Science.gov

Sample records for harness test based

  1. NCCS Regression Test Harness

    SciTech Connect

    Tharrington, Arnold N.

    2015-09-09

    The NCCS Regression Test Harness is a software package that provides a framework to perform regression and acceptance testing on NCCS High Performance Computers. The package is written in Python and has only the dependency of a Subversion repository to store the regression tests.

  2. A TCP-Over-UDP Test Harness

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, TH

    2002-10-31

    This report describes an implementation of a TCP-like protocol that runs over UDP. This TCP-like implementation, which does not require kernel modifications, provides a test harness for evaluating variations of the TCP transport protocol over the Internet. The test harness provides a tunable and instrumented version of TCP that supports Reno, NewReno, and SACK/FACK. The test harness can also be used to characterize the TCP-performance of a network path. Several case studies illustrate how one can tune the transport protocol to improve performance.

  3. Evaluation of Cable Harness Post-Installation Testing. Part B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. S.; Iannello, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Cable Harness Post-Installation Testing Report was written in response to an action issued by the Ares Project Control Board (PCB). The action for the Ares I Avionics & Software Chief Engineer and the Avionics Integration and Vehicle Systems Test Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Manager in the Vehicle Integration Office was to develop a set of guidelines for electrical cable harnesses. Research showed that post-installation tests have been done since the Apollo era. For Ares I-X, the requirement for post-installation testing was removed to make it consistent with the avionics processes used on the Atlas V expendable launch vehicle. Further research for the report involved surveying government and private sector launch vehicle developers, military and commercial aircraft, spacecraft developers, and harness vendors. Responses indicated crewed launch vehicles and military aircraft perform post-installation tests. Key findings in the report were as follows: Test requirements identify damage, human-rated vehicles should be tested despite the identification of statistically few failures, data does not support the claim that post-installation testing damages the harness insulation system, and proper planning can reduce overhead associated with testing. The primary recommendation of the report is for the Ares projects to retain the practice of post-fabrication and post-installation cable harness testing.

  4. High-Density Terminal Box for Testing Wire Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, W. B.; Collins, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    Compact terminal box provides access to complex wiring harnesses for testing. Box accommodates more than twice as many wires as previous boxes. Box takes in wires via cable connectors and distributes them to contacts on box face. Instead of separate insulated jacks in metal face panel, box uses pairs of small military-standard metal sockets in precision-drilled plastic panel. Shorting plug provides continuity for wires when not being tested.

  5. 42 CFR 84.151 - Harness test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) The arrangement and suitability of all harness accessories and fittings will be considered. (b)(1) The... and suitability of all harness accessories and fittings will be considered. (c) The harness employed... of a simple arrangement for attaching the hose to a part of the wearer's clothing in a...

  6. Dynamic Testing and Automatic Repair of Reconfigurable Wiring Harnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-27

    made it possible to consider the construction of reconfigurable manifolds - essentially, wiring harnesses that behave like macroscopic FPGA routing...must withstand extreme temperatures, hard vacuum and high levels of radiation for years without maintenance. Conventionally, spacecraft wiring ... harnesses are built with architectures that are fixed at the time of manufacture. They must therefore be designed to endure the lifetime of the mission

  7. Determining Damping Trends from a Range of Cable Harness Assemblies on a Launch Vehicle Panel from Test Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; Davis, R. Ben; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The team of authors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating estimating techniques for the vibration response of launch vehicle panels excited by acoustics and/or aero-fluctuating pressures. Validation of the approaches used to estimate these environments based on ground tests of flight like hardware is of major importance to new vehicle programs. The team at MSFC has recently expanded upon the first series of ground test cases completed in December 2010. The follow on tests recently completed are intended to illustrate differences in damping that might be expected when cable harnesses are added to the configurations under test. This validation study examines the effect on vibroacoustic response resulting from the installation of cable bundles on a curved orthogrid panel. Of interest is the level of damping provided by the installation of the cable bundles and whether this damping could be potentially leveraged in launch vehicle design. The results of this test are compared with baseline acoustic response tests without cables. Damping estimates from the measured response data are made using a new software tool that employs a finite element model (FEM) of the panel in conjunction with advanced optimization techniques. This paper will report on the \\damping trend differences. observed from response measurements for several different configurations of cable harnesses. The data should assist vibroacoustics engineers to make more informed damping assumptions when calculating vibration response estimates when using model based analysis approach. Achieving conservative estimates that have more flight like accuracy is desired. The paper may also assist analysts in determining how ground test data may relate to expected flight response levels. Empirical response estimates may also need to be adjusted if the measured response used as an input to the study came from a test article without flight like cable harnesses.

  8. Harnessing complexity: taking advantage of context and relationships in dissemination of school-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Butler, Helen; Bowes, Glenn; Drew, Sarah; Glover, Sara; Godfrey, Celia; Patton, George; Trafford, Lea; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-03-01

    Schools and school systems are increasingly asked to use evidence-based strategies to promote the health and well-being of students. The dissemination of school-based health promotion research, however, offers particular challenges to conventional approaches to dissemination. Schools and education systems are multifaceted organizations that sit within constantly shifting broader contexts. This article argues that health promotion dissemination needs to be rethought for school communities as complex systems and that this requires understanding and harnessing the dynamic ecology of the sociopolitical context. In developing this argument, the authors draw on their experience of the dissemination process of a multilevel school-based intervention in a complex educational context. Building on this experience, they argue for the need to move beyond conventional dissemination strategies to a focus on active partnerships between developers and users of school-based intervention research and offer a conceptual tool for planning dissemination.

  9. Computerized Interactive Harness Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized interactive harness engineering program inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically data-base system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records.

  10. Safety harness

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, L.W.

    1991-04-08

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment. The safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  11. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  12. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  13. Application of the SAMGrid test-harness for performance evaluation and tuning of a distributed cluster implementation of data handling services

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, A.; Baranovski, A.; Garzoglio, G.; Loebel-Carpenter, L.; Herber, R.; Illingworth, R.; Kennedy, R.; Kreymer, A.; Kumar, A.; Lueking, L.; Merritt, W.; Terekhov, I.; Trumbo, J.; White, S.; Veseli, S.; Burgon-Lyon, M.; St. Denis, R.; Belforte, S.; Kerzel, U.; Leslie, M.; Bartsch, V.; /Oxford U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Texas Tech.

    2004-12-01

    The SAMGrid team has recently refactored its test harness suite for greater flexibility and easier configuration. This makes possible more interesting applications of the test harness, for component tests, integration tests, and stress tests. This new implementation of the test harness is a Python framework which uses XML for configuration and small plug-in python modules for specific test purposes We report on the architecture of the test harness and its recent application to stress tests of a new analysis cluster at Fermilab, to explore the extremes of analysis use cases and the relevant parameters for tuning in the SAMGrid station services. One current testing application is running on a 128-CPU analysis cluster with access to 6 TB distributed cache and also to a 2 TB centralized cache, permitting studies of different cache strategies. We have also studied the service parameters which affect the performance of retrieving data from tape storage. The use cases studied vary from those which will require rapid file delivery with short processing time per file, to the opposite extreme of long processing time per file. These results are interesting for their implications with regard to Grid operations, and illustrate the type of monitoring and test facilities required to accomplish such performance tuning.

  14. Harnessing inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-09-01

    Living in the era of "big-data" information, we are ubiquitously inundated by overabundances of sizes-non-negative numerical values representing count, score, length, area, volume, duration, mass, energy, etc. Datasets of sizes display numerous types of statistical variability that are commonly quantified either by the standard deviation, or by the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The standard deviation measures the sizes' Euclidean divergence from their mean, the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy measures the sizes' informational divergence from the benchmark of pure determinism, and both these gauges are one-dimensional. In this paper we overview a methodology that harnesses inequality in order to quantify statistical variability. The methodology follows a socioeconomic approach of measuring the sizes' inequality-their divergence from the benchmark of pure egalitarianism-and yields frameworks that gauge statistical variability in a multi-dimensional fashion. The aim of this overview is to serve both researchers and practitioners as a crash-introduction to the "harnessing inequality" methodology, and as a crash-manual to the implementation of this methodology.

  15. Harnessing Sun's Energy with Quantum Dots Based Next Generation Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Halim, Mohammad A

    2012-12-27

    Our energy consumption relies heavily on the three components of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal) and nearly 83% of our current energy is consumed from those sources. The use of fossil fuels, however, has been viewed as a major environmental threat because of their substantial contribution to greenhouse gases which are responsible for increasing the global average temperature. Last four decades, scientists have been searching for alternative sources of energy which need to be environmentally clean, efficient, cost-effective, renewable, and sustainable. One of the promising sustainable sources of energy can be achieved by harnessing sun energy through silicon wafer, organic polymer, inorganic dye, and quantum dots based solar cells. Among them, quantum dots have an exceptional property in that they can excite multiple electrons using only one photon. These dots can easily be synthesized, processed in solution, and incorporated into solar cell application. Interestingly, the quantum dots solar cells can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit; however, it is a great challenge for other solar cell materials to exceed the limit. Theoretically, the quantum dots solar cell can boost the power conversion efficiency up to 66% and even higher to 80%. Moreover, in changing the size of the quantum dots one can utilize the Sun's broad spectrum of visible and infrared ranges. This review briefly overviews the present performance of different materials-based solar cells including silicon wafer, dye-sensitized, and organic solar cells. In addition, recent advances of the quantum dots based solar cells which utilize cadmium sulfide/selenide, lead sulfide/selenide, and new carbon dots as light harvesting materials has been reviewed. A future outlook is sketched as to how one could improve the efficiency up to 10% from the current highest efficiency of 6.6%.

  16. Harnessing Sun’s Energy with Quantum Dots Based Next Generation Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    Our energy consumption relies heavily on the three components of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal) and nearly 83% of our current energy is consumed from those sources. The use of fossil fuels, however, has been viewed as a major environmental threat because of their substantial contribution to greenhouse gases which are responsible for increasing the global average temperature. Last four decades, scientists have been searching for alternative sources of energy which need to be environmentally clean, efficient, cost-effective, renewable, and sustainable. One of the promising sustainable sources of energy can be achieved by harnessing sun energy through silicon wafer, organic polymer, inorganic dye, and quantum dots based solar cells. Among them, quantum dots have an exceptional property in that they can excite multiple electrons using only one photon. These dots can easily be synthesized, processed in solution, and incorporated into solar cell application. Interestingly, the quantum dots solar cells can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit; however, it is a great challenge for other solar cell materials to exceed the limit. Theoretically, the quantum dots solar cell can boost the power conversion efficiency up to 66% and even higher to 80%. Moreover, in changing the size of the quantum dots one can utilize the Sun’s broad spectrum of visible and infrared ranges. This review briefly overviews the present performance of different materials-based solar cells including silicon wafer, dye-sensitized, and organic solar cells. In addition, recent advances of the quantum dots based solar cells which utilize cadmium sulfide/selenide, lead sulfide/selenide, and new carbon dots as light harvesting materials has been reviewed. A future outlook is sketched as to how one could improve the efficiency up to 10% from the current highest efficiency of 6.6%. PMID:28348320

  17. JWST ISIM Harness Thermal Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobel, Mark; Glazer, Stuart; Tuttle, Jim; Martins, Mario; Ruppel, Sean

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. Launch is planned for 2013. JWST wl1 be the premier observatory of the next decade serving thousands of astronomers worldwide. The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) is the unit that will house thc four main JWST instruments. The ISIM enclosure passively cooled to 37 Kelvin and has a tightly managed thermal budget. A significant portion of the ISIM heat load is due to parasitic heat gains from the instrument harnesses. These harnesses provide a thermal path from the Instrument Electronics Control (IEC) to the ISIM. Because of the impact of this load to the ISIM thermal design, understanding the harness parasitic heat gains is critical. To this effect, a thermal test program has been conducted in order to characterize these parasitic loads and verify harness thermal models. Recent parasitic heat loads tests resulted in the addition of a dedicated multiple stage harness radiator. In order for the radiator to efficiently reject heat from the harness, effective thermal contact conductance values for multiple harnesses had to be determined. This presentation will describe the details and the results of this test program.

  18. Intelligent electrical harness connector assembly using Bell Helicopter Textron's 'Wire Harness Automated Manufacturing System'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, D. W.

    Bell Helicopter Textron, Incorporated (BHTI) installed two Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 computers and an American Can Inc. Ink Jet printer in 1980 as the cornerstone of the Wire Harness Automated Manufacturing System (WHAMS). WHAMS is based upon the electrical assembly philosophy of continuous filament harness forming. This installation provided BHTI with a 3 to 1 return-on-investment by reducing wire and cable identification cycle time by 80 percent and harness forming, on dedicated layout tooling, by 40 percent. Yet, this improvement in harness forming created a bottle neck in connector assembly. To remove this bottle neck, BHTI has installed a prototype connector assembly cell that integrates the WHAMS' data base and innovative computer technologies to cut harness connector assembly cycle time. This novel connector assembly cell uses voice recognition, laser identification, and animated computer graphics to help the electrician in the correct assembly of harness connectors.

  19. Harnessing RNAi-based nanomedicines for therapeutic gene silencing in B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Shiri; Toker, Itai A.; Emmanuel, Rafi; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Rosenblum, Daniel; Goldsmith, Meir; Abraham, Avigdor; Benjamini, Ohad; Bairey, Osnat; Raanani, Pia; Nagler, Arnon; Lieberman, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in systemic small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery to the liver and to solid tumors, systemic siRNA delivery to leukocytes remains challenging. The ability to silence gene expression in leukocytes has great potential for identifying drug targets and for RNAi-based therapy for leukocyte diseases. However, both normal and malignant leukocytes are among the most difficult targets for siRNA delivery as they are resistant to conventional transfection reagents and are dispersed in the body. We used mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a prototypic blood cancer for validating a novel siRNA delivery strategy. MCL is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that overexpresses cyclin D1 with relatively poor prognosis. Down-regulation of cyclin D1 using RNA interference (RNAi) is a potential therapeutic approach to this malignancy. Here, we designed lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) coated with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies that are specifically taken up by human MCL cells in the bone marrow of xenografted mice. When loaded with siRNAs against cyclin D1, CD38-targeted LNPs induced gene silencing in MCL cells and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice with no observed adverse effects. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of cyclin D1 therapy in MCL and present a novel RNAi delivery system that opens new therapeutic opportunities for treating MCL and other B-cell malignancies. PMID:26699502

  20. Harnessing cellular differentiation to improve ALA-based photodynamic therapy in an artificial skin model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward; Anand, Sanjay; Sato, Nobuyuki; Mack, Judith; Ortel, Bernhard

    2005-04-01

    During ALA-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), a pro-drug (aminolevulinic acid; ALA) is taken up by tumor cells and metabolically converted to a photosensitizing intermediate (protoporphyrin IX; PpIX). ALA-based PDT, while an emerging treatment modality, remains suboptimal for most cancers (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma of the skin). Many treatment failures may be largely due to insufficient conversion of ALA to PpIX within cells. We discovered a novel way to increase the conversion of ALA to PpIX, by administering agents that can drive terminal differentiation (i.e., accelerate cellular maturation). Terminally-differentiated epithelial cells show higher levels of intracellular PpIX, apparently via increased levels of a rate-limiting enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO). To study these mechanisms in a three-dimensional tissue, we developed an organotypic model that mimics true epidermal physiology in a majority of respects. A line of rat epidermal keratinocytes (REKs), when grown in raft cultures, displays all the features of a fully-differentiated epidermis. Addition of ALA to the culture medium results in ALA uptake and PpIX synthesis, with subsequent death of keratinocytes upon exposure to blue light. Using this model, we can manipulate cellular differentiation via three different approaches. (1) Vitamin D, a hormone that enhances keratinocyte differentiation; (2) Hoxb13, a nuclear transcription factor that affects the genetically-controlled differentiation program of stratifying cells (3) Hyaluronan, an abundant extracellular matrix molecule that regulates epidermal differentiation. Because the raft cultures contain only a single cell type (no blood, fibroblasts, etc.) the effects of terminal differentiation upon CPO, PpIX, and keratinocyte cell death can be specifically defined.

  1. Acidogenic fermentation of vegetable based market waste to harness biohydrogen with simultaneous stabilization.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Mohanakrishna, G; Goud, R Kannaiah; Sarma, P N

    2009-06-01

    Vegetable based market waste was evaluated as a fermentable substrate for hydrogen (H(2)) production with simultaneous stabilization by dark-fermentation process using selectively enriched acidogenic mixed consortia under acidophilic microenvironment. Experiments were performed at different substrate/organic loading conditions in concurrence with two types of feed compositions (with and without pulp). Study depicted the feasibility of H(2) production from vegetable waste stabilization process. H(2) production was found to be dependent on the concentration of the substrate and composition. Higher H(2) production and substrate degradation were observed in experiments performed without pulp (23.96 mmol/day (30.0 kg COD/m(3)); 13.96 mol/kg COD(R) (4.8 kg COD/m(3))) than with pulp (22.46 mmol/day (32.0 kg COD/m(3)); 12.24 mol/kg COD(R) (4.4 kg COD/m(3))). Generation of higher concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid was observed in experiments performed without pulp. Data enveloping analysis (DEA) was employed to study the combined process efficiency of system by integrating H(2) production and substrate degradation.

  2. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  3. Behavior of sandhill cranes harnessed with different satellite transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Ellis, D.H.; Landfried, S.E.; Miller, L.H.; Klugman, S.S.; Fuller, M.R.; Vermillion, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of various attachment methods and designs of platform transmitting terminals (PTT's) was tested on captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, during 1989-91. Combinations of attachment and transmitter designs included neoprene cord harness with batteries separate from the transmitter (2 harness designs), Teflon ribbon harness with batteries incorporated into the transmitter package (4 transmitter models), and a package attached directly to the bird with epoxy glue only. Physical effects seen on cranes wearing PTT's ranged from skin lacerations (caused by rubbing of harness material) to no observed effects (other than feather wear). The most successful harness material and design utilized a Teflon ribbon harness with the 4 ribbon ends from the transmitter forming a neck loop and a body loop joined at the sternum. Time spent by sandhill cranes performing most activities did not change after transmitter attachment using this harness method.

  4. Distributed Real-Time Computing with Harness

    SciTech Connect

    Di Saverio, Emanuele; Cesati, Marco; Di Biagio, Christian; Pennella, Guido; Engelmann, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Modern parallel and distributed computing solutions are often built onto a ''middleware'' software layer providing a higher and common level of service between computational nodes. Harness is an adaptable, plugin-based middleware framework for parallel and distributed computing. This paper reports recent research and development results of using Harness for real-time distributed computing applications in the context of an industrial environment with the needs to perform several safety critical tasks. The presented work exploits the modular architecture of Harness in conjunction with a lightweight threaded implementation to resolve several real-time issues by adding three new Harness plug-ins to provide a prioritized lightweight execution environment, low latency communication facilities, and local timestamped event logging.

  5. Reliable Wiring Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    New harness for electrical wiring includes plugs that do not loosen from vibration. Ground braids prevented from detaching from connectors and constrained so braids do not open into swollen "birdcage" sections. Spring of stainless steel encircles ground braid. Self-locking connector contains ratchet not only preventing connector from opening, but tightens when vibrated.

  6. Quick-donning backpack harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Harness device permits user to quickly put on or take off load carried in backpack arrangement. It can be attached with one hand; has controlled deformation belt that automatically encircles user upon application of pressure; has rigid shoulder harness elements which move automatically into place; and primary attachment components cannot be displaced while harness is in place.

  7. Harnessing Team Work. Close Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Experienced teams competing in multiple adventure activities, several of which involved ropes, kept their harnesses on all day. Safety procedures included an initial check of buckles and harnesses by an instructor, but failed to recognize that participants would remove their harnesses for toilet purposes. Lists other possible safety errors for…

  8. Sizing and fit of fall-protection harnesses.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Bradtmiller, Bruce; Whitestone, Jennifer

    2003-10-10

    Full-body fall-protection harnesses have been a critical work-practice control technology for reducing the number of fall-related injuries and fatalities among construction workers; yet, very little is known about the fit of these harnesses to the population that wears them. This study evaluated the fit and sizing efficacy of a harness system. Seventy-two male and 26 female construction workers participated in the study. Their body size-and-shape information was measured while they were suspended (with a harness) and standing (with and without a harness), using a 3-D full-body laser scanner and traditional anthropometric calipers. Fisher's discriminant analysis results did not point to the need for a change in the current sizing selection scheme by body height and weight for end users. However, an integrated redesign of harness components is needed because 40% of subjects did not pass fit-performance criteria in either the standing or suspended condition. A multivariate accommodation analysis has identified 15 representative body models for the 'standard-size' harness design. These models can serve as a useful population to test harness design until a larger survey of the nation's construction workers can be done. Finally, further developments in 3-D shape quantification methods are recommended to improve the harness design process; the point-to-point anthropometric information currently used seems to be insufficient for harness design.

  9. Manufacturing and quality control of interconnecting wire harnesses, Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The document covers interconnecting wire harnesses defined in the design standard, including type 8, flat conductor cable. Volume breadth covers installations of groups of harnesses in a major assembly and the associated post installation inspections and electrical tests. Knowledge gained through experience on the Saturn 5 program coupled with recent advances in techniques, materials, and processes was incorporated into this document.

  10. Harnessing Collective Knowledge Inherent in Tag Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, U.; Held, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tagging systems represent the conceptual knowledge of a community. We experimentally tested whether people harness this collective knowledge when navigating through the Web. As a within-factor we manipulated people's prior knowledge (no knowledge vs. prior knowledge that was congruent/incongruent to the collective knowledge inherent in the tags).…

  11. Computer-Based Testing: Test Site Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald A.

    Computer-based testing places great burdens on all involved parties to ensure test security. A task analysis of test site security might identify the areas of protecting the test, protecting the data, and protecting the environment as essential issues in test security. Protecting the test involves transmission of the examinations, identifying the…

  12. Accessory child safety harnesses: do the risks outweigh the benefits?

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie; Wainohu, Derek; Aquilina, Peter; Suratno, Basuki; Kelly, Paul; Bilston, Lynne E

    2010-01-01

    Accessory child safety harnesses are available in some countries as alternative restraints for young children or as an accessory restraint used with booster seats. Their use, in Australia at least, is becoming more common. There have been concerns that the risk of misuse of these restraints outweighs any potential benefit this system might have over a retractable lap-shoulder belt system used with a booster seat. However to date there is no evidence to confirm or deny this. This study used laboratory simulated frontal crash tests to examine the performance of accessory child safety harness systems compared to the lap-shoulder belt when used alone and when used with two common designs of Australian booster seat. The performance of the child safety harness system when misused was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the correctly used child safety harness system performed no better than the lap-shoulder system, and in fact allows for a greater risk of submarining. Furthermore, one common form of child safety harness misuse, where the harness is over-tightened causing the lap belt to be positioned high over the abdomen, allowed extremely undesirable dummy motion. This involved gross submarining and direct contact between the harness system and the dummy's neck. These findings suggest that the risks associated with accessory child safety harness systems most likely outweigh any potential benefits, in frontal impacts at least.

  13. High Performance Computing with Harness over InfiniBand

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, Alessandro; Di Biagio, Christian; Batino, Fabrizio; Pennella, Guido; Palma, Fabrizio; Engelmann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Harness is an adaptable and plug-in-based middleware framework able to support distributed parallel computing. By now, it is based on the Ethernet protocol which cannot guarantee high performance throughput and real time (determinism) performance. During last years, both, the research and industry environments have developed new network architectures (InfiniBand, Myrinet, iWARP, etc.) to avoid those limits. This paper concerns the integration between Harness and InfiniBand focusing on two solutions: IP over InfiniBand (IPoIB) and Socket Direct Protocol (SDP) technology. They allow the Harness middleware to take advantage of the enhanced features provided by the InfiniBand Architecture.

  14. Harnessing Scientific Literature Reports for Pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Ripple, Anna; Tonning, Joseph; Munoz, Monica; Hasan, Rashedul; Ly, Thomas; Francis, Henry; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objectives We seek to develop a prototype software analytical tool to augment FDA regulatory reviewers’ capacity to harness scientific literature reports in PubMed/MEDLINE for pharmacovigilance and adverse drug event (ADE) safety signal detection. We also aim to gather feedback through usability testing to assess design, performance, and user satisfaction with the tool. Methods A prototype, open source, web-based, software analytical tool generated statistical disproportionality data mining signal scores and dynamic visual analytics for ADE safety signal detection and management. We leveraged Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) indexing terms assigned to published citations in PubMed/MEDLINE to generate candidate drug-adverse event pairs for quantitative data mining. Six FDA regulatory reviewers participated in usability testing by employing the tool as part of their ongoing real-life pharmacovigilance activities to provide subjective feedback on its practical impact, added value, and fitness for use. Results All usability test participants cited the tool’s ease of learning, ease of use, and generation of quantitative ADE safety signals, some of which corresponded to known established adverse drug reactions. Potential concerns included the comparability of the tool’s automated literature search relative to a manual ‘all fields’ PubMed search, missing drugs and adverse event terms, interpretation of signal scores, and integration with existing computer-based analytical tools. Conclusions Usability testing demonstrated that this novel tool can automate the detection of ADE safety signals from published literature reports. Various mitigation strategies are described to foster improvements in design, productivity, and end user satisfaction. PMID:28326432

  15. Halogen-enriched fragment libraries as chemical probes for harnessing halogen bonding in fragment-based lead discovery.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Markus O; Lange, Andreas; Wilcken, Rainer; Cieslik, Markus B; Exner, Thomas E; Joerger, Andreas C; Koch, Pierre; Boeckler, Frank M

    2014-04-01

    Halogen bonding has recently experienced a renaissance, gaining increased recognition as a useful molecular interaction in the life sciences. Halogen bonds are favorable, fairly directional interactions between an electropositive region on the halogen (the σ-hole) and a number of different nucleophilic interaction partners. Some aspects of halogen bonding are not yet understood well enough to take full advantage of its potential in drug discovery. We describe and present the concept of halogen-enriched fragment libraries. These libraries consist of unique chemical probes, facilitating the identification of favorable halogen bonds by sharing the advantages of classical fragment-based screening. Besides providing insights into the nature and applicability of halogen bonding, halogen-enriched fragment libraries provide smart starting points for hit-to-lead evolution.

  16. Lipid-based formulations and drug supersaturation: harnessing the unique benefits of the lipid digestion/absorption pathway.

    PubMed

    Williams, Hywel D; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Yeap, Yan Yan; Anby, Mette U; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

    2013-12-01

    Drugs with low aqueous solubility commonly show low and erratic absorption after oral administration. Myriad approaches have therefore been developed to promote drug solubilization in the gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. Here, we offer insight into the unique manner by which lipid-based formulations (LBFs) may enhance the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs via co-stimulation of solubilization and supersaturation. Supersaturation provides an opportunity to generate drug concentrations in the GI tract that are in excess of the equilibrium crystalline solubility and therefore higher than that achievable with traditional formulations. Incorporation of LBF into lipid digestion and absorption pathways provides multiple drivers of supersaturation generation and the potential to enhance thermodynamic activity and absorption. These drivers include 1) formulation dispersion, 2) lipid digestion, 3) interaction with bile and 4) lipid absorption. However, high supersaturation ratios may also stimulate drug precipitation and reduce exposure where re-dissolution limits absorption. The most effective formulations are likely to be those that generate moderate supersaturation and do so close to the site of absorption. LBFs are particularly well suited to these criteria since solubilization protects against high supersaturation ratios, and supersaturation initiation typically occurs in the small intestine, at the absorptive membrane.

  17. Harnessing Computational Biology for Exact Linear B-Cell Epitope Prediction: A Novel Amino Acid Composition-Based Feature Descriptor.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Vijayakumar; Gautham, Namasivayam

    2015-10-01

    Proteins embody epitopes that serve as their antigenic determinants. Epitopes occupy a central place in integrative biology, not to mention as targets for novel vaccine, pharmaceutical, and systems diagnostics development. The presence of T-cell and B-cell epitopes has been extensively studied due to their potential in synthetic vaccine design. However, reliable prediction of linear B-cell epitope remains a formidable challenge. Earlier studies have reported discrepancy in amino acid composition between the epitopes and non-epitopes. Hence, this study proposed and developed a novel amino acid composition-based feature descriptor, Dipeptide Deviation from Expected Mean (DDE), to distinguish the linear B-cell epitopes from non-epitopes effectively. In this study, for the first time, only exact linear B-cell epitopes and non-epitopes have been utilized for developing the prediction method, unlike the use of epitope-containing regions in earlier reports. To evaluate the performance of the DDE feature vector, models have been developed with two widely used machine-learning techniques Support Vector Machine and AdaBoost-Random Forest. Five-fold cross-validation performance of the proposed method with error-free dataset and dataset from other studies achieved an overall accuracy between nearly 61% and 73%, with balance between sensitivity and specificity metrics. Performance of the DDE feature vector was better (with accuracy difference of about 2% to 12%), in comparison to other amino acid-derived features on different datasets. This study reflects the efficiency of the DDE feature vector in enhancing the linear B-cell epitope prediction performance, compared to other feature representations. The proposed method is made as a stand-alone tool available freely for researchers, particularly for those interested in vaccine design and novel molecular target development for systems therapeutics and diagnostics: https://github.com/brsaran/LBEEP.

  18. SU-F-BRE-16: VMAT Commissioning and Quality Assurance (QA) of An Elekta Synergy-STM Linac Using ICOM Test HarnessTM

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, A; Rajaguru, P; He, R; Yang, C; Kaurin, D; Paul, T; Plowman, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To establish a set of tests based on the iCOM software that can be used to commission and perform periodic QA of VMAT delivery on the Elekta Synergy-S, commonly known as the Beam Modulator (BM). Methods: iCOM is used to create and deliver customized treatment fields to characterize the system in terms of 1) MLC positioning accuracy under static and dynamic delivery with full gantry rotation, 2) MLC positioning with known errors, 3) Maximum dose rate, 4) Maximum MLC speed, 5) Maximum gantry speed, 6) Synchronization: gantry speed versus dose rate, and 7) Synchronization: MLC speed versus dose rate. The resulting images were captured on the iView GT and exported in DICOM format to Dosimetry Check™ system for visual and quantitative analysis. For the initial commissioning phase, the system tests described should be supplemented with extensive patient QAs covering all clinically relevant treatment sites. Results: The system performance test suite showed that on our Synergy-S, MLC positioning was accurate under both static and dynamic deliveries. Intentional errors of 1 mm were also easily identified on both static and dynamic picket fence tests. Maximum dose rate was verified with stop watch to be consistently between 475-480 MU/min. Maximum gantry speed and MLC speed were 5.5 degree/s and 2.5 cm/s respectively. After accounting for beam flatness, both synchronization tests, gantry versus dose rate and MLC speed versus dose rate, were successful as the fields were uniform across the strips and there were no obvious cold/hot spots. Conclusion: VMAT commissioning and quality assurance should include machine characterization tests in addition to patient QAs. Elekta iCOM is a valuable tool for the design of customized VMAT field with specific MU, MLC leaf positions, dose rate, and indirect control of MLC and gantry speed at each of its control points.

  19. Flight performance energetics and water turnovers of Tippler Pigeons with a harness and doorsal load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gessaman, James A.; Workman, Gar W.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a birda??s mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Plight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO, production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measurements precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  20. Flight performance, energetics and water turnover of tippler pigeons with a harness and dorsal load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gessaman, J.A.; Workman, G.W.; Fuller, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a bird's mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Flight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO2 production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measuremets precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  1. Sea floor topography and backscatter intensity of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS), offshore of New York, based on multibeam surveys conducted in 1996, 1998, and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Danforth, W.W.; Knowles, S.C.; May, Brian; Serrett, Laurie

    2000-01-01

    An area offshore of Sandy Hook, New Jersey, has been used extensively for disposal of dredged and other materials, derived from the New York/New Jersey Harbor and surrounding areas, since the late 1800's (Figure 1). Between 1976 and 1995, the New York Bight Dredged Material Disposal Site, also known as the Mud Dump Site (Figure 2), received on average about 6 million cubic yards of material each year from federal and private maintenance dredging and from harbor deepening activities (Massa and others, 1996). In September 1997 the Mud Dump Site (MDS) was closed as an official ocean disposal site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.epa.gov/), and the MDS and surrounding areas were designated as the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS). The HARS is subdivided into a Primary Remediation Area (PRA, subdivided into 9 cells), a Buffer Zone, and a No-Discharge Zone (Figure 2). The sea floor of the HARS, approximately 9 square nautical miles in area, is being remediated by placing at least a one-meter cap of Category I (clean) dredged material on top of the existing surface sediments that exhibit varying degrees of degradation. (See http://www.nan.usace.army.mil/business/prjlinks/dmmp/benefic/hars.htm)(Category I sediments have no potential short or long-term impacts and are acceptable for unrestricted ocean disposal (EPA, 1996)). About 1.1 million cubic yards of dredged material for remediation was placed in the HARS in 1999, and 2.5 million cubic yards in 2000. Three multibeam echosounder surveys were carried out to map the topography and surficial geology of the HARS. The surveys were conducted November 23 - December 3, 1996, October 26 - November 11, 1998, and April 6 - 30, 2000. The surveys were carried out as part of a larger survey of the Hudson Shelf Valley and adjacent shelf (Butman and others, 1998, (http://pubs.usgs.gov/openfile/of98-616/). This report presents maps showing topography, shaded relief, and backscatter intensity (a measure of sea

  2. 14 CFR 91.521 - Shoulder harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... combined safety belt and shoulder harnesses that were approved and installed before March 6, 1980, may... belt and shoulder harnesses that were approved and installed before March 6, 1980, may continue to...

  3. Positioning bars for large wire harnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glessner, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    By tying positioning bars to harness, its configuration can be preserved during transport, thus facilitating installation. Harness can also be showed temporarily by placing hanging hooks on end of bar.

  4. Harnessing the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Robert R.; And Others

    The Willow Creek School Division in southern Alberta (Canada) invited leaders of various community agencies to serve on a task force to examine how changes in the local society were affecting children. The division serves approximately 2,700 rural-based students in several small rural communities. The task force was composed of the leaders of a…

  5. Moving Large Wiring-Harness Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Samuel D.; Gurman, Isaac

    1990-01-01

    Carrier for wiring-harness fabrication boards enables lone operator to move board easily and safely. Holds harness while operator fabricating, while being stored, and being transported to equipment frame for mounting. When positioned for assembly of wiring harness, board and carrier give operator easy and convenient access to wires and cables, when positioned for transfer of wiring harness to or from storage area, carrier holds board securely while moved by one person.

  6. On-Orbit Evaluation of a New Treadmill Harness for Improved Crewmember Comfort and Load Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perusek, G. P.; Sheehan, C. C.; Savina, M. C.; Owings, T. M.; Davis, B. L.; Ryder, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The current design of the International Space Station (ISS) Treadmill Harness has been reported to cause pain and discomfort to crewmembers during exercise. The Harness Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) provided participating crewmembers (n = 6) with a new harness design, the "Glenn Harness," to evaluate for comfort and loading as compared to the current Treadmill Harness. A novel suite of load-sensing instrumentation was developed to noninvasively measure load distribution and provided a first-ever quantification of actual dynamic loads during treadmill exercise. In addition, crew debriefs provided feedback on harness preference and overall impressions. Conclusions: Post-flight analysis in returned Glenn Harnesses (n = 3) showed minimal wear and tear. Four of the six subjects found the Glenn Harness to be more comfortable in this on-orbit, side-by-side comparison as measured by the crew comfort questionnaire and crew debriefs. Specific areas for improvement have been identified, and forward recommendations will be provided to the Human Research Program. The protocol developed for the SDTO provided valuable insight into crew comfort issues, design improvements, and loading preferences for exercise harnessing, which lays the groundwork for better harnessing systems and training protocols.

  7. Harnessing microbial activities for environmental cleanup.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Frank E; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2006-06-01

    Human activities have released large amounts of toxic organic and inorganic chemicals into the environment. Toxic waste streams threaten dwindling drinking water supplies and impact terrestrial, estuarine and marine ecosystems. Cleanup is technically challenging and the costs based on traditional technologies are exceeding the economic capabilities of even the richest countries. Recent advances in our understanding of the microbiology contributing to contaminant transformation and detoxification has led to successful field demonstrations. Hence, harnessing the activity of naturally occurring bacteria, particularly the power of anaerobic reductive processes, is a promising approach to restore contaminated subsurface environments, protect drinking water reservoirs and to safeguard ecosystem health.

  8. Harnessing the Microbiome to Enhance Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle H.; Diven, Marshall A.; Huff, Logan W.; Paulos, Chrystal M.

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota plays a key role in regulating the innate and adaptive immune system. Herein, we review the immunological aspects of the microbiota in tumor immunity in mice and man, with a focus on toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, vaccines, checkpoint modulators, chemotherapy, and adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) therapies. We propose innovative treatments that may safely harness the microbiota to enhance T cell-based therapies in cancer patients. Finally, we highlight recent developments in tumor immunotherapy, particularly novel ways to modulate the microbiome and memory T cell responses to human malignancies. PMID:26101781

  9. Design, development, manufacture, testing, and delivery of devices for connection of solar cell panel circuitry to flat conductor cable solar cell array harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, P. A.; Waddington, D.

    1971-01-01

    The technology status and problem areas which exist for the application of flat conductor cabling to solar cell arrays are summarized. Details covering the design, connector manufacture, and prototype test results are also summarized.

  10. Harnessing spin precession with dissipation.

    PubMed

    Crisan, A D; Datta, S; Viennot, J J; Delbecq, M R; Cottet, A; Kontos, T

    2016-01-27

    Non-collinear spin transport is at the heart of spin or magnetization control in spintronics devices. The use of nanoscale conductors exhibiting quantum effects in transport could provide new paths for that purpose. Here we study non-collinear spin transport in a quantum dot. We use a device made out of a single-wall carbon nanotube connected to orthogonal ferromagnetic electrodes. In the spin transport signals, we observe signatures of out of equilibrium spin precession that are electrically tunable through dissipation. This could provide a new path to harness spin precession in nanoscale conductors.

  11. Harnessing spin precession with dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, A. D.; Datta, S.; Viennot, J. J.; Delbecq, M. R.; Cottet, A.; Kontos, T.

    2016-01-01

    Non-collinear spin transport is at the heart of spin or magnetization control in spintronics devices. The use of nanoscale conductors exhibiting quantum effects in transport could provide new paths for that purpose. Here we study non-collinear spin transport in a quantum dot. We use a device made out of a single-wall carbon nanotube connected to orthogonal ferromagnetic electrodes. In the spin transport signals, we observe signatures of out of equilibrium spin precession that are electrically tunable through dissipation. This could provide a new path to harness spin precession in nanoscale conductors.

  12. Ground-based IRCM testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Derek; Owen, Mark

    2010-04-01

    Recent advances in the ability to perform comprehensive ground based Infrared Countermeasure (IRCM) testing have the capability to fill the Test and Evaluation (T&E) gaps for existing and future weapons system acquisition. IRCM testing has historically been dominated and in a manner limited by expensive live fire testing requirements. While live fire testing is a vital part of IRCM T&E, next generation technological developments now enable closed-loop, ground-based IRCM testing to provide valuable complementary test data at a much lower cost. The high cost and limited assets that have prevented live fire and flight testing from providing a thorough hardware based data set required for previous T&E analysis is no longer an issue. In the past, traditional physics based digital system model (DSM) analysis has been utilized to augment the IRCM data sets to make them statistically significant. While DSM is a useful tool in the development of IRCM systems, the newly developed installed system testing utilizing a hardware-in-the-loop construct provides for an enhanced level of fidelity and assurance that the systems will meet the warfighter's needs. The goal of the newly developed test technologies is to develop a statistical significant data set utilizing hardware-in-the-loop at a significantly lower cost than historical methods.

  13. The effect of the use of full body harnesses on their protective properties.

    PubMed

    Baszczyński, Krzysztof; Jachowicz, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    A full body harness is a component of personal systems protecting against falls from a height. To ensure users' safety, the harness must retain its protective properties during its whole service period. All the elements of a harness (webbings, threads, metal buckles, etc.) are exposed to destructive factors. Harnesses stored and used for a few years were tested. The paper discusses the most frequent types of damage and their effect on the essential resistance parameters. The effect of atmospheric conditions, sunlight, mechanical damage and dust on the parameters of webbings was tested. Conclusions on the main causes of the loss of the protective properties of harnesses are drawn; periodic checks of the physical conditions and guidelines for estimating acceptable service time are recommended.

  14. Harnessing supramolecular peptide nanotechnology in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Lee, Wei Hao; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The harnessing of peptides in biomedical applications is a recent hot topic. This arises mainly from the general biocompatibility of peptides, as well as from the ease of tunability of peptide structure to engineer desired properties. The ease of progression from laboratory testing to clinical trials is evident from the plethora of examples available. In this review, we compare and contrast how three distinct self-assembled peptide nanostructures possess different functions. We have 1) nanofibrils in biomaterials that can interact with cells, 2) nanoparticles that can traverse the bloodstream to deliver its payload and also be bioimaged, and 3) nanotubes that can serve as cross-membrane conduits and as a template for nanowire formation. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how various peptides, in their various self-assembled nanostructures, possess great promise in a wide range of biomedical applications and what more can be expected. PMID:28223805

  15. Harnessing supramolecular peptide nanotechnology in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Lee, Wei Hao; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The harnessing of peptides in biomedical applications is a recent hot topic. This arises mainly from the general biocompatibility of peptides, as well as from the ease of tunability of peptide structure to engineer desired properties. The ease of progression from laboratory testing to clinical trials is evident from the plethora of examples available. In this review, we compare and contrast how three distinct self-assembled peptide nanostructures possess different functions. We have 1) nanofibrils in biomaterials that can interact with cells, 2) nanoparticles that can traverse the bloodstream to deliver its payload and also be bioimaged, and 3) nanotubes that can serve as cross-membrane conduits and as a template for nanowire formation. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how various peptides, in their various self-assembled nanostructures, possess great promise in a wide range of biomedical applications and what more can be expected.

  16. Simultaneous all-optical half-adder, half-subtracter, comparator, and decoder based on nonlinear effects harnessing in highly nonlinear fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Karamdeep; Kaur, Gurmeet; Singh, Maninder Lal

    2016-07-01

    A multifunctional combinational logic module capable of performing several signal manipulation tasks all-optically, such as half-addition/subtraction, single-bit comparison, and 2-to-4 decoding simultaneously is proposed. Several logic functions (A+B¯, A.B, A¯.B, A.B¯, A⊕B, and A⊙B) between two input signals A and B are implemented by harnessing a number of nonlinear effects, such as cross-phase modulation (XPM), cross-gain modulation (XGM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) inside only two highly nonlinear fibers (HNLF) arranged in a parallel structure. The NOR gate (A+B¯) is realized by the means of XPM effect in the first HNLF, whereas, A‾.B, A.B¯, and A.B logics have relied on utilization of XGM and FWM processes, respectively, in parametric medium made up of the second HNLF of parallel arrangement. The remaining A⊕B and A⊙B logics required for successful implementation of the proposed simultaneous scheme are attained by temporally combining previously achieved (A‾.B and A.B‾) and (A.B and A+B‾) logics. Quality-factor ≥7.4 and extinction ratio ≥12.30 dB have been achieved at repetition rates of 100 Gbps for all logic functions (A+B‾, A.B, A¯.B, A.B¯, A⊕B, and A⊙B), suggesting successful simultaneous implementation.

  17. Spring control of wire harness loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curcio, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Negator spring control guides wire harness between movable and fixed structure. It prevents electrical wire harness loop from jamming or being severed as wire moves in response to changes in position of aircraft rudder. Spring-loaded coiled cable controls wire loop regardless of rudder movement.

  18. Fullerenes produced by harnessing sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Two independent groups of researchers have demonstrated that fullerenes can be produced by harnessing focused sunlight to vaporize carbon. Adapted to a large scale, generation of the carbon-cage molecules in solar furnaces might overcome yield-limiting problems associated with other fullerene production techniques, the researchers suggest. At Rice University, Houston, chemistry professor Richard E. Smalley and graduate students L.P. Felipe Chibante, Andreas Thess, J. Michael Alford, and Michael D. Diener used a parabolic mirror to focus sunlight on a graphite target to produce what appears to be a high yield of fullerenes. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, Colo., Roland R. Pitts, Mary Jane Hale, Carl Bingham, Allan Lewandowski, and David E.King, working in collaboration with Clark L. Fields, a chemistry professor at the University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, used NREL's high-flux solar furnace to produce soot that contains C[sub 60] and C[sub 70]. Papers describing the Rice and NREL results appeared together in last week's Journal of Physical Chemistry (97, 8696 and 8701 (1993)).

  19. The Optical Harness: a light-weight EMI-immune replacement for legacy electrical wiring harnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Jason B.; Jackson, B. Scott; Trethewey, William

    2006-05-01

    Electrical wiring harnesses have been used to interconnect control and communication equipment in mobile platforms for over a century. Although they have served this function successfully, they have three problems that are inherent in their design: they are mechanically heavy and stiff, and they are prone to electrical faults, including arcing and Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI), and they are difficult to maintain when faults occur. These properties are all aspects of the metallic conductors used to build the harnesses. The Optical Harness TM is a photonic replacement for the legacy electrical wiring harness. The Optical Harness TM uses light-weight optical fiber to replace signal wires in an electrical harness. The original electrical connections to the equipment remain, making the Optical Harness TM a direct replacement for the legacy wiring harness. In the backshell of each connector, the electrical signals are converted to optical, and transported on optical fiber, by a deterministic, redundant and fault-tolerant optical network. The Optical Harness TM: * Provides weight savings of 40-50% and unsurpassed flexibility, relative to legacy signal wiring harnesses; * Carries its signals on optical fiber that is free from arcing, EMI, RFI and susceptibility to HPM weapons; * Is self-monitoring during operation, providing non-intrusive predictive and diagnostic capabilities.

  20. Cell-Based Genotoxicity Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifferscheid, Georg; Buchinger, Sebastian

    Genotoxicity test systems that are based on bacteria display an important role in the detection and assessment of DNA damaging chemicals. They belong to the basic line of test systems due to their easy realization, rapidness, broad applicability, high sensitivity and good reproducibility. Since the development of the Salmonella microsomal mutagenicity assay by Ames and coworkers in the early 1970s, significant development in bacterial genotoxicity assays was achieved and is still a subject matter of research. The basic principle of the mutagenicity assay is a reversion of a growth inhibited bacterial strain, e.g., due to auxotrophy, back to a fast growing phenotype (regain of prototrophy). Deeper knowledge of the ­mutation events allows a mechanistic understanding of the induced DNA-damage by the utilization of base specific tester strains. Collections of such specific tester strains were extended by genetic engineering. Beside the reversion assays, test systems utilizing the bacterial SOS-response were invented. These methods are based on the fusion of various SOS-responsive promoters with a broad variety of reporter genes facilitating numerous methods of signal detection. A very important aspect of genotoxicity testing is the bioactivation of ­xenobiotics to DNA-damaging compounds. Most widely used is the extracellular metabolic activation by making use of rodent liver homogenates. Again, genetic engineering allows the construction of highly sophisticated bacterial tester strains with significantly enhanced sensitivity due to overexpression of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. This provides mechanistic insights into the toxification and detoxification pathways of xenobiotics and helps explaining the chemical nature of hazardous substances in unknown mixtures. In summary, beginning with "natural" tester strains the rational design of bacteria led to highly specific and sensitive tools for a rapid, reliable and cost effective

  1. Harness: The Next Generation Beyond PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, G.A.

    1998-09-05

    Abstract. Harness is the next generation heterogeneous distributed computing package being developed by the PVM team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Tennessee, and Emory University. This paper describes the changing trends in cluster computing and how Harness is being designed to address the future needs of PVM and MPI application developers. Harness (which will support both PVM and MPI) will allow users to dynamically customize, adapt, and extend a virtual machine's features to more closely match the needs of their application and to optimize for the underlying computer resources. This paper will describe the architecture and core services of this new virtual machine paradgm, our progress on this project, and our experiences with early prototypes of Harness.

  2. Application of a modified harness design for attachment of radio transmitters to shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzenbacher, Peter; Haig, Susan M.; Oring, L.W.

    2000-01-01

    Radio transmitter attachment methodology is important to the design of radio telemetry studies. In 1998, we attached 5 transmitters to a captive population of Western Sandpipers(Calidris mauri) and 7 transmitters to wild Killdeer (Charadriusv ociferus) using a modified version of the Rappolea nd Tipton (1991) figure-8 leg-loop harness. Captive birds fitted with harnesses did not exhibit quantifiable differences in behavior relative to control birds. Based on initial success in using the leg-loop harnesses, we used harnesses to attach transmitters in the wild to 30 Killdeer and 49 Dunlin (Calidris alpina) during the winters of 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. This was part of a study on movements of wintering shorebirds in the Willamette Valley of Oregon,USA. Wild birds showed no adverse effects of the harnesses.Thus, the described harness is a practical method for attachment of transmitters to shorebirds. Advantages of this harness method include a reduction in handling time at capture, elimination of the need to clip feathers for attachment, and increased transmitter retention time.

  3. TestMaker: A Computer-Based Test Development Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.; Lario-Gibbs, Annette M.

    This paper discusses a computer-based prototype called TestMaker that enables educators to create computer-based tests. Given the functional needs of faculty, the host of research implications computer technology has for assessment, and current educational perspectives such as constructivism and their impact on testing, the purposes for developing…

  4. Quick-disconnect harness system for helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapu, P. T.; Aulds, M. J.; Fuchs, Steven P.; McCormick, David M.

    1992-10-01

    We have designed a pilot's harness-mounted, high voltage quick-disconnect connectors with 62 pins, to transmit voltages up to 13.5 kV and video signals with 70 MHz bandwidth, for a binocular helmet-mounted display system. It connects and disconnects with power off, and disconnects 'hot' without pilot intervention and without producing external sparks or exposing hot embers to the explosive cockpit environment. We have implemented a procedure in which the high voltage pins disconnect inside a hermetically-sealed unit before the physical separation of the connector. The 'hot' separation triggers a crowbar circuit in the high voltage power supplies for additional protection. Conductor locations and shields are designed to reduce capacitance in the circuit and avoid crosstalk among adjacent circuits. The quick- disconnect connector and wiring harness are human-engineered to ensure pilot safety and mobility. The connector backshell is equipped with two hybrid video amplifiers to improve the clarity of the video signals. Shielded wires and coaxial cables are molded as a multi-layered ribbon for maximum flexibility between the pilot's harness and helmet. Stiff cabling is provided between the quick-disconnect connector and the aircraft console to control behavior during seat ejection. The components of the system have been successfully tested for safety, performance, ergonomic considerations, and reliability.

  5. Testing Strategies for Model-Based Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Whalen, Mike; Rajan, Ajitha; Miller, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an approach for testing artifacts generated in a model-based development process. This approach divides the traditional testing process into two parts: requirements-based testing (validation testing) which determines whether the model implements the high-level requirements and model-based testing (conformance testing) which determines whether the code generated from a model is behaviorally equivalent to the model. The goals of the two processes differ significantly and this report explores suitable testing metrics and automation strategies for each. To support requirements-based testing, we define novel objective requirements coverage metrics similar to existing specification and code coverage metrics. For model-based testing, we briefly describe automation strategies and examine the fault-finding capability of different structural coverage metrics using tests automatically generated from the model.

  6. Theme-Based Tests: Teaching in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gretchen L.; Heck, Marsha L.

    2005-01-01

    Theme-based tests provide an assessment tool that instructs as well as provides a single general context for a broad set of biochemical concepts. A single story line connects the questions on the tests and models applications of scientific principles and biochemical knowledge in an extended scenario. Theme-based tests are based on a set of…

  7. SRB Altitude Switch Assembly Wire Harness Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanche, Jim

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of two wire harness failures that had occurred in Solid Rocket Booster Altitude Switch Assemblies S/N 200001 and S/N 20002. A list of modifications to EDU #4 and modification of qualification units 2000001 and 2000002 are also presented.

  8. Harnessing Collaborative Annotations on Online Formative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper harnesses collaborative annotations by students as learning feedback on online formative assessments to improve the learning achievements of students. Through the developed Web platform, students can conduct formative assessments, collaboratively annotate, and review historical records in a convenient way, while teachers can generate…

  9. Harnessing quantum transport by transient chaos.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso; Pecora, Louis M

    2013-03-01

    Chaos has long been recognized to be generally advantageous from the perspective of control. In particular, the infinite number of unstable periodic orbits embedded in a chaotic set and the intrinsically sensitive dependence on initial conditions imply that a chaotic system can be controlled to a desirable state by using small perturbations. Investigation of chaos control, however, was largely limited to nonlinear dynamical systems in the classical realm. In this paper, we show that chaos may be used to modulate or harness quantum mechanical systems. To be concrete, we focus on quantum transport through nanostructures, a problem of considerable interest in nanoscience, where a key feature is conductance fluctuations. We articulate and demonstrate that chaos, more specifically transient chaos, can be effective in modulating the conductance-fluctuation patterns. Experimentally, this can be achieved by applying an external gate voltage in a device of suitable geometry to generate classically inaccessible potential barriers. Adjusting the gate voltage allows the characteristics of the dynamical invariant set responsible for transient chaos to be varied in a desirable manner which, in turn, can induce continuous changes in the statistical characteristics of the quantum conductance-fluctuation pattern. To understand the physical mechanism of our scheme, we develop a theory based on analyzing the spectrum of the generalized non-Hermitian Hamiltonian that includes the effect of leads, or electronic waveguides, as self-energy terms. As the escape rate of the underlying non-attracting chaotic set is increased, the imaginary part of the complex eigenenergy becomes increasingly large so that pointer states are more difficult to form, making smoother the conductance-fluctuation pattern.

  10. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  11. Harnessing Disorder in Compression Based Nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Clifford John

    The future of nanotechnologies depends on the successful development of versatile, low-cost techniques for patterning micro- and nanoarchitectures. While most approaches to nanofabrication have focused primarily on making periodic structures at ever smaller length scales with an ultimate goal of massively scaling their production, I have focused on introducing control into relatively disordered nanofabrication systems. Well-ordered patterns are increasingly unnecessary for a growing range of applications, from anti-biofouling coatings to light trapping to omniphobic surfaces. The ability to manipulate disorder, at will and over multiple length scales, starting with the nanoscale, can open new prospects for textured substrates and unconventional applications. Taking advantage of previously considered defects; I have been able to develop nanofabrication techniques with potential for massive scalability and the incorporation into a wide range of potential application. This thesis first describes the manipulation of the non-Newtonian properties of liquid Ga and Ga alloys to confine the metal and metal alloys in gratings with sub-wavelength periodicities. Through a solid to liquid phase change, I was able to access the superior plasmonic properties of liquid Ga for the generation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). The switching contract between solid and liquid Ga confine in the nanogratings allowed for reversible manipulation of SPP properties through heating and cooling around the relatively low melting temperature of Ga (29.8 °C). The remaining chapters focus on the development and characterization of an all polymer wrinkle material system. Wrinkles, spontaneous disordered features that are produced in response to compressive force, are an ideal for a growing number of applications where fine feature control is no longer the main motivation. However the mechanical limitations of many wrinkle systems have restricted the potential applications of wrinkled surfaces. We developed a wrinkle material system that could be both tuned in feature size from as small as 30 nm up 10 ?m while maximizing the wrinkle amplitude at all wavelengths. By charactering the material properties of both the skin and substrate, we were able to generate wrinkle patterns with fine control over periodicity, amplitude, and orientation. The final chapters of this thesis focuses on the transfer of the wrinkle structure into functional materials aimed at manipulating biological adhesion of cells, optical absorption of solar cells, and sensor sensitivity of Raman substrates. The success of these applications was directly relative to the capabilities of our wrinkle system in controlling the surface chemistry, tuning the periodicity, and maximizing the amplitude for each application.

  12. Harness the Energy of Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Ann; Miller, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    As they write about the Learning Communities standard in "Reach the Highest Standard in Professional Learning: Learning Communities," authors Ann Lieberman and Lynne Miller consider why communities have gained widespread attention and support and summarize the established research base about them. They also describe three contexts in…

  13. Solar Radiation: Harnessing the Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Teri; Chambers, Lin; Holzer, Missy; Moore, Susan

    2009-01-01

    My NASA Data (Chambers et al. 2008) is a teaching tool available on NASA's website that offers microsets of real data in an easily accessible, user-friendly format. In this article, the authors describe a lesson plan based on an activity from My NASA Data, in which students explore parts of the United States where they would want to live if they…

  14. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  15. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  16. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  18. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  19. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  20. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  1. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  2. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  4. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  5. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.201... Cartridge Respirators § 84.201 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Facepieces for chemical... head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  6. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  8. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.201... Cartridge Respirators § 84.201 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Facepieces for chemical... head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  9. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  10. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  11. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  12. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.201... Cartridge Respirators § 84.201 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Facepieces for chemical... head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  14. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  15. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.201... Cartridge Respirators § 84.201 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Facepieces for chemical... head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  16. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  17. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  18. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  19. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  20. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  1. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.201... Cartridge Respirators § 84.201 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Facepieces for chemical... head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  2. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  3. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  4. Team-Based Testing Improves Individual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogler, Jane S.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, 90 undergraduates took six tests as part of an educational psychology course. Using a crossover design, students took three tests individually without feedback and then took the same test again, following the process of team-based testing (TBT), in teams in which the members reached consensus for each question and answered…

  5. Harnessing the Bethe free energy†

    PubMed Central

    Bapst, Victor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A wide class of problems in combinatorics, computer science and physics can be described along the following lines. There are a large number of variables ranging over a finite domain that interact through constraints that each bind a few variables and either encourage or discourage certain value combinations. Examples include the k‐SAT problem or the Ising model. Such models naturally induce a Gibbs measure on the set of assignments, which is characterised by its partition function. The present paper deals with the partition function of problems where the interactions between variables and constraints are induced by a sparse random (hyper)graph. According to physics predictions, a generic recipe called the “replica symmetric cavity method” yields the correct value of the partition function if the underlying model enjoys certain properties [Krzkala et al., PNAS (2007) 10318–10323]. Guided by this conjecture, we prove general sufficient conditions for the success of the cavity method. The proofs are based on a “regularity lemma” for probability measures on sets of the form Ωn for a finite Ω and a large n that may be of independent interest. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Random Struct. Alg., 49, 694–741, 2016 PMID:28035178

  6. Harnessing telomerase in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fakhoury, Johans; Nimmo, Graeme A M; Autexier, Chantal

    2007-07-01

    Telomerase is an attractive target for anti-cancer therapeutics due to its requirement for cellular immortalization and expression in greater than 85% of human neoplasms. Though initially promising, strategies that inhibit telomerase with either small molecules or antisense oligonucleotides have a major limitation, namely the lag time required for telomere shortening before cellular effects are attained. As alternative approaches, immunotherapy and gene therapy have been tailored to exploit, rather than antagonize telomerase expression and/or activity. Immunotherapy requires the presence of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT, to elicit an immune response directed towards hTERT peptide-presenting cells. hTERT promoter-driven gene therapy and mutant telomerase RNA (hTR) gene therapy depend on the innate telomerase activity of cancer cells to drive the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and to synthesize mutated DNA sequences onto telomeres, respectively. In addition, we will discuss telomestatin, a G-quadruplex binding ligand that may exert anti-proliferative effects independently of telomere shortening. In this review, the progress, advantages, and limitations of these strategies in the ongoing effort to develop clinically relevant telomerase-based cancer therapeutics will be examined.

  7. Harnessing the wisdom of the inner crowd.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Stefan M; Hertwig, Ralph

    2014-10-01

    Ever since Galton's classic demonstration of the wisdom of crowds in estimating the weight of a slaughtered ox, scholars of the mind and the public alike have been fascinated by the counterintuitive accuracy achieved by simply averaging a number of people's estimates. Surprisingly, individuals can, to some extent, harness the wisdom of crowds within the confines of their own mind by averaging self-generated, nonredundant estimates.

  8. Harnessing Light: the study and an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Arthur H.

    2002-05-01

    The completion of the report 'Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering for the 21st Century' by COSE (Committee on Optical Science and Engineering) by the National Academy in 1998 has had a profound effect on optics related activities and the recognition of optics as a most pervasive and enabling field of technology. After a brief summary of the report - an update on its principal recommendations and other significant U.S. and global activities will be highlighted.

  9. Manufacturing and quality control of FCC harnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malohm, W. L.; Vandergriff, J.

    1972-01-01

    The Saturn 5 program contractors encountered many technological challenges and problems relative to inter-connecting wiring and cabling during the development stages of the Saturn program. The knowledge gained from solving these problems, plus recently developed state-of-the-art techniques, materials, and processes were documented in a report prepared for NASA/MSFC. The portions of that report which deal with FCC harnesses are presented.

  10. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    PubMed Central

    Daar, Abdallah S; Berndtson, Kathryn; Persad, Deepa L; Singer, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology - Develop policies outlining

  11. A Schema-Based Reading Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Beverly A.

    Schemata based notions need not replace, but should be reflected in, product-centered reading tests. The contributions of schema theory to the psycholinguistic model of reading has been thoroughly reviewed. Schemata-based reading tests provide several advantages: (1) they engage the appropriate conceptual processes for the student which frees the…

  12. Comparability of a Paper-Based Language Test and a Computer-Based Language Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Inn-Chull; Kim, Kyoung Sung; Boo, Jaeyool

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing the Test of English Proficiency, developed by Seoul National University (TEPS), examined comparability between the paper-based language test and the computer-based language test based on content and construct validation employing content analyses based on corpus linguistic techniques in addition to such statistical analyses as…

  13. Physical Test Prototypes Based on Microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramitha, S. T.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a prototype of a physical test-based microcontroller. The research method uses the research and development of the Borg and gall. The procedure starts from the study; research and information collecting, planning, develop preliminary form of product, preliminary field testing, main product revision, playing field testing, operational product revision, field operational testing, final product revision, dissemination and implementation. Validation of the product, obtained through expert evaluation; test products of small scale and large scale; effectiveness test; evaluation of respondents. The results showed that the eligibility assessment of prototype products based physical tests microcontroller. Based on the ratings of seven experts showed that 87% included in the category of “very good” and 13% included in the category of “good”. While the effectiveness of the test results showed that 1). The results of the experimental group to test sit-ups increase by 40% and the control group by 15%. 2). The results of the experimental group to test push-ups increased by 30% and the control group by 10%. 3). The results of the experimental group to test the Back-ups increased by 25% and the control group by 10%. With a significant value of 0.002 less than 0.05, product means a physical test prototype microcontroller based, proven effective in improving the results of physical tests. Conclusions and recommendations; Product physical microcontroller-based assays, can be used to measure the physical tests of pushups, sit ups, and back-ups.

  14. Trunk Muscle Activation and Estimating Spinal Compressive Force in Rope and Harness Vertical Dance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Margaret; Dai, Boyi; Zhu, Qin; Humphrey, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Rope and harness vertical dance takes place off the floor with the dancer suspended from his or her center of mass in a harness attached to a rope from a point overhead. Vertical dance represents a novel environment for training and performing in which expected stresses on the dancer's body are different from those that take place during dance on the floor. Two male and eleven female dancers with training in vertical dance performed six typical vertical dance movements with electromyography (EMG) electrodes placed bilaterally on rectus abdominus, external oblique, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi. EMG data were expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). A simplified musculoskeletal model based on muscle activation for these four muscle groups was used to estimate the compressive force on the spine. The greatest muscle activation for erector spinae and latissimus dorsi and the greatest trunk compressive forces were seen in vertical axis positions where the dancer was moving the trunk into a hyper-extended position. The greatest muscle activation for rectus abdominus and external oblique and the second highest compressive force were seen in a supine position with the arms and legs extended away from the center of mass (COM). The least muscle activation occurred in positions where the limbs were hanging below the torso. These movements also showed relatively low muscle activation compression forces. Post-test survey results revealed that dancers felt comfortable in these positions; however, observation of some positions indicated insufficient muscular control. Computing the relative contribution of muscles, expressed as muscle activation and estimated spinal compression, provided a measure of how much the muscle groups were working to support the spine and the rest of the dancer's body in the different movements tested. Additionally, identifying typical muscle recruitment patterns in each movement will help identify key exercises

  15. Methodology for testing and validating knowledge bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, C.; Padalkar, S.; Sztipanovits, J.; Purves, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    A test and validation toolset developed for artificial intelligence programs is described. The basic premises of this method are: (1) knowledge bases have a strongly declarative character and represent mostly structural information about different domains, (2) the conditions for integrity, consistency, and correctness can be transformed into structural properties of knowledge bases, and (3) structural information and structural properties can be uniformly represented by graphs and checked by graph algorithms. The interactive test and validation environment have been implemented on a SUN workstation.

  16. Harnessing power from tides - State of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, P. R.

    1980-02-01

    Instead of a conventional dam, a membrane of reinforced plastic (the 'water sail'), hermetically anchored to the bottom and sides of a bay, could harness power from tides. Such a membrane, constructed in sections, and estimated to be 20 to 30 times cheaper to construct than a conventional tidal project, could operate in a tidal range of two meters, instead of the usual five meters. Moreover, it could be lowered or pulled aside to allow ship traffic to pass or to protect it during storms. The top of the barrier would be supported by a cable (fixed to floats) spanning the entrance to the bay, while the conversion of tidal energy would be accomplished using compressed air, with two tidal chambers connected to a large piston air motor, although the possible use of gas turbine engines will also be tested.

  17. Security for Web-Based Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Averitt, Jason

    The purpose of this paper is to enumerate a series of security steps that might be taken by those researchers or organizations that are contemplating Web-based tests and performance assessments. From a security viewpoint, much of what goes on with Web-based transactions is similar to other general computer activity, but the recommendations here…

  18. Harnessing the Potential of Information Technologies in Education: Finding Innovation and Adaptability in Mali and Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslar, Zoey L.

    This study is based on the premises that information technologies (IT) are essential to African development and that education systems are responsible for developing a countries' human capacity to maximize those technologies. The study examines the ability of education systems in Mali and Ghana to develop the capacity to harness the potential of…

  19. Testlet-Based Multidimensional Adaptive Testing.

    PubMed

    Frey, Andreas; Seitz, Nicki-Nils; Brandt, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) is a highly efficient method for the simultaneous measurement of several latent traits. Currently, no psychometrically sound approach is available for the use of MAT in testlet-based tests. Testlets are sets of items sharing a common stimulus such as a graph or a text. They are frequently used in large operational testing programs like TOEFL, PISA, PIRLS, or NAEP. To make MAT accessible for such testing programs, we present a novel combination of MAT with a multidimensional generalization of the random effects testlet model (MAT-MTIRT). MAT-MTIRT compared to non-adaptive testing is examined for several combinations of testlet effect variances (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) and testlet sizes (3, 6, and 9 items) with a simulation study considering three ability dimensions with simple loading structure. MAT-MTIRT outperformed non-adaptive testing regarding the measurement precision of the ability estimates. Further, the measurement precision decreased when testlet effect variances and testlet sizes increased. The suggested combination of the MTIRT model therefore provides a solution to the substantial problems of testlet-based tests while keeping the length of the test within an acceptable range.

  20. Testlet-Based Multidimensional Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Andreas; Seitz, Nicki-Nils; Brandt, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) is a highly efficient method for the simultaneous measurement of several latent traits. Currently, no psychometrically sound approach is available for the use of MAT in testlet-based tests. Testlets are sets of items sharing a common stimulus such as a graph or a text. They are frequently used in large operational testing programs like TOEFL, PISA, PIRLS, or NAEP. To make MAT accessible for such testing programs, we present a novel combination of MAT with a multidimensional generalization of the random effects testlet model (MAT-MTIRT). MAT-MTIRT compared to non-adaptive testing is examined for several combinations of testlet effect variances (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) and testlet sizes (3, 6, and 9 items) with a simulation study considering three ability dimensions with simple loading structure. MAT-MTIRT outperformed non-adaptive testing regarding the measurement precision of the ability estimates. Further, the measurement precision decreased when testlet effect variances and testlet sizes increased. The suggested combination of the MTIRT model therefore provides a solution to the substantial problems of testlet-based tests while keeping the length of the test within an acceptable range. PMID:27917132

  1. Computer-Based Confidence Testing: Alternatives to Conventional, Computer-Based Multiple-Choice Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard Ivan

    1982-01-01

    Describes confidence testing methods (confidence weighting, probabilistic marking, multiple alternative selection) as alternative to computer-based, multiple choice tests and explains potential benefits (increased reliability, improved examinee evaluation of alternatives, extended diagnostic information and remediation prescriptions, happier…

  2. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  3. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diver's safety harness. 197.324 Section 197.324 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each...

  4. Body-fitted harness provides safe and easy component handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. G.; Rothwell, G. E.

    1966-01-01

    Body-fitted restraint harness enables workers to safely and conveniently handle critical components during their installation or removal. Since the harness supports the components, the worker is able to maneuver through restricted areas with his hands free. It is easily put on, adjusted, and removed, or comfortably worn without interfering with normal activities.

  5. Protective level of safety harnesses combined with some racing car seats in frontal impacts--a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Ottoson, A L; Lövsund, P

    1986-12-01

    As a basis for a prospective modification of the present seat-belt regulation in Sweden, the protective level of safety harnesses compared with three-point belts has been studied. Biomechanical tests were carried out with different combinations of belts and seats. The results showed that a three-point belt on a conventional seat offered the best protection in frontal impacts. The geometry of the safety harness (inverted Y-harness and four-point belt) induces the lap belt to slide over the iliac crest and the restraining force will be on the abdomen (submarining). This may be prevented by the use of a six-point belt, where two crotch straps keep the lap belt in position. The safety harness induces strong rebounds on the head, owing to the fact that the shoulder straps stop the forward motion of the torso too fast. High accelerations and HIC-values were registered for the head. The shoulder straps of the safety harnesses also expose the wearer's shoulders and spine to high stresses in frontal impacts, which may induce injuries to the shoulders and compression injuries to the spine. Various solutions which may result in an increase of the protective level of the system safety harness and racing-car seat in frontal impacts are discussed.

  6. EHR based Genetic Testing Knowledge Base (iGTKB) Development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The gap between a large growing number of genetic tests and a suboptimal clinical workflow of incorporating these tests into regular clinical practice poses barriers to effective reliance on advanced genetic technologies to improve quality of healthcare. A promising solution to fill this gap is to develop an intelligent genetic test recommendation system that not only can provide a comprehensive view of genetic tests as education resources, but also can recommend the most appropriate genetic tests to patients based on clinical evidence. In this study, we developed an EHR based Genetic Testing Knowledge Base for Individualized Medicine (iGTKB). Methods We extracted genetic testing information and patient medical records from EHR systems at Mayo Clinic. Clinical features have been semi-automatically annotated from the clinical notes by applying a Natural Language Processing (NLP) tool, MedTagger suite. To prioritize clinical features for each genetic test, we compared odds ratio across four population groups. Genetic tests, genetic disorders and clinical features with their odds ratios have been applied to establish iGTKB, which is to be integrated into the Genetic Testing Ontology (GTO). Results Overall, there are five genetic tests operated with sample size greater than 100 in 2013 at Mayo Clinic. A total of 1,450 patients who was tested by one of the five genetic tests have been selected. We assembled 243 clinical features from the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) for these five genetic tests. There are 60 clinical features with at least one mention in clinical notes of patients taking the test. Twenty-eight clinical features with high odds ratio (greater than 1) have been selected as dominant features and deposited into iGTKB with their associated information about genetic tests and genetic disorders. Conclusions In this study, we developed an EHR based genetic testing knowledge base, iGTKB. iGTKB will be integrated into the GTO by providing relevant

  7. Continued research on computer-based testing.

    PubMed Central

    Clyman, S. G.; Julian, E. R.; Orr, N. A.; Dillon, G. F.; Cotton, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Board of Medical Examiners has developed computer-based examination formats for use in evaluating physicians in training. This paper describes continued research on these formats including attitudes about computers and effects of factors not related to the trait being measured; differences between paper-administered and computer-administered multiple-choice questions; and the characteristics of simulation formats. The implications for computer-based testing and further research are discussed. PMID:1807703

  8. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  9. Registration of two double rust resistant germplasms, HA-R12 and HA-R13 for confection sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms HA-R12 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673104) and HA-R13 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673105) were developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, and released in Jul...

  10. Safety Testing of Ammonium Nitrate Based Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jason; Lappo, Karmen; Phelan, James; Peterson, Nathan; Gilbert, Don

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)/ammonium nitrate based explosives have a lengthy documented history of use by adversaries in acts of terror. While historical research has been conducted on AN-based explosive mixtures, it has primarily focused on detonation performance while varying the oxygen balance between the oxidizer and fuel components. Similarly, historical safety data on these materials is often lacking in pertinent details such as specific fuel type, particle size parameters, oxidizer form, etc. A variety of AN-based fuel-oxidizer mixtures were tested for small-scale sensitivity in preparation for large-scale testing. Current efforts focus on maintaining a zero oxygen-balance (a stoichiometric ratio for active chemical participants) while varying factors such as charge geometry, oxidizer form, particle size, and inert diluent ratios. Small-scale safety testing was conducted on various mixtures and fuels. It was found that ESD sensitivity is significantly affected by particle size, while this is less so for impact and friction. Thermal testing is in progress to evaluate hazards that may be experienced during large-scale testing.

  11. Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improving cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms for animal models.

    PubMed

    Moore, Holly; Geyer, Mark A; Carter, Cameron S; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-11-01

    Over the past two decades, the awareness of the disabling and treatment-refractory effects of impaired cognition in schizophrenia has increased dramatically. In response to this still unmet need in the treatment of schizophrenia, the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative was developed. The goal of CNTRICS is to harness cognitive neuroscience to develop a brain-based set of tools for measuring cognition in schizophrenia and to test new treatments. CNTRICS meetings focused on development of tasks with cognitive construct validity for use in both human and animal model studies. This special issue presents papers discussing the cognitive testing paradigms selected by CNTRICS for animal model systems. These paradigms are designed to measure cognitive constructs within the domains of perception, attention, executive function, working memory, object/relational long-term memory, and social/affective processes.

  12. Analytical Model of Shear of 4-harness Satin Weave Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Chen, Julie; Sherwood, James

    2004-06-01

    Trellis shear is the main deformation mode in the thermo-stamping process of woven fabric composites. To model the shear properties of woven fabrics analytically, the equilibrium equation of the unit cell of a 4-harness satin weave glass/polypropylene woven fabric is studied. Frictional resistance moment and lateral compaction resistance moment are then predicted by studying the geometry of the unit cell. Then the model is used to predict the load versus shear angle curves in the picture frame test to reduce or eliminate the test itself. A parametric study is carried out to determine the sensitivity of the friction coefficient. To validate the model, picture-frame experimental results are presented. A very close correlation is observed between the model predictions and the experimental results. Results of plain weave fabrics are included to show the analytical model's ability to predict the effect of weave pattern. Results from an international benchmark testing are also presented to help establish the test standards for experimental characterization of the shear properties of woven fabrics in the thermo-stamping process.

  13. Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Carrie L.; Brown, Barbara L.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models of system components have long been used to allow simulators to predict system behavior to various stimuli. Recent efforts to monitor, diagnose, and control real-time systems using component models have experienced similar success. NASA Kennedy is continuing the development of a tool for implementing real-time knowledge-based diagnostic and control systems called KATE (Knowledge based Autonomous Test Engineer). KATE is a model-based reasoning shell designed to provide autonomous control, monitoring, fault detection, and diagnostics for complex engineering systems by applying its reasoning techniques to an exchangeable quantitative model describing the structure and function of the various system components and their systemic behavior.

  14. Harnessing Regulatory T cells to Suppress Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Alison N.; Hansbro, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in maintaining the homeostatic balance of immune responses. Asthma is an inflammatory condition of the airways that is driven by dysregulated immune responses toward normally innocuous antigens. Individuals with asthma have fewer and less functional Tregs, which may lead to uncontrolled effector cell responses and promote proasthmatic responses of T helper type 2, T helper 17, natural killer T, antigen-presenting, and B cells. Tregs have the capacity to either directly or indirectly suppress these responses. Hence, the induced expansion of functional Tregs in predisposed or individuals with asthma is a potential approach for the prevention and treatment of asthma. Infection by a number of micro-organisms has been associated with reduced prevalence of asthma, and many infectious agents have been shown to induce Tregs and reduce allergic airways disease in mouse models. The translation of the regulatory and therapeutic properties of infectious agents for use in asthma requires the identification of key modulatory components and the development and trial of effective immunoregulatory therapies. Further translational and clinical research is required for the induction of Tregs to be harnessed as a therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:20097830

  15. Harnessing adolescent values to motivate healthier eating

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Christopher J.; Yeager, David S.; Hinojosa, Cintia P.; Chabot, Aimee; Bergen, Holly; Kawamura, Mari; Steubing, Fred

    2016-01-01

    What can be done to reduce unhealthy eating among adolescents? It was hypothesized that aligning healthy eating with important and widely shared adolescent values would produce the needed motivation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment with eighth graders (total n = 536) evaluated the impact of a treatment that framed healthy eating as consistent with the adolescent values of autonomy from adult control and the pursuit of social justice. Healthy eating was suggested as a way to take a stand against manipulative and unfair practices of the food industry, such as engineering junk food to make it addictive and marketing it to young children. Compared with traditional health education materials or to a non–food-related control, this treatment led eighth graders to see healthy eating as more autonomy-assertive and social justice-oriented behavior and to forgo sugary snacks and drinks in favor of healthier options a day later in an unrelated context. Public health interventions for adolescents may be more effective when they harness the motivational power of that group’s existing strongly held values. PMID:27621440

  16. SSME Electrical Harness and Cable Development and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Russ; Heflin, Johnny; Burns, Bob; Camper, Scott J.; Hill, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) electrical harness and cable system consists of the various interconnecting devices necessary for operation of complex rocket engine functions. Thirty seven harnesses incorporate unique connectors, backshell adapters, conductors, insulation, shielding, and physical barriers for a long maintenance-free life while providing the means to satisfy performance requirements and to mitigate adverse environmental influences. The objective of this paper is to provide a description of the SSME electrical harness and cable designs as well as the development history and lessons learned.

  17. FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Jones, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Network performance evaluation; 2) traditional approaches; 3) software simulation; 4) hardware emulation; 5) test bed highlights; 6) design environment; 7) test bed architecture; 8) abstract sheared-memory switch; 9) detailed switch diagram; 10) traffic generator; 11) data collection circuit and user interface; 12) initial results; and 13) the following conclusions: Advances in FPGA make hardware emulation feasible for performance evaluation, hardware emulation can provide several orders of magnitude speed-up over software simulation; due to the complexity of hardware synthesis process, development in emulation is much more difficult than simulation and requires knowledge in both networks and digital design.

  18. Harnessing Earth Observations for Disaster Application Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Earth observations have made substantive contributions to the understanding of natural hazards, answering key science questions on the mechanisms, processes and dynamics of changes in the land, air and water. This has been achieved through the ability to advance models and interpret the results through maps and assessments. Disaster application science is focused on the two-way flow of data and information between hazard understanding and the knowledge required for disaster response, relief and recovery. This presentation will examine the integration of results from mature science and technology development in areas including optical imagery, synthetic-aperture radar and geodetic sensors, which together provide new levels of situational awareness. Specific examples will be highlighted from the recent Nepal "Gorkha" earthquake. Optical imagery from a host of satellite missions was used to create a comprehensive mosaic across the region, which when analyzed by a global network of volunteer scientists yielded insight into the extent of induced hazards and impacts. In some cases unique day/night band images provided guidance on areas where energy-dependent infrastructure of livelihoods were disrupted. Earthquake modeling and historical trend analysis revealed areas of potential vulnerability and combined with aftershock analysis to guide areas for urgent analysis and action. The combination of SAR and GPS data, innovative integration and processing approaches and nontraditional data integration approaches resulted in damage proxy maps or where combination with airborne photography, field sightings and crowd sourced reports to assess susceptibility to induced hazards (floods and landslides). Opportunities and challenges to build the science and community relationships, harness the earth observations from multiple agencies and institutions and co-develop timely applications to users will be areas for ongoing collaboration and study.Earth observations have made

  19. Black hole based tests of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C.

    2016-03-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar-tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory.

  20. Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People

    ScienceCinema

    Daniel Nocera

    2016-07-12

    Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

  1. Harnessing Power from Tides: State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the current, world-wide status of tidal energy as a potential power source. Potential sites and global tidal power prospects are identified. New engineering concepts relevant to the harnessing of tidal power are identified and described. (BT)

  2. Manufacturing and quality control of interconnecting wire harnesses, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Interconnecting wire harnesses defined in the design standard are considered, including type 4, open bundle (not enclosed). Knowledge gained through experience on the Saturn 5 program coupled with recent advances in techniques, materials, and processes was incorporated into the document.

  3. Army Social Media: Harnessing the Power of Networked Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    9/1/2011 Army Social Media : harnessing the power of networked communications Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Social Media : harnessing the power of networked communications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...the Chief of Public Affairs,Online and Social Media Division,1500 Pentagon,Washington,DC,20301 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  4. Superparamagnetic nanoparticle-based viscosity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kai; Liu, Jinming; Wang, Yi; Ye, Clark; Feng, Yinglong; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Hyperviscosity syndrome is triggered by high blood viscosity in the human body. This syndrome can result in retinopathy, vertigo, coma, and other unanticipated complications. Serum viscosity is one of the important factors affecting whole blood viscosity, which is regarded as an indicator of general health. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate a Brownian relaxation-based mixing frequency method to test human serum viscosity. This method uses excitatory and detection coils and Brownian relaxation-dominated superparamagnetic nanoparticles, which are sensitive to variables of the liquid environment such as viscosity and temperature. We collect the harmonic signals produced by magnetic nanoparticles and estimate the viscosity of unknown solutions by comparison to the calibration curves. An in vitro human serum viscosity test is performed in less than 1.5 min.

  5. Abasic pivot substitution harnesses target specificity of RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Sook; Seok, Heeyoung; Lee, Dong Ha; Ham, Juyoung; Lee, Wooje; Youm, Emilia Moonkyung; Yoo, Jin Seon; Lee, Yong-Seung; Jang, Eun-Sook; Chi, Sung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Gene silencing via RNA interference inadvertently represses hundreds of off-target transcripts. Because small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can function as microRNAs, avoiding miRNA-like off-target repression is a major challenge. Functional miRNA–target interactions are known to pre-require transitional nucleation, base pairs from position 2 to the pivot (position 6). Here, by substituting nucleotide in pivot with abasic spacers, which prevent base pairing and alleviate steric hindrance, we eliminate miRNA-like off-target repression while preserving on-target activity at ∼80–100%. Specifically, miR-124 containing dSpacer pivot substitution (6pi) loses seed-mediated transcriptome-wide target interactions, repression activity and biological function, whereas other conventional modifications are ineffective. Application of 6pi allows PCSK9 siRNA to efficiently lower plasma cholesterol concentration in vivo, and abolish potentially deleterious off-target phenotypes. The smallest spacer, C3, also shows the same improvement in target specificity. Abasic pivot substitution serves as a general means to harness the specificity of siRNA experiments and therapeutic applications. PMID:26679372

  6. Abasic pivot substitution harnesses target specificity of RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Sook; Seok, Heeyoung; Lee, Dong Ha; Ham, Juyoung; Lee, Wooje; Youm, Emilia Moonkyung; Yoo, Jin Seon; Lee, Yong-Seung; Jang, Eun-Sook; Chi, Sung Wook

    2015-12-18

    Gene silencing via RNA interference inadvertently represses hundreds of off-target transcripts. Because small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can function as microRNAs, avoiding miRNA-like off-target repression is a major challenge. Functional miRNA-target interactions are known to pre-require transitional nucleation, base pairs from position 2 to the pivot (position 6). Here, by substituting nucleotide in pivot with abasic spacers, which prevent base pairing and alleviate steric hindrance, we eliminate miRNA-like off-target repression while preserving on-target activity at ∼ 80-100%. Specifically, miR-124 containing dSpacer pivot substitution (6pi) loses seed-mediated transcriptome-wide target interactions, repression activity and biological function, whereas other conventional modifications are ineffective. Application of 6pi allows PCSK9 siRNA to efficiently lower plasma cholesterol concentration in vivo, and abolish potentially deleterious off-target phenotypes. The smallest spacer, C3, also shows the same improvement in target specificity. Abasic pivot substitution serves as a general means to harness the specificity of siRNA experiments and therapeutic applications.

  7. The Dam1 kinetochore complex harnesses microtubule dynamics to produce force and movement.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Charles L; Gestaut, Daniel R; Powers, Andrew F; Franck, Andrew D; Davis, Trisha N

    2006-06-27

    Kinetochores remain attached to microtubule (MT) tips during mitosis even as the tips assemble and disassemble under their grip, allowing filament dynamics to produce force and move chromosomes. The specific proteins that mediate tip attachment are uncertain, and the mechanism of MT-dependent force production is unknown. Recent work suggests that the Dam1 complex, an essential component of kinetochores in yeast, may contribute directly to kinetochore-MT attachment and force production, perhaps by forming a sliding ring encircling the MT. To test these hypotheses, we developed an in vitro motility assay where beads coated with pure recombinant Dam1 complex were bound to the tips of individual dynamic MTs. The Dam1-coated beads remained tip-bound and underwent assembly- and disassembly-driven movement over approximately 3 microm, comparable to chromosome displacements in vivo. Dam1-based attachments to assembling tips were robust, supporting 0.5-3 pN of tension applied with a feedback-controlled optical trap as the MTs lengthened approximately 1 microm. The attachments also harnessed energy from MT disassembly to generate movement against tension. Reversing the direction of force (i.e., switching to compressive force) caused the attachments to disengage the tip and slide over the filament, but sliding was blocked by areas where the MT was anchored to a coverslip, consistent with a coupling structure encircling the filament. Our findings demonstrate how the Dam1 complex may contribute directly to MT-driven chromosome movement.

  8. Genetic mapping of rust resistance genes in confection sunflower line HA-R6 and oilseed line RHA 397

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few widely effective resistance sources to sunflower rust, incited by Puccinia helianthi Schwein., have been identified in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The USDA inbred line HA-R6 is one of the few confection sunflower lines resistant to rust. A previous allelism test indicated that r...

  9. An archetype-based testing framework.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Garde, Sebastian; Beale, Thomas; Nyström, Mikael; Karlsson, Daniel; Klein, Gunnar O; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of EHR two-level modelling and archetype methodologies pioneered by openEHR and standardized by CEN/ISO, we are one step closer to semantic interoperability and future-proof adaptive healthcare information systems. Along with the opportunities, there are also challenges. Archetypes provide the full semantics of EHR data explicitly to surrounding systems in a platform-independent way, yet it is up to the receiving system to interpret the semantics and process the data accordingly. In this paper we propose a design of an archetype-based platform-independent testing framework for validating implementations of the openEHR archetype formalism as a means of improving quality and interoperability of EHRs.

  10. Advances and limitations of visual conditioning protocols in harnessed bees.

    PubMed

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Mota, Theo

    2016-12-18

    Bees are excellent invertebrate models for studying visual learning and memory mechanisms, because of their sophisticated visual system and impressive cognitive capacities associated with a relatively simple brain. Visual learning in free-flying bees has been traditionally studied using an operant conditioning paradigm. This well-established protocol, however, can hardly be combined with invasive procedures for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. Different efforts have been made to develop protocols in which harnessed honey bees could associate visual cues with reinforcement, though learning performances remain poorer than those obtained with free-flying animals. Especially in the last decade, the intention of improving visual learning performances of harnessed bees led many authors to adopt distinct visual conditioning protocols, altering parameters like harnessing method, nature and duration of visual stimulation, number of trials, inter-trial intervals, among others. As a result, the literature provides data hardly comparable and sometimes contradictory. In the present review, we provide an extensive analysis of the literature available on visual conditioning of harnessed bees, with special emphasis on the comparison of diverse conditioning parameters adopted by different authors. Together with this comparative overview, we discuss how these diverse conditioning parameters could modulate visual learning performances of harnessed bees.

  11. Anterior axial ultrasound in monitoring infants with Pavlik harness.

    PubMed

    El Ferzli, Julie; Abuamara, Saad; Eurin, Danielle; Le Dosseur, Patrick; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    Real-time ultrasonography has been used for diagnosis and screening of developmental dysplasia of the hip for several years. If diagnostic criteria are well established, the use of sonography in follow-up of treated infants remains extremely variable. The aims of this study were (a). to describe the normal sonographic anatomy of the infant abducted hip on an anterior axial view, and (b). to define the role of this approach in the follow-up of developmental dysplasia treated by Pavlik harness. Thirty-eight patients with Pavlik harness had anterior axial sonograms in addition to their usual clinical and sonographic follow-up. Normal anatomy was inferred from the examination of 25 clinically proven normal hips in the same population. The best criterion of a normal positioning of the femoral head appears to be the alignment of the pubic bone and the femoral metaphysis. Pavlik harness was the only treatment in 32 patients. It was directly efficient in 22, after readjustment in 10 patients. Reduction was shown by anterior sonography in all of them. In 6 children, sonography showed no reduction and subsequent treatment by closed or open reduction was carried out. Anterior axial sonogram can show reduction of a dislocated hip in children with Pavlik harness, but it does not evaluate its stability. It helps optimize the settings of the harness, and may predict a poor outcome, but it does not identify the cause of non-reducibility.

  12. Web-Based Testing: Exploring the Relationship between Hardware Usability and Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Kyle; Cline, Melinda; Guynes, Carl S.

    2012-01-01

    Web-based testing has recently become common in both academic and professional settings. A web-based test is administered through a web browser. Individuals may complete a web-based test at nearly any time and at any place. In addition, almost any computer lab can become a testing center. It is important to understand the environmental issues that…

  13. Demystifying the GMAT: Computer-Based Testing Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based testing can be a powerful means to make all aspects of test administration not only faster and more efficient, but also more accurate and more secure. While the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exam is a computer adaptive test, there are other approaches. This installment presents a primer of computer-based testing terms.

  14. A semistatic microplate-based phytotoxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Radetski, C.M.; Ferard, J.F. . Centre des Sciences de l'Environnement); Blaise, C. )

    1995-02-01

    A novel phytotoxicity test is described herein that employs a microplate equipped with membrane-bottomed wells. This MultiScreen[trademark] (Millipore Corp., Bedford, MA) microplate allows performance of a semistatic algal test, in which test medium is renewed periodically. With such a design, the algal test becomes comparable to other short-term tests used to evaluate chronic toxicity of chemicals and effluents. The EC50s obtained for Cu[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+], Cr[sup 6+], atrazine, and one leachate sample (municipal sludge incinerator residue) with static and semistatic algal microplate tests were compared in this study. The semistatic microplate test revealed greater sensitivity than did the static microplate test.

  15. School-Based Intervention for Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Goh, Valerie Grace; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: With children today being tested at younger ages, test anxiety has an earlier onset age. There is relatively limited research on test anxiety management programs with elementary school children. The theoretical basis for this nonrandomized pre-post intervention study is grounded in cognitive and behavioral interventions for test…

  16. Environmental testing of CIS based modules

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, D.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes environmental testing of Siemen`s CIS modules. Charts and diagrams are presented on data concerning: temporary power loss of laminated mini-modules; the 50 thermal cycle test; the 10 humidity freeze cycle test; results after 1000 hours of exposure to damp heat; and interconnect test structures in damp heat testing. It is concluded that moisture ingress causes permanent increases in the series resistance of modules, and that improved packaging is needed for better high humidity reliability. Also, dry dark heat caused temporary power losses which were recovered in sunlight.

  17. Cancer vaccines: harnessing the potential of anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Suckow, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    Although the presence of cancer suggests failure of the immune system to protect against development of tumors, the possibility that immunity can be redirected and focused to generate an anti-tumor response offers great translational possibility. The key to this is identifying antigens likely to be present in any given tumor and functionally critical to tumor survival and growth. Such tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are varied and optimally should be absent from normal tissue. Of particular interest are TAAs associated with the tumor stroma, as immunity directed against the stroma may restrict the ability of the tumor to grow and metastasize. Important to directing the immune system toward an effect anti-tumor response is the understanding of how TAAs are processed and how the tumor is able to evade immune elimination. The process of immunoediting happens in response to the selective pressure that the immune system places upon tumor cell populations and allows for emergence of tumor cells capable of escaping immune destruction. Efforts to harness the immune system for clinical application has been aided by vaccines based on purified recombinant protein or nucleic acid TAAs. For example, a vaccine for canine melanoma has been developed and approved based on immunization with DNA components of tyrosinase, a glycoprotein essential to melanin synthesis. The performance of cancer vaccines has been aided in some cases when supplemented with immunostimulatory molecules such as interleukin 2 or a novel extracellular matrix vaccine adjuvant. Vaccines with the broadest menu of antigenic targets may be those most likely to succeed against cancer. For this reason, tissue vaccines produced from harvested tumor material may offer significant benefit. With several cancer vaccines on the veterinary and human markets, efforts to understand basic tumor immunology are soon to yield great dividends.

  18. Harnessing DNA-induced immune responses for improving cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Herrada, Andrés A.; Rojas-Colonelli, Nicole; González-Figueroa, Paula; Roco, Jonathan; Oyarce, César; Ligtenberg, Maarten A.; Lladser, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive strategy to promote protective cellular and humoral immunity against the encoded antigen. DNA vaccines are easy to generate, inexpensive to produce and purify at large-scale, highly stable and safe. In addition, plasmids used for DNA vaccines act as powerful “danger signals” by stimulating several DNA-sensing innate immune receptors that promote the induction of protective adaptive immunity. The induction of tumor-specific immune responses represents a major challenge for DNA vaccines because most of tumor-associated antigens are normal non-mutated self-antigens. As a consequence, induction of potentially self-reactive T cell responses against such poorly immunogenic antigens is controlled by mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance as well as tumor-induced immunosuppression. Although several DNA vaccines against cancer have reached clinical testing, disappointing results have been observed. Therefore, the development of new adjuvants that strongly stimulate the induction of antitumor T cell immunity and counteract immune-suppressive regulation is an attractive approach to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines and overcome tumor-associated tolerance. Understanding the DNA-sensing signaling pathways of innate immunity that mediate the induction of T cell responses elicited by DNA vaccines represents a unique opportunity to develop novel adjuvants that enhance vaccine potency. The advance of DNA adjuvants needs to be complemented with the development of potent delivery systems, in order to step toward successful clinical application. Here, we briefly discuss recent evidence showing how to harness DNA-induced immune response to improve the potency of cancer vaccines and counteract tumor-associated tolerance. PMID:23111166

  19. Detail of east side of Test Sand 'A' base, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east side of Test Sand 'A' base, showing flame deflector at bottom of stand. Stairs and handrails were added after test stand was converted to test propellant flow in components as opposed to firing rocket engines. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Neutron Sources for Standard-Based Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, Radoslav; McLean, Thomas

    2014-11-10

    The DHS TC Standards and the consensus ANSI Standards use 252Cf as the neutron source for performance testing because its energy spectrum is similar to the 235U and 239Pu fission sources used in nuclear weapons. An emission rate of 20,000 ± 20% neutrons per second is used for testing of the radiological requirements both in the ANSI standards and the TCS. Determination of the accurate neutron emission rate of the test source is important for maintaining consistency and agreement between testing results obtained at different testing facilities. Several characteristics in the manufacture and the decay of the source need to be understood and accounted for in order to make an accurate measurement of the performance of the neutron detection instrument. Additionally, neutron response characteristics of the particular instrument need to be known and taken into account as well as neutron scattering in the testing environment.

  1. A rule-based software test data generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deason, William H.; Brown, David B.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based software test data generation is proposed as an alternative to either path/predicate analysis or random data generation. A prototype rule-based test data generator for Ada programs is constructed and compared to a random test data generator. Four Ada procedures are used in the comparison. Approximately 2000 rule-based test cases and 100,000 randomly generated test cases are automatically generated and executed. The success of the two methods is compared using standard coverage metrics. Simple statistical tests showing that even the primitive rule-based test data generation prototype is significantly better than random data generation are performed. This result demonstrates that rule-based test data generation is feasible and shows great promise in assisting test engineers, especially when the rule base is developed further.

  2. Optimal Test Design with Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the fly directly from calibrated features defining…

  3. Using Discussion Methods to Inspire Diversity: Harnessing Social & Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raison, Brian; Gordon, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    How can you better harness the powerful social capital that exists within diverse individuals, families, businesses, and schools to make positive impacts in your community? What could you add to your next meeting--a Chamber strategic planning session, an employee wellness program, a non-profit board development--to better connect participants with…

  4. Understanding and Harnessing the Power of Ideas, Persuasion, and Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-17

    University, Korea Human rights & political culture Malaysia Prof. Dr. Abdul Rahman Embong nstitut Kajian Malaysia & Antarabangsa (IKMAS) Institute...Modeling of how to Harness Trust and Influence in Cyber- space Sing Syed Adnan Ali Shah BUKHARI Assoc Res Fellow & Team Leader South & Central Asia

  5. Harnessing Linguistic Variation to Improve Education. Rethinking Education. Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiakoumetti, Androula, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This volume brings together research carried out in a variety of geographic and linguistic contexts including Africa, Asia, Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, Europe and the United States and explores efforts to incorporate linguistic diversity into education and to "harness" this diversity for learners' benefit. It challenges the largely…

  6. Manufacture and quality control of interconnecting wire harnesses, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The document covers interconnecting wire harnesses defined in the design standard, including type 6, enclosed in TFE heat shrink tubing; and type 7, flexible armored. Knowledge gained through experience on the Saturn 5 program coupled with recent advances in techniques, materials, and processes was incorporated into this document.

  7. Manufacture and quality control of interconnecting wire harnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Four-volume series of documents has been prepared as standard reference. Each volume may be used separately and covers wire and cable preparation as well as harness fabrication and installation. Series should be useful addition to libraries of manufactures of electrical and electronic equipment.

  8. Harnessing the crowd to accelerate molecular medicine research.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert J; Merchant, Raina M

    2015-07-01

    Crowdsourcing presents a novel approach to solving complex problems within molecular medicine. By leveraging the expertise of fellow scientists across the globe, broadcasting to and engaging the public for idea generation, harnessing a scalable workforce for quick data management, and fundraising for research endeavors, crowdsourcing creates novel opportunities for accelerating scientific progress.

  9. Program for improved electrical harness documentation and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Computer program provides automated print-out of harness interconnection table and automated cross-check of reciprocal pin/connector assignments, and improves accuracy and reliability of final documented data. Programs and corresponding library tapes are successfully and continuously employed on Nimbus spacecraft programs.

  10. Biglan Model Test Based on Institutional Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskens, Ronald W.; Creswell, John W.

    The Biglan model, a theoretical framework for empirically examining the differences among subject areas, classifies according to three dimensions: adherence to common set of paradigms (hard or soft), application orientation (pure or applied), and emphasis on living systems (life or nonlife). Tests of the model are reviewed, and a further test is…

  11. Nuffield Secondary Science, Theme 4, Harnessing Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Edgar

    Nuffield Secondary Science is a set of tested materials from which teachers can prepare courses for students in grades 9-11 (approximately) who do not intend to major in science. The materials are designed for British secondary schools but are adaptable to other countries. The Teachers' Guide to the entire set of Themes is described in SE 015 440…

  12. Goal Based Testing: A Risk Informed Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everline, Chester; Smith, Clayton; Distefano, Sal; Goldin, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    A process for life demonstration testing is developed, which can reduce the number of resources required by conventional sampling theory while still maintaining the same degree of rigor and confidence level. This process incorporates state-of-the-art probabilistic thinking and is consistent with existing NASA guidance documentation. This view of life testing changes the paradigm of testing a system for many hours to show confidence that a system will last for the required number of years to one that focuses efforts and resources on exploring how the system can fail at end-of-life and building confidence that the failure mechanisms are understood and well mitigated.

  13. Technical Requirements for Wiring Harness, Space Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-03

    Aerospace TOR documents should be addressed to: Charles C. Lauritsen Library c/ o The Aerospace Corporation 2350 East El Segundo Bl. El Segundo, CA...shall be four for ring type lugs, or two for spade type lugs. 3.4.5 Circuit Isolation Interconnect wiring in each of the five categories shall be...will be conducted at what levels of assembly. Applications having constraints on allowable outgassing shall qualify to that requirement either by test

  14. Google glass based immunochromatographic diagnostic test analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Steve; Caire, Romain; Cortazar, Bingen; Turan, Mehmet; Wong, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Integration of optical imagers and sensors into recently emerging wearable computational devices allows for simpler and more intuitive methods of integrating biomedical imaging and medical diagnostics tasks into existing infrastructures. Here we demonstrate the ability of one such device, the Google Glass, to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) using a voice-commandable hands-free software-only interface, as an alternative to larger and more bulky desktop or handheld units. Using the built-in camera of Glass to image one or more RDTs (labeled with Quick Response (QR) codes), our Glass software application uploads the captured image and related information (e.g., user name, GPS, etc.) to our servers for remote analysis and storage. After digital analysis of the RDT images, the results are transmitted back to the originating Glass device, and made available through a website in geospatial and tabular representations. We tested this system on qualitative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) RDTs. For qualitative HIV tests, we demonstrate successful detection and labeling (i.e., yes/no decisions) for up to 6-fold dilution of HIV samples. For quantitative measurements, we activated and imaged PSA concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL and generated calibration curves relating the RDT line intensity values to PSA concentration. By providing automated digitization of both qualitative and quantitative test results, this wearable colorimetric diagnostic test reader platform on Google Glass can reduce operator errors caused by poor training, provide real-time spatiotemporal mapping of test results, and assist with remote monitoring of various biomedical conditions.

  15. The X-40A immediately after release from its harness suspended from a helicopter 15,000 feet above N

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The X-40A immediately after release from its harness suspended from a helicopter 15,000 feet above NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on March 14, 2001. The unpiloted X-40 is a risk-reduction vehicle for the X-37, which is intended to be a reusable space vehicle. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala, manages the X-37 project. At Dryden, the X-40A underwent a series of ground and air tests to reduce possible risks to the larger X-37, including drop tests from a helicopter to check guidance and navigation systems planned for use in the X-37. The X-37 is designed to demonstrate technologies in the orbital and reentry environments for next-generation reusable launch vehicles that will increase both safety and reliability, while reducing launch costs from $10,000 per pound to $1,000 per pound. The X-37, carried into orbit by the Space Shuttle, is planned to fly two orbital missions to test reusable launch vehicle technologies.

  16. Test Review: Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM]--Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT[R])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, J. Charles

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the TOEFL iBT which is the latest version of the TOEFL, whose history stretches back to 1961. The TOEFL iBT was introduced in the USA, Canada, France, Germany and Italy in late 2005. Currently the TOEFL test is offered in two testing formats: (1) Internet-based testing (iBT); and (2) paper-based testing (PBT).…

  17. How Have State Level Standards-Based Tests Related to Norm-Referenced Tests in Alaska?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    This overview of the Alaska system for test development, scoring, and reporting explored differences and similarities between norm-referenced and standards-based tests. The current Alaska testing program is based on legislation passed in 1997 and 1998, and is designed to meet the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Legislation. In…

  18. Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing tanks for distilled water (left), fuel (center), and gaseous nitrogen (right). Other tanks present for tests were removed before this image was taken. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Bioconjugates: harnessing potential for effective therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Khare, Piush; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Soni, Vandana; Jain, Nitin K; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-01-01

    The accomplishment of selective delivery can be brought through efficient drug targeting in which the attack of drug moiety is visualized only by the diseased organ and not by the organs of the whole body. This, in turn, consequently minimizes the unwanted effects or side effects caused by the drug action on the other organs. Bioconjugation is a fascinating technique that explores new vistas of drug delivery, and at the same time opens new possibilities for safe and effective therapy. This review is dedicated to and describes the science of bioconjugation and its potential in the drug delivery field, including different bioconjugates and their use in various therapeutic strategies. These have been classified as polymer based, macromolecule based, carrier based, and novel bioconjugates. This review describes the utility of bioconjugates in major diseases like cancer and others, and discusses experiments and research on the same. Bioconjugates have immense potential and extend a promising future in the drug delivery field. The review can act as a quick reference for those actively engaged in drug delivery and drug research to help overcome the hurdles of therapeutics.

  20. TREAT (TREe-based Association Test)

    Cancer.gov

    TREAT is an R package for detecting complex joint effects in case-control studies. The test statistic is derived from a tree-structure model by recursive partitioning the data. Ultra-fast algorithm is designed to evaluate the significance of association be

  1. Computer-Based Arithmetic Test Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocchi, Robert F.

    1973-01-01

    The computer can be a welcome partner in the instructional process, but only if there is man-machine interaction. Man should not compromise system design because of available hardware; the computer must fit the system design for the result to represent an acceptable solution to instructional technology. The Arithmetic Test Generator system fits…

  2. Applying Motion Constraints Based on Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    MSC ADAMS is a simulation software that is used to analyze multibody dynamics. Using user subroutines, it is possible to apply motion constraints to the rigid bodies so that they match the motion profile collected from test data. This presentation describes the process of taking test data and passing it to ADAMS using user subroutines, and uses the Morpheus free-flight 4 test as an example of motion data used for this purpose. Morpheus is the name of a prototype lander vehicle built by NASA that serves as a test bed for various experimental technologies (see backup slides for details) MSC.ADAMS"TM" is used to play back telemetry data (vehicle orientation and position) from each test as the inputs to a 6-DoF general motion constraint (details in backup slides) The MSC.ADAMS"TM" playback simulations allow engineers to examine and analyze flight trajectory as well as observe vehicle motion from any angle and at any playback speed. This facilitates the development of robust and stable control algorithms, increasing reliability and reducing development costs of this developmental engine The simulation also incorporates a 3D model of the artificial hazard field, allowing engineers to visualize and measure performance of the developmental autonomous landing and hazard avoidance technology ADAMS is a multibody dynamics solver. It uses forces, constraints, and mass properties to numerically integrate equations of motion. The ADAMS solver will ask the motion subroutine for position, velocity, and acceleration values at various time steps. Those values must be continuous over the whole time domain. Each degree of freedom in the telemetry data can be examined separately; however, linear interpolation of the telemetry data is invalid, since there will be discontinuities in velocity and acceleration.

  3. Dynamic test of radio altimeter based on IQ modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hongfei; Tian, Yu; Li, Miao

    2010-08-01

    This paper based on the analysis and research of radio altimeter and its basic principles, it introduces a design for I/Q modulator's radio altimeter testing system. Further, data got from the test had been analyzed. Combined with the testing data of the altimeter, a construction of the I/Q modulator's radio altimeter testing system is built.

  4. 42 CFR 84.173 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.173 Harnesses; installation and... harness designed and constructed to hold the components of the respirator in position against the...

  5. 42 CFR 84.196 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum... DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.196 Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. (a) Each respirator shall, where necessary, be equipped with a suitable harness designed...

  6. 42 CFR 84.133 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum... DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.133 Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. (a) Each supplied-air respirator shall, where necessary, be equipped with a suitable harness...

  7. 14 CFR 137.42 - Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fastening of safety belts and shoulder... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.42 Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. No... belt and shoulder harness properly secured about that person except that the shoulder harness need...

  8. Harnessing the power of neuroplasticity for intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Bryan; Muhammad, Arif

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental property of the brain is its capacity to change with a wide variety of experiences, including injury. Although there are spontaneous reparative changes following injury, these changes are rarely sufficient to support significant functional recovery. Research on the basic principles of brain plasticity is leading to new approaches to treating the injured brain. We review factors that affect synaptic organization in the normal brain, evidence of spontaneous neuroplasticity after injury, and the evidence that factors including postinjury experience, pharmacotherapy, and cell-based therapies, can form the basis of rehabilitation strategies after brain injuries early in life and in adulthood. PMID:25018713

  9. Harnessing Dendritic Cells to Generate Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Palucka, Karolina; Ueno, Hideki; Fay, Joseph; Banchereau, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy of cancer, i.e., transfer of T cells or antibodies, can lead to some objective clinical responses, thus demonstrating that the immune system can reject tumors. However, passive immunotherapy is not expected to yield memory T cells that might control tumor outgrowth. Active immunotherapy with dendritic cell (DCs) vaccines has the potential to induce tumor-specific effector and memory T cells. Clinical trials testing first generation DC vaccines pulsed with tumor antigens provided a proof-of-principle that therapeutic immunity can be elicited. Newer generation DC vaccines are build on the increased knowledge of the DC system including the existence of distinct DC subsets and their plasticity all leading to generation of distinct types of immunity. Rather than the quantity of IFN-γ secreting CD8+ T cells, we should aim at generating high quality high avidity poly-functional effector CD8+ T cells able to reject tumors and long-lived memory CD8+ T cells able to prevent relapse. PMID:19769741

  10. Large-Scale Multiobjective Static Test Generation for Web-Based Testing with Integer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, M. L.; Hui, Siu Cheung; Fong, A. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Web-based testing has become a ubiquitous self-assessment method for online learning. One useful feature that is missing from today's web-based testing systems is the reliable capability to fulfill different assessment requirements of students based on a large-scale question data set. A promising approach for supporting large-scale web-based…

  11. Harnessing technology for adolescent health promotion.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Paula M; Martínez, Raquel Andrés

    2007-08-01

    Sexually active adolescents are at risk for unintended pregnancy. Teen pregnancies can be prevented by consistent use of birth control, such as oral contraceptives. However, many teens forget their daily doses and eventually stop using oral contraceptives altogether. Teen pregnancies are more likely to be medically complicated and can adversely impact the teen, her child, and their community. Cell-phone use is becoming widespread, and teen cell-phone users frequently use text messaging. We describe a study in which we use cell-phone text-messaging technology in a novel way: we provide daily oral contraceptive dosing reminders and educational messages and evaluate oral contraceptive continuation at 6 months. We will use the information we obtain to develop specific, practice-based interventions to improve reproductive health programs and policies.

  12. Harnessing Nanoparticles for Immunomodulation and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ariane C.; Mohsen, Mona; Bachmann, Martin F.

    2017-01-01

    The first successful use of nanoparticles (NPs) for vaccination was reported almost 40 years ago with a virus-like particle-based vaccine against Hepatitis B. Since then, the term NP has been expanded to accommodate a large number of novel nano-sized particles engineered from a range of materials. The great interest in NPs is likely not only a result of the two successful vaccines against hepatitis B and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) that use this technology, but also due to the versatility of those small-sized particles, as indicated by the wide range of applications reported so far, ranging from medicinal and cosmetics to purely technical applications. In this review, we will focus on the use of NPs, especially virus-like particles (VLPs), in the field of vaccines and will discuss their employment as vaccines, antigen display platforms, adjuvants and drug delivery systems. PMID:28216554

  13. Evaluating Computer-Based and Paper-Based Versions of an English-Language Listening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an English language listening test intended as computer-based testing material for secondary school students in Hong Kong, where considerable attention is being invested in online and computer-based testing. As well as providing a school-based testing facility, the study aims to contribute to the knowledge base regarding the…

  14. Harnessing biomechanics to develop cartilage regeneration strategies.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Responte, Donald J; Brown, Wendy E; Hu, Jerry C

    2015-02-01

    As this review was prepared specifically for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers H.R. Lissner Medal, it primarily discusses work toward cartilage regeneration performed in Dr. Kyriacos A. Athanasiou's laboratory over the past 25 years. The prevalence and severity of degeneration of articular cartilage, a tissue whose main function is largely biomechanical, have motivated the development of cartilage tissue engineering approaches informed by biomechanics. This article provides a review of important steps toward regeneration of articular cartilage with suitable biomechanical properties. As a first step, biomechanical and biochemical characterization studies at the tissue level were used to provide design criteria for engineering neotissues. Extending this work to the single cell and subcellular levels has helped to develop biochemical and mechanical stimuli for tissue engineering studies. This strong mechanobiological foundation guided studies on regenerating hyaline articular cartilage, the knee meniscus, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) fibrocartilage. Initial tissue engineering efforts centered on developing biodegradable scaffolds for cartilage regeneration. After many years of studying scaffold-based cartilage engineering, scaffoldless approaches were developed to address deficiencies of scaffold-based systems, resulting in the self-assembling process. This process was further improved by employing exogenous stimuli, such as hydrostatic pressure, growth factors, and matrix-modifying and catabolic agents, both singly and in synergistic combination to enhance neocartilage functional properties. Due to the high cell needs for tissue engineering and the limited supply of native articular chondrocytes, costochondral cells are emerging as a suitable cell source. Looking forward, additional cell sources are investigated to render these technologies more translatable. For example, dermis isolated adult stem (DIAS) cells show potential as a source of

  15. HARNESS: Heterogeneous Adaptable Reconfigurable Networked Systems. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fagg, G. E.

    2004-01-20

    HARNESS was proposed as a system that combined the best of emerging technologies found in current distributed computing research and commercial products into a very flexible, dynamically adaptable framework that could be used by applications to allow them to evolve and better handle their execution environment. The HARNESS system was designed using the considerable experience from previous projects such as PVM, MPI, IceT and Cumulvs. As such, the system was designed to avoid any of the common problems found with using these current systems, such as no single point of failure, ability to survive machine, node and software failures. Additional features included improved intercomponent connectivity, with full support for dynamic down loading of addition components at run-time thus reducing the stress on application developers to build in all the libraries they need in advance.

  16. Uncovering Listeria monocytogenes hypervirulence by harnessing its biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Touchon, Marie; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Criscuolo, Alexis; Gaultier, Charlotte; Roussel, Sophie; Brisabois, Anne; Disson, Olivier; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Brisse, Sylvain; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Microbial pathogenesis studies are typically performed with reference strains, thereby overlooking microbial intra-species virulence heterogeneity. Here we integrated human epidemiological and clinical data with bacterial population genomics to harness the biodiversity of the model foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and decipher the basis of its neural and placental tropisms. Taking advantage of the clonal structure of this bacterial species, we identify clones epidemiologically associated with either food or human central nervous system (CNS) and maternal-neonatal (MN) listeriosis. The latter are also most prevalent in patients without immunosuppressive comorbidities. Strikingly, CNS and MN clones are hypervirulent in a humanized mouse model of listeriosis. By integrating epidemiological data and comparative genomics, we uncovered multiple novel putative virulence factors and demonstrated experimentally the contribution of the first gene cluster mediating Listeria monocytogenes neural and placental tropisms. This study illustrates the exceptional power of harnessing microbial biodiversity to identify clinically relevant microbial virulence attributes. PMID:26829754

  17. Smart warping harnesses for active mirrors and stress polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemared, Sabri; Hugot, Emmanuel; Challita, Zalpha; Schnetler, Hermine; Kroes, Gabby; Marcos, Michel; Costille, Anne; Dohlen, Kjetil; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    We present two ways to generate or compensate for first order optical aberrations using smart warping harnesses. In these cases, we used the same methodology leading to replace a previous actuation system currently on-sky and to get a freeform mirror intended to a demonstrator. Starting from specifications, a warping harness is designed, followed by a meshing model in the finite elements software. For the two projects, two different ways of astigmatism generation are presented. The first one, on the VLT-SPHERE instrument, with a single actuator, is able to generate a nearly pure astigmatism via a rotating motorization. Two actuators are sufficient to produce the same aberration for the active freeform mirror, main part of the OPTICON-FAME project, in order to use stress-polishing method.

  18. Harnessing Solute Carrier Transporters for Precision Oncology.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Michael D; Prasad, Bhagwat; Mostaghel, Elahe A

    2017-03-28

    Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters are a large superfamily of transmembrane carriers involved in the regulated transport of metabolites, nutrients, ions and drugs across cellular membranes. A subset of these solute carriers play a significant role in the cellular uptake of many cancer therapeutics, ranging from chemotherapeutics such as antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, platinum-based drugs and taxanes to targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. SLC transporters are co-expressed in groups and patterns across normal tissues, suggesting they may comprise a coordinated regulatory circuit serving to mediate normal tissue functions. In cancer however, there are dramatic changes in expression patterns of SLC transporters. This frequently serves to feed the increased metabolic demands of the tumor cell for amino acids, nucleotides and other metabolites, but also presents a therapeutic opportunity, as increased transporter expression may serve to increase intracellular concentrations of substrate drugs. In this review, we examine the regulation of drug transporters in cancer and how this impacts therapy response, and discuss novel approaches to targeting therapies to specific cancers via tumor-specific aberrations in transporter expression. We propose that among the oncogenic changes in SLC transporter expression there exist emergent vulnerabilities that can be exploited therapeutically, extending the application of precision medicine from tumor-specific drug targets to tumor-specific determinants of drug uptake.

  19. Test method on infrared system range based on space compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen-xing; Shi, Sheng-bing; Han, Fu-li

    2016-09-01

    Infrared thermal imaging system generates image based on infrared radiation difference between object and background and is a passive work mode. Range is important performance and necessary appraised test item in appraisal test for infrared system. In this paper, aim is carrying out infrared system range test in laboratory , simulated test ground is designed based on object equivalent, background analog, object characteristic control, air attenuation characteristic, infrared jamming analog and so on, repeatable and controllable tests are finished, problem of traditional field test method is solved.

  20. Hello World: Harnessing social media for the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, E.; Mignone, C.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Homfeld, A.-M.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. By harnessing a range of platforms for communicating the key messages of this unprecedented space adventure as the spacecraft reached its destination ten years later, a wide range of new audiences were reached and could follow this once-in-a-lifetime mission.

  1. HARNESSING THE CHEMISTRY OF CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, Janis

    2010-05-11

    Our research program is broadly focused on activating CO{sub 2} through the use of organic and organometallic based catalysts. Some of our methods have centered on annulation reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons (and carbonyl substrates) to provide a diverse array of carbocycles and heterocycles. We use a combination of catalyst discovery and optimization in conjunction with classical physical organic chemistry to elucidate the key mechanistic features of the cycloaddition reactions such that the next big advances in catalyst development can be made. Key to all of our cycloaddition reactions is the use of a sterically hindered, electron donating N heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, namely IPr (or SIPr), in conjunction with a low valent nickel pre-catalyst. The efficacy of this ligand is two-fold: (1) the high {delta}-donating ability of the NHC increases the nucleophilicity of the metal center which thereby facilitates interaction with the electrophilic carbonyl and (2) the steric hindrance prevents an otherwise competitive side reaction involving only the alkyne substrate. Such a system has allowed for the facile cycloaddition to prepare highly functionalized pyrones, pyridones, pyrans, as well as novel carbocycles. Importantly, all reactions proceed under extremely mild conditions (room temperature, atmospheric pressures, and short reaction times), require only catalytic amounts of Ni/NHC and readily available starting materials, and afford annulated products in excellent yields. Our current focus revolves around understanding the fundamental processes that govern these cycloadditions such that the next big advance in the cyclization chemistry of CO{sub 2} can be made. Concurrent to our annulation chemistry is our investigation of the potential for imidazolylidenes to function as thermally-actuated CO{sub 2} sequestering and delivery agents.

  2. BEAT: A Web-Based Boolean Expression Fault-Based Test Case Generation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, T. Y.; Grant, D. D.; Lau, M. F.; Ng, S. P.; Vasa, V. R.

    2006-01-01

    BEAT is a Web-based system that generates fault-based test cases from Boolean expressions. It is based on the integration of our several fault-based test case selection strategies. The generated test cases are considered to be fault-based, because they are aiming at the detection of particular faults. For example, when the Boolean expression is in…

  3. Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR) project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. Methods The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR’s Health and Well-being Project’s corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1) community engagement, 2) sampling and recruitment, 3) retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4) analysis, interpretation and dissemination. Results To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and

  4. Development of Job-Based Reading Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    representing the four types of Army job reading tasks identified in prior research (Locating Job Information in an Index , in Tables and Graphs,DD re I= 3 E...categories of Army job reading tasks established in prior research: Locating Job Information in an Index , in Tables and Graphs, and in Narrative Descriptions...as the index of general reading ability. This decision was based on a known correlation of approximately 0.80 between FA and the Metropolitan Reading

  5. Wind turbine blade testing system using base excitation

    DOEpatents

    Cotrell, Jason; Thresher, Robert; Lambert, Scott; Hughes, Scott; Johnson, Jay

    2014-03-25

    An apparatus (500) for fatigue testing elongate test articles (404) including wind turbine blades through forced or resonant excitation of the base (406) of the test articles (404). The apparatus (500) includes a testing platform or foundation (402). A blade support (410) is provided for retaining or supporting a base (406) of an elongate test article (404), and the blade support (410) is pivotally mounted on the testing platform (402) with at least two degrees of freedom of motion relative to the testing platform (402). An excitation input assembly (540) is interconnected with the blade support (410) and includes first and second actuators (444, 446, 541) that act to concurrently apply forces or loads to the blade support (410). The actuator forces are cyclically applied in first and second transverse directions. The test article (404) responds to shaking of its base (406) by oscillating in two, transverse directions (505, 507).

  6. Different DMRT3 Genotypes Are Best Adapted for Harness Racing and Riding in Finnhorses.

    PubMed

    Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Kim; Johansson, Lisa; Mäenpää, Minna; Mykkänen, Anna; Andersson, Lisa S; Velie, Brandon D; Andersson, Leif; Árnason, Thorvaldur; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed a positive effect of the DMRT3 "gait keeper" mutation on harness racing performance in Standardbreds, French-, and Nordic trotters. The mutation has also been shown to influence riding traits in multiple breeds. This study investigated the effect of the DMRT3 mutation on harness racing performance and riding traits in Finnhorses. Finnhorses used for harness racing (n = 180) and for riding (n = 59) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. For the trotters the genotypes were evaluated for association with racing performance (number of starts, victories, placings, earnings, and race times). At 3-6 years of age the AA genotype was superior compared with the CA and CC genotypes. The AA horses had a significantly higher proportion of victories (P = 1.4×10(-6)) and placings (P = 4.1×10(-7)), better race times (P = 0.01), and earned more money (P = 0.009) compared with C-horses. For the Finnhorses used for riding the owners answered a questionnaire to score how well the horse performed the gaits walk, trot, and canter on a scale from 1 to 6. These scores were tested for association with the DMRT3 genotypes. Although AA horses were more successful as racehorses, the CC and CA horses appear more adapted for classical riding disciplines. The AA horses received significantly lower gait scores compared with C-horses for the majority of gaits. Except for rhythm in extended canter (P = 0.05), there were no significant differences between CA and CC horses. This study shows that there are different optimal genotypes for different disciplines and the DMRT3 mutation clearly influences gaits and performance in Finnhorses.

  7. Factor Structure of the TOEFL Internet-Based Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Stricker, Lawrence J.; Oranje, Andreas H.

    2009-01-01

    This construct validation study investigated the factor structure of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT). An item-level confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for a test form completed by participants in a field study. A higher-order factor model was identified, with a higher-order general factor…

  8. Marking Strategies in Metacognition-Evaluated Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Ju; Ho, Rong-Guey; Yen, Yung-Chin

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of marking and metacognition-evaluated feedback (MEF) in computer-based testing (CBT) on student performance and review behavior. Marking is a strategy, in which students place a question mark next to a test item to indicate an uncertain answer. The MEF provided students with feedback on test results…

  9. An isotropic suspension system for a biaxial accelerometer using electroplated thick metal with a HAR SU-8 mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin Seung; Lee, Seung S.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is developed to design an isotropic suspension system using thick metal freestanding micro-structures combining bulk micro-machining with electroplating based on a HAR SU-8 mold. An omega-shape isotropic suspension system composed of circular curved beams that have free switching of imaginary boundary conditions is proposed. This novel isotropic suspension design is not affected by geometric dimensional parameters and always achieves matching stiffness along the principle axes of elasticity. Using the finite element method, the isotropic suspension system was compared with an S-shaped meandering suspension system. In order to realize the suggested isotropic suspension system, a cost-effective fabrication process using electroplating with the SU-8 mold was developed to avoid expensive equipment and materials such as deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) or a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The fabricated isotropic suspension system was verified by electromagnetic actuation experiments. Finally, a biaxial accelerometer with isotropic suspension system was realized and tested using a vibration generator system. The proposed isotropic suspension system and the modified surface micro-machining technique based on electroplating with an SU-8 mold can contribute towards minimizing the system size, simplifying the system configuration, reducing the system price of and facilitating mass production of various types of low-cost sensors and actuators.

  10. Theory-Based University Admissions Testing for a New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes two projects based on Robert J. Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence and designed to provide theory-based testing for university admissions. The first, Rainbow Project, provided a supplementary test of analytical, practical, and creative skills to augment the SAT in predicting college performance. The Rainbow…

  11. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  12. Security considerations and recommendations in computer-based testing.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleem, Saleh M; Ullah, Hanif

    2014-01-01

    Many organizations and institutions around the globe are moving or planning to move their paper-and-pencil based testing to computer-based testing (CBT). However, this conversion will not be the best option for all kinds of exams and it will require significant resources. These resources may include the preparation of item banks, methods for test delivery, procedures for test administration, and last but not least test security. Security aspects may include but are not limited to the identification and authentication of examinee, the risks that are associated with cheating on the exam, and the procedures related to test delivery to the examinee. This paper will mainly investigate the security considerations associated with CBT and will provide some recommendations for the security of these kinds of tests. We will also propose a palm-based biometric authentication system incorporated with basic authentication system (username/password) in order to check the identity and authenticity of the examinee.

  13. DLP™-based dichoptic vision test system

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Russell L.; Apfelbaum, Henry L.; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    It can be useful to present a different image to each of the two eyes while they cooperatively view the world. Such dichoptic presentation can occur in investigations of stereoscopic and binocular vision (e.g., strabismus, amblyopia) and vision rehabilitation in clinical and research settings. Various techniques have been used to construct dichoptic displays. The most common and most flexible modern technique uses liquid-crystal (LC) shutters. When used in combination with cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, there is often leakage of light from the image intended for one eye into the view of the other eye. Such interocular crosstalk is 14% even in our state of the art CRT-based dichoptic system. While such crosstalk may have minimal impact on stereo movie or video game experiences, it can defeat clinical and research investigations. We use micromirror digital light processing (DLP™) technology to create a novel dichoptic visual display system with substantially lower interocular crosstalk (0.3%; remaining crosstalk comes from the LC shutters). The DLP system normally uses a color wheel to display color images. Our approach is to disable the color wheel, synchronize the display directly to the computer’s sync signal, allocate each of the three (former) color presentations to one or both eyes, and open and close the LC shutters in synchrony with those color events. PMID:20210457

  14. DLP™-based dichoptic vision test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Russell L.; Apfelbaum, Henry L.; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    It can be useful to present a different image to each of the two eyes while they cooperatively view the world. Such dichoptic presentation can occur in investigations of stereoscopic and binocular vision (e.g., strabismus, amblyopia) and vision rehabilitation in clinical and research settings. Various techniques have been used to construct dichoptic displays. The most common and most flexible modern technique uses liquid-crystal (LC) shutters. When used in combination with cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, there is often leakage of light from the image intended for one eye into the view of the other eye. Such interocular crosstalk is 14% even in our state of the art CRT-based dichoptic system. While such crosstalk may have minimal impact on stereo movie or video game experiences, it can defeat clinical and research investigations. We use micromirror digital light processing (DLP™) technology to create a novel dichoptic visual display system with substantially lower interocular crosstalk (0.3% remaining crosstalk comes from the LC shutters). The DLP system normally uses a color wheel to display color images. Our approach is to disable the color wheel, synchronize the display directly to the computer's sync signal, allocate each of the three (former) color presentations to one or both eyes, and open and close the LC shutters in synchrony with those color events.

  15. High-Affinity Binding of the Staphylococcal HarA Protein to Haptoglobin and Hemoglobin Involves a Domain with an Antiparallel Eight-Stranded β-Barrel Fold▿

    PubMed Central

    Dryla, Agnieszka; Hoffmann, Bernd; Gelbmann, Dieter; Giefing, Carmen; Hanner, Markus; Meinke, Andreas; Anderson, Annaliesa S.; Koppensteiner, Walter; Konrat, Robert; von Gabain, Alexander; Nagy, Eszter

    2007-01-01

    Iron scavenging from the host is essential for the growth of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we further characterized two staphylococcal cell wall proteins previously shown to bind hemoproteins. HarA and IsdB harbor homologous ligand binding domains, the so called NEAT domain (for “near transporter”) present in several surface proteins of gram-positive pathogens. Surface plasmon resonance measurements using glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged HarAD1, one of the ligand binding domains of HarA, and GST-tagged full-length IsdB proteins confirmed high-affinity binding to hemoglobin and haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes with equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) of 5 to 50 nM. Haptoglobin binding could be detected only with HarA and was in the low micromolar range. In order to determine the fold of this evolutionarily conserved ligand binding domain, the untagged HarAD1 protein was subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which revealed an eight-stranded, purely antiparallel β-barrel with the strand order (-β1↓-β2↑-β3↓-β6↑-β5↓-β4↑-β7↓-β8↑), forming two Greek key motifs. Based on structural-homology searches, the topology of the HarAD1 domain resembles that of the immunoglobulin (Ig) fold family, whose members are involved in protein-protein interactions, but with distinct structural features. Therefore, we consider that the HarAD1/NEAT domain fold is a novel variant of the Ig fold that has not yet been observed in other proteins. PMID:17041047

  16. Cross-Mode Comparability of Computer-Based Testing (CBT) versus Paper-Pencil Based Testing (PPT): An Investigation of Testing Administration Mode among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Hosseini, Monirosadat; Toroujeni, Seyyed Morteza Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Advent of technology has caused growing interest in using computers to convert conventional paper and pencil-based testing (Henceforth PPT) into Computer-based testing (Henceforth CBT) in the field of education during last decades. This constant promulgation of computers to reshape the conventional tests into computerized format permeated the…

  17. Effects of harness transmitters on behavior and reproduction of wild mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Krapu, Gary L.; Greenwood, Raymond J.; Lokemoen, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Radio telemetry has been an important research tool in waterfowl studies for >20 years, yet little effort has been made to evaluate potential effects of transmitters on the birds that carry them. As part of a 4-year mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) study in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota and Minnesota, we compared radio-marked and unmarked female mallards in terms of percent time observed feeding, resting, and preening; nest initiation date; and clutch size and egg volume. Radio-marked females carried a 23-g back-mounted transmitter attached with a 2-loop harness (Dwyer 1972). On average, radio-marked females tended to feed less, rest and preen more, initiate nests later, and lay smaller clutches and eggs than unmarked females. Thus, behavioral and reproductive data from ducks marked with back-mounted harness-attached transmitters may be biased. We recommend that new designs of radio packages be field tested and caution that effects may be masked under extreme environmental conditions.

  18. Factor analysis and predictive validity of microcomputer-based tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Turnage, J. J.; Jones, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    11 tests were selected from two microcomputer-based performance test batteries because previously these tests exhibited rapid stability (less than 10 min, of practice) and high retest reliability efficiencies (r greater than 0.707 for each 3 min. of testing). The battery was administered three times to each of 108 college students (48 men and 60 women) and a factor analysis was performed. Two of the three identified factors appear to be related to information processing ("encoding" and "throughput/decoding"), and the third named an "output/speed" factor. The spatial, memory, and verbal tests loaded on the "encoding" factor and included Grammatical Reasoning, Pattern Comparison, Continuous Recall, and Matrix Rotation. The "throughput/decoding" tests included perceptual/numerical tests like Math Processing, Code Substitution, and Pattern Comparison. The output speed factor was identified by Tapping and Reaction Time tests. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was group administered before the first and after the last administration of the performance tests. The multiple Rs in the total sample between combined Wonderlic as a criterion and less than 5 min. of microcomputer testing on Grammatical Reasoning and Math Processing as predictors ranged between 0.41 and 0.52 on the three test administrations. Based on these results, the authors recommend a core battery which, if time permits, would consist of two tests from each factor. Such a battery is now known to permit stable, reliable, and efficient assessment.

  19. Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process with Open Boundaries and Quadratic Harnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryc, Włodek; Wesołowski, Jacek

    2017-02-01

    We show that the joint probability generating function of the stationary measure of a finite state asymmetric exclusion process with open boundaries can be expressed in terms of joint moments of Markov processes called quadratic harnesses. We use our representation to prove the large deviations principle for the total number of particles in the system. We use the generator of the Markov process to show how explicit formulas for the average occupancy of a site arise for special choices of parameters. We also give similar representations for limits of stationary measures as the number of sites tends to infinity.

  20. Materials that harness and modulate the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jamal S.; Roy, Krishnendu; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, biomaterial scientists have married materials engineering and immunobiology to conceptualize new immunomodulatory materials. This special class of biomaterials can modulate and harness the innate properties of immune functionality for enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Generally, two fundamental strategies are followed in the design of immunomodulatory biomaterials: (1) immuno-evasive (immuno-mimetic, immuno-suppressing, or immuno-inert) biomaterials and (2) immuno-activating or immuno-enhancing biomaterials. This article highlights the development and application of a number of immunomodulatory materials, categorized by these two general approaches. PMID:26997752

  1. "Hello, World!" Harnessing Social Media for the Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, E.; Mignone, C.; Scuka, D.; Homfeld, A. M.; Ranero, K.; Rolfe, E.; Bennett, M.; Schepers, A.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M.

    2016-03-01

    The European Space Agency's comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. As it reached its destination ten years later, new audiences were reached and inspired by this once-in-a-lifetime event by harnessing a range of outlets for communicating the key messages. These included traditional online platforms, such as news websites, blogs, and Livestream, as well as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Flickr, YouTube, Google+ and SoundCloud. In this article, we outline the role social media channels played in making Rosetta one of the European Space Agency's biggest communication and public engagement successes.

  2. Peroxisystem: harnessing systems cell biology to study peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modelling of cells, recently dubbed systems cell biology, has been harnessed to study the organisation and dynamics of simple biological systems. Here, we suggest that the peroxisome, a fascinating dynamic organelle, can be used as a good candidate for studying a complete biological system. We discuss several aspects of peroxisomes that can be studied using high-throughput systematic approaches and be integrated into a predictive model. Such approaches can be used in the future to study and understand how a more complex biological system, like a cell and maybe even ultimately a whole organism, works.

  3. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies have been developed that enable the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and nonribosomal peptide analogues. PMID:26527577

  4. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  5. Field-based physiological testing of wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Leicht, Christof A

    2013-02-01

    The volume of literature on field-based physiological testing of wheelchair sports, such as basketball, rugby and tennis, is considerably smaller when compared with that available for individuals and team athletes in able-bodied (AB) sports. In analogy to the AB literature, it is recognized that performance in wheelchair sports not only relies on fitness, but also sport-specific skills, experience and technical proficiency. However, in contrast to AB sports, two major components contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance, which are the athlete and the wheelchair. It is the interaction of these two that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. Like any other athlete, participants of wheelchair sports are looking for efficient ways to train and/or analyse their technique and fitness to improve their performance. Consequently, laboratory and/or field-based physiological monitoring tools used at regular intervals at key time points throughout the year must be considered to help with training evaluation. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess wheelchair sports fitness in a field-based environment, with special attention on outcome variables, validity and reliability issues, and non-physiological influences on performance. It also lays out the context of field-based testing by providing details about the Paralympic court sports and the impacts of a disability on sporting performance. Due to the limited availability of specialized equipment for testing wheelchair-dependent participants in the laboratory, the adoption of field-based testing has become the preferred option by team coaches of wheelchair athletes. An obvious advantage of field-based testing is that large groups of athletes can be tested in less time. Furthermore, athletes are tested in their natural environment (using their normal sports wheelchair set-up and floor surface), potentially making the results of such testing

  6. Forensic aspects of DNA-based human identity testing.

    PubMed

    Roper, Stephen M; Tatum, Owatha L

    2008-01-01

    The forensic applications of DNA-based human identity laboratory testing are often underappreciated. Molecular biology has seen an exponential improvement in the accuracy and statistical power provided by identity testing in the past decade. This technology, dependent upon an individual's unique DNA sequence, has cemented the use of DNA technology in the forensic laboratory. This paper will discuss the state of modern DNA-based identity testing, describe the technology used to perform this testing, and describe its use as it relates to forensic applications. We will also compare individual technologies, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern Blotting, that are used to detect the molecular differences that make all individuals unique. An increasing reliance on DNA-based identity testing dictates that healthcare providers develop an understanding of the background, techniques, and guiding principles of this important forensic tool.

  7. Doppler sensors and harnesses for cardiac and peripheral arterial flow monitoring.

    PubMed

    Arbeille, P

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to design Doppler sensors and harnesses for monitoring in real time the cardiac stroke volume and output, the cerebral flow volume and resistance and the lower limb arterial flow and resistance changes. For the middle cerebral artery investigation we used a 2-MHz transcranial pulsed wave (PW) Doppler probe (commercial probe) mounted on a rotula, fixed on the horizontal branch of a headset designed like an audio headset. The arch of the headset passed over the top of the skull. For the common carotid investigation, a 4-MHz continuous-wave (CW) or PW flat Doppler probe was inserted in a circular silicone support of 5-cm diameter and 0.6-cm thickness. This soft support could adapt to the irregular surface of the neck, and the silicone material, which is fairly adhesive to the skin, made the system stable. The transducers were preoriented at 45 degrees from the support, which provided an acceptable orientation of the Doppler beam. The aortic Doppler harness consisted of a 2-MHz PW Doppler probe, mounted on a rotula fixed on a plastic rigid support 7 x 1.5 cm2 in area (parallel to the sternum) whose length could be changed (4-7 cm) to localize the rotula and its sensor on the suprasternal area. This flat segment was fixed on a rotating platform, part of a solid square plastic support (10 x 10 cm2) placed on the upper part of the sternum. This system was maintained by elastic bands passing around the shoulder and the chest. The femoral Doppler harness consisted of a 4-MHz CW or PW flat Doppler probe, inserted in a flat and rectangular rigid plastic support 10 x 3 cm2 in area. This rigid support was well adapted to the flat surface of the internal part of the thigh, which made the system stable. Two elastic bands passed around the thigh and the abdomen, which avoided any translation of the support and kept the sensor in contact with the skin. The transducers were preoriented at 45 degrees from the support, which provided an acceptable

  8. Credit USAF. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit USAF. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 - 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. View captioned as "7 Sept 1945, BH-5 Base Ordinance Motor Repair Shop" with gas station and gasoline pump. View looks roughly northwest - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Motor Repair Shop T-16, Third & C Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Operational Based Vision Assessment Cone Contrast Test: Description and Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-02

    test for identifying and classifying protanomalous and deuteranomalous (red/ green ) color deficient individuals. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Color vision...protanomalous and deuteranomalous (red/ green ) color deficient individuals. 2.0 PURPOSE/BACKGROUND The Operational Based Vision Assessment cone contrast...clearly demonstrated that observed colors on the Rabin CCT change dramatically with head movement . These changes will, of course, invalidate the test

  10. Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

  11. Harnessing Protocolized Adaptation in Dissemination: Successful Implementation and Sustainment of the Veterans Affairs Coordinated-Transitional Care (C-TraC) Program in a Non- Veterans Affairs Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kind, Amy J.H.; Brenny-Fitzpatrick, Maria; Leahy-Gross, Kris; Mirr, Jacquelyn; Chapman, Elizabeth; Frey, Brooke; Houlahan, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The low-cost, primarily phone-based Coordinated-Transitional Care (C-TraC) program reduced 30-day rehospitalizations by 1/3, leading to significant cost savings at one VA hospital. Non-VA hospitals have expressed interest in launching C-TraC, but non-VA hospitals differ in important ways from VA hospitals, particularly in terms of context, culture and resources. The objective of this project was to successfully adapt C-TraC to the specific context of one non-VA setting using a modified Replicating Effective Programs (REP) implementation theory model, and to test the feasibility of this protocolized implementation approach. The modified-REP model 1) uses a mentored phased-based implementation with intensive pre-implementation activities, and 2) harnesses local key stakeholders to adapt processes and goals to local context. Using this protocolized implementation approach, an adapted C-TraC protocol was created and launched at the non-VA hospital in July 2013. In its first 16 months, C-TraC successfully enrolled 1,247 patients with 3.2 full-time nurse case managers, achieving good fidelity for core protocol steps. C-TraC patients experienced a 30-day rehospitalization rate of 10.8%, as compared to 16.6% for a contemporary comparison group of similar patients for whom C-TraC was not available (n=1,307) [p-value < 0.001]. The new C-TraC program continues in operation to this day. In conclusion, use of a modified REP model to guide protocolized adaptation to local context resulted in a C-TraC program that was feasible and sustained in a real-world non-VA setting. A modified-REP implementation framework may be an appropriate foundational step for other clinical programs seeking to harness protocolized adaptation in mentored dissemination activities. PMID:26804896

  12. Formation of HArF in solid Ar revisited: are mobile vacancies involved in the matrix-site conversion at 30 K?

    PubMed

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Lignell, Antti; Rasanen, Markku

    2004-02-15

    The HArF molecule can occupy in solid Ar thermally unstable and stable configurations, and their microscopic structure is not understood at the moment. We present additional experimental results on the formation of two HArF configurations and analyze them with emphasis on possible reactions of the unstable configuration with matrix vacancies to form the stable configuration. We conclude that the existing computational scenarios do not describe fully the present experimental data. In order to explain qualitatively the experimental results, two tentative models are discussed. The first model is based on local mobility of matrix vacancies produced during photolysis and the second model considers isomerization of the HArF at Arn supermolecule. More importantly, the present results constitute the experimental basis for future theoretical studies.

  13. The validity and reliability of a customized rigid supportive harness during Smith machine back squat exercise.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brendan R; Dascombe, Ben J; Delaney, Jace A; Elsworthy, Nathan; Lockie, Robert G; Sculley, Dean V; Slattery, Katie M

    2014-03-01

    Although the back squat exercise is commonly prescribed to both athletic and clinical populations, individuals with restricted glenohumeral mobility may be unable to safely support the bar on the upper trapezius using their hands. The aims of this study were to investigate the validity and reliability of a back squat variation using a rigid supportive harness that does not require unrestricted glenohumeral mobility for quantifying 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Thirteen young men (age = 25.3 ± 4.5 years, height = 179.2 ± 6.9 cm, and body mass = 86.6 ± 12.0 kg) with at least 2 years resistance training experience volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects reported to the lab on 3 occasions, each separated by 1 week. During testing sessions, subjects were assessed for 1RM using the traditional back squat (session 1) and harness back squat (HBS; sessions 2 and 3) exercises. Mean 1RM for the traditional back squat, and 2 testing sessions of the HBS (HBS1 and HBS2) were 148.4 ± 25.0 kg, 152.5 ± 25.7 kg, and 150.4 ± 22.6 kg, respectively. Back squat and mean HBS 1RM scores were very strongly correlated (r = 0.96; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in 1RM scores between the 3 trials. The test-retest 1RM scores with the HBS demonstrated high reliability, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93-0.99), and a coefficient of variation of 2.6% (95% CI = 1.9-4.3). Taken together, these data suggest that the HBS exercise is a valid and reliable method for assessing 1RM in young men with previous resistance training experience and may be useful for individuals with restricted glenohumeral mobility.

  14. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  15. Some attributes of a language for property-based testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Neagoe, Vicentiu; Bishop, Matt

    2004-11-01

    Property-based testing is a testing technique that evaluates executions of a program. The method checks that specifications, called properties, hold throughout the execution of the program. TASpec is a language used to specify these properties. This paper compares some attributes of the language with the specification patterns used for model-checking languages, and then presents some descriptions of properties that can be used to detect common security flaws in programs. This report describes the results of a one year research project at the University of California, Davis, which was funded by a University Collaboration LDRD entitled ''Property-based Testing for Cyber Security Assurance''.

  16. Engineering in software testing: statistical testing based on a usage model applied to medical device development.

    PubMed

    Jones, P L; Swain, W T; Trammell, C J

    1999-01-01

    When a population is too large for exhaustive study, as is the case for all possible uses of a software system, a statistically correct sample must be drawn as a basis for inferences about the population. A Markov chain usage model is an engineering formalism that represents the population of possible uses for which a product is to be tested. In statistical testing of software based on a Markov chain usage model, the rich body of analytical results available for Markov chains provides numerous insights that can be used in both product development and test planing. A usage model is based on specifications rather than code, so insights that result from model building can inform product decisions in the early stages of a project when the opportunity to prevent problems is the greatest. Statistical testing based on a usage model provides a sound scientific basis for quantifying the reliability of software.

  17. Web based aphasia test using service oriented architecture (SOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voos, J. A.; Vigliecca, N. S.; Gonzalez, E. A.

    2007-11-01

    Based on an aphasia test for Spanish speakers which analyze the patient's basic resources of verbal communication, a web-enabled software was developed to automate its execution. A clinical database was designed as a complement, in order to evaluate the antecedents (risk factors, pharmacological and medical backgrounds, neurological or psychiatric symptoms, brain injury -anatomical and physiological characteristics, etc) which are necessary to carry out a multi-factor statistical analysis in different samples of patients. The automated test was developed following service oriented architecture and implemented in a web site which contains a tests suite, which would allow both integrating the aphasia test with other neuropsychological instruments and increasing the available site information for scientific research. The test design, the database and the study of its psychometric properties (validity, reliability and objectivity) were made in conjunction with neuropsychological researchers, who participate actively in the software design, based on the patients or other subjects of investigation feedback.

  18. Temperature-based rapid toxicity test using Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Jun, B H; Lee, S I; Ryu, H D; Kim, Y J

    2006-01-01

    Toxicants, which may cause the inhibition to the biological process in sewage/wastewater treatment plant, need to be monitored within short time to prevent from serious damage. A new method, Temperature-based rapid toxicity test (TempTox test) using Ceriodaphnia dubia, was developed and compared with the standard 48 hr acute bioassay (Std. 48-hr test). Inorganic toxicants of cadmium, zinc, copper, cyanide, chromium (III), chromium (VI) and organic toxicants of phenol, PCP and pesticides of BPMC, Diazinon, Fenitrothion were tested for TempTox test and Std. 48-hr test. Because the TempTox test is based on just temperature control, C. dubia neonates were exposed to toxicants under high temperature (35.5 degrees C) condition without any complicated pretreatment. After given exposure time of 1, 1.25, 1.5 hours, the number of the live (no toxic effect) or the dead (toxic effect) was counted with eye without the aid of any microscope and median effective concentrations (EC50 values) were determined. From the results for all toxicants, the TempTox test was proved to be as sensitive as the Std. 48-hr test with shorter-time of just 1.25-1.5 hours. Moreover, the TempTox test was further much more sensitive than alternative bioassays such as the 1-hour l.Q. test and 30-minute Microtox. The TempTox test showed a high applicability of toxicity bioassay for real sewage/wastewater treatment plant by its easiness, rapidity and sensitivity. Finally, the prototype for short-term TempTox test was introduced.

  19. Evolution of a Computer-Based Testing Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskal, Patrick; Caldwell, Richard; Ellis, Taylor

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, faced with increasing growth in technology-based and large-enrollment courses, the College of Business Administration at the University of Central Florida opened a computer-based testing lab to facilitate administration of course examinations. Patrick Moskal, Richard Caldwell, and Taylor Ellis describe the development and evolution of the…

  20. Periodogram based tests for distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Craigmile, Peter F; King, Wayne M

    2004-07-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are an important nonbehavioral measure of cochlear function, which provides a close analogue of the behavioral pure-tone audiogram. DPOAEs are sinusoidal distortion products (DPs) produced by nonlinearities in the healthy cochlea. Detection of DPs is accomplished in the Fourier domain with a periodogram based test. The test compares the power in the DP periodogram bin to a noise estimate derived from a certain number of the surrounding bins. Statistical properties of this test to date have only been examined by constructing receiver operator characteristics curves derived from DPOAE measurements in normal and hearing impaired individuals. In this paper the null distribution of this order-statistic based test is explicitly derived, and via simulations intended to mimic the nonwhite features of real-ear noise measurements, the power of the test is demonstrated. These simulations demonstrate that a local F test is more powerful than this DPOAE test, with critical values that are easier to calculate. Although the power of both tests increase with an increasing number of bins, the improvement is negligible at around four bins. Since the power of both tests decrease at lower DP frequencies, it is not recommended to use a large number of bins.

  1. Testing Game-Based Performance in Team-Handball.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Herbert; Orwat, Matthias; Hinz, Matthias; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Bacharach, David W; von Duvillard, Serge P; Müller, Erich

    2016-10-01

    Wagner, H, Orwat, M, Hinz, M, Pfusterschmied, J, Bacharach, DW, von Duvillard, SP, and Müller, E. Testing game-based performance in team-handball. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2794-2801, 2016-Team-handball is a fast paced game of defensive and offensive action that includes specific movements of jumping, passing, throwing, checking, and screening. To date and to the best of our knowledge, a game-based performance test (GBPT) for team-handball does not exist. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate such a test. Seventeen experienced team-handball players performed 2 GBPTs separated by 7 days between each test, an incremental treadmill running test, and a team-handball test game (TG) (2 × 20 minutes). Peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), blood lactate concentration (BLC), heart rate (HR), sprinting time, time of offensive and defensive actions as well as running intensities, ball velocity, and jump height were measured in the game-based test. Reliability of the tests was calculated using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additionally, we measured V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the incremental treadmill running test and BLC, HR, and running intensities in the team-handball TG to determine the validity of the GBPT. For the test-retest reliability, we found an ICC >0.70 for the peak BLC and HR, mean offense and defense time, as well as ball velocity that yielded an ICC >0.90 for the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak in the GBPT. Percent walking and standing constituted 73% of total time. Moderate (18%) and high (9%) intensity running in the GBPT was similar to the team-handball TG. Our results indicated that the GBPT is a valid and reliable test to analyze team-handball performance (physiological and biomechanical variables) under conditions similar to competition.

  2. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

  3. Exploring pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection testing

    PubMed Central

    Habel, Melissa A.; Scheinmann, Roberta; Verdesoto, Elizabeth; Gaydos, Charlotte; Bertisch, Maggie; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening as alternate testing venues among emergency contraception (EC) users. Methods The study included two phases in February 2011–July 2012. In Phase I, customers purchasing EC from eight pharmacies in Manhattan received vouchers for free STI testing at onsite medical clinics. In Phase II, three Facebook ads targeted EC users to connect them with free home-based STI test kits ordered online. Participants completed a self-administered survey. Results Only 38 participants enrolled in Phase I: 90% female, ≤29 years (74%), 45% White non-Hispanic and 75% college graduates; 71% were not tested for STIs in the past year and 68% reported a new partner in the past 3 months. None tested positive for STIs. In Phase II, ads led to >45 000 click-throughs, 382 completed the survey and 290 requested kits; 28% were returned. Phase II participants were younger and less educated than Phase I participants; six tested positive for STIs. Challenges included recruitment, pharmacy staff participation, advertising with discretion and cost. Conclusions This study found low uptake of pharmacy and home-based testing among EC users; however, STI testing in these settings is feasible and the acceptability findings indicate an appeal among younger women for testing in non-traditional settings. Collaborating with and training pharmacy and medical staff are key elements of service provision. Future research should explore how different permutations of expanding screening in non-traditional settings could improve testing uptake and detect additional STI cases. PMID:26409484

  4. Worldwide Research, Worldwide Participation: Web-Based Test Logger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the World Wide Web, a new paradigm has been born. ESCORT (steady state data system) facilities can now be configured to use a Web-based test logger, enabling worldwide participation in tests. NASA Lewis Research Center's new Web-based test logger for ESCORT automatically writes selected test and facility parameters to a browser and allows researchers to insert comments. All data can be viewed in real time via Internet connections, so anyone with a Web browser and the correct URL (universal resource locator, or Web address) can interactively participate. As the test proceeds and ESCORT data are taken, Web browsers connected to the logger are updated automatically. The use of this logger has demonstrated several benefits. First, researchers are free from manual data entry and are able to focus more on the tests. Second, research logs can be printed in report format immediately after (or during) a test. And finally, all test information is readily available to an international public.

  5. Harnessing plant-microbe interactions for enhancing farm productivity.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Catriona; Singh, Brajesh

    2014-01-01

    Declining soil fertility and farm productivity is a major global concern in order to achieve food security for a burgeoning world population. It is reported that improving soil health alone can increase productivity by 10-15% and in combination with efficient plant traits, farm productivity can be increased up to 50-60%. In this article we explore the emerging microbial and bioengineering technologies, which can be employed to achieve the transformational increase in farm productivity and can simultaneously enhance environmental outcomes i.e., low green house gas (GHG) emissions. We argue that metagenomics, meta-transcriptomics and metabolomics have potential to provide fundamental knowledge on plant-microbes interactions necessary for new innovations to increase farm productivity. Further, these approaches provide tools to identify and select novel microbial/gene resources which can be harnessed in transgenic and designer plant technologies for enhanced resource use efficiencies.

  6. Response of Cable Harnesses Subjected to High-velocity Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Kumi; Kawakita, Shirou; Takeba, Atsushi; Katayama, Masahide

    We compared numerical simulation results obtained using AUTODYN-3D, which is used for impact analysis of complex physical systems including fluid and solid materials, with experimental results obtained using a two-stage light gas gun. The response of electric power supply cable harnesses subjected to high-velocity impact at 4.01 km/s is shown and discussed. In addition, AUTODYN-3D was applied to the numerical simulation of the hypervelocity impact of micrometeoroids and space debris (M/OD) at 15 km/s and 20 km/s, respectively. Material models used in the numerical simulation are also discussed and investigated in order to cover a wide range of impact velocities, including shock-induced vaporization.

  7. Parachuting harnesses comparative evaluation on energy distribution grids.

    PubMed

    Hembecker, Paula Karina; Poletto, Angela Regina; Gontijo, Leila Amaral

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to make a comparative evaluation of three different parachuting harnesses to work at heights in the energy industry, from the electricians' point of view concerning these products under the optics of usability and ergonomic principles, and mainly justified by the high quantity of injuries at the energy industry due to high falls. According to its main target, this field research is classified as exploratory-descriptive transversal viewing study and, considering this perspective, the study was developed in four steps. Research results have enlightened the weakest spots and the potential improvement opportunities of these products, developed to assure safety of the work at heights to the energy industry, according to the opinion of the users. Still, results point that, regardless of the model, these devices have adapting issues to fulfill the electrical sector user's needs.

  8. A Model Based Security Testing Method for Protocol Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation. PMID:25105163

  9. Overheating Anomalies during Flight Test Due to the Base Bleeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchinsky, Dmitry; Hafiychuck, Halyna; Osipov, Slava; Ponizhovskaya, Ekaterina; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Dagostino, Mark; Canabal, Francisco; Mobley, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the analytical and numerical studies of the plume interaction with the base flow in the presence of base out-gassing. The physics-based analysis and CFD modeling of the base heating for single solid rocket motor performed in this research addressed the following questions: what are the key factors making base flow so different from that in the Shuttle [1]; why CFD analysis of this problem reveals small plume recirculation; what major factors influence base temperature; and why overheating was initiated at a given time in the flight. To answer these questions topological analysis of the base flow was performed and Korst theory was used to estimate relative contributions of radiation, plume recirculation, and chemically reactive out-gassing to the base heating. It was shown that base bleeding and small base volume are the key factors contributing to the overheating, while plume recirculation is effectively suppressed by asymmetric configuration of the flow formed earlier in the flight. These findings are further verified using CFD simulations that include multi-species gas environment both in the plume and in the base. Solid particles in the exhaust plume (Al2O3) and char particles in the base bleeding were also included into the simulations and their relative contributions into the base temperature rise were estimated. The results of simulations are in good agreement with the temperature and pressure in the base measured during the test.

  10. Empirical likelihood-based tests for stochastic ordering

    PubMed Central

    BARMI, HAMMOU EL; MCKEAGUE, IAN W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical likelihood approach to testing for the presence of stochastic ordering among univariate distributions based on independent random samples from each distribution. The proposed test statistic is formed by integrating a localized empirical likelihood statistic with respect to the empirical distribution of the pooled sample. The asymptotic null distribution of this test statistic is found to have a simple distribution-free representation in terms of standard Brownian bridge processes. The approach is used to compare the lengths of rule of Roman Emperors over various historical periods, including the “decline and fall” phase of the empire. In a simulation study, the power of the proposed test is found to improve substantially upon that of a competing test due to El Barmi and Mukerjee. PMID:23874142

  11. FARO base case post-test analysis by COMETA code

    SciTech Connect

    Annunziato, A.; Addabbo, C.

    1995-09-01

    The paper analyzes the COMETA (Core Melt Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis) post test calculations of FARO Test L-11, the so-called Base Case Test. The FARO Facility, located at JRC Ispra, is used to simulate the consequences of Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants under a variety of conditions. The COMETA Code has a 6 equations two phase flow field and a 3 phases corium field: the jet, the droplets and the fused-debris bed. The analysis shown that the code is able to pick-up all the major phenomena occurring during the fuel-coolant interaction pre-mixing phase.

  12. A comparison of fixed-base and driven-base modal testing of an electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Nord, A.R.

    1989-08-01

    This paper compares results for a fixed-base and a driven-base modal test of an electronics package. A fixed-base modal test uses the common testing procedure of attaching the structure to a large inertial mass which is freely suspended. The problem with this approach is that the input levels are typically limited by the strength of the structure and stinger attachment. An attractive alternative to fixed-base modal testing is to use high force shaker-tables to provide a driven-base input. Some of the issues of concern are: properly simulating the fixed boundary conditions, applying modal estimation algorithms to motion-to-motion frequency response functions vs. motion-to-force frequency response functions, non-linearity effects and testing at very low input levels vs. levels equal to those of the field environment, complications involved with shaker resonances, exciting the ''response-critical'' modes of the structure, and consistency of the modal parameters using driven-base tests vs. fixed-base modal tests. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the adequacy of using vibration shake tables to excite the fixed-based modes of the system. A direct comparison of the modes acquired using fixed-base and driven-base excitation for the electronics package shows very close agreement. A discussion of the theory for driven-base testing is given, as well as a brief presentation of analytical predictions for the structure. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Harnessing the Power of Information Technology: Open Business Models in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Robert G.; Crawford, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to improve outcomes and reduce costs. Information technology can help achieve these goals, but only if it is properly harnessed. This article argues that one key to harnessing information technology is business model innovation that results in more "open" and "unbundled" operations in learning and…

  14. Generational Theory and the U.S. Army: Harnessing the True Power of Human Capital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Studies Research Paper September 2010- April 2011 4. TITLE AND ·sUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Generational Theory and the U.S. Army: Harnessing the...MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES GENERATIONAL THEORY AND THE U.S. ARMY: HARNESSING THE TRUE POWER OF HUMAN CAPITAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT dF...

  15. STS-39 MS Harbaugh is suspended over JSC's WETF Bldg 29 pool via harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-39 Mission Specialist (MS) Gregory J. Harbaugh, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), is suspended above JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool via his parachute harness. Harbaugh will be dropped from the harness into the WETF's 25 ft deep pool to simulate an emergency egress bailout from the Space Shuttle into the ocean.

  16. STS-39 MS Bluford is suspended over JSC's WETF Bldg 29 pool via harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-39 Mission Specialist (MS) Guion S. Bluford, Jr, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), is suspended above JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool via his parachute harness. Bluford will be dropped from the harness into the WETF's 25 ft deep pool to simulate an emergency egress bailout from the Space Shuttle into the ocean.

  17. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses... § 121.311 Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless... lounge or divan seat may share one approved safety belt during en route flight only. (b) Except...

  18. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses... § 121.311 Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless... lounge or divan seat may share one approved safety belt during en route flight only. (b) Except...

  19. 14 CFR 135.171 - Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shoulder harness installation at flight... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.171 Shoulder harness installation at flight... configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of 10 seats or more unless it is equipped with an approved...

  20. Harnessing spectral property of dual wavelength white LED to improve vertical scanning interferometry.

    PubMed

    Chong, Wee Keat; Li, Xiang; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2013-07-01

    Unlike a conventional white light source that emits a continuous and broad spectrum of light, the dual wavelength white light emitting diode (LED) generates white light by mixing blue and yellow lights, so there are two distinct peaks in its intensity spectrum. Prior works had shown that the spectral property of the dual wavelength white LED can affect the vertical scanning interferometry negatively if the spectral effects are not compensated. In this paper, we shall examine this issue by modeling the spectral property and variation of the dual wavelength white LED, followed by investigating its effects on the interference signal of vertical scanning interferometry. Instead of compensating the spectral effects of the dual wavelength white LED, we harness its spectral property to improve the performance of a phase-based height reconstruction algorithm in vertical scanning interferometry.

  1. Harnessing Geometric Frustration to Form Band Gaps in Acoustic Channel Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pai; Zheng, Yue; Fernandes, Matheus C.; Sun, Yushen; Xu, Kai; Sun, Sijie; Kang, Sung Hoon; Tournat, Vincent; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally that geometric frustration in two-dimensional periodic acoustic networks consisting of arrays of narrow air channels can be harnessed to form band gaps (ranges of frequency in which the waves cannot propagate in any direction through the system). While resonant standing wave modes and interferences are ubiquitous in all the analyzed network geometries, we show that they give rise to band gaps only in the geometrically frustrated ones (i.e., those comprising of triangles and pentagons). Our results not only reveal a new mechanism based on geometric frustration to suppress the propagation of pressure waves in specific frequency ranges but also open avenues for the design of a new generation of smart systems that control and manipulate sound and vibrations.

  2. Harnessing Geometric Frustration to Form Band Gaps in Acoustic Channel Lattices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pai; Zheng, Yue; Fernandes, Matheus C; Sun, Yushen; Xu, Kai; Sun, Sijie; Kang, Sung Hoon; Tournat, Vincent; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-02-24

    We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally that geometric frustration in two-dimensional periodic acoustic networks consisting of arrays of narrow air channels can be harnessed to form band gaps (ranges of frequency in which the waves cannot propagate in any direction through the system). While resonant standing wave modes and interferences are ubiquitous in all the analyzed network geometries, we show that they give rise to band gaps only in the geometrically frustrated ones (i.e., those comprising of triangles and pentagons). Our results not only reveal a new mechanism based on geometric frustration to suppress the propagation of pressure waves in specific frequency ranges but also open avenues for the design of a new generation of smart systems that control and manipulate sound and vibrations.

  3. Harnessing Colloidal Crack Formation by Flow-Enabled Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Beibei; Han, Wei; He, Ming; Li, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Hong, Suck Won; Byun, Myunghwan; Lin, Shaoliang; Lin, Zhiqun

    2017-03-02

    Self-assembly of nanomaterials to yield a wide diversity of high-order structures, materials, and devices promises new opportunities for various technological applications. Herein, we report that crack formation can be effectively harnessed by elaborately restricting the drying of colloidal suspension using a flow-enabled self-assembly (FESA) strategy to yield large-area periodic cracks (i.e., microchannels) with tunable spacing. These uniform microchannels can be utilized as a template to guide the assembly of Au nanoparticles, forming intriguing nanoparticle threads. This strategy is simple and convenient. As such, it opens the possibility for large-scale manufacturing of crack-based or crack-derived assemblies and materials for use in optics, electronics, optoelectronics, photonics, magnetic device, nanotechnology, and biotechnology.

  4. Harnessing the Endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol to Lower Intraocular Pressure in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sally; Leishman, Emma; Hu, Sherry Shujung; Elghouche, Alhasan; Daily, Laura; Murataeva, Natalia; Bradshaw, Heather; Straiker, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cannabinoids, such as Δ9-THC, act through an endogenous signaling system in the vertebrate eye that reduces IOP via CB1 receptors. Endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) ligand, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), likewise activates CB1 and is metabolized by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). We investigated ocular 2-AG and its regulation by MAGL and the therapeutic potential of harnessing eCBs to lower IOP. Methods We tested the effect of topical application of 2-AG and MAGL blockers in normotensive mice and examined changes in eCB-related lipid species in the eyes and spinal cord of MAGL knockout (MAGL−/−) mice using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). We also examined the protein distribution of MAGL in the mouse anterior chamber. Results 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol reliably lowered IOP in a CB1- and concentration-dependent manner. Monoacylglycerol lipase is expressed prominently in nonpigmented ciliary epithelium. The MAGL blocker KML29, but not JZL184, lowered IOP. The ability of CB1 to lower IOP is not desensitized in MAGL−/− mice. Ocular monoacylglycerols, including 2-AG, are elevated in MAGL−/− mice but, in contrast to the spinal cord, arachidonic acid and prostaglandins are not changed. Conclusions Our data confirm a central role for MAGL in metabolism of ocular 2-AG and related lipid species, and that endogenous 2-AG can be harnessed to reduce IOP. The MAGL blocker KML29 has promise as a therapeutic agent, while JZL184 may have difficulty crossing the cornea. These data, combined with the relative specificity of MAGL for ocular monoacylglycerols and the lack of desensitization in MAGL−/− mice, suggest that the development of an optimized MAGL blocker offers therapeutic potential for treatment of elevated IOP. PMID:27333182

  5. Pharmacogenomics, genetic tests, and patent-based incentives.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics promises to revolutionize medicine by using genetic information to guide drug therapy. Genetic tests should help doctors improve drug safety and efficacy by better matching patients and drugs. This chapter evaluates the effectiveness of patent-based incentives to create genetic tests, and considers the optimal mix of public and private sector pharmacogenomic research and development (R&D). Drug patent owners have a strong incentive to develop genetic tests that predict adverse drug reactions and allow them to market drugs that otherwise would be shelved. Incentives are also strong for genetic tests that are created as part of the drug development process. Incentives tend to be weaker for genetic tests that are used in conjunction with existing drugs. Drug patent owners might gain or lose profit from the introduction of genetic tests into existing drug markets. Profits may fall because of lost sales, or profits may rise because drugs are more valuable to appropriate patients, and because drugs become more differentiated. Public sector R&D should target genetic tests that are likely to be underprovided by the private sector because private returns are low relative to social returns, or private costs are high relative to social costs. Private returns are relatively low when the rate of adoption of a genetic test is apt to be low, when test results increase consumer heterogeneity and consumer bargaining power, and when a test reveals information relevant to the use of more than one drug. Private costs are relatively high when test innovators need to obtain costly patent and trade secret licenses.

  6. Failing Tests: Commentary on "Adapting Educational Measurement to the Demands of Test-Based Accountability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thissen, David

    2015-01-01

    In "Adapting Educational Measurement to the Demands of Test-Based Accountability" Koretz takes the time-honored engineering approach to educational measurement, identifying specific problems with current practice and proposing minimal modifications of the system to alleviate those problems. In response to that article, David Thissen…

  7. Communicative Language Testing: Implications for Computer Based Language Testing in French for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Laborda, Jesús; López Santiago, Mercedes; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Álvarez Álvarez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners' expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience of 23…

  8. Testing marker-based estimates of heritability in the wild.

    PubMed

    Coltman, David W

    2005-07-01

    Marker-based estimates of heritability are an attractive alternative to pedigree-based methods for estimating quantitative genetic parameters in field studies where it is difficult or impossible to determine relationships and pedigrees. Here I test the ability of the marker-based method to estimate heritability of a suite of traits in a wild population of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) using marker data from 32 microsatellite loci. I compared marker-based estimates with estimates obtained using a pedigree and the animal model. Marker-based estimates of heritability were imprecise and downwardly biased. The high degree of uncertainty in marker-based estimates suggests that the method may be sufficient to detect the presence of genetic variance for highly heritable traits, but not sufficiently reliable to estimate genetic parameters.

  9. Reliability based design including future tests and multiagent approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Diane

    The initial stages of reliability-based design optimization involve the formulation of objective functions and constraints, and building a model to estimate the reliability of the design with quantified uncertainties. However, even experienced hands often overlook important objective functions and constraints that affect the design. In addition, uncertainty reduction measures, such as tests and redesign, are often not considered in reliability calculations during the initial stages. This research considers two areas that concern the design of engineering systems: 1) the trade-off of the effect of a test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost and 2) the search for multiple candidate designs as insurance against unforeseen faults in some designs. In this research, a methodology was developed to estimate the effect of a single future test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost. The methodology uses assumed distributions of computational and experimental errors with re-design rules to simulate alternative future test and redesign outcomes to form a probabilistic estimate of the reliability and cost for a given design. Further, it was explored how modeling a future test and redesign provides a company an opportunity to balance development costs versus performance by simultaneously designing the design and the post-test redesign rules during the initial design stage. The second area of this research considers the use of dynamic local surrogates, or surrogate-based agents, to locate multiple candidate designs. Surrogate-based global optimization algorithms often require search in multiple candidate regions of design space, expending most of the computation needed to define multiple alternate designs. Thus, focusing on solely locating the best design may be wasteful. We extended adaptive sampling surrogate techniques to locate multiple optima by building local surrogates in sub-regions of the design space to identify optima. The efficiency of this method

  10. Automation of Flight Software Regression Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tashakkor, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) to be a heavy lift launch vehicle supporting human and scientific exploration beyond earth orbit. SLS will have a common core stage, an upper stage, and different permutations of boosters and fairings to perform various crewed or cargo missions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is writing the Flight Software (FSW) that will operate the SLS launch vehicle. The FSW is developed in an incremental manner based on "Agile" software techniques. As the FSW is incrementally developed, testing the functionality of the code needs to be performed continually to ensure that the integrity of the software is maintained. Manually testing the functionality on an ever-growing set of requirements and features is not an efficient solution and therefore needs to be done automatically to ensure testing is comprehensive. To support test automation, a framework for a regression test harness has been developed and used on SLS FSW. The test harness provides a modular design approach that can compile or read in the required information specified by the developer of the test. The modularity provides independence between groups of tests and the ability to add and remove tests without disturbing others. This provides the SLS FSW team a time saving feature that is essential to meeting SLS Program technical and programmatic requirements. During development of SLS FSW, this technique has proved to be a useful tool to ensure all requirements have been tested, and that desired functionality is maintained, as changes occur. It also provides a mechanism for developers to check functionality of the code that they have developed. With this system, automation of regression testing is accomplished through a scheduling tool and/or commit hooks. Key advantages of this test harness capability includes execution support for multiple independent test cases, the ability for developers to specify precisely what they are testing and how, the ability to add

  11. Test-Based Teacher Evaluations: Accountability vs. Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolyard, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    Gert Biesta contends that managerial accountability, which focuses on efficiency and competition, dominates the current political arena in education. Such accountability has influenced states' developments of test-based teacher evaluations in an attempt to quantify teachers' efficacy on student learning. With numerous state policies requiring the…

  12. Evaluating Computer-Based Test Accommodations for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    Test accommodations for English learners (ELs) are intended to reduce the language barrier and level the playing field, allowing ELs to better demonstrate their true proficiencies. Computer-based accommodations for ELs show promising results for leveling that field while also providing us with additional data to more closely investigate the…

  13. Test Review: Computer-Based Reading Assessment Instrument (CRAI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Jay S.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates the Computer-Based Assessment Instrument (CRAI) as a test for reading proficiency. Notes strengths of CRAI, including its use as a quick assessment of silent reading comprehension level, and the problems with readability and content specific words lists and the lack of scoring features. (JC)

  14. Computer-Based Test Interpretation and the Public Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James V., Jr.

    Computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) is discussed in terms of its potential dangers to the public interest, problems with professional review of CBTI systems, and needed policies for these systems. Several problems with CBTI systems are outlined: (1) they may be nicely packaged, but it is difficult to establish their value; (2) they do not…

  15. Validation of a Web-Based Test of ESL Pragmalinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roever, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in interlanguage pragmatics research, research on assessment of this crucial area of second language competence still lags behind assessment of other aspects of learners' developing second language (L2) competence. This study describes the development and validation of a 36-item web-based test of ESL pragmalinguistics,…

  16. Introduction to Permutation and Resampling-Based Hypothesis Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Greevy, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    A resampling-based method of inference--permutation tests--is often used when distributional assumptions are questionable or unmet. Not only are these methods useful for obvious departures from parametric assumptions (e.g., normality) and small sample sizes, but they are also more robust than their parametric counterparts in the presences of…

  17. A Rasch-Based Validation of the Vocabulary Size Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beglar, David

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to provide preliminary validity evidence for a 140-item form of the Vocabulary Size Test, which is designed to measure written receptive knowledge of the first 14,000 words of English. Nineteen native speakers of English and 178 native speakers of Japanese participated in the study. Analyses based on the Rasch…

  18. Reimbursable Fees at Four Major Range and Test Facility Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-23

    ARMY SUBJECT: Rei.mbut- sable Fees at Four Major Range and Test Facility Bases (Rep01tNo. D-2011-044) The DoD Office of inspector General performed...Training Range).1 Our objective was to determine whether MRTFB personnel charged reimbw- sable fees appropriately and in accordance with statutory, DoD

  19. Using Computer-Based Testing with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Susan Kubic

    2010-01-01

    In this era of increased accountability in education, there is a need for tools to use in assessing the abilities and instructional levels of young children. Computers have been used successfully to assess older children and adults. However, there is a dearth of empirical research to provide evidence that computer-based testing (CBT) is…

  20. Conditional Covariance-based Representation of Multidimensional Test Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new nonparametric method for constructing a spatial representation of multidimensional test structure, the Conditional Covariance-based SCALing (CCSCAL) method. Describes an index to measure the accuracy of the representation. Uses simulation and real-life data analyses to show that the method provides a suitable approximation to…

  1. Extending LMS to Support IRT-Based Assessment Test Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotaris, Panagiotis; Mastoras, Theodoros; Mavridis, Ioannis; Manitsaris, Athanasios

    Developing unambiguous and challenging assessment material for measuring educational attainment is a time-consuming, labor-intensive process. As a result Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) tools are becoming widely adopted in academic environments in an effort to improve the assessment quality and deliver reliable results of examinee performance. This paper introduces a methodological and architectural framework which embeds a CAA tool in a Learning Management System (LMS) so as to assist test developers in refining items to constitute assessment tests. An Item Response Theory (IRT) based analysis is applied to a dynamic assessment profile provided by the LMS. Test developers define a set of validity rules for the statistical indices given by the IRT analysis. By applying those rules, the LMS can detect items with various discrepancies which are then flagged for review of their content. Repeatedly executing the aforementioned procedure can improve the overall efficiency of the testing process.

  2. Psychometric properties of a test in evidence based practice: the Spanish version of the Fresno test

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Validated instruments are needed to evaluate the programmatic impact of Evidence Based Practice (EBP) training and to document the competence of individual trainees. This study aimed to translate the Fresno test into Spanish and subsequently validate it, in order to ensure the equivalence of the Spanish version against the original English version. Methods Before and after study performed between October 2007 and June 2008. Three groups of participants: (a) Mentors of family medicine residents (expert group) (n = 56); (b) Family medicine physicians (intermediate experience group) (n = 17); (c) Family medicine residents (novice group) (n = 202); Medical residents attended an EBP course, and two sets of the test were administered before and after the course. The Fresno test is a performance based measure for use in medical education that assesses EBP skills. The outcome measures were: inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, internal consistency, item analyses, construct validity, feasibility of administration, and responsiveness. Results Inter-rater correlations were 0.95 and 0.85 in the pre-test and the post-test respectively. The overall intra-rater reliability was 0.71 and 0.81 in the pre-test and post-test questionnaire, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was 0.88 and 0.77, respectively. 152 residents (75.2%) returned both sets of the questionnaire. The observed effect size for the residents was 1.77 (CI 95%: 1.57-1.95), the standardised response mean was 1.65 (CI 95%:1.47-1.82). Conclusions The Spanish version of the Fresno test is a useful tool in assessing the knowledge and skills of EBP in Spanish-speaking residents of Family Medicine. PMID:20553577

  3. Adaptive Set-Based Methods for Association Testing.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Chen; Gauderman, William James; Berhane, Kiros; Lewinger, Juan Pablo

    2016-02-01

    With a typical sample size of a few thousand subjects, a single genome-wide association study (GWAS) using traditional one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-at-a-time methods can only detect genetic variants conferring a sizable effect on disease risk. Set-based methods, which analyze sets of SNPs jointly, can detect variants with smaller effects acting within a gene, a pathway, or other biologically relevant sets. Although self-contained set-based methods (those that test sets of variants without regard to variants not in the set) are generally more powerful than competitive set-based approaches (those that rely on comparison of variants in the set of interest with variants not in the set), there is no consensus as to which self-contained methods are best. In particular, several self-contained set tests have been proposed to directly or indirectly "adapt" to the a priori unknown proportion and distribution of effects of the truly associated SNPs in the set, which is a major determinant of their power. A popular adaptive set-based test is the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP), which seeks the set of SNPs that yields the best-combined evidence of association. We compared the standard ARTP, several ARTP variations we introduced, and other adaptive methods in a comprehensive simulation study to evaluate their performance. We used permutations to assess significance for all the methods and thus provide a level playing field for comparison. We found the standard ARTP test to have the highest power across our simulations followed closely by the global model of random effects (GMRE) and a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-based test.

  4. Analysis of Production Lead Time for Missile Repair Parts: Contracts Dealing with Cable Assemblies and Wiring Harnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    contracts dealing with cable assemblies and wiring harnesses . Techniques of regression analysis and graphical analysis were employed on the data observations from thirty cable assembly and wiring harness contracts.

  5. Online Discovery of Search Objectives for Test-Based Problems.

    PubMed

    Liskowski, Paweł; Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2016-03-08

    In test-based problems, commonly approached with competitive coevolutionary algorithms, the fitness of a candidate solution is determined by the outcomes of its interactions with multiple tests. Usually, fitness is a scalar aggregate of interaction outcomes, and as such imposes a complete order on the candidate solutions. However, passing different tests may require unrelated "skills," and candidate solutions may vary with respect to such capabilities. In this study, we provide theoretical evidence that scalar fitness, inherently incapable of capturing such differences, is likely to lead to premature convergence. To mitigate this problem, we propose DISCO, a method that automatically identifies the groups of tests for which the candidate solutions behave similarly and define the above skills. Each such group gives rise to a derived objective, and these objectives together guide the search algorithm in multi-objective fashion. When applied to several well-known test-based problems, the proposed approach significantly outperforms the conventional two-population coevolution. This opens the door to efficient and generic countermeasures to premature convergence for both coevolutionary and evolutionary algorithms applied to problems featuring aggregating fitness functions.

  6. Quantum dot based rapid tests for zearalenone detection.

    PubMed

    Beloglazova, N V; Speranskaya, E S; De Saeger, S; Hens, Z; Abé, S; Goryacheva, I Yu

    2012-07-01

    Three different kinds of immunosorbent assays with luminescence detection were developed for the determination of zearalenone (ZEN), a secondary toxic metabolite of Fusarium fungi. CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) were used as a label in quantitative micro-well plate immunoassays (fluorescent-labeled immunosorbent assay, FLISA) and in qualitative column test methods. As carriers for QD-based column tests, sepharose gel (for covalent binding of antibody) and polyethylene frits (for physical absorption of antibody) were used and compared. The application of QDs as a label resulted in a fourfold decrease in the IC(50) value with FLISA (0.1 ng mL(-1)) with a detection limit of 0.03 ng mL(-1) when compared with the traditional immunosorbent assay which makes use of horseradish peroxidase as the enzyme label. The cutoff levels for both qualitative column test methods were selected based on the maximum level for ZEN in unprocessed cereals established by the European Commission (100 μg kg(-1)) as 5 ng mL(-1) taking into account extraction and dilution. The different developed immumoassays were tested for ZEN determination in raw wheat samples. As a confirmatory method, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used. The obtained results allow using FLISA and both qualitative column test methods for the analysis of analytes with very low established maximum limits, even in very complicated food matrices, owing to the high dilution of the sample extract.

  7. TR-EDB: Test Reactor Embrittlement Data Base, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stallmann, F.W.; Wang, J.A.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Test Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (TR-EDB) is a collection of results from irradiation in materials test reactors. It complements the Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB), whose data are restricted to the results from the analysis of surveillance capsules in commercial power reactors. The rationale behind their restriction was the assumption that the results of test reactor experiments may not be applicable to power reactors and could, therefore, be challenged if such data were included. For this very reason the embrittlement predictions in the Reg. Guide 1.99, Rev. 2, were based exclusively on power reactor data. However, test reactor experiments are able to cover a much wider range of materials and irradiation conditions that are needed to explore more fully a variety of models for the prediction of irradiation embrittlement. These data are also needed for the study of effects of annealing for life extension of reactor pressure vessels that are difficult to obtain from surveillance capsule results.

  8. Optical testing of progressive ophthalmic glasses based on galvo mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuerwald, S.; Schmitt, R.

    2014-03-01

    In production of ophthalmic freeform optics like progressive eyeglasses, the specimens are tested according to a standardized method which is based on the measurement of the vertex power on usually less than 10 points. For a better quality management and thus to ensure more reliable and valid tests, a more comprehensive measurement approach is required. For Shack Hartmann Sensors (SHS) the dynamic range is defined by the number of micro-lenses and the resolution of the imaging sensor. Here, we present an approach for measuring wavefronts with increased dynamic range and lateral resolution by the use of a scanning procedure. Therefore, the proposed innovative setup is based on galvo mirrors that are capable of measuring the vertex power with a lateral resolution below one millimeter since this is sufficient for a functional test of progressive eyeglasses. Expressed in a more abstract way, the concept is based on a selection and thereby encoding of single sub-apertures of the wave front under test. This allows measuring the wave fronts slope consecutively in a scanning procedure. The use of high precision galvo systems allows a lateral resolution below one millimeter as well as a significant fast scanning ability. The measurement concept and performance of this method will be demonstrated for different spherical and freeformed specimens like progressive eye glasses. Furthermore, approaches for calibration of the measurement system will be characterized and the optical design of the detector will be discussed.

  9. Prescriptive vs. performance based cook-off fire testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Erikson, William Wilding; Gill, Walter; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    In the fire safety community, the trend is toward implementing performance-based standards in place of existing prescriptive ones. Prescriptive standards can be difficult to adapt to changing design methods, materials, and application situations of systems that ultimately must perform well in unwanted fire situations. In general, this trend has produced positive results and is embraced by the fire protection community. The question arises as to whether this approach could be used to advantage in cook-off testing. Prescribed fuel fire cook-off tests have been instigated because of historical incidents that led to extensive damage to structures and loss of life. They are designed to evaluate the propensity for a violent response. The prescribed protocol has several advantages: it can be defined in terms of controllable parameters (wind speed, fuel type, pool size, etc.); and it may be conservative for a particular scenario. However, fires are inherently variable and prescribed tests are not necessarily representative of a particular accident scenario. Moreover, prescribed protocols are not necessarily adaptable and may not be conservative. We also consider performance-based testing. This requires more knowledge and thought regarding not only the fire environment, but the behavior of the munitions themselves. Sandia uses a performance based approach in assuring the safe behavior of systems of interest that contain energetic materials. Sandia also conducts prescriptive fire testing for the IAEA, NRC and the DOT. Here we comment on the strengths and weakness of both approaches and suggest a path forward should it be desirable to pursue a performance based cook-off standard.

  10. Universal Verification Methodology Based Register Test Automation Flow.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hun; Cho, Yong Kwan; Park, Sun Kyu

    2016-05-01

    In today's SoC design, the number of registers has been increased along with complexity of hardware blocks. Register validation is a time-consuming and error-pron task. Therefore, we need an efficient way to perform verification with less effort in shorter time. In this work, we suggest register test automation flow based UVM (Universal Verification Methodology). UVM provides a standard methodology, called a register model, to facilitate stimulus generation and functional checking of registers. However, it is not easy for designers to create register models for their functional blocks or integrate models in test-bench environment because it requires knowledge of SystemVerilog and UVM libraries. For the creation of register models, many commercial tools support a register model generation from register specification described in IP-XACT, but it is time-consuming to describe register specification in IP-XACT format. For easy creation of register model, we propose spreadsheet-based register template which is translated to IP-XACT description, from which register models can be easily generated using commercial tools. On the other hand, we also automate all the steps involved integrating test-bench and generating test-cases, so that designers may use register model without detailed knowledge of UVM or SystemVerilog. This automation flow involves generating and connecting test-bench components (e.g., driver, checker, bus adaptor, etc.) and writing test sequence for each type of register test-case. With the proposed flow, designers can save considerable amount of time to verify functionality of registers.

  11. Disturbance Rejection Based Test Rocket Control System Design and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a novel design and validation for the three-channel attitude controller of a STT test rocket based on the extended state observer approach. The uniform second order integral-chain state space model is firstly established for the control variable of the angle of attack, angle of sideslip and roll angle. Combined with the pole placement, the extended state observer is applied to the disturbance rejection design of the attitude controller. Through numerical and hardware-in-the-loop simulation with uncertainties considered, the effectiveness and robustness of the controller are illustrated and verified. Finally, the performance of the controller is validated by flight-test with satisfactory results.

  12. A Physics-Based Temperature Stabilization Criterion for Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft testing specifications differ greatly in the criteria they specify for stability in thermal balance tests. Some specify a required temperature stabilization rate (the change in temperature per unit time, dT/dt), some specify that the final steady-state temperature be approached to within a specified difference, delta T , and some specify a combination of the two. The particular values for temperature stabilization rate and final temperature difference also vary greatly between specification documents. A one-size-fits-all temperature stabilization rate requirement does not yield consistent results for all test configurations because of differences in thermal mass and heat transfer to the environment. Applying a steady-state temperature difference requirement is problematic because the final test temperature is not accurately known a priori, especially for powered configurations. In the present work, a simplified, lumped-mass analysis has been used to explore the applicability of these criteria. A new, user-friendly, physics-based approach is developed that allows the thermal engineer to determine when an acceptable level of temperature stabilization has been achieved. The stabilization criterion can be predicted pre-test but must be refined during test to allow verification that the defined level of temperature stabilization has been achieved.

  13. Lumbar spine disc heights and curvature: upright posture vs. supine compression harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shi-Uk; Hargens, Alan R.; Fredericson, Michael; Lang, Philipp K.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spinal lengthening in microgravity is thought to cause back pain in astronauts. A spinal compression harness can compress the spine to eliminate lengthening but the loading condition with harness is different than physiologic conditions. Our purpose was to compare the effect of spine compression with a harness in supine position on disk height and spinal curvature in the lumbar spine to that of upright position as measured using a vertically open magnetic resonance imaging system. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects volunteered. On day 1, each subject lay supine for an hour and a baseline scan of the lumbar spine was performed. After applying a load of fifty percent of body weight with the harness for thirty minutes, the lumbar spine was scanned again. On day 2, after a baseline scan, a follow up scan was performed after kneeling for thirty minutes within the gap between two vertically oriented magnetic coils. Anterior and posterior disk heights, posterior disk bulging, and spinal curvature were measured from the baseline and follow up scans. RESULTS: Anterior disk heights increased and posterior disk heights decreased compared with baseline scans both after spinal compression with harness and upright posture. The spinal curvature increased by both loading conditions of the spine. DISCUSSION: The spinal compression with specially designed harness has the same effect as the physiologic loading of the spine in the kneeling upright position. The harness shows some promise as a tool to increase the diagnostic capabilities of a conventional MR system.

  14. The globalization of health research: harnessing the scientific diaspora.

    PubMed

    Anand, Nalini P; Hofman, Karen J; Glass, Roger I

    2009-04-01

    The scientific diaspora is a unique resource for U.S. universities. By drawing on the expertise, experience, and catalytic potential of diaspora scientists, universities can capitalize more fully on their diverse intellectual resources to make lasting contributions to global health. This article examines the unique contributions of the diaspora in international research collaborations, advantages of harnessing the diaspora and benefits to U.S. universities of fostering these collaborations, challenges faced by scientists who want to work with their home countries, examples of scientists engaging with their home countries, and specific strategies U.S. universities and donors can implement to catalyze these collaborations. The contributions of the diaspora to the United States are immense: International students enrolled in academic year 2007-2008 contributed an estimated $15 billion to the U.S. economy. As scientific research becomes increasingly global, the percentage of scientific publications with authors from foreign countries has grown from 8% in 1988 to 20% in 2005. Diaspora scientists can help build trusting relationships with scientists abroad, and international collaborations may improve the health of underserved populations at home. Although opportunities for diaspora networks are increasing, most home countries often lack enabling policies, infrastructure, and resources to effectively utilize their diaspora communities abroad. This article examines how some governments have successfully mobilized their scientific diaspora to become increasingly engaged in their national research agendas. Recommendations include specific strategies, including those that encourage U.S. universities to promote mini-sabbaticals and provide seed funding and flexible time frames.

  15. Harnessing the Therapeutic Potential of Th17 Cells.

    PubMed

    Bystrom, Jonas; Taher, Taher E; Muhyaddin, M Sherwan; Clanchy, Felix I; Mangat, Pamela; Jawad, Ali S; Williams, Richard O; Mageed, Rizgar A

    2015-01-01

    Th17 cells provide protective immunity to infections by fungi and extracellular bacteria as well as cancer but are also involved in chronic inflammation. The cells were first identified by their ability to produce interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and, subsequently, associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17 cells have some gene profile similarity with stem cells and can remain dormant in mucosal tissues for long periods. Indeed, recent studies suggest that functionally distinct subsets of pro- and anti-inflammatory Th17 cells can interchange phenotype and functions. For development, Th17 cells require activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and RORγt while RUNX1, c-Maf, and Aiolos are involved in changes of phenotype/functions. Attempts to harness Th17 cells against pathogens and cancer using vaccination strategies are being explored. The cells gain protective abilities when induced to produce interferon γ (IFNγ). In addition, treatment with antibodies to IL-17 is effective in treating patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and refectory rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, since RORγt is a nuclear receptor, it is likely to be a potential future drug target for modulating Th17 functions. This review explores pathways through which Th17 subsets are induced, the molecular basis of their plasticity, and potential therapeutic strategies for their modulation in diseases.

  16. Harnessing click detectors for the genuine characterization of light states

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, René; Sperling, Jan; Perez-Leija, Armando; Gräfe, Markus; Heinrich, Matthias; Nolte, Stefan; Vogel, Werner; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The key requirement for harnessing the quantum properties of light is the capability to detect and count individual photons. Of particular interest are photon-number-resolving detectors, which allow one to determine whether a state of light is classical or genuinely quantum. Existing schemes for addressing this challenge rely on a proportional conversion of photons to electrons. As such, they are capable of correctly characterizing small photon fluxes, yet are limited by uncertainties in the conversion rate. In this work, we employ a divide-and-conquer approach to infallibly discerning non-classicality of states of light. This is achieved by transforming the incident fields into uniform spatial distributions that readily lend themselves for characterization by standard on-off detectors. Since the exact statistics of the light stream in multiplexed on-off detectors are click statistics, our technique is freely scalable to accommodate–in principle–arbitrarily large photon fluxes. Our experiments pave the way towards genuine integrated photon-number-resolving detection for advanced on-chip photonic quantum networks. PMID:26771053

  17. Mic Flocks in the Cloud: Harnessing Mobile Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M. A.; Christe, A.

    2015-12-01

    Smartphones provide a commercial, off-the-shelf solution to capture, store, analyze, and distribute infrasound using on-board or external microphones (mics) as well as on-board barometers. Free iOS infrasound apps can be readily downloaded from the Apple App Store, and Android versions are in progress. Infrasound propagates for great distances, has low sample rates, and provides a tractable pilot study scenario for open distributed sensor networks at regional and global scales using one of the most ubiquitous sensors on Earth - microphones. Data collection is no longer limited to selected vendors at exclusive prices: anybody on Earth can record and stream infrasound, and the diversity of recording systems and environments is rapidly expanding. Global deployment may be fast and easy (www.redvox.io), but comes with the cost of increasing data volume, velocity, variety, and complexity. Flocking - the collective motion of mobile agents - is a natural human response to threats or events of interest. Anticipating, modeling and harnessing flocking sensor topologies will be necessary for adaptive array and network processing. The increasing data quantity and complexity will exceed the processing capacity of human analysts and most research servers. We anticipate practical real-time applications will require the on-demand adaptive scalability and resources of the Cloud. Cloud architectures for such heterogeneous sensor networks will consider eventual integration into the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

  18. Harnessing high-dimensional hyperentanglement through a biphoton frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhenda; Zhong, Tian; Shrestha, Sajan; Xu, Xinan; Liang, Junlin; Gong, Yan-Xiao; Bienfang, Joshua C.; Restelli, Alessandro; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Wei Wong, Chee

    2015-08-01

    Quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource for secure information processing and communications, and hyperentanglement or high-dimensional entanglement has been separately proposed for its high data capacity and error resilience. The continuous-variable nature of the energy-time entanglement makes it an ideal candidate for efficient high-dimensional coding with minimal limitations. Here, we demonstrate the first simultaneous high-dimensional hyperentanglement using a biphoton frequency comb to harness the full potential in both the energy and time domain. Long-postulated Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum revival is exhibited, with up to 19 time-bins and 96.5% visibilities. We further witness the high-dimensional energy-time entanglement through Franson revivals, observed periodically at integer time-bins, with 97.8% visibility. This qudit state is observed to simultaneously violate the generalized Bell inequality by up to 10.95 standard deviations while observing recurrent Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt S-parameters up to 2.76. Our biphoton frequency comb provides a platform for photon-efficient quantum communications towards the ultimate channel capacity through energy-time-polarization high-dimensional encoding.

  19. Competition between dihydrogen bond and beryllium bond in complexes between HBeH and HArF: a huge blue shift of distant H-Ar stretch.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingzhong; Liu, Xiaofeng; Li, Ran; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Wenzuo

    2012-05-01

    A novel interaction mechanism between HArF and BeH(2) has been validated and characterized with quantum chemical calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ level. They can interact through beryllium bonding formed between the positively charged Be atom in BeH(2) and the negatively charged F atom in HArF, besides through dihydrogen bonding. The former (61.3 kcal/mol) is much stronger than the latter (5.9 kcal/mol). The red shift is found for the associated H-Ar stretch in the dihydrogen bonding, whereas the big blue shift is observed for the distant H-Ar stretch in the beryllium bonding. The blue shift of the distant H-Ar stretch is affected greatly by computational methods. It is calculated to be 712 cm(-1) at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,2p) level, which appears to be the largest blue shift validated for any weakly bound complex yet. The substitution effect on the beryllium bond is similar to that on hydrogen bonds. The Kr atom makes the beryllium bond weaken and the distant blue shift decrease. The nature and properties of beryllium bond have been analyzed with natural bond orbital (NBO), atoms in molecules (AIM), and energy decomposition.

  20. Impact of Harness Attachment Point on Kinetics and Kinematics During Sled Towing.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Ian; Atkins, Steve J; Edmundson, Christopher J; Metcalfe, John; Sinclair, Jonathan K

    2016-03-01

    Resisted sprint training is performed in a horizontal direction and involves similar muscles, velocities, and ranges of motion (ROM) to those of normal sprinting. Generally, sleds are attached to the athletes through a lead (3 m) and harness; the most common attachment points are the shoulder or waist. At present, it is not known how the different harness point's impact on the kinematics and kinetics associated with sled towing (ST). The aim of the current investigation was to examine the kinetics and kinematics of shoulder and waist harness attachment points in relation to the acceleration phase of ST. Fourteen trained men completed normal and ST trials, loaded at 10% reduction of sprint velocity. Sagittal plane kinematics from the trunk, hip, knee, and ankle were measured, together with stance phase kinetics (third footstrike). Kinetic and kinematic parameters were compared between harness attachments using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results indicated that various kinetic differences were present between the normal and ST conditions. Significantly greater net horizontal mean force, net horizontal impulses, propulsive mean force, and propulsive impulses were measured (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the waist harness also led to greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder attachment (p < 0.001). In kinematic terms, ST conditions significantly increased peak flexion in hip, knee, and ankle joints compared with the normal trials (p < 0.05). Results highlighted that the shoulder harness had a greater impact on trunk and knee joint kinematics when compared with the waist harness (p < 0.05). In summary, waist harnesses seem to be the most suitable attachment point for the acceleration phase of sprinting. Sled towing with these attachments resulted in fewer kinematic alterations and greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder harness. Future research is necessary in order to explore the long-term adaptations of

  1. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  2. Salt Fog Testing Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, Raul B.; Aprigliano, Louis F.; Day, S. Daniel; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2007-07-01

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are hard and highly corrosion resistant, which make them desirable for salt water and other applications. These alloys can be produced as powder and can be deposited as coatings on any surface that needs to be protected from the environment. It was of interest to examine the behavior of these amorphous alloys in the standard salt-fog testing ASTM B 117. Three different amorphous coating compositions were deposited on 316L SS coupons and exposed for many cycles of the salt fog test. Other common engineering alloys such as 1018 carbon steel, 316L SS and Hastelloy C-22 were also tested together with the amorphous coatings. Results show that amorphous coatings are resistant to rusting in salt fog. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated rust spots in one of the coatings. (authors)

  3. Omnibus hypothesis testing in dominance-based ordinal multiple regression.

    PubMed

    Long, Jeffrey D

    2005-09-01

    Often quantitative data in the social sciences have only ordinal justification. Problems of interpretation can arise when least squares multiple regression (LSMR) is used with ordinal data. Two ordinal alternatives are discussed, dominance-based ordinal multiple regression (DOMR) and proportional odds multiple regression. The Q2 statistic is introduced for testing the omnibus null hypothesis in DOMR. A simulation study is discussed that examines the actual Type I error rate and power of Q2 in comparison to the LSMR omnibus F test under normality and non-normality. Results suggest that Q2 has favorable sampling properties as long as the sample size-to-predictors ratio is not too small, and Q2 can be a good alternative to the omnibus F test when the response variable is non-normal.

  4. [Portable lung function parameters testing system based on DSP].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhanshe; Yuan, Minzhong; Zhou, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Lung function monitoring is a critical technique for clinical medicine. Currently, the lung function testing devices used in our domestic hospitals are both expensive and bulky. A portable and accurate lung function parameters testing system is highly desired and is proposed in this paper. The hardware of the system is based on DSP technology. The breathing passage is designed with an aim suitable for the breathe and signal detection. We use the direct detection method to detect the gas flow, the breathing passage pressure and the breathing time. Thanks to the powerful data processing ability and the high operation speed of the DSP, breathing signals can be easily analyzed. Thus, several lung function parameters of clinical significance can be obtained. Experiments show that the accuracy of the system is better than 3%, and could meet the demand of the lung function testing.

  5. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Extended Test Range (ETR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    incorporate marine pollution control devices such as keeping decks clear of debris, cleaning spills and residues, and engaging in spill and...space. The Sea-Based Test X-Band Radar vessel would incorporate marine pollution control devices such as keeping decks clear of debris, cleaning...Band Radar vessel would incorporate marine pollution control devices, such as keeping decks clear of debris, cleaning spills and residues and engaging

  6. Measurement accuracy of heart rate and respiratory rate during graded exercise and sustained exercise in the heat using the Zephyr BioHarness.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-H; Roberge, R; Powell, J B; Shafer, A B; Jon Williams, W

    2013-06-01

    The Zephyr BioHarness was tested to determine the accuracy of heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) measurements during 2 exercise protocols in conjunction with either a laboratory metabolic cart (Vmax) or a previously validated portable metabolic system (K4b2). In one protocol, HR and RR were measured using the BioHarness and Vmax during a graded exercise up to V˙O2max (n=12). In another protocol, HR and RR were measured using the BH and K4b2 during sustained exercise (30% and 50% V˙O2max for 20 min each) in a hot environment (30 °C, 50% relative humidity) (n=6). During the graded exercise, HR but not RR, obtained from the BioHarness was higher compared to the Vmax at baseline and 30% V˙O2max (p<0.05), but showed no significant difference at other stages with high correlation coefficients for both HR (r=0.87-0.96) and RR (r=0.90-0.99 above 30% V˙O2max). During the exercise in the heat, there were no significant differences between the BioHarness and K4b2 system. Correlation coefficients between the methods were low for HR but moderately to highly correlated (0.49-0.99) for RR. In conclusion, the BioHarness is comparable to Vmax and K4b2 over a wide range of V˙O2 during graded exercise and sustained exercise in the heat.

  7. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen-hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during flight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced flows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle configuration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot-fire test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate flight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This paper discusses the various trends of base convective heat flux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base flow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi-empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the flight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  8. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen- hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during ight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced ows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle con guration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot- re test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate ight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative e ort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This presentation discusses the various trends of base convective heat ux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base ow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi- empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the ight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  9. A comparison of fixed-base and driven-base modal testing of an electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Nord, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper compares results for a fixed-base and a driven-base modal test of an electronics package. A fixed-base modal test uses the common testing procedure of attaching the structure to a large inertial mass which is freely suspended. The problem with this approach is that the input levels are typically limited by the size of the shakers and the strength of the attachment. An attractive alternative to fixed-base modal testing is to use stationary vibration shaker tables to provide a driven-base input. The modes can be obtained at much higher excitation levels than fixed-base excitation modes using portable shakers and flexible attachments. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the adequacy of using vibration shake tables to excite the fixed-based modes of the system. A direct comparison of the modes acquired using fixed-base and driven-base excitation for the electronics package shows very close agreement. A discussion of the theory for driven-base testing is given, as well as a brief presentation of analytical (finite element) predictions for the structure. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Inquiry-Based Instruction and High Stakes Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cothern, Rebecca L.

    Science education is a key to economic success for a country in terms of promoting advances in national industry and technology and maximizing competitive advantage in a global marketplace. The December 2010 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranked the United States 23rd of 65 countries in science. That dismal standing in science proficiency impedes the ability of American school graduates to compete in the global market place. Furthermore, the implementation of high stakes testing in science mandated by the 2007 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has created an additional need for educators to find effective science pedagogy. Research has shown that inquiry-based science instruction is one of the predominant science instructional methods. Inquiry-based instruction is a multifaceted teaching method with its theoretical foundation in constructivism. A correlational survey research design was used to determine the relationship between levels of inquiry-based science instruction and student performance on a standardized state science test. A self-report survey, using a Likert-type scale, was completed by 26 fifth grade teachers. Participants' responses were analyzed and grouped as high, medium, or low level inquiry instruction. The unit of analysis for the achievement variable was the student scale score average from the state science test. Spearman's Rho correlation data showed a positive relationship between the level of inquiry-based instruction and student achievement on the state assessment. The findings can assist teachers and administrators by providing additional research on the benefits of the inquiry-based instructional method. Implications for positive social change include increases in student proficiency and decision-making skills related to science policy issues which can help make them more competitive in the global marketplace.

  11. Integrating knowledge-based techniques into well-test interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, I.W.; Fraser, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Spirit Project was to develop a prototype of next-generation well-test-interpretation (WTI) software that would include knowledge-based decision support for the WTI model selection task. This paper describes how Spirit makes use of several different types of information (pressure, seismic, petrophysical, geological, and engineering) to support the user in identifying the most appropriate WTI model. Spirit`s knowledge-based approach to type-curve matching is to generate several different feasible interpretations by making assumptions about the possible presence of both wellbore storage and late-time boundary effects. Spirit fuses information from type-curve matching and other data sources by use of a knowledge-based decision model developed in collaboration with a WTI expert. The sponsors of the work have judged the resulting prototype system a success.

  12. Harnessing wound healing and regeneration for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, A D; Ferguson, M W J

    2005-04-01

    Biomedical science has made major advances in understanding how cells grow into functioning tissue and the signalling mechanisms used to achieve this are slowly being dissected. Tissue engineering is the application of that knowledge to the building or repairing of organs, including skin, the largest organ in the body. Generally, engineered tissue is a combination of living cells and a supporting matrix. Besides serving as burn coverings, engineered skin substitutes can help patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Today, most of these ulcers are treated with an approach that includes antibiotics, glucose control, special shoes and frequent cleaning and bandaging. The results of such treatments are often disappointing and ineffectual, and scarring remains a major problem, mechanically, cosmetically and psychologically. Within our group we are attempting to address this by investigating novel approaches to skin tissue engineering. We are identifying novel therapeutic manipulations to improve the degree of integration between a tissue engineered dermal construct and the host by both molecular manipulation of growth factors but also by understanding and harnessing mechanisms of regenerative biology. For the purpose of this summary, we will concentrate primarily on the latter of these two approaches in that we have identified a novel mouse mutant that completely and perfectly regenerates skin and cartilaginous components following ear injury. This experimental animal will allow us to characterize not only novel genes involved in the regeneration process but also to utilize cells from such animals in artificial skin equivalents to assess their behaviour compared with normal cells. This approach should allow us to create a tissue-engineered substitute, which more closely resembles the normal regional microanatomy and physiology of the skin, allowing better integration to the host with minimal or no scarring.

  13. Harnessing Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Clinical Trials for Treating Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases: Potential and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dana; Kim, Young Sam; Shin, Dong Wun; Park, Chang Shin; Kang, Ju Hee

    2016-10-01

    No disease-modifying therapies (DMT) for neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have been established, particularly for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). It is unclear why candidate drugs that successfully demonstrate therapeutic effects in animal models fail to show disease-modifying effects in clinical trials. To overcome this hurdle, patients with homogeneous pathologies should be detected as early as possible. The early detection of AD patients using sufficiently tested biomarkers could demonstrate the potential usefulness of combining biomarkers with clinical measures as a diagnostic tool. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for NDs are being incorporated in clinical trials designed with the aim of detecting patients earlier, evaluating target engagement, collecting homogeneous patients, facilitating prevention trials, and testing the potential of surrogate markers relative to clinical measures. In this review we summarize the latest information on CSF biomarkers in NDs, particularly AD and PD, and their use in clinical trials. The large number of issues related to CSF biomarker measurements and applications has resulted in relatively few clinical trials on CSF biomarkers being conducted. However, the available CSF biomarker data obtained in clinical trials support the advantages of incorporating CSF biomarkers in clinical trials, even though the data have mostly been obtained in AD trials. We describe the current issues with and ongoing efforts for the use of CSF biomarkers in clinical trials and the plans to harness CSF biomarkers for the development of DMT and clinical routines. This effort requires nationwide, global, and multidisciplinary efforts in academia, industry, and regulatory agencies to facilitate a new era.

  14. A computer vision based candidate for functional balance test.

    PubMed

    Nalci, Alican; Khodamoradi, Alireza; Balkan, Ozgur; Nahab, Fatta; Garudadri, Harinath

    2015-08-01

    Balance in humans is a motor skill based on complex multimodal sensing, processing and control. Ability to maintain balance in activities of daily living (ADL) is compromised due to aging, diseases, injuries and environmental factors. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate of the costs of falls among older adults was $34 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $54.9 billion in 2020. In this paper, we present a brief review of balance impairments followed by subjective and objective tools currently used in clinical settings for human balance assessment. We propose a novel computer vision (CV) based approach as a candidate for functional balance test. The test will take less than a minute to administer and expected to be objective, repeatable and highly discriminative in quantifying ability to maintain posture and balance. We present an informal study with preliminary data from 10 healthy volunteers, and compare performance with a balance assessment system called BTrackS Balance Assessment Board. Our results show high degree of correlation with BTrackS. The proposed system promises to be a good candidate for objective functional balance tests and warrants further investigations to assess validity in clinical settings, including acute care, long term care and assisted living care facilities. Our long term goals include non-intrusive approaches to assess balance competence during ADL in independent living environments.

  15. Introducing the Geneva emotion recognition test: an example of Rasch-based test development.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Katja; Grandjean, Didier; Scherer, Klaus R

    2014-06-01

    Existing tests to measure the ability to recognize other people's emotional expressions (emotion recognition ability [ERA]) mostly focus on a single modality (usually the face) and include only a small number of emotions, restricting their ecological validity. Further, their reliability is often unsatisfactory. The goal of the present study was to develop a new ERA test (Geneva Emotion Recognition Test [GERT]) that (a) features dynamic and multimodal actor portrayals (short videos with sound), (b) contains a large number of emotions, and (c) is based on modern psychometric principles (item response theory). We asked 295 participants to watch 108 actor portrayals and to choose, for each portrayal, which of 14 emotions had been expressed by the actor. We then applied the Rasch model independently to each of the 14 emotion portrayal subsets to select 83 final items for the GERT. Results showed that the model fits the emotion subtests and the overall GERT and that measurement precision is satisfactory. Consistent with previous findings, we found a decline in ERA with increasing age and an ERA advantage for women. To conclude, the GERT is a promising instrument to measure ERA in a more ecologically valid and comprehensive fashion than previous tests.

  16. Development of a diagnostic test based on multiple continuous biomarkers with an imperfect reference test.

    PubMed

    García Barrado, Leandro; Coart, Els; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2016-02-20

    Ignoring the fact that the reference test used to establish the discriminative properties of a combination of diagnostic biomarkers is imperfect can lead to a biased estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the combination. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian latent-class mixture model to select a combination of biomarkers that maximizes the area under the ROC curve (AUC), while taking into account the imperfect nature of the reference test. In particular, a method for specification of the prior for the mixture component parameters is developed that allows controlling the amount of prior information provided for the AUC. The properties of the model are evaluated by using a simulation study and an application to real data from Alzheimer's disease research. In the simulation study, 100 data sets are simulated for sample sizes ranging from 100 to 600 observations, with a varying correlation between biomarkers. The inclusion of an informative as well as a flat prior for the diagnostic accuracy of the reference test is investigated. In the real-data application, the proposed model was compared with the generally used logistic-regression model that ignores the imperfectness of the reference test. Conditional on the selected sample size and prior distributions, the simulation study results indicate satisfactory performance of the model-based estimates. In particular, the obtained average estimates for all parameters are close to the true values. For the real-data application, AUC estimates for the proposed model are substantially higher than those from the 'traditional' logistic-regression model.

  17. Innovation in the Harnessing and Transfer of Technology: The Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner de Almea, Ruth

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the background, organization, success, problems, and functions of the Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho Foundation, Caracas, Venezuela, for producing human resources for the harnessing of scientific technology. The fellowship program supports study by students both at home and abroad. (SL)

  18. Research on technique of wavefront retrieval based on Foucault test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lvjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2010-05-01

    During finely grinding the best fit sphere and initial stage of polishing, surface error of large aperture aspheric mirrors is too big to test using common interferometer. Foucault test is widely used in fabricating large aperture mirrors. However, the optical path is disturbed seriously by air turbulence, and changes of light and dark zones can not be identified, which often lowers people's judging ability and results in making mistake to diagnose surface error of the whole mirror. To solve the problem, the research presents wavefront retrieval based on Foucault test through digital image processing and quantitative calculation. Firstly, real Foucault image can be gained through collecting a variety of images by CCD, and then average these image to eliminate air turbulence. Secondly, gray values are converted into surface error values through principle derivation, mathematical modeling, and software programming. Thirdly, linear deviation brought by defocus should be removed by least-square method to get real surface error. At last, according to real surface error, plot wavefront map, gray contour map and corresponding pseudo color contour map. The experimental results indicates that the three-dimensional wavefront map and two-dimensional contour map are able to accurately and intuitively show surface error on the whole mirrors under test, and they are beneficial to grasp surface error as a whole. The technique can be used to guide the fabrication of large aperture and long focal mirrors during grinding and initial stage of polishing the aspheric surface, which improves fabricating efficiency and precision greatly.

  19. STS-39 MS Hieb is suspended over JSC's WETF Bldg 29 pool via harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-39 Mission Specialist (MS) Richard J. Hieb, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), is hoisted above JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool via his parachute harness. Hieb will be dropped from the harness into the WETF's 25 ft deep pool to simulate an emergency egress bailout from the Space Shuttle into the ocean. Divers in the pool will ensure Hieb's safety during the exercise.

  20. Transcending Competency Testing in Hospital-Based Simulation.

    PubMed

    Lassche, Madeline; Wilson, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Simulation is a frequently used method for training students in health care professions and has recently gained acceptance in acute care hospital settings for use in educational programs and competency testing. Although hospital-based simulation is currently limited primarily to use in skills acquisition, expansion of the use of simulation via a modified Quality Health Outcomes Model to address systems factors such as the physical environment and human factors such as fatigue, reliance on memory, and reliance on vigilance could drive system-wide changes. Simulation is an expensive resource and should not be limited to use for education and competency testing. Well-developed, peer-reviewed simulations can be used for environmental factors, human factors, and interprofessional education to improve patients' outcomes and drive system-wide change for quality improvement initiatives.

  1. Development Testing of 1-Newton ADN-Based Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anflo, K.; Gronland, T.-A.; Bergman, G.; Nedar, R.; Thormählen, P.

    2004-10-01

    With the objective to reduce operational hazards and improve specific and density impulse as compared with hydrazine, the Research and Development (R&D) of a new monopropellant for space applications based on AmmoniumDiNitramide (ADN), was first proposed in 1997. This pioneering work has been described in previous papers1,2,3,4 . From the discussion above, it is clear that cost savings as well as risk reduction are the main drivers to develop a new generation of reduced hazard propellants. However, this alone is not enough to convince a spacecraft builder to choose a new technology. Cost, risk and schedule reduction are good incentives, but a spacecraft supplier will ask for evidence that this new propulsion system meets a number of requirements within the following areas: This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop a storable liquid monopropellant blend, based on AND, and its specific rocket engines. After building and testing more than 20 experimental rocket engines, the first Engineering Model (EM-1) has now accumulated more than 1 hour of firing-time. The results from test firings have validated the design. Specific impulse, combustion stability, blow-down capability and short pulse capability are amongst the requirements that have been demonstrated. The LMP-103x propellant candidate has been stored for more than 1 year and initial material compatibility screening and testing has started. 1. Performance &life 2. Impact on spacecraft design &operation 3. Flight heritage Hereafter, the essential requirements for some of these areas are outlined. These issues are discussed in detail in a previous paper1 . The use of "Commercial Of The Shelf" (COTS) propulsion system components as much as possible is essential to minimize the overall cost, risk and schedule. This leads to the conclusion that the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5 has been reached for the thruster and propellant. Furthermore, that the concept of ADN-based propulsion is feasible.

  2. Testing validation tools on CLIPS-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. L.; Stachowitz, R. A.; Combs, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    The Expert Systems Validation Associate (EVA) is a validation system which was developed at the Lockheed Software Technology Center and Artificial Intelligence Center between 1986 and 1990. EVA is an integrated set of generic tools to validate any knowledge-based system written in any expert system shell such as C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), ART, OPS5, KEE, and others. Many validation tools have been built in the EVA system. In this paper, we describe the testing results of applying the EVA validation tools to the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Reconfiguration (FDIR) expert system, written in CLIPS, obtained from the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  3. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle; Seaford, Mark; Dufrene, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    NASA MSFC and CUBRC designed and developed a 2% scale SLS propulsive wind tunnel test program to investigate base flow effects during flight from lift-off to MECO. This type of test program has not been conducted in 40+ years during the NASA Shuttle Program. Dufrene et al paper described the operation, instrumentation type and layout, facility and propulsion performance, test matrix and conditions and some raw results. This paper will focus on the SLS base flow physics and the generation and results of the design environments being used to design the thermal protection system.

  4. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Paul; Churchfield, Matt; Scholbrock, Andrew; Clifton, Andrew; Schreck, Scott; Johnson, Kathryn; Wright, Alan; Gebraad, Pieter; Annoni, Jennifer; Naughton, Brian; Berg, Jon; Herges, Tommy; White, Jon; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sjoholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nicolas

    2016-10-03

    This study describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental design and setup. Lastly, all data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal.

  5. Probabilistic liquefaction triggering based on the cone penetration test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, R.E.S.; Seed, R.B.; Kayen, R.E.; Stewart, J.P.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2005-01-01

    Performance-based earthquake engineering requires a probabilistic treatment of potential failure modes in order to accurately quantify the overall stability of the system. This paper is a summary of the application portions of the probabilistic liquefaction triggering correlations proposed recently proposed by Moss and co-workers. To enable probabilistic treatment of liquefaction triggering, the variables comprising the seismic load and the liquefaction resistance were treated as inherently uncertain. Supporting data from an extensive Cone Penetration Test (CPT)-based liquefaction case history database were used to develop a probabilistic correlation. The methods used to measure the uncertainty of the load and resistance variables, how the interactions of these variables were treated using Bayesian updating, and how reliability analysis was applied to produce curves of equal probability of liquefaction are presented. The normalization for effective overburden stress, the magnitude correlated duration weighting factor, and the non-linear shear mass participation factor used are also discussed.

  6. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.; Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Johnson, K.; Wright, A.; Gebraad, P.; Annoni, J.; Naughton, B.; Berg, J.; Herges, T.; White, J.; Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental design and setup. All data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal.

  7. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DOE PAGES

    Fleming, Paul; Churchfield, Matt; Scholbrock, Andrew; ...

    2016-10-03

    This study describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental design and setup. Lastly, all data collected as partmore » of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal.« less

  8. Testing the performance of technical trading rules in the Chinese markets based on superior predictive test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shan; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-12-01

    Technical trading rules have a long history of being used by practitioners in financial markets. The profitable ability and efficiency of technical trading rules are yet controversial. In this paper, we test the performance of more than seven thousand traditional technical trading rules on the Shanghai Securities Composite Index (SSCI) from May 21, 1992 through June 30, 2013 and China Securities Index 300 (CSI 300) from April 8, 2005 through June 30, 2013 to check whether an effective trading strategy could be found by using the performance measurements based on the return and Sharpe ratio. To correct for the influence of the data-snooping effect, we adopt the Superior Predictive Ability test to evaluate if there exists a trading rule that can significantly outperform the benchmark. The result shows that for SSCI, technical trading rules offer significant profitability, while for CSI 300, this ability is lost. We further partition the SSCI into two sub-series and find that the efficiency of technical trading in sub-series, which have exactly the same spanning period as that of CSI 300, is severely weakened. By testing the trading rules on both indexes with a five-year moving window, we find that during the financial bubble from 2005 to 2007, the effectiveness of technical trading rules is greatly improved. This is consistent with the predictive ability of technical trading rules which appears when the market is less efficient.

  9. Nonnull interferometer simulation for aspheric testing based on ray tracing.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Yang, Yongying; Wei, Tao; Zhuo, Yongmo

    2011-07-10

    The nonnull interferometric method that employs a partial compensation system to compensate for the longitude aberration of the aspheric under test and a reverse optimization procedure to correct retrace errors is a useful technique for general aspheric testing. However, accurate system modeling and simulation are required to correct retrace errors and reconstruct fabrication error of the aspheric. Here, we propose a ray-tracing-based method to simulate the nonnull interferometer, which calculates the optical path difference by tracing rays through the reference path and the test path. To model a nonrotationally symmetric fabrication error, we mathematically represent it with a set of Zernike polynomials (i.e., Zernike deformation) and derive ray-tracing formulas for the deformed surface, which can also deal with misalignment situations (i.e., a surface with tilts and/or decenters) and thus facilitates system modeling extremely. Simulation results of systems with (relatively) large and small Zernike deformations and their comparisons with the lens design program Zemax have demonstrated the correctness and effectiveness of the method.

  10. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-05-28

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements.Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken.This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  11. Blind Test of Physics-Based Prediction of Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Shell, M. Scott; Ozkan, S. Banu; Voelz, Vincent; Wu, Guohong Albert; Dill, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    We report here a multiprotein blind test of a computer method to predict native protein structures based solely on an all-atom physics-based force field. We use the AMBER 96 potential function with an implicit (GB/SA) model of solvation, combined with replica-exchange molecular-dynamics simulations. Coarse conformational sampling is performed using the zipping and assembly method (ZAM), an approach that is designed to mimic the putative physical routes of protein folding. ZAM was applied to the folding of six proteins, from 76 to 112 monomers in length, in CASP7, a community-wide blind test of protein structure prediction. Because these predictions have about the same level of accuracy as typical bioinformatics methods, and do not utilize information from databases of known native structures, this work opens up the possibility of predicting the structures of membrane proteins, synthetic peptides, or other foldable polymers, for which there is little prior knowledge of native structures. This approach may also be useful for predicting physical protein folding routes, non-native conformations, and other physical properties from amino acid sequences. PMID:19186130

  12. Transputer-based architecture for ATM LAN protocol testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Concetto, M.; Crocetti, P.; Marino, G.; Merli, E.; Pavesi, M.; Zizza, F.

    1993-10-01

    Local Area Networks (LANs) have completed two generations of development (Ethernet and Token Ring the first, and FDDI and DQDB the second); the large volumes of traffic involved in the emerging multimedia applications, however, lead towards a third generation of LANs. This generation must provide real-time capabilities needed by new services and solve the problems of interworking with ATM-based B-ISDN. Moreover the possibility to vary the subscribed bandwidth with the B-ISDN will be given to the LAN interfaces. This paper focuses on an architecture for protocol testing of a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Protocol inserted in a LAN environment based on ATM technology. In fact, the technology of the third LAN generation will be the Asynchronous Transfer Mode solving every interface problem with the public B-ISDN. A testing and debugging environment which checks the implementation of the Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Protocol at the interface host/LAN- ATM is discussed. The main concepts of the overall system architecture are analyzed, evidencing both software and hardware issues.

  13. Hello, world: Harnessing social media for the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Emily; Mignone, Claudia; O'Flaherty, Karen; Homfeld, Anne-Mareike; Bauer, Markus; McCaughrean, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. By harnessing a range of platforms for communicating the key messages of this unprecedented mission as it reached its destination ten years later, new audiences were reached and a global impact was achieved. Rosetta-specific social media accounts - @ESA_Rosetta on Twitter, the Rosetta Mission Facebook page and the rosettamission Instagram account - were developed during 2013/14 and used alongside the traditional reporting line of the main ESA website and the Rosetta blog to build awareness about the mission. Coordinated with ESA's existing social media channels (Flickr, YouTube, G+, Twitter, Facebook and Livestream) and with the support of ESA's country desks and Rosetta partner agency accounts (including @philae2014), information could be shared in a number of European languages, ensuring a wide reach across Europe - and the world. We discuss the roles of the various social media accounts in supporting and promoting the competitions and social media campaigns that were built around the key mission milestones of 2014: waking up from deep space hibernation (January), arriving at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (August) and naming the landing site for Philae ahead of the landing event in November. We discuss the different approach to each channel, such as the first person twitter accounts, the dialogue with and between blog users, and the discussions held live via G+ Hangouts with leading scientists and spacecraft operators. We compare and contrast the audiences, the interaction we had with them and how challenges were overcome. We also use the science-fiction-meets-science-fact Ambition short movie, and its "undercover" dissemination on social media, as an example of how the profile of the Rosetta mission was raised in a unique way. By using a variety of social media platforms to target different audiences with

  14. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Plasticity Harnesses Endocytic Circuitries.

    PubMed

    Corallino, Salvatore; Malabarba, Maria Grazia; Zobel, Martina; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Scita, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    execution of different biological processes, with a primary role in the control of polarized functions. Thus, they may be relevant for controlling EMT or certain aspects of it. Here, by discussing a few paradigmatic cases, we will outline how endocytosis may be harnessed by the EMT process to promote dynamic changes in cellular identity, and to increase cellular flexibility and adaptation to micro-environmental cues, ultimately impacting on physiological and pathological processes, first and foremost cancer progression.

  15. Auxiliary Basis Sets for Density Fitting in Explicitly Correlated Calculations: The Atoms H-Ar.

    PubMed

    Kritikou, Stella; Hill, J Grant

    2015-11-10

    Auxiliary basis sets specifically matched to the correlation consistent cc-pVnZ-F12 and cc-pCVnZ-F12 orbital basis sets for the elements H-Ar have been optimized at the density-fitted second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level of theory for use in explicitly correlated (F12) methods, which utilize density fitting for the evaluation of two-electron integrals. Calculations of the correlation energy for a test set of small to medium sized molecules indicate that the density fitting error when using these auxiliary sets is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude smaller than the F12 orbital basis set incompleteness error. The error introduced by the use of these fitting sets within the resolution-of-the-identity approximation of the many-electron integrals arising in F12 theory has also been assessed and is demonstrated to be negligible and well-controlled. General guidelines are proposed for the optimization of density fitting auxiliary basis sets for use with F12 methods for other elements.

  16. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  17. Panel-based testing for inherited colorectal cancer: a descriptive study of clinical testing performed by a US laboratory.

    PubMed

    Cragun, D; Radford, C; Dolinsky, J S; Caldwell, M; Chao, E; Pal, T

    2014-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing enables testing for multiple genes simultaneously ('panel-based testing') as opposed to sequential testing for one inherited condition at a time ('syndrome-based testing'). This study presents results from patients who underwent hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) panel-based testing ('ColoNext(™) '). De-identified data from a clinical testing laboratory were used to calculate (1) frequencies for patient demographic, clinical, and family history variables and (2) rates of pathogenic mutations and variants of uncertain significance (VUS). The proportion of individuals with a pathogenic mutation who met national syndrome-based testing criteria was also determined. Of 586 patients, a pathogenic mutation was identified in 10.4%, while 20.1% had at least one VUS. After removing eight patients with CHEK2 mutations and 11 MUTYH heterozygotes, the percentage of patients with 'actionable' mutations that would clearly alter cancer screening recommendations per national guidelines decreased to 7.2%. Of 42 patients with an 'actionable' result, 30 (71%) clearly met established syndrome-based testing guidelines. This descriptive study is among the first to report on a large clinical series of patients undergoing panel-based testing for inherited CRC. Results are discussed in the context of benefits and concerns that have been raised about panel-based testing implementation.

  18. A Comparative Test and Evaluation of Lead-Based-Paint Test Kits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    23 Quantitative Field Testing ................. 24 Qualitative Field Testing .................. 26 Previous Research...methods into three groups: laboratory testing, quantitative field testing, and qualitative field testing. Laboratory analyses of paint samples are usually...in the field to obtain a quantitative measurement of lead in paint (9:25). XRF equipment can present a radiation hazard and requires extensive

  19. Harnessing the immunomodulatory effect of thermal and non-thermal ablative therapies for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Bastianpillai, Christopher; Petrides, Neophytos; Shah, Taimur; Guillaumier, Stephanie; Ahmed, Hashim U; Arya, Manit

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive interventional therapies are evolving rapidly and their use for the treatment of solid tumours is becoming more extensive. The in situ destruction of solid tumours by such therapies is thought to release antigens that can prime an antitumour immune response. In this review, we offer an overview of the current evidence for immune response activation associated with the utilisation of the main thermal and non-thermal ablation therapies currently in use today. This is followed by an assessment of the hypothesised mechanisms behind this immune response priming and by a discussion of potential methods of harnessing this specific response, which may subsequently be applicable in the treatment of cancer patients. References were identified through searches of PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane databases to identify peer-reviewed original articles, meta-analyses and reviews. Papers were searched from 1850 until October 2014. Articles were also identified through searches of the authors' files. Only papers published in English were reviewed. Thermal and non-thermal therapies have the potential to stimulate antitumour immunity although the current body of evidence is based mostly on murine trials or small-scale phase 1 human trials. The evidence for this immune-modulatory response is currently the strongest in relation to cryotherapy and radiotherapy, although data is accumulating for related ablative treatments such as high-intensity focused ultrasound, radiofrequency ablation and irreversible electroporation. This effect may be greatly enhanced by combining these therapies with other immunostimulatory interventions. Evidence is emerging into the immunomodulatory effect associated with thermal and non-thermal ablative therapies used in cancer treatment in addition to the mechanism behind this effect and how it may be harnessed for therapeutic use. A potential exists for treatment approaches that combine ablation of the primary tumour with control and possible

  20. Versatile electrophoresis-based self-test platform.

    PubMed

    Guijt, Rosanne M

    2015-03-01

    Lab on a Chip technology offers the possibility to extract chemical information from a complex sample in a simple, automated way without the need for a laboratory setting. In the health care sector, this chemical information could be used as a diagnostic tool for example to inform dosing. In this issue, the research underpinning a family of electrophoresis-based point-of-care devices for self-testing of ionic analytes in various sample matrices is described [Electrophoresis 2015, 36, 712-721.]. Hardware, software, and methodological chances made to improve the overall analytical performance in terms of accuracy, precision, detection limit, and reliability are discussed. In addition to the main focus of lithium monitoring, new applications including the use of the platform for veterinary purposes, sodium, and for creatinine measurements are included.

  1. Digital reflection holography based systems development for MEMS testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay Raj; Liansheng, Sui; Asundi, Anand

    2010-05-01

    MEMS are tiny mechanical devices that are built onto semiconductor chips and are measured in micrometers and nanometers. Testing of MEMS device is an important part in carrying out their functional assessment and reliability analysis. Development of systems based on digital holography (DH) for MEMS inspection and characterization is presented in this paper. Two DH reflection systems, table-top and handheld types, are developed depending on the MEMS measurement requirements and their capabilities are presented. The methodologies for the systems are developed for 3D profile inspection and static & dynamic measurements, which is further integrated with in-house developed software that provides the measurement results in near real time. The applications of the developed systems are demonstrated for different MEMS devices for 3D profile inspection, static deformation/deflection measurements and vibration analysis. The developed systems are well suitable for the testing of MEMS and Microsystems samples, with full-field, static & dynamic inspection as well as to monitor micro-fabrication process.

  2. Microbes at Surface-Air Interfaces: The Metabolic Harnessing of Relative Humidity, Surface Hygroscopicity, and Oligotrophy for Resilience.

    PubMed

    Stone, Wendy; Kroukamp, Otini; Korber, Darren R; McKelvie, Jennifer; Wolfaardt, Gideon M

    2016-01-01

    The human environment is predominantly not aqueous, and microbes are ubiquitous at the surface-air interfaces with which we interact. Yet microbial studies at surface-air interfaces are largely survival-oriented, whilst microbial metabolism has overwhelmingly been investigated from the perspective of liquid saturation. This study explored microbial survival and metabolism under desiccation, particularly the influence of relative humidity (RH), surface hygroscopicity, and nutrient availability on the interchange between these two phenomena. The combination of a hygroscopic matrix (i.e., clay or 4,000 MW polyethylene glycol) and high RH resulted in persistent measurable microbial metabolism during desiccation. In contrast, no microbial metabolism was detected at (a) hygroscopic interfaces at low RH, and (b) less hygroscopic interfaces (i.e., sand and plastic/glass) at high or low RH. Cell survival was conversely inhibited at high RH and promoted at low RH, irrespective of surface hygroscopicity. Based on this demonstration of metabolic persistence and survival inhibition at high RH, it was proposed that biofilm metabolic rates might inversely influence whole-biofilm resilience, with 'resilience' defined in this study as a biofilm's capacity to recover from desiccation. The concept of whole-biofilm resilience being promoted by oligotrophy was supported in desiccation-tolerant Arthrobacter spp. biofilms, but not in desiccation-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The ability of microbes to interact with surfaces to harness water vapor during desiccation was demonstrated, and potentially to harness oligotrophy (the most ubiquitous natural condition facing microbes) for adaptation to desiccation.

  3. Papers Based Electrochemical Biosensors: From Test Strips to Paper-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bingwen; Du, Dan; Hua, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-08

    Papers based biosensors such as lateral flow test strips and paper-based microfluidic devices (or paperfluidics) are inexpensive, rapid, flexible, and easy-to-use analytical tools. An apparent trend in their detection is to interpret sensing results from qualitative assessment to quantitative determination. Electrochemical detection plays an important role in quantification. This review focuses on electrochemical (EC) detection enabled biosensors. The first part provides detailed examples in paper test strips. The second part gives an overview of paperfluidics engaging EC detections. The outlook and recommendation of future directions of EC enabled biosensors are discussed in the end.

  4. A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.

    PubMed

    Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

    2001-04-01

    A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits.

  5. Harnessing Geothermal Energy from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, M. O.; Randolph, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent geotechnical research shows that geothermal heat can be efficiently mined by circulating CO2 through naturally permeable, porous rock formations. This method, called CO2 Plume Geothermal (CPG), targets the same geologic reservoirs that are suitable for deep saline aquifer CO2 sequestration or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). While previous investigations have focused on CO2-based heat mining from saline aquifers, here we present new research that is primarily concerned with EOR reservoirs, specifically those using a CO2 flood. EOR operations provide excellent opportunities for economically-favorable geothermal energy recovery, assuming subsurface temperatures are sufficient, because the majority of costly infrastructure (i.e., wells) is in place. Moreover, the subsurface characteristics that make a site suitable for hydrocarbon recovery -- at least moderate reservoir permeability and porosity, and a low-permeability capping feature -- help ensure that fluid can be circulated for heat extraction and that CO2 will be contained. However, heat extraction from the CO2 + water/brine + hydrocarbon EOR production stream is challenging, requiring fluid separation and multiple binary and/or direct power systems (depending on site-specific fluid composition and conditions). We discuss several scenarios, encompassing multiple power system configurations, for harnessing geothermal energy from CO2 EOR operations. In addition, we present preliminary numerical modeling results for net power production from such EOR operations -- accounting for wide variation in produced fluid temperature, pressure, and composition -- and consider the economic implications of power sales for EOR sites.

  6. Pushing to a cure by harnessing innate immunity against hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Ireton, Reneé C; Gale, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes 350,000 deaths and infects at least 3million people worldwide every year. Currently no vaccine has been developed. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs with high efficacy for suppressing HCV infection have recently been introduced into the clinic. While DAAs initially required combination therapy with type-1 interferon (IFN) administration for full efficacy and to avoid viral resistance to treatment, new DAA combinations show promise as an IFN-free regimen. However, IFN-free DAA therapy is in its infancy, still to be proven and today is cost-prohibitive for the patient. A major goal in HCV therapy to remove or replace IFN with DAAs or an alternative therapeutic to render virologic response with continued virus sensitivity to DAAs, thus facilitating a cure for infection. Recent advances in our understanding of innate immune responses to HCV have identified new therapeutic targets to combat HCV infection. We discuss how the targeting of innate immune response factors can be harnessed with DAAs to produce new generations of DAA-based HCV therapeutics. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Hepatitis C: next steps toward global eradication."

  7. A Bottom-Up Engineered Broadband Optical Nanoabsorber for Radiometry and Energy Harnessing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Coles, James B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2013-01-01

    Optical absorbers based on vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), synthesized using electric-field assisted growth, are described here that show an ultra-low reflectance, 100X lower compared to Au-black from wavelength lamba approximately 350 nm - 2.5 micron. A bi-metallic Co/Ti layer was shown to catalyze a high site density of MWCNTs on metallic substrates and the optical properties of the absorbers were engineered by controlling the bottom-up synthesis conditions using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Reflectance measurements on the MWCNT absorbers after heating them in air to 400deg showed negligible changes in reflectance which was still low, approximately 0.022 % at lamba approximately 2 micron. In contrast, the percolated structure of the reference Au-black samples collapsed completely after heating, causing the optical response to degrade at temperatures as low as 200deg. The high optical absorption efficiency of the MWCNT absorbers, synthesized on metallic substrates, over a broad spectral range, coupled with their thermal ruggedness, suggests they have promise in solar energy harnessing applications, as well as thermal detectors for radiometry.

  8. Clinical trial designs for testing biomarker-based personalized therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tze Leung; Lavori, Philip W; Shih, Mei-Chiung I; Sikic, Branimir I

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in molecular therapeutics in the past decade have opened up new possibilities for treating cancer patients with personalized therapies, using biomarkers to determine which treatments are most likely to benefit them, but there are difficulties and unresolved issues in the development and validation of biomarker-based personalized therapies. We develop a new clinical trial design to address some of these issues. The goal is to capture the strengths of the frequentist and Bayesian approaches to address this problem in the recent literature and to circumvent their limitations. Methods We use generalized likelihood ratio tests of the intersection null and enriched strategy null hypotheses to derive a novel clinical trial design for the problem of advancing promising biomarker-guided strategies toward eventual validation. We also investigate the usefulness of adaptive randomization (AR) and futility stopping proposed in the recent literature. Results Simulation studies demonstrate the advantages of testing both the narrowly focused enriched strategy null hypothesis related to validating a proposed strategy and the intersection null hypothesis that can accommodate to a potentially successful strategy. AR and early termination of ineffective treatments offer increased probability of receiving the preferred treatment and better response rates for patients in the trial, at the expense of more complicated inference under small-to-moderate total sample sizes and some reduction in power. Limitations The binary response used in the development phase may not be a reliable indicator of treatment benefit on long-term clinical outcomes. In the proposed design, the biomarker-guided strategy (BGS) is not compared to ‘standard of care’, such as physician’s choice that may be informed by patient characteristics. Therefore, a positive result does not imply superiority of the BGS to ‘standard of care’. The proposed design and tests are valid asymptotically

  9. Comparing Postsecondary Marketing Student Performance on Computer-Based and Handwritten Essay Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truell, Allen D.; Alexander, Melody W.; Davis, Rodney E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in postsecondary marketing student performance on essay tests based on test format (i.e., computer-based or handwritten). Specifically, the variables of performance, test completion time, and gender were explored for differences based on essay test format. Results of the study…

  10. Bipolar electrical coil based on YBCO bulks: initial tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, A.; Suárez, P.; Ceballos, J. M.; Pérez, B.; Werfel, F.; Floegel-Delor, U.

    2008-02-01

    In the field of the application of HTS in electrical motors, most prototypes are made using superconducting coils based on tape and located in the position where copper coils work in a similar conventional motor. Other prototypes use superconducting bulks (usually disk-shaped) in those positions where normal magnets should work in similar conventional motors. But it is very unusual to find designs using electrical coils based on bulks. This is a challenge whose main problem is the difficulty in machining the superconductor bulks to get the proper shape because of the impossibility of bending the material to wind coils. The design of a bipolar single-turn coil made from a superconducting YBCO disk was proposed by the group of Electrical Application of Superconductors, at the University of Extremadura, several years ago to be an element for the design of a modular two-phase inductor for an air core axial-flux motor. The shape of each coil looks like an 'S'. When a current flows through the circuit, two opposite magnetic fields appear in the upper and lower halves of the piece. Until now, attempts to get a good superconducting circuit by cutting a YBCO disk into the required shape have failed because of cracks appearing in the crystal during the process. Last year, our group at the University of Extremadura began to work with ATZ GmbH who have improved the machining process and made the coils. In this paper we present the coil and the first tests carried out.

  11. A versatile electrophoresis-based self-test platform.

    PubMed

    Staal, Steven; Ungerer, Mathijn; Floris, Arjan; Ten Brinke, Hans-Willem; Helmhout, Roy; Tellegen, Marian; Janssen, Kjeld; Karstens, Erik; van Arragon, Charlotte; Lenk, Stefan; Staijen, Erik; Bartholomew, Jody; Krabbe, Hans; Movig, Kris; Dubský, Pavel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on recent research creating a family of electrophoresis-based point of care devices for the determination of a wide range of ionic analytes in various sample matrices. These devices are based on a first version for the point-of-care measurement of Li(+), reported in 2010 by Floris et al. (Lab Chip 2010, 10, 1799-1806). With respect to this device, significant improvements in accuracy, precision, detection limit, and reliability have been obtained especially by the use of multiple injections of one sample on a single chip and integrated data analysis. Internal and external validation by clinical laboratories for the determination of analytes in real patients by a self-test is reported. For Li(+) in blood better precision than the standard clinical determination for Li(+) was achieved. For Na(+) in human urine the method was found to be within the clinical acceptability limits. In a veterinary application, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were determined in bovine blood by means of the same chip, but using a different platform. Finally, promising preliminary results are reported with the Medimate platform for the determination of creatinine in whole blood and quantification of both cations and anions through replicate measurements on the same sample with the same chip.

  12. An examination of shoulder kinematics and kinetics when using a commercial trunk harness while sheep shearing.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Diane E; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Pal, Poonam; Callaghan, Jack P

    2008-01-01

    Sheep shearing is a very physically demanding occupation, especially on the low back, such that many commercial harnesses have been developed to help reduce the load on the back. Such harnesses have been shown to significantly reduce peak and cumulative low back loads; however, the effect that these harnesses have on the shoulders, which are also highly involved during sheep shearing, has not been previously examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the shoulder postures and cumulative shoulder moments of 12 New Zealand sheep shearers. The use of the trunk harness reduced the percentage of time spent in shoulder flexion greater than 90 degrees and the time spent in shoulder abduction greater than 45 degrees as well as reduced the cumulative net joint flexor, abductor, and adductor shoulder moments by a minimum of 21%, 14%, and 42%, respectively. Therefore, the use of a commercial trunk harness to reduce low back injury may also help to reduce the risk of shoulder injury while sheep shearing.

  13. Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

  14. Humans robustly adhere to dynamic walking principles by harnessing motor abundance to control forces.

    PubMed

    Toney, Megan E; Chang, Young-Hui

    2013-12-01

    Human walking dynamics are typically framed in the context of mechanics and energetics rather than in the context of neuromuscular control. Dynamic walking principles describe one helpful theoretical approach to characterize efficient human walking mechanics over many steps. These principles do not, however, address how such walking is controlled step-by-step despite small perturbations from natural variability. Our purpose was to identify neuromechanical control strategies used to achieve consistent and robust locomotion despite natural step-to-step force variability. We used the uncontrolled manifold concept to test whether human walkers select combinations of leading and trailing leg-forces that generate equivalent net-force trajectories during step-to-step transitions. Subjects selected leading and trailing leg-force combinations that generated consistent vertical net-force during step-to-step transitions. We conclude that vertical net-force is an implicit neuromechanical goal of human walking whose trajectory is stabilized for consistent step-to-step transitions, which agrees with the principles of dynamic walking. In contrast, inter-leg-force combinations modulated anterior-posterior net-force trajectories with each step to maintain constant walking speed, indicating that a consistent anterior-posterior net-force trajectory is not an implicit goal of walking. For a more complete picture of hierarchical locomotor control, we also tested whether each individual leg-force trajectory was stabilized through the selection of leg-force equivalent joint-torque combinations. The observed consistent vertical net-force trajectory was achieved primarily through the selection of joint-torque combinations that modulated trailing leg-force during step-to-step transitions. We conclude that humans achieve robust walking by harnessing inherent motor abundance of the joints and legs to maintain consistent step-by-step walking performance.

  15. Harnessing Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Clinical Trials for Treating Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases: Potential and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dana; Kim, Young-Sam; Shin, Dong Wun; Park, Chang-Shin

    2016-01-01

    No disease-modifying therapies (DMT) for neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have been established, particularly for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). It is unclear why candidate drugs that successfully demonstrate therapeutic effects in animal models fail to show disease-modifying effects in clinical trials. To overcome this hurdle, patients with homogeneous pathologies should be detected as early as possible. The early detection of AD patients using sufficiently tested biomarkers could demonstrate the potential usefulness of combining biomarkers with clinical measures as a diagnostic tool. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for NDs are being incorporated in clinical trials designed with the aim of detecting patients earlier, evaluating target engagement, collecting homogeneous patients, facilitating prevention trials, and testing the potential of surrogate markers relative to clinical measures. In this review we summarize the latest information on CSF biomarkers in NDs, particularly AD and PD, and their use in clinical trials. The large number of issues related to CSF biomarker measurements and applications has resulted in relatively few clinical trials on CSF biomarkers being conducted. However, the available CSF biomarker data obtained in clinical trials support the advantages of incorporating CSF biomarkers in clinical trials, even though the data have mostly been obtained in AD trials. We describe the current issues with and ongoing efforts for the use of CSF biomarkers in clinical trials and the plans to harness CSF biomarkers for the development of DMT and clinical routines. This effort requires nationwide, global, and multidisciplinary efforts in academia, industry, and regulatory agencies to facilitate a new era. PMID:27819412

  16. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  17. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  18. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  19. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  20. Large-area photogrammetry based testing of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poozesh, Peyman; Baqersad, Javad; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter; Harvey, Eric; Yarala, Rahul

    2017-03-01

    An optically based sensing system that can measure the displacement and strain over essentially the entire area of a utility-scale blade leads to a measurement system that can significantly reduce the time and cost associated with traditional instrumentation. This paper evaluates the performance of conventional three dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) and three dimensional point tracking (3DPT) approaches over the surface of wind turbine blades and proposes a multi-camera measurement system using dynamic spatial data stitching. The potential advantages for the proposed approach include: (1) full-field measurement distributed over a very large area, (2) the elimination of time-consuming wiring and expensive sensors, and (3) the need for large-channel data acquisition systems. There are several challenges associated with extending the capability of a standard 3D DIC system to measure entire surface of utility scale blades to extract distributed strain, deflection, and modal parameters. This paper only tries to address some of the difficulties including: (1) assessing the accuracy of the 3D DIC system to measure full-field distributed strain and displacement over the large area, (2) understanding the geometrical constraints associated with a wind turbine testing facility (e.g. lighting, working distance, and speckle pattern size), (3) evaluating the performance of the dynamic stitching method to combine two different fields of view by extracting modal parameters from aligned point clouds, and (4) determining the feasibility of employing an output-only system identification to estimate modal parameters of a utility scale wind turbine blade from optically measured data. Within the current work, the results of an optical measurement (one stereo-vision system) performed on a large area over a 50-m utility-scale blade subjected to quasi-static and cyclic loading are presented. The blade certification and testing is typically performed using International

  1. Strategies for Ground Based Testing of Manned Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Jeff; Peacock, Mike; Gill, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Integrated testing (such as Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT)) is critical to reducing risks and minimizing problems encountered during assembly, activation, and on-orbit operation of large, complex manned spacecraft. Provides the best implementation of "Test Like You Fly:. Planning for integrated testing needs to begin at the earliest stages of Program definition. Program leadership needs to fully understand and buy in to what integrated testing is and why it needs to be performed. As Program evolves and design and schedules mature, continually look for suitable opportunities to perform testing where enough components are together in one place at one time. The benefits to be gained are well worth the costs.

  2. Spacecraft base-sine vibration test data uncertainties investigation based on stochastic scatter approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborde, S.; Calvi, A.

    2012-10-01

    This article describes some results of the study "DYNAMITED". The study is funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and performed by a consortium of European industries and university, led by EADS Astrium Satellites. One of the main objectives of the study is to assess and quantify the uncertainty in the spacecraft sine vibration test data. For a number of reasons as for example robustness and confidence in the notching of the input spectra and validation of the finite element model, it is important to study the effect of the sources of uncertainty on the test data including the frequency response functions and the modal parameters. In particular the paper provides an overview on the estimation of the scatter on the spacecraft dynamic response due to identified sources of test uncertainties and the calculation of a "notched" sine test input spectrum based on a stochastic methodology. By means of Monte Carlo simulation, a stochastic cloud of the output of interest can be generated and this provides an estimate of the global error on the test results. The cloud is generated by characterizing the assumed sources of test uncertainties by parameters of the structure finite element model and by quantifying the scatter of the parameters. The uncertain parameters are the input random variables of the Monte Carlo simulation. Some results on the application of the methods to telecom spacecraft sine vibration tests are illustrated.

  3. Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staats, Matt; Whalen, Michael W.; Heindahl, Mats P. E.; Rajan, Ajitha

    2010-01-01

    In black-box testing, the tester creates a set of tests to exercise a system under test without regard to the internal structure of the system. Generally, no objective metric is used to measure the adequacy of black-box tests. In recent work, we have proposed three requirements coverage metrics, allowing testers to objectively measure the adequacy of a black-box test suite with respect to a set of requirements formalized as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) properties. In this report, we evaluate the effectiveness of these coverage metrics with respect to fault finding. Specifically, we conduct an empirical study to investigate two questions: (1) do test suites satisfying a requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than randomly generated test suites of approximately the same size?, and (2) do test suites satisfying a more rigorous requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying a less rigorous requirements coverage metric? Our results indicate (1) only one coverage metric proposed -- Unique First Cause (UFC) coverage -- is sufficiently rigorous to ensure test suites satisfying the metric outperform randomly generated test suites of similar size and (2) that test suites satisfying more rigorous coverage metrics provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying less rigorous coverage metrics.

  4. Conventional Tests and Testing for Early Intervention Eligibility: Is There an Evidence Base?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Marisa; Bagnato, Stephen J.; Macy, Robert S.; Salaway, Jen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional tests and testing procedures are used predominately to determine eligibility for early intervention and early childhood special education programs and services. Such traditional tests must have critical attributes to ensure accurate and representative measurements of the capabilities of infants, toddlers, and preschool children who…

  5. Effects of Computer-Based Test Administrations on Test Anxiety and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lombard, Danielle

    1998-01-01

    Examines the degree to which computer and test anxiety have a predictive role in performance across three computer-administered placement tests. Subjects (72 undergraduate students) were measured with the Computer Anxiety Rating Scale, the Test Anxiety Inventory, and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Results suggest that much of what is considered…

  6. Ground-based testing and demonstrations of starshades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harness, Anthony; Warwick, Steve; Shipley, Ann; Cash, Webster

    2016-07-01

    The direct detection and characterization of an Earth-like exoplanet is of the highest scientific priority and a leading technology that will enable such discovery is the starshade external occulter. We report on the latest results in ground-based efforts for demonstrating and advancing the technology of starshades. Using the McMath- Pierce Solar Telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, we are able to track stars as they move across the night sky and stabilize a beam of starlight behind a starshade. This has allowed us to conduct the first astronomical observations achieving high-contrast with starshades. In our latest efforts, we have extended the separation between the starshade and telescope to reach an inner working angle of 10 arcseconds at a flight-like Fresnel number and resolution. In this report, we detail the development of a closed-loop feedback system to further stabilize the beam at the extended baseline and provide results on the contrast achieved. We conclude by laying out future work to design a dedicated siderostat-starshade facility for future testing of and observations with starshades. Our main result: we achieved a broadband contrast ratio of 3:2 x 10-5 at 15 arcseconds IWA, while at a flight-like Fresnel number and resolution.

  7. Kinship Testing Based on SNPs Using Microarray System

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sohee; Seo, Hee Jin; Lee, Jihyun; Yu, Hyung Jin; Lee, Soong Deok

    2016-01-01

    Background Kinship testing using biallelic SNP markers has been demonstrated to be a promising approach as a supplement to standard STR typing, and several systems, such as pyrosequencing and microarray, have been introduced and utilized in real forensic cases. The Affymetrix microarray containing 169 autosomal SNPs developed for forensic application was applied to our practical case for kinship analysis that had remained inconclusive due to partial STR profiles of degraded DNA and possibility of inbreeding within the population. Case Report 169 autosomal SNPs were typed on array with severely degraded DNA of two bone samples, and the kinship compared to genotypes in a reference database of their putative family members. Results Two bone samples remained unidentified through traditional STR typing with partial profiles of 10 or 14 of 16 alleles. Because these samples originated from a geographically isolated population, a cautious approach was required when analyzing and declaring true paternity only based on PI values. In a supplementary SNP typing, 106 and 78 SNPs were obtained, and the match candidates were found in each case with improved PI values than using only STRs and with no discrepant SNPs in comparison. Conclusion Our case showed that the utility of multiple SNPs on array is expected in practical forensic caseworks with an establishment of reference database. PMID:27994531

  8. Rapid Bead-Based Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing by Optical Diffusometry

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chih-Yao; Wang, Jhih-Cheng; Chuang, Han-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This study combined optical diffusometry and bead-based immunoassays to develop a novel technique for quantifying the growth of specific microorganisms and achieving rapid AST. Diffusivity rises when live bacteria attach to particles, resulting in additional energy from motile microorganisms. However, when UV-sterilized (dead) bacteria attach to particles, diffusivity declines. The experimental data are consistent with the theoretical model predicted according to the equivalent volume diameter. Using this diffusometric platform, the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the antibiotic gentamicin was tested. The result suggests that the proliferation of bacteria is effectively controlled by gentamicin. This study demonstrated a sensitive (one bacterium on single particles) and time-saving (within 2 h) platform with a small sample volume (~0.5 μL) and a low initial bacteria count (50 CFU per droplet ~ 105 CFU/mL) for quantifying the growth of microorganisms depending on Brownian motion. The technique can be applied further to other bacterial strains and increase the success of treatments against infectious diseases in the near future. PMID:26863001

  9. Subject Load-Harness Interaction During Zero-Gravity Treadmill Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrory, Jean L.; Baron, Heidi A.; Derr, Janice A.; Davis, Brian L.; Cavanagh, Peter R.

    1996-01-01

    When astronauts exercise on orbit, a subject load device (SLD) must be used to return the subject back to the supporting surface. The load in the SLD needs to be transferred the body by a harness which typically distributes this load between the pelvis and We shoulders. Through the use of a zero-gravity simulator, this research compared subject comfort and ground reaction forces during treadmill running at three levels of subject load (60%,80%, and 100% of body weight) in two harness designs ("shoulder only" and "waist "and shoulder ").

  10. An Integrated Approach to Functional Engineering: An Engineering Database for Harness, Avionics and Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, Annamaria; Malucchi, Giovanni

    2012-08-01

    In the design and development phase of a new program one of the critical aspects is the integration of all the functional requirements of the system and the control of the overall consistency between the identified needs on one side and the available resources on the other side, especially when both the required needs and available resources are not yet consolidated, but they are evolving as the program maturity increases.The Integrated Engineering Harness Avionics and Software database (IDEHAS) is a tool that has been developed to support this process in the frame of the Avionics and Software disciplines through the different phases of the program. The tool is in fact designed to allow an incremental build up of the avionics and software systems, from the description of the high level architectural data (available in the early stages of the program) to the definition of the pin to pin connectivity information (typically consolidated in the design finalization stages) and finally to the construction and validation of the detailed telemetry parameters and commands to be used in the test phases and in the Mission Control Centre. The key feature of this approach and of the associated tool is that it allows the definition and the maintenance / update of all these data in a single, consistent environment.On one side a system level and concurrent approach requires the feasibility to easily integrate and update the best data available since the early stages of a program in order to improve confidence in the consistency and to control the design information.On the other side, the amount of information of different typologies and the cross-relationships among the data imply highly consolidated structures requiring lot of checks to guarantee the data content consistency with negative effects on simplicity and flexibility and often limiting the attention to special needs and to the interfaces with other disciplines.

  11. An effective BIST scheme for SRAM full speed test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Yue; Zheng, Jianbin; Song, Xiaoyu

    2011-09-01

    This article presents a novel built-in self-test (BIST) scheme at full speed test where access time test is performed. Based on normal BIST circuits, we harness an all digital phase locked loop to generate a high-frequency clock for static random access memory (SRAM) performance test at full speed. A delay chain is incorporated to achieve the four-phase clock. As inputs to SRAM, clock, address, data are generated in terms of the four-phase clock. Key performance parameters, such as access time, address setup and hold times, are measured. The test chip has been fabricated by United Microelectronics Corporation 55 nm CMOS logic standard process. According to test results, the maximum test frequency is about 1.3 GHz, and the test precision is about 35 ps at the typical process corner with supply voltage 1.0 V and temperature 25°C.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 173 - Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing C... Base-level Vibration Testing Base-level vibration testing shall be conducted as follows: 1. Three... platform. 4. Immediately following the period of vibration, each package shall be removed from the...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 173 - Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing C... Base-level Vibration Testing Base-level vibration testing shall be conducted as follows: 1. Three... platform. 4. Immediately following the period of vibration, each package shall be removed from the...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 173 - Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing C... Base-level Vibration Testing Base-level vibration testing shall be conducted as follows: 1. Three... platform. 4. Immediately following the period of vibration, each package shall be removed from the...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 173 - Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing C... Base-level Vibration Testing Base-level vibration testing shall be conducted as follows: 1. Three... platform. 4. Immediately following the period of vibration, each package shall be removed from the...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 173 - Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing C... Base-level Vibration Testing Base-level vibration testing shall be conducted as follows: 1. Three... platform. 4. Immediately following the period of vibration, each package shall be removed from the...

  17. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  18. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  19. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  20. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  1. 46 CFR 162.060-26 - Land-based testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land-based testing requirements. 162.060-26 Section 162... Land-based testing requirements. (a) Each ballast water management system (BWMS) must undergo land..., see § 162.060-5). The land-based testing will determine if the biological efficacy of the BWMS...

  2. Using Computer-Based Testing as Alternative Assessment Method of Student Learning in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapriati, Amalia; Zuhairi, Aminudin

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: (1) students' inability to sit for the scheduled test; (2) conflicting test…

  3. Some Useful Cost-Benefit Criteria for Evaluating Computer-Based Test Delivery Models and Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecht, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    Computer-based testing (CBT) is typically implemented using one of three general test delivery models: (1) multiple fixed testing (MFT); (2) computer-adaptive testing (CAT); or (3) multistage testing (MSTs). This article reviews some of the real cost drivers associated with CBT implementation--focusing on item production costs, the costs…

  4. Volatility in School Test Scores: Implications for Test-Based Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.

    2002-01-01

    By the spring of 2000, forty states had begun using student test scores to rate school performance. Twenty states have gone a step further and are attaching explicit monetary rewards or sanctions to a school's test performance. In this paper, the authors focus on accountability programs in which states measure the effectiveness of individual…

  5. The pseudonoise test set: Communication system's performance evaluation based upon RMS error testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, G. R.; Gussow, S. S.; Salter, W. E.; Weathers, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    A pseudonoise (PN) test set was built to provide a relatively easy means of accurately determining the end-to-end rms error introduced by a communication system when subjected to wideband data. It utilizes a filtered pseudorandom sequence generator as a wideband data source, providing a convenient means for digitally delaying the input reference signal for comparison with the distorted test communication system output. In addition to providing a means to measure the end-to-end rms error and the average delay of a communication system, the PN test set also provides a means to determine the tested system's impulse response and correlation function. The theory of PN testing is discussed in detail along with the most difficult aspects of implementation, the building of matched filter pairs. Both analytical and empirical results are reported which support the contentions that this is an accurate and practical way to acquire figures of merit for complete communication systems.

  6. Colorimetric evaluation of iPhone apps for colour vision tests based on the Ishihara test.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; AlMerdef, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Given the versatility of smart phone displays, it was inevitable that applications (apps) providing colour vision testing would appear as an option. In this study, the colorimetric characteristics of five available iPhone apps for colour vision testing are assessed as a prequel to possible clinical evaluation. The colours of the displays produced by the apps are assessed with reference to the colours of a printed Ishihara test. The visual task is assessed on the basis of the colour differences and the alignment to the dichromatic confusion lines. The apps vary in quality and while some are colorimetrically acceptable, there are also some problems with their construction in making them a clinically useful app rather than curiosity driven self-testing. There is no reason why, in principle, a suitable test cannot be designed for smart phones.

  7. A Nugget-Based Test Collection Construction Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajput, Shahzad K.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of building test collections is central to the development of information retrieval systems such as search engines. The primary use of test collections is the evaluation of IR systems. The widely employed "Cranfield paradigm" dictates that the information relevant to a topic be encoded at the level of documents, therefore…

  8. A Probability Based Framework for Testing the Missing Data Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Johnny Cheng-Han

    2013-01-01

    Many methods exist for imputing missing data but fewer methods have been proposed to test the missing data mechanism. Little (1988) introduced a multivariate chi-square test for the missing completely at random data mechanism (MCAR) that compares observed means for each pattern with expectation-maximization (EM) estimated means. As an alternative,…

  9. Confidence Testing for Knowledge-Based Global Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Shymansky, James A.

    2009-01-01

    This proposal advocates the position that the use of confidence wagering (CW) during testing can predict the accuracy of a student's test answer selection during between-subject assessments. Data revealed female students were more favorable to taking risks when making CW and less inclined toward risk aversion than their male counterparts. Student…

  10. Tests of Fit Based on the Correlation Coefficient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-04

    function. Regional Conference Series in Appl. Math., 9. Philadelphia: SIAM. 2. Gerlach, B., (1979). A consistent correlation-type goodness-of-fit test; with...the distribution of quadratic forms in normal variables. Biometrika, 48, 419-426. 4. Sarkadi, K., (1975). The consistency of the Shapiro- Francia test

  11. Heritability in Cognitive Performance: Evidence Using Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervey, Aaron S.; Greenfield, Kathryn; Gualtieri, C. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence of genetic influence on cognition. The effect is seen in general cognitive ability, as well as in specific cognitive domains. A conventional assessment approach using face-to-face paper and pencil testing is difficult for large-scale studies. Computerized neurocognitive testing is a suitable alternative. A total of…

  12. Training Senior Teachers in Compulsory Computer Based Language Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Royo, Teresa Magal

    2009-01-01

    The IBT TOEFL has become the principal example of online high stakes language testing since 2005. Most instructors who do the preparation for IBT TOEFL face two main realities: first, students are eager and highly motivated to take the test because of the prospective implications; and, second, specific studies would be necessary to see if…

  13. A Rank-Based Test for Comparison of Multidimensional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aiyi; Li, Qizhai; Liu, Chunling; Yu, Kai; Yu, Kai F.

    2011-01-01

    For comparison of multiple outcomes commonly encountered in biomedical research, Huang et al. (2005) improved O’Brien’s (1984) rank-sum tests through the replacement of the ad hoc variance by the asymptotic variance of the test statistics. The improved tests control the Type I error rate at the desired level and gain power when the differences between the two comparison groups in each outcome variable fall into the same direction. However, they may lose power when the differences are in different directions (e.g., some are positive and some are negative). These tests and the popular Bonferroni correction failed to show important significant difference when applied to compare heart rates from a clinical trial to evaluate the effect of a procedure to remove the cardioprotective solution HTK. We propose an alternative test statistic, taking the maximum of the individual rank-sum statistics, which controls the type I error and maintains satisfactory power regardless of the directions of the differences. Simulation studies show the proposed test to be of higher power than other tests in certain alternative parameter space of interest. Furthermore, when used to analyze the heart rates data the proposed test yields more satisfactory results. PMID:21625372

  14. Harnessing Solar Energy Using Photosynthetic and Organic Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Toby Ryan

    Fossil fuels are a finite energy resource that must be supplemented or replaced by more stable forms of electrical energy. Solar technology research strives to supplement and provide eventual replacement for fossil fuel technology. This experiment focused on the use of natural pigments as photo-sensitizers in the current generation of solar cells called dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Pigments from purified chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b, crude spinach (Spinacia oleracea) extract, phycocyanin, and chlorophyllin were used to construct DSSCs and evaluated, along with a control containing no pigment, for solar energy conversion. The anode of the solar cells consisted of titanium dioxide (TiO2) plates soaked in pigment solutions for twenty-four hours. The plates were assembled, along with an electrolyte sandwiched between cells, and a platinum-coated counter plate that functioned as the cathode. A gasket seal was placed between the plates and held together with rubber bands. The DSSCs were each tested for a maximum power (Pmax) point and a resistor was selected that corresponded to the resistance at that point. The cells were randomly placed into a power block assembly located in an environmental chamber with lighting that provided an average of 27,590 lumens at the surface of DSSCs. With appropriate resistors in place, the cells were subjected to twelve-hour days and twelve-hour nights for ten days, and measurements were recorded every ten minutes. Data were collected to obtain values for voltage in millivolts (mV), current in microamps (microA), and power in microwatts (microW), as well as beginning and ending efficiencies in converting light to usable energy. Voltages were substantially higher during the day than at night for all pigments, except for the control, indicating that the pigments functioned as DSSCs. Hence, only daytime values were used for data analysis. Voltage during the ten-day experiment ranged from 3.99 to 274 mV; current ranged

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] to Measure Respiratory Responses to Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailstone, Jono; Kilding, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] (Zephyr Technology, Auckland, New Zealand) is a wireless physiological monitoring system that has the ability to measure respiratory rate unobtrusively. However, the ability of the BioHarness[TM] to accurately and reproducibly determine respiratory rate across a range of intensities is currently unknown. The aim of…

  16. Shared Decision Making: Harnessing the Energy of People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Sue E.

    1989-01-01

    As interest in school-based management grows and the number of efforts increases, the gap between the strategy's potential and its realization is being explored. Although school-based management may stimulate a redistribution of informal power or influence, there is little evidence that significant, long-lasting, or widespread changes are…

  17. Language Teaching in a Globalised World: Harnessing Linguistic Super-Diversity in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruen, Jennifer; Kelly, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    The student body is becoming increasingly diverse in terms of language, nationality and cultural background. This study explores ways in which such linguistic diversity can be harnessed in the language classroom to enhance the language learning process. This paper describes a series of activities which were designed and implemented in four higher…

  18. The Facebook-in-Action: Challenging, Harnessing and Enhancing Students Class Assignments and Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saifudin, Adam Mohd; Yacob, Aizan; Saad, Rohaizah

    2016-01-01

    Issues of universities students harnessing and capitalizing the usage of Facebook for their own learning capabilities and effective thinking is always the focus of education scholars, in assessing the quality class assignments and projects produced by them. Therefore, Facebook is now becoming unbearable influence since the internet activation in…

  19. 42 CFR 84.73 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.73 Section 84.73 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  20. 42 CFR 84.116 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.116 Section 84.116 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1133 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.1133 Section 84.1133 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  2. 14 CFR 105.43 - Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of single-harness, dual-parachute... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Parachute Equipment and... been packed within 180 days before the date of its use by a certificated parachute rigger, the...

  3. Harnessing the power of big data: infusing the scientific method with machine learning to transform ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most efforts to harness the power of big data for ecology and environmental sciences focus on data and metadata sharing, standardization, and accuracy. However, many scientists have not accepted the data deluge as an integral part of their research because the current scientific method is not scalab...

  4. After the electronic field: structure, bonding, and the first hyperpolarizability of HArF.

    PubMed

    Wu, Heng-Qing; Zhong, Rong-Lin; Kan, Yu-He; Sun, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Min; Xu, Hong-Liang; Su, Zhong-Min

    2013-04-30

    In this work, we add different strength of external electric field (E(ext)) along molecule axis (Z-axis) to investigate the electric field induced effect on HArF structure. The H-Ar bond is the shortest at E(ext) = -189 × 10(-4) and the Ar-F bond show shortest value at E(ext) = 185 × 10(-4) au. Furthermore, the wiberg bond index analyses show that with the variation of HArF structure, the covalent bond H-Ar shows downtrend (ranging from 0.79 to 0.69) and ionic bond Ar-F shows uptrend (ranging from 0.04 to 0.17). Interestingly, the natural bond orbital analyses show that the charges of F atom range from -0.961 to -0.771 and the charges of H atoms range from 0.402 to 0.246. Due to weakened charge transfer, the first hyperpolarizability (β(tot)) can be modulated from 4078 to 1087 au. On the other hand, make our results more useful to experimentalists, the frequency-dependent first hyperpolarizabilities were investigated by the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fork method. We hope that this work may offer a new idea for application of noble-gas hydrides.

  5. 42 CFR 84.73 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.73 Section 84.73 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  6. 42 CFR 84.116 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.116 Section 84.116 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  7. 42 CFR 84.73 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.73 Section 84.73 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  8. 42 CFR 84.73 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.73 Section 84.73 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  9. 42 CFR 84.73 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.73 Section 84.73 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  10. 42 CFR 84.116 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.116 Section 84.116 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  11. 42 CFR 84.116 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.116 Section 84.116 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  12. 42 CFR 84.116 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.116 Section 84.116 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  13. Pressure distribution under three different types of harnesses used for guide dogs.

    PubMed

    Peham, C; Limbeck, S; Galla, K; Bockstahler, B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pressure distribution under three different types of harnesses used for guide dogs (designated H1, H2 and H3). The dogs (n = 8) led a trainer through a course including a range of exercises (straight line, curve left, curve right, upstairs and downstairs). All dogs were clinically sound and showed no sign of lameness. The pressures beneath the harnesses were determined by sensor strips and related to the gait. In all harnesses, the highest pressures were found in the right sternal region (H1 2.02 ± 0.6N/cm(2); H2 1.76 ± 0.4N/cm(2); H3 1.14 ± 0.5 N/cm(2)). In all other regions, the pressures were in the range of 0-1.32 N/cm(2). The right and left sternal regions were almost constantly loaded. Contrary to previous assumptions, the back regions had minimal loading. This investigation demonstrated that there were significant differences among the harnesses.

  14. Kinematic assessment of treadmill running using different body-weight support harnesses.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane; Levy, Morris; Matack, Nicholas

    2006-10-01

    10 male collegiate runners (M age = 21.4, SD = 1.5 yr.) ran on a treadmill with no body-weight support (BWS), 20% BWS, and 40% BWS conditions. In addition, they wore three different commercially available harnesses at the 20% and 40% BWS conditions. The aim was to run on the treadmill at a fast speed while maintaining an adequate step length. The purpose was to investigate how each harness changed running gait, and the differences in running gait between the harnesses with various body-weight support. Analysis of variance indicated significant restriction of upper body torso rotation between the harnesses at the 40% BWS conditions. Body-weight support resulted in a longer stride, decreased cadence, less vertical displacement of the center of mass, and diminished hip and ankle joint excursions. These changes indicated that increased body-weight support results in longer steps with the foot contacting the belt for a shorter period of time with less leg angular changes throughout the running cycling.

  15. STS-42 Payload Specialist Bondar suspended from parachute harness in JSC WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Payload Specialist Roberta L. Bondar, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), is suspended from her parachute harness over JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool during launch emergency egress exercises. Bondar is representing Canada during the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission aboard OV-103.

  16. Early failure of Pavlik harness treatment for developmental hip dysplasia: clinical and ultrasound predictors.

    PubMed

    Lerman, J A; Emans, J B; Millis, M B; Share, J; Zurakowski, D; Kasser, J R

    2001-01-01

    A cohort of 93 patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) treated with a Pavlik harness were evaluated to determine predictors of treatment failure. Failure was defined as failure to achieve or maintain hip reduction in the Pavlik harness. Of 93 patients (137 hips), 17 (26 hips) failed Pavlik harness treatment. Univariate risk factors for failure included bilaterality, initial clinical exam, and initial ultrasound (US) percent coverage. Clinical exam and initial percent coverage were multivariate risk factors for failure. Among initially clinically dislocatable hips, a low initial US alpha angle correlated with an increased likelihood of failure. All (6/6) patients with an initially irreducible hip and an initial coverage of <20% by US eventually failed treatment. Gender, side of pathology, and age at diagnosis and initiation of treatment did not correlate with failure. Irreducibility by physical exam combined with US coverage of <20% identified a patient group that uniformly failed Pavlik harness treatment. These patients may be candidates for alternative bracing, traction, or closed or open reduction.

  17. Harnessing Sparse and Low-Dimensional Structures for Robust Clustering of Imagery Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Shankar Ramamohan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a robust framework for clustering data. In practice, data obtained from real measurement devices can be incomplete, corrupted by gross errors, or not correspond to any assumed model. We show that, by properly harnessing the intrinsic low-dimensional structure of the data, these kinds of practical problems can be dealt with in a uniform…

  18. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... about in the rotorcraft in normal flight must be padded. (f) Each seat and its supporting structure must..., the headrest and its supporting structure must be designed to resist the inertia forces specified in... structure; and (ii) Each safety belt or harness to the seat or structure. (g) When the safety belt...

  19. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  20. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in the rotorcraft in normal flight must be padded. (f) Each seat and its supporting structure must be..., the headrest and its supporting structure must be designed to resist the inertia forces specified in... structure; and (ii) Each safety belt or harness to the seat or structure. (g) When the safety belt...

  1. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in the rotorcraft in normal flight must be padded. (f) Each seat and its supporting structure must be..., the headrest and its supporting structure must be designed to resist the inertia forces specified in... structure; and (ii) Each safety belt or harness to the seat or structure. (g) When the safety belt...

  2. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  3. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in the rotorcraft in normal flight must be padded. (f) Each seat and its supporting structure must be..., the headrest and its supporting structure must be designed to resist the inertia forces specified in... structure; and (ii) Each safety belt or harness to the seat or structure. (g) When the safety belt...

  4. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  5. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... about in the rotorcraft in normal flight must be padded. (f) Each seat and its supporting structure must..., the headrest and its supporting structure must be designed to resist the inertia forces specified in... structure; and (ii) Each safety belt or harness to the seat or structure. (g) When the safety belt...

  6. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in the rotorcraft in normal flight must be padded. (f) Each seat and its supporting structure must be..., the headrest and its supporting structure must be designed to resist the inertia forces specified in... structure; and (ii) Each safety belt or harness to the seat or structure. (g) When the safety belt...

  7. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  8. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... about in the rotorcraft in normal flight must be padded. (f) Each seat and its supporting structure must..., the headrest and its supporting structure must be designed to resist the inertia forces specified in... structure; and (ii) Each safety belt or harness to the seat or structure. (g) When the safety belt...

  9. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in the rotorcraft in normal flight must be padded. (f) Each seat and its supporting structure must be..., the headrest and its supporting structure must be designed to resist the inertia forces specified in... structure; and (ii) Each safety belt or harness to the seat or structure. (g) When the safety belt...

  10. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... about in the rotorcraft in normal flight must be padded. (f) Each seat and its supporting structure must..., the headrest and its supporting structure must be designed to resist the inertia forces specified in... structure; and (ii) Each safety belt or harness to the seat or structure. (g) When the safety belt...

  11. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  12. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... about in the rotorcraft in normal flight must be padded. (f) Each seat and its supporting structure must..., the headrest and its supporting structure must be designed to resist the inertia forces specified in... structure; and (ii) Each safety belt or harness to the seat or structure. (g) When the safety belt...

  13. Improving Students' Educational Experience by Harnessing Digital Technology: elgg in the ODL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Lai Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Given the rising popularity of both open and distance learning (ODL) and social networking tools, it seems logical to merge and harness these two popular technologies with the goal of improving student educational experience. The integration seems to hold tremendous promise for the open and distance learning mode. To reduce the gap in the…

  14. Harnessing Multivariate Statistics for Ellipsoidal Data in Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, N.; Davis, J. R.; Titus, S.; Tikoff, B.

    2015-12-01

    Most structural geology articles do not state significance levels, report confidence intervals, or perform regressions to find trends. This is, in part, because structural data tend to include directions, orientations, ellipsoids, and tensors, which are not treatable by elementary statistics. We describe a full procedural methodology for the statistical treatment of ellipsoidal data. We use a reconstructed dataset of deformed ooids in Maryland from Cloos (1947) to illustrate the process. Normalized ellipsoids have five degrees of freedom and can be represented by a second order tensor. This tensor can be permuted into a five dimensional vector that belongs to a vector space and can be treated with standard multivariate statistics. Cloos made several claims about the distribution of deformation in the South Mountain fold, Maryland, and we reexamine two particular claims using hypothesis testing: 1) octahedral shear strain increases towards the axial plane of the fold; 2) finite strain orientation varies systematically along the trend of the axial trace as it bends with the Appalachian orogen. We then test the null hypothesis that the southern segment of South Mountain is the same as the northern segment. This test illustrates the application of ellipsoidal statistics, which combine both orientation and shape. We report confidence intervals for each test, and graphically display our results with novel plots. This poster illustrates the importance of statistics in structural geology, especially when working with noisy or small datasets.

  15. [Symptom based approaches in point of care laboratory testing].

    PubMed

    Risch, Lorenz; Senn, Oliver

    2015-02-01

    Point of care testing (POCT) allows, among others, for efficient care of patients presenting with acute problems to primary care physicians. A combination of clinical information and laboratory results enables physicians to obtain posttest probabilities for the presence or absence of a specific disease. In order to rule in or rule out a disease, the physician has to know both the pretest probability for a disease in a patient as well as the analytical and diagnostic characteristics of the employed test. Pretest probability can be assessed by scores or by personal judgment of the experienced clinician. This article presents the basics of the Bayes theorem together with its clinical applications in acute scenarios in primary health care. These scenarios comprise the use of D-Dimer testing in ruling out venous thromboembolism, rapid testing of group A streptococci in the setting of acute pharyngitis, troponin testing in patients with thoracic pain, c-reactive protein (CRP) testing in patients presenting with acute cough and fever, as well as urine dipstick testing in suspected urinary tract infection. These examples illustrate, that risk stratification before conducting laboratory analysis is of utmost importance in order to obtain valid results for ruling in or ruling out diseases in POCT-settings.

  16. Harnessing diversity towards the reconstructing of large scale gene regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Hase, Takeshi; Ghosh, Samik; Yamanaka, Ryota; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating gene regulatory network (GRN) from large scale experimental data remains a central challenge in systems biology. Recently, numerous techniques, particularly consensus driven approaches combining different algorithms, have become a potentially promising strategy to infer accurate GRNs. Here, we develop a novel consensus inference algorithm, TopkNet that can integrate multiple algorithms to infer GRNs. Comprehensive performance benchmarking on a cloud computing framework demonstrated that (i) a simple strategy to combine many algorithms does not always lead to performance improvement compared to the cost of consensus and (ii) TopkNet integrating only high-performance algorithms provide significant performance improvement compared to the best individual algorithms and community prediction. These results suggest that a priori determination of high-performance algorithms is a key to reconstruct an unknown regulatory network. Similarity among gene-expression datasets can be useful to determine potential optimal algorithms for reconstruction of unknown regulatory networks, i.e., if expression-data associated with known regulatory network is similar to that with unknown regulatory network, optimal algorithms determined for the known regulatory network can be repurposed to infer the unknown regulatory network. Based on this observation, we developed a quantitative measure of similarity among gene-expression datasets and demonstrated that, if similarity between the two expression datasets is high, TopkNet integrating algorithms that are optimal for known dataset perform well on the unknown dataset. The consensus framework, TopkNet, together with the similarity measure proposed in this study provides a powerful strategy towards harnessing the wisdom of the crowds in reconstruction of unknown regulatory networks.

  17. A REFORMULATED, RECONSTITUTED WATER FOR TESTING THE FRESHWATER AMPHIPOD, HYALELLA AZTECA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity testing with the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, has routinely been conducted using nonstandard waters. Four waters tested for acceptability for aqueous reference toxicant testing with H. azteca. These included three formulated (standardized) waters: moderately har...

  18. A computer-controlled color vision test for children based on the Cambridge Colour Test.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Paulo R K; Bandeira, Marcio L; Tsubota, Daniela; Oiwa, Nestor N; Costa, Marcelo F; Ventura, Dora F

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at providing conditions for the assessment of color discrimination in children using a modified version of the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT, Cambridge Research Systems Ltd., Rochester, UK). Since the task of indicating the gap of the Landolt C used in that test proved counterintuitive and/or difficult for young children to understand, we changed the target stimulus to a patch of color approximately the size of the Landolt C gap (about 7 degrees of visual angle at 50 cm from the monitor). The modifications were performed for the CCT Trivector test which measures color discrimination for the protan, deutan and tritan confusion lines. Experiment 1 sought to evaluate the correspondence between the CCT and the child-friendly adaptation with adult subjects (n = 29) with normal color vision. Results showed good agreement between the two test versions. Experiment 2 tested the child-friendly software with children 2 to 7 years old (n = 25) using operant training techniques for establishing and maintaining the subjects' performance. Color discrimination thresholds were progressively lower as age increased within the age range tested (2 to 30 years old), and the data--including those obtained for children--fell within the range of thresholds previously obtained for adults with the CCT. The protan and deutan thresholds were consistently lower than tritan thresholds, a pattern repeatedly observed in adults tested with the CCT. The results demonstrate that the test is fit for assessment of color discrimination in young children and may be a useful tool for the establishment of color vision thresholds during development.

  19. Towards Risk-Based Test Protocols: Estimating the Contribution of Intensive Testing to the UK Bovine Tuberculosis Problem

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Eradicating disease from livestock populations involves the balancing act of removing sufficient numbers of diseased animals without removing too many healthy individuals in the process. As ever more tests for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) are carried out on the UK cattle herd, and each positive herd test triggers more testing, the question arises whether ‘false positive’ results contribute significantly to the measured BTB prevalence. Here, this question is explored using simple probabilistic models of test behaviour. When the screening test is applied to the average UK herd, the estimated proportion of test-associated false positive new outbreaks is highly sensitive to small fluctuations in screening test specificity. Estimations of this parameter should be updated as a priority. Once outbreaks have been confirmed in screening-test positive herds, the following rounds of intensive testing with more sensitive, albeit less specific, tests are highly likely to remove large numbers of false positive animals from herds. Despite this, it is unlikely that significantly more truly infected animals are removed. BTB test protocols should become based on quantified risk in order to prevent the needless slaughter of large numbers of healthy animals. PMID:23717517

  20. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  1. Multifunction tests of a frequency domain based flutter suppression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David M.; Adams, William M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The process is described of analysis, design, digital implementation, and subsonic testing of an active control flutter suppression system for a full span, free-to-roll wind tunnel model of an advanced fighter concept. The design technique uses a frequency domain representation of the plant and used optimization techniques to generate a robust multi input/multi output controller. During testing in a fixed-in-roll configuration, simultaneous suppression of both symmetric and antisymmetric flutter was successfully shown. For a free-to-roll configuration, symmetric flutter was suppressed to the limit of the tunnel test envelope. During aggressive rolling maneuvers above the open-loop flutter boundary, simultaneous flutter suppression and maneuver load control were demonstrated. Finally, the flutter damping controller was reoptimized overnight during the test using combined experimental and analytical frequency domain data, resulting in improved stability robustness.

  2. Heritability in cognitive performance: evidence using computer-based testing.

    PubMed

    Hervey, Aaron S; Greenfield, Kathryn; Gualtieri, C Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence of genetic influence on cognition. The effect is seen in general cognitive ability, as well as in specific cognitive domains. A conventional assessment approach using face-to-face paper and pencil testing is difficult for large-scale studies. Computerized neurocognitive testing is a suitable alternative. A total of 267 parent-child dyads were selected from a larger database of computerized neurocognitive test results. Correlations were determined between parent-child dyads, as well as matched parent-child dyads. Univariate regression analyses were estimated to determine the extent to which children's performance could be accounted for by that of their parents, compared with matched control parents. Multiple significant positive correlations in neurocognitive test performance were found in parent-child dyads. Parent performance accounted for a greater proportion of variability in every case. These findings indicated that a computerized neurocognitive battery is an effective tool for studying heritability in cognitive performance in a large sample.

  3. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  4. Testing-Based Compiler Validation for Synchronous Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garoche, Pierre-Loic; Howar, Falk; Kahsai, Temesghen; Thirioux, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel lightweight approach to validate compilers for synchronous languages. Instead of verifying a compiler for all input programs or providing a fixed suite of regression tests, we extend the compiler to generate a test-suite with high behavioral coverage and geared towards discovery of faults for every compiled artifact. We have implemented and evaluated our approach using a compiler from Lustre to C.

  5. A goodness-of-fit test of student distributions based on Rényi entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequesne, Justine

    2015-01-01

    The non-standard Student distributions maximize Rényi entropy among all distributions having a fixed variance. Based on this maximum entropy property, we construct a goodness-of-fit test for testing composite null hypotheses of the non-standard Student distributions. The proposed test thus generalizes the goodness-of-fit tests based on Shannon entropy introduced by O. Vasicek in 1976 for testing normality.

  6. Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnage, J. J.; Kennedy, R. S.; Smith, M. G.; Baltzley, D. R.; Lane, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of the deleterious effects of various toxic chemicals and drugs at home and in the workplace. The collective goal of the research reported here is the development of a menu of tests embedded in a coherent package of hardware and software that may be useful in repeated-measures studies of a broad range of agents that can degrade human performance. A menu of 40 tests from the Automated Performance Test System (APTS) is described, and the series of interlocking studies supporting its development is reviewed. The APTS tests, which run on several versions of laptop portables and desktop personal computers, have been shown to be stable, reliable, and factorially rich, and to have predictive validities with holistic measures of intelligence and simulator performances. In addition, sensitivity studies have been conducted in which performance changes due to stressors, agents, and treatments were demonstrated. We believe that tests like those described here have prospective use as an adjunct to urine testing for the screening for performance loss of individuals who are granted access to workplaces and stations that impact public safety.

  7. Enhanced ground-based vibration testing for aerodynamic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daborn, P. M.; Ind, P. R.; Ewins, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Typical methods of replicating aerodynamic environments in the laboratory are generally poor. A structure which flies "freely" in its normal operating environment, excited over its entire external surface by aerodynamic forces and in all directions simultaneously, is then subjected to a vibration test in the laboratory whilst rigidly attached to a high impedance shaker and excited by forces applied through a few attachment points and in one direction only. The two environments could hardly be more different. The majority of vibration testing is carried out at commercial establishments and it is understandable that little has been published which demonstrates the limitations with the status quo. The primary objective of this research is to do just that with a view to identifying significant improvements in vibration testing in light of modern technology. In this paper, case studies are presented which highlight some of the limitations with typical vibration tests showing that they can lead to significant overtests, sometimes by many orders of magnitude, with the level of overtest varying considerably across a wide range of frequencies. This research shows that substantial benefits can be gained by "freely" suspending the structure in the laboratory and exciting it with a relatively small number of electrodynamic shakers using Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) control technology. The shaker configuration can be designed to excite the modes within the bandwidth utilising the inherent amplification of the resonances to achieve the desired response levels. This free-free MIMO vibration test approach is shown to result in substantial benefits that include extremely good replication of the aerodynamic environment and significant savings in time as all axes are excited simultaneously instead of the sequential X, Y and Z testing required with traditional vibration tests. In addition, substantial cost savings can be achieved by replacing some expensive large shaker systems

  8. Feasibility of a Computer-Based Intervention Addressing Barriers to HIV Testing Among Young Patients Who Decline Tests at Triage.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Ian David; Cleland, Charles M; Perlman, David C; Rajan, Sonali; Sun, Wendy; Bania, Theodore C

    2016-09-01

    Young people face greatly increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and high rates of undiagnosed HIV, yet are unlikely to test. Many also have limited or inconsistent access to health care, including HIV testing and prevention education, and prior research has documented that youth lack knowledge necessary to understand the HIV test process and to interpret test results. Computer-based interventions have been used to increase HIV test rates and knowledge among emergency department (ED) patients, including those who decline tests offered at triage. However, patients aged 18-24 years have been less likely to test, even after completing an intervention, compared to older patients in the same ED setting. The current pilot study sought to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new tablet-based video intervention designed to address established barriers to testing among ED patients aged 18-24 years. In particular, we examined whether young ED patients would: agree to receive the intervention; complete it quickly enough to avoid disrupting clinical workflows; accept HIV tests offered by the intervention; demonstrate increased postintervention knowledge; and report they found the intervention acceptable. Over 4 weeks, we recruited 100 patients aged 18-24 in a high-volume urban ED; all of them declined HIV tests offered at triage. Almost all (98%) completed the intervention (mean time <9 mins), 30% accepted HIV tests offered by the tablets. Knowledge was significantly higher after than before the intervention (t = -6.67, p < .001) and patients reported generally high acceptability. Additional research appears warranted to increase postintervention HIV testing.

  9. Development of Methods to Predict the Effects of Test Media in Ground-Based Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.; Parker, Peter A.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Chelliah, Harsha K.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Givi, Peyman; Hassan, Hassan A.

    2009-01-01

    This report discusses work that began in mid-2004 sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Test & Evaluation/Science & Technology (T&E/S&T) Program. The work was undertaken to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the effects of the test media on the flameholding characteristics in scramjet engines. The program had several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. This report provides details of the completed work, involving the development of phenomenological models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes, large-eddy simulation techniques and reduced-kinetics models. Experiments that provided data for the modeling efforts are also described, along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data.

  10. Predicting the Effects of Test Media in Ground-Based Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Gaffney, Richard L.; Parker, Peter A.; Chelliah, Harsha K.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Givi, Peyman; Hassan, Hassan, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of work which began in mid-2004 sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Test & Evaluation/Science & Technology (T&E/S&T) Program. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the effects of the test media on the flameholding characteristics in scramjet engines. The program has several components including the development of advance algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work involving the development of phenomenological models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes, large-eddy simulation techniques and reduced-kinetics models. Experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts will also be described, along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data.

  11. Selecting single model in combination forecasting based on cointegration test and encompassing test.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuanjin; Zhang, Jing; Song, Fugen

    2014-01-01

    Combination forecasting takes all characters of each single forecasting method into consideration, and combines them to form a composite, which increases forecasting accuracy. The existing researches on combination forecasting select single model randomly, neglecting the internal characters of the forecasting object. After discussing the function of cointegration test and encompassing test in the selection of single model, supplemented by empirical analysis, the paper gives the single model selection guidance: no more than five suitable single models can be selected from many alternative single models for a certain forecasting target, which increases accuracy and stability.

  12. Selecting Single Model in Combination Forecasting Based on Cointegration Test and Encompassing Test

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chuanjin; Zhang, Jing; Song, Fugen

    2014-01-01

    Combination forecasting takes all characters of each single forecasting method into consideration, and combines them to form a composite, which increases forecasting accuracy. The existing researches on combination forecasting select single model randomly, neglecting the internal characters of the forecasting object. After discussing the function of cointegration test and encompassing test in the selection of single model, supplemented by empirical analysis, the paper gives the single model selection guidance: no more than five suitable single models can be selected from many alternative single models for a certain forecasting target, which increases accuracy and stability. PMID:24892061

  13. Testing for Software Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ken; Lee, Yann-Hang; Wong, W. Eric; Xu, Dianxiang

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on testing whether or not the hazardous conditions identified by design-level fault tree analysis will occur in the target implementation. Part 1: Integrate fault tree models into functional specifications so as to identify testable interactions between intended behaviors and hazardous conditions. Part 2: Develop a test generator that produces not only functional tests but also safety tests for a target implementation in a cost-effective way. Part 3: Develop a testing environment for executing generated functional and safety tests and evaluating test results against expected behaviors or hazardous conditions. It includes a test harness as well as an environment simulation of external events and conditions.

  14. Harnessing Solid-State Ionic Transport for Nanomanufacturing and Nanodevices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Keng Hao

    2009-01-01

    Through this work a new all-solid, ambient processing condition direct metal patterning technique has been developed and characterized. This ionic-transport-based patterning technique is capable of sub-50nm feature resolution under ambient conditions. It generates features with a rate that is comparable to conventional dry-etching techniques. A…

  15. Thermography Used to Test Conductivity of Carbon Based Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Testing of the ability of carbon fiber to radiatively cool a heat source. The carbon fibers are attached to a heat source. The heat conducts into the fiber than along the fiber away from the heat source. The test are done in a vacuum chamber (10-5 Torr typical). The IR camera is viewing the fiber through a ZnSe window. A thermocouple (TC) in contact with the fiber is at the top right hand side of the area of interest and one is near the bottom. Thin shielding fins, seen edge on, are just above the top thermocouple.

  16. Implementing secure laptop-based testing in an undergraduate nursing program: a case study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jinyuan; Lorentz, B Chris; Hawes, Stacey; Rugless, Fely; Preston, Janice

    2012-07-01

    This article presents the implementation of secure laptop-based testing in an undergraduate nursing program. Details on how to design, develop, implement, and secure tests are discussed. Laptop-based testing mode is also compared with the computer-laboratory-based testing model. Five elements of the laptop-based testing model are illustrated: (1) it simulates the national board examination, (2) security is achievable, (3) it is convenient for both instructors and students, (4) it provides students hands-on practice, (5) continuous technical support is the key.

  17. Microbes at Surface-Air Interfaces: The Metabolic Harnessing of Relative Humidity, Surface Hygroscopicity, and Oligotrophy for Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Wendy; Kroukamp, Otini; Korber, Darren R.; McKelvie, Jennifer; Wolfaardt, Gideon M.

    2016-01-01

    The human environment is predominantly not aqueous, and microbes are ubiquitous at the surface-air interfaces with which we interact. Yet microbial studies at surface-air interfaces are largely survival-oriented, whilst microbial metabolism has overwhelmingly been investigated from the perspective of liquid saturation. This study explored microbial survival and metabolism under desiccation, particularly the influence of relative humidity (RH), surface hygroscopicity, and nutrient availability on the interchange between these two phenomena. The combination of a hygroscopic matrix (i.e., clay or 4,000 MW polyethylene glycol) and high RH resulted in persistent measurable microbial metabolism during desiccation. In contrast, no microbial metabolism was detected at (a) hygroscopic interfaces at low RH, and (b) less hygroscopic interfaces (i.e., sand and plastic/glass) at high or low RH. Cell survival was conversely inhibited at high RH and promoted at low RH, irrespective of surface hygroscopicity. Based on this demonstration of metabolic persistence and survival inhibition at high RH, it was proposed that biofilm metabolic rates might inversely influence whole-biofilm resilience, with ‘resilience’ defined in this study as a biofilm’s capacity to recover from desiccation. The concept of whole-biofilm resilience being promoted by oligotrophy was supported in desiccation-tolerant Arthrobacter spp. biofilms, but not in desiccation-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The ability of microbes to interact with surfaces to harness water vapor during desiccation was demonstrated, and potentially to harness oligotrophy (the most ubiquitous natural condition facing microbes) for adaptation to desiccation. PMID:27746774

  18. The Effect of Computer-Based Tests on Racial-Ethnic and Gender Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ann; Bridgeman, Brent; Cahalan, Cara

    2002-01-01

    Examined data from several national testing programs to determine whether the change from paper-based administration to computer-based tests influences group differences in performance. Results from four college and graduate entrance examinations and a professional licensing test show that African Americans and, to a lesser degree, Hispanics,…

  19. Enhancing a Computer-Based Testing Environment with Optimum Item Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delen, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    As technology has become more advanced and accessible in instructional settings, there has been an upward trend in computer-based testing in the last decades. The present experimental study examines students' behaviors during computer-based testing in two different conditions and explores how these conditions affect the test results. Results…

  20. A Web-Based Learning System for Software Test Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Minhong; Jia, Haiyang; Sugumaran, V.; Ran, Weijia; Liao, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Fierce competition, globalization, and technology innovation have forced software companies to search for new ways to improve competitive advantage. Web-based learning is increasingly being used by software companies as an emergent approach for enhancing the skills of knowledge workers. However, the current practice of Web-based learning is…

  1. Test Standards for Contingency Base Waste-to-Energy Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    In collaboration with the Joint Deployable Waste to Energy (JDW2E) Community of Interest (COI), the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL), and the US...Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center (NSRDEC), Leidos developed test standards for waste-to- energy (WTE) systems applicable to

  2. Improved Accelerated Stress Tests Based on Fuel Cell Vehicle Data

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy; Motupally, Sathya

    2012-06-01

    UTC will led a top-tier team of industry and national laboratory participants to update and improve DOE’s Accelerated Stress Tests (AST’s) for hydrogen fuel cells. This in-depth investigation will focused on critical fuel cell components (e.g. membrane electrode assemblies - MEA) whose durability represented barriers for widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technology. UTC had access to MEA materials that had accrued significant load time under real-world conditions in PureMotion® 120 power plant used in transit buses. These materials are referred to as end-of-life (EOL) components in the rest of this document. Advanced characterization techniques were used to evaluate degradation mode progress using these critical cell components extracted from both bus power plants and corresponding materials tested using the DOE AST’s. These techniques were applied to samples at beginning-of-life (BOL) to serve as a baseline. These comparisons advised the progress of the various failure modes that these critical components were subjected to, such as membrane degradation, catalyst support corrosion, platinum group metal dissolution, and others. Gaps in the existing ASTs predicted the degradation observed in the field in terms of these modes were outlined. Using the gaps, new AST’s were recommended and tested to better reflect the degradation modes seen in field operation. Also, BOL components were degraded in a test vehicle at UTC designed to accelerate the bus field operation.

  3. Live Application Testing: Performance Assessment with Computer-Based Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, James H.; Berkowitz, Nancy F.

    To measure workplace skills more realistically for certification purposes, two computer-delivered performance examinations, termed "Live Application" exams, were developed to test job-related competencies in a specific software product, Lotus Notes. As in the real world, success on examination tasks was determined by the examinee's final…

  4. A Complement to Testing: Skill-Based Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latulippe, Laura; Light, Mary Lu

    The limitations of objectives tests, the language skills needed for university work, and effective ways of appraising and communicating these skills to the university are discussed. The goals of university English as a second language (ESL) programs is to train international students in the linguistic and academic skills they will need in American…

  5. Web-Based Testing Tools for Electrical Engineering Courses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    scored well on the lower levels. The Adaptive format is also employed in the Test of English as a Foreign Language ( TOEFL ®), an examination designed...to measure one’s level of fluency in the English language. The following figure illustrates a page of the TOEFL examination. Note the multiple-choice

  6. Using Video in Web-Based Listening Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo-Ballester, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    With sophisticated multimedia technology, there is a renewed interest in the relationship between visual and auditory channels in assessing listening comprehension (LC). Research on the use of visuals in assessing listening has emerged with inconclusive results. Some learners perform better on tests which include visual input (Wagner, 2007) while…

  7. Reducing the Cost of Risk-based Testing: Management of Testing Options to Manage Risk in Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    International Conference on Engineering of Computer Based Systems ( EBCS 2000) (pp. 393-395). Edinburgh, Scotland: IEEE. Dolk, D. (2000l). Model integration in...end class SystemObject - 46 - SystemObject.java // ====================== // A.3 Module.java Module.java

  8. Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jaw-Shen

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers.

  9. Technological innovations in mental healthcare: harnessing the digital revolution.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Chris; Morriss, Richard; Martin, Jennifer; Amani, Sarah; Cotton, Rebecca; Denis, Mike; Lewis, Shôn

    2015-04-01

    Digital technology has the potential to transform mental healthcare by connecting patients, services and health data in new ways. Digital online and mobile applications can offer patients greater access to information and services and enhance clinical management and early intervention through access to real-time patient data. However, substantial gaps exist in the evidence base underlying these technologies. Greater patient and clinician involvement is needed to evaluate digital technologies and ensure they target unmet needs, maintain public trust and improve clinical outcomes.

  10. An Overview of Computer-Based Testing. Research Notes. RN-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patelis, Thanos

    2000-01-01

    Because different types of computerized tests exist and continue to emerge, the term "computer-based testing" does not encompass all of the various models that may exist. As a result, test delivery model (TDM) is used to describe the variety of methods that exist in delivering tests to examinees. The criterion that is used to distinguish…

  11. Developments and Challenges in the Use of Computer-Based Testing for Assessing Second Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-based testing (CBT) to assess second language ability has undergone remarkable development since Garret (1991) described its purpose as "the computerized administration of conventional tests" in "The Modern Language Journal." For instance, CBT has made possible the delivery of more authentic tests than traditional paper-and-pencil tests.…

  12. Harnessing the privatisation of China's fragmented health-care delivery.

    PubMed

    Yip, Winnie; Hsiao, William

    2014-08-30

    Although China's 2009 health-care reform has made impressive progress in expansion of insurance coverage, much work remains to improve its wasteful health-care delivery. Particularly, the Chinese health-care system faces substantial challenges in its transformation from a profit-driven public hospital-centred system to an integrated primary care-based delivery system that is cost effective and of better quality to respond to the changing population needs. An additional challenge is the government's latest strategy to promote private investment for hospitals. In this Review, we discuss how China's health-care system would perform if hospital privatisation combined with hospital-centred fragmented delivery were to prevail--population health outcomes would suffer; health-care expenditures would escalate, with patients bearing increasing costs; and a two-tiered system would emerge in which access and quality of care are decided by ability to pay. We then propose an alternative pathway that includes the reform of public hospitals to pursue the public interest and be more accountable, with public hospitals as the benchmarks against which private hospitals would have to compete, with performance-based purchasing, and with population-based capitation payment to catalyse coordinated care. Any decision to further expand the for-profit private hospital market should not be made without objective assessment of its effect on China's health-policy goals.

  13. Harnessing ontology and machine learning for RSO classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Yao, Li; Han, Dapeng

    2016-01-01

    Classification is an important part of resident space objects (RSOs) identification, which is a main focus of space situational awareness. Owing to the absence of some features caused by the limited and uncertain observations, RSO classification remains a difficult task. In this paper, an ontology for RSO classification named OntoStar is built upon domain knowledge and machine learning rules. Then data describing RSO are represented by OntoStar. A demo shows how an RSO is classified based on OntoStar. It is also shown in the demo that traceable and comprehensible reasons for the classification can be given, hence the classification can be checked and validated. Experiments on WEKA show that ontology-based classification gains a relatively high accuracy and precision for classifying RSOs. When classifying RSOs with imperfect data, ontology-based classification keeps its performances, showing evident advantages over classical machine learning classifiers who either have increases of 5 % at least in FP rate or have decreases of 5 % at least in indexes such as accuracy, precision and recall.

  14. Harnessing agent technologies for data mining and knowledge discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, Jenifer S.; Wohlschlaeger, Brian

    2000-04-01

    Data mining and knowledge discovery in databases are providing means to analyze and discover new knowledge from large datasets. The growth of the Internet has provided the average user with the ability to more easily access and gather data. Many of the existing data mining tools require users to have advanced knowledge. New graphical-based tools are needed to allow the average user to easily and quickly discover new patterns and trends from heterogenous data. SAIC is developing an agent-based data mining tool called AgentMinertm as part of an internal research project. AgentMinertm will allow the user to perform advanced information retrieval and data mining to discover patterns and relationships across multiple distributed, heterogeneous data sources. The current system prototype utilizes an ontology to define common concepts and data elements that are contained in the distributed data sources. AgentMinertm can access data from relational databases, structured text, web pages, and open text sources. It is a Java-based application that contains a suite of graphical tools such as the Mission Manager, Graphical Ontology Builder (GOB), and Qualified English Interpreter (QEI). In addition, AgentMinertm provides the capability to support both 2-D and 3-D data visualization, including animation across a selected independent variable.

  15. Harnessing Surface Dislocation Networks for Molecular Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Karsten

    2009-03-01

    The controlled fabrication of functional wafer-based nano-arrays is one of the ultimate quests in current nanotechnologies. Well-ordered misfit dislocation networks of ultrathin metal films are viable candidates for the growth of two- dimensional ordered cluster arrays in the nanometer regime. Such bottom-up processes can be very complex, involving collective effects from a large number of atoms. Unraveling the fundamental forces that drive these self-assembly processes requires detailed experimental information at the atomic level of large ensembles of hundreds to thousands of atoms. The combination of variable temperature measurements from our home-built STM correlated with 2D Frenkel-Kontorova models based on first-principle interaction parameters is used to explain how uniform arrays can form with the strain in the thin film as the driving force responsible for the surface self-assembly process. This process is generally applicable to assemble many molecular species thus opening avenues towards complex self-assembled structures based on a lock-and-key type approach. Moreover, when increasing the molecular coverage and/or decreasing the strain in the thin film the intermolecular interactions will eventually dominate the elastic effects and dictate the self-assembly process via molecular structure and functionality. We will show that controlling this delicate balance leads to a richness of structures, ranging from disperse ordered arrays of molecular clusters to patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of functionalized fullerenes and methanethiol.

  16. Development, construct validity and test-retest reliability of a field-based wheelchair mobility performance test for wheelchair basketball.

    PubMed

    de Witte, Annemarie M H; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Berger, Monique A M; van der Slikke, Rienk M A; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of wheelchair basketball matches and expert judgement. Forty-six players performed the test to determine its validity and 23 players performed the test twice for reliability. Independent-samples t-tests were used to assess whether the times needed to complete the test were different for classifications, playing standards and sex. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to quantify reliability of performance times. Males performed better than females (P < 0.001, effect size [ES] = -1.26) and international men performed better than national men (P < 0.001, ES = -1.62). Performance time of low (≤2.5) and high (≥3.0) classification players was borderline not significant with a moderate ES (P = 0.06, ES = 0.58). The reliability was excellent for overall performance time (ICC = 0.95). These results show that the test can be used as a standardised mobility performance test to validly and reliably assess the capacity in mobility performance of elite wheelchair basketball athletes. Furthermore, the described methodology of development is recommended for use in other sports to develop sport-specific tests.

  17. Lay perceptions of predictive testing for diabetes based on DNA test results versus family history assessment: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study assessed lay perceptions of issues related to predictive genetic testing for multifactorial diseases. These perceived issues may differ from the "classic" issues, e.g. autonomy, discrimination, and psychological harm that are considered important in predictive testing for monogenic disorders. In this study, type 2 diabetes was used as an example, and perceptions with regard to predictive testing based on DNA test results and family history assessment were compared. Methods Eight focus group interviews were held with 45 individuals aged 35-70 years with (n = 3) and without (n = 1) a family history of diabetes, mixed groups of these two (n = 2), and diabetes patients (n = 2). All interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas-ti. Results Most participants believed in the ability of a predictive test to identify people at risk for diabetes and to motivate preventive behaviour. Different reasons underlying motivation were considered when comparing DNA test results and a family history risk assessment. A perceived drawback of DNA testing was that diabetes was considered not severe enough for this type of risk assessment. In addition, diabetes family history assessment was not considered useful by some participants, since there are also other risk factors involved, not everyone has a diabetes family history or knows their family history, and it might have a negative influence on family relations. Respect for autonomy of individuals was emphasized more with regard to DNA testing than family history assessment. Other issues such as psychological harm, discrimination, and privacy were only briefly mentioned for both tests. Conclusion The results suggest that most participants believe a predictive genetic test could be used in the prevention of multifactorial disorders, such as diabetes, but indicate points to consider before both these tests are applied. These considerations differ with regard to the method of assessment (DNA test or obtaining

  18. Microcomputer based instrument for measuring a novel pulmonary function test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Brian L.; Craine, Eric R.

    1996-08-01

    The design of a prototype instrument for measuring the end-tidal concentration of carbon monoxide during human respiration is presented. The instrument automatically samples the final sixty cubic centimeters of exhaled breath, from successive breathing cycles, by coordinating a pump and the breathing cycle with a set of vacuum and pressure sensors. The concentration of carbon monoxide is measured using a nondispersive infrared spectrophotometer. The amount of carbon monoxide present is measured relative to the source air concentration eliminating the need for calibrating the instrument. The testing protocol and measurements can be controlled by a microcomputer connected to the instrument through a standard RS-232 serial interface. When at equilibrium, the end-tidal concentration of CO can be measured in a simple and reproducible fashion. This simplified technology allows for the construction of a small, portable, easy to use instrument that will allow the application of this new pulmonary function test at the point of contact with patients.

  19. Relational thinking and relational reasoning: harnessing the power of patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Patricia A.

    2016-05-01

    This article offers an overview of the nature and role of relational thinking and relational reasoning in human learning and performance, both of which pertain to the discernment of meaningful patterns within any informational stream. Distinctions between thinking and reasoning relationally are summarized, along with specific forms of patterning that might be discerned. Next, the article summarizes what is presently known about relational reasoning, and then moves to explore future directions in educational research and in instructional practice that warrant attention based on the empirical literature.

  20. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: harnessing the T cell response.

    PubMed

    Restifo, Nicholas P; Dudley, Mark E; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2012-03-22

    Immunotherapy based on the adoptive transfer of naturally occurring or gene-engineered T cells can mediate tumour regression in patients with metastatic cancer. Here, we discuss progress in the use of adoptively transferred T cells, focusing on how they can mediate tumour cell eradication. Recent advances include more accurate targeting of antigens expressed by tumours and the associated vasculature, and the successful use of gene engineering to re-target T cells before their transfer into the patient. We also describe how new research has helped to identify the particular T cell subsets that can most effectively promote tumour eradication.

  1. RAPID HOME-BASED HIV TESTING TO REDUCE COSTS IN A LARGE TUBERCULOSIS COHORT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Galea, Jerome T; Contreras, Carmen; Lecca, Leonid; Shin, Sonya; Lobatón, Raúl; Zhang, Zibiao; Calderón, Roger; Murray, Megan; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2013-06-21

    To reduce costs in a large tuberculosis household contact cohort study in Lima, Peru, we replaced laboratory-based HIV testing with home-based rapid testing. We developed a protocol and training course to prepare staff for the new strategy; these included role playing for home-based deployment of the Determine® HIV 1/2 Ag/Ac Combo HIV test. Though the rapid HIV test produced more false-positives, the overall cost per participant tested, refusal rate and time to confirmatory HIV testing were lower with the home-based rapid testing strategy compared to the original approach. Rapid testing could be used in similar research or routine care settings.

  2. Significance testing of rules in rule-based models of human problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. M.; Hammer, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Rule-based models of human problem solving have typically not been tested for statistical significance. Three methods of testing rules - analysis of variance, randomization, and contingency tables - are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are also described.

  3. Statistical tests of ARIES data. [very long base interferometry geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical tests are performed on Project ARIES preliminary baseline measurements in the Southern California triangle formed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, and the Goldstone tracking complex during 1976-1980. In addition to conventional one-dimensional tests a two-dimensional test which allows for an arbitrary correlation between errors in individual components is formulated using the Hotelling statistic. On two out of three baselines the mean rate of change in baseline vector is statistically significant. Apparent motions on all three baselines are consistent with a pure shear with north-south compression and east-west expansion of 1 x 10 to the -7th/year. The ARIES measurements are consistent with the USGS geodolite networks in Southern California and the SAFE laser satellite ranging experiment. All three experiments are consistent with a 6 cm/year motion between the Pacific and North American Plates and a band of diffuse shear 300 km wide, except that corresponding rotation of the entire triangle is not found.

  4. Life Cycle Tests on a Hollow Cathode Based Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster with a mission duration of 12 days. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma, and a Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit to the ambient plasma. The HCPC for the ProSEDS mission have made it necessary to turn off the HCPC once a minute throughout the entire mission. Because of the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, an engineering development unit of the HCPC was built to demonstrate the HCPC design would start reliably for the life of the ProSEDS mission. During the life test the engineering unit cycled for over 10,000 on/off cycles without missing a single start, and during that same test the HCPC unit demonstrated the capability to emit 0 to 5 A electron emission current. The performance of the HCPC unit during this life test will be discussed.

  5. Photovoltaics Informatics: Harnessing Energy Science via Data-Driven Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, C.; Munch, K.; Biagioni, D.; Glynn, S.; Scharf, J.; Contreras, M. A.; Perkins, J. D.; Nelson, B. P.; Jones, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss our current research focus on photovoltaic (PV) informatics, which is dedicated to functionality enhancement of solar materials through data management and data mining-aided, integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) for rapid screening and identification of multi-scale processing/structure/property/performance relationships. Our current PV informatics research ranges from transparent conducting oxides (TCO) to solar absorber materials. As a test bed, we report on examples of our current data management system for PV research and advanced data mining to improve the performance of solar cells such as CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) aiming at low-cost and high-rate processes. For the PV data management, we show recent developments of a strategy for data modeling, collection and aggregation methods, and construction of data interfaces, which enable proper archiving and data handling for data mining. For scientific data mining, the value of high-dimensional visualizations and non-linear dimensionality reduction is demonstrated to quantitatively assess how process conditions or properties are interconnected in the context of the development of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films as the TCO layers for CIGS devices. Such relationships between processing and property of TCOs lead to optimal process design toward enhanced performance of CIGS cells/devices.

  6. Harnessing hyperthermostable lactonase from Sulfolobus solfataricus for biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Rémy, Benjamin; Plener, Laure; Poirier, Laetitia; Elias, Mikael; Daudé, David; Chabrière, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Extremozymes have gained considerable interest as they could meet industrial requirements. Among these, SsoPox is a hyperthermostable enzyme isolated from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. This enzyme is a lactonase catalyzing the hydrolysis of acyl-homoserine lactones; these molecules are involved in Gram-negative bacterial communication referred to as quorum sensing. SsoPox exhibits promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity for the degradation of organophosphorous chemicals including insecticides and chemical warfare agents. Owing to its bi-functional catalytic abilities as well as its intrinsic stability, SsoPox is appealing for many applications, having potential uses in the agriculture, defense, food and health industries. Here we investigate the biotechnological properties of the mutant SsoPox-W263I, a variant with increased lactonase and phosphotriesterase activities. We tested enzyme resistance against diverse process-like and operating conditions such as heat resistance, contact with organic solvents, sterilization, storage and immobilization. Bacterial secreted materials from both Gram-negative and positive bacteria were harmless on SsoPox-W263I activity and could reactivate heat-inactivated enzyme. SsoPox showed resistance to harsh conditions demonstrating that it is an extremely attractive enzyme for many applications. Finally, the potential of SsoPox-W263I to be active at subzero temperature is highlighted and discussed in regards to the common idea that hyperthermophile enzymes are nearly inactive at low temperatures. PMID:27876889

  7. "Test kit" for detection of biologically important anions: a salicylidene-hydrazine based Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Dalapati, Sasanka; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Jana, Sankar; Karmakar, Saswati; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-02-01

    Test paper coated with Schiff base [(N,N(/)-bis(5-nitro-salicylidene)hydrazine] receptor 1 (host) can selectively detect fluoride and acetate ions (guest) by developing yellow color which can be detected by naked-eye both in aqueous-acetonitrile solution and in solid supported test kit. UV-vis spectral analysis shows that the absorption peaks at 288 and 345 nm of receptor 1 gradually decrease its initial intensity and new red shifted absorption bands at 397 nm and 455 nm gradually appear upon addition of increasing amount of F(-) and AcO(-) ions over several tested anions such as H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), HSO(4)(-), HSO(3)(-), and ClO(4)(-) in aqueous-acetonitrile solvent. The colorimetric test results and UV-vis spectral analysis are in well agreement with (1)H NMR titration results in d(6)-DMSO solvent. The receptor 1 forms 1:2 stable complexes with F(-) and AcO(-) ions. However, similar kind of observation obtained from UV-vis titrations in presence of AcOH corresponds to 1:1 complexation ratio indicating the formation of H-bonding interaction between the receptor and anions (F(-) and AcO(-) ions). So, the observed 1:2 complexation ratio can only be explained on the basis of deprotonation (∼1 eqv.) and H-bonding (∼1 eqv.) interactions [1]. The ratiometric analysis of host-guest complexes corroborates well with the proposed theoretical model optimization at Density Functional Theory (DFT) level.

  8. ``Test kit'' for detection of biologically important anions: A salicylidene-hydrazine based Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalapati, Sasanka; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Jana, Sankar; Karmakar, Saswati; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-02-01

    Test paper coated with Schiff base [(N,N/-bis(5-nitro-salicylidene)hydrazine] receptor 1 (host) can selectively detect fluoride and acetate ions (guest) by developing yellow color which can be detected by naked-eye both in aqueous-acetonitrile solution and in solid supported test kit. UV-vis spectral analysis shows that the absorption peaks at 288 and 345 nm of receptor 1 gradually decrease its initial intensity and new red shifted absorption bands at 397 nm and 455 nm gradually appear upon addition of increasing amount of F- and AcO- ions over several tested anions such as HPO4-, Cl, Br, I, NO3-, NO2-, HSO4-, HSO3-, and ClO4- in aqueous-acetonitrile solvent. The colorimetric test results and UV-vis spectral analysis are in well agreement with 1H NMR titration results in d6-DMSO solvent. The receptor 1 forms 1:2 stable complexes with F- and AcO- ions. However, similar kind of observation obtained from UV-vis titrations in presence of AcOH corresponds to 1:1 complexation ratio indicating the formation of H-bonding interaction between the receptor and anions (F- and AcO- ions). So, the observed 1:2 complexation ratio can only be explained on the basis of deprotonation (˜1 eqv.) and H-bonding (˜1 eqv.) interactions [1]. The ratiometric analysis of host-guest complexes corroborates well with the proposed theoretical model optimization at Density Functional Theory (DFT) level.

  9. Harnessing: Technologies for Sustainable Reindeer Husbandry in the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein

    2004-01-01

    To accelerate the development of sustainable reindeer husbandry under the lead of indigenous reindeer herders, it is critical to empower reindeer herders with the best available technologies and to promote a new kind of science where traditional knowledge is fully integrated into the scientific management of the natural environment in the Arctic. This is particularly true given the dramatic environmental, climatic, economic, social and industrial changes, which have taken place across the Arctic in recent years, all of which have had serious impacts on the reindeer herding communities of the North. The Anar Declaration, adopted by the 2d World Reindeer Herders Congress (WRHC), in Inari, Finland, June 2001drew guidelines for the development of a sustainable reindeer husbandry based on reindeer peoples values and goals. The declaration calls for the reindeer herding peoples to be given the possibilities to develop and influence the management of the reindeer industry and its natural environment because of their knowledge and traditional practices. At the same time, Arctic scientists from many institutions and governments are carrying out increasingly highly technical reindeer related research activities. It is important that the technologies and results of these activities be more commonly co-produced with the reindeer herder community and/or made more readily available to the reindeer peoples for comparison with traditional knowledge for improved herd management. This paper describes a project in which reindeer herders and scientists are utilizing technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing knowledge. The project, Reindeer Mapper, is creating an information management and knowledge sharing system, which will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. The

  10. Harnessing the potential of epigenetic therapy to target solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Nita; Easwaran, Hariharan; Baylin, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic therapies may play a prominent role in the future management of solid tumors. This possibility is based on the clinical efficacy of existing drugs in treating defined hematopoietic neoplasms, paired with promising new data from preclinical and clinical studies that examined these agents in solid tumors. We suggest that current drugs may represent a targeted therapeutic approach for reprogramming solid tumor cells, a strategy that must be pursued in concert with the explosion in knowledge about the molecular underpinnings of normal and cancer epigenomes. We hypothesize that understanding targeted proteins in the context of their enzymatic and scaffolding functions and in terms of their interactions in complexes with proteins that are targets of new drugs under development defines the future of epigenetic therapies for cancer. PMID:24382390

  11. Harnessing the Interaction Continuum for Subtle Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    García-Herranz, Manuel; Olivera, Fernando; Haya, Pablo; Alamán, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    People interact with each other in many levels of attention, intention and meaning. This Interaction Continuum is used daily to deal with different contexts, adapting the interaction to communication needs and available resources. Nevertheless, computer-supported interaction has mainly focused on the most direct, explicit and intrusive types of human to human Interaction such as phone calls, emails, or video conferences. This paper presents the results of exploring and exploiting the potentials of undemanding interaction mechanisms, paying special attention to subtle communication and background interaction. As we argue the benefits of this type of interaction for people with special needs, we present a theoretical framework to define it and propose a proof of concept based on Augmented Objects and a color codification mechanism. Finally, we evaluate and analyze the strengths and limitations of such approach with people with cognitive disabilities. PMID:23012573

  12. Harnessing the power of the new SMP cluster architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S E; Cohen, R H; Curtis, B C; Dannevik, W P; Dimits, A M; Dinge, D; Eliason, D E; Hodsons, S; Jacobs, M; Mirin, A A; Porter, D H; Ruwart, T; Synne, I; Winkler, K; Woodward, P R

    1999-06-16

    In 1993, members of our team collaborated with Silicon Graphics to perform the first full-scale demonstration of the computational power of the SMP cluster supercomputer architecture. That demonstration involved the simulation of homogeneous, compressible turbulence on a uniform grid of a billion cells, using our PPM gas dynamics code. This computation was embarrassingly parallel, the ideal test case, and it achieved only 4.9 Gflop/s performance, slightly over half that achievable by this application on the most expensive supercomputers of that day. After four to five solid days of computation, when the prototype machine had to be dismantled, the simulation was only about 20% completed. Nevertheless, this computation gave us important new insights into compressible turbulence and also into a powerful new mode of cost-effective, commercially sustainable supercomputing [S]. In the intervening 6 years, the SMP cluster architecture has become a fundamental strategy for several large supercomputer centers in the US, including the DOE's ASCI centers at Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the NSF's center NCSA at the University of Illinois. This SMP cluster architecture now underlies product offerings at the high-end of performance from SGI, IBM, and HP, among others. Nevertheless, despite many successes, it is our opinion that the computational science community is only now beginning to exploit the full promise of these new computing platforms. In this paper, we will briefly discuss two key architectural issues, vector computing and the flat multiprocessor architecture, which continue to drive spirited discussions among computational scientists, and then we will describe the hierarchical shared memory programming paradigm that we feel is best suited to the creative use of SMP cluster systems. Finally, we will give examples of recent large-scale simulations carried out by our team on these kinds of systems and point toward

  13. HIV seropositivity rates in outreach-based counseling and testing services: program evaluation.

    PubMed

    DiFranceisco, W; Holtgrave, D R; Hoxie, N; Reiser, W J; Resenhoeft, R; Pinkerton, S D; Vergeront, J

    1998-11-01

    A common assumption is that outreach-based HIV counseling and testing services reach a clientele with a higher HIV seroprevalence than clinic-based counseling and testing. To examine this assumption, we analyzed Wisconsin's anonymous counseling and testing client records for 62,299 contacts (testing episodes) from 1992 to 1995. Bivariate analysis of counseling and testing service setting (outreach-based or clinic-based) and HIV test results suggested that outreach contacts were 23% (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.0-1.5) more likely to test HIV-seropositive than clinic-based contacts. Relations between HIV test outcome and variables for client age, race, gender, previous testing history, mode of risk exposure, and region, as well as service setting, were examined by logistic regression. An inverted relation between service setting and seropositivity (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.5-0.8) indicated that, within some subpopulations, outreach contacts were significantly less likely to test HIV-positive than clinic-based contacts. Analysis of interactions among the covariates identified race as a critical codeterminant in the relation between service setting and test outcome. These results support retargeting outreach services to enhance their overall effectiveness. Specific recommendations include the need for aggressive strategies to better "market" HIV counseling and testing to nonwhite populations, and to focus resources more selectively on gay/bisexual men of all races.

  14. TTCN-3 Based Conformance Testing of Mobile Broadcast Business Management System in 3G Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiliang; Yin, Xia; Xiang, Yang; Zhu, Ruiping; Gao, Shirui; Wu, Xin; Liu, Shijian; Gao, Song; Zhou, Li; Li, Peng

    Mobile broadcast service is one of the emerging most important new services in 3G networks. To better operate and manage mobile broadcast services, mobile broadcast business management system (MBBMS) should be designed and developed. Such a system, with its distributed nature, complicated XML data and security mechanism, faces many challenges in testing technology. In this paper, we study the conformance testing methodology of MBBMS, and design and implement a MBBMS protocol conformance testing tool based on TTCN-3, a standardized test description language that can be used in black-box testing of reactive and distributed system. In this methodology and testing tool, we present a semi-automatic XML test data generation method of TTCN-3 test suite and use HMSC model to help the design of test suite. In addition, we also propose an integrated testing method for hierarchical MBBMS security architecture. This testing tool has been used in industrial level’s testing.

  15. Toxicity testing: creating a revolution based on new technologies.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, Nirmala; Grindon, Christina; Combes, Robert; Balls, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Biotechnology is evolving at a tremendous rate. Although drug discovery is now heavily focused on high throughput and miniaturized screening, the application of these advances to the toxicological assessment of chemicals and chemical products has been slow. Nevertheless, the impending surge in demands for the regulatory toxicity testing of chemicals provides the impetus for the incorporation of novel methodologies into hazard identification and risk assessment. Here, we review the current and likely future value of these new technologies in relation to toxicological evaluation and the protection of human health.

  16. Validation of Filtration Skid During Land-Based & Shipboard Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-12

    installed and tested aboard the Indiana Harbor operating in the Great Lakes. The Indiana Harbor is owned and operated by the American Steamship Company...TP, Moser, CS, and Grant J (2011) Trip Report: Visit to the American Steamship Company‟s M/V American Integrity and M/V Indiana Harbor for the...TP (2012) Trip Report: Visit to the American Steamship Company‟s M/V Indiana Harbor to Install and Commission a Shipboard Filter Skid (p3SFS) (To

  17. Harnessing Context Sensing to Develop a Mobile Intervention for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Begale, Mark; Duffecy, Jennifer; Gergle, Darren; Karr, Chris J; Giangrande, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Background Mobile phone sensors can be used to develop context-aware systems that automatically detect when patients require assistance. Mobile phones can also provide ecological momentary interventions that deliver tailored assistance during problematic situations. However, such approaches have not yet been used to treat major depressive disorder. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility, functional reliability, and patient satisfaction with Mobilyze!, a mobile phone- and Internet-based intervention including ecological momentary intervention and context sensing. Methods We developed a mobile phone application and supporting architecture, in which machine learning models (ie, learners) predicted patients’ mood, emotions, cognitive/motivational states, activities, environmental context, and social context based on at least 38 concurrent phone sensor values (eg, global positioning system, ambient light, recent calls). The website included feedback graphs illustrating correlations between patients’ self-reported states, as well as didactics and tools teaching patients behavioral activation concepts. Brief telephone calls and emails with a clinician were used to promote adherence. We enrolled 8 adults with major depressive disorder in a single-arm pilot study to receive Mobilyze! and complete clinical assessments for 8 weeks. Results Promising accuracy rates (60% to 91%) were achieved by learners predicting categorical contextual states (eg, location). For states rated on scales (eg, mood), predictive capability was poor. Participants were satisfied with the phone application and improved significantly on self-reported depressive symptoms (betaweek = –.82, P < .001, per-protocol Cohen d = 3.43) and interview measures of depressive symptoms (betaweek = –.81, P < .001, per-protocol Cohen d = 3.55). Participants also became less likely to meet criteria for major depressive disorder diagnosis (bweek = –.65, P = .03, per

  18. Harnessing the Collective Power of Eyewitnesses for Improved Earthquake Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Lefebvre, S.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Steed, R.

    2013-12-01

    earthquakes within, as an average 90s of their occurrence, and can map, in certain cases, the damaged areas. Thanks to the flashsourced and crowdsourced information, we developed an innovative Twitter earthquake information service (currently under test and to be open by November) which intends to offer notifications for earthquakes that matter for the public only. It provides timely information for felt and damaging earthquakes regardless their magnitude and heads-up for seismologists. In conclusion, the experience developed at the EMSC demonstrates the benefit of involving eyewitnesses in earthquake surveillance. The data collected directly and indirectly from eyewitnesses complement information derived from monitoring networks and contribute to improved services. By increasing interaction between science and society, it opens new opportunities for raising awareness on seismic hazard.

  19. 'Soft' harness for external attachment of large radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herke, S.W.; Moring, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 'soft' harness for dorsally attaching large, external radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius). The key harness component was a soft, flexible, thick-walled tubing that prevented tissue abrasion by the attachment lines which passed through the tubing. Six field-tagged fish (1.5-7.5 kg) were monitored for 45-115 days before tracking was terminated. Tracking patterns of fish indicated no apparent effect of these large, external transmitters on movement behavior; further, the transmitters did not appear to entangle the fish in vegetation. One fish with its transmitter still secure was recaptured after 54 days, and there was minimal tissue erosion under the transmitter. With minor improvements for the attachment lines and the transmitter saddle, the method is suitable for externally attaching large telemetry transmitters to fish.

  20. Therapeutic strategies for harnessing human eosinophils in allergic inflammation, hypereosinophilic disorders, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Amini-Vaughan, Zhaleh J; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Huston, David P

    2012-10-01

    The eosinophil is a multifunctional granulocyte best known for providing host defense against parasites. Paradoxically, eosinophils are also implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, asthma, and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Emerging evidence also supports the potential for harnessing the cytotoxic power of eosinophils and redirecting it to kill solid tumors. Central to eosinophil physiology is interleukin-5 (IL-5) and its receptor (IL-5R) which is composed of a ligand-specific alpha chain (IL-5Rα) and the common beta chain (βc). Eosinophil activation can lead to their degranulation, resulting in rapid release of an arsenal of tissue-destructive proinflammatory mediators and cytotoxic proteins that can be both beneficial and detrimental to the host. This review discusses eosinophil immunobiology and therapeutic strategies for targeting of IL-5 and IL-5R, as well as the potential for harnessing eosinophil cytotoxicity as a tumoricide.