basis for the next generation of optical devices.
Investigation of second harmonic generation in glutamic acid-metal complexes
Cooper, T.M.; Cline, S.M.; Zelmon, D.E.; Vuppuladhadium, R.; Gupta, S.D.; Ramabadran, U.B.
1996-12-31
To design new second order nonlinear crystals, the authors have characterized a series of dipeptide complexes and copper glutamate. They tested 16 materials using powder second harmonic generation. The best of these materials was copper glutamate. Results of initial nonlinear optical characterization of the copper glutamate powder determined by the Kurtz powder test are presented.
Dynamic investigation of Drosophila myocytes with second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenhalgh, Catherine; Stewart, Bryan; Cisek, Richard; Prent, Nicole; Major, Arkady; Barzda, Virginijus
2006-09-01
The functional dynamics and structure of both larval and adult Drosophila melanogaster muscle were investigated with a nonlinear multimodal microscope. Imaging was carried out using a home built microscope capable of recording the multiphoton excitation fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation signals simultaneously at a scanning rate of up to ~12 frames/sec. The sample was excited by a home built femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at 840 nm, or by a Yb-ion doped potassium gadolinium tungstate (Yb:KGW) crystal based oscillator at 1042 nm. There was no observable damage detected in the myocyte after prolonged scanning with either of the lasers. Microscopic second harmonic generation (SHG) appears particularly strong in the myocytes. This allows the fast contraction dynamics of the myocytes to be followed. The larger sarcomere size observed in the larvae myocytes is especially well suited for studying the contraction dynamics. Microscopic imaging of muscle contractions showed different relaxation and contraction rates. The SHG intensities were significantly higher in the relaxed state of the myocyte compared to the contracted state. The imaging also revealed disappearance of SHG signal in highly stretched sarcomeres, indicating that SHG diminishes in the disordered structures. The study illustrates that SHG microscopy, combined with other nonlinear contrast mechanisms, can help to elucidate physiological mechanisms of contraction. This study also provides further insight into the mechanisms of harmonic generation in biological tissue and shows that crystalline arrangement of macromolecules has a determining factor for the high efficiency second harmonic generation from the bulk structures.
Extreme Harmonic Generation in an InAs Spin-Orbit Qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stehlik, J.; Schroer, M. D.; Maialle, M. Z.; Degani, M. H.; Petta, J. R.
2014-03-01
Strong spin-orbit materials have shown great promise in the field of quantum computation. Unlike conventional semiconductor materials, fast all-electrical control is achieved through electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR). In this work we explore EDSR in an InAs nanowire spin-orbit qubit. We observe signs of harmonic generation where spin flips occur at the resonance condition nhf = gμB B , where f is the applied frequency, B is the magnetic field, g is the g-factor and n is an integer. Near the interdot charge transition we observe harmonics up to n = 8, indicating extreme harmonic generation. At far detuning we only observe the n = 1 resonance. Further, we find odd/even structure in the harmonic response: odd harmonics result in an increase in the leakage current while even harmonics result in its suppression. Finally we observe oscillations in the resonant current as a function of detuning. The striking detuning dependence suggests that the harmonics may be caused by Landau-Zener transitions occurring due to the anti-crossing between the differing charge states. Numerical simulations of the system are qualitatively consistent with this picture. Funded by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, the NSF, and the Army Research Office. M.Z.M. and M.H.D. were funded by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de São Paulo (Fapesp) and INCT-DISSE/CNPq, Brazil.
Recent progress of below-threshold harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Wei-Hao; Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang
2017-02-01
The harmonics generated from the interaction of a strong laser field with atoms and molecules in the gas phase can be applied as coherent light sources and detecting techniques for structures and dynamics in matter. In the last three decades, the most prevailing experimental and theoretical studies have been focused on the high-order harmonic generation due to its applications in attosecond science. However, low-order harmonics near the ionization threshold of the target have been less explored, partially because the spectrum in this region is more complicated from both the theoretical and experimental point of view. After several pioneering investigations in the mid 1990s, near threshold harmonics (NTHs) begun to draw a great attention again because of the development of high repetition rate cavity enhanced harmonics about 10 years ago. Very recently, NTHs have attracted a lot of experimental and theoretical studies due to their potential applications as light sources and complicated mechanisms. In this topical review, we will summarize the progress of NTHs, including the early and recent experimental measurements in atoms and molecules, as well as the relevant theoretical explorations of these harmonics.
Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation.
Goh, S J; Tao, Y; van der Slot, P J M; Bastiaens, H J M; Herek, J; Biedron, S G; Danailov, M B; Milton, S V; Boller, K-J
2015-09-21
For exploring the application potential of coherent soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) provided by high-harmonic generation, it is important to characterize the central output parameters. Of specific importance are pulse-to-pulse (shot-to-shot) fluctuations of the high-harmonic output energy, fluctuations of the direction of the emission (pointing instabilities), and fluctuations of the beam divergence and shape that reduce the spatial coherence. We present the first single-shot measurements of waveguided high-harmonic generation in a waveguided (capillary-based) geometry. Using a capillary waveguide filled with Argon gas as the nonlinear medium, we provide the first characterization of shot-to-shot fluctuations of the pulse energy, of the divergence and of the beam pointing. We record the strength of these fluctuations vs. two basic input parameters, which are the drive laser pulse energy and the gas pressure in the capillary waveguide. In correlation measurements between single-shot drive laser beam profiles and single-shot high-harmonic beam profiles we prove the absence of drive laser beam-pointing-induced fluctuations in the high-harmonic output. We attribute the main source of high-harmonic fluctuations to ionization-induced nonlinear mode mixing during propagation of the drive laser pulse inside the capillary waveguide.
Numerical generation of hyperspherical harmonics for tetra-atomic systems.
Lepetit, Bruno; Wang, Desheng; Kuppermann, Aron
2006-10-07
A numerical generation method of hyperspherical harmonics for tetra-atomic systems, in terms of row-orthonormal hyperspherical coordinates-a hyper-radius and eight angles-is presented. The nine-dimensional coordinate space is split into three three-dimensional spaces, the physical rotation, kinematic rotation, and kinematic invariant spaces. The eight-angle principal-axes-of-inertia hyperspherical harmonics are expanded in Wigner rotation matrices for the physical and kinematic rotation angles. The remaining two-angle harmonics defined in kinematic invariant space are expanded in a basis of trigonometric functions, and the diagonalization of the kinetic energy operator in this basis provides highly accurate harmonics. This trigonometric basis is chosen to provide a mathematically exact and finite expansion for the harmonics. Individually, each basis function does not satisfy appropriate boundary conditions at the poles of the kinetic energy operator; however, the numerically generated linear combination of these functions which constitutes the harmonic does. The size of this basis is minimized using the symmetries of the system, in particular, internal symmetries, involving different sets of coordinates in nine-dimensional space corresponding to the same physical configuration.
Nonlinear harmonic generation in finite amplitude black hole oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papadopoulos, Philippos
2002-04-01
The nonlinear generation of harmonics in gravitational perturbations of black holes is explored using numerical relativity based on an ingoing light-cone framework. Localized, finite, perturbations of an isolated black hole are parametrized by amplitude and angular harmonic form. The response of the black hole spacetime is monitored and its harmonic content analyzed to identify the strength of the nonlinear generation of harmonics as a function of the initial data amplitude. It is found that overwhelmingly the black hole responds at the harmonic mode perturbed, even for spacetimes with 10% of the black hole mass radiated. The coefficients for down and up scattering in harmonic space are computed for a range of couplings. Down scattering, leading to smoothing out of angular structure, is found to be equally as or more efficient than the up scatterings that would lead to increased rippling. The details of this nonlinear balance may form the quantitative mechanism by which black holes avoid fission even for arbitrary strong distortions.
Bernstein wave aided laser third harmonic generation in a plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyagi, Yachna; Tripathi, Deepak; Kumar, Ashok
2016-09-01
The process of Bernstein wave aided resonant third harmonic generation of laser in a magnetized plasma is investigated. The extra-ordinary mode (X-mode) laser of frequency ω 0 and wave number k → 0 , travelling across the magnetic field in a plasma, exerts a second harmonic ponderomotive force on the electrons imparting them an oscillatory velocity v → 2 ω0 , 2 k → 0 . This velocity beats with the density perturbation due to the Bernstein wave to produce a density perturbation at cyclotron frequency shifted second harmonic. The density perturbation couples with the oscillatory velocity v → ω0 , k → 0 of X-mode of the laser to produce the cyclotron frequency shifted third harmonic current density leading to harmonic radiation. The phase matching condition for the up shifted frequency is satisfied when the Bernstein wave is nearly counter-propagating to the laser. As the transverse wave number of the Bernstein wave is large, it is effective in the phase matched third harmonic generation, when the laser frequency is not too far from the upper hybrid frequency.
Harmonic Generation in a Traveling-Wave Tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Patrick; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, Geoffrey; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Chernin, David; Simon, David; Hoff, Brad
2016-10-01
Crowding of electron orbits in a traveling-wave tube (TWT) may lead to significant harmonic contents in the beam current, even in the linear regime. Here, we consider a wideband TWT that exhibits gain at the second harmonic. We analytically formulate equations governing the evolution of the generation of second harmonic, including axial variations of the Pierce parameters. The second harmonic output is phase-controlled by the input signal which consists only of a fundamental frequency. Several test cases are performed and compared with simulation using the CHRISTINE code. Reasonable agreement between theory and simulation is found. Work supported by AFOSR FA9550-15-1-0097, ONR N00014-16-1-2353, and L-3 Communications Electron Device Division.
Hyperbolic metamaterial antenna for second-harmonic generation tomography.
Segovia, Paulina; Marino, Giuseppe; Krasavin, Alexey V; Olivier, Nicolas; Wurtz, Gregory A; Belov, Pavel A; Ginzburg, Pavel; Zayats, Anatoly V
2015-11-30
The detection and processing of information carried by evanescent field components are key elements for subwavelength optical microscopy as well as single molecule sensing applications. Here, we numerically demonstrate the potential of a hyperbolic medium in the design of an efficient metamaterial antenna enabling detection and tracking of a nonlinear object, with an otherwise hidden second-harmonic signature. The presence of the antenna provides 10^{3}-fold intensity enhancement of the second harmonic generation (SHG) from a nanoparticle through a metamaterial-assisted access to evanescent second-harmonic fields. Alternatively, the observation of SHG from the metamaterial itself can be used to detect and track a nanoparticle without a nonlinear response. The antenna allows an optical resolution of several nanometers in tracking the nanoparticle's location via observations of the far-field second-harmonic radiation pattern.
Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations.
Li, Guixin; Chen, Shumei; Pholchai, Nitipat; Reineke, Bernhard; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang
2015-06-01
The capability of locally engineering the nonlinear optical properties of media is crucial in nonlinear optics. Although poling is the most widely employed technique for achieving locally controlled nonlinearity, it leads only to a binary nonlinear state, which is equivalent to a discrete phase change of π in the nonlinear polarizability. Here, inspired by the concept of spin-rotation coupling, we experimentally demonstrate nonlinear metasurfaces with homogeneous linear optical properties but spatially varying effective nonlinear polarizability with continuously controllable phase. The continuous phase control over the local nonlinearity is demonstrated for second and third harmonic generation by using nonlinear metasurfaces consisting of nanoantennas of C3 and C4 rotational symmetries, respectively. The continuous phase engineering of the effective nonlinear polarizability enables complete control over the propagation of harmonic generation signals. Therefore, this method seamlessly combines the generation and manipulation of harmonic waves, paving the way for highly compact nonlinear nanophotonic devices.
High frequency SAW devices based on third harmonic generation.
Le Brizoual, L; Elmazria, O; Sarry, F; El Hakiki, M; Talbi, A; Alnot, P
2006-12-01
We demonstrate the third harmonic generation in a ZnO/Si layered structure to obtain high frequency SAW devices. This configuration eliminates the need of high lithography resolution and allows easy integration of such devices and electronics on the same wafer. A theoretical study was carried out for the determination of the phase velocity and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K(2)) dispersion curves of the surface acoustic waves. These results are also in agreement with those measured on a SAW filter designed for the third harmonic generation and the operating frequency is up to 2468 MHz.
Efficient forward second-harmonic generation from planar archimedean nanospirals
Davidson, II, Roderick B.; Ziegler, Jed I.; Vargas, Guillermo; ...
2015-05-01
Here, the enhanced electric field at plasmonic resonances in nanoscale antennas can lead to efficient harmonic generation, especially when the plasmonic geometry is asymmetric on either inter-particle or intra-particle levels. The planar Archimedean nanospiral offers a unique geometrical asymmetry for second-harmonic generation (SHG) because the SHG results neither from arranging centrosymmetric nanoparticles in asymmetric groupings, nor from non-centrosymmetric nanoparticles that retain a local axis of symmetry. Here, we report forward SHG from planar arrays of Archimedean nanospirals using 15 fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire oscillator tuned to 800 nm wavelength.
Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes
Rousseau, O.; Yamada, M.; Miura, K.; Ogawa, S.; Otani, Y.
2014-02-07
We report on the experimental study of the propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic CoFeB stripes. Using an all electrical technique with coplanar waveguides, we find that two kinds of spin waves can be generated by nonlinear frequency multiplication. One has a non-uniform spatial geometry and thus requires appropriate detector geometry to be identified. The other corresponds to the resonant fundamental propagative spin waves and can be efficiently excited by double- or triple-frequency harmonics with any geometry. Nonlinear excited spin waves are particularly efficient in providing an electrical signal arising from spin wave propagation.
Confocal Imaging of Biological Tissues Using Second Harmonic Generation
Kim, B-M.; Stoller, P.; Reiser, K.; Eichler, J.; Yan, M.; Rubenchik, A.; Da Silva, L.
2000-03-06
A confocal microscopy imaging system was devised to selectively detect Second harmonic signals generated by biological tissues. Several types of biological tissues were examined using this imaging system, including human teeth, bovine blood vessels, and chicken skin. All these tissues generated strong second harmonic signals. There is considerable evidence that the source of these signals in tissue is collagen. Collagen, the predominant component of most tissues, is known to have second order nonlinear susceptibility. This technique may have diagnostic usefulness in pathophysiological conditions characterized by changes in collagen structure including malignant transformation of nevi, progression of diabetic complications, and abnormalities in wound healing.
Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules
Silva, R. E. F.; Rivière, P.; Morales, F.; Smirnova, O.; Ivanov, M.; Martín, F.
2016-01-01
Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process. PMID:27596609
Harmonic Generation from Solid Targets - Optmization of Source Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zepf, Matthew; Watts, I. F.; Dangor, A. E.; Norreys, P. A.; Chambers, D. M.; Machacek, A.; Wark, J. S.; Tsakiris, G. D.
1998-11-01
High harmonics from solid targets have received renewed interest over the last few years. Theoretical predictions using 1 1/2 D codes suggest that very high orders (>100 ) can be generated at conversion efficiencies in excess of 10-6 [1,2] at Iλ^2 > 10^19 W/cm^2. Experiments have since been performed with pulses varying from 100 fs to 2.5 ps in duration [3-6]. The steep density gradient necessary to generate the harmonics can be generated by either ponderomotive steepening or by using ultraclean pulses which preserve the initial solid vacuum boundary. The two regimes are compared in terms of their dependence on the laser parameters and the emitted harmonic radiation. Particular emphasis will be given to measurements of the holeboring velocity, the polarisation of the harmonics and the intensity scaling in the two regimes. This comparison enables us to find the ideal parameter range for the optimization of harmonic source. [1] R. Lichters et al., Physics of Plasmas 3, 3425, (1996). [2] P. Gibbon, IEEE J. of Q. Elec. 33, 1915 (1997). [3] S. Kohlweyer, et al., Optics Comm. 177, 431 (1995). [4] P. Norreys et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 1832 (1995). [5] D. von der Linde et al., Phys. Rev. A, 52, R25 (1995) [6] M. Zepf, et al., submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozdoor Dashtabi, Mahdi; Arabanian, Atoosa Sadat; Massudi, Reza
2017-02-01
Harmonic focal point axial modulation (h-FPAM) in nonlinear optical microscopy is introduced and used to enhance the axial resolution and the signal to background ratio by modulating the focal point of a beam of femtosecond pulses train along the axial direction and phase sensitively filtering the resulting signals using a lock-in amplifier. Axial resolution enhancement factor of 2.05 is acquired in 2f detection mode for the third harmonic generation microscopy of glass-oil interfaces. This technique also resolves the image interpretation problem of the fundamental harmonic FPAM technique. Moreover, the potential of this technique for axial sectioning is demonstrated by acquiring images from a red blood cell.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Kaishang; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dong
2016-10-01
The echo enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme holds the ability for the generation of fully coherent soft x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) pulses directly from external UV seeding sources. In this paper, we study the feasibility of using a single stage EEHG to generate coherent radiation in the "water window" and beyond. Using the high-order operating modes of the EEHG scheme, intensive numerical simulations have been performed considering various three-dimensional effects. The simulation results demonstrated that coherent soft x-ray radiation at 150th harmonic (1.77 nm) of the seed can be produced by a single stage EEHG. The decreasing of the final bunching factor at the desired harmonic caused by intra beam scattering (IBS) effect has also been analyzed.
Observation of Electronic Structure Minima in High-Harmonic Generation
Woerner, Hans Jakob; Villeneuve, D. M.; Niikura, Hiromichi; Bertrand, Julien B.; Corkum, P. B.
2009-03-13
We report detailed measurements of the high-harmonic spectra generated from argon atoms. The spectra exhibit a deep minimum that is shown to be independent of the laser intensity, and is thus a clear measure of the electronic structure of the atom. We show that exact field-free continuum wave functions reproduce the minimum, but plane wave and Coulomb wave functions do not. This remarkable observation suggests that electronic structure can be accurately determined in high-harmonic experiments despite the presence of the strong laser field. Our results clarify the relation between high-harmonic generation and photoelectron spectroscopy. The use of exact continuum functions also resolves the ambiguity associated with the choice of the dispersion relation.
Generation of harmonics and supercontinuum in nematic liquid crystals
Nyushkov, B N; Trashkeev, S I; Klementyev, Vasilii M; Pivtsov, V S; Kobtsev, Sergey M
2013-02-28
Nonlinear optical properties of nematic liquid crystals (NLC) have been investigated. A technique for efficient laser frequency conversion in a microscopic NLC volume deposited on an optical fibre end face is experimentally demonstrated. An efficient design of a compact NLC-based IR frequency converter with a fibre input and achromatic collimator is proposed and implemented. Simultaneous generation of the second and third harmonics is obtained for the first time under pumping NLC by a 1.56-mm femtosecond fibre laser. The second-harmonic generation efficiency is measured to be about 1 %, while the efficiency of third-harmonic generation is several tenths of percent. A strong polarisation dependence of the third-harmonic generation efficiency is revealed. When pumping NLC by a cw laser, generation of spectral supercontinua (covering the visible and near-IR spectral ranges) is observed. The nonlinear effects revealed can be due to the light-induced change in the orientational order in liquid crystals, which breaks the initial symmetry and leads to formation of disclination structures. The NLC optical nonlinearity is believed to be of mixed orientationalelectronic nature as a whole. (laser optics 2012)
Theory of second harmonic generation in randomly oriented species
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, David L.; Allcock, Philip; Demidov, Andrey A.
1995-01-01
It is well known that second harmonic generation (SHG) is a process forbidden within atomic and molecular fluids. Nonetheless recent experimental observations of second harmonic evolution in suspensions of randomly oriented Halobacterium halobium purple membranes have raised new questions about the precise criteria which determine prohibition of the second harmonic. To address the problem a theoretical framework for SHG is developed that specifically deals with molecular systems, and is therefore cast in terms of molecular properties with more regard to the influence of the local structure. This contrasts with the classical approach based on bulk susceptibilities, which has not proved adequate to explain the conflicting experimental results. By properly formulating the detailed procedure for dealing with the necessary orientational averages, the present theory discloses a relationship between the coherent process of second harmonic generation and a directed component of its incoherent counterpart, hyper-Rayleigh scattering. Inter alia, the theory explains the SHG detected in purple membrane suspensions. The polarisation features of the harmonic evolution are also considered more generally, and in particular it is shown that the SHG signal will persist under conditions of circularly polarised pumping. This specific polarisation feature will allow experimental validation of the theory.
Harmonic generation at high peak power
Summers, M.A.; Williams, J.D.; Johnson, B.C.; Eimerl, D.
1985-12-13
This report reviews progress made in recent years in frequency conversion of laser radiation. By using a material such as potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), intense, coherent light is made available at wavelengths unavailable from the source laser medium. Tests were performed on an array of KDP crystals at the Nova Facility. The tests revealed unexpected losses due to various non-linear effects. (JDH)
Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers.
Janisch, Corey; Wang, Yuanxi; Ma, Ding; Mehta, Nikhil; Elías, Ana Laura; Perea-López, Néstor; Terrones, Mauricio; Crespi, Vincent; Liu, Zhiwen
2014-07-02
We investigate Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) in monolayer WS₂ both deposited on a SiO₂/Si substrate or suspended using transmission electron microscopy grids. We find unusually large second order nonlinear susceptibility, with an estimated value of d(eff) ~ 4.5 nm/V nearly three orders of magnitude larger than other common nonlinear crystals. In order to quantitatively characterize the nonlinear susceptibility of two-dimensional (2D) materials, we have developed a formalism to model SHG based on the Green's function with a 2D nonlinear sheet source. In addition, polarized SHG is demonstrated as a useful method to probe the structural symmetry and crystal orientation of 2D materials. To understand the large second order nonlinear susceptibility of monolayer WS₂, density functional theory based calculation is performed. Our analysis suggests the origin of the large nonlinear susceptibility in resonance enhancement and a large joint density of states, and yields an estimate of the nonlinear susceptibility value d(eff) = 0.77 nm/V for monolayer WS₂, which shows good order-of-magnitude agreement with the experimental result.
Plasma structures for quasiphase matched high harmonic generation
Sheinfux, A. H.; Henis, Z.; Levin, M.; Zigler, A.
2011-04-04
A scheme for creation of periodic plasma structures by ablating a lithographic pattern is demonstrated. A proof of principle experiment was conducted, and plasma parameters were measured as a function of time with spatial resolution <10 and 100 {mu}m periodicity. Several possible applications, in particular, quasiphase matching for high harmonic generation in plasma are considered.
Imaging Collagen Orientation Using Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation
Stoller, P; Celliers, P M; Reiser, K M; Rubenchik, A M
2002-01-10
We use polarization-modulated second harmonic generation to image fiber orientation in collagen tissues, with an axial resolution of about 10 {micro}m and a transverse resolution of up to 1 {micro}m. A linearly polarized ultra-short pulse (200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser beam is modulated using an electro-optic modulator and quarter-wave plate combination and focused onto a translation stage mounted sample using a microscope objective. The generated second harmonic light is collected using a photomultiplier tube and demodulated using phase sensitive detection to obtain signal intensity and fiber orientation information. In order to obtain second harmonic generation images of different types of collagen organization, we analyze several different tissues, including rat-tail tendon, mouse aorta, mouse fibrotic liver, and porcine skin. We can use our technique to image fibrotic tissue in histological sections of damaged liver and to identify burned tissue in porcine skin to a depth of a few hundred microns. Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation potentially could be a useful clinical technique for diagnosing collagen related disease or damage, especially in the skin.
Imaging collagen orientation using polarization-modulated second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoller, Patrick C.; Celliers, Peter M.; Reiser, Karen M.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.
2002-06-01
We use polarization-modulated second harmonic generation to image fiber orientation in collagen tissues, with an axial resolution of about 10 micrometers and a transverse resolution of up to 1 micrometers . A linearly polarized ultra-short pulse (200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser beam is modulated using an electro-optic modulator and quarter-wave plate combination and focused onto a translation stage mounted sample using a microscope objective. The generated second harmonic light is collected using a photomultiplier tube and demodulated using phase sensitive detection to obtain signal intensity and fiber orientation information. In order to obtain second harmonic generation images of different types of collagen organization, we analyze several different tissues, including rat-tail tendon, mouse aorta, mouse fibrotic liver, and porcine skin. We can use our technique to image fibrotic tissue in histological sections of damaged liver and to identify burned tissue in porcine skin to a depth of a few hundred microns. Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation potentially could be a useful clinical technique for diagnosing collagen related disease or damage, especially in the skin.
Atomic photoionization experiment by harmonic-generation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, M. V.; Sarantseva, T. S.; Manakov, N. L.; Fulfer, K. D.; Wilson, B. P.; Troß, J.; Ren, X.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Silaev, A. A.; Vvedenskii, N. V.; Starace, Anthony F.; Trallero-Herrero, C. A.
2016-03-01
Measurements of the high-order-harmonic generation yield of the argon (Ar) atom driven by a strong elliptically polarized laser field are shown to completely determine the field-free differential photoionization cross section of Ar, i.e., the energy dependence of both the angle-integrated photoionization cross section and the angular distribution asymmetry parameter.
Modulation compression for short wavelength harmonic generation
Qiang, J.
2010-01-11
Laser modulator is used to seed free electron lasers. In this paper, we propose a scheme to compress the initial laser modulation in the longitudinal phase space by using two opposite sign bunch compressors and two opposite sign energy chirpers. This scheme could potentially reduce the initial modulation wavelength by a factor of C and increase the energy modulation amplitude by a factor of C, where C is the compression factor of the first bunch compressor. Such a compressed energy modulation can be directly used to generate short wavelength current modulation with a large bunching factor.
Effect of Structural Modification on Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen
Stoller, P C; Reiser, K M; Celliers, P M; Rubenchik, A M
2003-04-04
The effects of structural perturbation on second harmonic generation in collagen were investigated. Type I collagen fascicles obtained from rat tails were structurally modified by increasing nonenzymatic cross-linking, by thermal denaturation, by collagenase digestion, or by dehydration. Changes in polarization dependence were observed in the dehydrated samples. Surprisingly, no changes in polarization dependence were observed in highly crosslinked samples, despite significant alterations in packing structure. Complete thermal denaturation and collagenase digestion produced samples with no detectable second harmonic signal. Prior to loss of signal, no change in polarization dependence was observed in partially heated or digested collagen.
High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge
Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.
2010-06-01
A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.
Effect of structural modification on second harmonic generation in collagen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoller, Patrick C.; Reiser, Karen M.; Celliers, Peter M.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.
2003-07-01
The effects of structural perturbation on second harmonic generation in collagen were investigated. Type I collagen fascicles obtained from rat tails were structurally modified by increasing nonenzymatic cross-linking, by thermal denaturation, by collagenase digestion, or by dehydration. Changes in polarization dependence were observed in the dehydrated samples. Surprisingly, no changes in polarization dependence were observed in highly crosslinked samples, despite significant alterations in packing structure. Complete thermal denaturation and collagenase digestion produced samples with no detectable second harmonic signal. Prior to loss of signal, no change in polarization dependence was observed in partially heated or digested collagen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Ning; Mei, Ting; He, Miao; Li, Hao; Chen, Zhenshi
2017-01-01
A novel scheme for near-field optical lithography utilizing a metallic tip illuminated by femtosecond laser pulses with proper polarization has been presented. The strongly enhanced near field at the metallic tip offers a localized excitation source for the third harmonic generation in the nonlinear material. The generated third harmonic via excitation of nonlinear photoresist provides good exposure contrast due to the cubic intensity dependence. The spatial resolution of this novel lithography scheme is shown to be better than that of the conventional lithography technique.
High-order Harmonic Generation in Ultra Thin Plasma Foil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shuai, Bin; Shen, Baifei; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan
Via l-D Particle In Cell (PIC) simulations, we investigated the high-order harmonic emission from flim plasma foils irradiated by two circular- polarized, counter-propagating laser pulses with their electrical vectors rotating in different directions. More than 200 harmonics can be generated with a laser intensity of 1021 W/cm2. When the duration of laser gets shorter, the frequencies of harmonics were severely modulated due to the Doppler shift caused by the movement of the plasma boundary when the foil is being compressed. The Doppler shift can be estimated by the simulation results, and this effect can also be reduced or modified by introducing frequency chirping to the pump pulse.
Multilevel perspective on high-order harmonic generation in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Mengxi; Browne, Dana A.; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Gaarde, Mette B.
2016-12-01
We investigate high-order harmonic generation in a solid, modeled as a multilevel system dressed by a strong infrared laser field. We show that the cutoff energies and the relative strengths of the multiple plateaus that emerge in the harmonic spectrum can be understood both qualitatively and quantitatively by considering a combination of adiabatic and diabatic processes driven by the strong field. Such a model was recently used to interpret the multiple plateaus exhibited in harmonic spectra generated by solid argon and krypton [G. Ndabashimiye et al., Nature 534, 520 (2016), 10.1038/nature17660]. We also show that when the multilevel system originates from the Bloch state at the Γ point of the band structure, the laser-dressed states are equivalent to the Houston states [J. B. Krieger and G. J. Iafrate, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5494 (1986), 10.1103/PhysRevB.33.5494] and will therefore map out the band structure away from the Γ point as the laser field increases. This leads to a semiclassical three-step picture in momentum space that describes the high-order harmonic generation process in a solid.
Theory of Harmonic Generation on a Traveling Wave Tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, C. F.; Zhang, P.; Chernin, D.; Lau, Y. Y.; Simon, D. H.; Wong, P.; Greening, G.; Gilgenbach, R. M.
2015-11-01
In a klystron, charge overtaking of electrons leads to an infinity of AC current. The harmonic content therein has been calculated accurately, with or without space charge effects. This paper extends the klystron theory to a traveling wave tube (TWT). We calculate the harmonic content on the beam current on a TWT that results from an input signal of a single frequency. We assume that the electron motion is described by linear theory, which is generally accurate over 85 percent of the tube length. These linear orbits may lead to charge overtaking and therefore harmonic generation, as in a klystron. We calculate the buildup of harmonic content as a function of distance from the input, and compare these analytic results with the CHRISTINE code. Reasonable agreement was found. A dimensionless ``bunching parameter'' for TWT, X = sqrt[(Pi/Pb)/C], is identified, which characterizes the harmonic content in the AC current, where Pi is the input power of the signal, Pb is the DC beam power, and C is Pierce's gain parameter. Supported by AFOSR FA9550-14-1-0309, FA9550-15-1-0097, ONR N00014-13-1-0566, and L-3 Communications.
Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodle, M.; /SLAC
2012-02-15
Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron lasers hold great promise for the generation of fully coherent radiation in x-ray wavelengths. Here we report the first evidence of high harmonics from the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique in the realistic scenario where the laser energy modulation is comparable to the beam slice energy spread. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the seventh harmonic of the second seed laser is generated when the energy modulation amplitude is about 2-3 times the slice energy spread. The experiment confirms the underlying physics of echo-enabled harmonic generation and may have a strong impact on emerging seeded x-ray free electron lasers that are capable of generating laserlike x rays which will advance many areas of science.
Predicting bulk damage in NIF triple harmonic generators
De Yoreo, J; Runkel, M; Williams, W
1998-09-18
Recently reported experiments have investigated the statistics of laser damage in KDP and KD*P. Automated damage tests have allowed cumulative failure and damage probability distributions to be constructed. Large area tests have investigated the feasibility of on-line laser conditioning and damage evolution for tripler harmonic generation (THG) crystals on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These tests have shown that there is a nonzero probability of damage at NIF redline fluence (14.3 J/cm2, 351 nm, 3 ns) and that the damage pinpoint density evolves exponentially with fluence. In this paper, the results of these tests are used in conjunction with model spatial profiles of the NIP beam to predict the level of damage created in the THG crystal. A probabilistic calculation based on the overlap of the beam fluence and damage probabiity distribution shows that the overall damage probability is less than 3% for well-conditioned, high quality KDP/KD*P crystals of conventional or rapid growth. The number density of generated pinpoints has been calculated by mapping the damage evolution curves onto the NlF model profile. This shows that the number of damage pinpoints generated in high fluence portions of the NIF beam will be low for well-conditioned THG crystals. In contrast, unconditioned triplers of the same material will exhibit an increase in pinpoint density of greater than 20x. To test the validity of these calculations a 37 cm, conventionally grown KD*P tripler from the Beamlet laser was scatter mapped for bulk damage. The tripler had been exposed to NE-like fluences during its operational lifetime on Beamlet and exhibited very low levels of bulk pinpoint damage, essentially supporting the predictions based on tests and modeling.
78 FR 8431 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-02-06
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 172 RIN 2137-AE87 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR) Correction In rule document 2012-31243 appearing on pages...
Optical second-harmonic generation in lossy media: Application to GaSe and InSe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bringuier, E.; Bourdon, A.; Piccioli, N.; Chevy, A.
1994-06-01
The paper deals with optical second-harmonic generation in a medium absorbing the second-harmonic radiation, and where phase matching between the fundamental and second-harmonic radiation is not necessarily achieved. We first take the waves to be in the form of traveling waves, and describe the damping of the fundamental beam due to harmonic creation. It is found that both second-harmonic absorption and phase mismatch enhance the depletion length of the pump wave. Before depletion, the second-harmonic output power is independent of the traversed thickness if it exceeds the second-harmonic attenuation length. When depletion occurs, the second-harmonic output power is constant, instead of quadratic, in the input power. Next, second-harmonic generation in a plane-parallel plate of lossy material is envisaged in the case of normal incidence, including the multiple reflections expected in high-reflectance materials. The expressions of the harmonic output intensity, transmitted or reflected, of this paper and from the conventional treatment, are compared. The deviation is noticeable in the case of the transmitted harmonic power, and may be considerable in the case of the reflected power. Last, measurements of the second-harmonic output intensity in GaSe and InSe are reported at a fundamental wavelength of 1.06 μm. The sample dependence is in good agreement with our theory, which in turn is applied to derive new values of the nonlinear optical susceptibilities in the layered-structured III-VI materials. The treatment is fully analytical and may be applied to a wealth of materials.
Self-Excitation and Harmonics in Wind Power Generation
Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Romanowitz, H.; Yinger, R.
2005-11-01
Traditional wind turbines are commonly equipped with induction generators because they are inexpensive, rugged, and require very little maintenance. Unfortunately, induction generators require reactive power from the grid to operate; capacitor compensation is often used. Because the level of required reactive power varies with the output power, the capacitor compensation must be adjusted as the output power varies. The interactions among the wind turbine, the power network, and the capacitor compensation are important aspects of wind generation that may result in self-excitation and higher harmonic content in the output current. This paper examines the factors that control these phenomena and gives some guidelines on how they can be controlled or eliminated.
Characteristics of second harmonic generation of Lamb waves in nonlinear elastic plates.
Müller, Martin F; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J
2010-04-01
This paper investigates the characteristics of the second harmonic generation of Lamb waves in a plate with quadratic nonlinearity. Analytical asymptotic solutions to Lamb waves are first obtained through the use of a perturbation method. Then, based on a careful analysis of these asymptotic solutions, it is shown that the cross-modal generation of a symmetric second harmonic mode by an antisymmetric primary mode is possible. These solutions also demonstrate that modes showing internal resonance-nonzero power flux to the second harmonic mode, plus phase velocity matching-are most useful for measurements. In addition, when using finite wave packets, which is the case in most experimental measurements, group velocity matching is required for a cumulative increase in the second harmonic amplitude with propagation distance. Finally, five mode types (which are independent of material properties) that satisfy all three requirements for this cumulative increase in second harmonic amplitude-nonzero power flux, plus phase and group velocity matching-are identified. These results are important for the development of an experimental procedure to measure material nonlinearity with Lamb waves.
Continuous third harmonic generation in a terahertz driven modulated nanowire
Hamilton, Kathleen E. De, Amrit; Pryadko, Leonid P.; Kovalev, Alexey A.
2015-06-07
We consider the possibility of observing continuous third-harmonic generation using a strongly driven, single-band one-dimensional metal. In the absence of scattering, the quantum efficiency of frequency tripling for such a system can be as high as 93%. Combining the Floquet quasi-energy spectrum with the Keldysh Green's function technique, we derive a semiclassical master equation for a one-dimensional band of strongly and rapidly driven electrons in the presence of weak scattering by phonons. The power absorbed from the driving field is continuously dissipated by phonon modes, leading to a quasi-equilibrium in the electron distribution. We use the Kronig-Penney model with varying effective mass to establish the growth parameters of an InAs/InP nanowire near optimal for third harmonic generation at terahertz frequency range.
Second harmonic generation and enhancement in microfibers and loop resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gouveia, Marcelo A.; Lee, Timothy; Ismaeel, Rand; Ding, Ming; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.; Brambilla, Gilberto
2013-05-01
We model and experimentally investigate second harmonic generation in silica microfibers and loop resonators, in which the second order nonlinearity arises from the glass-air surface dipole and bulk multipole contributions. In the loop resonator, the recirculation of the pump light on resonance is used to increase the conversion. The effect of the loop parameters, such as coupling and loss, is theoretically studied to determine their influence on the resonance enhancement. Experimentally, microfibers were fabricated with diameters around 0.7 μm to generate the intermodally phase matched second harmonic with an efficiency up to 4.2 × 10-8 when pumped with 5 ns 1.55 μm pulses with a peak power of 90 W. After reconfiguring the microfiber into a 1 mm diameter loop, the efficiency was resonantly enhanced by 5.7 times.
High gain amplifiers: Power oscillations and harmonic generation
Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P. L.; Pagnutti, S.
2007-08-01
We discuss the power oscillations in saturated high gain free electron laser amplifiers and show that the relevant period can be written in terms of the gain length. We use simple arguments following from the solution of the pendulum equation in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Nontrivial effects due to nonlinear harmonic generation and inhomogeneous broadening are discussed too, as well as the saturated dynamics of short pulses.
An Atomic Photoionization Experiment by Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trallero, Carlos; Frolov, Mikhail; Sarantseva, Tatiana S.; Manakov, Nikolay; Fulfer, Kristen D.; Wilson, Benjamin; Troß, Jan; Ren, Xiaoming; Poliakoff, Erwin; Silaev, Alexander A.; Vvedenskii, Nikolay; Starace, Anthony
2016-05-01
Measurements of the high-order harmonic generation yield of the argon (Ar) atom driven by a strong elliptically polarized laser field are shown to completely determine the field-free differential photoionization cross section of Ar, i.e., the energy dependence of both the angle-integrated photoionization cross section and the angular distribution asymmetry parameter. NSF EPSCoR Track II Nebraska-Kansas Awards No. 1430519 and No. 1430493.
Second and Third Harmonic Generation in Metal-Based Nanostructures
2010-01-01
electrons. It has been shown that contributions to second harmonic ( SH ) generation from bound charges can be significant [10]. Free and bound...complex dielectric function defined at the fundamental and the SH frequencies [7, 11]. Bound electrons contribute to the linear dielectric constant of...fundamental (800nm) and SH (400nm) fields was modeled using free electrons only. That kind of approach forces the use of two distinct, free-electron plasma
Deng, Mingxi; Xiang, Yanxun
2015-08-01
The effect of second-harmonic generation (SHG) by primary ultrasonic guided wave propagation is analyzed, where the nonlinear elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of the piezoelectric plate material are considered simultaneously. The formal solution of the corresponding second-harmonic displacement field is presented. Theoretical and numerical investigations clearly show that the SHG effect of primary guided wave propagation is highly sensitive to the electrical boundary conditions of the piezoelectric plate. The results obtained may provide a means through which the SHG efficiency of ultrasonic guided wave propagation can effectively be regulated by changing the electrical boundary conditions of the piezoelectric plate.
Enhancement of harmonics generation in hysteretic elastic media induced by conditioning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mechri, C.; Scalerandi, M.; Bentahar, M.
2017-04-01
The physical origin of harmonics generation in non classical (hysteretic) elastic media and the mechanisms of energy transfer among harmonics are still not completely understood. Furthermore the well known conditioning effect observed in such materials is known to have a significant influence on the elastic response of consolidated granular media and damaged composites and metals. Here, we show that the elastic non linearity of samples belonging to these two categories increases after having been excited with a relatively low amplitude stress. The observed behaviours could be described by activation features intrinsically present in phenomenological multistate models proposed in the literature.
Intense and tunable second-harmonic generation in biased bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brun, Søren J.; Pedersen, Thomas G.
2015-05-01
The centrosymmetric two-dimensional material bilayer graphene (BLG) does not show dipole-allowed second-harmonic generation (SHG) in its pristine form. However, the symmetry can be broken by applying an electric field perpendicular to the layer. Here, we present a theoretical study of SHG from biased BLG. We show that the sheet second-harmonic susceptibility reaches very large values of several hundred nm2/V in the midinfrared region. The SHG is tunable depending on the strength of the electric field. Furthermore, a strong, tunable double resonance appears in the spectrum. We believe that this study could spark interest in the nonlinear optical properties of biased BLG.
Characteristics of pulse width for an enhanced second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yun; Hyodo, Masaharu; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Guiling; Chen, Chuangtian; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Masayoshi
2017-03-01
Temporal characteristics of a cavity enhancement second harmonic (SH) generation for picosecond laser pulse are investigated. We experimentally measured pulse width changes that were indued by group velocity mismatching (GVM), SH process, and enhancement cavity. It indicates that the generated pulse width is a combined effect of the GVM and SH process. Meanwhile, the effect of the enhancement cavity can be avoided by controlling its free spectrum range. A interferometric autocorrelator with a KBBF-PCD as nonlinear crystal is also composed and this extends the measurement light wavelength below 410 nm.
High harmonic generation from impulsively aligned SO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devin, Julien; Wang, Song; Kaldun, Andreas; Bucksbaum, Phil
2016-05-01
Previous work in high harmonics generation (HHG) in aligned molecular gases has mainly focused on rotational dynamics in order to determine the contributions of different orbitals to the ionization step. In our experiment, we focus on the shorter timescale of vibrational dynamics. We generate high harmonics from impulsively aligned SO2 molecules in a gas jet and record the emitted attosecond pulse trains in a home-built high resolution vacuum ultra violet (VUV) spectrometer. Using the high temporal resolution of our setup, we are able to map out the effects of vibrational wavepackets with a sub-femtosecond resolution. The target molecule, SO2 gas, is impulsively aligned by a near-infrared laser pulse and has accessible vibrations on the timescale of the short laser pulse used. We present first experimental results for the response to this excitation in high-harmonics. We observe both fast oscillations in the time domain as well as shifts of the VUV photon energy outside of the pulse overlaps. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division and by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.
Quantitative second-harmonic generation microscopy in collagen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoller, Patrick; Celliers, Peter M.; Reiser, Karen M.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.
2003-09-01
The second-harmonic signal in collagen, even in highly organized samples such as rat tail tendon fascicles, varies significantly with position. Previous studies suggest that this variability may be due to the parallel and antiparallel orientation of neighboring collagen fibrils. We applied high-resolution second-harmonic generation microscopy to confirm this hypothesis. Studies in which the focal spot diameter was varied from ~1 to ~6 μm strongly suggest that regions in which collagen fibrils have the same orientation in rat tail tendon are likely to be less than ~1 μm in diameter. These measurements required accurate determination of the focal spot size achieved by use of different microscope objectives; we developed a technique that uses second-harmonic generation in a quartz reference to measure the focal spot diameter directly. We also used the quartz reference to determine a lower limit (dXXX > 0.4 pm/V) for the magnitude of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility in collagen.
Higher harmonics generation in relativistic electron beam with virtual cathode
Kurkin, S. A. Badarin, A. A.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Hramov, A. E.
2014-09-15
The study of the microwave generation regimes with intense higher harmonics taking place in a high-power vircator consisting of a relativistic electron beam with a virtual cathode has been made. The characteristics of these regimes, in particular, the typical spectra and their variations with the change of the system parameters (beam current, the induction of external magnetic field) as well as physical processes occurring in the system have been analyzed by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation. It has been shown that the system under study demonstrates the tendency to the sufficient growth of the amplitudes of higher harmonics in the spectrum of current oscillations in the VC region with the increase of beam current. The obtained results allow us to consider virtual cathode oscillators as promising high power mmw-to-THz sources.
Generating function formula of heat transfer in harmonic networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Keiji; Dhar, Abhishek
2011-04-01
We consider heat transfer across an arbitrary classical harmonic network connected to two heat baths at different temperatures. The network has N positional degrees of freedom, of which NL are connected to a bath at temperature TL and NR are connected to a bath at temperature TR. We derive an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two baths. The formula is valid even for NL≠NR and satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry. Since harmonic crystals in three dimensions are known to exhibit different regimes of transport such as ballistic, anomalous, and diffusive, our result implies validity of the fluctuation theorem in all regimes. Our exact formula provides a powerful tool to study other properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations.
Generating function formula of heat transfer in harmonic networks.
Saito, Keiji; Dhar, Abhishek
2011-04-01
We consider heat transfer across an arbitrary classical harmonic network connected to two heat baths at different temperatures. The network has N positional degrees of freedom, of which N(L) are connected to a bath at temperature T(L) and N(R) are connected to a bath at temperature T(R). We derive an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two baths. The formula is valid even for N(L)≠N(R) and satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry. Since harmonic crystals in three dimensions are known to exhibit different regimes of transport such as ballistic, anomalous, and diffusive, our result implies validity of the fluctuation theorem in all regimes. Our exact formula provides a powerful tool to study other properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations.
Emission times in high-order harmonic generation
Chirila, C. C.; Dreissigacker, I.; Lein, M.; Zwan, E. V. van der
2010-03-15
We calculate the emission times of the radiation in high-order harmonic generation using the Gabor transform of numerical data obtained from solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in one, two, and three dimensions. Both atomic and molecular systems, including nuclear motion, are investigated. Lewenstein model calculations are used to gauge the performance of the Gabor method. The resulting emission times are compared against the classical simple man's model as well as against the more accurate quantum orbit model based on complex trajectories. The influence of the range of the binding potential (long or short) on the level of agreement is assessed. Our analysis reveals that the short-trajectory harmonics are emitted slightly earlier than predicted by the quantum orbit model. This partially explains recent experimental observations for atoms and molecules. Furthermore, we observe a distinct signature of two-center interference in the emission times for H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}.
Quasi-phase-matched high-order harmonic generation using tunable pulse trains.
O'Keeffe, Kevin; Lloyd, David T; Hooker, Simon M
2014-04-07
A simple technique for generating trains of ultrafast pulses is demonstrated in which the linear separation between pulses can be varied continuously over a wide range. These pulse trains are used to achieve tunable quasi-phase-matching of high harmonic generation over a range of harmonic orders up to the harmonic cut-off, resulting in enhancements of the harmonic intensity in excess of an order of magnitude. The peak enhancement of the harmonics is clearly shown to depend on the separation between pulses, as well as the number of pulses in the train, representing an easily tunable source of quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation.
Anderson, M.T.; Phillips, M.L.F.; Stucky, G.D.
1993-12-31
We report the synthesis and optical properties of Rb[Ti{sub 1-2x}Ln{sub x}Nb{sub x}]OAsO{sub 4}. The solid solubility of lanthanide ions in the materials decreases exponentially as the size of the lanthanide ion increases. The materials exhibit absorption spectra characteristic of the particular lanthanide ion in the structure. The spectral regions between absorption peaks are transparent and will allow the transmission of fundamental and second-harmonic radiation. The charge transfer band is red-shifted 0 to 27 nm relative to RbTiOAsO{sub 4} (midpoint 331 nm). Second-harmonic intensities measured at 532 nm decrease exponentially as lanthanide ion concentration increases.
Vacuum high-harmonic generation and electromagnetic shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böhl, P.; King, B.; Ruhl, H.
2016-04-01
> When one takes into account the presence of virtual charged states in the quantum vacuum, a nonlinear self-interaction can arise in the propagation of electromagnetic fields. This self-interaction is often referred to as `real photon-photon scattering'. When the centre-of-mass energy of colliding photons is much lower than the rest energy of an electron-positron pair, this quantum effect can be included in the classical field equations of motion as a vacuum current and charge density using the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian. Using analytical and numerical methods for subcritical fields, the intrinsic solution to Maxwell's equations has been found for counterpropagating probe and pump plane waves in the presence of vacuum four- and six-wave mixing. In the corresponding all-order solution for the scattered probe, a route to vacuum high-harmonic generation is identified in which a long phase length can compensate for the weakness of interacting fields. The resulting shocks in the probe carrier wave and envelope are studied for different parameter regimes and polarisation set-ups. In this special issue, we study two additional set-ups: that of a slowly varying single-cycle background to highlight the effect of an oscillating background on the probe harmonic spectrum, and that of a few-cycle probe to highlight the smoothing of the harmonic peaks produced by a wider spectrum of probe photons. We also correct sign errors in an earlier publication.
Harmonic development of tide-generating potential of terrestrial planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudryavtsev, Sergey M.
2008-08-01
The aim of this study is to obtain high-accurate harmonic developments of the tide-generating potential (TGP) of Mercury, Venus and Mars. The planets’ TGP values have been first calculated on the base of DE/LE-406 numerical planetary/lunar ephemerides over a long period of time and then processed by a new spectral analysis method. According to this method the development is directly made to Poisson series where both amplitudes and arguments of the series’ terms are high-degree polynomials of time. A new harmonic development of Mars TGP is made over the time period 1900 AD 2100 AD and includes 767 second-order Poisson series’ terms of minimum amplitude equal to 10-7 m2 s-2. Analogous series composing both Mercury and Venus TGP harmonic models are built over the time period 1000 AD 3000 AD and include 1,061 and 693 terms, respectively. A modification of the standard HW95 format for representation of the terrestrial planets’ TGP is proposed. The number of terms in the planets’ TGP models transformed to the modified HW95 format is 650 for Mercury, 422 for Venus, and 480 for Mars. The quality of the new developments of the terrestrial planets’ TGP is better than that of the similar developments obtained earlier.
Third-harmonic generation from a simple air-dielectric interface
Tsang, T.
1995-12-31
Although THG is dipole-allowed in the bulk of all dielectric media, at the interface between two different nonabsorbing media the THG is significantly enhanced. This phenomenon led us to introduce a necessary third-order surface nonlinear susceptibility {chi}{sub surface}{sup (3)} and raise concerns over many previously done experiments on bulk THG in transparent materials. Optical third-harmonic generation (THG) is dipole-allowed and is a universal property occurred in all centrosymmetry and noncentrosymmetry materials. But at the interface of two different media, THG becomes highly operative yielding significant THG photons when a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser oscillator is used. Although the THG photon conversion efficiency is lower than that of a typical phase-matched harmonic crystal, it is important to note that surface-enhanced optical THG is rather fundamental occurring at interface of all media free from the constraint of a phase-matching condition and wavelength restriction. Optical THG at an interface to a wavelength that is not achievable by any harmonic crystal is thus possible. These results may lead to a new development using surface THG on surface-enhanced studies and prompt one to re-examine the processes of high-harmonic generation at interfaces.
High Harmonic Generation from Multiple Orbitals in N2
McFarland, B.; Farrell, Joseph P.; Bucksbaum, Philip H.; Guehr, Markus; /SLAC, Pulse /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2009-03-05
Molecular electronic states energetically below the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) should contribute to laser-driven high harmonic generation (HHG), but this behavior has not been observed previously. Our measurements of the HHG spectrum of N{sub 2} molecules aligned perpendicular to the laser polarization showed a maximum at the rotational half-revival. This feature indicates the influence of electrons occupying the orbital just below the N{sub 2} HOMO, referred to as the HOMO-1. Such observations of lower-lying orbitals are essential to understanding subfemtosecond/subangstrom electronic motion in laser-excited molecules.
Third-harmonic generation imaging of breast tissue biopsies.
Lee, Woowon; Kabir, Mohammad M; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Toussaint, Kimani C
2016-11-01
We demonstrate for the first time the imaging of unstained breast tissue biopsies using third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy. As a label-free imaging technique, THG microscopy is compared to phase contrast and polarized light microscopy which are standard imaging methods for breast tissues. A simple feature detection algorithm is applied to detect tumour-associated lymphocyte rich regions in unstained breast biopsy tissue and compared with corresponding regions identified by a pathologist from bright-field images of hematoxylin and eosin stained breast tissue. Our results suggest that THG imaging holds potential as a complementary technique for analysing breast tissue biopsies.
STARS A Two Stage High Gain Harmonic Generation FEL Demonstrator
M. Abo-Bakr; W. Anders; J. Bahrdt; P. Budz; K.B. Buerkmann-Gehrlein; O. Dressler; H.A. Duerr; V. Duerr; W. Eberhardt; S. Eisebitt; J. Feikes; R. Follath; A. Gaupp; R. Goergen; K. Goldammer; S.C. Hessler; K. Holldack; E. Jaeschke; Thorsten Kamps; S. Klauke; J. Knobloch; O. Kugeler; B.C. Kuske; P. Kuske; A. Meseck; R. Mitzner; R. Mueller; M. Neeb; A. Neumann; K. Ott; D. Pfluckhahn; T. Quast; M. Scheer; Th. Schroeter; M. Schuster; F. Senf; G. Wuestefeld; D. Kramer; Frank Marhauser
2007-08-01
BESSY is proposing a demonstration facility, called STARS, for a two-stage high-gain harmonic generation free electron laser (HGHG FEL). STARS is planned for lasing in the wavelength range 40 to 70 nm, requiring a beam energy of 325 MeV. The facility consists of a normal conducting gun, three superconducting TESLA-type acceleration modules modified for CW operation, a single stage bunch compressor and finally a two-stage HGHG cascaded FEL. This paper describes the faciliy layout and the rationale behind the operation parameters.
Stokes vector formalism based second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Jianjun; Mazumder, Nirmal; Tsai, Han-Ruei; Hu, Chih-Wei; Kao, Fu-Jen
2012-02-01
In this study, we have developed a four-channel Stokes vector formalism based second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to map and analyze SHG signal. A four-channel Stokesmeter setup is calibrated and integrated into a laser scanning microscope to measure and characterize the SH's corresponding Stokes parameters. We are demonstrating the use of SH and its Stokes parameters to visualize the birefringence and crystalline orientation of KDP and collagen. We believe the developed method can reveal unprecedented information for biomedical and biomaterial studies.
Reconstruction of complementary images in second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Liang; Jin, Lei; Xue, Ping; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yi; Ma, Hui; Chen, Dieyan
2006-05-01
Second harmonic generation microscopy(SHGM) has become widely used to image biological samples. Due to the complexity of biological samples, more and more effort has been put on polarization imaging in SHGM technology to uncover their structures. In this work, we put forward a novel stitching method based on careful mathematical calculation, and accomplish it by rotating laser polarization. We first show its validity in imaging a perfectly synthesized bio-origin polymer poly (3-hyroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx). Then, we test its power by getting a true image of fibrillar collagen structure of rat-tail tendon.
Second-harmonic generation in a polymer Langmuir - Blodgett film
Ivanova, V N; Kudryavtsev, V V; Lebedeva, G K; Maslyanitsyn, I A; Shigorin, V D; Chudinova, G K
1998-09-30
Second-harmonic generation was used to investigate nonlinear optical properties and the structure of multilayer Langmuir - Blodgett films of a copolymer of fluoroalkylmethacrylate with methacrylates containing an azo dye and a cinnamoyl group inside a chain. Quantum-chemical calculations were made of the components of the molecular hyperpolarisability tensor in which the intermolecular interactions were taken into account. The orientation of nonlinear optical fragments of a polymer chain relative to the substrate and components of the quadratic optical susceptibility tensor of the film were determined. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
High-order harmonic generation from plasma plume pumped by 400 nm wavelength laser
Ganeev, Rashid A.; Elouga Bom, Luc B.; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki
2007-09-24
The authors present their study on high-order harmonic generation pumped by 400 nm wavelength laser from plasma plumes produced on the surfaces of various solid-state targets. The maximum harmonic cutoff was observed for Be plasma (31st harmonic, {lambda}=12.9 nm). They compared these results with harmonic generation pumped by 800 nm wavelength laser. The authors demonstrated single harmonic enhancement for Cr, Sn, Sb, and Mn plasmas. They also studied the use of varying the chirp of the pump laser to control the enhancement of single harmonics within the plateau.
Ozawa, Akira; Zhao, Zhigang; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Kobayashi, Yohei
2015-06-15
Intracavity high harmonic generation was utilized to generate high average-power coherent radiation at vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) wavelengths. A ytterbium-doped fiber-laser based master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) system with a 10 MHz repetition frequency was developed and used as a driving laser for an external cavity. A series of odd-order harmonic radiations was generated extending down to ∼ 30 nm (41 eV in photon energy). The 7th harmonic radiation generated was centered at 149 nm and had an average output power of up to 0.5 mW. In this way, we developed a sub-mW coherent vuv-laser with a 10 MHz repetition frequency, which, if used as an excitation laser source for photo-electron spectroscopy, could improve the signal count-rate without deterioration of the spectral-resolution caused by space-charge effects.
Singly resonant second-harmonic-generation frequency combs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansson, T.; Leo, F.; Erkintalo, M.; Coen, S.; Ricciardi, I.; De Rosa, M.; Wabnitz, S.
2017-01-01
We consider frequency comb generation in dispersive singly resonant second-harmonic-generation cavity systems. Using a single temporal mean-field equation for the fundamental field that features a noninstantaneous nonlinear response function, we model the temporal and spectral dynamics and analyze comb generation, continuous wave bistability, and modulational instability. It is found that, owing to the significant temporal walk-off between the fundamental and second-harmonic fields, modulational instability can occur even in the complete absence of group-velocity dispersion. We further consider the relation of our model to a previously proposed modal expansion approach, and present a derivation of a general system of coupled mode equations. We show that the two models provide very similar predictions and become exactly equivalent in the limit that absorption losses and group-velocity dispersion at the fundamental frequency are neglected. Finally, we perform numerical simulations that show examples of the variety of comb states that are possible in phase-matched quadratic resonators, and discuss the dynamics of the comb formation process.
Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander
2016-08-17
Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with a controllable polarization state are powerful tools for investigating the structural and electronic as well as the magnetic properties of materials. However, such light sources are still limited to only a few free-electron laser facilities and, very recently, to high-order harmonic generation from noble gases. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a laser-plasma scheme to generate bright XUV pulses with fully controlled polarization. In this scheme, an elliptically polarized laser pulse is obliquely incident on a plasma surface, and the reflected radiation contains pulse trains and isolated circularly or highly elliptically polarized attosecond XUV pulses. The harmonic polarization state is fully controlled by the laser-plasma parameters. The mechanism can be explained within the relativistically oscillating mirror model. This scheme opens a practical and promising route to generate bright attosecond XUV pulses with desirable ellipticities in a straightforward and efficient way for a number of applications.
Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander
2016-01-01
Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with a controllable polarization state are powerful tools for investigating the structural and electronic as well as the magnetic properties of materials. However, such light sources are still limited to only a few free-electron laser facilities and, very recently, to high-order harmonic generation from noble gases. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a laser–plasma scheme to generate bright XUV pulses with fully controlled polarization. In this scheme, an elliptically polarized laser pulse is obliquely incident on a plasma surface, and the reflected radiation contains pulse trains and isolated circularly or highly elliptically polarized attosecond XUV pulses. The harmonic polarization state is fully controlled by the laser–plasma parameters. The mechanism can be explained within the relativistically oscillating mirror model. This scheme opens a practical and promising route to generate bright attosecond XUV pulses with desirable ellipticities in a straightforward and efficient way for a number of applications. PMID:27531047
Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics.
Brimhall, Nicole; Turner, Matthew; Herrick, Nicholas; Allred, David D; Turley, R Steven; Ware, Michael; Peatross, Justin
2008-10-01
We describe an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) polarimeter that employs laser-generated high-order harmonics as the light source. The polarimeter is designed to characterize materials and thin films for use with EUV light. Laser high harmonics are highly directional with easily rotatable linear polarization, not typically available with other EUV sources. The harmonics have good wavelength coverage, potentially spanning the entire EUV from a few to a hundred nanometers. Our instrument is configured to measure reflectances from 14 to 30 nm and has approximately 180 spectral resolution (lambda/Delta lambda). The reflection from a sample surface can be measured over a continuous range of incident angles (5 degrees-75 degrees). A secondary 14 cm gas cell attenuates the harmonics in a controlled way to keep signals within the linear dynamic range of the detector, comprised of a microchannel plate coupled to a phosphorous screen and charge coupled device camera. The harmonics are produced using approximately 10 mJ, approximately 35 fs, and approximately 800 nm laser pulses with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Per-shot energy monitoring of the laser discriminates against fluctuations. The polarimeter reflectance data agree well with data obtained at the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron (Beamline 6.3.2).
Pencil lead plasma for generating multimicrojoule high-order harmonics with a broad spectrum
Pertot, Y.; Elouga Bom, L. B.; Ozaki, T.; Bhardwaj, V. R.
2011-03-07
Using the plasma harmonic method, we show the generation of efficient and intense high-order harmonics from plasma of pencil lead. We demonstrate multimicrojoule energy in each harmonic order for the 11th to the 17th order of a Ti:sapphire laser. By analyzing the target morphology and the plasma composition, we conclude that these intense harmonics are generated from nanoparticles of graphitic carbon.
Designs and numerical calculations for echo-enabled harmonic generation at very high harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penn, G.; Reinsch, M.
2011-09-01
The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme for driving an FEL using two seeded energy modulations at much longer wavelengths than the output wavelength is a promising concept for future seeded FELs. There are many competing requirements in the design of an EEHG beamline which need careful optimization. Furthermore, revised simulation tools and methods are necessary because of both the high harmonic numbers simulated and the complicated nature of the phase space manipulations which are intrinsic to the scheme. This paper explores the constraints on performance and the required tolerances for reaching wavelengths well below 1/100th of that of the seed lasers, and describes some of the methodology for designing such a beamline. Numerical tools, developed both for the GENESIS and GINGER FEL codes, are presented and used here for more accurate study of the scheme beyond a time-averaged model. In particular, the impact of the local structure in peak current and bunching, which is an inherent part of the EEHG scheme, is evaluated.
Singularity-driven second- and third-harmonic generation at {epsilon}-near-zero crossing points
Vincenti, M. A.; Ceglia, D. de; Ciattoni, A.; Scalora, M.
2011-12-15
We show an alternative path to efficient second- and third-harmonic generation in proximity of the zero crossing points of the dielectric permittivity in conjunction with low absorption. Under these circumstances, any material, either natural or artificial, will show similar degrees of field enhancement followed by strong harmonic generation, without resorting to any resonant mechanism. The results presented in this paper provide a general demonstration of the potential that the zero-crossing-point condition holds for nonlinear optical phenomena. We investigate a generic Lorentz medium and demonstrate that a singularity-driven enhancement of the electric field may be achieved even in extremely thin layers of material. We also discuss the role of nonlinear surface sources in a realistic scenario where a 20-nm layer of CaF{sub 2} is excited at 21 {mu}m, where {epsilon}{approx} 0. Finally, we show similar behavior in an artificial composite material that includes absorbing dyes in the visible range, provide a general tool for the improvement of harmonic generation using the {epsilon}{approx} 0 condition, and illustrate that this singularity-driven enhancement of the field lowers the thresholds for a plethora of nonlinear optical phenomena.
Jašinskas, Vidmantas; Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Račiukaitis, Gediminas; Gulbinas, Vidmantas
2016-06-15
The electric field-induced second harmonic (EFISH) generation is a powerful tool for the investigation of optical nonlinearities, material polarization, internal electric fields, and other properties of photonic materials and devices. A conventional generation of the second harmonics (SH) in materials with the disturbed centrosymmetry causes a field-independent background to EFISH and limits its applications. Here we suggest and analyze the application of the interdigitated combs of electrodes for EFISH generation in thin films. Interdigitated electrodes form an optical transmission amplitude diffraction grating. Phase matching of the EFISH radiation creates unusual diffraction fringes with the zero intensity along the zeroth order direction and with the diffraction angles different from diffraction angles of incident fundamental laser radiation and its second harmonics. It enables a simple geometrical separation of the EFISH signal from a conventional SH background, simplifies the sample preparation, and provides additional experimental possibilities. We demonstrate applicability of the suggested technique for characterization of submicrometer thickness organic films of transparent and resonantly interacting polymers and of their mixtures.
Analysis of Even Harmonics Generation in an Isolated Electric Power System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanao, Norikazu; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya
Harmonics bred from loads are mainly odd order because the current waveform has half-wave symmetry. Since the even harmonics are negligibly small, those are not generally measured in electric power systems. However, even harmonics were measured at a 500/275/154kV substation in Hokuriku Electric Power Company after removal of a transmission line fault. The even harmonics caused malfunctions of protective digital relays because the relays used 4th harmonics at the input filter as automatic supervisory signal. This paper describes the mechanism of generation of the even harmonics by comparing measured waveforms with ATP-EMTP simulation results. As a result of analysis, it is cleared that even harmonics are generated by three causes. The first cause is a magnetizing current of transformers due to flux deviation by DC component of a fault current. The second one is due to harmonic conversion of a synchronous machine which generates even harmonics when direct current component or even harmonic current flow into the machine. The third one is that increase of harmonic impedance due to an isolated power system produces harmonic voltages. The design of the input filter of protective digital relays should consider even harmonics generation in an isolated power system.
Third harmonic generation microscopy of cells and tissue organization.
Weigelin, Bettina; Bakker, Gert-Jan; Friedl, Peter
2016-01-15
The interaction of cells within their microenvironmental niche is fundamental to cell migration, positioning, growth and differentiation in order to form and maintain complex tissue organization and function. Third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy is a label-free scatter process that is elicited by water-lipid and water-protein interfaces, including intra- and extracellular membranes, and extracellular matrix structures. In applied life sciences, THG delivers a versatile contrast modality to complement multi-parameter fluorescence, second harmonic generation and fluorescence lifetime microscopy, which allows detection of cellular and molecular cell functions in three-dimensional tissue culture and small animals. In this Commentary, we review the physical and technical basis of THG, and provide considerations for optimal excitation, detection and interpretation of THG signals. We further provide an overview on how THG has versatile applications in cell and tissue research, with a particular focus on analyzing tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis, immune cell function and cancer research, as well as the emerging applicability of THG in clinical practice.
Second-harmonic generation investigation of collagen thermal denaturation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wei-Liang; Sun, Yen; Lin, Sung-Jan; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Chen, Yang-Fang; Lin, Ling-Chih; So, Peter T. C.; Dong, Chen-Yuan
2007-02-01
Using the technique of second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy we obtained large area image of type I collagen from rat tail tendon as it is heated from 40°C to 70°C for 0 to 180 minutes. The high resolution images allowed us to investigate the collagen structural change. We observed that heating the tendon below the temperature of 54°C does not produce any change in the averaged SHG intensity. At the heating temperature of 54°C and above, we find that increasing the heating temperature and time leads to decreasing SHG intensity. As the tendon is heated above 54°C, a decrease in the SHG signal occurs uniformly throughout the tendon, but the regions where the SHG signal vanishes form a tiger-tail like pattern. By comparing the relative SHG intensities in small and large areas, we found that the denaturation process responsible for forming the tiger-tail like pattern occurs at a higher rate than the global denaturation process occurring throughout the tendon. Our results show that second-harmonic generation microscopy is effective in monitoring the thermal damage to collagen and has potential applications in biomedicine.
Electron acceleration and high harmonic generation by relativistic surface plasmons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cantono, Giada; Luca Fedeli Team; Andrea Sgattoni Team; Andrea Macchi Team; Tiberio Ceccotti Team
2016-10-01
Intense, short laser pulses with ultra-high contrast allow resonant surface plasmons (SPs) excitation on solid wavelength-scale grating targets, opening the way to the extension of Plasmonics in the relativistic regime and the manipulation of intense electromagnetic fields to develop new short, energetic, laser-synchronized radiation sources. Recent theoretical and experimental studies have explored the role of SP excitation in increasing the laser-target coupling and enhancing ion acceleration, high-order harmonic generation and surface electron acceleration. Here we present our results on SP driven electron acceleration from grating targets at ultra-high laser intensities (I = 5 ×1019 W/cm2, τ = 25 fs). When the resonant condition for SP excitation is fulfilled, electrons are emitted in a narrow cone along the target surface, with a total charge of about 100 pC and energy spectra peaked around 5 MeV. Distinguishing features of the resonant process were investigated by varying the incidence angle, grating type and with the support of 3D PIC simulations, which closely reproduced the experimental data. Open challenges and further measurements on high-order harmonic generation in presence of a relativistic SP will also be discussed.
Spectral and spatial characteristics of third-harmonic generation in conical light beams
Peet, V.E.; Shchemeljov, S.V.
2003-01-01
Generation of resonance-enhanced third harmonic in Bessel and other conical beams is analyzed from a simple picture, where the fundamental light field is decomposed into elementary configurations of crossed plain-wave sub-beams. We show that the overall harmonic output can be derived as a superposition of all partial harmonic components driven by elementary configurations of the fundamental field. Good agreement with experimental observations has been obtained in simulation of spectral and spatial characteristics of the generated third harmonic. Some peculiarities of harmonic generation in conical light fields are discussed.
Beam Conditioning and Harmonic Generation in Free ElectronLasers
Charman, A.E.; Penn, G.; Wolski, A.; Wurtele, J.S.
2004-07-05
The next generation of large-scale free-electron lasers (FELs) such as Euro-XFEL and LCLS are to be devices which produce coherent X-rays using Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). The performance of these devices is limited by the spread in longitudinal velocities of the beam. In the case where this spread arises primarily from large transverse oscillation amplitudes, beam conditioning can significantly enhance FEL performance. Future X-ray sources may also exploit harmonic generation starting from laser-seeded modulation. Preliminary analysis of such devices is discussed, based on a novel trial-function/variational-principle approach, which shows good agreement with more lengthy numerical simulations.
Controlling third harmonic generation with gammadion-shaped chiral metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chi; Li, Zhi-Qin; Yang, Xin; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhenlin
2016-12-01
We theoretically investigated third harmonic generation (THG) from planar chiral metamaterials consisting of a square array of gammadion-shaped metal-insulator-metal multilayered nanostructures. We show that there exists strong circular dichroism (CD) for THG on the proposed chiral metamaterials. We also demonstrate that geometrically mirroring the gammadion -shaped meta-atoms can result in reversal of the THG-CD effect. Based on these CD effects in the optical nonlinear regime, we propose a design of a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) for intense focusing of the THG signals, in which adjacent zones of the FZP consist of gammadions with mirror symmetry and generate circularly polarized THG with opposite handedness. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the relative phase of the THG can be continuously changed by rotating the gammadion around its rotational axis, which could be used in the FZP to control the polarization of the output THG signals.
Automated cardiac sarcomere analysis from second harmonic generation images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Gonzalez-Tendero, Anna; Iruretagoyena, Igor; Crispi, Fatima; Torre, Iratxe; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Bijnens, Bart H.; Gratacos, Eduard
2014-05-01
Automatic quantification of cardiac muscle properties in tissue sections might provide important information related to different types of diseases. Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging provides a stain-free microscopy approach to image cardiac fibers that, combined with our methodology of the automated measurement of the ultrastructure of muscle fibers, computes a reliable set of quantitative image features (sarcomere length, A-band length, thick-thin interaction length, and fiber orientation). We evaluated the performance of our methodology in computer-generated muscle fibers modeling some artifacts that are present during the image acquisition. Then, we also evaluated it by comparing it to manual measurements in SHG images from cardiac tissue of fetal and adult rabbits. The results showed a good performance of our methodology at high signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB. We conclude that our automated measurements enable reliable characterization of cardiac fiber tissues to systematically study cardiac tissue in a wide range of conditions.
Time-resolved phase-sensitive second harmonic generation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowakowski, Paweł J.; Woods, David A.; Bain, Colin D.; Verlet, Jan R. R.
2015-02-01
A methodology based on time-resolved, phase-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) for probing the excited state dynamics of species at interfaces is presented. It is based on an interference measurement between the SHG from the sample and a local oscillator generated at a reference together with a lock-in measurement to remove the large constant offset from the interference. The technique is characterized by measuring the phase and excited state dynamics of the dye malachite green at the water/air interface. The key attributes of the technique are that the observed signal is directly proportional to sample concentration, in contrast to the quadratic dependence from non-phase sensitive SHG, and that the real and imaginary parts of the 2nd order non-linear susceptibility can be determined independently. We show that the method is highly sensitive and can provide high quality excited state dynamics in short data acquisition times.
Mode matching in multiresonant plasmonic nanoantennas for enhanced second harmonic generation.
Celebrano, Michele; Wu, Xiaofei; Baselli, Milena; Großmann, Swen; Biagioni, Paolo; Locatelli, Andrea; De Angelis, Costantino; Cerullo, Giulio; Osellame, Roberto; Hecht, Bert; Duò, Lamberto; Ciccacci, Franco; Finazzi, Marco
2015-05-01
Boosting nonlinear frequency conversion in extremely confined volumes remains a challenge in nano-optics research, but can enable applications in nanomedicine, photocatalysis and background-free biosensing. To obtain brighter nonlinear nanoscale sources, approaches that enhance the electromagnetic field intensity and counter the lack of phase matching in nanoplasmonic systems are often employed. However, the high degree of symmetry in the crystalline structure of plasmonic materials (metals in particular) and in nanoantenna designs strongly quenches second harmonic generation. Here, we describe doubly-resonant single-crystalline gold nanostructures with no axial symmetry displaying spatial mode overlap at both the excitation and second harmonic wavelengths. The combination of these features allows the attainment of a nonlinear coefficient for second harmonic generation of ∼5 × 10(-10) W(-1), enabling a second harmonic photon yield higher than 3 × 10(6) photons per second. Theoretical estimations point toward the use of our nonlinear plasmonic nanoantennas as efficient platforms for label-free molecular sensing.
Mode matching in multiresonant plasmonic nanoantennas for enhanced second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celebrano, Michele; Wu, Xiaofei; Baselli, Milena; Großmann, Swen; Biagioni, Paolo; Locatelli, Andrea; de Angelis, Costantino; Cerullo, Giulio; Osellame, Roberto; Hecht, Bert; Duò, Lamberto; Ciccacci, Franco; Finazzi, Marco
2015-05-01
Boosting nonlinear frequency conversion in extremely confined volumes remains a challenge in nano-optics research, but can enable applications in nanomedicine, photocatalysis and background-free biosensing. To obtain brighter nonlinear nanoscale sources, approaches that enhance the electromagnetic field intensity and counter the lack of phase matching in nanoplasmonic systems are often employed. However, the high degree of symmetry in the crystalline structure of plasmonic materials (metals in particular) and in nanoantenna designs strongly quenches second harmonic generation. Here, we describe doubly-resonant single-crystalline gold nanostructures with no axial symmetry displaying spatial mode overlap at both the excitation and second harmonic wavelengths. The combination of these features allows the attainment of a nonlinear coefficient for second harmonic generation of ˜5 × 10-10 W-1, enabling a second harmonic photon yield higher than 3 × 106 photons per second. Theoretical estimations point toward the use of our nonlinear plasmonic nanoantennas as efficient platforms for label-free molecular sensing.
Second-harmonic generation from bimetal composites doped with metal nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daneshfar, Nader
2016-05-01
In the present paper, we study the nonlinear optical response of the bimetal composites doped with metal nanoparticles in the framework of nonlinear Mie theory combined with the Maxwell-Garnett model. We concentrate on the second-order harmonic generation from bimetal nanocomposites including silver and gold particles, since sometimes the nonlinear optical response is sensitive to the more accurate of material structure than linear optical response. We show that optical second harmonic generation is strongly sensitive to temperature as an environmental parameter, interparticle plasmon coupling between Au and Ag nanoparticles (the filling factor of inclusions), the particle size and the surrounding medium. However, this work shows good potential of bimetal composites for nonlinear optics at the nanoscale.
Active control of highly efficient third-harmonic generation in ultrathin nonlinear metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Zibo; Li, Chong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang
2016-10-01
Active electric control of highly efficient third harmonic generation was realized in an ultrathin nonlinear metasurface by using a nanocomposite consisting of gold nanoparticles dispersed in polycrystalline strontium titanate as the electro-optic material. Owing to the nonlinearity enhancement associated with the slow light effect, quantum confinement effect, and field-reinforcement, a high conversion efficiency of 3 × 10-5 was obtained, which is two orders of magnitude larger than previously reported efficiencies at comparable pump intensities. A modulation of 12% in the intensity of the third harmonic generation and a 30-nm shift in the transparency window center were achieved by varying the applied voltage from -30 V to zero. Our results pave the way toward the realization of multi-functional integrated photonic devices and chips based on metasurfaces.
Multiple layer optical memory system using second-harmonic-generation readout
Boyd, Gary T.; Shen, Yuen-Ron
1989-01-01
A novel optical read and write information storage system is described which comprises a radiation source such as a laser for writing and illumination, the radiation source being capable of radiating a preselected first frequency; a storage medium including at least one layer of material for receiving radiation from the radiation source and capable of being surface modified in response to said radiation source when operated in a writing mode and capable of generating a pattern of radiation of the second harmonic of the preselected frequency when illuminated by the radiation source at the preselected frequency corresponding to the surface modifications on the storage medium; and a detector to receive the pattern of second harmonic frequency generated.
Second harmonic generation of chiral-modified silver nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Yue
Chiral molecules, which exist under enantiomers with non-mirror-symmetrical structures, have been the subject of intense research for their linear and nonlinear optical activities. Cysteine is such a chiral amino acid found as a building block of proteins throughout human bodies. Second harmonic generation (SHG) has been considered to investigate chiral molecules. SHG from metallic nanoparticles is promising for nanoplasmonics and photonic nanodevice applications. Therefore, it's desirable to combine and study nonlinear properties due to both chirality and metallic nanoparticles, and help developing an alternatively optical diagnostic of chiral molecules. Our experiments are carried out with the FemtoFiber Scientific FFS laser system. SHG of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) modified by either L-Cysteine (L-C) or D-Cysteine (D-C) is observed, where L-Cysteine and D-Cysteine are a pair of enantiomers. Ag NPs are deposited through Vacuum Thermal Evaporation, controlled under different deposition thicknesses. UV-Vis/IR spectra and AFM are used to characterize Ag NPs under different conditions. Transmitted SHG measurements dependent on incidence are recorded with standard lock-in techniques. Deposition thickness of vacuum thermal evaporation plays an important role in forming diverse Ag NPs, which strongly imparts the intensity of SHG. Second harmonic intensity as a function of the incident angle presents similar results for Ag NPs with or without L-Cysteine or D-Cysteine modification, in the output of p- and s-polarization. However, we monitor reversed rotation difference in second harmonic intensities at linearly +45° and -45° polarization for L-C/Ag NPs and D-C/Ag NPs, while there's no difference at linearly +45° and -45° polarization for Ag NPs alone. This optical rotation difference in SHG is termed as SHG-ORD. Also, for second harmonic light fixed at p-polarization, L-C/Ag NPs and D-C/Ag NPs exhibit a reversely net difference for SHG excited by right and left
Harmonic Generation in InAs Nanowire Double Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroer, M. D.; Jung, M.; Petersson, K. D.; Petta, J. R.
2012-02-01
InAs nanowires provide a useful platform for investigating the physics of confined electrons subjected to strong spin-orbit coupling. Using tunable, bottom-gated double quantum dots, we demonstrate electrical driving of single spin resonance.ootnotetextS. Nadj-Perge et al., Nature 468, 1084 (2010)^,ootnotetextM.D. Schroer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 176811 (2011) We observe a standard spin response when the applied microwave frequency equals the Larmour frequency f0. However, we also observe an anomalous signal at frequencies fn= f0/ n for integer n up to n ˜5. This is equivalent to generation of harmonics of the spin resonance field. While a f0/2 signal has observed,ootnotetextE.A. Laird et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246601 (2007) we believe this is the first observation of higher harmonics in spin resonance. Possible mechanisms will be discussed.ootnotetextE.I. Rashba, arXiv:1110.6569 (2011) Acknowledgements: Research supported by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, the NSF, and Army Research Office.
High order harmonic generation from SF6: Deconvolution of macroscopic effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, B. P.; Fulfer, K. D.; Mondal, S.; Ren, X.; Tross, J.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Jose, J.; Le, Anh-Thu; Lucchese, R. R.; Trallero-Herrero, C.
2016-12-01
We measure high order harmonics from the molecule SF6 over a large range of phase matching conditions and observe several features in the harmonics that are largely independent of such macroscopic conditions. The experimental data are then compared to the quantitative rescattering theory for the generation of harmonics from three orbitals. With this comparison, we are able to assign spectroscopic features in the harmonics to contributions from 1t1g (HOMO) and 5t1u (HOMO-1) orbitals.
Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen.
Stoller, Patrick; Reiser, Karen M; Celliers, Peter M; Rubenchik, Alexander M
2002-01-01
Collagen possesses a strong second-order nonlinear susceptibility, a nonlinear optical property characterized by second harmonic generation in the presence of intense laser beams. We present a new technique involving polarization modulation of an ultra-short pulse laser beam that can simultaneously determine collagen fiber orientation and a parameter related to the second-order nonlinear susceptibility. We demonstrate the ability to discriminate among different patterns of fibrillar orientation, as exemplified by tendon, fascia, cornea, and successive lamellar rings in an intervertebral disc. Fiber orientation can be measured as a function of depth with an axial resolution of approximately 10 microm. The parameter related to the second-order nonlinear susceptibility is sensitive to fiber disorganization, oblique incidence of the beam on the sample, and birefringence of the tissue. This parameter represents an aggregate measure of tissue optical properties that could potentially be used for optical imaging in vivo. PMID:12023255
High-order harmonic generation enhanced by XUV light
Buth, Christian; Kohler, Markus C.; Ullrich, Joachim; Keitel, Christoph H.
2012-03-19
The combination of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) with resonant XUV excitation of a core electron into the transient valence vacancy that is created in the course of the HHG process is investigated theoretically. In this setup, the first electron performs a HHG three-step process, whereas the second electron Rabi flops between the core and the valence vacancy. The modified HHG spectrum due to recombination with the valence and the core is determined and analyzed for krypton on the 3d {yields} 4p resonance in the ion. We assume an 800 nm laser with an intensity of about 10{sup 14} Wcm{sup 2} and XUV radiation from the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) with an intensity in the range 10{sup 13}-10{sup 16} Wcm{sup 2}. Our prediction opens perspectives for nonlinear XUV physics, attosecond x rays, and HHG-based spectroscopy involving core orbitals.
Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles
Nayfeh, M. H.; Akcakir, O.; Belomoin, G.; Barry, N.; Therrien, J.; Gratton, E.
2000-12-18
We dispersed crystalline Si into a colloid of ultrasmall nano particles ({approx}1 nm), and reconstituted it into microcrystallites films on device-quality Si. The film is excited by near-infrared femtosecond two-photon process in the range 765--835 nm, with incident average power in the range 15--70 mW, focused to {approx}1 {mu}m. We have observed strong radiation at half the wavelength of the incident beam. The results are analyzed in terms of second-harmonic generation, a process that is not allowed in silicon due to the centrosymmetry. Ionic vibration of or/and excitonic self-trapping on novel radiative Si--Si dimer phase, found only in ultrasmall nanoparticles, are suggested as a basic mechanism for inducing anharmonicity that breaks the centrosymmetry.
Second Harmonic Generation of Nanoscale Phonon Wave Packets.
Bojahr, A; Gohlke, M; Leitenberger, W; Pudell, J; Reinhardt, M; von Reppert, A; Roessle, M; Sander, M; Gaal, P; Bargheer, M
2015-11-06
Phonons are often regarded as delocalized quasiparticles with certain energy and momentum. The anharmonic interaction of phonons determines macroscopic properties of the solid, such as thermal expansion or thermal conductivity, and a detailed understanding becomes increasingly important for functional nanostructures. Although phonon-phonon scattering processes depicted in simple wave-vector diagrams are the basis of theories describing these macroscopic phenomena, experiments directly accessing these coupling channels are scarce. We synthesize monochromatic acoustic phonon wave packets with only a few cycles to introduce nonlinear phononics as the acoustic counterpart to nonlinear optics. Control of the wave vector, bandwidth, and consequently spatial extent of the phonon wave packets allows us to observe nonlinear phonon interaction, in particular, second harmonic generation, in real time by wave-vector-sensitive Brillouin scattering with x-rays and optical photons.
Imaging Cytometry of Human Leukocytes with Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy
Wu, Cheng-Ham; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Huang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jong-Wei; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liu, Tzu-Ming
2016-01-01
Based on third-harmonic-generation (THG) microscopy and a k-means clustering algorithm, we developed a label-free imaging cytometry method to differentiate and determine the types of human leukocytes. According to the size and average intensity of cells in THG images, in a two-dimensional scatter plot, the neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers were clustered into three differentiable groups. Using these features in THG images, we could count the number of each of the three leukocyte types both in vitro and in vivo. The THG imaging-based counting results agreed well with conventional blood count results. In the future, we believe that the combination of this THG microscopy-based imaging cytometry approach with advanced texture analysis of sub-cellular features can differentiate and count more types of blood cells with smaller quantities of blood. PMID:27845443
Exciton-Polariton Fano Resonance Driven by Second Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yafeng; Liao, Liming; Hu, Tao; Luo, Song; Wu, Lin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Xie, Wei; Sun, Liaoxin; Kavokin, A. V.; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai
2017-02-01
Angle-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) spectra of ZnO microwires show characteristic Fano resonances in the spectral vicinity of exciton-polariton modes. We observe a resonant peak followed by a strong dip in SHG originating from the constructive and destructive interference of the nonresonant SHG and the resonant contribution of the polariton mode. It is demonstrated that the Fano line shape, and thus the Fano asymmetry parameter q , can be tuned by the phase shift of the two channels. We develop a model to calculate the phase-dependent q as a function of the radial angle in the microwire and achieve a good agreement with the experimental results. The deduced phase-to-q relation unveils the crucial information about the dynamics of the system and offers a tool for control on the line shape of the SHG spectra in the vicinity of exciton-polariton modes.
Thermal optimization of second harmonic generation at high pump powers.
Sahm, Alexander; Uebernickel, Mirko; Paschke, Katrin; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther
2011-11-07
We measure the temperature distribution of a 3 cm long periodically poled LiNbO₃ crystal in a single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) setup at 488 nm. By means of three resistance heaters and directly mounted Pt100 sensors the crystal is subdivided in three sections. 9.4 W infrared pump light and 1.3 W of SHG light cause a de-homogenized temperature distribution of 0.2 K between the middle and back section. A sectional offset heating is used to homogenize the temperature in those two sections and thus increasing the conversion efficiency. A 15% higher SHG output power matching the prediction of our theoretical model is achieved.
Imaging Cytometry of Human Leukocytes with Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Cheng-Ham; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Huang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jong-Wei; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liu, Tzu-Ming
2016-11-01
Based on third-harmonic-generation (THG) microscopy and a k-means clustering algorithm, we developed a label-free imaging cytometry method to differentiate and determine the types of human leukocytes. According to the size and average intensity of cells in THG images, in a two-dimensional scatter plot, the neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers were clustered into three differentiable groups. Using these features in THG images, we could count the number of each of the three leukocyte types both in vitro and in vivo. The THG imaging-based counting results agreed well with conventional blood count results. In the future, we believe that the combination of this THG microscopy-based imaging cytometry approach with advanced texture analysis of sub-cellular features can differentiate and count more types of blood cells with smaller quantities of blood.
Exciton-Polariton Fano Resonance Driven by Second Harmonic Generation.
Wang, Yafeng; Liao, Liming; Hu, Tao; Luo, Song; Wu, Lin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Xie, Wei; Sun, Liaoxin; Kavokin, A V; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai
2017-02-10
Angle-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) spectra of ZnO microwires show characteristic Fano resonances in the spectral vicinity of exciton-polariton modes. We observe a resonant peak followed by a strong dip in SHG originating from the constructive and destructive interference of the nonresonant SHG and the resonant contribution of the polariton mode. It is demonstrated that the Fano line shape, and thus the Fano asymmetry parameter q, can be tuned by the phase shift of the two channels. We develop a model to calculate the phase-dependent q as a function of the radial angle in the microwire and achieve a good agreement with the experimental results. The deduced phase-to-q relation unveils the crucial information about the dynamics of the system and offers a tool for control on the line shape of the SHG spectra in the vicinity of exciton-polariton modes.
Two-Color Laser High-Harmonic Generation in Cavitated Plasma Wakefields
Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim
2016-10-03
A method is proposed for producing coherent x-rays via high-harmonic generation using a laser interacting with highly-stripped ions in cavitated plasma wakefields. Two laser pulses of different colors are employed: a long-wavelength pulse for cavitation and a short-wavelength pulse for harmonic generation. This method enables efficient laser harmonic generation in the sub-nm wavelength regime.
Multiferroic Behavior in Barium Hexaferrite Probed with Optical Second Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlahos, Eftihia; Denev, Sava; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Kimura, Tsuyoshi
2007-03-01
Barium hexaferrite Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22 is a very promising material, which exhibits significant magnetoelectric (ME) effect, i.e., the generation of electric polarization/magnetization by the application of magnetic/electric) field. Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) in the reflection geometry was used to determine the magnetic point group symmetries and phase transitions of the sample versus temperature, and variable magnetic field. Simultaneous measurements of magnetocapacitance, and ME current as functions of temperature and applied magnetic field are performed and correlated with SHG measurements.
Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy in Collagen
Stoller, P C
2002-09-30
Collagen is a key structural protein in the body; several pathological conditions lead to changes in collagen. Among imaging modalities that can be used in vivo, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has a key advantage: it provides {approx}1 {micro}m resolution information about collagen structure as a function of depth. A new technique--polarization-modulated SHG--is presented: it permits simultaneous measurement of collagen orientation, of a lower bound on the magnitude of the second order nonlinear susceptibility tensor, and of the ratio of the two independent elements in this tensor. It is applied to characterizing SHG in collagen and to determining effects of biologically relevant changes in collagen structure. The magnitude of the second harmonic signal in two dimensional images varies with position even in structurally homogeneous tissue; this phenomenon is due to interference between second harmonic light generated by neighboring fibrils, which are randomly oriented parallel or anti-parallel to each other. Studies in which focal spot size was varied indicated that regions where fibrils are co-oriented are less than {approx}1.5 {micro}m in diameter. A quartz reference was used to determine the spot size as well as a lower limit (d{sub xxx} > 0.3 pm/V) for the magnitude of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The ratio of the two independent tensor elements ranged between d{sub XYY}/d{sub XXX} = 0.60 and 0.75. SHG magnitude alone was not useful for identifying structural anomalies in collagenous tissue. Instead, changes in the polarization dependence of SHG were used to analyze biologically relevant perturbations in collagen structure. Changes in polarization dependence were observed in dehydrated samples, but not in highly crosslinked samples, despite significant alterations in packing structure. Complete thermal denaturation and collagenase digestion produced samples with no detectable SHG signal. Collagen orientation was measured in thin
Sensitivity of nonlinear harmonic generation to electron beam quality in free-electron lasers
Biedron, Sandra G.; Huang, Zhirong; Kim, Kwange-Je; Milton, Stephen; Dattoli, Giuseppe; Ottavani, Pier Luigi; Renieri, Alberto; Fawley, William M.; Freund, Henry P.; Huhn, Heinz-Dieter
2002-03-01
The generation of harmonics through a nonlinear mechanism driven by bunching at the fundamental has sparked interest as a path toward enhancing and extending the usefulness of an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) facility. The sensitivity of the nonlinear harmonic generation to undulator imperfections, electron beam energy spread, peak current, and emittance is important in an evaluation of the process. Typically, linear instabilities in FELs are characterized by increased sensitivity to both electron beam and undulator quality with increasing harmonic number. However, since the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism is driven by the growth of the fundamental, the sensitivity of the nonlinear harmonic mechanism is not expected to be significantly greater than that of the fundamental. In this paper, they study the effects of electron beam quality, more specifically, emittance, energy spread, and peak current, on the nonlinear harmonics in a 1.5-{angstrom} FEL, and show that the decline in the harmonic emission roughly follows that of the fundamental.
Static third-harmonic lines in widely variable fiber continuum generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Haohua; Zhao, Youbo; Liu, Yuan; Boppart, Stephen A.
2014-01-01
An intriguing phenomenon of third-harmonic generation under fiber continuum generation is the emission of an anharmonic signal. One popular interpretation of this effect has developed into a general theory of fiber third-harmonic generation. Here we produce "static" third-harmonic lines dictated fully by fiber properties independent of pump parameters, in contrast to the signals of all known phase-matched nonlinear optical processes that vary dynamically with these parameters. We argue that the anharmonic signal is an illusion of the continuum generation, that it is in fact harmonic, and that this theory should be reevaluated.
Optical Cherenkov radiation in ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation
Bache, M.; Bang, O.; Zhou, B. B.; Moses, J.; Wise, F. W.
2010-12-15
We show through theory and numerics that when few-cycle femtosecond solitons are generated through cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation, these broadband solitons can emit optical Cherenkov radiation in the form of linear dispersive waves located in the red part of the spectrum. The beating between the dispersive wave and the soliton generates trailing temporal oscillations on the compressed soliton. Insertion of a simple short-wave pass filter after the crystal can restore a clean soliton. On the other hand, bandpass filtering around the dispersive wave peak results in near-transform-limited ultrashort mid-IR pulses with pulse durations much shorter than the input near-IR pulse. The Cherenkov radiation for the crystal considered ({beta}-barium borate) is found for pump wavelengths in the range {lambda}=0.95-1.45 {mu}m, and is located in the regime {lambda}=1.5-3.5 {mu}m. For shorter pump wavelengths, the phase-matching point is located in the absorption region of the crystal, effectively absorbing the generated dispersive wave. By calculating the phase-matching curves for typically used frequency conversion crystals, we point out that the mid-IR absorption in the crystal in many cases automatically will filter away the dispersive wave. Finally, an investigation of recent experimental results uncovers a four-wave-mixing phenomenon related to Cherenkov radiation that is an additional generation mechanism of long-wavelength radiation that can occur during soliton compression. We discuss the conditions that lead to this alternative dynamics rather than generation of Cherenkov radiation.
Optical Harmonic Generation from Interfaces with Group IV Semiconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bottomley, David John
Nonlinear optical techniques have been used to investigate the symmetry properties of interfaces between media comprising at least one Group IV semiconductor. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) have been performed for s and p polarization states of the fundamental and harmonic beams as a function of sample azimuthal angle at a fixed fundamental wavelength of 775 nm. In addition to these experimental measurements, the thesis contains theoretical calculations of the optical harmonic response from such media with vicinal surfaces, that is surfaces miscut from a low-index face by {<}{~}10^ circ. The phenomenological theory of Sipe, Moss and van Driel (Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129 (1987)) for SHG and THG in reflection from the low-index faces of cubic centrosymmetric media has been extended to all faces of both cubic centrosymmetric and cubic noncentrosymmetric media. This theory is applied in many parts of the thesis to interpreting the symmetry information present in nonlinear optical data. Experimentally, measurements of SHG and THG from vicinal semiconductor wafers have been performed, and using the above theory the wafer orientations have been obtained to within +/-0.1^circ . In addition, the above theory has been applied to achieve an approximate separation of bulk and surface contributions to SHG measurements from vincinal Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces which Sipe et al. showed is not possible on the low-index faces. The SiO_2/Si interface on vicinal Si(001) has been studied with SHG, and evidence has been obtained for the presence of noncentrosymmetric phases of c-SiO_2 at this interface whose relative concentrations are influenced by the oxidation conditions. For oxidation temperatures below 600 ^circC, the SHG data is shown to be consistent with the presence of tridymite at the buried interface, whereas for oxidation at 900^ circC the SHG data is consistent with the presence of cristobalite. Finally, SHG has been measured from odd
High harmonic generation with fully tunable polarization by train of linearly polarized pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neufeld, Ofer; Bordo, Eliyahu; Fleischer, Avner; Cohen, Oren
2017-02-01
We propose and demonstrate, analytically and numerically, a scheme for generation of high-order harmonics with fully tunable polarization, from circular through elliptic to linear, while barely changing the other properties of the high harmonic radiation and where the ellipticity values of all the harmonic orders essentially coincide. The high harmonics are driven by a train of quasi-monochromatic linearly polarized pulses that are identical except for their polarization angles, which is the tuning knob. This system gives rise to full control over the polarization of the harmonics while largely preserving the single-cycle, single-atom and macroscopic physics of ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation, where both the driver and high harmonics are linearly polarized.
A femtosecond Raman generator for long wavelength two-photon and third harmonic generation imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trägârdh, J.; Schniete, J.; Parsons, M.; McConnell, G.
2016-12-01
We demonstrate a femtosecond single pass Raman generator based on an YVO4 crystal pumped by a high energy fiber laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm and a repetition rate of 1 MHz. The Raman generator shifts the pump wavelength to 1175 nm, in a broadband spectrum, making it suitable for multi-photon microscopy. We use the Raman generator for third harmonic generation imaging of live plant specimens as well as for two-photon fluorescence imaging of red fluorescent protein expressing HeLa cells. We demonstrate that the photo-damage to a live specimen is low.
Xu, Jinying; Zhang, Xiangdong
2012-01-16
The theory of second harmonic generation (SHG) in three-dimensional structures consisting of arbitrary distributions of metallic spheres made of centrosymmetric materials is developed by means of multiple scattering of electromagnetic multipole fields. The electromagnetic field at both the fundamental frequency and second harmonic, as well as the scattering cross section, are calculated in a series of particular cases such as a single metallic sphere, two metallic spheres, chains of metallic spheres, and other distributions of the metallic spheres. It is shown that the linear and nonlinear optical response of all ensembles of metallic spheres is strongly influenced by the excitation of localized surface plasmon-polariton resonances. The physical origin for such a phenomenon has also been analyzed.
Savostianova, N A; Mikhailov, S A
2017-02-20
Graphene is a nonlinear material which can be used as a saturable absorber, frequency mixer and frequency multiplier. We theoretically study the third harmonic generation from graphene lying on different dielectric (dispersionless or polar) substrates, metalized or non-metalized on the back side. We show that the third harmonic intensity emitted from graphene lying on a substrate, can be increased by orders of magnitude as compared to the isolated graphene, due the LO-phonon resonances in a polar dielectric or due to the interference effects in the substrates metalized on the back side. In some frequency intervals, the presence of the polar dielectric substrate compensates the strongly decreasing with ω frequency dependence of the third-order conductivity of graphene making the response almost frequency independent. Our results can be used for the development of graphene based frequency multipliers operating in microwave through infrared frequencies.
Zhuo, G-Y; Lee, H; Hsu, K-J; Huttunen, M J; Kauranen, M; Lin, Y-Y; Chu, S-W
2014-03-01
Chirality is one of the most fundamental and essential structural properties of biological molecules. Many important biological molecules including amino acids and polysaccharides are intrinsically chiral. Conventionally, chiral species can be distinguished by interaction with circularly polarized light, and circular dichroism is one of the best-known approaches for chirality detection. As a linear optical process, circular dichroism suffers from very low signal contrast and lack of spatial resolution in the axial direction. It has been demonstrated that by incorporating nonlinear interaction with circularly polarized excitation, second-harmonic generation circular dichroism can provide much higher signal contrast. However, previous circular dichroism and second-harmonic generation circular dichroism studies are mostly limited to probe chiralities at surfaces and interfaces. It is known that second-harmonic generation, as a second-order nonlinear optical effect, provides excellent optical sectioning capability when combined with a laser-scanning microscope. In this work, we combine the axial resolving power of second-harmonic generation and chiral sensitivity of second-harmonic generation circular dichroism to realize three-dimensional chiral detection in biological tissues. Within the point spread function of a tight focus, second-harmonic generation circular dichroism could arise from the macroscopic supramolecular packing as well as the microscopic intramolecular chirality, so our aim is to clarify the origins of second-harmonic generation circular dichroism response in complicated three-dimensional biological systems. The sample we use is starch granules whose second-harmonic generation-active molecules are amylopectin with both microscopic chirality due to its helical structure and macroscopic chirality due to its crystallized packing. We found that in a starch granule, the second-harmonic generation for right-handed circularly polarized excitation is
Defects and strain enhancements of second-harmonic generation in Si/Ge superlattices.
Bertocchi, Matteo; Luppi, Eleonora; Degoli, Elena; Véniard, Valérie; Ossicini, Stefano
2014-06-07
Starting from experimental findings and interface growth problems in Si/Ge superlattices, we have investigated through ab initio methods the concurrent and competitive behavior of strain and defects in the second-harmonic generation process. Interpreting the second-harmonic intensities as a function of the different nature and percentage of defects together with the strain induced at the interface between Si and Ge, we found a way to tune and enhance the second-harmonic generation response of these systems.
Imaging leukocytes in vivo with third harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming
2013-02-01
Without a labeling, we demonstrated that lipid granules in leukocytes have distinctive third harmonic generation (THG) contrast. Excited by a 1230nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order smaller. These characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to trace the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Furthermore, using video-rate THG microscopy, we also captured images of blood cells in human capillaries. Quite different from red-blood-cells, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appeared in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. These results suggested that labeling-free THG imaging may provide timely tracing of leukocyte movement and hematology inspection without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Lavrov, S. D.; Shestakova, A. P.; Kulyuk, L. L.; Mishina, E. D.
2016-09-01
The transfer matrix method has been widely used to calculate wave propagation through the layered structures consisting entirely of either linear or nonlinear optical materials. In the present work, we develop the transfer matrix method for structures consisting of alternating layers of linear and nonlinear optical materials. The result is presented in a form that allows one to directly substitute the values of material constants, refractive index and absorption coefficient, into the expressions describing the second harmonic generation (SHG) field. The model is applied to the calculation of second harmonic (SH) field generated in nano-thin layers of transition metal dichalcogenides exfoliated on top of silicon oxide/silicon Fabry-Perot cavity. These structures are intensively studied both in view of their unique properties and perspective applications. A good agreement between experimental and numerical results can be achieved by small modification of optical constants, which may arise in an experiment due to a strong electric field of an incident focused pump laser beam. By considering the SHG effect, this paper completes the series of works describing the role of Fabry-Perot cavity in different optical effects (optical reflection, photoluminescence and Raman scattering) in 2D semiconductors that is extremely important for characterization of these unique materials.
Enhanced Third Harmonic Generation in Single Germanium Nanodisks Excited at the Anapole Mode.
Grinblat, Gustavo; Li, Yi; Nielsen, Michael P; Oulton, Rupert F; Maier, Stefan A
2016-07-13
We present an all-dielectric germanium nanosystem exhibiting a strong third order nonlinear response and efficient third harmonic generation in the optical regime. A thin germanium nanodisk shows a pronounced valley in its scattering cross section at the dark anapole mode, while the electric field energy inside the disk is maximized due to high confinement within the dielectric. We investigate the dependence of the third harmonic signal on disk size and pump wavelength to reveal the nature of the anapole mode. Each germanium nanodisk generates a high effective third order susceptibility of χ((3)) = 4.3 × 10(-9) esu, corresponding to an associated third harmonic conversion efficiency of 0.0001% at an excitation wavelength of 1650 nm, which is 4 orders of magnitude greater than the case of an unstructured germanium reference film. Furthermore, the nonlinear conversion via the anapole mode outperforms that via the radiative dipolar resonances by about 1 order of magnitude, which is consistent with our numerical simulations. These findings open new possibilities for the optimization of upconversion processes on the nanoscale through the appropriate engineering of suitable dielectric materials.
Organized Aggregation of Porphyrins in Lipid Bilayers for Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy.
Cui, Liyang; Tokarz, Danielle; Cisek, Richard; Ng, Kenneth K; Wang, Fan; Chen, Juan; Barzda, Virginijus; Zheng, Gang
2015-11-16
Nonlinear optical microscopy has become a powerful tool for high-resolution imaging of cellular and subcellular composition, morphology, and interactions because of its high spatial resolution, deep penetration, and low photo-damage to tissue. Developing specific harmonic probes is essential for exploiting nonlinear microscopic imaging for biomedical applications. We report an organized aggregate of porphyrins (OAP) that formed within lipidic nanoparticles showing fingerprint spectroscopic properties, structure-associated second harmonic generation, and superradiant third harmonic generation. The OAP facilitated harmonic microscopic imaging of living cells with significantly enhanced contrast. The structure-dependent switch between harmonic (OAP-intact) and fluorescence (OAP-disrupted) generation enabled real-time multi-modality imaging of the cellular fate of nanoparticles. Robustly produced under various conditions and easily incorporated into pre-formed lipid nanovesicles, OAP provides a biocompatible nanoplatform for harmonic imaging.
High-order harmonic generation from C{sub 60}-rich plasma
Ganeev, R. A.; Elouga Bom, L. B.; Ozaki, T.; Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J.-P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.; Redkin, P. V.
2009-10-15
We performed systematic investigation of high-order harmonic generation from fullerene-rich laser-produced plasmas. We studied harmonic generation by varying several experimental parameters, such as the delay between the ablation and driving pulses, and divergence and polarization of the pump laser. Enhancement of harmonic yield is observed near 20 eV, which is attributed to the influence of a broadband plasmon resonance of C{sub 60} on the nonlinear optical response of fullerene-rich plasma. This increase in the harmonic intensity occurs despite the increased absorption by C{sub 60} at these wavelengths. Using simulations based on time-dependent density-functional theory, we confirm that this effect is due to the influence of collective excitations. We compare harmonic generation from fullerenes using lasers with 793 nm and 396 nm wavelengths, which show the influence of plasmon resonance on the conversion efficiency of high-order harmonics for different laser wavelengths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranov, A. I.; Konyashkin, A. V.; Ryabushkin, O. A.
2015-09-01
Model of second harmonic generation with thermal self-action was developed. Second harmonic generation temperature phase matching curves were measured and calculated for periodically polled lithium niobate crystal. Both experimental and calculated data show asymmetrical shift of temperature tuning curves with pump power.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemsing, E.; Dunning, M.; Hast, C.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Weathersby, S.; Xiang, D.
2014-07-01
X-ray free-electron lasers are enabling access to new science by producing ultrafast and intense x rays that give researchers unparalleled power and precision in examining the fundamental nature of matter. In the quest for fully coherent x rays, the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique is one of the most promising methods. In this technique, coherent radiation at the high harmonic frequencies of two seed lasers is generated from the recoherence of electron beam phase space memory. Here we report on the generation of highly coherent and stable vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the 15th harmonic of an infrared seed laser with this technique. The experiment demonstrates two distinct advantages that are intrinsic to the highly nonlinear phase space gymnastics of echo-enabled harmonic generation in a new regime, i.e., high frequency up-conversion efficiency and insensitivity to electron beam phase space imperfections. Our results allow comparison and confirmation of predictive models and scaling laws, and mark a significant step towards fully coherent x-ray free-electron lasers that will open new scientific research.
Electric field-induced optical second harmonic generation in nematic liquid crystal 5CB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torgova, S. I.; Shigorin, V. D.; Maslyanitsyn, I. A.; Todorova, L.; Marinov, Y. G.; Hadjichristov, G. B.; Petrov, A. G.
2014-12-01
Electric field-induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) was studied for the liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) (a nematic phase material at room temperature). The intensity of coherent SHG from 5CB cells upon DC electric field was measured for various initial orientations of the liquid crystal. The dependence of the SHG intensity on the pump beam incidence angle was obtained in transmission geometry using sample rotation method. The experimental results (the registered light intensity in the output SHG interference patterns) were theoretically modelled and analyzed.
Second harmonic generation from the ‘centrosymmetric’ crystals
Nalla, Venkatram; Medishetty, Raghavender; Wang, Yue; Bai, Zhaozhi; Sun, Handong; Wei, Ji.; Vittal, Jagadese J.
2015-01-01
Second harmonic generation (SHG) is a well known non-linear optical phenomena which can be observed only in non-centrosymmetric crystals due to non-zero hyperpolarizability. In the current work we observed SHG from a Zn(II) complex which was originally thought to have crystallized in the centrosymmetric space group C2/c. This has been attributed to the unequal antiparallel packing of the metal complexes in the non-symmetric space group Cc or residual non-centrosymmetry in C2/c giving rise to polarizability leading to strong SHG. The enhancement of SHG by UV light has been attributed to the increase in non-centrosymmetry and hence polarity of packing due to strain induced in the crystals. The SHG signals measured from these crystals were as large as potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals, KH2PO4 (KDP), and showed temperature dependence. The highest SHG efficiency was observed at 50 K. The SHG phenomenon was observed at broad wavelengths ranging from visible to below-red in these crystals. PMID:25995840
Imaging articular cartilage using second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansfield, Jessica C.; Winlove, C. Peter; Knapp, Karen; Matcher, Stephen J.
2006-02-01
Sub cellular resolution images of equine articular cartilage have been obtained using both second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) and two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM). The SHGM images clearly map the distribution of the collagen II fibers within the extracellular matrix while the TPFM images show the distribution of endogenous two-photon fluorophores in both the cells and the extracellular matrix, highlighting especially the pericellular matrix and bright 2-3μm diameter features within the cells. To investigate the source of TPF in the extracellular matrix experiments have been carried out to see if it may originate from the proteoglycans. Pure solutions of the following proteoglycans hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate and aggrecan have been imaged, only the aggrecan produced any TPF and here the intensity was not great enough to account for the TPF in the extracellular matrix. Also cartilage samples were subjected to a process to remove proteoglycans and cellular components. After this process the TPF from the samples had decreased by a factor of two, with respect to the SHG intensity.
Control of high harmonic generation using isolated attosecond pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Michelle; Hernández-García, Carlos; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka
2014-05-01
Control of high harmonic generation (HHG) by using additional colors of light has been established as an efficient means of creating isolated pulses of light with increasingly short durations. We present a study of HHG in which isolated attosecond-duration VUV pulses are used to control the population of excited states in a single-atom system. A target He atom is prepared in its ground state, and a moderately intense 1.6 μm driving laser field is used to permit transitions to continuum states only from excited states of the atomic system. By varying the delay of the isolated attosecond pulse with respect to the driving field, this technique affords control over the moment of electron ionization, and in particular establishes a mechanism for selecting for and experimentally verifying the existence of multiply rescattering trajectories both in the temporal and frequency domains. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (Award No. DGE 1144083), the EU Marie Curie Fellowship (Award No. 328334), and the NSF (Award No. PHY-1125844).
Valence shell photoionization of SF6 and high harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jobin, Jobin; Fulfer, K.; Wilson, B.; Poliakoff, E.; Trallero, C.; Mondal, S.; Le, A.-T.; Lin, C.-D.; Lucchese, Robert
2013-05-01
When an atom or molecule is exposed to highly intense laser fields, the target can emit coherent radiation at photon energies which are multiples of incident laser energy. This process is known as High-order harmonic generation (HHG). There has been experimental and theoretical investigation of HHG for atoms and simple linear molecules. However, there have been few such studies for non-linear polyatomic molecules. In the current work, we investigate HHG for SF6 experimentally and theoretically. We employ quantitative rescattering theory (QRS) which makes use of the magnitude and phase of the dipole transition matrix elements for photoionization. For calculating dipole transition matrix elements we employ the ePolyscat static-exchange method. The features seen in the computed results will be compared to corresponding features in the measured HHG spectrum. The calculation is repeated for different polarization of incident laser and different intensities. The analysis allows us to reproduce then understand experimentally measured HHG spectra from SF6. Additionally, the valence shell photoionization parameters are also compared with several other theoretical and experimental results.
Third-harmonic generation susceptibility spectroscopy in free fatty acids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu-Cheng; Hsu, Hsun-Chia; Lee, Chien-Ming; Sun, Chi-Kuang
2015-09-01
Lipid-correlated disease such as atherosclerosis has been an important medical research topic for decades. Many new microscopic imaging techniques such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy were verified to have the capability to target lipids in vivo. In the case of THG microscopy, biological cell membranes and lipid bodies in cells and tissues have been shown as good sources of contrast with a laser excitation wavelength around 1200 nm. We report the THG excitation spectroscopy study of two pure free fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid from 1090 to 1330 nm. Different pure fatty acids presented slightly-different THG χ(3) spectra. The measured peak values of THG third-order susceptibility χ(3) in both fatty acids were surprisingly found not to match completely with the resonant absorption wavelengths around 1190 to 1210 nm, suggesting possible wavelengths selection for enhanced THG imaging of lipids while avoiding laser light absorption. Along with the recent advancement in THG imaging, this new window between 1240 to 1290 nm may offer tremendous new opportunities for sensitive label-free lipid imaging in biological tissues.
Research of second harmonic generation images based on texture analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Gong, Haiming; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan
2014-09-01
Texture analysis plays a crucial role in identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. It has been applied to a variety of medical image processing, ranging from the detection of disease and the segmentation of specific anatomical structures, to differentiation between healthy and pathological tissues. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy as a potential noninvasive tool for imaging biological tissues has been widely used in medicine, with reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching. In this paper, we clarified the principles of texture analysis including statistical, transform, structural and model-based methods and gave examples of its applications, reviewing studies of the technique. Moreover, we tried to apply texture analysis to the SHG images for the differentiation of human skin scar tissues. Texture analysis method based on local binary pattern (LBP) and wavelet transform was used to extract texture features of SHG images from collagen in normal and abnormal scars, and then the scar SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal ones. Compared with other texture analysis methods with respect to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, LBP combined with wavelet transform was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy. It can provide a new way for clinical diagnosis of scar types. At last, future development of texture analysis in SHG images were discussed.
Laser-plasma mirrors: from electron acceleration to harmonics generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thévenet, Maxence; Bocoum, Maïmouna; Faure, Jérôme; Leblanc, Adrien; Vincenti, Henri; Quéré, Fabien
2016-10-01
Accelerating electrons in the > 10 TV/m fields inside an ultrashort ultraintense laser pulse has been a long-standing goal in experimental physics, motivated by promising theoretical predictions. The biggest hurdle was to have electrons injected in the center of the laser pulse. Recent experimental and numerical results showed that this problem could be solved using a plasma mirror, i.e. an overdense plasma with a sharp (
Second harmonic generation imaging in tissue engineering and cartilage pathologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lilledahl, Magnus; Olderøy, Magnus; Finnøy, Andreas; Olstad, Kristin; Brinchman, Jan E.
2015-03-01
The second harmonic generation from collagen is highly sensitive to what extent collagen molecules are ordered into fibrils as the SHG signal is approximately proportional to the square of the fibril thickness. This can be problematic when interpreting SHG images as thick fibers are much brighter than thinner fibers such that quantification of the amount of collagen present is difficult. On the other hand SHG is therefore also a very sensitive probe to determine whether collagen have assembled into fibrils or are still dissolved as individual collagen molecules. This information is not available from standard histology or immunohistochemical techniques. The degree for fibrillation is an essential component for proper tissue function. We will present the usefulness of SHG imaging in tissue engineering of cartilage as well as cartilage related pathologies. When engineering cartilage it is essential to have the appropriate culturing conditions which cause the collagen molecules to assemble into fibrils. By employing SHG imaging we have studied how cell seeding densities affect the fibrillation of collagen molecules. Furthermore we have used SHG to study pathologies in developing cartilage in a porcine model. In both cases SHG reveals information which is not visible in conventional histology or immunohistochemistry
Effective one-electron approaches to calculate high harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohringer, Nina; Santra, Robin
2006-05-01
The single-active electron approach (SAE) is frequently applied to calculate high harmonic generation in atoms and consists in solving a one-particle Schr"odinger equation in an appropriate model potential. As an ad hoc approach it is difficult to be systematically improved. Starting with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TDCIS) technique we derive a new class of effective one-electron approaches. The resulting one-electron equations are in general non-local and non-unitary. A local approximation to TDCIS can be derived by restricting the total many-body Hamiltonian to a local mean-field Hamiltonian (those usually used in SAE calculations). The resulting equations are similar to traditional SAE approaches but include an additional term which destroys the unitarity of the time-evolution. We show that this correction term is essential and improves on traditional SAE approaches. Numerical tests show that this improved SAE method gives dipole-moments in better agreement with exact results than time-dependent Hartree Fock. The test system is a one-dimensional model of helium which allows for a straightforward numerical solution and therefore provides a benchmark to assess the quality of the different approximations.
Enhanced third-harmonic generation in silicon nanoparticles driven by magnetic response.
Shcherbakov, Maxim R; Neshev, Dragomir N; Hopkins, Ben; Shorokhov, Alexander S; Staude, Isabelle; Melik-Gaykazyan, Elizaveta V; Decker, Manuel; Ezhov, Alexander A; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Brener, Igal; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S
2014-11-12
We observe enhanced third-harmonic generation from silicon nanodisks exhibiting both electric and magnetic dipolar resonances. Experimental characterization of the nonlinear optical response through third-harmonic microscopy and spectroscopy reveals that the third-harmonic generation is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of the magnetic dipole resonances. The field localization at the magnetic resonance results in two orders of magnitude enhancement of the harmonic intensity with respect to unstructured bulk silicon with the conversion efficiency limited only by the two-photon absorption in the substrate.
Third-harmonic-generation of a diode laser for quantum control of beryllium ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carollo, Ryan A.; Lane, David A.; Kleiner, Edward K.; Kyaw, Phyo Aung; Teng, Chu C.; Ou, Celia Y.; Qiao, Shenglan; Hanneke, David
2017-04-01
We generate coherent ultraviolet radiation at 313 nm as the third harmonic of an external-cavity diode laser. We use this radiation for laser cooling of trapped beryllium atomic ions and sympathetic cooling of co-trapped beryllium-hydride molecular ions. An LBO crystal in an enhancement cavity generates the second harmonic, and a BBO crystal in a doubly resonant enhancement cavity mixes this second harmonic with the fundamental to produce the third harmonic. Each enhancement cavity is preceded by a tapered amplifier to increase the fundamental light. The 36-mW output power of this all-semiconductor-gain system will enable quantum control of the beryllium ions' motion.
Third harmonic generation with ultra-high intensity laser pulses
Rax, J.M.; Fisch, N.J.
1992-04-01
When an intense, plane-polarized, laser pulse interacts with a plasma, the relativistic nonlinearities induce a third harmonic polarization. A phase-locked growth of a third harmonic wave can take place, but the differences between the nonlinear dispersion of the pump and driven waves leads to a rapid unlocking, resulting in a saturation. What becomes third harmonic amplitude oscillations are identified here, and the nonlinear phase velocity and the renormalized electron mass due to plasmon screening are calculated. A simple phase-matching scheme, based on a resonant density modulation, is then proposed and analyzed.
Tunable second harmonic generation of monolayer MoS2 by Se doping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, C. T.; Clark, D. J.; Senthilkumar, V.; Jang, J. I.; Cho, H.-Y.; Kim, Y. S.; Binghamton University Collaboration
As a transition metal dichalcogenides whose bandgap becomes direct with inversion symmetry breaking in the monolayer limit, MoS2 has been getting ample attention as next-generation nonlinear optic material for its strong optical nonlinear properties. In this study, we demonstrate the wavelength second harmonic generation tunability of monolayer Mo(S, Se)2. Employing the two-zone furnaces system, we selenized as-grown monolayer MoS2at different temperature. X-ray photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to confirm the chemical composition of selenized film. Photoluminescence spectra shows the red shift in optical bandgap from 1.83 to 1.53 eV as a function of concentration Se replacing S. Second harmonic generation characteristics were measured in reflection geometry using ps pulse from Nd:YAG laser. Applying the previous bulk model, we calculated that the maximum value of χ (2)varied from ~40 pm/V for pure MoS2 to ~100 pm/V for pure MoSe2.We believe that our findings along with the ability to stack different 2D materials will create stacked 2D heterostructure with high χ (2)over a wide range of wavelength from visible to NIR. This research was supported by Priority Research Centers Program (2009-0093818), the Basic Science Research Program (2015-019609), and Basic Research Lab Program (2014-071686) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Korean g.
Studies of surfaces using optical second-harmonic generation
Tom, H.W.K.
1984-04-01
The experiments reported in this thesis demonstrate the use of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in reflection from surfaces to study various surface properties. The experiments firmly establish SHG as a viable new surface probe that complements existing surface probes in ultrahigh vacuum environments and is in many ways unique for studying interfaces between dense media. Surface structural symmetry can be revealed through the anisotropy in the SH signal from the surface as the sample is rotated about its normal. The form of this anisotropy is derived in theory and verified with an experiment on the Si(100) and (111) surfaces. The SHG and SFG signals from molecules adsorbed on noninteracting substrates have a direct relationship to the number, average orientation, and spectroscopic properties of the molecules. The SH intensity was used to measure the isotherm for adsorption of p-nitrobenzoic acid from ethanolic solution to fused silica. Experiments performed on a strongly-interacting well-characterized Rh(111) surface in ultrahigh vacuum establish the sensitivity of the SH probe in corroboration with other surface probes. For the first time, the SH coverage-dependence was fit by theory in a quantitative way for the case of O-atom adsorption. The sensitivity of SH to adsorption at different sites was established for CO on top- and bridge-sites. SHG was shown to be surface specific in that the SHG from alkali metal surfaces originates from the first two monolayers. SH sensitivity to the adsorption of catalytically-important hydrocarbons and to chemical processes such as benzene dehydrogenation was also demonstrated. 122 references, 27 figures, 2 tables.
All-fiber fourth and fifth harmonic generation from a single source.
Khudus, Muhammad I M Abdul; Lee, Timothy; De Lucia, Francesco; Corbari, Costantino; Sazio, Pier; Horak, Peter; Brambilla, Gilberto
2016-09-19
All-fiber fourth and fifth harmonic generation from a single source is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed theoretically. Light from a fully fiberized high power master oscillator power amplifier is launched into a periodically poled silica fiber generating the second harmonic. The output is then sent through two optical microfibers that generate the third and fourth harmonic, respectively, via four wave mixing (FWM). For a large range of pump wavelengths in the silica optical transmission window, phase matched FWM can be achieved in the microfibers at two different diameters with relatively wide fabrication tolerances of up to +/-5 nm. Our simulations indicate that by optimizing the second harmonic generation efficiency and the diameters and lengths of the two microfibers, conversion efficiencies to the fourth harmonic in excess of 25% are theoretically achievable.
Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.; Suk, H.
2015-06-15
We propose an idea to enhance the efficiency of second- and third-harmonic generation by considering the amplitude-modulation of the fundamental laser pulse. A short-pulse laser of finite spot size is modeled as amplitude modulated in time. Amplitude-modulation of fundamental laser contributes in quiver velocity of the plasma electrons and produces the strong plasma-density perturbations, thereby increase in current density at second- and third-harmonic frequency. In a result, the conversion efficiency of harmonic generation increases significantly. Power conversion efficiency of harmonic generation process is the increasing function of the amplitude-modulation parameter of the fundamental laser beam. Harmonic power generated by an amplitude modulated laser is many folds higher than the power obtained in an ordinary case.
Anisotropic Second Harmonic Generation at Single Crystal Metal Surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kexiang, He.
The work in this thesis comprises a set of experiments designed to study the anisotropic spatial dependence of second harmonic generation (SHG) from the surface of single crystal metals. The anisotropic dependence of reflected SHG from Al_2O_3 Al(111) interface was studied. The isotropic dependence of the SHG signal is used to probe the structural symmetry of the Al_2O_3Al(111) interface. For P- and S-polarized laser light incident at a fixed angle of 45^circ, the intensities of S- and P-polarized components of SHG signal were measured as a function of rotation angle during rotation of the surface about its normal. Anisotropic SHG studies were also performed on high Miller index surface of Al(331) and on a Al surface cut at 22.5^ circ with respect to the Al(111) surface. For the Al(331) surface, the anisotropic dependence of the SHG signal was measured for both the S- and P-polarized signals under both S- and P-polarized laser excitation. The anisotropy of the SHG from Al(331) were fit with theory using the assumption that symmetry is retained for this surface at the metal oxide-metal interface. Existing theory is used to derive the theoretical expressions predicting the anisotropic dependence of SHG from Al(331). The SHG probe was also used to follow pulsed laser annealing (PLA) of the Al_2O_3/Al(111) interface from on a chemically polished Al(111) surface. Using P-polarized pump laser light, the P-polarized SHG signal exhibits three equally spaced, equal intensity maxima during a single complete rotation of Al_2O _3/Al(111) interface about the interface normal. Annealing of the interface is found to occur when the P-polarized 1064nm pump laser light has an incident peak power of 11 times 10 ^6W/cm^2 per pulse. The intensity of the P-polarized 532nm SHG signal generated in reflection from this annealed interface exhibits a reduced anisotropic component in the SHG signal. Measurements of the anisotropic SHG signal from ionized beam deposited Al thin-films on Si(111
Generation of Electron Cyclotron Harmonic waves around the Moon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katayama, Y.; Kojima, H.; Saito, Y.; Kasahara, Y.; Omura, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yokota, S.; Nishino, M. N.; Hashimoto, K.; Ono, T.; Tsunakawa, H.
2012-12-01
The study of the electron cyclotron harmonic(ECH) waves has been extensively made in the view point of the magnetospheric physics as well as the microscopic wave-particle interaction. The Japanese lunar satellite Kaguya provides another observation of the ECH waves around the moon. The interaction between the moon and space plasmas results in the generation of the ECH waves. We performed the detailed data analyses using the plasma wave data observed by the Kaguya as well as the linear dispersion analyses. First of all we found the close relation of the ECH wave observation and the magnetic anomaly of the night side of the moon. In order to examine the generation condition of the ECH waves, we consult the Kaguya electron data. The data show that the importance of the coexistence of of electron loss cone velocity distribution and low energy electron beams. The loss cone velocity distribution can be formed by the mirror force at the magnetic anomaly on the surface of the moon. The low energy electron beam can be realized by the acceleration due to the negative potential of the moon surface on the night side. We then assume these two kinds of electron distribution are essential to excite ECH waves. However the loss cone distribution and low energy beam are observed not only in the magnetosphere but also in the wake region, where ECH waves are not observed. This means some parametric dependence of the ECH wave generation even under the coexistence of the electron loss cone distribution and low energy electron beam. In order to make clear the parametric condition of the ECH waves around the moon, we calculate the linear growth rate by solving the kinetic plasma dispersion relation using the realistic plasma parameters of the lobe, plasma sheet and wake regions based on the KAGUYA observation. In the linear dispersion analysis, we assumed hot electrons and cold electrons, and the former have loss cone distribution and the latter has drift velocity which equivalent
Characterization of muscle contraction with second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prent, Nicole
Muscle cells have the ability to change length and generate force due to orchestrated action of myosin nanomotors that cause sliding of actin filaments along myosin filaments in the sarcomeres, the fundamental contractile units, of myocytes. The correlated action of hundreds of sarcomeres is needed to produce the myocyte contractions. This study probes the molecular structure of the myofilaments and investigates the movement correlations between sarcomeres during contraction. In this study, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is employed for imaging striated myocytes. Myosin filaments in striated myocytes inherently have a nonzero second-order susceptibility, [special characters omitted] and therefore generate efficient SHG. Employing polarization-in polarization-out (PIPO) SHG microscopy allows for the accurate determination of the characteristic ratio, [special characters omitted] in birefringent myocytes, which describes the structure of the myosin filament. Analysis shows that the b value at the centre of the myosin filament, where the nonlinear dipoles are better aligned, is slightly lower than the value at the edges of the filament, where there is more disorder in orientation of the nonlinear dipoles from the myosin heads. Forced stretching of myocytes resulted in an SHG intensity increase with the elongation of the sarcomere. SHG microscopy captured individual sarcomeres during contraction, allowing for the measurement of sarcomere length (SL) and SHG intensity (SI) fluctuations. The fluctuations also revealed higher SHG intensity in elongated sarcomeres. The sarcomere synchronization model (SSM) for contracting and quiescent myocytes was developed, and experimentally verified for three cases (isolated cardiomyocyte, embryonic chicken cardiomyocyte, and larva myocyte). During contraction, the action of SLs and SIs between neighbouring sarcomeres partially correlated, whereas in quiescent myocytes the SLs show an anti-correlation and the SIs have no
Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging keratoconus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yen; Lo, Wen; Lin, Sung-Jan; Lin, Wei-Chou; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Dong, Chen-Yuan
2006-02-01
The purpose of this study is to assess the possible application of multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for imaging the structural features of keratoconus cornea and to evaluate its potential as being a clinical in vivo monitoring technique. Using the near-infrared excitation source from a titanium-sapphire laser pumped by a diode-pumped, solid state (DPSS) laser system, we can induce and simultaneously acquire multiphoton autofluorescence and SHG signals from the cornea specimens with keratoconus. A home-modified commercial microscope system with specified optical components is used for optimal signal detection. Keratoconus cornea button from patient with typical clinical presentation of keratoconus was obtained at the time of penetrating keratoplasty. The specimen was also sent for the histological examination as comparison. In all samples of keratoconus, destruction of lamellar structure with altered collagen fiber orientation was observed within whole layer of the diseased stromal area. In addition, the orientation of the altered collagen fibers within the cone area shows a trend directing toward the apex of the cone, which might implicate the biomechanical response of the keratoconus stroma to the intraocular pressure. Moreover, increased autofluorescent cells were also found in the cone area, with increased density as one approaches the apical area. In conclusion, multiphoton autofluorescence and SHG microscopy non-invasively demonstrated the morphological features of keratoconus cornea, especially the structural alternations of the stromal lamellae. We believe that in the future the multiphoton microscopy can be applied in vivo as an effective, non-invasive diagnostic and monitoring technique for keratoconus.
Studies of interfaces and vapors with Optical Second Harmonic Generation
Mullin, Christopher Shane
1993-12-01
Optical Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) has been applied to the study of soap-like molecules adsorbed to the water-air interface. By calibrating the signal from a soluble monolayer with that of an insoluble homolog, absolute measurements of the surface density could be obtained and related to the bulk concentration and surface tension. We could then demonstrate that the soluble surfactant forms a single monolayer at the interface. Furthermore, it deviates significantly from the ideal case in that its activity coefficients are far from 1, yet those coefficients remain constant over a broad range of surface pressures. We present evidence of a first-order phase transition taking place during the adsorption of this soluble monolayer. We consider the effects of the non-ideal behavior and the phase transition on the microscopic model of adsorption, and formulate an alternative to the Langmuir picture of adsorption which is just as simple, yet it can more easily allow for non-ideal behavior. The second half of this thesis considers the problem of SHG in bulk metal vapors. The symmetry of the vapor forbids SHG, yet it has been observed. We consider several models whereby the symmetry of the vapor is broken by the presence of the laser and compare their predictions to new observations we have made using a few-picosecond laser pulse. The two-lobed output beam profile shows that it is the vapor-plus-beam combination whose symmetry is important. The dependence on vapor pressure demonstrates the coherent nature of the radiation, while the dependence on buffer gas pressure hints at a change of the symmetry in time. The time-dependence is measured directly with a preliminary pump-probe measurement. The magnitude and intensity dependence of the signal are also measured. All but one of the models are eliminated by this comparison.
High-order-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suárez, Noslen; Chacón, Alexis; Pérez-Hernández, Jose A.; Biegert, Jens; Lewenstein, Maciej; Ciappina, Marcelo F.
2017-03-01
High-order-harmonic generation (HHG) results from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with matter. It configures an invaluable tool to produce attosecond pulses, moreover, to extract electron structural and dynamical information of the target, i.e., atoms, molecules, and solids. In this contribution, we introduce an analytical description of atomic and molecular HHG, that extends the well-established theoretical strong-field approximation (SFA). Our approach involves two innovative aspects: (i) First, the bound-continuum and rescattering matrix elements can be analytically computed for both atomic and multicenter molecular systems, using a nonlocal short range model, but separable, potential. When compared with the standard models, these analytical derivations make possible to directly examine how the HHG spectra depend on the driven media and laser-pulse features. Furthermore, we can turn on and off contributions having distinct physical origins or corresponding to different mechanisms. This allows us to quantify their importance in the various regions of the HHG spectra. (ii) Second, as reported recently [N. Suárez et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 043423 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.043423], the multicenter matrix elements in our theory are free from nonphysical gauge- and coordinate-system-dependent terms; this is accomplished by adapting the coordinate system to the center from which the corresponding time-dependent wave function originates. Our SFA results are contrasted, when possible, with the direct numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in reduced and full dimensionality. Very good agreement is found for single and multielectronic atomic systems, modeled under the single active electron approximation, and for simple diatomic molecular systems. Interference features, ubiquitously present in every strong-field phenomenon involving a multicenter target, are also captured by our model.
Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy of cellular structure and function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millard, Andrew C.; Jin, Lei; Loew, Leslie M.
2005-03-01
Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging microscopy is an important emerging technique for biological research, with many advantages over existing one- or two-photon fluorescence techniques. A non-linear phenomenon employing mode-locked Ti:sapphire or fiber-based lasers, SHG results in intrinsic optical sectioning without the need for a confocal aperture. Furthermore, as a second-order process SHG is confined to loci lacking a center of symmetry. Many important structural proteins such as collagen and cellulose show intrinsic SHG, thus providing access to sub-resolution information on symmetry. However, we are particularly interested here in "resonance-enhanced" SHG from styryl dyes. In general SHG is a combination of a true second-order process and a third-order process dependent on a static electric field, such that SHG from membrane-bound dyes depends on a cell's trans-membrane potential. With simultaneous patch-clamping and non-linear imaging of cells, we have found that SHG is a sensitive probe of trans-membrane potential with sensitivities that are up to four times better than those obtained under optimal conditions using one-photon fluorescence imaging. With the sensitivity of SHG to local electric fields from other sources such as the membrane dipole potential as well as the quadratic dependence of SHG on concentration, we have found that SHG imaging of styryl dyes is also a powerful technique for the investigation of lipid phases and rafts and for the visualization of the dynamics of membrane-vesicle fusion following fertilization of an ovum.
Crystallographic Mapping of Guided Nanowires by Second Harmonic Generation Polarimetry
2017-01-01
The growth of horizontal nanowires (NWs) guided by epitaxial and graphoepitaxial relations with the substrate is becoming increasingly attractive owing to the possibility of controlling their position, direction, and crystallographic orientation. In guided NWs, as opposed to the extensively characterized vertically grown NWs, there is an increasing need for understanding the relation between structure and properties, specifically the role of the epitaxial relation with the substrate. Furthermore, the uniformity of crystallographic orientation along guided NWs and over the substrate has yet to be checked. Here we perform highly sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) polarimetry of polar and nonpolar guided ZnO NWs grown on R-plane and M-plane sapphire. We optically map large areas on the substrate in a nondestructive way and find that the crystallographic orientations of the guided NWs are highly selective and specific for each growth direction with respect to the substrate lattice. In addition, we perform SHG polarimetry along individual NWs and find that the crystallographic orientation is preserved along the NW in both polar and nonpolar NWs. While polar NWs show highly uniform SHG along their axis, nonpolar NWs show a significant change in the local nonlinear susceptibility along a few micrometers, reflected in a reduction of 40% in the ratio of the SHG along different crystal axes. We suggest that these differences may be related to strain accumulation along the nonpolar wires. We find SHG polarimetry to be a powerful tool to study both selectivity and uniformity of crystallographic orientations of guided NWs with different epitaxial relations. PMID:28094977
Second harmonic generation study of liquid surface and amphilphile monolayer
Zhao, X.
1992-12-31
This thesis contains the following topics. In Chapter 2, we use temperature dependent SHC to study the surface structure of some neat liquids. It was found all the hydrogen bonding liquids have a stronger SHG dependence of temperature while for the non-hydrogen bonding liquids SH response is insensitive to temperature change. In Chapter 3, we discussed the general feature of the electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG). We experimentally established the importance of the {chi}{sup (3)} mechanism at the air/water charged interface. In Chapter 4, we used SHG to study the p-nitrophenol (PNP) penetration into the insoluble monolayer of hexadecyl and pentadecyl acid. It was found that PNP preferentially adsorbs at the fatty acid monolayer. The population and orientation of PNP is strongly dependent on the fatty acid monolayer packing. In Chapter 5, SH signal fluctuation spectroscopy was used to study the surface self-diffusion within the monolayer gas-liquid co-existence region. Assuming the uniform distribution of the liquid phase cluster size, a diffusion model was developed to fit the experimental measured autocorrelation function. In Chapter 6, SH fluctuation spectroscopy was used to study the monolayer orientation spontaneous fluctuation. It was found that only the electron rich aromatic head groups exhibit the orientational fluctuation while the electron poor aromatic molecules do not have a fluctuation anomalies. Fluctuation time scale is strongly influenced by the hydrophobic chain length. A quantitative theory was presented based on Landau-Ginzburg theory to fit the time dependent orientation fluctuation. In Chapter 7, we focused on the acid-base equilibrium constant measurement at the air/water interface using both {chi}{sup (2)} and {chi}{sup (2)} method. We have measured pKa of aniline, phenol, amine, and acid at the interface. It turned out that for all these species, the neutral form is more stable at the interface.
Wu, Tingting; Shum, Perry Ping; Sun, Yunxu; Shao, Xuguang; Huang, Tianye
2015-01-12
We provide a comprehensive study on the efficient third harmonic generation (THG) in a lossy metal-hybrid-metal asymmetric plasmonic slot waveguide (MHM) to develop a method for efficient THG by focusing on the modal phase-matching condition (PMC), the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the nonlinear interactive material, and the pump-harmonic modal overlap in conjunction with reasonable linear propagation loss. In addition to the PMC and the nonlinear material, the stimulated THG process can be greatly enhanced by the large pump-harmonic modal overlap. With 1 W pump power, simulation results present that THG conversion efficiency up to 2.79 × 10(-4) within 4.5 ����m MHM can be achieved.
Nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic generation of hybrid structured fundamental wave.
Zhou, Huaqing; Liu, Haigang; Sang, Minghuang; Li, Jun; Chen, Xianfeng
2017-02-20
We numerically and experimentally investigated the nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic generation of hybrid structured fundamental wave whose phase modulation combined periodic and random structure. The second harmonic generation of both one- and two-dimensional hybrid structured fundamental wave were investigated in this paper. The results show that more diffraction spots can be obtained in these hybrid structures than the pure periodic modulation cases. Besides, the total intensity of the second harmonic not only can be dramatically enhanced without altering the diffraction angles, but also is increasing with the degree of randomness of the structure. This study enriches the family of second harmonic generation of structured fundamental wave and has potential application in dynamically controlling second harmonic wave in arbitrary directions.
Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma
Singh, Ravi Pratap Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K.
2015-12-15
We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C{sub 2} and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals.
Effect of nuclear motion on spectral broadening of high-order harmonic generation.
Yuan, Xiaolong; Wei, Pengfei; Liu, Candong; Ge, Xiaochun; Zheng, Yinghui; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin
2016-04-18
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in molecular targets is experimentally investigated in order to reveal the role of the nuclear motion played in the harmonic generation process. An obvious broadening in the harmonic spectrum from the H_{2} molecule is observed in comparison with the harmonic spectrum generated from other molecules with relatively heavy nuclei. We also find that the harmonic yield from the H_{2} molecule is much weaker than the yield from those gas targets with the similar ionization potentials, such as Ar atom and N_{2} molecule. The yield suppression and the spectrum broadening of HHG can be attributed to the vibrational motion of nuclear induced by the driving laser pulse. Moreover, the one-dimensional (1D) time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) with the non-Born-Oppenheimer (NBO) treatment is numerically solved to provide a theoretical support to our explanation.
Virtual biopsy of rat tympanic membrane using higher harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wen-Jeng; Lee, Chia-Fone; Chen, Szu-Yu; Chen, Yuh-Shyang; Sun, Chi-Kuang
2010-07-01
Multiharmonic optical microscopy has been widely applied in biomedical research due to its unique capability to perform noninvasive studies of biomaterials. In this study, virtual biopsy based on back-propagating multiple optical harmonics, combining second and third harmonics, is applied in unfixed rat tympanic membrane. We show that third harmonic generation can provide morphologic information on the epithelial layers of rat tympanic membrane as well as radial collagen fibers in middle fibrous layers, and that second harmonic generation can provide information on both radial and circular collagen fibers in middle fibrous layers. Through third harmonic generation, the capillary and red blood cells in the middle fibrous layer are also noted. Additionally, the 3-D relationship to adjacent bony structures and spatial variations in thickness and curvature are obtained. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using a noninvasive optical imaging system for comprehensive evaluation of the tympanic membrane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavrov, S. D.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Shestakova, A. P.; Kulyuk, L.; Mishina, E. D.
2016-05-01
Second harmonic generation is studied in structures containing nanoscale layers of transition metal chalcogenides that are two-dimensional semiconductors and deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate. The second harmonic generation intensity is calculated with allowance for multibeam interference in layers of dichalcogenide and silicon oxide. The coefficient of reflection from the SiO2-layer-based Fabry-Perot cavity is subsequently calculated for pump wave fields initiating nonlinear polarization at every point of dichalcogenide, which is followed by integration of all second harmonic waves generated by this polarization. Calculated second harmonic intensities are presented as functions of dichalcogenide and silicon oxide layer thicknesses. The dependence of the second harmonic intensity on the MoS2 layer thickness is studied experimentally in the layer of 2-140 nm. A good coincidence of the experimental data and numerical simulation results has been obtained.
Efficient second harmonic generation using nonlinear substrates patterned by nano-antenna arrays.
Bar-Lev, Doron; Scheuer, Jacob
2013-12-02
We study theoretically various design considerations for efficient generation of second harmonic using a nonlinear substrate patterned with nano-antennas. The analysis is focused on a gap Bowtie nano-antenna array recessed in LiNbO₃ which is shown to be preferable over on surface structures due to field enhancement, field profile and linear and non-linear polarization considerations. In addition, we develop the nano-antenna counterpart of the Boyd-Klienmann model in order to analyze the impact of a Gaussian shaped fundamental beam on the generated second harmonic. Finally, we show that the dielectric properties of the substrate lead to preferable directions for the incident fundamental harmonic and the emission of the second harmonic. Our analyses lead to several design rules which can enhance second and high harmonic generation from nano-antennas arrays by several orders of magnitude.
Enhanced third harmonic generation in air by two-colour ultrashort laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, Arpita; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Mathur, D.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.
2016-09-01
We report on third harmonic generation in air in a non-filamentation regime using tightly focused, ultrashort laser pulses (1-2 µm wavelength). Enhancement in the third harmonic efficiency is observed from co-propagating laser pulses of two different wavelengths which emanate from the same source—an optical parametric amplifier—and are spatially and temporally overlapped. The third harmonic efficiency for signal wavelength (1.35 µm) is measured to be 4 × 10-3 %; in the presence of idler wavelength (2.09 µm), the corresponding value becomes 1.6 × 10-2 %—a fourfold enhancement in efficiency. The pulse duration of the generated third harmonic is measured to be 37 fs. We examine the possible role of plasma to account for the observed enhancement in third harmonic generation.
Interference of high-order harmonics generated from molecules at different alignment angles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Meiyan; Zhu, Xiaosong; Li, Yang; Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang
2014-01-01
We theoretically investigate the interference effect of high-order harmonics generated from molecules at different alignment angles. It is shown that the interference of the harmonic emissions from molecules aligned at different angles can significantly modulate the spectra and result in the anomalous harmonic cutoffs observed in a recent experiment Nat. Phys. 7, 822 (2011), 10.1038/nphys2029]. The shift of the spectral minimum position with decreasing the degree of alignment is also explained by the interference effect of the harmonic emissions.
Enhancing High-Order Harmonic Generation in Light Molecules by Using Chirped Pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lara-Astiaso, M.; Silva, R. E. F.; Gubaydullin, A.; Rivière, P.; Meier, C.; Martín, F.
2016-08-01
One of the current challenges in high-harmonic generation is to extend the harmonic cutoff to increasingly high energies while maintaining or even increasing the efficiency of the high-harmonic emission. Here we show that the combined effect of down-chirped pulses and nuclear dynamics in light molecules allows one to achieve this goal, provided that long enough IR pulses are used to allow the nuclei to move well outside the Franck-Condon region. We also show that, by varying the duration of the chirped pulse or by performing isotopic substitution while keeping the pulse duration constant, one can control the extension of the harmonic plateau.
Zhang, Zhenggang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Mingxi; Ta, Dean; Wang, Weiqi
2014-07-01
The experimental observation of cumulative second-harmonic generation of fundamental Lamb waves in long bones is reported. Based on the modal expansion approach to waveguide excitation and the dispersion characteristics of Lamb waves in long bones, the mechanism underlying the generation and accumulation of second harmonics by propagation of the fundamental Lamb waves was investigated. An experimental setup was established to detect the second-harmonic signals of Lamb wave propagation in long bones in vitro. Through analysis of the group velocities of the received signals, the appropriate fundamental Lamb wave modes and the duration of the second-harmonic signals could be identified. The integrated amplitude of the time-domain second-harmonic signal was introduced and used to characterize the efficiency of second-harmonic generation by fundamental Lamb wave propagation. The results indicate that the second-harmonic signal generated by fundamental Lamb waves propagating in long bones can be observed clearly, and the effect was cumulative with propagation distance when the fundamental Lamb wave mode and the double-frequency Lamb wave mode had the same phase velocities. The present results may be important in the development of a new method to evaluate the status of long bones using the cumulative second harmonic of ultrasonic Lamb waves.
Effects of Energy Chirp on Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Lasers
Huang, Z.; Ratner, D.; Stupakov, G.; Xiang, D.; /SLAC
2009-02-23
We study effects of energy chirp on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG). Analytical expressions are compared with numerical simulations for both harmonic and bunching factors. We also discuss the EEHG free-electron laser bandwidth increase due to an energy-modulated beam and its pulse length dependence on the electron energy chirp.
Localized and propagating surface plasmon resonances in aperture-based third harmonic generation.
Nezami, Mohammadreza S; Gordon, Reuven
2015-12-14
We investigate the influence of localized and propagating surface plasmons on third harmonic generation from rectangular apertures in metal films. We designed optimal aperture array structures by using finite-difference time-domain simulations with nonlinear scattering theory. From this design space, we fabricated and measured the third harmonic in the region of maximal performance. We find the highest third harmonic conversion efficiency when the localized resonance is tuned to the fundamental wavelength and the propagating (Bragg) resonance is tuned to the third harmonic; this is 2.5 times larger than the case where the both localized and propagating are tuned to the fundamental wavelength. The two remaining configurations where also investigated with much lower conversion efficiency. When the Bragg resonance is tuned to the third harmonic, directivity improves the collection of third harmonic emission. On the other hand, due to the inherent absorption of gold at the third harmonic, tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance to the third harmonic is less beneficial. All cases showed quantitative agreement with the original theoretical analysis. This work points towards an optimal design criterion for harmonic generation from thin plasmonic metasurfaces.
Spatial properties of odd and even low order harmonics generated in gas
Lambert, G.; Andreev, A.; Gautier, J.; Giannessi, L.; Malka, V.; Petralia, A.; Sebban, S.; Stremoukhov, S.; Tissandier, F.; Vodungbo, B.; Zeitoun, Ph.
2015-01-01
High harmonic generation in gases is developing rapidly as a soft X-ray femtosecond light-source for applications. This requires control over all the harmonics characteristics and in particular, spatial properties have to be kept very good. In previous literature, measurements have always included several harmonics contrary to applications, especially spectroscopic applications, which usually require a single harmonic. To fill this gap, we present here for the first time a detailed study of completely isolated harmonics. The contribution of the surrounding harmonics has been totally suppressed using interferential filtering which is available for low harmonic orders. In addition, this allows to clearly identify behaviors of standard odd orders from even orders obtained by frequency-mixing of a fundamental laser and of its second harmonic. Comparisons of the spatial intensity profiles, of the spatial coherence and of the wavefront aberration level of 5ω at 160 nm and 6ω at 135 nm have then been performed. We have established that the fundamental laser beam aberrations can cause the appearance of a non-homogenous donut-shape in the 6ω spatial intensity distribution. This undesirable effect can be easily controlled. We finally conclude that the spatial quality of an even harmonic can be as excellent as in standard generation. PMID:25585715
Effect of the shape of quantum dots on the third-harmonic generations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Keyin; Guo, Kangxian; Liang, Litao
2017-02-01
The effect of the shape of quantum dots on the third-harmonic generations is theoretically investigated. Using the effective-mass approximation, calculations are performed employing methods of both the compact-density-matrix and the matrix diagonalization. We discuss the properties of the third-harmonic generations (THG) coefficients as a function of the incident photon frequency in elliptic and triangular shaped quantum dots. The results reveal that the shape of quantum dots has a great influence on the third-harmonic generations.
Effect of loss on slow-light-enhanced second-harmonic generation in periodic nanostructures.
Saravi, Sina; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Setzpfandt, Frank; Asger Mortensen, N; Pertsch, Thomas
2016-07-01
We theoretically analyze the dependence of second-harmonic generation efficiency on the group index in periodic optical waveguides with loss. We investigate different possible scenarios of using slow light to enhance the efficiency of this process and show that in some cases there exists a maximally achievable efficiency reached for finite values of the group index at the point of phase-matching. Furthermore, we identify situations for which slow light, surprisingly, does not enhance the second-harmonic generation efficiency. Our results are corroborated by rigorous nonlinear simulations of second-harmonic generation in periodic nanobeam waveguides with loss.
Theoretical study on second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals.
Wang, Xiangnan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng
2017-01-20
We theoretically study second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals and obtain a unified expression that combines nonlinear Raman-Nath diffraction, Čerenkov-type second-harmonic generation, and nonlinear Bragg diffraction. The analytical solution is deduced, and the theoretical result coincides well with the nonlinear Raman-Nath, nonlinear Čerenkov, and nonlinear Bragg diffraction phase-matching conditions. This method has potential applications in second-harmonic generation of more complicated two-dimensional and even three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals.
Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández-García, C.; Popmintchev, T.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H. C.; Plaja, L.; Becker, A.; Jaron-Becker, A.
2016-07-01
We analyze the role of group-velocity matching (GVM) in the macroscopic build up of the high-harmonic signal generated in gas targets at high pressures. A definition of the walk-off length, associated with GVM, in the non-perturbative intensity regime of high-harmonic generation is given. Semiclassical predictions based on this definition are in excellent agreement with full quantum simulations. We demonstrate that group velocity matching is a relevant factor in high harmonic generation and the isolation of attosecond pulses driven by long wavelength lasers and preferentially selects contributions from the short quantum trajectories.
Ultrafast high harmonics for probing the fastest spin and charge dynamics in magnetic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grychtol, Patrick
2015-03-01
Ultrafast light based on the high-harmonic up-conversion of femtosecond laser pulses have been successfully employed to access resonantly enhanced magnetic contrast at the Mabsorption edges of the 3d ferromagnets Fe, Co and Ni in a table-top setup. Thus, it has been possible to study element-specific dynamics in magnetic materials at femtosecond time scales in a laboratory environment, providing a wealth of opportunities for a greater fundamental understanding of correlated phenomena in solid-state matter. However, these investigations have so far been limited to linear polarized harmonics, since most techniques by which circular soft x-rays can be generated are highly inefficient reducing the photon flux to a level unfit for scientific applications. Besides presenting key findings of our ultrafast studies on charge and spin dynamics, we introduce a simple setup which allows for the efficient generation of circular harmonics bright enough for XMCD experiments. Our work thus represents a critical advance that enables element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatial and temporal resolution on the tabletop. In collboration with Ronny Knut, Emrah Turgut, Dmitriy Zusin, Christian Gentry, Henry Kapteyn, Margaret Murnane, JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder; Justin Shaw, Hans Nembach, Tom Silva, Electromagnetics Division, NIST, Boulder, CO; and Ofer Kfir, Avner Fleischer, Oren Cohen, Extreme Nonlinear Optics Group, Solid State Institute, Technion, Israel.
Generation of high-order harmonics in a high-intensity laser radiation field
Platonenko, Viktor T; Strelkov, V V
1998-07-31
An analysis is made of the generation of high-order harmonics by atoms and ions in high-intensity laser beams. A brief description is given of the main experimental relationships governing such generation, of methods for numerical solution of the Schrodinger equation for an atom in a strong field, and of some approximate models which make it possible to understand the mechanism of the effect (in particular, the 'semiclassical' model). A detailed discussion is made of an analytic quantum-mechanical theory of high-order harmonic generation in a one-electron system with the Coulomb, delta-like, and other potentials. Expressions are provided for the complex amplitudes of harmonics generated by monochromatic and bichromatic excitation. The results of simulation of high-order harmonic generation in an extended medium are given. This simulation takes into account the phases of the harmonics and their dependences on the amplitude of the fundamental-frequency field. The phase-matching problem and ways of solving it, the problem of the spectrum and duration of a pulse of a single harmonic and of the feasibility of controlling them, the problem of the total harmonic field, and other topics are considered. (review)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butet, Jérémy; Dutta-Gupta, Shourya; Martin, Olivier J. F.
2014-06-01
The surface second-harmonic generation from interacting spherical plasmonic nanoparticles building different clusters (symmetric and asymmetric dimers, trimers) is theoretically investigated. The plasmonic eigenmodes of the nanoparticle clusters are first determined using an ab initio approach based on the Green's functions method. This method provides the properties, such as the resonant wavelengths, of the modes sustained by a given cluster. The fundamental and second-harmonic responses of the corresponding clusters are then calculated using a surface integral method. The symmetry of both the linear and nonlinear responses is investigated, as well as their relationship. It is shown that the second-harmonic generation can be significantly enhanced when the fundamental field is such that its second harmonic matches modes with suitable symmetry. The role played by the nanogaps in second-harmonic generation is also underlined. The results presented in this article demonstrate that the properties of the second-harmonic generation from coupled metallic nanoparticles cannot be fully predicted from their linear response only, while, on the other hand, a detailed knowledge of the underlying modal structure can be used to optimize the generation of the second harmonic.
Role of antenna modes and field enhancement in second harmonic generation from dipole nanoantennas.
de Ceglia, Domenico; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; De Angelis, Costantino; Locatelli, Andrea; Haus, Joseph W; Scalora, Michael
2015-01-26
We study optical second harmonic generation from metallic dipole antennas with narrow gaps. Enhancement of the fundamental-frequency field in the gap region plays a marginal role on conversion efficiency. In the symmetric configuration, i.e., with the gap located at the center of the antenna axis, reducing gap size induces a significant red-shift of the maximum conversion efficiency peak. Either enhancement or inhibition of second-harmonic emission may be observed as gap size is decreased, depending on the antenna mode excited at the harmonic frequency. The second-harmonic signal is extremely sensitive to the asymmetry introduced by gap's displacements with respect to the antenna center. In this situation, second-harmonic light can couple to all the available antenna modes. We perform a multipolar analysis that allows engineering the far-field SH emission and find that the interaction with quasi-odd-symmetry modes generates radiation patterns with a strong dipolar component.
Low-power continuous-wave generation of visible harmonics in silicon photonic crystal nanocavities.
Galli, Matteo; Gerace, Dario; Welna, Karl; Krauss, Thomas F; O'Faolain, Liam; Guizzetti, Giorgio; Andreani, Lucio Claudio
2010-12-06
We present the first demonstration of frequency conversion by simultaneous second- and third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal nanocavity using continuous-wave optical excitation. We observe a bright dual wavelength emission in the blue/green (450-525 nm) and red (675-790 nm) visible windows with pump powers as low as few microwatts in the telecom bands, with conversion efficiencies of ∼ 10 (-5) /W and ∼ 10/ W(2) for the second- and third-harmonic, respectively. Scaling behaviors as a function of pump power and cavity quality-factor are demonstrated for both second- and third order processes. Successful comparison of measured and calculated emission patterns indicates that third-harmonic is a bulk effect while second-harmonic is a surface-related effect at the sidewall holes boundaries. Our results are promising for obtaining practical low-power, continuous-wave and widely tunable multiple harmonic generation on a silicon chip.
Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J.-P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.
2010-06-15
We report detailed measurements of high-order harmonic generation in chloromethane molecules (CCl{sub 4}, CHCl{sub 3}, and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to show that fingerprints of symmetry and electronic structure can be decoded from high-order harmonic generation even in complex randomly oriented molecules. In our measurements, orbital symmetries of these molecules are manifested as both extended harmonic cutoffs and a local minimum in the ellipticity dependence of the cut-off harmonics, suggesting the occurrence of quantum interferences during ionization. The harmonic spectra exhibit distinct interference minima at {approx}42 and {approx}60 eV. We attribute the former to the Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross section and the latter to intramolecular interference during the recombination process.
Harmonic generation of ion waves due to Brillouin backscattering
Estabrook, K.; Kruer, W.L.; Haines, M.G.
1985-05-22
We report results of simulations of stimulated Brillouin backscatter in which we see the second spatial harmonic of the ion density fluctuation and compare with linear, fluid theory. We also describe examples of the competition between Raman and Brillouin backscatter. 21 refs., 3 figs.
Silicon photonic crystal cavity enhanced second-harmonic generation from monolayer WSe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fryett, Taylor K.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Zheng, Jiajiu; Liu, Chang-Hua; Xu, Xiaodong; Majumdar, Arka
2017-03-01
Nano-resonators integrated with two-dimensional materials (e.g. transition metal dichalcogenides) have recently emerged as a promising nano-optoelectronic platform. Here we demonstrate resonator-enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) in tungsten diselenide using a silicon photonic crystal cavity. By pumping the device with ultrafast laser pulses near the cavity mode at the telecommunication wavelength, we observe a near visible SHG with a narrow linewidth and near unity linear polarization, originated from the coupling of the pump photon to the cavity mode. The observed SHG is enhanced by factor of ∼200 compared to a bare monolayer on silicon. Our results imply the efficacy of cavity integrated monolayer materials for nonlinear optics and the potential of building a silicon-compatible second-order nonlinear integrated photonic platform.
Low-order harmonic generation in metal ablation plasmas in nanosecond and picosecond laser regimes
Lopez-Arias, M.; Oujja, M.; Sanz, M.; Castillejo, M.; Ganeev, R. A.; Boltaev, G. S.; Satlikov, N. Kh.; Tugushev, R. I.; Usmanov, T.
2012-02-15
Low-order harmonics, third and fifth, of IR (1064 nm) laser emission have been produced in laser ablation plasmas of the metals manganese, copper and silver. The harmonics were generated in a process triggered by laser ablation followed by frequency up-conversion of a fundamental laser beam that propagates parallel to the target surface. These studies were carried out in two temporal regimes by creating the ablation plasma using either nanosecond or picosecond pulses and then probing the plasma plume with pulses of the same duration. The spatiotemporal behavior of the generated harmonics was characterized and reveals the distinct composition and dynamics of the plasma species that act as nonlinear media, allowing the comparison of different processes that control the generation efficiency. These results serve to guide the choice of laser ablation plasmas to be used for efficient high harmonic generation of laser radiation.
Heath, G.
2012-06-01
This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.
Frequency-resolved optical grating using surface third-harmonic generation
Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; Delong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Trebino, R.
1995-11-01
We demonstrate the frequency-resolved optical grating technique using third-harmonic generation on the surface of a cover glass with ultra-short optical pulses and compare that with the phase-retrieved spectrogram.
High-order-harmonic generation from Rydberg atoms driven by plasmon-enhanced laser fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tikman, Y.; Yavuz, I.; Ciappina, M. F.; Chacón, A.; Altun, Z.; Lewenstein, M.
2016-02-01
We theoretically investigate high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) in Rydberg atoms driven by spatially inhomogeneous laser fields, induced, for instance, by plasmonic enhancement. It is well known that the laser intensity should exceed a certain threshold in order to stimulate HHG when noble gas atoms in their ground state are used as an active medium. One way to enhance the coherent light coming from a conventional laser oscillator is to take advantage of the amplification obtained by the so-called surface plasmon polaritons, created when a low-intensity laser field is focused onto a metallic nanostructure. The main limitation of this scheme is the low damage threshold of the materials employed in the nanostructure engineering. In this work we propose the use of Rydberg atoms, driven by spatially inhomogeneous, plasmon-enhanced laser fields, for HHG. We exhaustively discuss the behavior and efficiency of these systems in the generation of coherent harmonic emission. Toward this aim we numerically solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for an atom, with an electron initially in a highly excited n th Rydberg state, located in the vicinity of a metallic nanostructure. In this zone the electric field changes spatially on scales relevant for the dynamics of the laser-ionized electron. We first use a one-dimensional model to investigate systematically the phenomena. We then employ a more realistic situation, in which the interaction of a plasmon-enhanced laser field with a three-dimensional hydrogen atom is modeled. We discuss the scaling of the relevant input parameters with the principal quantum number n of the Rydberg state in question and demonstrate that harmonic emission can be achieved from Rydberg atoms well below the damage threshold, thus without deterioration of the geometry and properties of the metallic nanostructure.
Gajić, A.; Radovanović, J. Milanović, V.; Indjin, D.; Ikonić, Z.
2014-02-07
A computational model for the optimization of the second order optical nonlinearities in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade laser structures is presented. The set of structure parameters that lead to improved device performance was obtained through the implementation of the Genetic Algorithm. In the following step, the linear and second harmonic generation power were calculated by self-consistently solving the system of rate equations for carriers and photons. This rate equation system included both stimulated and simultaneous double photon absorption processes that occur between the levels relevant for second harmonic generation, and material-dependent effective mass, as well as band nonparabolicity, were taken into account. The developed method is general, in the sense that it can be applied to any higher order effect, which requires the photon density equation to be included. Specifically, we have addressed the optimization of the active region of a double quantum well In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/Al{sub 0.48}In{sub 0.52}As structure and presented its output characteristics.
Electrical control of second-harmonic generation in a WSe2 monolayer transistor
Seyler, Kyle L.; Schaibley, John R.; Gong, Pu; ...
2015-04-20
Nonlinear optical frequency conversion, in which optical fields interact with a nonlinear medium to produce new field frequencies, is ubiquitous in modern photonic systems. However, the nonlinear electric susceptibilities that give rise to such phenomena are often challenging to tune in a given material and, so far, dynamical control of optical nonlinearities remains confined to research laboratories as a spectroscopic tool. In this paper, we report a mechanism to electrically control second-order optical nonlinearities in monolayer WSe2, an atomically thin semiconductor. We show that the intensity of second-harmonic generation at the A-exciton resonance is tunable by over an order ofmore » magnitude at low temperature and nearly a factor of four at room temperature through electrostatic doping in a field-effect transistor. Such tunability arises from the strong exciton charging effects in monolayer semiconductors, which allow for exceptional control over the oscillator strengths at the exciton and trion resonances. The exciton-enhanced second-harmonic generation is counter-circularly polarized to the excitation laser due to the combination of the two-photon and one-photon valley selection rules, which have opposite helicity in the monolayer. Finally, our study paves the way towards a new platform for chip-scale, electrically tunable nonlinear optical devices based on two-dimensional semiconductors.« less
Electrical control of second-harmonic generation in a WSe_{2} monolayer transistor
Seyler, Kyle L.; Schaibley, John R.; Gong, Pu; Rivera, Pasqual; Jones, Aaron M.; Wu, Sanfeng; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David G.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong
2015-04-20
Nonlinear optical frequency conversion, in which optical fields interact with a nonlinear medium to produce new field frequencies, is ubiquitous in modern photonic systems. However, the nonlinear electric susceptibilities that give rise to such phenomena are often challenging to tune in a given material and, so far, dynamical control of optical nonlinearities remains confined to research laboratories as a spectroscopic tool. In this paper, we report a mechanism to electrically control second-order optical nonlinearities in monolayer WSe_{2}, an atomically thin semiconductor. We show that the intensity of second-harmonic generation at the A-exciton resonance is tunable by over an order of magnitude at low temperature and nearly a factor of four at room temperature through electrostatic doping in a field-effect transistor. Such tunability arises from the strong exciton charging effects in monolayer semiconductors, which allow for exceptional control over the oscillator strengths at the exciton and trion resonances. The exciton-enhanced second-harmonic generation is counter-circularly polarized to the excitation laser due to the combination of the two-photon and one-photon valley selection rules, which have opposite helicity in the monolayer. Finally, our study paves the way towards a new platform for chip-scale, electrically tunable nonlinear optical devices based on two-dimensional semiconductors.
Zhu, Ding; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-qiang; Zhu, Yong-yuan
2012-08-01
A general theory for multiple quasi-phase-matched third-harmonic generation is investigated systematically. We find that there are up to 24 configurations for third-harmonic generation by cascaded two-parametric processes. All these configurations can be divided into three categories based on the coupling types of the harmonic fields. Each category has a set of coupled wave equations that describe its characteristics. The analytical solutions reveal some features, such as the polarization tuning and quasi-phase-matched gap effect.
Optimum plasma conditions for the efficient high-order harmonic generation in platinum plasma
Ganeev, Rashid A.; Elouga Bom, Luc B.; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki
2007-06-15
We studied the optimum plasma conditions that are required for efficient high-order harmonic generation in platinum plume. Harmonics up to the 49th order ({lambda}=16.32 nm) are analyzed under various conditions of laser-plasma interaction. Time-resolved ultraviolet spectra of platinum plasma at both optimum and nonoptimum conditions of harmonic generation are presented. We calculated the ionization states of the plasma, free electron density, and singly charged ion density at different prepulse intensities and compared them with experimental results.
Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roland, I.; Gromovyi, M.; Zeng, Y.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Gayral, B.; Semond, F.; Duboz, J. Y.; de Micheli, M.; Checoury, X.; Boucaud, P.
2016-09-01
We demonstrate phase-matched second harmonic generation in gallium nitride on silicon microdisks. The microdisks are integrated with side-coupling bus waveguides in a two-dimensional photonic circuit. The second harmonic generation is excited with a continuous wave laser in the telecom band. By fabricating a series of microdisks with diameters varying by steps of 8 nm, we obtain a tuning of the whispering gallery mode resonances for the fundamental and harmonic waves. Phase matching is obtained when both resonances are matched with modes satisfying the conservation of orbital momentum, which leads to a pronounced enhancement of frequency conversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shuai; Zhan, Ru-Juan; Chen, Ji
2001-07-01
In this Letter, we developed the “relativistic surface currents” model to investigate the harmonic generation under the conditions of p-polarized obliquely incident ultrashort-pulse ultraintense laser. As a result of this Letter, up to 70 harmonics are generated with conversion efficiencies exceeding 10 -6, which is very close to the result from Norreys' experiment and Gibbon's PIC simulations. For highly relativistic regime and nonrelativistic regime of laser power, the harmonic conversion efficiencies as a function of laser strength parameter q are discussed.
Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks
Roland, I.; Gromovyi, M.; Zeng, Y.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Gayral, B.; Semond, F.; Duboz, J. Y.; de Micheli, M.; Checoury, X.; Boucaud, P.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate phase-matched second harmonic generation in gallium nitride on silicon microdisks. The microdisks are integrated with side-coupling bus waveguides in a two-dimensional photonic circuit. The second harmonic generation is excited with a continuous wave laser in the telecom band. By fabricating a series of microdisks with diameters varying by steps of 8 nm, we obtain a tuning of the whispering gallery mode resonances for the fundamental and harmonic waves. Phase matching is obtained when both resonances are matched with modes satisfying the conservation of orbital momentum, which leads to a pronounced enhancement of frequency conversion. PMID:27687007
Shorokhov, Alexander S; Melik-Gaykazyan, Elizaveta V; Smirnova, Daria A; Hopkins, Ben; Chong, Katie E; Choi, Duk-Yong; Shcherbakov, Maxim R; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Neshev, Dragomir N; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S
2016-08-10
Strong Mie-type magnetic dipole resonances in all-dielectric nanostructures provide novel opportunities for enhancing nonlinear effects at the nanoscale due to the intense electric and magnetic fields trapped within the individual nanoparticles. Here we study third-harmonic generation from quadrumers of silicon nanodisks supporting high-quality collective modes associated with the magnetic Fano resonance. We observe nontrivial wavelength and angular dependencies of the generated harmonic signal featuring a multifold enhancement of the nonlinear response in oligomeric systems.
Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Ashutosh; Chiles, Jeff; Khan, Saeed; Toroghi, Seyfollah; Malinowski, Marcin; Camacho-González, Guillermo Fernando; Fathpour, Sasan
2017-03-01
Second-harmonic generation is demonstrated using grating-assisted quasi-phase matching, based on waveguide-width modulation or mode-shape modulation. Applicable to any thin-film integrated second-order nonlinear waveguide, the technique is demonstrated in compact lithium niobate ridge waveguides. Fabricated devices are characterized with pulsed-pumping in the near-infrared, showing second-harmonic generation at a signal wavelength of 784 nm and propagation loss of 1 dB/cm.
Third-harmonic generation via nonlinear Raman--Nath diffraction in nonlinear photonic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Yan; Wang, Wenjie; Shiloh, Roy; Roppo, Vito; Arie, Ady; Krolikowski, Wieslaw
2011-08-01
We report on the observation of multiple third-harmonic conical waves generated in an annular periodically poled nonlinear photonic crystal. We show that the conical beams are formed as a result of the cascading effect involving two parametric processes that satisfy either the transverse and/or longitudinal phase-patching conditions. This is the first experimental observation of third-harmonic generation based on nonlinear Raman--Nath diffraction.
Deep UV generation and direct DNA photo-interaction by harmonic nanoparticles in labelled samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staedler, Davide; Magouroux, Thibaud; Passemard, Solène; Schwung, Sebastian; Dubled, Marc; Schneiter, Guillaume Stéphane; Rytz, Daniel; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Bonacina, Luigi; Wolf, Jean-Pierre
2014-02-01
A biophotonics approach based on the nonlinear optical process of second harmonic generation is presented and demonstrated on malignant human cell lines labelled by harmonic nanoparticles. The method enables independent imaging and therapeutic action, selecting each modality by simply tuning the excitation laser wavelength from infrared to visible. In particular, the generation of deep ultraviolet radiation at 270 nm allows direct interaction with nuclear DNA in the absence of photosensitizing molecules.
Demonstration of the 101st harmonic generated from a laser-produced manganese plasma
Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Kieffer, J.-C.; Ozaki, T.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.
2007-08-15
We demonstrate the generation of the 101st harmonic (wavelength {lambda}=7.9 nm) from manganese plasma, which is generated using the plasma high-order harmonic technique. We also investigate the variation of the high-order harmonic distribution from the manganese plasma plume as a function of the prepulse and main pulse intensities. The harmonic cutoff was at the 31st order, for pump intensities below the barrier suppression intensity for singly charged Mn ions. However, by using higher prepulse and main pulse intensities, the harmonic cutoff was extended to the 101st order, with an appearance of second plateau for harmonics higher than the 31st order. In this case, the low-order harmonics decreased in intensity, or completely disappeared, and the spectrum for wavelengths longer than 27.6 nm was dominated by plasma line emission. The origin of the harmonics appearing at this short wavelength plateau is attributed to the interaction of the intense main pump laser field with doubly charged manganese ions.
Classical chaos and harmonic generation in laser driven nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castiglia, Giuseppe; Corso, Pietro Paolo; Cricchio, Dario; De Giovannini, Umberto; Frusteri, Biagio; Fiordilino, Emilio
2016-12-01
A quantum ring driven by an intense laser field emits light in the form of high-harmonic radiation resulting from the strong acceleration experienced by the active electrons forced to move on a curved trajectory. The spectrum of the emitted light is rich and strongly dependent on the parameters of the problem. In order to investigate the physical origin of such variability, we focus on the seemingly simple problem of a laser-driven charge constrained to a ring from a classical standpoint. As it turns out, the dynamics of such a classical electron is governed by a nonlinear equation which results into a chaotic motion—by nature depending on the initial conditions in an unpredictable way. Our results indicate that the quantum harmonic spectra are reminiscent of the classical counterpart and suggest the existence of a line connecting the quantum and classical realms.
Second-Harmonic Generation in Optical Fibers and Glass.
1992-09-30
fully born out, and that it is possible to use its polarization properties to map out the spatial profile of the induced electric field. In all of...fibers themselves. 2) The induced second-order nonlinearity arises from a DC electric field which is induced inside the glass by light beams containing...a ____ • fundamental frequency (W) and its second harmonic (2wo). 3) The light beams induce the S_ DC electric field through a multiple-photon
Efficient Third Harmonic Generation from Metal-Dielectric Hybrid Nanoantennas.
Shibanuma, Toshihiko; Grinblat, Gustavo; Albella, Pablo; Maier, Stefan A
2017-03-16
High refractive index dielectric nanoantennas are expected to become key elements for nonlinear nano-optics applications due to their large nonlinearities, low energy losses, and ability to produce high electric field enhancements in relatively large nanoscale volumes. In this work, we show that the nonlinear response from a high-index dielectric nanoantenna can be significantly improved by adding a metallic component to build a metal-dielectric hybrid nanostructure. We demonstrate that the plasmonic resonance of a Au nanoring can boost the anapole mode supported by a Si nanodisk, strongly enhancing the electric field inside the large third-order susceptibility dielectric. As a result, a high third harmonic conversion efficiency, which reaches 0.007% at a third harmonic wavelength of 440 nm, is obtained. In addition, by suitably modifying geometrical parameters of the hybrid nanoantenna, we tune the enhanced third harmonic emission throughout the optical regime. Coupling metallic and dielectric nanoantennas to expand the potential of subwavelength structures opens new paths for efficient nonlinear optical effects in the visible range on the nanoscale.
Application of nanoparticle-containing laser plasmas for optical harmonic generation
Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Ozaki, T.
2009-07-15
Nanoparticle-containing media can be used for efficient high-order harmonic generation of laser radiation. We present the results of studies of the harmonics generated in the laser-produced plasmas containing Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles. These results are compared with the harmonics generated in the plasma produced on the surface of bulk targets at different delays between the subnanosecond heating prepulse and femtosecond pulse and different intensities of prepulse on the target surface. We discuss the harmonic enhancement, which was observed in the case of nanoparticle-containing plumes with regard to the monoparticle-containing plasmas. Morphological studies of plasma debris confirmed the presence and integrity of nanoparticles in the plumes.
Quantitative Measurement of Phase Matching Conditions in Higher Order Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Sudipta; Condin, Frederic; Klaus, Philipp; Trallero, Carlos; Wilson, Benjamin; Gould, Kristen; Poliakoff, Erwin
2012-06-01
HHG has proven to be a very sensitive probe for the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. Since the generation of the harmonics is a macroscopic process, it depends on phase matching conditions. Macroscopic features of phase matching in high harmonics generation are poorly understood and also very difficult to maintain. In this paper we study phase matching in high harmonic generation quantitatively, so that harmonics can be used as an atomic and molecular probe. We measured HHG spectrum with varying laser intensity and focusing conditions. We also change the phase of the input beam by clipping it with an iris, changing it Gaussian to Bessel beam, and observe two regions of phase matching for Gaussian beam becomes one in case of Bessel beams.
Design study of an echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron laser for the 24th harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Eun-San
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present an echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme to generate a free electron laser (FEL). The EEHG FEL utilizes two modulators and two chicanes that can generate a high harmonic density modulation with a low initial beam energy modulation. Using the beam parameters of a 150-MeV electron accelerator, we show that the EEHG scheme enhances FEL performance and generates coherent radiation with a wavelength of 100 nm. In this scheme, the 150-MeV electron beam is energy-modulated by using two lasers with wavelengths of 800 and 2400 nm. The modulated electron beam is sent to two chicanes whose dispersive strengths are 8.2 and 1.0 mm to convert energy modulation to density modulation. Finally, the density-modulated electron beam is sent to a radiator that is tuned to a wavelength of 100 nm and generates radiation with a peak power of 0.3 GW. We performed simulations of the laser-beam interaction by using the GENESIS code and showed that intense coherent radiation with a wavelength of 100 nm could be achieved from the two seeding lasers under the designed EEHG scheme.
Sepehri Javan, N.
2015-08-21
This work is a theoretical study on third harmonic generation in the nonlinear propagation of an intense laser pulse through a periodic three-dimensional lattice of nanoparticles. Using a perturbative method, the nonlinear equations that describe the laser–nanoparticle interaction in the weakly relativistic regime are derived. Additionally, the nonlinear dispersion relation and the amplitude of the third harmonic are obtained. Finally, the effects of the nanoparticle radius and separation length, the distribution of the nanoparticle electron density, and the laser frequency upon the third harmonic efficiency are investigated. In addition to the expected resonance that occurs when the third harmonic resonates with the plasmon wave, another resonance appears when the nonlinear interaction of the fundamental mode with the third harmonic excites a longitudinal collective plasmon wave via the parametric Raman mechanism.
Higher and sub-harmonic Lamb wave mode generation due to debond-induced contact nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Anurup; Bijudas, C. R.
2016-04-01
Non-cumulative higher and sub-harmonic Lamb wave mode generation as a result of partial-debond of piezoelectric wafer transducers (PWT) bonded onto an Aluminium plate, is numerically investigated and experimentally validated. The influence of excitation frequency on the extent of nonlinearity due to clapping mechanism of the partially-debonded PWTs is discussed. A set of specific frequency range is arrived at based on the Eigen-value and Harmonic analyses of PWTs used in the model. It is found that, at these frequencies, which are integral multiple of the first width-direction mode of a PWT, significantly higher amplitudes of higher-harmonics are observed. It is also seen that at specific debond-positions and lengths, sharp sub-harmonics in addition to higher-harmonics are present. Signal processing is carried out using Fast Fourier transform, which is normalized for comparisons.
On the third harmonic generation in a medium with negative pump wave refraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elyutin, S. O.; Maimistov, A. I.; Gabitov, I. R.
2010-07-01
The propagation of the pump and its third harmonic pulses in a cubically nonlinear medium is considered theoretically, provided that the linear properties of the medium are characterized by a negative refractive index at the pump frequency and a positive refractive index at the harmonic frequency. For low-intensity interacting waves, the pump and third harmonic pulses propagate in opposite directions, but sufficiently intense pulses can produce a simulton—a solitary two-frequency wave that propagates in a certain direction as a single whole. The system of equations is investigated numerically for a model that, apart from the harmonic generation, includes the second-order group velocity dispersion and the nonlinear self- and cross-phase modulations of the interacting waves. The separation of the pump and harmonic pulses due to the difference in the directions of their group velocities and peculiarities of the Manley-Rowe relation for parametric processes in metamedia are discussed.
Zhou, Shiwei; Reynolds, Paul; Hossack, John
2004-11-01
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) electrostatic-based transducers inherently produce harmonics as the electrostatic force generated in the transmit mode is approximately proportional to the square of the applied voltage signal. This characteristic precludes them from being effectively used for harmonic imaging (either with or without the addition of microbubble-based contrast agents). The harmonic signal that is nonlinearly generated by tissue (or contrast agent) cannot be distinguished from the inherent transmitted harmonic signal. We investigated two precompensation methods to cancel this inherent harmonic generation in electrostatic transducers. A combination of finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental results are presented. The first approach relies on a calculation, or measurement, of the transducer's linear transfer function, which is valid for small signal levels. Using this transfer function and a measurement of the undesired harmonic signal, a predistorted transmit signal was calculated to cancel the harmonic inherently generated by the transducer. Due to the lack of perfect linearity, the approach does hot work completely in a single iteration. However, with subsequent iterations, the problem becomes more linear and converges toward a very satisfactory result (a 18.6 dB harmonic reduction was achieved in FEA simulations and a 20.7 dB reduction was measured in a prototype experiment). The second approach tested involves defining a desired function [including a direct current (DC) offset], then taking the square root of this function to determine the shape of the required input function. A 5.5 dB reduction of transmitted harmonic was obtained in both FEA simulation and experimental prototypes test.
Efficient Third Harmonic Generation for Wind Lidar Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mordaunt, David W.; Cheung, Eric C.; Ho, James G.; Palese, Stephen P.
1998-01-01
The characterization of atmospheric winds on a global basis is a key parameter required for accurate weather prediction. The use of a space based lidar system for remote measurement of wind speed would provide detailed and highly accurate data for future weather prediction models. This paper reports the demonstration of efficient third harmonic conversion of a 1 micrometer laser to provide an ultraviolet (UV) source suitable for a wind lidar system based on atmospheric molecular scattering. Although infrared based lidars using aerosol scattering have been demonstrated to provide accurate wind measurement, a UV based system using molecular or Rayleigh scattering will provide accurate global wind measurements, even in those areas of the atmosphere where the aerosol density is too low to yield good infrared backscatter signals. The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate the maturity of the laser technology and its suitability for a near term flight aboard the space shuttle. The laser source is based on diode-pumped solid-state laser technology which has been extensively demonstrated at TRW in a variety of programs and internal development efforts. The pump laser used for the third harmonic demonstration is a breadboard system, designated the Laser for Risk Reduction Experiments (LARRE), which has been operating regularly for over 5 years. The laser technology has been further refined in an engineering model designated as the Compact Advanced Pulsed Solid-State Laser (CAPSSL), in which the laser head was packaged into an 8 x 8 x 18 inch volume with a weight of approximately 61 pounds. The CAPSSL system is a ruggedized configuration suitable for typical military applications. The LARRE and CAPSSL systems are based on Nd:YAG with an output wavelength of 1064 nm. The current work proves the viability of converting the Nd:YAG fundamental to the third harmonic wavelength at 355 nm for use in a direct detection wind lidar based on atmospheric Rayleigh scattering.
Ultrahigh harmonics generation in a FEL with a seed laser
Goloviznin, V.V.; Amersfoort, P.W. van
1995-12-31
One of the most challenging problems in modern FEL technology is to operate in the X-ray region, especially in the {open_quotes}water window{close_quotes}. Because of the absence of optical resonators in this range of wavelengths, only a single-pass device may be suitable for this task. The Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) mechanism is now under active discussion as a realistic way to provide high-power coherent emission in the X-ray range. Both the undulator parameters and the electron beam parameters required for the lasing are achieveable at today`s technological level. On the other hand, the SASE approach implies a very long and expensive periodic magnetic structure, typically several tens of meters long. This is mainly because of the rather long build-up time necessary to establish a coherent mode from incoherent noise. A mechanism of shortening this time would be therefore highly desirable. In the present paper we consider a scheme using two undulators and a seed-laser to produce coherent X-ray emission. The first undulator and the seed-laser provide a pre-modulation of the beam while the second undulator serves as a source of coherent spontaneous radiation at a very high harmonic of the seed-laser frequency; the whole scheme may then be considered to be an FEL-based frequency upconvertor. The total length of the periodic magnetic structure is shown to be of the order of several meters, nearly an order of magnitude shorter than in the SASE case. For the same beam quality as in the SASE scheme and with realistic seed-laser parameters, the efficiency of the beam pre-modulation at the 50-th (!) harmonic is shown to be as high as 15%. The output radiation is tunable between discrete harmonics of the seed-frequency.
Efficient second harmonic generation of picosecond laser pulses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rabson, T. A.; Ruiz, H. J.; Shah, P. L.; Tittel, F. K.
1972-01-01
Efficient conversion to the second harmonic (SH) using KD2PO4 and CsH2AsO4 crystals inside a folded cavity of a high-power-dye mode-locked neodymium-glass laser is reported. For the first time, frequency-doubled picosecond light pulses have been obtained in CsH2AsO4 with peak powers of the order of 1 GW/sq cm at 0.531 micron for an effective pump power density of 4 GW/sq cm.
Generation of higher-order harmonics from solid targets irradiated with fs-laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsakiris, G. D.
1998-11-01
The prospect of laser intensities exceeding the 10^19 W/cm^2 level becoming available from table-top, 10 Hz lasers, has given new impetus to the subject of solid harmonics [1]. After the initial experiments demonstrating the feasibility of harmonic generation with fs-laser pulses [2], the current effort is directed towards finding out the link between relevant plasma parameters and harmonic generation. The questions that arise are what are the limitations inherent to the generation mechanism and how one can optimize the harmonic yield. For example, in experiments using the Ti:sapphire laser ATLAS at Max-Planck Institut für Quantenoptik [3], it was found that the lower the contrast of the laser pulse the weaker the Iλ^2 scaling of the harmonic conversion efficiency. Some of these results are presented and their implications to solid harmonic generation at higher intensities will be discussed. [1] P. Gibbon, IEEE J. of Q. Elec. 33, 1915 (1997). [2] S. Kohlweyer, et al., Optics Comm. 177, 431 (1995). [3] M. Zepf, et al., submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
Two-color probe of high harmonic generation from argon atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zengxiu; Yuan, Jianmin; Meng, Chao; Chen, Wenbo
2014-05-01
Two-color control of high harmonic generation has been proven a powerful in situ tool to characterize the intrinsic chirp of attosecond bursts. The weak second harmonic pulse introduces a phase modulation of the strong field quantum processes, leading to the generation of even-order harmonic. We measure the yields of even-order harmonics from argon gases as a function of the phase delay between the fundamental and its second harmonic pulse. We found that the modulation of even-order harmonics exhibits a phase jump around the 28th harmonic (48eV), closely resembling the result from. However, we show by varying laser intensity that the phase jump is unlikely to be attributed to the switching from short to long trajectories of HHG near the cut-off. In addition, we demonstrate that the phase of jump depends on the driving laser wavelength. Single-active-electron simulation fails to reproduce the experimental observation. We therefore suspect that multielectron response comes into play for the two-color control of HHG from Argon. Preliminary analysis suggests that there exists competing pathways of HHG from inner orbitals, even for argon atoms whose interaction with strong laser fields is usually assumed well described by SAE approximation.
High-Intensity High-order Harmonics Generated from Low-Density Plasma
Ozaki, T.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ganeev, R. A.; Haessler, S.; Salieres, P.
2009-07-25
We study the generation of high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma, using the 10 TW, 10 Hz laser of the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS). We perform detailed studies on the enhancement of a single order of the high-order harmonic spectrum generated in plasma using the fundamental and second harmonic of the ALLS beam line. We observe quasi-monochromatic harmonics for various targets, including Mn, Cr, Sn, and In. We identify most of the ionic/neutral transitions responsible for the enhancement, which all have strong oscillator strengths. We demonstrate intensity enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from these targets using the 800 nm pump laser and varying its chirp. We also characterized the attosecond nature of such plasma harmonics, measuring attosecond pulse trains with 360 as duration for chromium plasma, using the technique of 'Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating by Interference of Two-photon Transitions'(RABBIT). These results show that plasma harmonics are intense source of ultrashort coherent soft x-rays.
Modal engineering of second-harmonic generation in single GaP nanopillars.
Sanatinia, Reza; Anand, Srinivasan; Swillo, Marcin
2014-09-10
We report on modal dispersion engineering for second-harmonic generation (SHG) from single vertical GaP nanopillars/nanowaveguides, fabricated by a top-down approach, using optical modal overlap between the pump (830 nm) and SHG (415 nm). We present a modal analysis for the SHG process in GaP nanopillars and demonstrate efficient utilization of the longitudinal component of the nonlinear polarization density. Our SHG measurements show quantitatively the presented model. We experimentally demonstrate that polarization beam shaping and field distribution modification of the radiated SHG light, at nanometer scale, can be achieved by tuning the pillar diameter and linear pump polarization. SHG from single pillars can be used as femtosecond nanoscopic light sources at visible wavelengths applicable for single cell/molecular imaging and interesting for future integrated nanophotonics components. While this work focuses on GaP nanopillars, the results are applicable to other semiconductor nanowire materials and synthesis methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Xuye; Lyubovitsky, Julia
2015-07-01
Collagen hydrogels are natural biomaterials that comprise 3D networks of high water content and have viscoelastic properties and biocompatibility similar to native tissues. Consequently, these materials play an important role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for quite some time. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) contrasts transpire as valuable label-free spectroscopic probes for analysis of these biomaterials and this presentation will report the structural, mechanical and physicochemical parameters leading to the observed optical SHG and TPF effects in synthesized 3D collagen hydrogels. We will present results regarding understanding the dependency of collagen fiber formation on ion types, new results regarding strengthening of these biomaterials with a nontoxic chemical cross-linker genipin and polarization selection of collagen fibers' orientations.
A high-order harmonic generation apparatus for time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy
Frietsch, B.; Gahl, C.; Teichmann, M.; Weinelt, M.; Carley, R.; Döbrich, K.; Schwarzkopf, O.; Wernet, Ph.
2013-07-15
We present a table top setup for time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate band structure dynamics of correlated materials driven far from equilibrium by femtosecond laser pulse excitation. With the electron-phonon equilibration time being in the order of 1–2 ps it is necessary to achieve sub-picosecond time resolution. Few techniques provide both the necessary time and energy resolution to map non-equilibrium states of the band structure. Laser-driven high-order harmonic generation is such a technique. In our experiment, a grating monochromator delivers tunable photon energies up to 40 eV. A photon energy bandwidth of 150 meV and a pulse duration of 100 fs FWHM allow us to cover the k-space necessary to map valence bands at different k{sub z} and detect outer core states.
Large optical second harmonic generation in a low-bandgap polymer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanbel, Maarten K.; Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Willot, Pieter; Koeckelberghs, Guy; Verbiest, Thierry
2014-10-01
Recent research has focused on developing low-bandgap polymers for harvesting solar energy, fine-tuning desirable properties including power conversion efficiency, carrier mobilities and broad light absorption. However, little attention has been paid to their nonlinear optical properties. We characterized the optical second harmonic generation of corona poled films of poly(cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophen-4-ylidenedioctylmalonate). Despite being amorphous and lacking a typical donor-acceptor dye, these films display large nonlinear optical susceptibilities. Coupled with their stability and low absorption in the relevant wavelength region, these polymer films compare favorably to other materials. Our results show the promise of low-bandgap polymers for nonlinear optical applications.
Dynamical centrosymmetry breaking - A novel mechanism for second harmonic generation in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvalho, David N.; Marini, Andrea; Biancalana, Fabio
2017-03-01
We discover an unusual phenomenon that occurs when a graphene monolayer is illuminated by a short and intense pulse at normal incidence. Due to the pulse-induced oscillations of the Dirac cones, a dynamical breaking of the layer's centrosymmetry takes place, leading to the generation of second harmonic waves. We prove that this result can only be found by using the full Dirac equation and show that the widely used semiconductor Bloch equations fail to reproduce this and some other important physics of graphene. Our results open new windows in the understanding of nonlinear light-matter interactions in a wide variety of new 2D materials with a gapped or ungapped Dirac-like dispersion.
Surface plasma wave assisted second harmonic generation of laser over a metal film
Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.
2015-01-15
Second harmonic generation of laser mode converted surface plasma wave (SPW) over a corrugated metal film is studied. The laser, impinged on the metal film, under attenuated total reflection configuration, excites SPW over the metal–vacuum interface. The excited SPW extends over a much wider surface area than the laser spot cross-section. It exerts a second harmonic ponderomotive force on metal electrons, imparting them velocity that beats with the surface ripple to produce a nonlinear current, driving resonant second harmonic surface plasma wave.
Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods
Hubert, C.; Billot, L.; Adam, P.-M.; Bachelot, R.; Royer, P.; Grand, J.; Gindre, D.; Dorkenoo, K. D.; Fort, A.
2007-04-30
The role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from arrays of gold nanorod particles excited by femtosecond laser pulses is investigated as a function of incident light polarization and irradiation wavelength. In addition to photoluminescence, a peak of second harmonic is observed and is found to depend on the polarization and wavelength of the fundamental frequency laser beam. In particular, the authors found similarities between extinction spectra of the nanoparticles and spectra of emmitted second harmonic. This behavior can be explained by resonant excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances.
Nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic generation with structured fundamental wave.
Liu, Haigang; Li, Jun; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng
2016-07-11
We proposed and experimentally demonstrated that nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic can be achieved in real time when a fundamental wave with the phase periodically modulated, termed as structured fundamental wave, incident in a homogeneous nonlinear medium. The diffraction of second harmonic originates from the structured fundamental wave, rather than the grating of a nonlinear photonic crystal. Nonlinear second harmonic generation, in forms of both one- and two-dimensional, was investigated in our experiment. This method circumvents the limitation of nonlinear photonic crystals in some extend and has potential applications in nonlinear frequency conversion, optical signal processing and beam shaping, etc.
N2 HOMO-1 orbital cross section revealed through high-order-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troß, Jan; Ren, Xiaoming; Makhija, Varun; Mondal, Sudipta; Kumarappan, Vinod; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos A.
2017-03-01
We measure multi-orbital contributions to high harmonic generation from aligned nitrogen. We show that the change in revival structure in the cutoff harmonics has a counterpart in the angular distribution when a lower-lying orbital contributes to the harmonic yield. This angular distribution is directly observed in the laboratory without any further deconvolution. Because of the high degree of alignment we are able to distinguish angular contributions of the highest occupied molecular orbital 1 (HOMO-1) orbital from angle-dependent spectroscopic features of the HOMO. In particular, we are able to make a direct comparison with the cross section of the HOMO-1 orbital in the extreme ultraviolet region.
Use of extended laser plasma for generation of high-order harmonics of picosecond duration
Ganeev, R A; Boltaev, G S; Reyimbaev, Sh; Sherniyozov, Kh; Usmanov, T
2015-07-31
We report the results of experimental investigations on the generation of picosecond radiation harmonics in extended laser plasma produced on the surface of different metal targets. The effect of plasma length, heating pulse duration and delay between the heating and transformable pulses on the efficiency of conversion to higher harmonics is studied. The λ = 1064 nm radiation conversion to a short-wavelength (down to 50 nm, 21st harmonic) range in extended plasma of several metals is demonstrated. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)
High harmonic generation in underdense plasmas by intense laser pulses with orbital angular momentum
Mendonça, J. T.; Vieira, J.
2015-12-15
We study high harmonic generation produced by twisted laser pulses, with orbital angular momentum in the relativistic regime, for pulse propagation in underdense plasma. We consider fast time scale processes associated with an ultra-short pulse, where the ion motion can be neglected. We use both analytical models and numerical simulations using a relativistic particle-in-cell code. The present description is valid for relativistic laser intensities, when the normalized field amplitude is much larger than one, a ≫ 1. We also discuss two distinct processes associated with linear and circular polarization. Using both analytical solutions and particle-in-cell simulations, we are able to show that, for laser pulses in a well defined Laguerre-Gauss mode, angular momentum conservation is observed during the process of harmonic generation. Intensity modulation of the harmonic spectrum is also verified, as imposed by the nonlinear time-scale for energy transfer between different harmonics.
Relativistic second-harmonic generation of a laser from underdense plasmas
Singh, K.P.; Gupta, D.N.; Yadav, Sushila; Tripathi, V.K.
2005-01-01
A high intensity laser obliquely incident on a vacuum-plasma interface produces second-harmonic radiation in the reflected component. The efficiency of second-harmonic generation increases with the angle of incidence, up to critical angle of incidence (our model is not valid beyond critical angle of incidence). The efficiency also depends on electron density, showing a maximum at {omega}{sub p}{sup 2}/{omega}{sup 2} congruent with 0.7, where {omega}{sub p} and {omega} are relativistic plasma frequency and laser frequency, respectively. The efficiency of second-harmonic generation increases sharply with laser intensity in the nonrelativistic regime and saturates at higher intensities. The intensity of the second harmonic is proportional to square of the laser intensity at low pump laser intensities and tends to proportional to laser intensity in the strong relativistic regime.
High-order-harmonic generation using gas-phase H{sub 2}O molecules
Zhao Songfeng; Jin, Cheng; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.; Lucchese, R. R.
2011-03-15
We investigate high-order-harmonic generation of isotropically distributed gas-phase H{sub 2}O molecules exposed to an intense laser field. The induced dipole of each individual molecule by the laser field is first calculated using the recently developed quantitative rescattering theory. In a thin medium, harmonic spectra generated coherently from all the molecules are then calculated by solving Maxwell's equation of propagation. By using accurate transition dipoles of H{sub 2}O, we show that the harmonics in the lower plateau region are quite different from models that employ the simpler strong-field approximation. We also examine the magnitude and phase of the harmonics and their dependence on laser focusing conditions.
Performance optimization of an external enhancement resonator for optical second-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurdik, E.; Hohlfeld, J.; van Etteger, A. F.; Toonen, A. J.; Meerts, W. L.; van Kempen, H.; Rasing, Th.
2002-07-01
We study the factors that ultimately limit the performance of an external enhancement resonator for optical second-harmonic generation (SHG). To describe the resonant SHG process we introduce a theoretical model that accounts for the intensity-dependent cavity loss that is due to harmonic generation and that also includes a realistic assumption about the shape and the frequency width of the laser mode. With the help of this model we optimized the performance of a doubling cavity based on a lithium triborate (LBO) crystal. This cavity was used for frequency doubling the output of a single-frequency titanium-doped sapphire laser at 850 nm. We were able to push the total second-harmonic conversion efficiency to 53% (a 1.54-W pump resulted in 820 mW of second-harmonic light), which to our knowledge is the best result ever reported for a LBO-based doubling cavity. , Laser-focused atomic deposition.
Second harmonic generation in carbon nanotubes induced by transversal electrostatic field.
Trolle, Mads Lund; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2013-08-14
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of armchair and zigzag type contain an inversion centre, and are thus intrinsically unable to generate dipole even-order nonlinearities, such as second harmonic generation (SHG). Breaking the inversion symmetry by application of an external voltage transversal to the CNT axis will, however, induce a second harmonic response. Similarly, additional non-vanishing second harmonic tensor elements will be induced in chiral tubes already displaying an intrinsic response. Many geometries realizing such a setup can be envisaged, e.g., an experimental gate setup or deposition of CNTs on, or integration in, strongly polarized host media, perhaps facilitating a tunable second harmonic response. In this work, we calculate the SHG signal from CNTs under transversally applied electric fields based on a tight-binding model.
High-order harmonic generation using a high-repetition-rate turnkey laser
Lorek, E. Larsen, E. W.; Heyl, C. M.; Carlström, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Paleček, D.; Zigmantas, D.
2014-12-15
We generate high-order harmonics at high pulse repetition rates using a turnkey laser. High-order harmonics at 400 kHz are observed when argon is used as target gas. In neon, we achieve generation of photons with energies exceeding 90 eV (∼13 nm) at 20 kHz. We measure a photon flux of up to 4.4 × 10{sup 10} photons per second per harmonic in argon at 100 kHz. Many experiments employing high-order harmonics would benefit from higher repetition rates, and the user-friendly operation opens up for applications of coherent extreme ultra-violet pulses in new research areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afinogenov, B. I.; Popkova, A. A.; Bessonov, V. O.; Fedyanin, A. A.
2016-03-01
We have studied an influence of Tamm plasmon-polaritons (TPPs) excitation on the nonlinear-optical response of one-dimensional photonic crystal/metal structures. It was shown that in case when the fundamental radiation is in resonance with the TPP, second-harmonic generation in the sample is enhanced over two times of magnitude in comparison with a bare metal film. Using methods of nonlinear transfer matrices it was demonstrated that the third-order nonlinear response of a metal/dielectric heterostructure, when both fundamental and third-harmonic radiation are in resonance with the first- and third-order TPPs respectively, can be enhanced via two mechanisms: fundamental field localization and optical harmonic resonant tunneling. The overall enhancement of the third harmonic generation in that case can exceed three orders of magnitude in comparison with the non-resonant case.
Nonlinear harmonic generation in high-gain free-electron lasers
Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P.L.; Pagnutti, S.
2005-06-01
We reconsider the derivation of semianalytical expressions providing the most significant aspects of the high-gain free-electron laser dynamics. We obtain new expressions for the growth of the laser power, of the e-beam-induced energy spread, and of the higher-order nonlinearly generated harmonics. The procedure we employ, based on theoretical ansatz and fitting methods, allows the determination of crucial quantities like the expected harmonic output power and its dependences on the e-beam parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimitrovski, Darko; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2017-01-01
We consider the interaction of gapped graphene in the two-band approximation using an explicit time-dependent approach. In addition to the full high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum, we also obtain the perturbative harmonic response using the time-dependent method at photon energies covering all the significant features in the responses. The transition from the perturbative to the fully nonperturbative regime of HHG at these photon energies is studied in detail.
Quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation in hollow core photonic crystal fibers.
Ren, H; Nazarkin, A; Nold, J; Russell, P St J
2008-10-13
The potential of hollow core photonic crystal fiber as a nonlinear gas cell for efficient high harmonic generation is discussed. The feasibility of phase-matching this process by modulating the phase of ionization electrons using a counter-propagating laser field is shown. In this way, harmonics with energies of several hundreds of eV can be produced using fs-laser pump pulses of microJ energy.
Butet, Jérémy; Duboisset, Julien; Bachelier, Guillaume; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Benichou, Emmanuel; Jonin, Christian; Brevet, Pierre-François
2010-05-12
We report the optical second harmonic generation from individual 150 nm diameter gold nanoparticles dispersed in gelatin. The quadratic hyperpolarizability of the particles is determined and the input polarization dependence of the second harmonic intensity obtained. These results are found in excellent agreement with ensemble measurements and finite element simulations. These results open up new perspectives for the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles.
Extracavity and external cavity second-harmonic generation in a periodically poled silica fibre
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dontsova, E. I.; Kablukov, S. I.; Lobach, I. A.; Dostovalov, A. V.; Babin, S. A.; Gladyshev, A. V.; Dianov, E. M.; Corbary, C.; Ibsen, M.; Kazansky, P. G.
2016-11-01
We have studied second-harmonic generation (SHG) of a cw single-frequency ytterbium-doped fibre laser, using a periodically poled silica fibre as a nonlinear medium for frequency conversion. All-fibre external cavity SHG has been investigated for the first time. A twofold increase in second-harmonic power in a fibre ring cavity has been demonstrated and possibilities of further optimising the fibre scheme have been analysed.
Self Excitation and Harmonics in Wind Power Generation: Preprint
Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Romanowitz, H.; Yinger, R.
2004-11-01
Traditional wind turbines are equipped with induction generators. Induction generators are preferred because they are inexpensive, rugged, and require very little maintenance. Unfortunately, induction generators require reactive power from the grid to operate. Because reactive power varies with the output power, the terminal voltage at the generator may become too low to compensate the induction generator. The interactions among the wind turbine, the power network, and the capacitor compensation, are important aspects of wind generation. In this paper, we will show the interactions among the induction generator, capacitor compensation, power system network, and magnetic saturations and examine the cause of resonance conditions and self-excitation.
Ultra-intense high orbital angular momentum harmonic generation in plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vieira, Jorge; Trines, R.; Alves, E. P.; Mendonca, J. T.; Fonseca, R. A.; Norreys, P.; Bigham, R.; Silva, L. O.
2016-10-01
As an independent degree of freedom, it is in principle possible to manipulate the orbital angular momentum (OAM) independently of any other laser property. The OAM therefore stands in equal foot to any other fundamental property of light, such as its frequency. There are, however, many open questions regarding the ability to control the OAM as an independent degree of freedom. A striking example is high harmonic generation, for which there is no OAM counterpart. Here we investigate a high OAM harmonics technique to generate and amplify high OAM harmonics while preserving the laser frequency. The scheme, based on simulated Raman backscattering, employs a linearly polarised long pump containing more than one OAM level, and a counter-propagating linearly polarised signal beam. The high OAM harmonics result from angular momentum cascading from modes with lower OAM to the modes with higher OAM. The OAM harmonics spectrum can be tailored according to the OAM contents of the pump. We illustrate the scheme with the generation of prime OAM harmonics, an all-optical realisation of the Green-Tao theorem. We support our theoretical findings with 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using Osiris.
Surface area-dependent second harmonic generation from silver nanorods.
Ngo, Hoang Minh; Luong, Thanh Tuyen; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle
2016-08-17
The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of metallic nanoparticles strongly depend on their size and shape. Metallic gold nanorods have already been widely investigated, but other noble metals could also be used for nanorod fabrication towards applications in photonics. Here we report on the synthesis and NLO characterization of silver nanorods (AgNRs) with controllable localized surface plasmon resonance. We have implemented an original, one-step and seedless synthesis method, based on a spontaneous particle growth technique in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent. Colloidal solutions of AgNRs with various aspect ratios (5.0; 6.3; 7.5; 8.2 and 9.7) have been obtained and characterized using Harmonic light scattering (HLS) at 1064 nm, in order to investigate their quadratic NLO properties. From HLS experiments, we demonstrate that hyperpolarizability (β) values of AgNRs display a strong dependence on their surface area.
Osewski, Pawel; Belardini, Alessandro; Petronijevic, Emilija; Centini, Marco; Leahu, Grigore; Diduszko, Ryszard; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Sibilia, Concita
2017-01-01
Second-order nonlinear optical materials are used to generate new frequencies by exploiting second-harmonic generation (SHG), a phenomenon where a nonlinear material generates light at double the optical frequency of the input beam. Maximum SHG is achieved when the pump and the generated waves are in phase, for example through birefringence in uniaxial crystals. However, applying these materials usually requires a complicated cutting procedure to yield a crystal with a particular orientation. Here we demonstrate the first example of phase matching under the normal incidence of SHG in a biaxial monoclinic single crystal of zinc tungstate. The crystal was grown by the micro-pulling-down method with the (102) plane perpendicular to the growth direction. Additionally, at the same time white light was generated as a result of stimulated Raman scattering and multiphoton luminescence induced by higher-order effects such as three-photon luminescence enhanced by cascaded third-harmonic generation. The annealed crystal offers SHG intensities approximately four times larger than the as grown one; optimized growth and annealing conditions may lead to much higher SHG intensities. PMID:28338074
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osewski, Pawel; Belardini, Alessandro; Petronijevic, Emilija; Centini, Marco; Leahu, Grigore; Diduszko, Ryszard; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Sibilia, Concita
2017-03-01
Second-order nonlinear optical materials are used to generate new frequencies by exploiting second-harmonic generation (SHG), a phenomenon where a nonlinear material generates light at double the optical frequency of the input beam. Maximum SHG is achieved when the pump and the generated waves are in phase, for example through birefringence in uniaxial crystals. However, applying these materials usually requires a complicated cutting procedure to yield a crystal with a particular orientation. Here we demonstrate the first example of phase matching under the normal incidence of SHG in a biaxial monoclinic single crystal of zinc tungstate. The crystal was grown by the micro-pulling-down method with the (102) plane perpendicular to the growth direction. Additionally, at the same time white light was generated as a result of stimulated Raman scattering and multiphoton luminescence induced by higher-order effects such as three-photon luminescence enhanced by cascaded third-harmonic generation. The annealed crystal offers SHG intensities approximately four times larger than the as grown one; optimized growth and annealing conditions may lead to much higher SHG intensities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tangtrongbenchasil, C.; Nonaka, K.
2008-11-01
Nano-focus beam applications of short wavelength approximately 220 nm now play important roles in engineering and industrial sections. At present, light sources at approximately 220 nm are commercially available but large size, difficult to maintain, and expensive. Compact wavelength tunable and cost effective light sources at approximately 220 nm are required. Laser diode with sum-frequency generation methods are employed to generated the shorter wavelength approximately 220 nm. This paper presents comparison of second harmonic generation schemes using a nonlinear optic crystal and two types of laser diode, which are a 440 nm single mode blue laser diode and a 450 nm multimode Fabry-Perot blue laser diode, has potential to generate wide tunable coherent deep ultraviolet-c at approximately 220 nm. Using the blue laser diode with the sum-frequency technique, a high second harmonic power is hardly observed due to low conversion efficiency. The best performance of second harmonic generation using blue laser diode, nonlinear optic crystal, and an high-Q external cavity laser diode was observed as 1.1 μW second harmonic ultraviolet-c power at 224.45 nm ultraviolet-c wavelength and 5.75 nm ultraviolet wavelength tunability. In addition, the improvement of increasing second harmonic power approximately 220 nm and the limitation of wavelength tuning of short wavelength are also theoretically discussed in this paper.
Rivard, Maxime; Couture, Charles-André; Miri, Amir K; Laliberté, Mathieu; Bertrand-Grenier, Antony; Mongeau, Luc; Légaré, François
2013-01-01
We report that combining interferometry with Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy provides valuable information about the relative orientation of noncentrosymmetric structures composing tissues. This is confirmed through the imaging of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle. The inteferometric Second Harmonic Generation (ISHG) images reveal that each side of the myosin filaments composing the A band of the sarcomere generates π phase shifted SHG signal which implies that the myosin proteins at each end of the filaments are oriented in opposite directions. This highlights the bipolar structural organization of the myosin filaments and shows that muscles can be considered as a periodically poled biological structure.
Educational Materials and Equipment Company: Collisions and Simple Harmonic Motion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ritchie, LeVonda S.; Risley, John S.
1988-01-01
Reviews a computer courseware package for mechanics at the high school and introductory college level. Discusses one-dimensional collisions, two-dimensional collisions, and simple harmonic motion programs. Shows two typical monitor displays. Rates this program as good overall. (YP)
Elouga Bom, L. B.; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Vidal, F.; Ozaki, T.; Ganeev, R. A.
2009-03-16
We studied high-order harmonic generation from plasma that contains an abundance of indium oxide nanoparticles. We found that harmonics from nanoparticle-containing plasma are considerably more intense than from plasma produced on the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bulk target, with high-order harmonic energy ranging from 6 {mu}J (for the ninth harmonic) to 1 {mu}J (for the 17th harmonic) in the former case. The harmonic cutoff from nanoparticles was at the 21st order, which is lower than that observed using indium oxide solid target. By comparing the harmonic spectra obtained from solid and nanoparticle indium oxide targets, we concluded that intense harmonics in the latter case are dominantly generated from neutral atoms of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles.
Strelkov, V V; Gonoskov, A A; Gonoskov, I A; Ryabikin, M Yu
2011-07-22
We investigate numerically and analytically the polarization properties of high-order harmonics generated by an atom in intense elliptically polarized laser field. The offset angle of the harmonic polarization ellipse can be well described with the semiclassic "simple-man" high-harmonic generation model. The harmonic ellipticity itself, however, can be hardly understood within this model. We show that this ellipticity originates from quantum-mechanical uncertainty of the electron motion. We develop a theoretical approach describing this ellipticity and, more generally, the time evolution of the high-harmonic polarization state within the laser cycle. The analytical results are verified with the exact numerical solution; to make the comparison accurately, we develop a specific technique for separating the contributions of quantum paths in the numerical calculation.
Platonenko, Viktor T
2001-01-31
The amplitudes of harmonics of the atomic response are determined as functions of the intensity of the pump light wave within the range of intensities of 4.9x10{sup 13} - 2.1x10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2} through the numerical solution of the Schrodinger equation for a hydrogen atom in an oscillating electric field. For the amplitudes of harmonics starting from the 5th up to at least the 55th order, these dependences display a deep modulation. Generation of high-order harmonics is analysed within the framework of semiclassical theory including several factors that were ignored in earlier studies. Relatively simple formulas for the amplitudes of high-order harmonics are derived. These formulas agree well with the results of numerical simulations in the range of tunnelling ionisation and provide a satisfactory agreement with numerical simulations in the range of barrier-suppression ionisation. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Zheng, Li; Chen, Xianfeng; Tang, Songsong; Li, Ruxin
2007-12-24
A technique for enhanced generation of selected high harmonics in a gas medium, in a high ionization limit, is proposed in this paper. An aperiodically corrugated hollow-core fiber is employed to modulate the intensity of the fundamental laser pulse along the direction of propagation, resulting in multiple quasi-phase-matched high harmonic emissions at the cutoff region. Simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is applied for optimizing the aperiodic hollow-core fiber. Our simulation shows that the yield of selected harmonics is increased equally by up to 2 orders of magnitude compared with no modulation and this permits flexible control of the quasi-phase-matched emission of selected harmonics by appropriate corrugation.
Ferré, A.; Boguslavskiy, A. E.; Dagan, M.; Blanchet, V.; Bruner, B. D.; Burgy, F.; Camper, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Fedorov, N.; Gaudin, J.; Geoffroy, G.; Mikosch, J.; Patchkovskii, S.; Petit, S.; Ruchon, T.; Soifer, H.; Staedter, D.; Wilkinson, I.; Stolow, A.; Dudovich, N.; Mairesse, Y.
2015-01-01
High-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules generally involves multiple channels of ionization. Their relative contribution can be strongly influenced by the presence of resonances, whose assignment remains a major challenge for high-harmonic spectroscopy. Here we present a multi-modal approach for the investigation of unaligned polyatomic molecules, using SF6 as an example. We combine methods from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy, above-threshold ionization and attosecond metrology. Fragment-resolved above-threshold ionization measurements reveal that strong-field ionization opens at least three channels. A shape resonance in one of them is found to dominate the signal in the 20–26 eV range. This resonance induces a phase jump in the harmonic emission, a switch in the polarization state and different dynamical responses to molecular vibrations. This study demonstrates a method for extending high-harmonic spectroscopy to polyatomic molecules, where complex attosecond dynamics are expected. PMID:25608712
Bancelin, Stéphane; Aimé, Carole; Gusachenko, Ivan; Kowalczuk, Laura; Latour, Gaël; Coradin, Thibaud; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire
2014-09-16
The quantification of collagen fibril size is a major issue for the investigation of pathological disorders associated with structural defects of the extracellular matrix. Second-harmonic generation microscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the macromolecular organization of collagen in unstained biological tissues. Nevertheless, due to the complex coherent building of this nonlinear optical signal, it has never been used to measure fibril diameter so far. Here we report absolute measurements of second-harmonic signals from isolated fibrils down to 30 nm diameter, via implementation of correlative second-harmonic-electron microscopy. Moreover, using analytical and numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the high sensitivity of this technique originates from the parallel alignment of collagen triple helices within fibrils and the subsequent constructive interferences of second-harmonic radiations. Finally, we use these absolute measurements as a calibration for ex vivo quantification of fibril diameter in the Descemet's membrane of a diabetic rat cornea.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferré, A.; Boguslavskiy, A. E.; Dagan, M.; Blanchet, V.; Bruner, B. D.; Burgy, F.; Camper, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Fedorov, N.; Gaudin, J.; Geoffroy, G.; Mikosch, J.; Patchkovskii, S.; Petit, S.; Ruchon, T.; Soifer, H.; Staedter, D.; Wilkinson, I.; Stolow, A.; Dudovich, N.; Mairesse, Y.
2015-01-01
High-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules generally involves multiple channels of ionization. Their relative contribution can be strongly influenced by the presence of resonances, whose assignment remains a major challenge for high-harmonic spectroscopy. Here we present a multi-modal approach for the investigation of unaligned polyatomic molecules, using SF6 as an example. We combine methods from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy, above-threshold ionization and attosecond metrology. Fragment-resolved above-threshold ionization measurements reveal that strong-field ionization opens at least three channels. A shape resonance in one of them is found to dominate the signal in the 20-26 eV range. This resonance induces a phase jump in the harmonic emission, a switch in the polarization state and different dynamical responses to molecular vibrations. This study demonstrates a method for extending high-harmonic spectroscopy to polyatomic molecules, where complex attosecond dynamics are expected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bancelin, Stéphane; Aimé, Carole; Gusachenko, Ivan; Kowalczuk, Laura; Latour, Gaël; Coradin, Thibaud; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire
2014-09-01
The quantification of collagen fibril size is a major issue for the investigation of pathological disorders associated with structural defects of the extracellular matrix. Second-harmonic generation microscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the macromolecular organization of collagen in unstained biological tissues. Nevertheless, due to the complex coherent building of this nonlinear optical signal, it has never been used to measure fibril diameter so far. Here we report absolute measurements of second-harmonic signals from isolated fibrils down to 30 nm diameter, via implementation of correlative second-harmonic-electron microscopy. Moreover, using analytical and numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the high sensitivity of this technique originates from the parallel alignment of collagen triple helices within fibrils and the subsequent constructive interferences of second-harmonic radiations. Finally, we use these absolute measurements as a calibration for ex vivo quantification of fibril diameter in the Descemet’s membrane of a diabetic rat cornea.
X-ray harmonics rejection on third-generation synchrotron sources using compound refractive lenses.
Polikarpov, Maxim; Snigireva, Irina; Snigirev, Anatoly
2014-05-01
A new method of harmonics rejection based on X-ray refractive optics has been proposed. Taking into account the fact that the focal distance of the refractive lens is energy-dependent, the use of an off-axis illumination of the lens immediately leads to spatial separation of the energy spectrum by focusing the fundamental harmonic at the focal point and suppressing the unfocused high-energy radiation with a screen absorber or slit. The experiment was performed at the ESRF ID06 beamline in the in-line geometry using an X-ray transfocator with compound refractive lenses. Using this technique the presence of the third harmonic has been reduced to 10(-3). In total, our method enabled suppression of all higher-order harmonics to five orders of magnitude using monochromator detuning. The method is well suited to third-generation synchrotron radiation sources and is very promising for the future ultimate storage rings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Li-Qiang; Li, Wen-Liang; Liu, Hang
2017-01-01
Molecular harmonic spectra of {{{H}}}2+ driven by the linearly polarized laser pulses with different polarized angles have been theoretically investigated through solving the two-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation. (i) Below-threshold harmonic spectra show a visible enhanced peak around the 7th harmonic (H7), which produces a red-shift phenomenon as the internuclear distance increased. Theoretical analyses show the red-shift enhanced peak is caused by the laser-induced electron transfer between the ground state and the 1st excited state of {{{H}}}2+. (ii) Due to the two-centre interference phenomenon, the above-threshold harmonic spectra exhibit many maxima and minima. (iii) With the introduction of the polarized angle, the anomalous elliptically polarized harmonics can be found. But, with the introduction of the spatial inhomogeneous effect, not only the ellipticities of the harmonics are equal to a stable value of \\varepsilon ∼ 0.1–0.3, but also the harmonic cutoffs are extended. As a result, four super-bandwidths of 407 eV, 310 eV, 389 eV, and 581 eV can be obtained. Time profiles of the harmonic generations have been shown to explain the harmonic characteristics. Finally, a series of elliptically polarized (\\varepsilon ∼ 0.1–0.3) attosecond X-ray pulses with durations from 18as to 25as can be directly produced through Fourier transformation of the spectral continuum. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11504151, Doctoral Scientific Research Foundation of Liaoning Province under Grant No. 201501123 and Scientific Research Fund of Liaoning Provincial Education Department under Grant No. L2014242
Optimization of multi-color laser waveform for high-order harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Cheng; Lin, C. D.
2016-09-01
With the development of laser technologies, multi-color light-field synthesis with complete amplitude and phase control would make it possible to generate arbitrary optical waveforms. A practical optimization algorithm is needed to generate such a waveform in order to control strong-field processes. We review some recent theoretical works of the optimization of amplitudes and phases of multi-color lasers to modify the single-atom high-order harmonic generation based on genetic algorithm. By choosing different fitness criteria, we demonstrate that: (i) harmonic yields can be enhanced by 10 to 100 times, (ii) harmonic cutoff energy can be substantially extended, (iii) specific harmonic orders can be selectively enhanced, and (iv) single attosecond pulses can be efficiently generated. The possibility of optimizing macroscopic conditions for the improved phase matching and low divergence of high harmonics is also discussed. The waveform control and optimization are expected to be new drivers for the next wave of breakthrough in the strong-field physics in the coming years. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 30916011207), Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13491), and Air Force Office of Scientific Research, USA (Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0255).
Direct probing of contact electrification by using optical second harmonic generation technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-08-01
Contact electrification between two different materials is one of the oldest fields of study in solid-state physics. Here, we introduced an innovative system based on optical electric-field-induced second harmonic generation (EFI-SHG) technique that can directly monitor the dynamic performance of the contact electrification on the surface of polyimide film. After the contact, the EFI-SHG system visualized briefly three relaxations of the tribo-induced charges on the surface of a polyimide film, a fast relaxation within 3 min followed by two much slower relaxations, which were possibly related to different charge diffusion routes. The contact electrification under several special experimental conditions (wind, water and steam) was studied to demonstrate the high flexibility and material selectivity of the EFI-SHG. The EFI-SHG studies confirmed the motion of the water can remove the surface charge, while the appearance and the evaporation of a thin water layer cannot enhance the charge diffusion. We anticipate that this experimental technique will find a variety of applications in the field of contact electrification and the development of the recently invented triboelectric nano generator.
Direct probing of contact electrification by using optical second harmonic generation technique
Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-01-01
Contact electrification between two different materials is one of the oldest fields of study in solid-state physics. Here, we introduced an innovative system based on optical electric-field-induced second harmonic generation (EFI-SHG) technique that can directly monitor the dynamic performance of the contact electrification on the surface of polyimide film. After the contact, the EFI-SHG system visualized briefly three relaxations of the tribo-induced charges on the surface of a polyimide film, a fast relaxation within 3 min followed by two much slower relaxations, which were possibly related to different charge diffusion routes. The contact electrification under several special experimental conditions (wind, water and steam) was studied to demonstrate the high flexibility and material selectivity of the EFI-SHG. The EFI-SHG studies confirmed the motion of the water can remove the surface charge, while the appearance and the evaporation of a thin water layer cannot enhance the charge diffusion. We anticipate that this experimental technique will find a variety of applications in the field of contact electrification and the development of the recently invented triboelectric nano generator. PMID:26272162
Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation.
Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos
2017-03-10
We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams -or "structured attosecond light springs"- with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seung-Woo
2010-03-01
Seung-Woo Kim has been researching femtosecond ultrafast optics for ultraprecision manufacturing technologies including EUV and X-ray generation. Recently, he and his colleagues achieved a novel method of high-harmonic generation by exploiting the local field enhancement in the nanogap induced by resonant plasmons within a metallic nanostructure consisting of bow-tie shaped gold elements on a sapphire substrate. Plasmonic gold elements enhance the pulse intensity enough to induce high harmonic generation with no extra cavities at all. By injection of argon and xenon gas jets onto bow-tie nanostructures, high harmonics up to 21st (38 nm) order were produced while the incident laser intensity remained only 10^11 Wcm-2. Other nanostructures such as tapered cones are now being investigated to construct laptop-sized coherent EUV sources for advanced lithography and high resolution imaging applications.
Experimental demonstration of a technique for generation of arbitrary harmonic oscillator states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Kish, A.; Demarco, B.; Rowe, M.; Meyer, V.; Britton, J.; Itano, W. M.; Jelenković, B. M.; Langer, C.; Leibfried, D.; Rosenband, T.; Wineland, D. J.
2002-05-01
Synthesizing arbitrary quantum states is at the heart of such diverse fields as quantum computation and reaction control in chemistry. For harmonic oscillator states, particular interactions (in general, non-linear) can be used to generate special states such as squeezed states. However, it is usually intractable to realize the interactions required to create arbitrary states. Law and Eberly [1] have devised a technique for arbitrary harmonic oscillator state generation that couples the oscillator to a two-level atomic or spin system and applies a sequence of operations that use simple interactions. We demonstrate the general features of this technique on the harmonic motion of a single trapped ^9Be^+ ion and extend it to the generation of arbitrary spin-oscillator states [2]. [1] C. K. Law and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1055 (1996). [2] B. Kneer and C. K. Law, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2096 (1998).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barzda, Virginijus; Greenhalgh, Catherine; Aus der Au, Juerg; Squier, Jeffrey A.; Elmore, Steven; van Beek, Johannes H.
2004-06-01
Simultaneous detection of second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG) and multiphoton excitation fluorescence with ultrafast laser pulses from a Nd:Glass laser was used to image isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. The simultaneous detection enabled visualization of different organelles of cardiomyocytes, based on the different contrast mechanisms. It was found that SHG signal depicted characteristic patterns of sarcomeres in a myofilament lattice. The regular pattern of the THG signal, which was anticorrelated with the SHG signal, suggested that the third harmonic is generated within mitochondria. By labeling the cardiomyocytes with the mitochondrial dye tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), comparisons could be made between the TMRM fluorescence, THG, and SHG images. The TMRM fluorescence had significant correlation with THG signal confirming that part of the THG signal originates from mitochondria.
Madsen, C. B.; Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.
2010-04-15
We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Mo, Hua; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Zhihai
2015-12-01
The second-harmonic generation susceptibility in semiparabolic quantum wells with applied electric field is investigated theoretically. For the same topic studied by Zhang and Xie [Phys. Rev. B 68 (2003) 235315] [1], some new and reliable results are obtained by us. It is easily observed that the second harmonic generation susceptibility decreases and the blue shift of the resonance is induced with increasing of the frequencies of the confined potential. Moreover, a transition from a two-photon resonance to two single-photon resonances will appear adjusted by the frequencies of the confined potential. Similar results can also be obtained by controlling the applied electric field. Surprisingly, the second harmonic generation susceptibility is weakened in the presence of the electric field, which is in contrast to the conventional case. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding resonant energy are also taken into account.
Three-dimensional tooth imaging using multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Min-Huey; Chen, Wei-Liang; Sun, Yen; Fwu, Peter Tramyeon; Lin, Ming-Gu; Dong, Chen-Yuan
2007-02-01
Detailed morphological and cellular information relating to the human tooth have traditionally been obtained through histological studies that required decalcification, staining, and fixation. With the recent invention of multiphoton microscopy, it has become possible to acquire high resolution images without histological procedures. Using an epiilluminated multiphoton microscope, we obtained two-photon excited autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) images of ex vivo human tooth. By combining these two imaging modalities we obtained submicron resolution images of the enamel, dentin, and the periodontal ligaments. The enamel emits endogenous two-photon autofluorescence. The structure of the dentin is visible from both the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. The periodontal ligament composed mostly of collagen can be visualized by SHG imaging. We also constructed three dimensional images of the enamel, dentin, and periodontal ligament. The effectiveness of using multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy to obtain structural information of teeth suggest its potential use in dental diagnostics.
Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos
2017-03-01
We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams –or “structured attosecond light springs”– with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.
Cascaded third-harmonic generation in a single short-range-ordered nonlinear photonic crystal.
Sheng, Yan; Saltiel, Solomon M; Koynov, Kaloian
2009-03-01
Collinear third-harmonic generation at 526.7 nm was realized by the simultaneous phase matching of two second-order processes in a single quadratic crystal: second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency mixing (SFM). The measured conversion efficiency was 12%. As a nonlinear medium a LiNbO(3) nonlinear photonic crystal with short-range order was used that allowed simultaneous phase matching by use of discrete reciprocal vector (for the SHG process) and continuous reciprocal vectors (for the SFM process). It was demonstrated that the third harmonic could be generated efficiently in such a crystal even if the intermediate process of SHG was not perfectly phase matched.
Pulsed second-harmonic generation in nonlinear, one-dimensional, periodic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M. J.; Manka, A. S.; Dowling, J. P.; Bowden, C. M.; Viswanathan, R.; Haus, J. W.
1997-10-01
We present a numerical study of second-harmonic (SH) generation in a one-dimensional, generic, photonic band-gap material that is doped with a nonlinear χ(2) medium. We show that a 20-period, 12-μm structure can generate short SH pulses (similar in duration to pump pulses) whose energy and power levels may be 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the energy and power levels produced by an equivalent length of a phase-matched, bulk medium. This phenomenon comes about as a result of the combination of high electromagnetic mode density of states, low group velocity, and spatial phase locking of the fields near the photonic band edge. The structure is designed so that the pump pulse is tuned near the first-order photonic band edge, and the SH signal is generated near the band edge of the second-order gap. This maximizes the density of available field modes for both the pump and SH field. Our results show that the χ(2) response is effectively enhanced by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, mm- or cm-long, quasi-phase-matched devices could be replaced by these simple layered structures of only a few micrometers in length. This has important applications to high-energy lasers, Raman-type sources, and frequency up- and down-conversion schemes.
Quadrupole second harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation in ZnO quantum dots
Maikhuri, Deepti; Purohit, S. P. Mathur, K. C.
2015-04-15
The second harmonic generation (SHG) and the sum frequency generation (SFG) processes are investigated in the conduction band states of the singly charged ZnO quantum dot (QD) embedded in the HfO{sub 2}, and the AlN matrices. With two optical fields of frequency ω{sub p} and ω{sub q} incident on the dot, we study the variation with frequency of the second order nonlinear polarization resulting in SHG and SFG, through the electric dipole and the electric quadrupole interactions of the pump fields with the electron in the dot. We obtain enhanced value of the second order nonlinear susceptibility in the dot compared to the bulk. The effective mass approximation with the finite confining barrier is used for obtaining the energy and wavefunctions of the quantized confined states of the electron in the conduction band of the dot. Our results show that both the SHG and SFG processes depend on the dot size, the surrounding matrix and the polarization states of the pump beams.
Correlation of Ge E' defect sites with second-harmonic generation in poled high-water fused silica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henry, Leanne J.
1995-08-01
Second-harmonic generation (SHG) in poled high-water fused silica was found to be linearly dependent on the relative concentration of Ge E \\prime defect sites ( <10-15 defect sites/cm 3 ) for the highly pure UV-grade material. For commercial-grade material characterized by higher concentrations of Ge E\\prime defects sites, the SHG appeared to saturate at approximately 0.5 pm/V . No dependence of the SHG was found on the relative concentration of Ge E\\prime defects sites in poled commercial-grade low-water fused silica.
High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz
Lindner, F.; Stremme, W.; Schaetzel, M. G.; Grasbon, F.; Paulus, G. G.; Walther, H.; Hartmann, R.; Strueder, L.
2003-07-01
We report high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases using a femtosecond laser system with a very high repetition rate (100 kHz) and low pulse energy (7 {mu}J). To our knowledge, this is the highest repetition rate reported to date for HHG. The tight focusing geometry required to reach sufficiently high intensities implies low efficiency of the process. Harmonics up to the 45th order are nevertheless generated and detected. We show evidence of clear separation and selection of quantum trajectories by moving the gas jet with respect to the focus, in agreement with the theoretical predictions of the semiclassical model of HHG.
Second-harmonic generation of light at 245 nm in a lithium tetraborate whispering gallery resonator.
Fürst, Josef U; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo; Becker, Petra; Liebertz, Josef; Bohatý, Ladislav
2015-05-01
A millimeter-sized, monolithic whispering gallery resonator made of a lithium tetraborate, Li2B4O7, crystal was employed for doubly resonant second-harmonic generation with a continuous-wave laser source at 490 nm. An intrinsic quality factor of 2×10(8) was observed at the pump wavelength. A conversion efficiency of 2.2% was attained with 5.9 mW of mode-matched pump power. In the lithium tetraborate resonator, it is feasible to achieve phase-matching of second-harmonic generation for pump wavelengths between 486 and 506 nm.
Role of tunnel ionization in high harmonic generation from substituted benzenes.
Austin, Dane R; McGrath, Felicity; Miseikis, Lukas; Wood, David; Hawkins, Peter; Johnson, Allan S; Vacher, Morgane; Mašín, Zdeněk; Harvey, Alex; Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga; Marangos, Jon P
2016-12-16
We theoretically study high-harmonic generation in toluene, ortho-xylene and fluorobenzene driven by a 1.8 μm ultrashort pulse. We find that the chemical substitutions have a strong influence on the amplitude and phase of the emission from the highest occupied molecular orbital, despite having a small influence on the orbital itself. We show that this influence is due to the tunnel ionization step, which depends critically on the sign and amplitude of the asymptotic part of the wave function. We discuss how these effects would manifest in phase-sensitive high-harmonic generation spectroscopy experiments.
Semi-classical electron dynamics and the generation of below threshold harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hostetter, James
2009-05-01
We study the generation of below threshold harmonics in a model atom. We extend the three-step semi-classical model of high harmonic generation (HHG) to include effects of the atomic potential which necessarily plays an important role. We explore the generalization of semi-classical trajectories in the presence of the potential. We show that the long trajectory readily generalizes to below threshold HG. We also discuss that this is in good agreement with fully quantum mechanical calculations as well as with recent experimental results.
Enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystals at band-gap pumping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Gorbunov, Evgeny A.; Yakovlev, Egor V.; Zotov, Arsen K.; Masalov, Vladimir M.; Emelchenko, Gennadi A.; Gorelik, Vladimir S.
2017-02-01
More than one order enhancement of third-harmonic generation is observed experimentally at band-gap pumping of globular photonic crystals. Due to a lateral modulation of the dielectric permittivity in two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, sharp peaks of light intensity (light localization) arise in the media at the band-gap pumping. The light localization enhances significantly the nonlinear light conversion, in particular, third-harmonic generation, in the near-surface volume of photonic crystal. The observed way to enhance the nonlinear conversion can be useful for creation of novel compact elements of nonlinear and laser optics.
Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou; Gong, Xiufen
2012-10-01
High efficiency of the second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation can be obtained in optical superlattice by using the conventional quasi-phase-matched (QPM) method. Although this trick can be played on the acoustic wave, the media with negative nonlinear parameters are not common in acoustics. Furthermore, the QPM method used in acoustic metamaterials has been less studied. In this work, a protocol is provided to realize the QPM method by using nonlinear complementary media in acoustic metamaterials in order to obtain large backward second-harmonic generation. Compared with the conventional method, the method gains a broader bandwidth and can be used in both acoustic and electromagnetic waves.
Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.
2012-12-01
This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.
Terahertz-field-induced second harmonic generation through Pockels effect in zinc telluride crystal.
Cornet, Marion; Degert, Jérôme; Abraham, Emmanuel; Freysz, Eric
2014-10-15
We report on the second harmonic generation (SHG) of a near-infrared pulse in a zinc telluride crystal through the Pockels effect induced by an intense terahertz pulse. The temporal and angular behaviors of the SHG have been measured and agree well with theoretical predictions. This phenomenon, so far overlooked, makes it possible to generate second harmonic through cascading of two second-order nonlinear phenomena in the near-infrared and terahertz ranges. We also show how this cascading process can be used to sample terahertz pulses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Jian-Hui; Chen, Ni; Mo, Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Hai
2015-12-01
A detailed investigation of the second harmonic generation in symmetrical and asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells under the influence of applied electric field by using the compact-density-matrix approach and the finite difference method. The results show that the second-harmonic generation susceptibility obtained in two cases can reach the magnitude of 10-4 m/V, which depend dramatically on the applied electric field and the structural parameters. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding to the resonant energy are also taken into account.
Multielectron Correlation in High-Harmonic Generation: A 2D Model Analysis
Sukiasyan, Suren; McDonald, Chris; Destefani, Carlos; Brabec, Thomas; Ivanov, Misha Yu.
2009-06-05
We analyze the role of multielectron dynamics in high-harmonic generation spectroscopy, using an example of a two-electron system. We identify and systematically quantify the importance of correlation and exchange effects. One of the main sources for correlation is identified to be the polarization of the ion by the recombining continuum electron. This effect, which plays an important qualitative and quantitative role, seriously undermines the validity of the standard approaches to high-harmonic generation, which ignore the contribution of excited ionic states to the radiative recombination of the continuum electron.
Harmonic generation by atomic and nanoparticle precursors in a ZnS laser ablation plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oujja, M.; Lopez-Quintas, I.; Benítez-Cañete, A.; de Nalda, R.; Castillejo, M.
2017-01-01
Harmonic generation of a driving laser propagating across a laser ablation plasma serves for the diagnosis of multicomponent plumes. Here we study the contribution of atomic and nanoparticle precursors to the generation of coherent ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet light as low-order harmonics of the fundamental emission (1064 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in a nanosecond infrared ZnS laser ablation plasma. Odd harmonics from the 3rd up to the 9th order (118.2 nm) have been observed with distinct temporal and spatial characteristics which were determined by varying the delay between the ablation and driving nanosecond pulses and by spatially scanning the plasma with the focused driving beam propagating parallel to the target. At short distances from the target surface (≤1 mm), the harmonic intensity displays two temporal components peaked at around 250 ns and 10 μs. While the early component dies off quickly with increasing harmonic order and vanishes for the 9th order, the late component is notably intense for the 7th harmonic and is still clearly visible for the 9th. Spectral analysis of spontaneous plume emissions help to assign the origin of the two components. While the early plasma component is mainly constituted by neutral Zn atoms, the late component is mostly due to nanoparticles, which upon interaction with the driving laser are subject to breakup and ionization. With the aid of calculations of the phase matching integrals within the perturbative model of optical harmonic generation, these results illustrate how atom and nanoparticle populations, with differing temporal and spatial distributions within the ablation plasma, contribute to the nonlinear medium.
2003-06-06
c.m. bowden3 Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air 1 Time Domain Corporation...picosecond high-peak-power laser pulses are propagated in air. The supercontinuum generated during the filamentation process has been used for time ...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources
Multipass relativistic high-order-harmonic generation for intense attosecond pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, Matthew R.; Mikhailova, Julia M.
2016-02-01
We demonstrate that the total reflected field produced by the interaction of a moderately relativistic laser with dense plasma is itself an efficient driver of high-order-harmonic generation. A system of two or more successive interactions of an incident laser beam on solid targets may therefore be an experimentally realizable method of optimizing conversion of laser energy to high-order harmonics. Particle-in-cell simulations suggest that attosecond pulse intensity may be increased by up to four orders of magnitude in a multipass system, with decreased duration of the attosecond pulse train. We discuss high-order-harmonic wave-form engineering for enhanced attosecond pulse generation with an electron trajectory model, present the behavior of multipass systems over a range of parameters, and offer possible routes towards experimental implementation of a two-pass system.
Silencing and enhancement of second-harmonic generation in optical gap antennas.
Berthelot, Johann; Bachelier, Guillaume; Song, Mingxia; Rai, Padmnabh; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Dereux, Alain; Bouhelier, Alexandre
2012-05-07
Amplifying local electromagnetic fields by engineering optical interactions between individual constituents of an optical antenna is considered fundamental for efficient nonlinear wavelength conversion in nanometer-scale devices. In contrast to this general statement we show that high field enhancement does not necessarily lead to an optimized nonlinear activity. In particular, we demonstrate that second-harmonic responses generated at strongly interacting optical gap antennas can be significantly suppressed. Numerical simulations are confirming silencing of second-harmonic in these coupled systems despite the existence of local field amplification. We then propose a simple approach to restore and amplify the second-harmonic signal by changing the manner in which electrically-connected optical antennas are interacting in the charge-transfer plasmon regime. Our observations provide critical design rules for realizing optimal structures that are essential for a broad variety of nonlinear surface-enhanced characterizations and for realizing the next generation of electrically-driven optical antennas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Navpreet; Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Arvinder
2016-12-01
This paper investigates second harmonic generation (SHG) of an intense Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) laser beam propagating through a preformed underdense collisional plasma with nonlinear absorption. Nonuniform heating of plasma electrons takes place due to the nonuniform irradiance of intensity along the wavefront of laser beam. This nonuniform heating of plasma leads to the self-focusing of the laser beam and thus produces strong density gradients in the transverse direction. The density gradients so generated excite an electron plasma wave (EPW) at pump frequency that interacts with the pump beam to produce its second harmonics. To envision the propagation dynamics of the ChG laser beam, moment theory in Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (W.K.B) approximation has been invoked. The effects of nonlinear absorption on self-focusing of the laser beam as well as on the conversion efficiency of its second harmonics have been theoretically investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubanel, E. E.; Zuo, T.; Bandrauk, A. D.
1994-05-01
We present results of a complete treatment of electronic, vibrational, and rotational motion in numerical calculation of harmonic generation (HG) of 1064-nm laser radiation by the H+2 molecular ion for intensities 1013<=I<=1014 W/cm2. We show that efficient HG can be enhanced by suppression of photodissociation, a phenomenon which results from vibrational trapping in laser-field-induced potential wells. The HG spectra exhibit peaks clustered around even and odd harmonic orders. All peaks can be assigned to Raman-like transitions between dressed eigenstates of the field-molecule system. Rotational excitation is shown to compete with HG. Thus harmonic generation and photon scattering in molecules holds the promise of a potential diagnostic for molecular stabilization by intense laser fields.
Nonlinear absorption and harmonic generation of laser in a gas with anharmonic clusters
Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, V. K.
2013-02-15
The nonlinear absorption and harmonic generation of intense short pulse laser in a gas embedded with anharmonic clusters are investigated theoretically. When the laser induced excursion of cluster electrons becomes comparable to cluster radius, the restoration force on electrons no longer remains linearly proportional to the excursion. As a consequence, the plasmon resonance is broadened, leading to broadband laser absorption. It also leads to second and third harmonic generations, at much higher level than the one due to ponderomotive nonlinearity. The harmonic yield is resonantly enhanced at the plasmon resonance {omega}={omega}{sub pe}/{radical}(3), where {omega} is the frequency of the laser and {omega}{sub pe} is the plasma frequency of cluster electrons.
Biomimetics for next generation materials.
Barthelat, Francois
2007-12-15
Billions of years of evolution have produced extremely efficient natural materials, which are increasingly becoming a source of inspiration for engineers. Biomimetics-the science of imitating nature-is a growing multidisciplinary field which is now leading to the fabrication of novel materials with remarkable mechanical properties. This article discusses the mechanics of hard biological materials, and more specifically of nacre and bone. These high-performance natural composites are made up of relatively weak components (brittle minerals and soft proteins) arranged in intricate ways to achieve specific combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness (resistance to cracking). Determining which features control the performance of these materials is the first step in biomimetics. These 'key features' can then be implemented into artificial bio-inspired synthetic materials, using innovative techniques such as layer-by-layer assembly or ice-templated crystallization. The most promising approaches, however, are self-assembly and biomineralization because they will enable tight control of structures at the nanoscale. In this 'bottom-up' fabrication, also inspired from nature, molecular structures and crystals are assembled with a little or no external intervention. The resulting materials will offer new combinations of low weight, stiffness and toughness, with added functionalities such as self-healing. Only tight collaborations between engineers, chemists, materials scientists and biologists will make these 'next-generation' materials a reality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bansal, Dipanshu; Aref, Amjad; Dargush, Gary; Delaire, Olivier
2016-09-01
Based on thermodynamic principles, we derive expressions quantifying the non-harmonic vibrational behavior of materials, which are rigorous yet easily evaluated from experimentally available data for the thermal expansion coefficient and the phonon density of states. These experimentally-derived quantities are valuable to benchmark first-principles theoretical predictions of harmonic and non-harmonic thermal behaviors using perturbation theory, ab initio molecular-dynamics, or Monte-Carlo simulations. We illustrate this analysis by computing the harmonic, dilational, and anharmonic contributions to the entropy, internal energy, and free energy of elemental aluminum and the ordered compound \\text{FeSi} over a wide range of temperature. Results agree well with previous data in the literature and provide an efficient approach to estimate anharmonic effects in materials.
Bansal, Dipanshu; Aref, Amjad; Dargush, Gary; ...
2016-07-20
Based on thermodynamic principles, we derive expressions quantifying the non-harmonic vibrational behavior of materials, which are rigorous yet easily evaluated from experimentally available data for the thermal expansion coefficient and the phonon density of states. These experimentally-derived quantities are valuable to benchmark first-principles theoretical predictions of harmonic and non-harmonic thermal behaviors using perturbation theory, ab initio molecular-dynamics, or Monte-Carlo simulations. In this study, we illustrate this analysis by computing the harmonic, dilational, and anharmonic contributions to the entropy, internal energy, and free energy of elemental aluminum and the ordered compound FeSi over a wide range of temperature. Our results agreemore » well with previous data in the literature and provide an efficient approach to estimate anharmonic effects in materials.« less
Bansal, Dipanshu; Aref, Amjad; Dargush, Gary; Delaire, Olivier A.
2016-07-20
Based on thermodynamic principles, we derive expressions quantifying the non-harmonic vibrational behavior of materials, which are rigorous yet easily evaluated from experimentally available data for the thermal expansion coefficient and the phonon density of states. These experimentally-derived quantities are valuable to benchmark first-principles theoretical predictions of harmonic and non-harmonic thermal behaviors using perturbation theory, ab initio molecular-dynamics, or Monte-Carlo simulations. In this study, we illustrate this analysis by computing the harmonic, dilational, and anharmonic contributions to the entropy, internal energy, and free energy of elemental aluminum and the ordered compound FeSi over a wide range of temperature. Our results agree well with previous data in the literature and provide an efficient approach to estimate anharmonic effects in materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Eun Pyo; Lee, Dong Woo; Cho, Yoon-Ho; Thao Tran, T.; Shiv Halasyamani, P.; Ok, Kang Min
2013-06-01
The phase pure large scale synthesis, second-harmonic generation, and piezoelectric properties of a vanadium phosphate, Li2VPO6 are reported. The material has been synthesized by a standard solid-state reaction using Li2CO3, V2O5, and NH4H2PO4 as reagents. The phase purity and crystal structure of the reported material have been confirmed by powder X-ray and neutron diffractions. The material crystallizes in orthorhombic space group Pna21 (no. 33) with a=10.32581(7) Å, b=4.63728(3) Å, c=8.56606(5) Å, and Z=4. The noncentrosymmetric layered structure is composed of distorted VO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra. The V5+ cations distort either along the approximate [1 0 1] or [-1 0 1] directions attributable to the alignment of distorted VO6 octahedra, resulting in a polar structure. Powder second-harmonic generating (SHG) measurements on Li2VPO6 using 1064 nm radiation, indicate the material has a SHG efficiency of approximately 10 times that of α-SiO2 and is not phase-matchable (type 1). Converse piezoelectric measurements for the material reveal a piezoelectric coefficient, d33, of 12 pm V-1.
Three-layer model for the surface second-harmonic generation yield including multiple reflections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Sean M.; Mendoza, Bernardo S.
2016-09-01
We present the three-layer model to calculate the surface second-harmonic generation (SSHG) yield. This model considers that the surface is represented by three regions or layers. The first layer is the vacuum region with a dielectric function ɛv(ω ) =1 from where the fundamental electric field impinges on the material. The second layer is a thin layer (ℓ ) of thickness d characterized by a dielectric function ɛℓ(ω ) , and it is in this layer where the SSHG takes place. The third layer is the bulk region denoted by b and characterized by ɛb(ω ) . Both the vacuum and bulk layers are semi-infinite. The model includes the multiple reflections of both the fundamental and the second-harmonic (SH) fields that take place at the thin layer ℓ . We obtain explicit expressions for the SSHG yield for the commonly used s and p polarizations of the incoming 1 ω and outgoing 2 ω electric fields, where no assumptions for the symmetry of the surface are made. These symmetry assumptions ultimately determine which components of the surface nonlinear second-order susceptibility tensor χ (-2 ω ;ω ,ω ) are different from zero, and thus contribute to the SSHG yield. Then, we particularize the results for the most commonly investigated surfaces, the (001), (110), and (111) crystallographic faces, taking their symmetries into account. We use the three-layer model and compare it against the experimental results of a Si(111)(1 ×1 ):H surface, as a test case, and use it to predict the SSHG yield of a Si(001)(2 ×1 ) surface.
Downhole steam generation: material studies
Beauchamp, E.K.; Weirick, L.J.; Muir, J.F.
1982-01-01
One enhanced oil recovery technique for extracting heavy crude from deep reservoirs by steam at the bottom of an injection well. Development of a downhole steam generator that will produce steam and inject it into formations at depths greater than 2500 feet is one objective of a Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratories development effort - Project DEEP STEAM. Extensive material studies have been performed in support of Project DEEP STEAM; current efforts are devoted primarily to the selection and evaluation of materials for use in downhole steam generators. This paper presents observations of the performance of candidate metals and refractory ceramics (combustor liners) during tests of two prototypic, high pressure, diesel/air combustion, direct contact, downhole steam generators. The first downhole test of such a generator provides data on the performance of various metals (304L, 310 and 316S stainless steels and plain carbon steel) exposed for several weeks to a warm, aerated saltwater environment. A number of corrosion mechanisms acted to cause severely degraded perforance of some of the metals. Several refractory liner designs were evaluated during ground level tests of a generator having a ceramic-lined combustion chamber. Of the two refractories employed, alumina and silicon carbide, the alumina liners exhibited more serious surface degradation and corrosion.
All-optical digital processor based on harmonic generation phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Rakovsky, Vsevolod Y.
1990-07-01
Digital optical processors are designed to combine ultra- parallel data procesing capabilities of optical aystems cnd high accur&cy of performed computations. The ultimate limit of the processing rate can be anticipated from all-optical parcllel erchitecturea based on networks o logic gates using materials exibiting strong electronic nonlinearities with response times less than 1O seconds1.
Resonantly enhanced second-harmonic generation using III–V semiconductor all-dielectric metasurfaces
Liu, Sheng; Sinclair, Michael B.; Saravi, Sina; Keeler, Gordon A.; Yang, Yuanmu; Reno, John; Peake, Gregory M.; Setzpfandt, Frank; Staude, Isabelle; Pertsch, Thomas; Brener, Igal
2016-08-08
Nonlinear optical phenomena in nanostructured materials have been challenging our perceptions of nonlinear optical processes that have been explored since the invention of lasers. For example, the ability to control optical field confinement, enhancement, and scattering almost independently allows nonlinear frequency conversion efficiencies to be enhanced by many orders of magnitude compared to bulk materials. Also, the subwavelength length scale renders phase matching issues irrelevant. Compared with plasmonic nanostructures, dielectric resonator metamaterials show great promise for enhanced nonlinear optical processes due to their larger mode volumes. Here, we present, for the first time, resonantly enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) using gallium arsenide (GaAs) based dielectric metasurfaces. Using arrays of cylindrical resonators we observe SHG enhancement factors as large as 10^{4} relative to unpatterned GaAs. At the magnetic dipole resonance, we measure an absolute nonlinear conversion efficiency of ~2 × 10^{–5} with ~3.4 GW/cm^{2} pump intensity. In conclusion, the polarization properties of the SHG reveal that both bulk and surface nonlinearities play important roles in the observed nonlinear process.
Resonantly enhanced second-harmonic generation using III–V semiconductor all-dielectric metasurfaces
Liu, Sheng; Sinclair, Michael B.; Saravi, Sina; ...
2016-08-08
Nonlinear optical phenomena in nanostructured materials have been challenging our perceptions of nonlinear optical processes that have been explored since the invention of lasers. For example, the ability to control optical field confinement, enhancement, and scattering almost independently allows nonlinear frequency conversion efficiencies to be enhanced by many orders of magnitude compared to bulk materials. Also, the subwavelength length scale renders phase matching issues irrelevant. Compared with plasmonic nanostructures, dielectric resonator metamaterials show great promise for enhanced nonlinear optical processes due to their larger mode volumes. Here, we present, for the first time, resonantly enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) using galliummore » arsenide (GaAs) based dielectric metasurfaces. Using arrays of cylindrical resonators we observe SHG enhancement factors as large as 104 relative to unpatterned GaAs. At the magnetic dipole resonance, we measure an absolute nonlinear conversion efficiency of ~2 × 10–5 with ~3.4 GW/cm2 pump intensity. In conclusion, the polarization properties of the SHG reveal that both bulk and surface nonlinearities play important roles in the observed nonlinear process.« less
Resonantly Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation Using III-V Semiconductor All-Dielectric Metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Sheng; Sinclair, Michael B.; Saravi, Sina; Keeler, Gordon A.; Yang, Yuanmu; Reno, John; Peake, Gregory M.; Setzpfandt, Frank; Staude, Isabelle; Pertsch, Thomas; Brener, Igal
2016-09-01
Nonlinear optical phenomena in nanostructured materials have been challenging our perceptions of nonlinear optical processes that have been explored since the invention of lasers. For example, the ability to control optical field confinement, enhancement, and scattering almost independently, allows nonlinear frequency conversion efficiencies to be enhanced by many orders of magnitude compared to bulk materials. Also, the subwavelength length scale renders phase matching issues irrelevant. Compared with plasmonic nanostructures, dielectric resonator metamaterials show great promise for enhanced nonlinear optical processes due to their larger mode volumes. Here, we present, for the first time, resonantly enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) using Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based dielectric metasurfaces. Using arrays of cylindrical resonators we observe SHG enhancement factors as large as 104 relative to unpatterned GaAs. At the magnetic dipole resonance we measure an absolute nonlinear conversion efficiency of ~2X10^(-5) with ~3.4 GW/cm2 pump intensity. The polarization properties of the SHG reveal that both bulk and surface nonlinearities play important roles in the observed nonlinear process.
Liu, Sheng; Sinclair, Michael B; Saravi, Sina; Keeler, Gordon A; Yang, Yuanmu; Reno, John; Peake, Gregory M; Setzpfandt, Frank; Staude, Isabelle; Pertsch, Thomas; Brener, Igal
2016-09-14
Nonlinear optical phenomena in nanostructured materials have been challenging our perceptions of nonlinear optical processes that have been explored since the invention of lasers. For example, the ability to control optical field confinement, enhancement, and scattering almost independently allows nonlinear frequency conversion efficiencies to be enhanced by many orders of magnitude compared to bulk materials. Also, the subwavelength length scale renders phase matching issues irrelevant. Compared with plasmonic nanostructures, dielectric resonator metamaterials show great promise for enhanced nonlinear optical processes due to their larger mode volumes. Here, we present, for the first time, resonantly enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) using gallium arsenide (GaAs) based dielectric metasurfaces. Using arrays of cylindrical resonators we observe SHG enhancement factors as large as 10(4) relative to unpatterned GaAs. At the magnetic dipole resonance, we measure an absolute nonlinear conversion efficiency of ∼2 × 10(-5) with ∼3.4 GW/cm(2) pump intensity. The polarization properties of the SHG reveal that both bulk and surface nonlinearities play important roles in the observed nonlinear process.
Crystal growth and second harmonic generation efficiency of a chalcone derivative
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meenatchi, V.; Muthu, K.; Rajasekar, M.; Meenakshisundaram, SP.
2013-06-01
Single crystals of (2E,6E)-2-(4-fluorobenzylidine)-6-(4-methoxybenzylidine)cyclohexanone (FBMBC) have been grown by a slow evaporation solution growth technique from ethanol at room temperature. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that the FBMBC belongs to triclinic system and the cell parameters are a=9.790(6) Å, b=12.08(7) Å, c=14.09(9) Å and V=1577 Å3. The structure and the crystallinity of the material were further confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The various functional groups present in the molecule are confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. The scanning electron microscopy study reveals the surface morphology of the as-grown crystal. Thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis studies reveal the purity of the material and the crystals are transparent in the visible region having a low optical cut-off at ∼475 nm. The second harmonic generation efficiency of FBMBC is estimated by the Kurtz and Perry technique. Theoretical calculations were performed using the Hartree-Fock method with 6-31 G(d,p) as the basis set to derive the optimized geometry and the first-order molecular hyperpolarizability (β) values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnard, D. J.; Foley, J. C.
2000-05-01
Standard linear ultrasonic testing techniques have long been employed for locating and characterizing relatively open cracks in a wide variety of materials, from metallic alloys and ceramics to composites. In all these materials, the detection of open cracks easily accomplished because the void between the two crack surfaces provides sufficient acoustic impedance mismatch to reflect the incident energy. Closed or partially closed cracks, however, may often go undetected because contacting interfaces allow transmission of ultrasound. In the green (unsintered) state, powder metallurgy compacts typically contain high residual stresses that have the ability to close cracks formed during the compaction process, a result of oxide films, improper powder lubricant, mold design, etc. After sintering, the reduction of residual stresses may no longer be sufficient to close the crack. Although the crack may be more easily detected, it is obvious most desirable to discover defects prior to sintering. It has been shown that the displacements of an interface may be highly nonlinear if a stress wave of sufficient intensity propagates across it, a result of the stress wave either opening or closing the interface. Current efforts involve the application of nonlinear acoustic techniques, in particular acoustic harmonic generation measurements, for the detection and characterization of tightly closed cracks in powder metallurgy parts. A description of the equipment and the measurement technique will be discussed and initial experimental results on sintered and green compacts will be presented.—This work was performed at the Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University under USDOE Contract No. W-7405-ENG-82.
Elouga Bom, L. B.; Kieffer, J.-C.; Ozaki, T.; Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.
2007-03-15
We present experimental studies of high-order harmonic generation in silver plasma ablation performed with the Ti:sapphire laser beams of the Advanced Laser Light Source (800 nm wavelength, 360 mJ total energy). We have independently varied the intensity of the prepulse (which creates the plasma ablation) and the intensity of the main pulse (which generates the harmonics), and studied their influence on the harmonic spectrum. We show here that the presence of doubly ionized atoms in the ablation, created either by a strong prepulse intensity or with the irradiation of the main pulse, is ineffective for the generation of harmonics.
Walsh, Gary F; Dal Negro, Luca
2013-07-10
In this communication, we systematically investigate the effects of Fano-type coupling between long-range photonic resonances and localized surface plasmons on the second harmonic generation from periodic arrays of Au nanoparticles arranged in monomer and dimer geometries. Specifically, by scanning the wavelength of an ultrafast tunable pump laser over a large range, we measure the second harmonic excitation spectra of these arrays and demonstrate their tunability with particle size and separation. Moreover, through a comparison with linear optical transmission spectra, which feature asymmetric Fano-type lineshapes, we demonstrate that the second harmonic generation is enhanced when coupled photonic-plasmonic resonances of the arrays are excited at the fundamental pump wavelength, thus boosting the intensity of the electromagnetic near-fields. Our experimental results, which are supported by numerical simulations of linear optical transmission and near-field enhancement spectra based on the Finite Difference Time Domain method, demonstrate a direct correlation between the onset of Fano-type coupling and the enhancement of second harmonic generation in arrays of Au nanoparticles. Our findings enable the engineering of the nonlinear optical response of Fano-type coupled nanoparticle arrays that are relevant to a number of device applications in nonlinear nano-optics and plasmonics, such as on-chip frequency generators, modulators, switchers, and sensors.
Probing Ferroelectric Domain Engineering in BiFeO3 Thin Films by Second Harmonic Generation.
Trassin, Morgan; Luca, Gabriele De; Manz, Sebastian; Fiebig, Manfred
2015-09-02
An optical probe of the ferroelectric domain distribution and manipulation in BiFeO3 thin films is reported using optical second harmonic generation. A unique relation between the domain distribution and its integral symmetry is established. The ferroelectric signature is even resolved when the film is covered by a top electrode. The effect of voltage-induced ferroelectric switching is imaged.
Two-pass-internal second-harmonic generation using a prism coupler.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gonzalez, D. G.; Nieh, S. T. K.; Steier, W. H.
1973-01-01
A dispersive quartz prism is used to couple the total second harmonic generated in both directions by an internal cavity frequency doubler. The study shows that the dispersion of air and mirror reflection phase shifts can be compensated for by a slight nonphase match condition in the doubler.
Purohit, Gunjan Rawat, Priyanka; Gauniyal, Rakhi
2016-01-15
The effect of self focused hollow Gaussian laser beam (HGLB) (carrying null intensity in center) on the excitation of electron plasma wave (EPW) and second harmonic generation (SHG) has been investigated in collisionless plasma, where relativistic-ponderomotive and only relativistic nonlinearities are operative. The relativistic change of electron mass and the modification of the background electron density due to ponderomotive nonlinearity lead to self-focusing of HGLB in plasma. Paraxial ray theory has been used to derive coupled equations for the self focusing of HGLB in plasma, generation of EPW, and second harmonic. These coupled equations are solved analytically and numerically to study the laser intensity in the plasma, electric field associated with the excited EPW, and the power of SHG. Second harmonic emission is generated due to nonlinear coupling between incident HGLB and EPW satisfying the proper phase matching conditions. The results show that the effect of including the ponderomotive nonlinearity is significant on the generation of EPW and second harmonic. The electric field associated with EPW and the power of SHG are found to be highly sensitive to the order of the hollow Gaussian beam.
Vidal, Sébastien; Luce, Jacques; Penninckx, Denis
2011-01-01
We report on what we believe is the first experimental demonstration of the linear precompensation of a nonlinear transfer function due to frequency conversion. As a proof of principle, we show the effective precompensation with an interferometric filter of FM-to-AM conversion due to second-harmonic generation in a potassium titanyl phosphate crystal.
Continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox with traveling-wave second-harmonic generation
Olsen, M.K.
2004-09-01
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum entanglement are at the heart of quantum mechanics. Here we show that single-pass traveling-wave second-harmonic generation can be used to demonstrate both entanglement and the paradox with continuous variables that are analogous to the position and momentum of the original proposal.
Wearable Second Harmonic Generation Imaging: The Sarcomeric Bridge to the Clinic.
Williams, Justin C; Campagnola, Paul J
2015-12-16
Imaging of sarcomere dynamics in vivo in patients has significant clinical importance, as the structure and function is altered in numerous pathologies. In this issue of Neuron, Schnitzer and coworkers (Sanchez et al., 2015) demonstrate this capability through a miniature, wearable Second Harmonic Generation microscope.
Homoclinic orbits and chaos in a second-harmonic generating optical cavity
Holm, D.; Kovacic, G., Timofeyev, I.
1997-04-01
We present two large families of Silnikov-type homoclinic orbits in a two mode-model that describes second-harmonic generation in a passive optical cavity. These families of homoclinic orbits give rise to chaotic dynamics in the model. 4 refs., 1 fig.
Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation.
Hohenleutner, M; Langer, F; Schubert, O; Knorr, M; Huttner, U; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R
2015-07-30
Acceleration and collision of particles has been a key strategy for exploring the texture of matter. Strong light waves can control and recollide electronic wavepackets, generating high-harmonic radiation that encodes the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and lays the foundations of attosecond science. The recent discovery of high-harmonic generation in bulk solids combines the idea of ultrafast acceleration with complex condensed matter systems, and provides hope for compact solid-state attosecond sources and electronics at optical frequencies. Yet the underlying quantum motion has not so far been observable in real time. Here we study high-harmonic generation in a bulk solid directly in the time domain, and reveal a new kind of strong-field excitation in the crystal. Unlike established atomic sources, our solid emits high-harmonic radiation as a sequence of subcycle bursts that coincide temporally with the field crests of one polarity of the driving terahertz waveform. We show that these features are characteristic of a non-perturbative quantum interference process that involves electrons from multiple valence bands. These results identify key mechanisms for future solid-state attosecond sources and next-generation light-wave electronics. The new quantum interference process justifies the hope for all-optical band-structure reconstruction and lays the foundation for possible quantum logic operations at optical clock rates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Yeou-Yen
1987-01-01
A new method to generate a circular harmonic filter with both rotation and translation invariance is described, which is based on a phase-shifted double-exposure (PSDE) technique. An expression for the peak correlation intensity at the origin for the correlation plane as a function of target orientation for the PSDE filter is derived. Experimental results confirming the theoretical predictions are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Purohit, Gunjan; Rawat, Priyanka; Gauniyal, Rakhi
2016-01-01
The effect of self focused hollow Gaussian laser beam (HGLB) (carrying null intensity in center) on the excitation of electron plasma wave (EPW) and second harmonic generation (SHG) has been investigated in collisionless plasma, where relativistic-ponderomotive and only relativistic nonlinearities are operative. The relativistic change of electron mass and the modification of the background electron density due to ponderomotive nonlinearity lead to self-focusing of HGLB in plasma. Paraxial ray theory has been used to derive coupled equations for the self focusing of HGLB in plasma, generation of EPW, and second harmonic. These coupled equations are solved analytically and numerically to study the laser intensity in the plasma, electric field associated with the excited EPW, and the power of SHG. Second harmonic emission is generated due to nonlinear coupling between incident HGLB and EPW satisfying the proper phase matching conditions. The results show that the effect of including the ponderomotive nonlinearity is significant on the generation of EPW and second harmonic. The electric field associated with EPW and the power of SHG are found to be highly sensitive to the order of the hollow Gaussian beam.
Second-harmonic generation excited by a rotating Laguerre-Gaussian beam
Petrov, Dmitri
2010-09-15
Experimental data demonstrate that unlike linear optical processes, an optical Laguerre-Gaussian beam of frequency {omega}, with topological charge m, rotating with angular frequency {Omega}<<{omega}, may not be considered as a monochromatic beam with the shifted frequency {omega}+m{Omega} (Doppler angular shift) for the second-harmonic generation nonlinear process.
Didenko, N V; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Kostryukov, P V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu
2011-09-30
A 300-fs radiation pulse of an ytterbium laser with a wavelength of 1030 nm and energy of 150 {mu}J were converted to a 15-fs pulse with a wavelength of 515 nm by broadening the emission spectrum in a capillary filled with xenon and by generating the second harmonic in a KDP crystal. The energy efficiency of the conversion was 30 %.
Retrieving squeezing from classically noisy light in second-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ralph, T. C.; White, A. G.
1995-05-01
We report the results of a study of the quantum noise properties of a squeezing system involving a three-level laser pumping two similar second-harmonic-generating crystals. We show that squeezing that has been obscured by intensity and phase noise from the pump laser may be retrieved by difference detection of both second-harmonic outputs. Similarly, the squeezed vacuum formed by combining the two outputs on a 50/50 beam splitter will be squeezed at frequencies that are classically noisy in the individual beams.
Harmonic superposition for tailored optical frequency comb generation by a Mach-Zehnder modulator.
Yokota, Nobuhide; Abe, Koichiro; Mieda, Shigeru; Yasaka, Hiroshi
2016-03-01
This Letter demonstrates tailored optical frequency comb (OFC) generation using a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator driven by a combination of first- and second-order harmonics of the RF signal. A quasi-rectangular-shaped OFC with less than 1 dB flatness among 11 lines was experimentally obtained when a slight second-order harmonic of the RF signal (0.1 times the half-wavelength voltage) was introduced. Good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculation results for OFCs. We discuss conditions to obtain flat OFCs using this method along with details concerning OFC conversion efficiency and bandwidth.
Enhanced second harmonic generation in coupled semiconductor whispering gallery mode microresonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumeige, Yannick
2009-02-01
It has been shown that doubly resonant microcavities can be used to obtain miniaturized parametric devices leading for example to efficient second-harmonic generation (SHG). First we will briefly recall the basic properties of SHG in III-V semiconductor whispering gallery mode microdisks or microrings. Then we will show theoretically that by coupling such microresonators and by using the artificial dispersion of a side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators (SCISSOR) it is possible to adapt the Fresnel phase-matching technique to the case of highly confining waveguides or to enhance the second order nonlinear properties of a semiconductor waveguide by slowing fundamental and second-harmonic waves.
Purvinis, Georgeanne; Priambodo, Purnomo S; Pomerantz, Martin; Zhou, Ming; Maldonado, Theresa A; Magnusson, Robert
2004-05-15
Experimental results on resonantly excited second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a periodic ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) film are reported. A double-layer guided-mode resonance filter (GMRF) structure is coated with 40 bilayers of pyrlium-based chi(2) ISAM thin film and excited with the fundamental of a Nd:YAG laser. Enhanced second-harmonic conversion in the ISAM film is achieved because of the local field enhancement associated with the fundamental resonating leaky mode. This method of SHG is particularly promising, as the ISAM films under investigation exhibit anomalous dispersion that may be applied for phase matching to improve nonlinear conversion efficiency.
Performance study of a soft X-ray harmonic generation FEL seededwith an EUV laser pulse
Gullans, M.; Wurtele, J.S.; Penn, G.; Zholents, A.A.
2007-02-01
The performance of a free electron laser (FEL) using alow-power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pulse as an input seed isinvestigated. The parameters are appropriate for 30 nm seeds producedfrom high-power Ti:Sa pulses using high harmonic generation schemes. Itis found that, for reasonable beam parameters, robust FEL performance canbe obtained. Both time-independent and time-dependent simulations areperformed for varying system parameters using the GENESIS simulationcode. A comparison is made with a two-stage harmonic FEL that is seededby a high-power Ti:Sa pulse.
Pulse-shape control of two-color interference in high-order-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, K. R.; van der Hart, H. W.; Brown, A. C.
2017-01-01
We report on calculations of harmonic generation by neon in a mixed (800-nm + time-delayed 400-nm) laser pulse scheme. In contrast with previous studies we employ a short (few-cycle) 400-nm pulse, finding that this affords control of the interference between electron trajectories contributing to the cutoff harmonics. The inclusion of the 400-nm pulse enhances the yield and cutoff energy, both of which exhibit a strong dependence on the time delay between the two pulses. Using a combination of time-dependent R -matrix theory and a classical trajectory model, we assess the mechanisms leading to these effects.
Gkortsas, Vasileios-Marios; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Lai, Chien-Jen; Hong, Kyung-Han; Falcao-Filho, Edilson L.; Kaertner, Franz X.
2011-07-15
High-order harmonic generation efficiency is theoretically modeled and compared with experiments using 400 and 800 nm driver pulses. It is shown that, for a short drive wavelength and a Keldysh parameter larger than 1, the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK) ionization model does not give a good agreement between theory and experiment. Since the ADK ionization model only accounts for tunnel ionization, it underestimates the yield of low-order harmonics from the wings of the driver pulse. In contrast, the Yudin-Ivanov ionization model [Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001)], which accounts for both tunnel and multiphoton ionization, gives much better agreement with the experimental results.
Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.; Vilaseca, R.; Cojocaru, C.; Sola, I.; Sheng, Y.
2015-06-01
Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system.
Interferences induced by spatially nonhomogeneous fields in high-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebadi, H.
2014-05-01
The high-harmonic spectrum simulated in a few-cycle laser pulse with spatially nonhomogeneous field presents two types of interferences, which characterize different plateaus in the spectrum. One of these plateaus is discernible with the nonequidistant peaks due to the interference of short and long trajectories, while another one is distinguished by a periodicity much larger than the laser frequency arising from trajectories modified by the nonhomogeneous field. Beside, the continuum-continuum harmonic generation appears in the spectrogram in the tunneling regime of the laser parameters. These features bear the tracking of classical trajectories and the complete characterization of emission spectrum, when using nanostructures in attoscience.
Efficient second harmonic generation in χ(2) profile reconfigured lithium niobate thin film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Lutong; Wang, Yiwen; Hu, Hui
2017-03-01
Second harmonic wave was efficiently generated in proton exchanged lithium niobate thin film channel waveguides. Modal dispersion phase matching was achieved between two guided modes at pump and second-harmonic wavelengths with the same polarization, enabling using the largest second-order nonlinear component d33. The χ(2) profile in the lithium niobate thin film was reconfigured by proton exchange, leading to significantly enhanced modal overlap integral between the interacting modes. Normalized conversion efficiency up to 48% W-1 cm-2 was achieved in experiments.
Internuclear distance R-distribution of high-order harmonic generation from H2+ and its isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hang; Castle, Rich-Samuel; Feng, Liqiang
2017-03-01
Internuclear distance (R) distribution of high-order harmonic generation from H2+ and its isotopes have been theoretically investigated. We found that in the presence of the few-cycle pulse, the harmonics mainly produce from R = 2.0 a.u. to R = 4.5 a.u. and the odd harmonics can be found in the harmonic spectra. With the increase of the pulse duration, the harmonics can be generated from R = 2.0 a.u. to the larger internuclear distance (e.g. R = 15.0 a.u.) and the even/odd harmonics can be obtained in the below/above-threshold harmonic regions. Moreover, the intensities of the harmonics can be enhanced in the presence of the multi-cycle pulse, but the intensities of the below-threshold harmonics can be reduced with the increase of the nuclear mass (e.g. D or T). The time-dependent nuclear motions, the ionization probabilities, the time-frequency analyses of the harmonic spectra and the R-dependent time-dependent wave functions have been shown to explain the R-distribution of the harmonic spectra from H2+ and its isotopes.
Ying, Z.C.; Plummer, E.W. |
1995-12-31
The technique of optical second harmonic generation is used to study phase transformations at two-dimensional surfaces and interfaces. Examples are given to illustrate that changes in surface symmetry, adsorption configuration, and electronic structure can be detected by this nonlinear optical technique. An oscillatory phase transformation of potassium adsorbed atoms on Al(111) probed by second harmonic generation is analyzed in detail.
High-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules induced by a bicircular laser field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odžak, S.; Hasović, E.; Milošević, D. B.
2016-09-01
High-order harmonic generation by a bicircular field, which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields of frequency r ω and s ω (r and s are integers), is investigated for a polyatomic molecule. This field possesses dynamical symmetry, which can be adjusted to the symmetry of the molecular Hamiltonian and used to investigate the molecular symmetry. For polyatomic molecules having the Cr +s symmetry, only the harmonics n =q (r +s )±r ,q =1 ,2 ,..., are emitted having the ellipticity ɛn=±1 . We illustrate this using the example of the planar molecules BH3 and BF3, which obey the C3 symmetry. We show that for the BF3 molecule, similarly to atoms with a p ground state, there is a strong asymmetry in the emission of high harmonics with opposite helicities. This asymmetry depends on the molecular orientation.
Influence of gas pressure on high-order-harmonic generation of Ar and Ne
Wang Guoli; Jin Cheng; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.
2011-11-15
We study the effect of gas pressure on the generation of high-order harmonics where harmonics due to individual atoms are calculated using the recently developed quantitative rescattering theory, and the propagation of the laser and harmonics in the medium is calculated by solving the Maxwell's wave equation. We illustrate that the simulated spectra are very sensitive to the laser focusing conditions at high laser intensity and high pressure since the fundamental laser field is severely reshaped during the propagation. By comparing the simulated results with several experiments we show that the pressure dependence can be qualitatively explained. The lack of quantitative agreement is tentatively attributed to the failure of the complete knowledge of the experimental conditions.
Enhancement of high harmonic generation by confining electron motion in plasmonic nanostrutures.
Ciappina, M F; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Shaaran, T; Biegert, J; Quidant, R; Lewenstein, M
2012-11-19
We study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) resulting from the illumination of plasmonic nanostructures with a short laser pulse of long wavelength. We demonstrate that both the confinement of the electron motion and the inhomogeneous character of the laser electric field play an important role in the HHG process and lead to a significant increase of the harmonic cutoff. In particular, in bow-tie nanostructures with small gaps, electron trajectories with large excursion amplitudes experience significant confinement and their contribution is essentially suppressed. In order to understand and characterize this feature, we combine the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) with the electric fields obtained from 3D finite element simulations. We employ time-frequency analysis to extract more detailed information from the TDSE results and classical tools to explain the extended harmonic spectra. The spatial inhomogeneity of the laser electric field modifies substantially the electron trajectories and contributes also to cutoff increase.
Two-Dimensional Frequency Resolved Optomolecular Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation.
Ferré, A; Soifer, H; Pedatzur, O; Bourassin-Bouchet, C; Bruner, B D; Canonge, R; Catoire, F; Descamps, D; Fabre, B; Mével, E; Petit, S; Dudovich, N; Mairesse, Y
2016-02-05
Probing electronic wave functions of polyatomic molecules is one of the major challenges in high-harmonic spectroscopy. The extremely nonlinear nature of the laser-molecule interaction couples the multiple degrees of freedom of the probed system. We combine two-dimensional control of the electron trajectories and vibrational control of the molecules to disentangle the two main steps in high-harmonic generation-ionization and recombination. We introduce a new measurement scheme, frequency-resolved optomolecular gating, which resolves the temporal amplitude and phase of the harmonic emission from excited molecules. Focusing on the study of vibrational motion in N_{2}O_{4}, we show that such advanced schemes provide a unique insight into the structural and dynamical properties of the underlying mechanism.
Probe of Multielectron Dynamics in Xenon by Caustics in High-Order Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faccialà, D.; Pabst, S.; Bruner, B. D.; Ciriolo, A. G.; De Silvestri, S.; Devetta, M.; Negro, M.; Soifer, H.; Stagira, S.; Dudovich, N.; Vozzi, C.
2016-08-01
We investigated the giant resonance in xenon by high-order harmonic generation spectroscopy driven by a two-color field. The addition of a nonperturbative second harmonic component parallel to the driving field breaks the symmetry between neighboring subcycles resulting in the appearance of spectral caustics at two distinct cutoff energies. By controlling the phase delay between the two color components it is possible to tailor the harmonic emission in order to amplify and isolate the spectral feature of interest. In this Letter we demonstrate how this control scheme can be used to investigate the role of electron correlations that give birth to the giant resonance in xenon. The collective excitations of the giant dipole resonance in xenon combined with the spectral manipulation associated with the two-color driving field allow us to see features that are normally not accessible and to obtain a good agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions.
Generation Of 369.4-Nanometers Second Harmonic From A Diode Laser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Angelyn P.; Maleki, Lutfollah
1995-01-01
Experimental laser system features polarization feedback scheme maintaining frequency lock. Generates light at wavelength of 369.4 nanometers by second-harmonic generation from 738.8-nanometers laser diode. System prototype of source of 369.4-nanometers radiation used to optically pump 2S1/2 ' 2P1/2 transition in 171Yb+ ions in lightweight, low-power trapped-ion frequency-standard apparatus.
Suppression of driving laser in high harmonic generation with a microchannel plate.
Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jie; Chini, Michael; Cheng, Yan; Wu, Yi; Cunningham, Eric; Chang, Zenghu
2014-06-15
Separating the infrared driving laser from the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses after high-order harmonic generation has been a long-standing difficulty. In this Letter, we propose and demonstrate that the driving laser can be blocked by simply installing a microchannel plate (MCP) into the beam line. In addition to its high damage threshold, the MCP filter also transmits photons over the entire XUV region. This paves the way for attosecond pulse generation with unprecedented bandwidth.
Multiphoton ionization and third-harmonic generation in atoms and molecules
Miller, J.C.; Compton, R.N.
1982-01-01
We will discuss recent experiments on multiphoton ionization and third-harmonic generation in rare gases and small molecules using focused laser power densities of 10/sup 9/ to 10/sup 11/ W/cm/sup 2/. Also, some elementary experiments using vacuum ultraviolet light generated by frequency tripling in xenon and krypton will be described. These experiments include absorption and ionization studies using vacuum ultraviolet radiation as well as two-photon ionization using one vacuum ultraviolet photon and one laser photon.
Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, Stefan G; Tranca, Denis E; Stanciu, George A
2016-10-24
Imaging tissue samples by polarization-resolved second harmonic generation microscopy provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into collagen organization in a label-free manner. Polarization-resolved second harmonic generation microscopy goes beyond simple intensity-based imaging by adding the laser beam polarization component and applying different quantitative metrics such as the anisotropy factor. It thus provides valuable information on collagen arrangement not available with intensity measurements alone. Current established approaches are limited to calculating the anisotropy factor for only a particular laser beam polarization and no general guidelines on how to select the best laser beam polarization have yet been defined. Here, we introduce a novel methodology for selecting the optimal laser beam polarization for characterizing tissues using the anisotropy in the purpose of identifying cancer signatures. We show that the anisotropy factor exhibits a similar laser beam polarization dependence to the second harmonic intensity and we combine it with the collagen orientation index computed by Fast Fourier Transform analysis of the recorded images to establish a framework for choosing the laser beam polarization that is optimal for an accurate interpretation of polarization-resolved second harmonic generation microscopy images and anisotropy maps, and hence a better differentiation between healthy and dysplastic areas. SHG image of skin tissue (a) and a selected area of interest for which we compute the SHG intensity (b) and anisotropy factor (c) dependence on the laser beam polarization and also the FFT spectrum (d) to evaluate the collagen orientation index.
X-ray FEL based on harmonics generation and electron beam outcoupling
Litvinenko, V.N.; Burnham, B.
1995-12-31
Electron beam outcoupling was suggested by N. A. Vinokurov as a method of optics independent outcoupling for high power FELs. The bunching of the electron beam is provided in a master oscillator. The prebunched electron beam then radiates coherently into an additional wiggler called the radiator. The electron beam is turned by an achromatic bend into this wiggler and its radiation propagates with a small angle with respect to the OK-4 optical axis. Thus, the radiation will pass around the mirror of the master oscillator optical cavity and can then be utilized. This scheme is perfectly suited for harmonic generation if the radiator wiggler is tuned on one of the master oscillator wavelength harmonics. This system is reminiscent of a klystron operating on a harmonic of the reference frequency. In this paper we present the theory of this device, its spectral and spatial characteristics of radiation, the optimization of the master oscillator, the achromatic bend and bunching for harmonic generation, and influence of beam parameters (energy spread, emittance, etc.) on generated power. Examples of possible storage ring and linac driven systems are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vengelis, Julius; Jarutis, Vygandas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas
2016-09-01
We report results of supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using the first or second harmonics of a subnanosecond passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microlaser. The Nd:YAG microlaser generated 50 μJ energy 300 ps duration pulses at 1064 nm with a kilohertz repetition rate. We demonstrated that we can expand the supercontinuum spectrum to cover the whole visible range and beyond using either first or second harmonics of our pump laser in the case of such pump pulse durations. In the case of a first-harmonic pump (λp=1064 nm), the supercontinuum extended from 400 to 1300 nm and in the case of a second-harmonic pump (λp=532 nm), it extended from 400 to 900 nm. In addition, we compared the supercontinuum evolution and dependence on pump pulse energy in both cases. We also performed numerical simulations of supercontinuum generation in PCF using an improved approach. The generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation was modified so that numerical simulations would yield greater accuracy in the case of longer (300 ps) pulses. The simulated supercontinuum spectra display the same qualitative features as that measured in the experiment.
Doubly resonant metallic nanostructure for high conversion efficiency of second harmonic generation.
Park, Sinjeung; Hahn, Jae W; Lee, Jae Yong
2012-02-27
The recent discovery of strong nonlinear emission in metallic nanostructures has offered possibilities for realization of functional nano photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate a novel design of a plasmonic nano device for high conversion efficiency of second harmonic generation. A 4 × 4 bowtie aperture array is fabricated to have both plasmonic resonance for local field enhancement of the fundamental wave and Fabry-Pérot resonance for high transmission of second harmonic wave. Combining nano structures for exciting surface plasmon polariton and suppressing higher order diffraction and anti-reflection layer, we achieve a second harmonic conversion efficiency of 1.4 × 10(-8) that is nearly an order of magnitude larger than the results published in recent literatures. We also theoretically analyze evidences of the role of double resonances tuned to the fundamental wave and the second harmonic wave, resulting in the augmentation of second harmonic response approximately an order of magnitude greater than that without the help of the resonance.
Nonlinear mixing of Nd:YAG lasers; harmonic and sum frequency generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, Brian M.
2017-03-01
Nonlinear optical materials give rise to a number of phenomena under high intensity of the incident electric field, with nonlinear mixing being a prominent example. This article discusses such nonlinear mixing processes of Nd:YAG lasers in BBO outside the more common harmonics of the 1.064 μm transition (0.532 μm, 0.366 μm and 0.266 μm). In particular, harmonics of the less common 0.946 μm transition (0.473 μm and 0.315 μm) as well as sum frequency of the 1.052 and 1.319 μm transitions (0.585 μm) and its second harmonic (0.293 μm) is discussed.
Ganeev, R. A.; Baba, M.; Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H.
2014-12-28
The systematic studies of the harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in the 5-mm-long Zn and Mn plasmas (i.e., application of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond pulses for ablation, comparison of harmonic generation from atomic, ionic, and cluster-contained species of plasma, variation of plasma length, two-color pump of plasmas, etc.) are presented. The conversion efficiency of the 11th–19th harmonics generated in the Zn plasma was ∼5 × 10{sup −5}. The role of the ionic resonances of Zn near the 9th and 10th harmonics on the enhancement of harmonics is discussed. The enhancement of harmonics was also analyzed using the two-color pump of extended plasmas, which showed similar intensities of the odd and even harmonics along the whole range of generation. The harmonics up to the 107th order were demonstrated in the case of manganese plasma. The comparison of harmonic generation in the 5-mm-long and commonly used short (≤0.5 mm) plasma plumes showed the advanced properties of extended media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deska, R.; Sadecka, K.; Olesiak-Bańska, J.; Matczyszyn, K.; Pawlak, D. A.; Samoć, M.
2017-01-01
The nonlinear optical effect of second harmonic generation can be very strong when originating from nanoplasmonic structures, due to enhancement of the surrounding material's intrinsic non-linear optical properties or due to its occurrence as a result of the plasmonic structure. However, manufacturing of large-scale three dimensional nanoplasmonic structures is still a challenge. Here, we demonstrate the two-photon luminescence and second-harmonic generation in a Bi2O3-Ag eutectic-based metamaterial exhibiting a hierarchic structure of nano- and micro-sized silver precipitates. The investigations employed a microscope system combined with polarimetric analysis. It appears that the second-harmonic-generation arises from the silver plasmonic structure rather than from the nonlinear effects of the bismuth oxide matrix. Both quadrupolar and dipolar modes of polarization are observed.
Theory of THz harmonic generation in semiconductor superlattices (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Mauro F.; Winge, David O.; Wacker, Andreas
2016-10-01
Superlattices are artificial structures with a wide range of applications and open possibilities for controlling and study transport and optical [M.F. Pereira Jr., Phys. Rev. B 52, (1995)] properties of semiconductors. In this work, we start from the full Nonequilibrium Greens Functions approach [A. Wacker et a, IEEE Journal of Sel. Top. in Quantum Electron.,19 1200611, (2013),T. Schmielau and M.F. Pereira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 231111, (2009)] to obtain Voltage-Current curves and compare them with experiments. By adjusting the numerical solutions of the corresponding Dyson equations to a simple model, analytical solutions are given for the nonlinear response of a biased superlattice under sub-THz radiation. The frequency multiplication process leading to multiple harmonicgeneration is described. This hybrid approach leads to predictive simulations and may have important application for a new generation of devices where the superlattices are used as both sources and detectors and may be particular useful for high resolution transient spectroscopy [A.A. Yablokov et at, IEEE Transactions on THz Science and Technology 5, 845 (2015)].
Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations
Spratt, Kyle S. Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.
2015-10-28
A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Wangjian
2014-12-01
Electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells is investigated using the effective mass approximation employing the compact density matrix method and the iterative approach. Our results show that the absolute value, the real part and the imaginary part of second-harmonic generation are greatly affected by the height of the Gaussian potential quantum wells, the range of the Gaussian confinement potential and the applied electric field. The relationship between the absolute value and the imaginary part of second-harmonic generation together with the relationship between the absolute value and the real part of second-harmonic generation is studied. It is found that no matter how the height of the Gaussian potential quantum wells, the range of the Gaussian confinement potential and the applied electric field vary, the resonant peaks of the absolute value of second-harmonic generation do not originate from the imaginary part but from the real part.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xianghui; Fardad, Shima; Das, Susobhan; Salandrino, Alessandro; Hui, Rongqing
2016-04-01
Bulk second-harmonic generation (SHG) inside glass slides is directly detected unambiguously without interference from surface contributions. This is enabled by tightly focused and highly localized ultrashort laser pulses. The theoretical calculations based on vector diffraction theory and the phenomenological model of SHG inside centrosymmetric materials agree well with the measured far-field SHG radiation patterns for different polarization states of the fundamental beam. The results indicate that the observed bulk SHG is predominantly related to the bulk parameter δ' and originates from the three-dimensional field gradient in the focal region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mark, J. Abraham Hudson; Peter, A. John
2014-04-01
Third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation is investigated in a Zn0.1Mg0.9Se/Zn0.8Mg0.2Se/Zn0.1Mg0.9Se quantum well in the presence of magnetic field strength. The confinement potential is considered as the addition of energy offsets of the conduction band (or valence band) and the strain-induced potential in our calculations. The material dependent effective mass is followed throughout the computation because it has a high influence on the electron energy levels in low dimensional semiconductor systems.
Mark, J. Abraham Hudson Peter, A. John
2014-04-24
Third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation is investigated in a Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}Se/Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se quantum well in the presence of magnetic field strength. The confinement potential is considered as the addition of energy offsets of the conduction band (or valence band) and the strain-induced potential in our calculations. The material dependent effective mass is followed throughout the computation because it has a high influence on the electron energy levels in low dimensional semiconductor systems.
Ganeev, Rashid A.; Elouga Bom, Luc B.; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki
2007-10-01
We present systematic time-resolved investigations of plasma conditions for achieving the maximum cutoff and maximum conversion efficiency of high-order harmonic generation from gold plasma within the plateau. We analyzed harmonic generation under different laser-plasma conditions. We also performed simulations to calculate the ionization state of the gold plasma, the free electron density, and singly charged ion density at different prepulse intensities. By optimizing the plasma conditions, we observed a harmonic cutoff at the 53rd order ({lambda}=15.09 nm). We estimate the conversion efficiency of the harmonics within the plateau region to be 2x10{sup -6}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cantrell, John H.
2004-03-01
Organized substructural arrangements of dislocations formed in wavy slip, face-centred-cubic metals during cyclic stress-induced fatigue are shown analytically to engender a substantial nonlinearity in the microelastic-plastic deformation resulting from an impressed stress perturbation. The non-Hookean stress-strain relationship is quantified by a material nonlinearity parameter b that for a given fatigue state is highly sensitive to the volume fractions of veins and persistent slip bands (PSBs), PSB internal stresses, dislocation multipole configurations, dislocation loop lengths, dipole heights and the densities of secondary dislocations in the substructures. The effects on b of vacancy, microcrack and macrocrack formation are also addressed. The connection between b and acoustic harmonic generation is obtained. The model is applied to calculations of b for fatigued polycrystalline nickel as a function of per cent life to fracture. For cyclic stress-controlled loading at 241 MPa, the model predicts a monotonic increase in b of ca. 360% over the fatigue life. For strain-controlled loading at a total strain of 1.75 × 10-3, a monotonic increase in b of ca. 375% over the fatigue life is predicted.
Third-harmonic generation at the interfaces of a cuvette filled with selected organic solvents.
Barbano, E C; Harrington, K; Zilio, S C; Misoguti, L
2016-01-20
We report on the third-harmonic generation (THG) of tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses at the interfaces of a cuvette filled with organic solvents. Such a system presents four interfaces separating two materials of different refractive indices and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities where the THG takes place because the symmetry around the focus is broken. We selected two cuvettes (silica and B270 crown glass) filled with different organic solvents (acetone, chloroform, and dimethyl sulfoxide) in order to have a variety of interfaces with different linear and nonlinear optical properties. For some of the peaks, the self-focusing modifies the expected cubic power law dependence for THG and as a consequence the four peak profiles may be quite uneven. Although the THG is due to the electronic part of the nonlinear susceptibility, it can suffer from the influence of the self-focusing effect, a Kerr nonlinearity that can have both instantaneous electronic and slow nuclear contributions. This mixture of two distinct third-order nonlinear processes was never considered for such interfaces. All the THG signals could be understood by taking into account the self-focusing effect. Furthermore, the nonlinear refractive indices, n(2), and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of the solvents, χ((3)), could be determined simultaneously by the THG signals using the cuvette walls as a reference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryland, Elizabeth S.; Lin, Ming-Fu; Verkamp, Max A.; Vura-Weis, Josh
2016-06-01
Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy is an inner shell technique that probes the M2,3-edge excitation of atoms. Absorption of the XUV photon causes a 3p→3d transition, the energy and shape of which is directly related to the element and ligand environment. This technique is thus element-, oxidation state-, spin state-, and ligand field specific. A process called high-harmonic generation (HHG) enables the production of ultrashort (≈20fs) pulses of collimated XUV photons in a tabletop instrument. This allows transient XUV spectroscopy to be conducted as an in-lab experiment, where it was previously only possible at accelerator-based light sources. Additionally, ultrashort pulses provide the capability for unprecedented time resolution (≈70fs IRF). This technique has the capacity to serve a pivotal role in the study of electron and energy transfer processes in materials and chemical biology. I will present the XUV transient absorption instrument we have built over the past two years, along with preliminary data and simulations of the M2,3-edge absorption data of a battery of small inorganic molecules to demonstrate the high specificity of this ultrafast tabletop technique.
Bueno, Juan M.; Palacios, Raquel; Pennos, Alexandros; Artal, Pablo
2015-01-01
A custom adaptive-optics (AO) multiphoton microscope was used to visualize the corneal stroma after the insertion of a photocurable polymer material. A lamellar pocket was created and a certain amount of polymer in liquid form was injected. This turned into a rigid film after UV irradiation. Intact eyes were used as control. Tomographic and regular second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy images were recorded from both control and corneas with polymer implants. In control corneas, the SHG signal decreased uniformly with depth. However, treated corneas exhibited an abrupt loss of SHG signal at the implant location. The use of AO increased the SHG levels and improved the visualization of the stroma, not only at deeper corneal layers but also beneath the implant. Moreover, the absence of SHG signal from the implant allowed its geometrical characterization (thickness and location). This technique offers a potential tool for non-invasive analysis of morphological changes in the cornea after surgery or treatment, and might be useful in future clinical environments. PMID:26114039
Stacking order dependent second harmonic generation and topological defects in h-BN bilayers.
Kim, Cheol-Joo; Brown, Lola; Graham, Matt W; Hovden, Robert; Havener, Robin W; McEuen, Paul L; Muller, David A; Park, Jiwoong
2013-01-01
The ability to control the stacking structure in layered materials could provide an exciting approach to tuning their optical and electronic properties. Because of the lower symmetry of each constituent monolayer, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) allows more structural variations in multiple layers than graphene; however, the structure-property relationships in this system remain largely unexplored. Here, we report a strong correlation between the interlayer stacking structures and optical and topological properties in chemically grown h-BN bilayers, measured mainly by using dark-field transmission electron microscopy (DF-TEM) and optical second harmonic generation (SHG) mapping. Our data show that there exist two distinct h-BN bilayer structures with different interlayer symmetries that give rise to a distinct difference in their SHG intensities. In particular, the SHG signal in h-BN bilayers is observed only for structures with broken inversion symmetry, with an intensity much larger than that of single layer h-BN. In addition, our DF-TEM data identify the formation of interlayer topological defects in h-BN bilayers, likely induced by local strain, whose properties are determined by the interlayer symmetry and the different interlayer potential landscapes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cantrell, John H.
2006-01-01
A comprehensive, analytical treatment is presented of the microelastic-plastic nonlinearities resulting from the interaction of a stress perturbation with dislocation substructures (veins and persistent slip bands) and cracks that evolve during high-cycle fatigue of wavy slip metals. The nonlinear interaction is quantified by a material (acoustic) nonlinearity parameter beta extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The contribution to beta from the substructures is obtained from the analysis of Cantrell [Cantrell, J. H., 2004, Proc. R. Soc. London A, 460, 757]. The contribution to beta from cracks is obtained by applying the Paris law for crack propagation to the Nazarov-Sutin crack nonlinearity equation [Nazarov, V. E., and Sutin, A. M., 1997, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 3349]. The nonlinearity parameter resulting from the two contributions is predicted to increase monotonically by hundreds of percent during fatigue from the virgin state to fracture. The increase in beta during the first 80-90 percent of fatigue life is dominated by the evolution of dislocation substructures, while the last 10-20 percent is dominated by crack growth. The model is applied to the fatigue of aluminium alloy 2024-T4 in stress-controlled loading at 276MPa for which experimental data are reported. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent.
Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan
2014-08-05
Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hang; Feng, Liqiang
2016-06-01
Harmonic generation spectra from H2+ molecule ion driven by the chirped pulse combined with a terahertz (THz) pulse have been theoretically investigated by numerically solving the non-Born-Oppenheimer time-dependent Schrödinger equation (NBO-TDSE). The results show that with the introduction of the chirp, the harmonic cutoff is extended, resulting in a smooth supercontinuum. Further, when the initial vibrational state is prepared as v = 3, and by properly adding a THz controlling pulse, the harmonic yield is enhanced by almost six orders of magnitude compared with the single chirped pulse case. Quantum analyses are shown to explain the harmonic extension and enhancement. Furthermore, through the investigation of the isotopic effect, we find that more intense harmonics are generated in the lighter nucleus. Finally, by properly superposing the harmonics, a series of intense 35 as XUV pulses can be obtained, which are almost six orders of magnitude improvement in comparison with the single chirped pulse case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Chen-Yang; Liu, Rong-Juan; Li, Zhi-Yuan
2015-08-01
Nonlinear frequency conversion offers an effective way to expand the laser wavelength range based on birefringence phase matching (BPM) or quasi-phase-matching (QPM) techniques in nonlinear crystals. So far, efficient high-harmonic generation is enabled only via multiple cascaded crystals because of the extreme difficulty to simultaneously satisfy BPM or QPM for multiple nonlinear up-conversion processes within a single crystal. Here we report the design and fabrication of a chirped periodic poled lithium niobate (CPPLN) nonlinear crystal that offers controllable multiple QPM bands to support 2nd-8th harmonic generation (HG) simultaneously. Upon illumination of a mid-IR femtosecond pulse laser, we observe the generation of an ultrabroadband visible white light beam corresponding to 5th-8th HG with a record high conversion efficiency of 18%, which is high compared to conventional supercontinuum generation, especially in the HG parts. Our CPPLN scheme opens up a new avenue to explore and engineer novel nonlinear optical interactions in solid state materials for application in ultrafast lasers and broadband laser sources.
Higher harmonic generation in nonlinear waveguides of arbitrary cross-section.
Srivastava, Ankit; Bartoli, Ivan; Salamone, Salvatore; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco
2010-05-01
This article concerns the generation and properties of double harmonics in nonlinear isotropic waveguides of complex cross-section. Analytical solutions of nonlinear Rayleigh-Lamb waves and rod waves have been known for some time. These solutions explain the phenomenon of cumulative double harmonic generation of guided waves. These solutions, however, are only applicable to simple geometries. This paper combines the general approach of the analytical solutions with semi-analytical finite element models to generalize the method to more complex geometries, specifically waveguides with arbitrary cross-sections. Supporting comparisons with analytical solutions are presented for simple cases. This is followed by the study of the case of a rail track. One reason for studying nonlinear guided waves in rails is the potential measurement of thermal stresses in welded rail.
Liao, Yi-Hua; Chen, Szu-Yu; Chou, Sin-Yo; Wang, Pei-Hsun; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Sun, Chi-Kuang
2012-01-01
Skin aging is an important issue in geriatric and cosmetic dermatology. To quantitatively analyze changes in keratinocytes related to intrinsic aging, we exploited a 1230 nm-based in vivo harmonic generation microscopy, combining second- and third-harmonic generation modalities. 52 individuals (21 men and 31 women, age range 19–79) were examined on the sun-protected volar forearm. Through quantitative analysis by the standard algorithm provided, we found that the cellular and nuclear size of basal keratinocytes, but not that of granular cells, was significantly increased with advancing age. The cellular and nuclear areas, which have an increase of 0.51 μm2 and 0.15 μm2 per year, respectively, can serve as scoring indices for intrinsic skin aging. PMID:23304649
Generation of higher harmonics in longitudinal vibration of beams with breathing cracks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broda, D.; Pieczonka, L.; Hiwarkar, V.; Staszewski, W. J.; Silberschmidt, V. V.
2016-10-01
Classical nonlinear vibration methods used for structural damage detection are often based on higher- and sub-harmonic generation. However, nonlinearities arising from sources other than damage - e.g. boundary conditions or a measurement chain - are a primary concern in these methods. This paper focuses on localisation of damage-related nonlinearities based on higher harmonic generation. Numerical and experimental investigations in longitudinal vibration of beams with breathing cracks are presented. Numerical modelling is performed using a two-dimensional finite element approach. Different crack depths, locations and boundary conditions are investigated. The results demonstrate that nonlinearities in cracked beams are particularly strong in the vicinity of damage, allowing not only for damage localisation but also for separation of crack induced nonlinearity from other sources of nonlinearities.
Monitoring of collagen shrinkage by use of second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Lo, Wen; Sun, Yen; Chen, Wei-Liang; Chan, Jung-Yi; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Chou; Hsu, Chih-Jung; Young, Tai-Horng; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Dong, Chen-Yuan
2006-02-01
Thermal treatment induced collagen shrinkage has a great number of applications in medical practice. Clinically, the there is lack of reliable non-invasive methods to quantify the shrinkage. Overt treatment by heat application can lead to devastating results. We investigate the serial changes of collagen shrinkage by thermal treatment of rat tail tendons. The change in length is correlated with the finding in second harmonic generation microscopy and histology. Rat tail tendon shortens progressively during initial thermal treatment. After a certain point in time, the length then remains almost constant despite further thermal treatment. The intensity of second harmonic generation signals also progressively decreases initially and then remains merely detectable upon further thermal treatment. It prompts us to develop a mathematic model to quantify the dependence of collagen shrinkage on changes of SHG intensity. Our results show that SHG intensity can be used to predict the degree of collagen shrinkage during thermal treatment for biomedical applications.
Impact of two-electron dynamics and correlations on high-order-harmonic generation in He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artemyev, Anton N.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Demekhin, Philipp V.
2017-03-01
The interaction of a helium atom with an intense, short, 800-nm, laser pulse is studied theoretically beyond the single-active-electron approximation. For this purpose, the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a two-electron wave packet driven by a linearly polarized infrared pulse is solved by the time-dependent restricted-active-space configuration-interaction method in the dipole velocity gauge. By systematically extending the space of active configurations, we investigate the role of the collective two-electron dynamics in the strong-field ionization and high-order-harmonic generation processes. Our numerical results demonstrate that allowing both electrons in He to be dynamically active results in a considerable extension of the computed high-order-harmonic generation spectrum.
Sun, Jingwei; Wang, Xianghui; Chang, Shengjiang; Zeng, Ming; Shen, Si; Zhang, Na
2016-04-04
We study far-field angular radiation patterns of second harmonic generation (SHG) from gold nanosphere, nanocube, nanorod, and nanocup illuminated by tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams, respectively. It is found that under linearly polarized illumination, far-field forward-scattering SHG (FSHG) dominates second harmonic (SH) responses generated by those gold particles. On the contrary, it is amazing that significant backward-scattering SHG (BSHG) can be observed when those gold nanoparticles are excited by a focused radially polarized beam. For the case of gold nanosphere, the effective point dipole systems are developed to reasonably elucidate this interesting difference. Our investigations suggest that for SHG microscopy with backward detection scheme, tightly focused radially polarized beam could be a promising excitation field to improve the backward SH signal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, C. A.; Zhu, X.-Y.
2016-10-01
Optical excitations at semiconductor surfaces or interfaces are accompanied by transient interfacial electric fields due to charge redistribution or transfer. While such transient fields may be probed by time-resolved second harmonic generation (TR-SHG), it is difficult to determine the field direction, which is invaluable to unveiling the underlying physics. Here we apply a time-resolved frequency domain interferometric second harmonic (TR-FDISH) generation technique to determine the phase relationship between the SH field emitted from bulk GaAs(1 0 0) and the transient SH field from the space charge region. The interference between these two SH fields allow us to unambiguously determine the directions of transient electric fields. Since SH fields from a static bulk contribution and a changing electric field contribution are present at most semiconductor surfaces or interfaces under optical excitation, the TR-FDISH technique is of general significance to probing the dynamics of interfacial charge transfer/redistribution.
Optimal control of attosecond pulse synthesis from high-order harmonic generation
Ben Haj Yedder, A.; Le Bris, C.; Atabek, O.; Chelkowski, S.; Bandrauk, A. D.
2004-04-01
Numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a three-dimensional H atom and an efficient genetic algorithm are used to optimize short intense excitation laser pulses in order to generate high-order harmonics from which we synthesize single attosecond pulses. It is shown that chirping of excitation pulses at intensities {approx}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} and duration of up to {approx}16 fs can lead to synthesis of single attosecond pulses. The optimal excitation pulses and the phases of the generated harmonics are compared with the nonoptimized ones, showing thus the usefulness of genetic algorithm schemes in the search of optimal conditions for synthesizing single attosecond pulses.
Generation of high harmonic free electron laser with phase-merging effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Heting; Jia, Qika; Zhao, Zhouyu
2017-03-01
An easy-to-implement scheme is proposed to produce the longitudinal electron bunch density modulation with phase-merging phenomenon. In this scheme an electron bunch is firstly transversely dispersed in a modified dogleg to generate the exact dependence of electron energy on the transverse position, then it is modulated in a normal modulator. After travelling through a modified chicane with specially designed transfer matrix elements, the density modulation with phase-merging effect is generated which contains high harmonic components of the seed laser. We present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for seeded soft x-ray free-electron laser. The results demonstrate that this technique can significantly enhance the frequency up-conversion efficiency and allow a seeded FEL operating at very high harmonics.
Second-harmonic generation in quaternary atomically thin layered AgInP2S6 crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xingzhi; Du, Kezhao; Liu, Weiwei; Hu, Peng; Lu, Xin; Xu, Weigao; Kloc, Christian; Xiong, Qihua
2016-09-01
Nonlinear effects in two-dimensional (2D) atomic layered materials have attracted increasing interest. Here, we report the observation of optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) in two-dimensional atomically thin silver indium phosphorus sulfide (AgInP2S6) crystals, with odd layer thickness. The nonlinear signal facilitates the use of thickness-dependent SHG intensity to investigate the stacking type of this material, while the crystal-orientation dependent SHG intensity of the monolayer sample reveals the rotational symmetry of the AgInP2S6 lattice in plane. Our studies expand the 2D crystal family in nonlinear effect field, which opened considerable promise to the functionalities and potential applications of 2D materials.
Tan, Wai Jin; Yan, Jie; Xu, Shuoyu; Thike, Aye Aye; Bay, Boon Huat; Yu, Hanry; Tan, Min-Han; Tan, Puay Hoon
2015-12-01
Breast fibroepithelial lesions, including fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours, are commonly encountered in clinical practice. As histological differences between these two related entities may be subtle, resulting in a challenging differential diagnosis, pathological techniques to assist the differential diagnosis of these two entities are of high interest. An accurate diagnosis at biopsy is important given corresponding implications for clinical decision-making including surgical extent and monitoring. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is a recently developed optical imaging technique capable of robust, powerful and unbiased label-free direct detection of collagen fibril structure in tissue without the use of antibodies. We constructed tissue microarrays emulating limited materials on biopsy to investigate quantitative collagen signal in fibroepithelial lesions using SHG microscopy. Archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials of 47 fibroepithelial lesions (14 fibroadenomas and 33 phyllodes tumours) were evaluated. Higher collagen signal on SHG microscopy was observed in fibroadenomas than phyllodes tumours on SHG imaging (p<0.001, area under the curve 0.859). At an automated threshold (2.5 million positive pixels), the sensitivity and specificity of the SHG microscopy for fibroadenoma classification was 71.4% and 84.4%, respectively. To corroborate these findings, we performed immunohistochemistry on tissue array sections using collagen I and III primary antibodies. Both collagen I and III immunohistochemical expressions were also significantly higher in fibroadenomas than in phyllodes tumours (p<0.001). In conclusion, label-free collagen quantitation on SHG microscopy is a novel imaging approach that can aid the differential diagnosis of fibroepithelial lesions.
2D Arrays of Hexagonal Plasmonic Necklaces for Enhanced Second Harmonic Generation.
Gómez-Tornero, Alejandro; Tserkezis, Christos; Mateos, Luis; Bausá, Luisa E; Ramírez, Mariola O
2017-02-10
Hexagonal plasmonic necklaces of silver nanoparticles organized in 2D superlattices on functional ferroelectric templates are fabricated in large-scale spatial regions by using a surfactant-free photo-deposition process. The plasmonic necklaces support broad radiative plasmonic resonances allowing the enhancement of second harmonic generation (SHG) at the ferroelectric domain boundaries. A 400-fold SHG enhancement is achieved at the near-UV spectral region with subsequent interest for technological applications.
Second harmonic generation in a low-loss orientation-patterned GaAs waveguide.
Fedorova, K A; McRobbie, A D; Sokolovskii, G S; Schunemann, P G; Rafailov, E U
2013-07-15
The technology of low-loss orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs) waveguided crystals was developed and realized by reduction of diffraction scattering on the waveguide pattern. The propagation losses in the OP-GaAs waveguide were estimated to be as low as 2.1 dB/cm, thus demonstrating the efficient second harmonic generation at 1621 nm under an external pumping.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamerly, Ryan; Marandi, Alireza; Jankowski, Marc; Fejer, M. M.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Mabuchi, Hideo
2016-12-01
We develop reduced models that describe half-harmonic generation in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator above threshold, where nonlinearity, dispersion, and group-velocity mismatch are all relevant. These models are based on (1) an eigenmode expansion for low pump powers, (2) a simultonlike sech-pulse ansatz for intermediate powers, and (3) dispersionless box-shaped pulses for high powers. Analytic formulas for pulse compression, degenerate vs nondegenerate operation, and stability are derived and compared to numerical and experimental results.
Zhang, Xiaoshi; Lytle, Amy L.; Cohen, Oren; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.
2010-11-09
All-optical quasi-phase matching (QPM) uses a train of counterpropagating pulses to enhance high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a hollow waveguide. A pump pulse enters one end of the waveguide, and causes HHG in the waveguide. The counterpropagation pulses enter the other end of the waveguide and interact with the pump pulses to cause QPM within the waveguide, enhancing the HHG.
High-contrast imaging of mycobacterium tuberculosis using third-harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Bo Ram; Lee, Eungjang; Park, Seung-Han
2015-07-01
Nonlinear optical microcopy has become an important tool in investigating biomaterials due to its various advantages such as label-free imaging capabilities. In particular, it has been shown that third-harmonic generation (THG) signals can be produced at interfaces between an aqueous medium (e.g. cytoplasm, interstitial fluid) and a mineralized lipidic surface. In this work, we have demonstrated that label-free high-contrast THG images of the mycobacterium tuberculosis can be obtained using THG microscopy.
Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; DeLong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Trebino, R.
1996-09-01
We demonstrate what is to our knowledge the first frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) technique to measure ultrashort pulses from an unamplified Ti:sapphire laser oscillator without direction-of-time ambiguity. This technique utilizes surface third-harmonic generation as the nonlinear-optical effect and, surprisingly, is the most sensitive third-order FROG geometry yet. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}
Near-field coupling and second-harmonic generation in split-ring resonator arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grynko, Yevgen; Meier, Torsten; Linden, Stefan; Niesler, Fabian B. P.; Wegener, Martin; Förstner, Jens
2012-09-01
We simulate the linear and nonlinear optical response from split-ring resonator (SRR) arrays to study collective effects between the constituent SRRs that determine spectral properties of the second harmonic generation (SHG). We apply the Discontinuous Galerkin Time Domain (DGTD) method and the hydrodynamic Maxwell-Vlasov model to calculate the SHG emission. Our model is able to qualitatively reproduce and explain the non-monotonic dependence of the spectral SHG transmission measured experimentally for SRR arrays with different lattice constants [1].
X-ray production and second-harmonic generation during femtosecond laser microdrilling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordienko, V. M.; Zhvaniya, I. A.; Makarov, I. A.
2015-08-01
We investigated X-ray yield and second-harmonic generation during femtosecond laser drilling of solid targets placed in vacuum or air. Laser pulse intensity was about 1016 W/cm2 and repetition rate was 10 Hz. Hard X-ray yield ( E > 2.5 keV) and second-harmonic signal are non-monotone and reach a maximum during formation of microchannel in a target. That indicates that both signals can be utilized as a feedback for monitoring laser energy deposition to the target under laser microdrilling. Spectrum of second harmonic emitted from laser-drilled microchannel is blueshifted regardless of target type or environment (vacuum or air surrounding the target). The blueshift reaches the value of about 30 nm. The spectrum of fundamental radiation backreflected from the microchannel has also corresponding blueshift. This testifies that the cloud of ablated particles accumulates inside the microchannel. Incident laser radiation undergoes self-action inside the cloud, as a result occurs the spectral modification of incident radiation and its second harmonic.
Campione, Salvatore; Benz, Alexander; Brener, Igal; Sinclair, Michael B.; Capolino, Filippo
2014-03-31
We theoretically analyze the second harmonic generation capacity of two-dimensional periodic metamaterials comprising sub-wavelength resonators strongly coupled to intersubband transitions in quantum wells (QWs) at mid-infrared frequencies. The metamaterial is designed to support a fundamental resonance at ∼30 THz and an orthogonally polarized resonance at the second harmonic frequency (∼60 THz), while the asymmetric quantum well structure is designed to provide a large second order susceptibility. Upon continuous wave illumination at the fundamental frequency we observe second harmonic signals in both the forward and backward directions, with the forward efficiency being larger. We calculate the overall second harmonic conversion efficiency of the forward wave to be ∼1.3 × 10{sup −2} W/W{sup 2}—a remarkably large value, given the deep sub-wavelength dimensions of the QW structure (about 1/15th of the free space wavelength of 10 μm). The results shown in this Letter provide a strategy for designing easily fabricated sources across the entire infrared spectrum through proper choice of QW and resonator designs.
Interplay between resonant enhancement and quantum path dynamics in harmonic generation in helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Gaarde, Mette B.
2015-07-01
We present a theoretical study of the influence of resonant enhancement on quantum path dynamics in the generation of harmonics above and below the ionization threshold in helium. By varying the wavelength and intensity of the driving field from 425 to 500 nm and from 30 to 140 TW /cm 2 , respectively, we identify enhancements of harmonics 7, 9, and 11 that correspond to multiphoton resonances between the ground state and the Stark-shifted 1 s 2 p ,1 s 3 p , and 1 s 4 p excited states. A time-frequency analysis of the emission shows that both the short and the long quantum path contributions to the harmonic yield are enhanced through these bound-state resonances. We analyze the subcycle time structure of the ninth harmonic yield in the vicinity of the resonances and find that on resonance the long trajectory contribution is phase shifted by approximately π /4 . Finally, we compare the single atom and the macroscopic response of a helium gas and find that while the subcycle time profiles are slightly distorted by propagation effects, the phase shift of the long-trajectory contribution is still recognizable.
High conversion efficiency pumped-cavity second harmonic generation of a diode laser
Keicher, D.M.
1994-01-01
To investigate the feasibility of producing a compact, efficient blue laser source, pumped-cavity second harmonic generation of diode lasers was explored. It is desirable to have such lasers to increase optical disk storage density, for color displays and for under-the-sea green-blue optical signal transmission. Based on assumed cavity losses, a cavity was designed and numerical analysis predicted an overall conversion efficiency to the second harmonic wavelength of 76% from a 75 mW diode laser. The diode laser used in these experiments had a single longitudinal and a single transverse mode output at 860 nm. The best conversion efficiency obtained (26%) was less than optimum due to the 2.5% single-pass linear losses associated with the cavity. However, calculations based on these higher losses are in good agreement with the experimentally determined values. In additions, a factor of 1.65 increase in the second harmonic output power is anticipated by reducing the input mirror reflectivity to better impedance-match the cavity. With this relatively low second harmonic conversion, the power to light conversion is 7.8%.
Tosa, V.; Kim, H.T.; Kim, I.J.; Nam, C.H.
2005-06-15
We present a time-dependent analysis of high-order harmonics generated by a self-guided femtosecond laser pulse propagating through a long gas jet. A three-dimensional model is used to calculate the harmonic fields generated by laser pulses, which only differ by the sign of their initial chirp. The time-frequency distributions of the single-atom dipole and harmonic field reveal the dynamics of harmonic generation in the cutoff. A time-dependent phase-matching calculation was performed, taking into account the self-phase modulation of the laser field. Good phase matching holds for only few optical cycles, being dependent on the electron trajectory. When the cutoff trajectory is phase matched, emitted harmonics are locked in phase and the emission intensity is maximized.
Systematic studies of two-color pump-induced high-order harmonic generation in plasma plumes
Ganeev, R. A.; Singhal, H.; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Vora, H. S.; Khan, R. A.; Gupta, P. D.
2010-11-15
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) has been studied in various laser-produced plasma plumes using a two-color orthogonally polarized beam with a 12:1 energy ratio between the fundamental and second-harmonic (SH) components. The influence of the relative phase between the fundamental and SH waves on the HHG efficiency has been investigated. Odd and even harmonic generation in plasma plumes containing nanoparticles, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and other samples was optimized. The effect of the variation in the SH intensity on the HHG conversion efficiency in carbon aerogel and silver plasma plumes has also been studied. It is shown that by increasing the SH intensity, one can generate only even harmonics by suppressing the odd harmonics.
Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas.
Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernández-García, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Pérez-Hernández, Jose A; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A; Levis, Robert J; Gaffney, Jim A; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Popmintchev, Tenio
2015-12-04
High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Because of reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function, the emission from each species is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. However, phase matching--the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms--favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth-limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.
Correspondence of below-threshold high-order-harmonic generation and frustrated tunneling ionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Wei-Hao; Xiao, Xiang-Ru; Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang
2016-07-01
Among many of the nonlinear phenomena induced by strong laser pulses, two of the important processes are the harmonic generation and the creation of neutral atoms in the Rydberg states. We carry out a joint study of the below-threshold high-order-harmonic (BTH) generation and the production of low-lying Rydberg atoms driven by an intense few-cycle midinfrared laser pulse. Our results are based on the numerical solution to the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation within the single active electron approximation and a semiclassical simulation. The yields of BTH and low-lying Rydberg atoms are found to have a similar carrier envelope phase dependence. We find that both processes can be faithfully described semiclassically in the deep tunneling regime. The trajectory analysis shows that these two processes share the same series of trajectories and can be simultaneously manipulated by the driving pulse shape. Our finding bridges the below-threshold high-order-harmonic generation and the frustrated tunneling ionization.
Impact of electron ionization on the generation of high-order harmonics from molecules
Brener, S.; Moiseyev, N.; Ivanov, M. V.
2003-08-01
When the laser frequency is tuned to be equal to the molecular electronic excitation, high-order harmonics are generated due to the electronic dipole transitions between the corresponding two potential-energy surfaces (PES). A natural, often taken, choice is the PES of the field-free molecular system. In this special choice the ionization phenomenon is not considered. Only the effect of the dissociation is considered. The method we developed enables one to remain within the framework of the 2-PES approximation and yet to include also the ionization effect in the calculations of molecular high-order harmonic generation spectra. In this approach the coupling between the electronic and nuclear motions is taken into consideration by using coupled complex adiabatic PES. As an illustrative numerical example, we calculated the high harmonic generation (HHG) spectra of H{sub 2}{sup +} in a 730-nm laser with the intensity of 8.77x10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. The inclusion of the ionization in our approach not only enables the electrons to tunnel through the effective static potential barrier, but also apply an asymmetric force which accelerates the electron before ionization takes place. Therefore, indirectly the inclusion of the ionization by the laser field may lead eventually to an enhanced HHG spectra in comparison with the calculated one when the ''natural'' choice of the field-free 2PES is taken.
The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas
Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; ...
2015-12-04
High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams inmore » the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.« less
The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas
Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio
2015-12-04
High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.
Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation
Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos
2017-01-01
We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams –or “structured attosecond light springs”– with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging. PMID:28281655
Jha, Pallavi; Agrawal, Ekta
2014-05-15
An analytical study of second harmonic generation due to interaction an intense, p-polarized laser beam propagating obliquely in homogeneous underdense plasma, in the mildly relativistic regime, has been presented. The efficiency of the second harmonic radiation as well as its detuning length has been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. It is shown that, for a given plasma electron density, the second harmonic efficiency increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning length decreases. The second harmonic amplitude vanishes at normal incidence of the laser beam.
Highly Efficient Optical Second Harmonic Generation in Poled Ti-Doped Silica Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Kashima, Kenichi; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Soga, Naohiro; Yamagata, Shigeru; Mito, Akihiro; Nasu, Hiroyuki
1995-01-01
Optical second harmonic intensity of poled Ti-doped silica glasses prepared by the Verneuil method has been measured. The second-order nonlinear coefficient, d33, of the glasses prepared from starting materials of TiO2 and SiO2 powders ranges from 0.2 to 0.5 pm/V. These values are one order of magnitude larger than that for silica glass without intentional dopants.
Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodley, M.; Pernet, P.-L.; /Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne
2010-08-25
We report the first experimental demonstration of the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) technique which holds great promise for generation of high power, fully coherent short-wavelength radiation. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the 3rd and 4th harmonic of the second seed laser is generated from the so-called beam echo effect. The experiment confirms the physics behind this technique and paves the way for applying the EEHG technique for seeded x-ray free electron lasers.
78 FR 987 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-01-07
... trade of chemicals is a large segment of the United States economy. In 2000, U.S. foreign trade in chemicals totaled $154 billion and generated a $6 billion positive trade balance. The consistency of... entries for chemical under pressure and specify acceptable bulk and non-bulk packagings, filling...
Li, Yang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Qingbin; Qin, Meiyan; Lu, Peixiang
2013-02-25
We perform a quantum-orbit analysis for the dependence of high-order-harmonic yield on the driving field ellipticity and the polarization properties of the generated high harmonics. The electron trajectories responsible for the emission of particular harmonics are identified. It is found that, in elliptically polarized driving field, the electrons have ellipticity-dependent initial velocities, which lead to the decrease of the ionization rate. Thus the harmonic yield steeply decreases with laser ellipticity. Besides, we show that the polarization properties of the harmonics are related to the complex momenta of the electron. The physical origin of the harmonic ellipticity is interpreted as the consequence of quantum-mechanical uncertainty of the electron momentum. Our results are verified with the experimental results as well as the numerical solutions of the time dependent Schrödinger equation from the literature.
Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.
2012-04-01
This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinohara, Katsuji; Shinhatsubo, Kurato; Iimori, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Kichiro; Saruban, Takamichi; Yamaemori, Takahiro
In recent year, consciousness of environmental problems is enhancing, and the price of the electric power purchased by an electric power company is established expensive for the power plant utilizing the natural energy. So, the introduction of the wind power generation is promoted in Japan. Generally, squirrel-cage induction machines are widely used as a generator in wind power generation system because of its small size, lightweight and low-cost. However, the induction machines do not have a source of excitation. Thus, it causes the inrush currents and the instantaneous voltage drop when the generator is directly connected to a power grid. To reduce the inrush currents, an AC power regulator is used. Wind power generations are frequently connected to and disconnected from the power grid. However, when the inrush currents are reduced, harmonic currents are caused by phase control of the AC power regulator. And the phase control of AC power regulator cannot control the power factor. Therefore, we propose the use of the AC power regulator to compensate for the harmonic currents and reactive power in the wind power generation system, and demonstrate the validity of its system by simulated and experimental results.
Lee, Eun Pyo; Lee, Dong Woo; Cho, Yoon-Ho; Thao Tran, T.; Shiv Halasyamani, P.; Ok, Kang Min
2013-06-01
The phase pure large scale synthesis, second-harmonic generation, and piezoelectric properties of a vanadium phosphate, Li₂VPO₆ are reported. The material has been synthesized by a standard solid-state reaction using Li₂CO₃, V₂O₅, and NH₄H₂PO₄ as reagents. The phase purity and crystal structure of the reported material have been confirmed by powder X-ray and neutron diffractions. The material crystallizes in orthorhombic space group Pna2₁ (no. 33) with a=10.32581(7) Å, b=4.63728(3) Å, c=8.56606(5) Å, and Z=4. The noncentrosymmetric layered structure is composed of distorted VO₆ octahedra and PO₄ tetrahedra. The V⁵⁺ cations distort either along the approximate [1 0 1] or [-1 0 1] directions attributable to the alignment of distorted VO₆ octahedra, resulting in a polar structure. Powder second-harmonic generating (SHG) measurements on Li₂VPO₆ using 1064 nm radiation, indicate the material has a SHG efficiency of approximately 10 times that of α-SiO₂ and is not phase-matchable (type 1). Converse piezoelectric measurements for the material reveal a piezoelectric coefficient, d₃₃, of 12 pm V⁻¹. - Graphical abstract: A net moment arising from the alignment of the distorted VO₆ octahedra is responsible for the SHG and piezoelectricity for the noncentrosymmetric vanadium phosphate, Li₂VPO₆. Highlights: • Large scale synthesis of a NCS vanadium phosphate, Li₂VPO₆ is reported. • Li₂VPO₆ exhibits a SHG efficiency of 10× that of α-SiO₂. • Li₂VPO₆ reveals a piezoelectric coefficient, d₃₃, of 12 pm V⁻¹. • A net moment is arising from the alignment of the VO₆ octahedra in Li₂VPO₆.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.
2016-07-01
We demonstrate the generation of harmonics up to the 27th order (λ=29.9 nm) of 806 nm radiation in the boron carbide plasma. We analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this target compared with the ingredients comprising B4C (solid boron and graphite) by studying the plasma emission and harmonic spectra from three species. We compare different schemes of the two-color pump of B4C plasma, particularly using the second harmonics of 806 nm laser and optical parametric amplifier (1310 nm) as the assistant fields, as well as demonstrate the sum and difference frequency generation using the mixture of the wavelengths of two laser sources. These studies showed the advantages of the two-color pump of B4C plasma leading to the stable harmonic generation and the growth of harmonic conversion efficiency. We also show that the coincidence of harmonic and plasma emission wavelengths in most cases does not cause the enhancement or decrease of the conversion efficiency of this harmonic. Our spatial characterization of harmonics shows their on-axis modification depending on the conditions of frequency conversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, C. D.; Jin, Cheng; Le, Anh-Thu; Lucchese, R. R.
2012-10-01
We analyse the theory of single photoionization (PI) and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by intense lasers from aligned molecules. We show that molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions can be extracted from these measurements. We also show that, under favourable conditions, the phase of PI transition dipole matrix elements can be extracted from the HHG spectra. Furthermore, by varying the polarization axis of the HHG generating laser with respect to the polarization axis of the aligning laser, it is possible to extract angle-dependent tunnelling ionization rates for different subshells of the molecules.
Gan, Wei; Gonella, Grazia; Zhang, Min; Dai, Hai-Lung
2011-01-28
Even though nanoparticles have dimensions much smaller than the optical wavelength and shapes commonly with inversion symmetry, we show, for the first time, direct experimental evidence that second harmonic generation (SHG) can be detected from the surface layer of metallic nanoparticles, in this case 40 nm radius Ag particles. The SH intensity detected is shown to substantially decrease upon chemical bonding of thiol molecules to the Ag particle surface. The surface generated SH intensity can be used for probing properties and processes at the nanoparticle surface.
Surface plasmon polariton excitation by second harmonic generation in single organic nanofibers.
Simesen, Paw; Søndergaard, Thomas; Skovsen, Esben; Fiutowski, Jacek; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Pedersen, Kjeld
2015-06-15
Coherent local excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by second-harmonic generation (SHG) in individual aligned crystalline organic functionalized para-phenylene nanofibers deposited on a thin silver film is demonstrated. The SH-SPP generation is considered theoretically and investigated experimentally with angular-resolved leakage radiation spectroscopy for normal incidence of the excitation beam. Both measurements and simulations show asymmetric excitation of left- and right-propagating SH-SPPs, which is explained as an effect of fiber molecules being oriented at an angle relative to the silver film surface.
High-order-harmonic generation by enhanced plasmonic near-fields in metal nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaaran, T.; Ciappina, M. F.; Guichard, R.; Pérez-Hernández, J. A.; Roso, L.; Arnold, M.; Siegel, T.; Zaïr, A.; Lewenstein, M.
2013-04-01
We present theoretical investigations of high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) resulting from the interaction of noble gases with localized surface plasmons. These plasmonic near-fields are produced when a metal nanoparticle is subject to a few-cycle laser pulse. The enhanced field, which largely depends on the geometrical shape of the metallic nanostructure, has a strong spatial dependency. We demonstrate that the strong nonhomogeneity of this laser field plays an important role in the HHG process and leads to a significant increase of the harmonic-cutoff energy. In order to understand and characterize this feature, we include the functional form of the laser electric field obtained from recent attosecond streaking experiments [F. Süßmann and M. F. Kling, Proc. SPIE0277-786X10.1117/12.893551 8096, 80961C (2011)] in the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. By performing classical simulations of the HHG process we show consistency between them and the quantum-mechanical predictions. These allow us to understand the origin of the extended harmonic spectra as a selection of particular trajectory sets. The use of metal nanoparticles is an alternate way of generating coherent XUV light with a laser field whose characteristics can be synthesized locally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabotnov, S. V.; Kholodov, M. M.; Georgobiani, V. A.; Presnov, D. E.; Golovan, L. A.; Kashkarov, P. K.
2016-03-01
Light propagation in silicon nanowire layers is studied via Raman scattering, third-harmonic generation and cross-correlation function measurements. The studied silicon nanowire arrays are characterized by a wire diameter of 50-100 nm and a layer thickness ranging from 0.2-16 μm. These structures are mesoscopic for light in the visible and near infrared ranges. The Raman signal increases monotonically with layer thickness increases at a 1.064 μm pump wavelength. The Stokes component for silicon nanowire arrays with a thickness larger than 2 μm exceeds that for crystalline silicon by more than an order. At the mentioned thicknesses, an increase is also registered for the third-harmonic signal, one that is up to fourfold greater than that for crystalline silicon for a 1.25 μm pump wavelength. Measurements of cross-correlation functions for the scattered photons evidence the significant photon lifetime increase in the silicon nanowire layers at their thickness increase. This fact can be connected with multiple scattering inside the studied mesoscopic structures and the increase of the interaction length for the Raman and third-harmonic generation processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Liang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Xi; Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang
2016-11-01
We investigate the polarization properties of high harmonics generated with the bichromatic counter-rotating circularly polarized (BCCP) laser fields by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). It is found that the helicity of the elliptically polarized harmonic emission is reversed at particular harmonic orders. Based on the time-frequency analysis and the classical three-step model, the correspondence between the positions of helicity reversions and the classical trajectories of continuum electrons is established. It is shown that the electrons ionized at one lobe of laser field can be divided into different groups based on the different lobes they recombine at, and the harmonics generated by adjacent groups have opposite helicities. Our study performs a detailed analysis of high harmonics in terms of electron trajectories and depicts a clear and intuitive physical picture of the HHG process in BCCP laser fields.
Yu, Hongwei; Wu, Hongping; Pan, Shilie; Yang, Zhihua; Hou, Xueling; Su, Xin; Jing, Qun; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R; Rondinelli, James M
2014-01-29
Nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals are essential materials for generation of coherent UV light in solid state lasers. KBBF is the only material that can achieve coherent light below 200 nm by direct second harmonic generation (SHG). However, its strong layer habits and the high toxicity of the beryllium oxide powders required for synthesis limit its application. By substituting Be with Zn and connecting adjacent [Zn2BO3O2]∞ layers by B3O6 groups, a new UV nonlinear optical material, Cs3Zn6B9O21, was synthesized. It overcomes the processing limitations of KBBF and exhibits the largest SHG response in the KBBF family.
In-phased second harmonic wave array generation with intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling.
Hirosawa, Kenichi; Shohda, Fumio; Yanagisawa, Takayuki; Kannari, Fumihiko
2015-03-23
The Talbot cavity is one promising method to synchronize the phase of a laser array. However, it does not achieve the lowest array mode with the same phase but the highest array mode with the anti-phase between every two adjacent lasers, which is called out-phase locking. Consequently, their far-field images exhibit 2-peak profiles. We propose intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling. By placing a nonlinear crystal in a Talbot cavity, the Talbot cavity generates an out-phased fundamental wave array, which is converted into an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array at the nonlinear crystal. We demonstrate numerical calculations and experiments on intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling and obtain an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array for a Nd:YVO₄ array laser.
Probing the quantum tunneling limit of plasmonic enhancement by third harmonic generation.
Hajisalem, Ghazal; Nezami, Mohammedreza S; Gordon, Reuven
2014-11-12
Metal nanostructures provide extreme focusing of optical energy that is limited fundamentally by quantum tunneling. We directly probe the onset of the quantum tunneling regime observed by a sharp reduction in the local field intensity in subnanometer self-assembled monolayer gaps using third harmonic generation. Unlike past works that have inferred local limits from far-field spectra, this nonlinear measurement is sensitive to the near-field intensity as the third power. We calculate the local field intensity using a quantum corrected model and find good quantitative agreement with the measured third harmonic. The onset of the quantum regime occurs for double the gap size of past studies because of the reduced barrier height of the self-assembled monolayer, which will be critical for many applications of plasmonics, including nonlinear optics and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.
Third-harmonic generation from Mie-type resonances of isolated all-dielectric nanoparticles.
Melik-Gaykazyan, Elizaveta V; Shcherbakov, Maxim R; Shorokhov, Alexander S; Staude, Isabelle; Brener, Igal; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedyanin, Andrey A
2017-03-28
Subwavelength silicon nanoparticles are known to support strongly localized Mie-type modes, including those with resonant electric and magnetic dipolar polarizabilities. Here we compare experimentally the efficiency of the third-harmonic generation from isolated silicon nanodiscs for resonant excitation at the two types of dipolar resonances. Using nonlinear spectroscopy, we observe that the magnetic dipolar mode yields more efficient third-harmonic radiation in contrast to the electric dipolar (ED) mode. This is further supported by full-wave numerical simulations, where the volume-integrated local fields and the directly simulated nonlinear response are shown to be negligible at the ED resonance compared with the magnetic one.This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'.
Impact of the Electronic Band Structure in High-Harmonic Generation Spectra of Solids.
Tancogne-Dejean, Nicolas; Mücke, Oliver D; Kärtner, Franz X; Rubio, Angel
2017-02-24
An accurate analytic model describing the microscopic mechanism of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids is derived. Extensive first-principles simulations within a time-dependent density-functional framework corroborate the conclusions of the model. Our results reveal that (i) the emitted HHG spectra are highly anisotropic and laser-polarization dependent even for cubic crystals; (ii) the harmonic emission is enhanced by the inhomogeneity of the electron-nuclei potential; the yield is increased for heavier atoms; and (iii) the cutoff photon energy is driver-wavelength independent. Moreover, we show that it is possible to predict the laser polarization for optimal HHG in bulk crystals solely from the knowledge of their electronic band structure. Our results pave the way to better control and optimize HHG in solids by engineering their band structure.
Double-resonant enhancement of third-harmonic generation in graphene nanostructures.
You, Jian Wei; You, Jie; Weismann, Martin; Panoiu, Nicolae C
2017-03-28
Intriguing and unusual physical properties of graphene offer remarkable potential for advanced, photonics-related technological applications, particularly in the area of nonlinear optics at the deep-subwavelength scale. In this study, we use a recently developed numerical method to illustrate an efficient mechanism that can lead to orders of magnitude enhancement of the third-harmonic generation in graphene diffraction gratings. In particular, we demonstrate that by taking advantage of the geometry dependence of the resonance wavelength of localized surface-plasmon polaritons of graphene ribbons and discs one can engineer the spectral response of graphene gratings so that strong plasmonic resonances exist at both the fundamental frequency and third-harmonic (TH). As a result of this double-resonant mechanism for optical near-field enhancement, the intensity of the TH can be increased by more than six orders of magnitude.This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'.
Impact of the Electronic Band Structure in High-Harmonic Generation Spectra of Solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tancogne-Dejean, Nicolas; Mücke, Oliver D.; Kärtner, Franz X.; Rubio, Angel
2017-02-01
An accurate analytic model describing the microscopic mechanism of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids is derived. Extensive first-principles simulations within a time-dependent density-functional framework corroborate the conclusions of the model. Our results reveal that (i) the emitted HHG spectra are highly anisotropic and laser-polarization dependent even for cubic crystals; (ii) the harmonic emission is enhanced by the inhomogeneity of the electron-nuclei potential; the yield is increased for heavier atoms; and (iii) the cutoff photon energy is driver-wavelength independent. Moreover, we show that it is possible to predict the laser polarization for optimal HHG in bulk crystals solely from the knowledge of their electronic band structure. Our results pave the way to better control and optimize HHG in solids by engineering their band structure.
Different time scales in plasmonically enhanced high-order-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zagoya, C.; Bonner, M.; Chomet, H.; Slade, E.; Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.
2016-05-01
We investigate high-order-harmonic generation in inhomogeneous media for reduced dimensionality models. We perform a phase-space analysis, in which we identify specific features caused by the field inhomogeneity. We compute high-order-harmonic spectra using the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and provide an interpretation in terms of classical electron trajectories. We show that the dynamics of the system can be described by the interplay of high-frequency and slow-frequency oscillations, which are given by Mathieu's equations. The latter oscillations lead to an increase in the cutoff energy, and, for small values of the inhomogeneity parameter, take place over many driving-field cycles. In this case, the two processes can be decoupled and the oscillations can be described analytically.
Advanced properties of extended plasmas for efficient high-order harmonic generation
Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.
2014-05-15
We demonstrate the advanced properties of extended plasma plumes (5 mm) for efficient harmonic generation of laser radiation compared with the short lengths of plasmas (∼0.3–0.5 mm) used in previous studies. The harmonic conversion efficiency quadratically increased with the growth of plasma length. The studies of this process along the whole extreme ultraviolet range using the long plasma jets produced on various metal surfaces, particularly including the resonance-enhanced laser frequency conversion and two-color pump, are presented. Such plasmas could be used for the quasi-phase matching experiments by proper modulation of the spatial characteristics of extended ablating area and formation of separated plasma jets.
Widely tunable third-harmonic generation in a tellurite microstructured optical fiber.
Cheng, Tonglei; Deng, Dinghuan; Xue, Xiaojie; Matsumoto, Morio; Tezuka, Hiroshige; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake
2015-02-20
We designed and fabricated a tellurite (76.5TeO(2)-6Bi(2)O(3)-11.5Li(2)O-6ZnO, mol. %) microstructured optical fiber (TMOF) with four air holes for widely tunable third-harmonic generation (THG). The loss of the TMOF is ~0.2 dB/m at 1550 nm. Widely tunable THG from ~567 to 902 nm is obtained when the TMOF is pumped by an optical parametric oscillator with the pump wavelength changing from ~1700 to 2700 nm. The mechanism of THG in this work is further investigated through the third-harmonic signal pattern, which is due to the high nonlinearity of the TMOF and the high pump power, not from the phase-matching process between the fundamental mode and the high-order TH mode.
Local dynamics in high-order-harmonic generation using Bohmian trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, J.; Augstein, B. B.; Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.
2013-08-01
We investigate high-order-harmonic generation from a Bohmian-mechanical perspective and find that the innermost part of the core, represented by a single Bohmian trajectory, leads to the main contributions to the high-harmonic spectra. Using time-frequency analysis, we associate this central Bohmian trajectory to an ensemble of unbound classical trajectories leaving and returning to the core, in agreement with the three-step model. In the Bohmian scenario, this physical picture builds up nonlocally near the core via the quantum mechanical phase of the wave function. This implies that the flow of the wave function far from the core alters the central Bohmian trajectory. We also show how this phase degrades in time for the peripheral Bohmian trajectories as they leave the core region.
Temporal coherence of high-order harmonics generated at solid surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemmers, D.; Behmke, M.; Karsch, S.; Keyling, J.; Major, Z.; Stelzmann, C.; Pretzler, G.
2014-07-01
We present interferometric measurements of the temporal coherence of high-order harmonics generated by reflection of a titanium sapphire laser off a solid surface. It is found that the coherence length of the harmonic emission is significantly reduced compared with the bandwidth limited case. To identify the responsible mechanism, the acquired data were analyzed by means of particle-in-cell simulations, whose results show good agreement between the calculated spectra and the measured coherence times. We show that the observed broadening can be understood consistently by the occurrence of a Doppler shift induced by the moving plasma surface, which is dented by the radiation pressure of the laser pulse. In this case, this Doppler effect would also lead to positive chirp of the emitted radiation.
Generation and Detection of Higher Harmonics in Rayleigh Waves Using Laser Ultrasound
Herrmann, Jan; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu Jianmin; Kim, Jin-Yeon
2006-03-06
This research studies higher harmonics of Rayleigh surface waves propagating in nickel base superalloys. Rayleigh waves are used because they carry most of the energy and travel along the surface of a specimen where fatigue damage is typically initiated. The energy concentration near the free surface leads to stronger nonlinear effects compared to bulk waves. An ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer together with a plastic wedge is used for the experimental generation of the Rayleigh wave. The detection system consists of a laser heterodyne interferometer. Measurements are performed to detect the fundamental wave as well as the second harmonic. The amplitude ratio is related to the nonlinearity parameter {beta} which is typically used to describe changes in microstructure and investigate fatigue damage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Jian; Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei
2014-02-01
Nonlinear optical microscopy (e.g., higher harmonic (second-/third- harmonic) generation (HHG), simulated Raman scattering (SRS)) has high diagnostic sensitivity and chemical specificity, making it a promising tool for label-free tissue and cell imaging. In this work, we report a development of a simultaneous SRS and HHG imaging technique for characterization of liver disease in a bile-duct-ligation rat-modal. HHG visualizes collagens formation and reveals the cell morphologic changes associated with liver fibrosis; whereas SRS identifies the distributions of hepatic fat cells formed in steatosis liver tissue. This work shows that the co-registration of SRS and HHG images can be an effective means for label-free diagnosis and characterization of liver steatosis/fibrosis at the cellular and molecular levels.
The second-harmonic generation in a dissipative and dispersion layered structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soltanmohammadi, Jamshid; Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem; Arghand-Hesar, Afshin; Lotfi, Erik S.; Masalehdan, Hossein
2015-10-01
Conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a multicrystal structure arrangement, under linearly absorption of interacting waves was analytically investigated. Different linear absorption and nonlinear interaction coefficients were considered for both of the fundamental and the second harmonic waves in cascade layers. The intensity-constant approximation on fundamental wave radiation was applied in calculations. Behavior of conversion efficiency with interaction coherence length of fundamental wave, phase miss-matching and ratio of linear absorption coefficients were graphically illustrated. The results are shown that in multicrystal structure scheme, the conversion efficiency can be tuned by the interaction coherent length and it is possible to compensate the phase differences induced in the previous layers. The phase compensation between the layers is the physical reason of efficiency improvement. Contribution to the topical issue "Advanced Electromagnetics Symposium (AES 2014) - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek
Probing nuclear motion by frequency modulation of molecular high-order harmonic generation.
Bian, Xue-Bin; Bandrauk, André D
2014-11-07
Molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) in a non-Born-Oppenheimer treatment of H(2)(+), D(2)(+), is investigated by numerical simulations of the corresponding time-dependent Schrödinger equations in full dimensions. As opposed to previous studies on amplitude modulation of intracycle dynamics in MHOHG, we demonstrate redshifts as frequency modulation (FM) of intercycle dynamics in MHOHG. The FM is induced by nuclear motion using intense laser pulses. Compared to fixed-nuclei approximations, the intensity of MHOHG is much higher due to the dependence of enhanced ionization on the internuclear distance. The width and symmetry of the spectrum of each harmonic in MHOHG encode rich information on the dissociation process of molecules at the rising and falling parts of the laser pulses, which can be used to retrieve the nuclear dynamics. Isotope effects are studied to confirm the FM mechanism.
Mazumder, Nirmal; Xiang, Lu Yun; Qiu, Jianjun; Kao, Fu-Jen
2017-01-01
The changes of the morphology during heating and the degree of crystallinity of dry and hydrated starch granules are investigated using second harmonic generation (SHG) based Stokes polarimetry. A spatial distribution of various polarization parameters, such as the degree of polarization (DOP), the degree of linear polarization (DOLP), and the degree of circular polarization (DOCP) are extracted and compared with the two dimensional second harmonic (SH) Stokes images of starch granules. The SH signal from hydrated and dry starch on heating differed significantly in DOLP and DOCP values, indicating that hydrated starch has a greater degree of ultrastructural amylopectin disorder. The detail of denaturation and the phase transition of hydrated starch demonstrate the significant influence of thermal processing. PMID:28383522
Multibeam second-harmonic generation by spatiotemporal shaping of femtosecond pulses.
Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Alonso, Benjamín; Sola, Íñigo Juan; Mínguez-Vega, Gladys; Lancis, Jesús
2012-03-01
We present a technique for efficient generation of the second-harmonic signal at several points of a nonlinear crystal simultaneously. Multispot operation is performed by using a diffractive optical element that splits the near-infrared light of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser into an arbitrary array of beams that are transformed into an array of foci at the nonlinear crystal. We show that, for pulse temporal durations under 100 fs, spatiotemporal shaping of the pulse is mandatory to overcome chromatic dispersion effects that spread both in space and time the foci showing a reduced peak intensity that prevents nonlinear phenomena. We experimentally demonstrate arbitrary irradiance patterns for the second-harmonic signal consisting of more than 100 spots with a multipass amplifier delivering 28 fs, 0.8 mJ pulses at 1 kHz repetition rate.