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Sample records for harsh touch sensation

  1. The neural circuits and sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Kang, Lijun; Piggott, Beverly J.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Shawn Xu, X. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Most animals can distinguish two distinct types of touch stimuli: gentle (innocuous) and harsh (noxious/painful) touch, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. C. elegans is a highly successful model for the study of gentle touch sensation. However, little is known about harsh touch sensation in this organism. Here we characterize harsh touch sensation in C. elegans. We show that C. elegans exhibits differential behavioral responses to harsh touch and gentle touch. Laser ablations identify distinct sets of sensory neurons and interneurons required for harsh touch sensation at different body segments. Optogenetic stimulation of the circuitry can drive behavior. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that TRP family and amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels mediate touch-evoked currents in different sensory neurons. Our work identifies the neural circuits and characterizes the sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans, establishing it as a genetic model for studying this sensory modality. PMID:21587232

  2. Mechanical systems biology of C. elegans touch sensation

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alex; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch informs us of the physical properties of our surroundings and is a critical aspect of communication. Before touches are perceived, mechanical signals are transmitted quickly and reliably from the skin’s surface to mechano-electrical transduction channels embedded within specialized sensory neurons. We are just beginning to understand how soft tissues participate in force transmission and how they are deformed. Here, we review empirical and theoretical studies of single molecules and molecular ensembles thought to be involved in mechanotransmission and apply the concepts emerging from this work to the sense of touch. We focus on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a well-studied model for touch sensation in which mechanics can be studied on the molecular, cellular, and systems level. Finally, we conclude that force transmission is an emergent property of macromolecular cellular structures that mutually stabilize one another. PMID:25597279

  3. Touch sensation by pectoral fins of the catfish Pimelodus pictus.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Adam R; Steinworth, Bailey M; Hale, Melina E

    2016-02-10

    Mechanosensation is fundamental to many tetrapod limb functions, yet it remains largely uninvestigated in the paired fins of fishes, limb homologues. Here we examine whether membranous fins may function as passive structures for touch sensation. We investigate the pectoral fins of the pictus catfish (Pimelodus pictus), a species that lives in close association with the benthic substrate and whose fins are positioned near its ventral margin. Kinematic analysis shows that the pectoral fins are held partially protracted during routine forward swimming and do not appear to generate propulsive force. Immunohistochemistry reveals that the fins are highly innervated, and we observe putative mechanoreceptors at nerve fibre endings. To test for the ability to sense mechanical perturbations, activity of fin ray nerve fibres was recorded in response to touch and bend stimulation. Both pressure and light surface brushing generated afferent nerve activity. Fin ray nerves also respond to bending of the rays. These data demonstrate for the first time that membranous fins can function as passive mechanosensors. We suggest that touch-sensitive fins may be widespread in fishes that maintain a close association with the bottom substrate. PMID:26865307

  4. A sensational illusion: vision-touch synaesthesia and the rubber hand paradigm.

    PubMed

    Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C

    2013-03-01

    For individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia, the sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation on the observer's own body. Here we used the traditional rubber hand paradigm (Botvinick and Cohen, 1998) and a no-touch rubber hand paradigm to investigate and to authenticate synaesthetic tactile sensation. In the traditional rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner while the participant's hand - hidden from view - is also touched by the Examiner. Synchronous stimulation of the prosthetic hand and the participant's hidden hand elicits the rubber hand illusion. It may seem to the participant that she is feeling touch at the location of the viewed prosthetic hand - visual capture of touch, and that the prosthetic hand is the participant's own hand - illusion of ownership. Thus, for participants who experience the traditional rubber hand illusion, tactile sensation on the participant's hidden hand is referred to the prosthetic hand. In our no-touch rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner but the participant's hand - hidden from view - is not touched by the Examiner. Questionnaire ratings indicated that only individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia experienced the no-touch rubber hand illusion. Thus, synaesthetic tactile sensation on the (untouched) hidden hand was referred to the prosthetic hand. These individuals also demonstrated proprioceptive drift (a change, from baseline, in proprioceptively perceived position) of the hidden hand towards the location of the prosthetic hand, and a pattern of increased proprioceptive drift with increased trial duration (60 sec, 180 sec, 300 sec). The no-touch rubber hand paradigm was an excellent method to authenticate vision-touch synaesthesia because participants were naïve about the rubber hand illusion, and they could not have known how they were expected to perform on either the traditional or the

  5. Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Dubin, Adrienne E.; Moshourab, Rabih A.; Wetzel, Christiane; Petrus, Matt; Mathur, Jayanti; Bégay, Valérie; Coste, Bertrand; Mainquist, James; Wilson, A.J.; Francisco, Allain G.; Reddy, Kritika; Qiu, Zhaozhu; Wood, John N.; Lewin, Gary R.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Summary The sense of touch provides critical information about our physical environment by transforming mechanical energy into electrical signals1. It is postulated that mechanically activated (MA) cation channels initiate touch sensation, but the identity of these molecules in mammals has been elusive2. Piezo2 is a rapidly adapting (RA) MA ion channel expressed in a subset of sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and in cutaneous mechanoreceptors known as Merkel cell-neurite complexes3,4. Merkel cells have been demonstrated to play a role in vertebrate mechanosensation using Piezo2, particularly in shaping the type of current sent by its innervating sensory neuron4-6. However, major aspects of touch sensation remain intact without Merkel cell activity4,7. Here, we show that mice lacking Piezo2 in both adult sensory neurons and Merkel cells exhibit a profound loss of touch sensation. We precisely localize Piezo2 to the peripheral endings of a broad range of low threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate both hairy and glabrous skin. Most RA MA currents in DRG neuronal cultures are absent in Piezo2CKO mice, and ex vivo skin nerve preparation studies show that mechanosensitivity of LTMRs strongly depends on Piezo2. This striking cellular phenotype correlates with an unprecedented behavioral phenotype: an almost complete deficit in light touch sensation in multiple behavioral assays, without affecting other somatosensory functions. Our results highlight that a single ion channel that displays RA MA currents in vitro is responsible for the mechanosensitivity of most LTMR subtypes involved in innocuous touch sensation. Interestingly, we find that touch and pain sensation are separable, suggesting that yet-unknown MA ion channel(s) must account for noxious (painful) mechanosensation. PMID:25471886

  6. Epicritic sensation in cervical spinal cord injury: diagnostic gains beyond testing light touch.

    PubMed

    Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, Marc; Baumberger, Michael; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Curt, Armin

    2013-08-01

    Abstract Applied as a bedside test of gross dorsal column function, the testing of light touch (LT) sensation is of high clinical value in the diagnosis of human spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the assessment of overall dorsal column deficit by testing only LT may be limited, because the dorsal column pathway conveys several large diameter afferent modalities (e.g., sensation of touch, two-point discrimination, and proprioception). Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the epicritic sensation assessed by LT, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM), and electrical perception threshold (EPT) across cervical dermatomes (C3-C8) in individuals with cervical SCI. A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed at 6 months after cervical SCI, applying combined measures of LT, SWM, and EPT, bilaterally over predefined key sensory points (C3-C8). A total of 300 left- and right-sided dermatomes were tested for each outcome measure in 25 participants. The percentage agreement between classifications according to LT and SWM/EPT testing for all dermatomes between C3 and C8 ranged from 95.5% to 36.2%. The degree of agreement showed considerably variable κ coefficients (-0.1≥kw≤0.7) for each dermatome between C3 and C8. The additional measurements of epicritic sensation by SWM and EPT increased sensitivity by detecting and quantifying differences in sensory thresholds above, at, and below the LT level of injury. This is relevant for early clinical trials (phase 1/2), in which disclosing any biological activity of an intervention may be revealed by subtle sensory changes that might gain a clinical relevance.

  7. MEMS-based force-clamp analysis of the role of body stiffness in C. elegans touch sensation.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Bryan C; Park, Sung-Jin; Mazzochette, Eileen A; Goodman, Miriam B; Pruitt, Beth L

    2013-06-01

    Touch is enabled by mechanoreceptor neurons in the skin and plays an essential role in our everyday lives, but is among the least understood of our five basic senses. Force applied to the skin deforms these neurons and activates ion channels within them. Despite the importance of the mechanics of the skin in determining mechanoreceptor neuron deformation and ultimately touch sensation, the role of mechanics in touch sensitivity is poorly understood. Here, we use the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to directly test the hypothesis that body mechanics modulate touch sensitivity. We demonstrate a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based force clamp that can apply calibrated forces to freely crawling C. elegans worms and measure touch-evoked avoidance responses. This approach reveals that wild-type animals sense forces <1 μN and indentation depths <1 μm. We use both genetic manipulation of the skin and optogenetic modulation of body wall muscles to alter body mechanics. We find that small changes in body stiffness dramatically affect force sensitivity, while having only modest effects on indentation sensitivity. We investigate the theoretical body deformation predicted under applied force and conclude that local mechanical loads induce inward bending deformation of the skin to drive touch sensation in C. elegans.

  8. The no-touch rubber hand paradigm and mirror-touch sensation: Support for the self-other theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Davies, Anne M Aimola

    2015-01-01

    We thoroughly enjoyed Ward and Banissy's Discussion Paper on mirror-touch synesthesia. The authors contrast two theories for explaining this phenomenon-the Threshold Theory and their Self-Other Theory. Ward and Banissy note that the Self-Other Theory garners support from studies that have tested individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia using the rubber hand paradigm. In this Commentary, we provide further support for the Self-Other Theory by drawing on findings from control participants without mirror-touch synesthesia tested with two different no-touch rubber hand paradigms-one paradigm makes it easier while the other makes it more difficult to make the self-other distinction.

  9. The no-touch rubber hand paradigm and mirror-touch sensation: Support for the self-other theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Davies, Anne M Aimola

    2015-01-01

    We thoroughly enjoyed Ward and Banissy's Discussion Paper on mirror-touch synesthesia. The authors contrast two theories for explaining this phenomenon-the Threshold Theory and their Self-Other Theory. Ward and Banissy note that the Self-Other Theory garners support from studies that have tested individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia using the rubber hand paradigm. In this Commentary, we provide further support for the Self-Other Theory by drawing on findings from control participants without mirror-touch synesthesia tested with two different no-touch rubber hand paradigms-one paradigm makes it easier while the other makes it more difficult to make the self-other distinction. PMID:26114315

  10. Are mirror-sensations really synesthetic?

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Stuart W G

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-sensations, including touch and pain, are often referred to as synesthetic. The term can be challenged, however, because mirror-sensations lack the incongruency and saliency of synesthesia, may involve problems of perspective rather than entangled sensations, and may be easier to generate with suggestion. If mirror-sensations are truly sensations then they might be expected to act like the true sensation and mirror-pain, for example, might inhibit pain at a distance or itch in the same location. These predictions are highly testable. PMID:25997924

  11. Sharing social touch in the primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Fusaro, Martina; Vallar, Giuseppe; Miniussi, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    Touch has an emotional and communicative meaning, and it plays a crucial role in social perception and empathy. The intuitive link between others' somatosensations and our sense of touch becomes ostensible in mirror-touch synesthesia, a condition in which the view of a touch on another person's body elicits conscious tactile sensations on the observer's own body [1]. This peculiar phenomenon may implicate normal social mirror mechanisms [2]. Here, we show that mirror-touch interference effects, synesthesia-like sensations, and even phantom touches can be induced in nonsynesthetes by priming the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) directly or indirectly via the posterior parietal cortex. These results were obtained by means of facilitatory paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) contingent upon the observation of touch. For these vicarious effects, the SI is engaged at 150 ms from the onset of the visual touch. Intriguingly, individual differences in empathic abilities, assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [3], drive the activity of the SI when nonsynesthetes witness others' tactile sensations. This evidence implies that, under normal conditions, touch observation activates the SI below the threshold for perceptual awareness [4]; through the visual-dependent tuning of SI activity by ppTMS, what is seen becomes felt, namely, mirror-touch synesthesia. On a broader perspective, the visual responsivity of the SI may allow an automatic and unconscious transference of the sensation that another person is experiencing onto oneself, and, in turn, the empathic sharing of somatosensations [2]. PMID:24954046

  12. Attenuation of Self-Generated Tactile Sensations Is Predictive, not Postdictive

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J. Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2006-01-01

    When one finger touches the other, the resulting tactile sensation is perceived as weaker than the same stimulus externally imposed. This attenuation of sensation could result from a predictive process that subtracts the expected sensory consequences of the action, or from a postdictive process that alters the perception of sensations that are judged after the event to be self-generated. In this study we observe attenuation even when the fingers unexpectedly fail to make contact, supporting a predictive process. This predictive attenuation of self-generated sensation may have evolved to enhance the perception of sensations with an external cause. PMID:16402860

  13. A Modified Tactile Brush Algorithm for Complex Touch Gestures

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have investigated phantom tactile sensation (i.e., the perception of a nonexistent actuator between two real actuators) and apparent tactile motion (i.e., the perception of a moving actuator due to time delays between onsets of multiple actuations). Prior work has focused primarily on determining appropriate Durations of Stimulation (DOS) and Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) for simple touch gestures, such as a single finger stroke. To expand upon this knowledge, we investigated complex touch gestures involving multiple, simultaneous points of contact, such as a whole hand touching the arm. To implement complex touch gestures, we modified the Tactile Brush algorithm to support rectangular areas of tactile stimulation.

  14. Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by β Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans β-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

  15. Reconsidering punitive and harsh discipline.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Wanda K; Anderson, Jeffrey A

    2002-12-01

    Corporal punishment and other harsh interventions continue to be widespread despite the fact that the leading theories or models of behavioral management do not support their effectiveness. There is overwhelming evidence that harsh interventions are damaging to children, both emotionally and physically. The effects of such trauma may be compounded when a child has preexisting learning difficulties. When schools respond to these challenges using harsh methods, children can be further traumatized. The authors review principles of childhood neurodevelopment, describe a model to understand children in context, and discuss how exposure to certain noxious sensory experiences can affect children's responses to threat or perceived threat. They also describe implications for school nurses.

  16. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).

  17. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain). PMID:25893437

  18. Students Enjoy Chemical Sensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.; Kanematsu, Hideyuki

    2003-01-01

    This exciting new way of teaching high school/college chemistry combines music, visual aids, and chemical experiments in multi-sensory lessons that motivate students and provide them with meaningful learning experiences in science. The method, known as the Chemical Sensation Project, acknowledges that some individuals learn by seeing or hearing,…

  19. Sensational Stars with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Karen; Miller, Lucy Jane

    2008-01-01

    Sensory processing refers to the way the brain takes incoming sensory messages, converts them into meaningful messages, then makes a response. If the responses are disorganized or inappropriate given the sensory input, sensory processing disorder (SPD) may co-exist with autism. If a child has an occasional atypical response to sensation, he or she…

  20. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

    2014-11-21

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

  1. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

    2014-11-21

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch.

  2. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Seiki; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yosky; Iwase, Masao; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Okada, Hiroyuki; Onoe, Hirotaka; Tsukada, Hideo; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2 15O positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11). Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue. PMID:21188225

  3. The science of interpersonal touch: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2010-02-01

    Surprisingly little scientific research has been conducted on the topic of interpersonal touch over the years, despite the importance of touch in our everyday social interactions from birth through to adulthood and old age. In this review, we critically evaluate the results of the research on this topic that have emerged from disciplines, such as cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, and cultural anthropology. We highlight some of the most important advances to have been made in our understanding of this topic: For example, research has shown that interpersonal tactile stimulation provides an effective means of influencing people's social behaviors (such as modulating their tendency to comply with requests, in affecting people's attitudes toward specific services, in creating bonds between couples or groups, and in strengthening romantic relationships), regardless of whether or not the tactile contact itself can be remembered explicitly. What is more, interpersonal touch can be used to communicate emotion in a manner similar to that demonstrated previously in vision and audition. The recent growth of studies investigating the potential introduction of tactile sensations to long-distance communication technologies (by means of mediated or 'virtual' touch) are also reviewed briefly. Finally, we highlight the synergistic effort that will be needed by researchers in different disciplines if we are to develop a more complete understanding of interpersonal touch in the years to come. PMID:18992276

  4. Incidental Haptic Sensations Influence Social Judgments and Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Joshua M.; Nocera, Christopher C.; Bargh, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Touch is both the first sense to develop and a critical means of information acquisition and environmental manipulation. Physical touch experiences may create an ontological scaffold for the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal conceptual and metaphorical knowledge, as well as a springboard for the application of this knowledge. In six experiments, holding heavy or light clipboards, solving rough or smooth puzzles, and touching hard or soft objects nonconsciously influenced impressions and decisions formed about unrelated people and situations. Among other effects, heavy objects made job candidates appear more important, rough objects made social interactions appear more difficult, and hard objects increased rigidity in negotiations. Basic tactile sensations are thus shown to influence higher social cognitive processing in dimension-specific and metaphor-specific ways. PMID:20576894

  5. The perception of materials through oral sensation.

    PubMed

    Howes, Philip D; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  6. The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  7. The perception of materials through oral sensation.

    PubMed

    Howes, Philip D; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception.

  8. The experience of therapeutic touch for novice recipients.

    PubMed

    Sneed, N V; Olson, M; Bonadonna, R

    1997-09-01

    This study explored the experience of receiving Therapeutic Touch (TT) from the point of view of recipients with no prior experience with TT. Eleven female graduate students who were part of a larger study were interviewed after the second of two TT sessions and statements from the transcripts were analyzed for words, phrases, or sentences that fell into one of five categories: (a) relaxation, (b) physical sensations, (c) cognitive activity, (d) emotional (feelings), and (e) spiritual/transcendent. All participants reported feeling relaxed and had physical sensations and cognitive activity during the TT sessions, and most of the statements fit into these categories. Fewer statements reflected emotional or spiritual experiences and not all participants had these experiences. The sensations associated with TT may occur developmentally. Initially, physical and cognitive experiences are identified. The deeper, meaningful sensations may occur after an individual has more experience with the intervention.

  9. Subjective Experience of Sensation in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy L.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer; Groh, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n=20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n=15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n=24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r2 = −.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r2 = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN. PMID:23523866

  10. [Orofacial touch and pressure sensitivity in children].

    PubMed

    Miura, Seiko

    2004-06-01

    This study assessed the thresholds of orofacial touch and pressure sensation in children and compared them with those in adults. Child subjects who were outpatients of TMDU Dental Hospital and who had no particular systemic diseases other than dental problems, were classified into 4 groups: preschool children (4-5 y, n=26), lower-grade elementary school pupils (6-9 y, n=100), higher-grade elementary school pupils (10-12 y, n=36), and junior high school pupils (13-15 y, n=26). Adult subjects were TMDU students (23-31 y, n=37). The thresholds of touch and pressure sensation were measured with a Semmes-Weinstein pressure aesthesiometer which consisted of 20 filaments with different marking values (Fm). Stimulation was applied with the thinner 10 filaments with lower values ranging from 1.65 to 4.31 Fm (0.0045-2.052 gw). The measurements were carried out on the following 10 points in the orofacial area in all the subjects: the upper lip, gingiva of upper anterior teeth, palate, lower lip, gingiva of lower anterior teeth, buccal mucous membrane, tongue tip, skin above eyebrow, cheek skin and mentum skin. The thresholds in the child subjects were not different from those in the adult subjects on most measurement points, but were significantly different on the gingiva and palate. The lower the age, the lower the thresholds on the gingiva. Since these measurement points are located in the chewing mucous membrane, it is considered that the threshold changes occurred due to histological alterations with growth. It is suggested that the threshold values of orofacial touch and pressure sensation obtained from this study could be used as the standard values for an indicator of the development of oral function and structure in children.

  11. A neural interface provides long-term stable natural touch perception.

    PubMed

    Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, James Robert; Tyler, Joyce; Tyler, Dustin J

    2014-10-01

    Touch perception on the fingers and hand is essential for fine motor control, contributes to our sense of self, allows for effective communication, and aids in our fundamental perception of the world. Despite increasingly sophisticated mechatronics, prosthetic devices still do not directly convey sensation back to their wearers. We show that implanted peripheral nerve interfaces in two human subjects with upper limb amputation provided stable, natural touch sensation in their hands for more than 1 year. Electrical stimulation using implanted peripheral nerve cuff electrodes that did not penetrate the nerve produced touch perceptions at many locations on the phantom hand with repeatable, stable responses in the two subjects for 16 and 24 months. Patterned stimulation intensity produced a sensation that the subjects described as natural and without "tingling," or paresthesia. Different patterns produced different types of sensory perception at the same location on the phantom hand. The two subjects reported tactile perceptions they described as natural tapping, constant pressure, light moving touch, and vibration. Changing average stimulation intensity controlled the size of the percept area; changing stimulation frequency controlled sensation strength. Artificial touch sensation improved the subjects' ability to control grasping strength of the prosthesis and enabled them to better manipulate delicate objects. Thus, electrical stimulation through peripheral nerve electrodes produced long-term sensory restoration after limb loss.

  12. SENSATION SEEKING SCALE: INDIAN ADAPTATION

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debasish; Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensation seeking refers to a biologically based personality dimension defined as the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences. Although researched worldwide for nearly three decades now, there is to date no published Indian study utilizing the concept of sensation seeking. This paper describes adaptation of the Sensation Seeking Scale for the Indian population. After due modification of the scale, its reliability, internal consistency and discriminant validity were established Norms were developed for a defined segment of general population. This study may be seen as the beginning of research in India on the subject of sensation seeking. PMID:21743627

  13. Mammalian touch catches up

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Carolyn M.; Bautista, Diana M.; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2015-01-01

    An assortment of touch receptors innervate the skin and encode different tactile features of the environment. Compared with invertebrate touch and other sensory systems, our understanding of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of mammalian touch lags behind. Two recent breakthroughs have accelerated progress. First, an arsenal of cell-type-specific molecular markers allowed the functional and anatomical properties of sensory neurons to be matched, thereby unraveling a cellular code for touch. Such markers have also revealed key roles of non-neuronal cell types, such as Merkel cells and keratinocytes, in touch reception. Second, the discovery of Piezo genes as a new family of mechanically activated channels has fueled the discovery of molecular mechanisms that mediate and mechanotransduction in mammalian touch receptors. PMID:26100741

  14. Touch Sensor for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Touch sensor for robot hands provides information about shape of grasped object and force exerted by gripper on object. Pins projecting from sensor create electrical signals when pressed. When grasped object depresses pin, it contacts electrode under it, connecting electrode to common electrode. Sensor indicates where, and how firmly, gripper has touched object.

  15. Pleasant human touch is represented in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Lenita; Westling, Göran; Brulin, Christine; Lehtipalo, Stefan; Andersson, Micael; Nyberg, Lars

    2012-02-15

    Touch massage (TM) is a form of pleasant touch stimulation used as treatment in clinical settings and found to improve well-being and decrease anxiety, stress, and pain. Emotional responses reported during and after TM have been studied, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unexplored. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that the combination of human touch (i.e. skin-to-skin contact) with movement is eliciting a specific response in brain areas coding for pleasant sensations. The design included four different touch conditions; human touch with or without movement and rubber glove with or without movement. Force (2.5 N) and velocity (1.5 cm/s) were held constant across conditions. The pleasantness of the four different touch stimulations was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS-scale) and human touch was rated as most pleasant, particularly in combination with movement. The fMRI results revealed that TM stimulation most strongly activated the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC). These results are consistent with findings showing pgACC activation during various rewarding pleasant stimulations. This area is also known to be activated by both opioid analgesia and placebo. Together with these prior results, our finding furthers the understanding of the basis for positive TM treatment effects.

  16. Transducing touch in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Miriam B; Schwarz, Erich M

    2003-01-01

    Mechanosensation has been studied for decades, but understanding of its molecular mechanism is only now emerging from studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In both cases, the entry point proved to be genetic screens that allowed molecules needed for mechanosensation to be identified without any prior understanding of the likely components. In C. elegans, genetic screens revealed molecules needed for touch sensation along the body wall and other regions of force sensitivity. Members of two extensive membrane protein families have emerged as candidate sensory mechanotransduction channels: mec-4 and mec-10, which encode amiloride-sensitive channels (ASCs or DEG/ENaCs), and osm-9, which encodes a TRP ion channel. There are roughly 50 other members of these families whose functions in C. elegans are unknown. This article classifies these channels in C. elegans, with an emphasis on insights into their function derived from mutation. We also review the neuronal cell types in which these channels might be expressed and mediate mechanotransduction.

  17. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Charlotte A.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2–4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9–14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID

  18. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Chun, Charlotte A; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2-4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9-14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes.

  19. Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Klöcker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Théate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, μ. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of μ were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction

  20. Harsh environments electronics : downhole applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, Paul Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The development and operational sustainment of renewable (geothermal) and non-renewable (fossil fuel) energy resources will be accompanied by increasingly higher costs factors: exploration and site preparation, operational maintenance and repair. Increased government oversight in the wake of the Gulf oil spill will only add to the cost burden. It is important to understand that downhole conditions are not just about elevated temperatures. It is often construed that military electronics are exposed to the upper limit in terms of extreme service environments. Probably the harshest of all service conditions for electronics and electrical equipment are those in oil, gas, and geothermal wells. From the technology perspective, advanced materials, sensors, and microelectronics devices are benefificial to the exploration and sustainment of energy resources, especially in terms of lower costs. Besides the need for the science that creates these breakthroughs - there is also a need for sustained engineering development and testing. Downhole oil, gas, and geothermal well applications can have a wide range of environments and reliability requirements: Temperature, Pressure, Vibration, Corrosion, and Service duration. All too frequently, these conditions are not well-defifined because the application is labeled as 'high temperature'. This ambiguity is problematic when the investigation turns to new approaches for electronic packaging solutions. The objective is to develop harsh environment, electronic packaging that meets customer requirements of cost, performance, and reliability. There are a number of challenges: (1) Materials sets - solder alloys, substrate materials; (2) Manufacturing process - low to middle volumes, low defect counts, new equipment technologies; and (3) Reliability testing - requirements documents, test methods and modeling, relevant standards documents. The cost to develop and sustain renewable and non-renewable energy resources will continue to escalate

  1. Synaptic mechanisms underlying sparse coding of active touch.

    PubMed

    Crochet, Sylvain; Poulet, James F A; Kremer, Yves; Petersen, Carl C H

    2011-03-24

    Sensory information is actively gathered by animals, but the synaptic mechanisms driving neuronal circuit function during active sensory processing are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the synaptically driven membrane potential dynamics during active whisker sensation using whole-cell recordings from layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory barrel cortex of behaving mice. Although whisker contact with an object evoked rapid depolarization in all neurons, these touch responses only drove action potentials in ∼10% of the cells. Such sparse coding was ensured by cell-specific reversal potentials of the touch-evoked response that were hyperpolarized relative to action potential threshold for most neurons. Intercontact interval profoundly influenced touch-evoked postsynaptic potentials, interestingly without affecting the peak membrane potential of the touch response. Dual whole-cell recordings indicated highly correlated membrane potential dynamics during active touch. Sparse action potential firing within synchronized cortical layer 2/3 microcircuits therefore appears to robustly signal each active touch response.

  2. Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response.

    PubMed

    Armel, K Carrie; Ramachandran, V S

    2003-07-22

    Subjects perceived touch sensations as arising from a table (or a rubber hand) when both the table (or the rubber hand) and their own real hand were repeatedly tapped and stroked in synchrony with the real hand hidden from view. If the table or rubber hand was then 'injured', subjects displayed a strong skin conductance response (SCR) even though nothing was done to the real hand. Sensations could even be projected to anatomically impossible locations. The illusion was much less vivid, as indicated by subjective reports and SCR, if the real hand was simultaneously visible during stroking, or if the real hand was hidden but touched asynchronously. The fact that the illusion could be significantly diminished when the real hand was simultaneously visible suggests that the illusion and associated SCRs were due to perceptual assimilation of the table (or rubber hand) into one's body image rather than associative conditioning. These experiments demonstrate the malleability of body image and the brain's remarkable capacity for detecting statistical correlations in the sensory input.

  3. Haptic perception with an articulated, sensate robot hand

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper we present a series of haptic exploratory procedures, or EPs, implemented for a multi-fingered, articulated, sensate robot hand. These EPs are designed to extract specific tactile and kinesthetic information form an object via their purposive invocation by an intelligent robotic system. Taken together, they form and active robotic touch perception system to be used both in extracting information about the environment for internal representation and in acquiring grasps for manipulation. The haptic system presented utilizes and integrated robotic system consisting of PUMA 560 robot arm, a JPL/Stanford robot hand, with joint torque sensing in the fingers, a wrist force/torque sensor, and 256 element, spatially-resolved fingertip tactile array. We describe the EPs implemented for this system and provide experimental results which illustrate how they function and how the information which they extract may be used. In addition to the sensate hand and arm, the robot also contains structured-lighting vision and a Prolog-based reasoning system capable of grasp generation and object categorization. We present a set of simple tasks which show how both grasping and recognition may be enhanced by the addition of active touch perception. 34 refs., 23 figs.

  4. Active touch sensing

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world. PMID:21969680

  5. Placebo acupuncture as a form of ritual touch healing: a neurophenomenological model

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Catherine E.; Shaw, Jessica R; Conboy, Lisa; Kelley, John M.; Jacobson, Eric; Kaptchuk, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Evidence that placebo acupuncture is an effective treatment for chronic pain presents a puzzle: how do placebo needles appearing to patients to penetrate the body, but instead sitting on the skin’s surface in the manner of a tactile stimulus, evoke a healing response? Previous accounts of ritual touch healing in which patients often described enhanced touch sensations (including warmth, tingling or flowing sensations) suggest an embodied healing mechanism. In this qualitative study, we asked a subset of patients in a randomized trial in irritable bowel syndrome to describe treatment experiences. Analysis focused on patients’ unprompted descriptions of any enhanced touch sensations (e.g., warmth, tingling) and any significance patients assigned to the sensations. We found in 5/6 cases, patients associated sensations including “warmth” and “tingling” with treatment efficacy. The conclusion offers a “neurophenomenological” account of the placebo effect by considering dynamic effects of attentional filtering on early sensory cortices, possibly underlying the phenomenology of placebo acupuncture. PMID:21397519

  6. A new perceptual paradigm to investigate the visual remapping of others’ tactile sensations onto one’s own body shows “mirror touch” for the hands

    PubMed Central

    Gillmeister, Helge

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a multitude of publications showing the activation of an observer’s somatosensory cortical system during the observation of touch on another person. Behavioral demonstrations of “mirror touch,” however, have been slow in coming forward, and have so far primarily been shown as “visual remapping of touch” on the face. The present study uses a new paradigm to investigate the mirroring of others’ tactile sensations: a 2-AFC task of intensity judgment for touch on the observer’s left and right index finger pads. Observers viewed a left and right hand in an egocentric position, which were either touched passively (pencil moving to touch index finger pad) or actively sought touch (index finger moving to touch pencil). Touch and no-touch events for the two viewed hands were designed to eliminate confounding effects of spatial attention. Felt touches were either concurrent with viewed touch or no-touch events, or were delayed in time to assess potential response bias. The findings demonstrate visual remapping of touch for touch on the hands. If touch was shown on one of the hands only (e.g., left), observers were more likely to perceive touch on the same hand (i.e., their own left hand) as more intense than touch on the other hand even if tactile intensities did not differ, compared to touch shown on both or neither hand. These remapping effects occurred only when viewed and felt touches were concurrent, they were strongly modulated by the way in which viewed touch was incurred, and they were more reliable for touch on the left hand. A second, control experiment, in which touch observation was replaced by bright dots shown on or next to the finger pads, confirmed that these effects were largely due to genuine tactile mirroring rather than to somatotopic cueing. This 2-AFC tactile intensity judgment task may be a useful paradigm to investigate the remapping of others’ tactile sensations onto an observer’s own body. PMID

  7. Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface.

    PubMed

    Tabot, Gregg A; Kim, Sung Shin; Winberry, Jeremy E; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-11-01

    Somatosensation plays a critical role in the dexterous manipulation of objects, in emotional communication, and in the embodiment of our limbs. For upper-limb neuroprostheses to be adopted by prospective users, prosthetic limbs will thus need to provide sensory information about the position of the limb in space and about objects grasped in the hand. One approach to restoring touch and proprioception consists of electrically stimulating neurons in somatosensory cortex in the hopes of eliciting meaningful sensations to support the dexterous use of the hands, promote their embodiment, and perhaps even restore the affective dimension of touch. In this review, we discuss the importance of touch and proprioception in everyday life, then describe approaches to providing artificial somatosensory feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). We explore the importance of biomimicry--the elicitation of naturalistic patterns of neuronal activation--and that of adaptation--the brain's ability to adapt to novel sensory input, and argue that both biomimicry and adaptation will play a critical role in the artificial restoration of somatosensation. We also propose that the documented re-organization that occurs after injury does not pose a significant obstacle to brain interfaces. While still at an early stage of development, sensory restoration is a critical step in transitioning upper-limb neuroprostheses from the laboratory to the clinic.

  8. Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface.

    PubMed

    Tabot, Gregg A; Kim, Sung Shin; Winberry, Jeremy E; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-11-01

    Somatosensation plays a critical role in the dexterous manipulation of objects, in emotional communication, and in the embodiment of our limbs. For upper-limb neuroprostheses to be adopted by prospective users, prosthetic limbs will thus need to provide sensory information about the position of the limb in space and about objects grasped in the hand. One approach to restoring touch and proprioception consists of electrically stimulating neurons in somatosensory cortex in the hopes of eliciting meaningful sensations to support the dexterous use of the hands, promote their embodiment, and perhaps even restore the affective dimension of touch. In this review, we discuss the importance of touch and proprioception in everyday life, then describe approaches to providing artificial somatosensory feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). We explore the importance of biomimicry--the elicitation of naturalistic patterns of neuronal activation--and that of adaptation--the brain's ability to adapt to novel sensory input, and argue that both biomimicry and adaptation will play a critical role in the artificial restoration of somatosensation. We also propose that the documented re-organization that occurs after injury does not pose a significant obstacle to brain interfaces. While still at an early stage of development, sensory restoration is a critical step in transitioning upper-limb neuroprostheses from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:25201560

  9. Getting in Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

  10. Touched by Turner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This is a personal reflection on an encounter with the works of the nineteenth-century painter J. M. W. Turner in London's Tate Britain exhibition "Late Turner: Painting Set Free". The article discusses the deeply subjective nature of engaging with artworks, and touches upon theories that might account for the ineffable but moving…

  11. Seeing Touches Early in Life.

    PubMed

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants' abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object-i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  12. Touch satiety: differential effects of stroking velocity on liking and wanting touch over repetitions.

    PubMed

    Triscoli, Chantal; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sailer, Uta

    2014-01-01

    A slow, gentle caress of the skin is a salient hedonic stimulus. Low threshold, unmyelinated C-tactile afferents fire preferentially to this type of touch, where slow (<1 cm/s) and fast (>10 cm/s) stroking velocities produce lower firing frequencies and are rated as less pleasant. The current aim was to investigate how the experience of tactile pleasantness changes with repeated exposure (satiety to touch). A further aim was to determine whether tactile satiety varied with different stroking velocities. The experimental paradigm used a controlled brush stroke to the forearm that was delivered repeatedly for ∼ 50 minutes. In Experiment 1, brush strokes were administered at three different velocities (0.3 cm/s, 3 cm/s and 30 cm/s), which were presented in a pseudo-randomised order. In Experiment 2, brush strokes were applied using only one velocity (either 3 or 30 cm/s). After each stroke, the participants rated both subjective pleasantness (liking) and wanting (the wish to be further exposed to the same stimulus) for each tactile sensation. In Experiment 1, both pleasantness and wanting showed a small, but significant, decrease over repetitions during stroking at 3 cm/s only, where the mean values for pleasantness and wanting were similar. Conversely, slower (0.3 cm/s) and faster (30 cm/s) stroking showed no decrease in ratings over time, however pleasantness was rated higher than wanting. In Experiment 2, both pleasantness and wanting showed a significant decrease over repetitions for both applied velocities, with a larger decrease in ratings for stroking at 3 cm/s. In conclusion, satiety to touch occurred with a slow onset and progression, where pleasantness and wanting ratings to stroking at 3 cm/s were affected more than at the slower or faster velocities. Tactile satiety appears to differ compared to appetitive and olfactory satiety, because the hedonic and rewarding aspects of touch persist for some time. PMID:25405620

  13. Delivering high speed communications into harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-15

    For those who believe that information is power, extending an organization's knowledge base throughout the entire enterprise can not help but improve operations. Until recently, though, field operations were often left out of the loop, as extending high-bandwidth communications into harsh environments often proved impossible. The article, submitted by Optical Cable Corp., describes development of a tight-buffered fibre optic cable designed for harsh underground mining conditions. CONSOL has installed almost 100 miles of the cable across 10 different installations. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  14. Neurophysiology of Skin Thermal Sensations.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide

    2016-06-13

    Undoubtedly, adjusting our thermoregulatory behavior represents the most effective mechanism to maintain thermal homeostasis and ensure survival in the diverse thermal environments that we face on this planet. Remarkably, our thermal behavior is entirely dependent on the ability to detect variations in our internal (i.e., body) and external environment, via sensing changes in skin temperature and wetness. In the past 30 years, we have seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the molecular, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological mechanisms that allow humans to sense temperature and humidity. The discovery of temperature-activated ion channels which gate the generation of action potentials in thermosensitive neurons, along with the characterization of the spino-thalamo-cortical thermosensory pathway, and the development of neural models for the perception of skin wetness, are only some of the recent advances which have provided incredible insights on how biophysical changes in skin temperature and wetness are transduced into those neural signals which constitute the physiological substrate of skin thermal and wetness sensations. Understanding how afferent thermal inputs are integrated and how these contribute to behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses under normal brain function is critical to determine how these mechanisms are disrupted in those neurological conditions, which see the concurrent presence of afferent thermosensory abnormalities and efferent thermoregulatory dysfunctions. Furthermore, advancing the knowledge on skin thermal and wetness sensations is crucial to support the development of neuroprosthetics. In light of the aforementioned text, this review will focus on the peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning skin thermal and wetness sensations in humans. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1279-1294, 2016.2016.

  15. Neurophysiology of Skin Thermal Sensations.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly, adjusting our thermoregulatory behavior represents the most effective mechanism to maintain thermal homeostasis and ensure survival in the diverse thermal environments that we face on this planet. Remarkably, our thermal behavior is entirely dependent on the ability to detect variations in our internal (i.e., body) and external environment, via sensing changes in skin temperature and wetness. In the past 30 years, we have seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the molecular, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological mechanisms that allow humans to sense temperature and humidity. The discovery of temperature-activated ion channels which gate the generation of action potentials in thermosensitive neurons, along with the characterization of the spino-thalamo-cortical thermosensory pathway, and the development of neural models for the perception of skin wetness, are only some of the recent advances which have provided incredible insights on how biophysical changes in skin temperature and wetness are transduced into those neural signals which constitute the physiological substrate of skin thermal and wetness sensations. Understanding how afferent thermal inputs are integrated and how these contribute to behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses under normal brain function is critical to determine how these mechanisms are disrupted in those neurological conditions, which see the concurrent presence of afferent thermosensory abnormalities and efferent thermoregulatory dysfunctions. Furthermore, advancing the knowledge on skin thermal and wetness sensations is crucial to support the development of neuroprosthetics. In light of the aforementioned text, this review will focus on the peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning skin thermal and wetness sensations in humans. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1279-1294, 2016.2016. PMID:27347898

  16. Long term effects of cryosurgery on cutaneous sensation.

    PubMed Central

    Sonnex, T S; Jones, R L; Weddell, A G; Dawber, R P

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the time course and nature of the sensory loss after cryosurgery the forearms of nine normal subjects were treated with liquid nitrogen using freeze times currently employed in clinical practice in Britain. Ability to appreciate touch, pinprick, and cold in the treated areas was tested at regular intervals and biopsy samples taken to investigate the pathogenesis. Appreciation of all three modalities of sensation was initially reduced in all nine subjects for all freeze times, yet complete recovery occurred in the seven patients completing follow up. This recovery, however, took up to one and a half years for the longest freeze, with even a 10 second freeze taking up to 10 months. Patients may be reassured that sensory loss after cryosurgery for up to two periods of 30 seconds will almost certainly recover, though it may take up to 18 months to do so. PMID:3917746

  17. Lidar Architecture for Harsh Environment Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Philip

    2016-06-01

    An overview is provided of the obscurantpenetrating OPAL lidar sensor developed for harsh environments, including poor visibility conditions. The underlying technology, hardware and software architecture of the sensor are presented along with some examples of its software modules' applications. The paper also discusses the performance of the OPAL in the presence of various types of obscurants.

  18. Polymeric Electrolytic Hygrometer For Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Design of polymeric electrolytic hygrometer improved to meet need for reliable measurements of relative humidity in harsh environments of pulpmills and papermills. Redesigned sensor head features shorter, more-rigidly-held sensing element, less vulnerable than previous version to swell and loss of electrical contact. Useful for control of batch dryers in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. "The sixth sense": towards a history of muscular sensation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of knowledge about the muscular sense and provides a bibliographic resource for further research. A range of different topics, questions and approaches have interrelated throughout this history, and the discussion clarifies this rather than presenting detailed research in any one area. Part I relates the origin of belief in a muscular sense to empiricist accounts of the contribution of the senses to knowledge from Locke, via the iddologues and other authors, to the second half of the nineteenth century. Analysis paid much attention to touch, first in the context of the theory of vision and then in its own right, which led to naming a distinct muscular sense. From 1800 to the present, there was much debate, the main lines of which this paper introduces, about the nature and function of what turned out to be a complex sense. A number of influential psycho-physiologists, notably Alexander Bain and Herbert Spencer, thought this sense the most primitive and primary of all, the origin of knowledge of world, causation and self as an active subject. Part II relates accounts of the muscular sense to the development of nervous physiology and of psychology. In the decades before 1900, the developing separation of philosophy, psychology and physiology as specialised disciplines divided up questions which earlier writers had discussed under the umbrella heading of muscular sensation. The term'kinaesthesia' came in 1880 and 'proprio-ception' in 1906. There was, all the same, a lasting interest in the argument that touch and muscular sensation are intrinsic to the existence of embodied being in the way the other senses are not. In the wider culture--the arts, sport, the psychophysiology of labour and so on--there were many ways in which people expressed appreciation of the importance of what the anatomist Charles Bell had called 'the sixth sense'. PMID:22822610

  20. "The sixth sense": towards a history of muscular sensation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of knowledge about the muscular sense and provides a bibliographic resource for further research. A range of different topics, questions and approaches have interrelated throughout this history, and the discussion clarifies this rather than presenting detailed research in any one area. Part I relates the origin of belief in a muscular sense to empiricist accounts of the contribution of the senses to knowledge from Locke, via the iddologues and other authors, to the second half of the nineteenth century. Analysis paid much attention to touch, first in the context of the theory of vision and then in its own right, which led to naming a distinct muscular sense. From 1800 to the present, there was much debate, the main lines of which this paper introduces, about the nature and function of what turned out to be a complex sense. A number of influential psycho-physiologists, notably Alexander Bain and Herbert Spencer, thought this sense the most primitive and primary of all, the origin of knowledge of world, causation and self as an active subject. Part II relates accounts of the muscular sense to the development of nervous physiology and of psychology. In the decades before 1900, the developing separation of philosophy, psychology and physiology as specialised disciplines divided up questions which earlier writers had discussed under the umbrella heading of muscular sensation. The term'kinaesthesia' came in 1880 and 'proprio-ception' in 1906. There was, all the same, a lasting interest in the argument that touch and muscular sensation are intrinsic to the existence of embodied being in the way the other senses are not. In the wider culture--the arts, sport, the psychophysiology of labour and so on--there were many ways in which people expressed appreciation of the importance of what the anatomist Charles Bell had called 'the sixth sense'.

  1. The potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jianna; Yang, Hongli; Li, Kun; Lei, Xiaofei; Xu, Changqing

    2016-09-01

    Piezo2 is an important mechano-gated ion channel that is involved in light touch sensitivity and inflammatory allodynia. However, current research has focused on the function of Piezo2 in somatic sensation but not in visceral sensation. The present study aimed to investigate the role of Piezo2 in visceral sensation of mechanically innocuous and noxious stimuli under physiological and hyperalgesic conditions using rats as a model organism. Neonatal enema with acetic acid induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of Piezo2-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) reduced Piezo2 expression in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Piezo2 knock-down in DRG attenuated visceral sensation to innocuous stimuli in control rats and to both innocuous and noxious stimuli in rats with neonatal irritation. Compared with control rats, Piezo2 was not up-regulated in irritated rats at the mRNA or protein levels in thoracolumbar or lumbosacral DRGs, while TRPV1 was up-regulated in lumbosacral DRGs. These data suggest a potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation. PMID:27481627

  2. The potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jianna; Yang, Hongli; Li, Kun; Lei, Xiaofei; Xu, Changqing

    2016-09-01

    Piezo2 is an important mechano-gated ion channel that is involved in light touch sensitivity and inflammatory allodynia. However, current research has focused on the function of Piezo2 in somatic sensation but not in visceral sensation. The present study aimed to investigate the role of Piezo2 in visceral sensation of mechanically innocuous and noxious stimuli under physiological and hyperalgesic conditions using rats as a model organism. Neonatal enema with acetic acid induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of Piezo2-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) reduced Piezo2 expression in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Piezo2 knock-down in DRG attenuated visceral sensation to innocuous stimuli in control rats and to both innocuous and noxious stimuli in rats with neonatal irritation. Compared with control rats, Piezo2 was not up-regulated in irritated rats at the mRNA or protein levels in thoracolumbar or lumbosacral DRGs, while TRPV1 was up-regulated in lumbosacral DRGs. These data suggest a potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation.

  3. A flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Woo-Eon; Moon, Yong-Ju; Park, Cheon-Ho; Choi, Seung Tae

    2014-07-01

    To provide tactile feedback on flexible touch screens, transparent relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrators were designed and fabricated in this study. The film vibrator can be integrated underneath a transparent cover film or glass, and can also produce acoustic waves that cause a tactile sensation on human fingertips. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)] polymer was used as the relaxor ferroelectric polymer because it produces a large strain under applied electric fields, shows a fast response, and has excellent optical transparency. The natural frequency of this tactile-feedback touch screen was designed to be around 200-240 Hz, at which the haptic perception of human fingertips is the most sensitive; therefore, the resonance of the touch screen at its natural frequency provides maximum haptic sensation. A multilayered relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrator was also demonstrated to provide the same vibration power at reduced voltage. The flexible P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) film vibrators developed in this study are expected to provide tactile sensation not only in large-area flat panel displays, but also in flexible displays and touch screens.

  4. Laser-induced thermoelastic effects can evoke tactile sensations

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, Sung-Phil; Min Bae, Young; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Seungmoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Hwa Park, Seung; Yeom, Dong-Il; Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Humans process a plethora of sensory information that is provided by various entities in the surrounding environment. Among the five major senses, technology for touch, haptics, is relatively young and has relatively limited applications largely due to its need for physical contact. In this article, we suggest a new way for non-contact haptic stimulation that uses laser, which has potential advantages such as mid-air stimulation, high spatial precision, and long working distance. We demonstrate such tactile stimulation can be enabled by laser-induced thermoelastic effects by means of physical and perceptual studies, as well as simulations. In the physical study, the mechanical effect of laser on a human skin sample is detected using low-power radiation in accordance with safety guidelines. Limited increases (< ~2.5 °C) in temperature at the surface of the skin, examined by both thermal camera and the Monte Carlo simulation, indicate that laser does not evoke heat-induced nociceptive sensation. In the human EEG study, brain responses to both mechanical and laser stimulation are consistent, along with subjective reports of the non-nociceptive sensation of laser stimuli. PMID:26047142

  5. Laser-induced thermoelastic effects can evoke tactile sensations.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, Sung-Phil; Min Bae, Young; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Seungmoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Hwa Park, Seung; Yeom, Dong-Il; Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Humans process a plethora of sensory information that is provided by various entities in the surrounding environment. Among the five major senses, technology for touch, haptics, is relatively young and has relatively limited applications largely due to its need for physical contact. In this article, we suggest a new way for non-contact haptic stimulation that uses laser, which has potential advantages such as mid-air stimulation, high spatial precision, and long working distance. We demonstrate such tactile stimulation can be enabled by laser-induced thermoelastic effects by means of physical and perceptual studies, as well as simulations. In the physical study, the mechanical effect of laser on a human skin sample is detected using low-power radiation in accordance with safety guidelines. Limited increases (< ~2.5 °C) in temperature at the surface of the skin, examined by both thermal camera and the Monte Carlo simulation, indicate that laser does not evoke heat-induced nociceptive sensation. In the human EEG study, brain responses to both mechanical and laser stimulation are consistent, along with subjective reports of the non-nociceptive sensation of laser stimuli. PMID:26047142

  6. Laser-induced thermoelastic effects can evoke tactile sensations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, Sung-Phil; Min Bae, Young; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Seungmoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Hwa Park, Seung; Yeom, Dong-Il; Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-06-01

    Humans process a plethora of sensory information that is provided by various entities in the surrounding environment. Among the five major senses, technology for touch, haptics, is relatively young and has relatively limited applications largely due to its need for physical contact. In this article, we suggest a new way for non-contact haptic stimulation that uses laser, which has potential advantages such as mid-air stimulation, high spatial precision, and long working distance. We demonstrate such tactile stimulation can be enabled by laser-induced thermoelastic effects by means of physical and perceptual studies, as well as simulations. In the physical study, the mechanical effect of laser on a human skin sample is detected using low-power radiation in accordance with safety guidelines. Limited increases (< ~2.5 °C) in temperature at the surface of the skin, examined by both thermal camera and the Monte Carlo simulation, indicate that laser does not evoke heat-induced nociceptive sensation. In the human EEG study, brain responses to both mechanical and laser stimulation are consistent, along with subjective reports of the non-nociceptive sensation of laser stimuli.

  7. Biomimetic approaches to bionic touch through a peripheral nerve interface.

    PubMed

    Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art prosthetic hands nearly match the dexterity of the human hand, and sophisticated approaches have been developed to control them intuitively. However, grasping and dexterously manipulating objects relies heavily on the sense of touch, without which we would struggle to perform even the most basic activities of daily living. Despite the importance of touch, not only in motor control but also in affective communication and embodiment, the restoration of touch through bionic hands is still in its infancy, a shortcoming that severely limits their effectiveness. Here, we focus on approaches to restore the sense of touch through an electrical interface with the peripheral nerve. First, we describe devices that can be chronically implanted in the nerve to electrically activate nerve fibers. Second, we discuss how these interfaces have been used to convey basic somatosensory feedback. Third, we review what is known about how the somatosensory nerve encodes information about grasped objects in intact limbs and discuss how these natural neural codes can be exploited to convey artificial tactile feedback. Finally, we offer a blueprint for how these codes could be implemented in a neuroprosthetic device to deliver rich, natural, and versatile tactile sensations.

  8. Social touch modulates endogenous μ-opioid system activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Tuominen, Lauri; Dunbar, Robin; Hirvonen, Jussi; Manninen, Sandra; Arponen, Eveliina; Machin, Anna; Hari, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko

    2016-09-01

    In non-human primates, opioid-receptor blockade increases social grooming, and the endogenous opioid system has therefore been hypothesized to support maintenance of long-term relationships in humans as well. Here we tested whether social touch modulates opioidergic activation in humans using in vivo positron emission tomography (PET). Eighteen male participants underwent two PET scans with [11C]carfentanil, a ligand specific to μ-opioid receptors (MOR). During the social touch scan, the participants lay in the scanner while their partners caressed their bodies in a non-sexual fashion. In the baseline scan, participants lay alone in the scanner. Social touch triggered pleasurable sensations and increased MOR availability in the thalamus, striatum, and frontal, cingulate, and insular cortices. Modulation of activity of the opioid system by social touching might provide a neurochemical mechanism reinforcing social bonds between humans.

  9. Identification of a spinal circuit for light touch and fine motor control

    PubMed Central

    Bourane, Steeve; Grossmann, Katja S.; Britz, Olivier; Dalet, Antoine; Del Barrio, Marta Garcia; Stam, Floor J.; Garcia-Campmany, Lidia; Koch, Stephanie; Goulding, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    Sensory circuits in the dorsal spinal cord integrate and transmit multiple cutaneous sensory modalities including the sense of light touch. Here we identify a population of excitatory interneurons (INs) in the dorsal horn that are important for transmitting innocuous light touch sensation. These neurons express the ROR alpha (RORα) nuclear orphan receptor and are selectively innervated by cutaneous low threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMs). Targeted removal of RORα INs in the dorsal spinal cord leads a marked reduction in behavioral responsiveness to light touch without affecting responses to noxious and itch stimuli. RORα IN-deficient mice also display a selective deficit in corrective foot movements. This phenotype, together with our demonstration that the RORα INs are innervated by corticospinal and vestibulospinal projection neurons, argues that the RORα INs direct corrective reflex movements by integrating touch information with descending motor commands from the cortex and cerebellum. PMID:25635458

  10. Touch influences perceived gloss

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Wendy J.; Kerrigan, Iona S.; Graf, Erich W.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying an object’s material properties supports recognition and action planning: we grasp objects according to how heavy, hard or slippery we expect them to be. Visual cues to material qualities such as gloss have recently received attention, but how they interact with haptic (touch) information has been largely overlooked. Here, we show that touch modulates gloss perception: objects that feel slippery are perceived as glossier (more shiny).Participants explored virtual objects that varied in look and feel. A discrimination paradigm (Experiment 1) revealed that observers integrate visual gloss with haptic information. Observers could easily detect an increase in glossiness when it was paired with a decrease in friction. In contrast, increased glossiness coupled with decreased slipperiness produced a small perceptual change: the visual and haptic changes counteracted each other. Subjective ratings (Experiment 2) reflected a similar interaction – slippery objects were rated as glossier and vice versa. The sensory system treats visual gloss and haptic friction as correlated cues to surface material. Although friction is not a perfect predictor of gloss, the visual system appears to know and use a probabilistic relationship between these variables to bias perception – a sensible strategy given the ambiguity of visual clues to gloss. PMID:26915492

  11. The social and personality neuroscience of empathy for pain and touch

    PubMed Central

    Bufalari, Ilaria; Ionta, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    First- and third-person experiences of bodily sensations, like pain and touch, recruit overlapping neural networks including sensorimotor, insular, and anterior cingulate cortices. Here we illustrate the peculiar role of these structures in coding the sensory and affective qualities of the observed bodily sensations. Subsequently we show that such neural activity is critically influenced by a range of social, emotional, cognitive factors, and importantly by inter-individual differences in the separate components of empathic traits. Finally we suggest some fundamental issues that social neuroscience has to address for providing a comprehensive knowledge of the behavioral, functional and anatomical brain correlates of empathy. PMID:23898249

  12. The social and personality neuroscience of empathy for pain and touch.

    PubMed

    Bufalari, Ilaria; Ionta, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    First- and third-person experiences of bodily sensations, like pain and touch, recruit overlapping neural networks including sensorimotor, insular, and anterior cingulate cortices. Here we illustrate the peculiar role of these structures in coding the sensory and affective qualities of the observed bodily sensations. Subsequently we show that such neural activity is critically influenced by a range of social, emotional, cognitive factors, and importantly by inter-individual differences in the separate components of empathic traits. Finally we suggest some fundamental issues that social neuroscience has to address for providing a comprehensive knowledge of the behavioral, functional and anatomical brain correlates of empathy.

  13. Muon-induced visual sensations.

    PubMed

    McNulty, P J; Pease, V P; Bond, V P

    1976-01-01

    The visual phenomena induced by the passage of a pulse of extremely relativistic muons through the vitreous humor have been studied at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The visual phenomena include flashes that range from small crescents of light in the peripheral field of view to large clouds of light that fill the entire field of view as well as bright flashes with dark centers. Three subjects have been exposed to date. Arguments are given to show that the physical mechanism behind these flashes is Cerenkov radiation. Standard psychophysical techniques are used to determine the threshold for muoninduced visual sensations for one subject. Comparison is made with his pion treshold measured under the same condition.

  14. The Sensation Seeking Motive and Media Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broihier, Mary C.; Manning-Miller, Carmen

    A study was conducted to explore the relationships between sensation seeking--a multidimensional personality trait--and categories of leisure activity choices, mass media uses and gratifications, and television program preferences. It was hypothesized that low sensation seekers would find vicarious media such as television to be attractive leisure…

  15. Optical sensors for harsh environment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Maity, S.; Bekal, A.; Vartak, S.; Sridharan, A. K.; Mitra, C.

    2015-05-01

    The development of a harsh environment ammonia slip sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is presented. A hybrid optical sensor design, through combination of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) and alignment control, is proposed as an approach towards reliable in-situ measurements in misalignment prone harsh environments. 1531.59 nm, 1553.4 nm and 1555.56 nm are suggested as possible absorption lines for trace ammonia measurement (<1ppm at 10m path length at 500K) in gas turbine exhaust conditions. Design and performance of the alignment control system are presented in detail. Effect of misalignment related measurement degradation is investigated and significant improvement in measurement fidelity is demonstrated through the use of the hybrid optical sensor design.

  16. Sensors Increase Productivity in Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    California's San Juan Capistrano-based Endevco Corporation licensed three patents covering high-temperature, harsh-environment silicon carbide (Si-C) pressure sensors from Glenn Research Center. The company is exploring their use in government markets, as well as in commercial markets, including commercial jet testing, deep well drilling applications where pressure and temperature increase with drilling depth, and in automobile combustion chambers.

  17. Synopsis of fiber optics in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirich, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic technology is making significant advances for use in a number of harsh environments, such as air and space platforms. Many of these applications involve integration into systems which make extensive use of optical fiber for high bandwidth signal transmission. The large signal transmission bandwidth of optical fiber has a large and positive impact on the overall performance and weight of the cable harness. There are many benefits of fiber optic systems for air and space harsh environment applications, including minimal electromagnetic interference and environmental effects, lightweight and smaller diameter cables, greater bandwidth, integrated prognostics and diagnostics and the ability to be easily upgraded. To qualify and use a fiber optic cable in space and air harsh environments requires treatment of the cable assembly as a system and understanding the design and behavior of its parts. Many parameters affect an optical fiber's ability to withstand a harsh temperature and radiation environment. The space radiation environment is dependent on orbital altitude, inclination and time, contains energetic magnetically-trapped electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt, trapped protons in the inner belt and solar event protons and ions. Both transient and permanent temperature and radiation have an attenuation effect on the performance of the cable fiber. This paper presents an overview of defining fiber optic system and component performance by identifying operating and storage environmental requirements, using appropriate standards to be used in fiber optic cable assembly manufacturing and integration, developing inspection methods and fixtures compliant with the selected standards and developing a fiber optic product process that assures compliance with each design requirement.

  18. Environmental harshness, latitude and incipient speciation.

    PubMed

    Weir, Jason T

    2014-02-01

    Are rates of evolution and speciation fastest where diversity is greatest - the tropics? A commonly accepted theory links the latitudinal diversity gradient to a speciation pump model whereby the tropics produce species at a faster rate than extra-tropical regions. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Botero et al. () test the speciation pump model using subspecies richness patterns for more than 9000 species of birds and mammals as a proxy for incipient speciation opportunity. Rather than using latitudinal centroids, the authors investigate the role of various environmental correlates of latitude as drivers of subspecies richness. Their key finding points to environmental harshness as a positive predictor of subspecies richness. The authors link high subspecies richness in environmental harsh areas to increased opportunities for geographic range fragmentation and/or faster rates of trait evolution as drivers of incipient speciation. Because environmental harshness generally increases with latitude, these results suggest that opportunity for incipient speciation is lowest where species richness is highest. The authors interpret this finding as incompatible with the view of the tropics as a cradle of diversity. Their results are consistent with a growing body of evidence that reproductive isolation and speciation occur fastest at high latitudes. PMID:26010836

  19. Determinants of harsh parenting in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frías-Armenta, M; McCloskey, L A

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents a structural model of the determinants of harsh parenting among Mexican mothers. One hundred five mothers (46 from the community; 59 referred to agencies for child maltreatment) were recruited from Sonora (Northern) Mexico and interviewed. In this model the use of physical punishment was explained by (1) authoritarian parenting style (mothers' beliefs concerning the effective use of physical punishment and mothers' lack of disciplinary skills) and (2) family dysfunction (a latent variable constructed from reports of interspousal violence and the parents' use of alcohol and drugs). In addition, the indirect effects of demographic and historical variables on harsh parenting was included. The findings show that the most important factor influencing the use of physical punishment in these families was authoritarian parenting style, exerting a significant direct effect on the mothers' reports of their use of harsh punishment. Family dysfunction had an indirect effect through parenting style. Some sociodemographic variables also indirectly influenced the use of beliefs maternal punishment It is concluded that cultural beliefs play a major role in parenting within the framework of Mexican family relations.

  20. Therapeutic touch coming of age.

    PubMed

    Straneva, J A

    2000-04-01

    Therapeutic Touch, a meditative healing practice created by Dolores Krieger and Dora Kunz, is adapted from the "laying on of hands" for the purpose of helping or healing others. The history of the technique and its influence on the health care system are chronicled in an effort to establish the role Therapeutic Touch has played in transforming people's lives. PMID:12119623

  1. Acquisition of a Touching Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schifter, Catherine C.; Bogert, Meredith; Boston, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A study used focus groups to allow students, general-dentistry residents, and dental faculty to discuss issues related to learning to use touch in dental treatment. Analysis of group interactions indicated that learning to touch dental patients was often trial-and-error, and uncomfortable for students. A fine line exists between preventing…

  2. Tactile C fibers and their contributions to pleasant sensations and to tactile allodynia

    PubMed Central

    Liljencrantz, Jaquette; Olausson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    In humans converging evidence indicates that affective aspects of touch are signaled by low threshold mechanoreceptive C tactile (CT) afferents. Analyses of electrophysiological recordings, psychophysical studies in denervated subjects, and functional brain imaging, all indicate that CT primary afferents contribute to pleasant touch and provide an important sensory underpinning of social behavior. Considering both these pleasant and social aspects of gentle skin-to-skin contact, we have put forward a framework within which to consider CT afferent coding properties and pathways—the CT affective touch hypothesis. Recent evidence from studies in mice suggests that CTs, when activated, may have analgesic or anxiolytic effects. However, in neuropathic pain conditions, light touch can elicit unpleasant sensations, so called tactile allodynia. In humans, tactile allodynia is associated with reduced CT mediated hedonic touch processing suggesting loss of the normally analgesic effect of CT signaling. We thus propose that the contribution of CT afferents to tactile allodynia is mainly through a loss of their normally pain inhibiting role. PMID:24639633

  3. Touch during preterm infant resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Kitchin, L W; Hutchinson, S

    1996-10-01

    Preterm infants frequently require resuscitation in the delivery room. Under the intense circumstances of providing lifesaving interventions, caregivers may be unaware of the amount and kind of touch an infant receives. The purpose of this qualitative, ethologic study was to describe the kinds of touch that occur during resuscitation of premature infants immediately after delivery as viewed on videotape. The convenience sample consisted of ten videotapes of premature infant resuscitation performed at a tertiary care center. Using Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence, a description of kinds of touch--including mechanical and human touch--was developed. Descriptive research conceptualizing touch promotes awareness of current practice and may lead to alterations in clinical practice that best support the adaptive response in the depressed infant. PMID:9035643

  4. Heightened motor and sensory (mirror-touch) referral induced by nerve block or topical anesthetic.

    PubMed

    Case, Laura K; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-08-01

    Mirror neurons allow us to covertly simulate the sensation and movement of others. If mirror neurons are sensory and motor neurons, why do we not actually feel this simulation- like "mirror-touch synesthetes"? Might afferent sensation normally inhibit mirror representations from reaching consciousness? We and others have reported heightened sensory referral to phantom limbs and temporarily anesthetized arms. These patients, however, had experienced illness or injury of the deafferented limb. In the current study we observe heightened sensory and motor referral to the face after unilateral nerve block for routine dental procedures. We also obtain double-blind, quantitative evidence of heightened sensory referral in healthy participants completing a mirror-touch confusion task after topical anesthetic cream is applied. We suggest that sensory and motor feedback exist in dynamic equilibrium with mirror representations; as feedback is reduced, the brain draws more upon visual information to determine- perhaps in a Bayesian manner- what to feel.

  5. Molecular mechanism of sweetness sensation.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Grant E

    2016-10-01

    The current understanding of peripheral molecular events involved in sweet taste sensation in humans is reviewed. Included are discussions of the sweetener receptor T1R2/T1R3, its agonists, antagonists, positive allosteric modulators, the transduction of its activation in taste bud cells and the coding of its signaling to the CNS. Areas of incomplete understanding include 1) signal communication with afferent nerve fibers, 2) contrasting concentration/response (C/R) functions for high-potency (HP) sweeteners (hyperbolic) and carbohydrate (CHO) sweeteners (linear), 3) contrasting temporal profiles for HP sweeteners (delayed onset and extinction) and CHO sweeteners (rapid onset and extinction) and 4) contrasting adaptation behaviors for HP sweeteners (moderate to strong adaptation) and CHO sweeteners (low adaptation). Evidence based on the sweet water aftertastes of several novel sweetness inhibitors is presented providing new support for constitutive activity in T1R2/T1R3. And a model is developed to rationalize the linear C/R functions of CHO sweeteners and hyperbolic C/R functions of HP sweeteners, where the former may activate T1R2/T1R3 by both binding and constitutive activity modulation (i.e., without binding) and the latter activate T1R2/T1R3 only by binding. PMID:26992959

  6. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mihailov, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments. PMID:22438744

  7. Miniature Robotic Submarine for Exploring Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Bruhn, Fredrik; Carsey, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The miniature autonomous submersible explorer (MASE) has been proposed as a means of scientific exploration -- especially, looking for signs of life -- in harsh, relatively inaccessible underwater environments. Basically, the MASE would be a small instrumented robotic submarine (see figure) that could launch itself or could be launched from another vehicle. Examples of environments that might be explored by use of the MASE include subglacial lakes, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, acidic or alkaline lakes, brine lenses in permafrost, and ocean regions under Antarctic ice shelves.

  8. Fiber optic microphone for harsh environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kots, Alexander; Paritsky, Alexander

    1999-12-01

    Fiber optic microphone is a new device developed on the basis of the new fiber optic technology for measuring distances. Very small in size microphone consists of glass and plastic without any metal. Microphone works very linear in wide frequency and dynamic range in very harsh environment like heavy magnetic, electric, RFI and radioactive fields where no one of known microphones can't work. Microphone may be successfully used in MRI system for audio connection between a patient in MRI equipment and medical personnel outside of it.

  9. Detection of Optogenetic Stimulation in Somatosensory Cortex by Non-Human Primates - Towards Artificial Tactile Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest. PMID:25541938

  10. A Stereognostic Test for Screening Tactile Sensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Nancy B.

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of this investigation is to develop a method of measuring tactile sensation regarding the texture, size, and shape of objects (stereognosis) in the hand of normal two- to four-year-old children. (Author)

  11. Huggy Pajama: A Remote Interactive Touch and Hugging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Huggy Pajama is a novel wearable system aimed at promoting physical interaction in remote communication between parent and child. This system enables parents and children to hug one another through a hugging interface device and a wearable, hug reproducing pajama connected through the Internet. The hug input device is a small, mobile doll with an embedded pressure sensing circuit that is able to accurately sense varying levels of pressure along the range of human touch produced from natural touch. This device sends hug signals to a haptic jacket that simulates the feeling of being hugged to the wearer. It features air pocket actuators that reproduce hug sensations, heating elements to produce warmth that accompanies hugs, and a color changing pattern and accessory to indicate distance of separation and communicate expressions. In this chapter, we present the system design of Huggy Pajama. We also show results from quantitative and qualitative user studies which show the effectiveness of the system simulating an actual human touch. Results also indicate an increased sense of presence between parents and children when used as an added component to instant messaging and video chat communication.

  12. Harsh environment fiber optic connectors/testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Douglas A.

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic systems are used frequently in military, aerospace and commercial aviation programs. There is a long history of implementing fiber optic data transfer for aircraft control, for harsh environment use in local area networks and more recently for in-flight entertainment systems. The advantages of fiber optics include high data rate capacity, low weight, immunity to EMI/RFI, and security from signal tapping. Technicians must be trained particularly to install and maintain fiber systems, but it is not necessarily more difficult than wire systems. However, the testing of the fiber optic interconnection system must be conducted in a standardized manner to assure proper performance. Testing can be conducted with slight differences in the set-up and procedure that produce significantly different test results. This paper reviews various options of interconnect configurations and discusses how these options can affect the performance, maintenance required and longevity of a fiber optic system, depending on the environment. Proper test methods are discussed. There is a review of the essentials of proper fiber optic testing and impact of changing such test parameters as input launch conditions, wavelength considerations, power meter options and the basic methods of testing. This becomes important right from the start when the supplier test data differs from the user's data check upon receiving the product. It also is important in periodic testing. Properly conducting the fiber optic testing will eliminate confusion and produce meaningful test results for a given harsh environment application.

  13. A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

  14. Significance of Touch in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances M.

    2005-01-01

    Touch matters. Humans need nurturing touch for optimum emotional, physical, and cognitive development and health--especially in infancy. Positive touch lowers levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the brain. Drawing on research and anecdotal evidence to support the importance of touch to children's well-being, the author makes a case for…

  15. Novel optical encoder for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Mueller, Ulrich; Brac-de-la-Perriere, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    We are presenting a new optical encoder architecture for shaft encoding, both in incremental and absolute modes. This encoder is based on a diffractive optics technology platform. We have developed various disk based rotary diffractive encoders previously. This encoder is different in the way it is not a disk composed of successive gratings or computer generated holograms, but rather composed of a single element placed on the shaft. It is thus best suited for hollow shaft or end of shaft applications such as in encoder controlled electrical motors. This new architecture aims at solving some of the problems encountered with previous implementations of diffractive encoders such as disk wobble, disk to shaft centering and also encoding in harsh environments.

  16. Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiß, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations. PMID:22163805

  17. Solar-blind photodetectors for harsh electronics.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Lien, Wei-Cheng; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Senesky, Debbie G; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Pisano, Albert P; He, Jr-Hau

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate solar-blind photodetectors (PDs) by employing AlN thin films on Si(100) substrates with excellent temperature tolerance and radiation hardness. Even at a bias higher than 200 V the AlN PDs on Si show a dark current as low as ~ 1 nA. The working temperature is up to 300°C and the radiation tolerance is up to 10(13) cm(-2) of 2-MeV proton fluences for AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs. Moreover, the AlN PDs show a photoresponse time as fast as ~ 110 ms (the rise time) and ~ 80 ms (the fall time) at 5 V bias. The results demonstrate that AlN MSM PDs hold high potential in next-generation deep ultraviolet PDs for use in harsh environments.

  18. Coherent beam combining performance in harsh environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, L.; Canat, G.; Durecu, A.; Bourdon, P.

    2014-03-01

    Coherent beam combining (CBC) is a promising solution for high power directed energy weapons. We investigate several particular issues for this application: First, we study the evolution of phase noise spectrum for increasing pump power in 100 W MOPFA. The main variations in the spectrum are located in the low frequency region corresponding to thermal transfer between the fiber core heated by the pump absorption and the fiber environment. The phase noise root mean square evolves linearly with the pump power. Noise spectrum is not shifted to higher frequencies. Second, we investigate the influence of fiber packaging and amplifier packaging on the phase noise and estimate the LOCSET controller bandwidth (BW) requirement in each case. Results show large variation of BW depending on the packaging, and not on the power. Then, we investigate the performances of CBC in harsh environment. For this purpose, we implement CBC of a 20-W fiber amplifier and a passive fiber using the LOCSET technique and simulate harsh environment by applying strong vibrations with a hammering drill on the optical table. The applied vibration spectrum ranges from 1 Hz to ~10 kHz with a standard deviation of 9 m/s2. CBC of the amplifier output and the passive fiber output is performed on a second table, isolated from vibrations. Measurements of the phase difference between both outputs and of the applied vibrations are simultaneously performed. Residual phase error of λ/40 (i.e. > 99 % CBC efficiency) is achieved under strong vibrations at 20 W. The -3 dB bandwidth of the LOCSET controller has been measured to be ~4.5 kHz. Results are in agreement with simulations.

  19. Reliability of the "Ten Test" for assessment of discriminative sensation in hand trauma.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael J; Regan, William R; Seal, Alex; Bristol, Sean G

    2016-10-01

    "Ten Test" (TT) is a bedside measure of discriminative sensation, whereby the magnitude of abnormal sensation to moving light touch is normalized to an area of normal sensation on an 11-point Likert scale (0-10). The purposes of this study were to determine reliability parameters of the TT in a cohort of patients presenting to a hand trauma clinic with subjectively altered sensation post-injury and to compare the reliability of TT to that of the Weinstein Enhanced Sensory Test (WEST). Study participants (n = 29, mean age = 37 ± 12) comprised patients presenting to an outpatient hand trauma clinic with recent hand trauma and self reported abnormal sensation. Participants underwent TT and WEST by two separate raters on the same day. Interrater reliability, response stability and responsiveness of each test were determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC: 2, 1), standard error of measurement (SEM) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and minimal detectable difference score, with 95% CI (MDD95), respectively. The TT displayed excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-0.97) compared to good reliability for WEST (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.58-0.89). The range of true scores expected with 95% confidence based on the SEM (i.e. response stability), was ±1.1 for TT and ±1.1 for WEST. MDD95 scores reflecting test responsiveness were 1.5 and 1.6 for TT and WEST, respectively. The TT displayed excellent reliability parameters in this patient population. Reliability parameters were stronger for TT compared to WEST. These results provide support for the use of TT as a component of the sensory exam in hand trauma.

  20. Reliability of the "Ten Test" for assessment of discriminative sensation in hand trauma.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael J; Regan, William R; Seal, Alex; Bristol, Sean G

    2016-10-01

    "Ten Test" (TT) is a bedside measure of discriminative sensation, whereby the magnitude of abnormal sensation to moving light touch is normalized to an area of normal sensation on an 11-point Likert scale (0-10). The purposes of this study were to determine reliability parameters of the TT in a cohort of patients presenting to a hand trauma clinic with subjectively altered sensation post-injury and to compare the reliability of TT to that of the Weinstein Enhanced Sensory Test (WEST). Study participants (n = 29, mean age = 37 ± 12) comprised patients presenting to an outpatient hand trauma clinic with recent hand trauma and self reported abnormal sensation. Participants underwent TT and WEST by two separate raters on the same day. Interrater reliability, response stability and responsiveness of each test were determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC: 2, 1), standard error of measurement (SEM) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and minimal detectable difference score, with 95% CI (MDD95), respectively. The TT displayed excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-0.97) compared to good reliability for WEST (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.58-0.89). The range of true scores expected with 95% confidence based on the SEM (i.e. response stability), was ±1.1 for TT and ±1.1 for WEST. MDD95 scores reflecting test responsiveness were 1.5 and 1.6 for TT and WEST, respectively. The TT displayed excellent reliability parameters in this patient population. Reliability parameters were stronger for TT compared to WEST. These results provide support for the use of TT as a component of the sensory exam in hand trauma. PMID:27492644

  1. In touch with your emotions: oxytocin and touch change social impressions while others' facial expressions can alter touch.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Wessberg, Johan; Chelnokova, Olga; Olausson, Håkan; Laeng, Bruno; Leknes, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is frequently used for communicating emotions, strengthen social bonds and to give others pleasure. The neuropeptide oxytocin increases social interest, improves recognition of others' emotions, and it is released during touch. Here, we investigated how oxytocin and gentle human touch affect social impressions of others, and vice versa, how others' facial expressions and oxytocin affect touch experience. In a placebo-controlled crossover study using intranasal oxytocin, 40 healthy volunteers viewed faces with different facial expressions along with concomitant gentle human touch or control machine touch, while pupil diameter was monitored. After each stimulus pair, participants rated the perceived friendliness and attractiveness of the faces, perceived facial expression, or pleasantness and intensity of the touch. After intranasal oxytocin treatment, gentle human touch had a sharpening effect on social evaluations of others relative to machine touch, such that frowning faces were rated as less friendly and attractive, whereas smiling faces were rated as more friendly and attractive. Conversely, smiling faces increased, whereas frowning faces reduced, pleasantness of concomitant touch - the latter effect being stronger for human touch. Oxytocin did not alter touch pleasantness. Pupillary responses, a measure of attentional allocation, were larger to human touch than to equally intense machine touch, especially when paired with a smiling face. Overall, our results point to mechanisms important for human affiliation and social bond formation. PMID:24275000

  2. CaMKII Controls Whether Touch Is Painful

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongwei; Pan, Bin; Weyer, Andy; Wu, Hsiang-En; Meng, Jingwei; Fischer, Gregory; Vilceanu, Daniel; Light, Alan R.; Stucky, Cheryl; Rice, Frank L.; Hudmon, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The sensation of touch is initiated when fast conducting low-threshold mechanoreceptors (Aβ-LTMRs) generate impulses at their terminals in the skin. Plasticity in this system is evident in the process of adaption, in which a period of diminished sensitivity follows prior stimulation. CaMKII is an ideal candidate for mediating activity-dependent plasticity in touch because it shifts into an enhanced activation state after neuronal depolarizations and can thereby reflect past firing history. Here we show that sensory neuron CaMKII autophosphorylation encodes the level of Aβ-LTMR activity in rat models of sensory deprivation (whisker clipping, tail suspension, casting). Blockade of CaMKII signaling limits normal adaptation of action potential generation in Aβ-LTMRs in excised skin. CaMKII activity is also required for natural filtering of impulse trains as they travel through the sensory neuron T-junction in the DRG. Blockade of CaMKII selectively in presynaptic Aβ-LTMRs removes dorsal horn inhibition that otherwise prevents Aβ-LTMR input from activating nociceptive lamina I neurons. Together, these consequences of reduced CaMKII function in Aβ-LTMRs cause low-intensity mechanical stimulation to produce pain behavior. We conclude that, without normal sensory activity to maintain adequate levels of CaMKII function, the touch pathway shifts into a pain system. In the clinical setting, sensory disuse may be a critical factor that enhances and prolongs chronic pain initiated by other conditions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The sensation of touch is served by specialized sensory neurons termed low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). We examined the role of CaMKII in regulating the function of these neurons. Loss of CaMKII function, such as occurred in rats during sensory deprivation, elevated the generation and propagation of impulses by LTMRs, and altered the spinal cord circuitry in such a way that low-threshold mechanical stimuli produced pain behavior. Because limbs

  3. A conceptual model of intentional comfort touch.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ann; Howett, Maeve

    2009-06-01

    This article discusses the application and integration of intentional comfort touch as a holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature on touch and its related concepts is included. Although nurses use touch frequently in patient encounters, it is not always used intentionally or deliberately to enhance care. The article compares and contrasts intentional comfort touch with nonintentional or procedural touch. The use of intentional comfort touch in innovative clinical settings with diverse and at-risk populations is described. Based on clinical experiences and the current literature, a conceptual model of intentional comfort touch is proposed. The application of touch is discussed as is the meaning and importance of intentional touch for students, faculty, and patients. PMID:19443699

  4. Unperceivable noise to active light touch effects on fast postural sway.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Kouzaki, Motoki; Masani, Kei; Moritani, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Human postural sway during quiet standing is reduced when a fingertip lightly touches a stable surface. The tactile feedback information from the fingertip has been considered responsible for this effect of light touch. Studies have shown that a noise-like minute stimulation to the sensory system can improve the system's weak signal detection. In the present study, we investigated whether a noise-like unperceivable vibration on the fingertip enhances its tactile sensation and facilitates the effect of light touch during quiet standing. Thirteen volunteers maintained quiet standing while lightly touching a touch surface with the index fingertip. Based on each subject's vibrotactile threshold (VT), a noise-like vibration was applied to the touch surface at amplitudes under (0.5VT) or at VT (1.0VT), in addition to the normal light touch condition (no vibration, 0VT). The results showed that the mean velocities of the foot center of pressure (CoP) in both the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions were significantly reduced at 0.5VT compared to 0VT and 1.0VT (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between 1.0VT and 0VT (P>0.05). Frequency analysis of CoP revealed that the power of high-frequency fluctuation (1-10Hz) was significantly reduced at 0.5VT (P<0.05), whereas no significant change was observed in that of low-frequency sway (below 1Hz) (P>0.05). These results indicate that an unperceivable noise-like vibration can facilitate the effect of light touch on postural stability, by further reducing fast postural sway. PMID:22075223

  5. Redirected Touching: Training and Adaptation in Warped Virtual Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Luv; Whitton, Mary C.; Brooks, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Redirected Touching is a technique in which virtual space is warped to map many virtual objects onto one real object that serves as a passive haptic prop. Recent work suggests that this mapping can often be predictably unnoticeable and have little effect on task performance. We investigated training and adaptation on a rapid aiming task in a real environment, an unwarped virtual environment, and a warped virtual environment. Participants who experienced a warped virtual space reported an initial strange sensation, but adapted to the warped space after short repeated exposure. Our data indicate that all the virtual training was less effective than real-world training, but after adaptation, participants trained as well in a warped virtual space as in an unwarped one. PMID:25621318

  6. To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene Allen

    2011-01-01

    People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

  7. Philosophic reflections on the meaning of touch in nurse-patient interactions.

    PubMed

    Green, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    In this paper I examine the meaning of physical touch as it occurs in the nurse-patient interaction. There are two aspects of the nurse-patient relationship that are found in most nurse-patient interactions which together have profound implications for nurses as practitioners and as individual human persons. The first is the clinical intimacy of the nurse-patient relationship where nurses touch, rub, smooth, clean, dress and otherwise physically interact with patients. The other is the existential crisis, the possibility of loss, suffering and death that lurks at the horizon of most, if not all, healthcare encounters. Edmund Husserl, Merleau-Ponty and more recently Robert Sokolowski argue that tactile sensations and resultant perceptions are fundamental to all sensory perception. Further, they argue that tactile sensation is fundamental for the ongoing constitution of 'my' self as a person and for the development and exercise of human intersubjectivity. If tactile interaction is crucial to the development of our very selves as persons and a significant aspect of our interaction with patients includes direct or observed tactile sensations and if further these sensations occur around the context of existential crises for our patients, then nurse's very selves as persons are being challenged by these interactions. Here, then I examine the philosophical argument for the role of tactile sensations in our human development and briefly look at contemporary neurophysiologic research that supports this philosophical account. I then suggest ways such physical intimacy can lead to a strengthening or weakening of the person of the nurse and the nursing interaction and end with some thoughts about ways to support nurses in these activities. PMID:24034156

  8. Philosophic reflections on the meaning of touch in nurse-patient interactions.

    PubMed

    Green, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    In this paper I examine the meaning of physical touch as it occurs in the nurse-patient interaction. There are two aspects of the nurse-patient relationship that are found in most nurse-patient interactions which together have profound implications for nurses as practitioners and as individual human persons. The first is the clinical intimacy of the nurse-patient relationship where nurses touch, rub, smooth, clean, dress and otherwise physically interact with patients. The other is the existential crisis, the possibility of loss, suffering and death that lurks at the horizon of most, if not all, healthcare encounters. Edmund Husserl, Merleau-Ponty and more recently Robert Sokolowski argue that tactile sensations and resultant perceptions are fundamental to all sensory perception. Further, they argue that tactile sensation is fundamental for the ongoing constitution of 'my' self as a person and for the development and exercise of human intersubjectivity. If tactile interaction is crucial to the development of our very selves as persons and a significant aspect of our interaction with patients includes direct or observed tactile sensations and if further these sensations occur around the context of existential crises for our patients, then nurse's very selves as persons are being challenged by these interactions. Here, then I examine the philosophical argument for the role of tactile sensations in our human development and briefly look at contemporary neurophysiologic research that supports this philosophical account. I then suggest ways such physical intimacy can lead to a strengthening or weakening of the person of the nurse and the nursing interaction and end with some thoughts about ways to support nurses in these activities.

  9. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    PubMed

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS. PMID:26863819

  10. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    PubMed

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS.

  11. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  12. Harsh Parenting in Relation to Child Emotion Regulation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lei; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of child emotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents’ and children’s gender. Mothers’ harsh parenting affected child emotion regulation more strongly than fathers’, whereas harsh parenting emanating from fathers had a stronger effect on child aggression. Fathers’ harsh parenting also affected sons more than daughters, whereas there was no gender differential effect with mothers’ harsh parenting. These results are discussed with an emphasis on negative emotionality as a potentially common cause of family perturbations, including parenting and child adjustment problems. PMID:14640808

  13. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-09-01

    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing β-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  14. Parental harsh discipline in mainland China: prevalence, frequency, and coexistence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meifang; Liu, Li

    2014-06-01

    The study examined the prevalence, frequency, and coexistence of psychological aggression (PA), corporal punishment (CP), and severe physical abuse (SPA) in mainland China. Using a sample of 2,518 father-mother dyads of 3-15-year-old children, the findings revealed that parental harsh discipline was prevalent in mainland China. The rates of harsh discipline in the current study fell in the middle of the ranges of rates found in other studies. Harsh discipline was most likely directed at boys or children aged 7 years and committed by mothers, young fathers, or high and low socioeconomic status (SES) parents. The prevalence of maternal and paternal PA and CP declined with the children's age. Maternal and paternal SPA first increased and then decreased with child age. The frequency of the three types of maternal and paternal harsh discipline fluctuated depending on the age of the children. In addition, approximately 50% of the mothers and fathers who reported using severe forms of disciplinary practices also engaged in less severe forms of harsh disciplinary practices against their children. SPA generally coexisted with CP and PA, and CP was usually accompanied by PA; however, PA was more likely to occur independently compared with CP and SPA. Moreover, maternal harsh discipline coexisted with paternal harsh discipline to some extent. The coexistence decreased with increasing severity of parental harsh discipline and differed according to child gender. These findings highlight the importance of studying these three types of parental harsh discipline simultaneously and intervening in harsh discipline by mothers and fathers within the same family.

  15. Drawing the Sense of Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupelis, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Techniques to help students do modeled drawings using Conte crayon or chalk are presented. Students must imagine that the crayon is actually touching the form they are drawing, pressing lightly on sections closest to them, and increasing the pressure to create darker tones as they draw the parts farther away. (RM)

  16. "The Chinatown Foray" as Sensational Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Thinking through affective theories by Alfred North Whitehead, Giles Deleuze, and Brian Massumi, this paper proposes an understanding of pedagogy that is sensational. To consider affective theories and their implications for educational research, I engage with a relational artwork, "The Chinatown Foray," by Toronto-based artist Diane Borsato. In…

  17. High resolution skin-like sensor capable of sensing and visualizing various sensations and three dimensional shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianbai; Wang, Wenbo; Bian, Xiaolei; Wang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, J. K.; Dong, Shurong

    2015-08-01

    Human skin contains multiple receptors, and is able to sense various stimuli such as temperature, pressure, force, corrosion etc, and to feel pains and the shape of objects. The development of skin-like sensors capable of sensing these stimuli is of great importance for various applications such as robots, touch detection, temperature monitoring, strain gauges etc. Great efforts have been made to develop high performance skin-like sensors, but they are far from perfect and much inferior to human skin as most of them can only sense one stimulus with focus on pressure (strain) or temperature, and are unable to visualize sensations and shape of objects. Here we report a skin-like sensor which imitates real skin with multiple receptors, and a new concept of pain sensation. The sensor with very high resolution not only has multiple sensations for touch, pressure, temperature, but also is able to sense various pains and reproduce the three dimensional shape of an object in contact.

  18. Intelligent Memory Module Overcomes Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Solar cells, integrated circuits, and sensors are essential to manned and unmanned space flight and exploration, but such systems are highly susceptible to damage from radiation. Especially problematic, the Van Allen radiation belts encircle Earth in concentric radioactive tori at distances from about 6,300 to 38,000 km, though the inner radiation belt can dip as low as 700 km, posing a severe hazard to craft and humans leaving Earth s atmosphere. To avoid this radiation, the International Space Station and space shuttles orbit at altitudes between 275 and 460 km, below the belts range, and Apollo astronauts skirted the edge of the belts to minimize exposure, passing swiftly through thinner sections of the belts and thereby avoiding significant side effects. This radiation can, however, prove detrimental to improperly protected electronics on satellites that spend the majority of their service life in the harsh environment of the belts. Compact, high-performance electronics that can withstand extreme environmental and radiation stress are thus critical to future space missions. Increasing miniaturization of electronics addresses the need for lighter weight in launch payloads, as launch costs put weight at a premium. Likewise, improved memory technologies have reduced size, cost, mass, power demand, and system complexity, and improved high-bandwidth communication to meet the data volume needs of the next-generation high-resolution sensors. This very miniaturization, however, has exacerbated system susceptibility to radiation, as the charge of ions may meet or exceed that of circuitry, overwhelming the circuit and disrupting operation of a satellite. The Hubble Space Telescope, for example, must turn off its sensors when passing through intense radiation to maintain reliable operation. To address the need for improved data quality, additional capacity for raw and processed data, ever-increasing resolution, and radiation tolerance, NASA spurred the development of the

  19. Aluminum Nitride Sensors for Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goericke, Fabian Thomas

    Harsh environment applications include high temperature, pressure and mechanical shock. Aluminum nitride is a strong ceramic material with very good high temperature survivability. It also has piezoelectric properties that can be used for sensing applications and it can be deposited with good control as thin polycrystalline film for the fabrication of micro-electromechanical systems. In this dissertation, optimized deposition parameters for aluminum nitride films and characterization techniques for film stress gradients are investigated. Furthermore, two different fabrication processes are presented that can be used to build several sensors and other micromechanical elements on a single chip. The more advanced process includes a bulk-micromachining step that enables the use of the silicon substrate as large proof masses for accelerometers. At the same time, the fabrication process can be used to create membranes for devices such as pressure sensors. Several different devices are discussed from the device design and theoretical analysis to the fabrication and experimental verification. The most significant contribution is the performance improvement of several orders of magnitude that can be achieved with aluminum nitride accelerometers by switching from double-ended tuning forks to triple-beam tuning forks and by using the newly discovered sensing concept of bent-beam sensing. Additionally, rate gyroscopes were presented that use aluminum nitride as the structural material and for both actuating the drive axis and reading the sense axis. Both types of sensors have potential applications in inertial navigation at high temperature. Double-ended tuning forks and triple-beam tuning forks were tested in hot environment and it was shown that they can be used as highly sensitive strain sensors up to at least 570 °C. Additionally, a testing setup for high temperature testing of accelerometers was demonstrated.

  20. Instructor Touch Enhanced College Students' Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2013-01-01

    Touch between people is associated with several outcomes, including reduced stress, more positive mood, enhanced feelings of closeness, and positive behavioral change. However, the potential utility of touch rarely has been examined in a college sample, with teachers touching their students. In the present study, we used instrumental touch…

  1. ChR2 transgenic animals in peripheral sensory system: Sensing light as various sensations.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Since the introduction of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to neuroscience, optogenetics technology was developed, making it possible to activate specific neurons or circuits with spatial and temporal precision. Various ChR2 transgenic animal models have been generated and are playing important roles in revealing the mechanisms of neural activities, mapping neural circuits, controlling the behaviors of animals as well as exploring new strategy for treating the neurological diseases in both central and peripheral nervous system. An animal including humans senses environments through Aristotle's five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch). Usually, each sense is associated with a kind of sensory organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin). Is it possible that one could hear light, smell light, taste light and touch light? When ChR2 is targeted to different peripheral sensory neurons by viral vectors or generating ChR2 transgenic animals, the animals can sense the light as various sensations such as hearing, touch, pain, smell and taste. In this review, we focus on ChR2 transgenic animals in the peripheral nervous system. Firstly the working principle of ChR2 as an optogenetic actuator is simply described. Then the current transgenic animal lines where ChR2 was expressed in peripheral sensory neurons are presented and the findings obtained by these animal models are reviewed.

  2. ChR2 transgenic animals in peripheral sensory system: Sensing light as various sensations.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Since the introduction of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to neuroscience, optogenetics technology was developed, making it possible to activate specific neurons or circuits with spatial and temporal precision. Various ChR2 transgenic animal models have been generated and are playing important roles in revealing the mechanisms of neural activities, mapping neural circuits, controlling the behaviors of animals as well as exploring new strategy for treating the neurological diseases in both central and peripheral nervous system. An animal including humans senses environments through Aristotle's five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch). Usually, each sense is associated with a kind of sensory organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin). Is it possible that one could hear light, smell light, taste light and touch light? When ChR2 is targeted to different peripheral sensory neurons by viral vectors or generating ChR2 transgenic animals, the animals can sense the light as various sensations such as hearing, touch, pain, smell and taste. In this review, we focus on ChR2 transgenic animals in the peripheral nervous system. Firstly the working principle of ChR2 as an optogenetic actuator is simply described. Then the current transgenic animal lines where ChR2 was expressed in peripheral sensory neurons are presented and the findings obtained by these animal models are reviewed. PMID:26903290

  3. Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (α=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275

  4. [Therapeutic touch and anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Satori, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    An innovative practice, therapeutic touch has been used for around ten years in the treatment of eating disorders. Delivered by nurse clinicians having received specific training, this approach is based on nursing diagnoses which identify the major symptoms of this pathology. The support is built around the body and its perceptions. Through the helping relationship, it mobilises the patient's resources to favour a relationship of trust, a letting-go, physical, psychological and emotional relaxation, and improves the therapeutic alliance. PMID:27615696

  5. Laser Interferometry for Harsh Environment MEMS Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    Silicon-based MEMS technology has enabled the fabrication of a broad range of sensor and actuator systems that are having a great impact in areas that benefit from miniaturization and increased functionality. The main advantage of Si-based MEMS technologies is their possibility of integration with microelectronics thus allowing the economical production of smart microsystems. In the automotive industry for example, there is a need for inexpensive smart MEMS sensors for engine control applications. For instance, smart MEMS sensors capable of operating ``in cylinder'', where temperatures are around 400 C, could continuously monitor the combustion quality of the cylinders of automotive engines thus leading to reduced emissions and improved fuel economy. However, when the environment temperature is too high (>180 C), conventional Si-based microelectronics suffer from severe performance degradation, thus making smart Si-based MEMS impractical. Hence, further development, in terms of new MEMS materials and/or new technologies, is needed especially where high temperature capability is crucial to realizing improved electronic control. Remote sensing through optical signal detection has major advantages for safe signal transmission in harsh environments. It is highly resistant to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) and at the same time, it eliminates the necessity of on-board electronics, which has been one of the main obstacles in the development of smart MEMS sensors for high temperature applications. An economical way to deal with higher temperatures and other aggressive environmental conditions is to build MEMS sensors out of robust materials (e.g. Silicon nitride, SiC) and integrate them with optical signal detection techniques to form MOEMS. In this paper, we review recent trends for the use of laser interferometry for MEMS sensors in the context of using them for high temperature applications. Technological challenges faced in

  6. Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Compatible Chemical Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Carpenter

    2012-01-15

    with the observed stability over long exposure periods, each of these Au-metal oxide films shows good potential as an optical sensing element for harsh environmental conditions.

  7. Imaging Systems For Application In Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothues, H.-G.; Michaelis, H.; Behnke, T.; Bresch, W.; Koldewey, E.; Lichopoj, A.; Tschentscher, M.; Alicke, P.

    Imaging systems operating in the wavelength domain between the near UV and the mid IR (about 300 nm to > 5 (m) play a crucial role in remote sensing from orbiters and in-situ lander measurements of planetary exploration space missions. Wide-angle and high-resolution cameras, IR imagers, and imaging spectrographs provide carto- graphic information on the morphology and topography of planetary surfaces, serve to characterize landing sites with their geological features like soils and rocks, de- liver data on the spectrophotometric characteristics of minerals, and contribute to at- mospheric reasearch. Moreover, imaging systems have the important task to present scientific missions to the general public. As resources during planetary missions are usually very limited imaging payloads have to be designed to have low mass and size, low power consumption, and to effectively handle the imaging data taking into ac- count the limited computing powers, mass memories and telemetry data rates (image data compression). Furthermore, the design has to cope with extremely harsh environ- ments such as, for example, high and very low temperatures, large temperature varia- tions and gradients, high mechanical loads (shocks), e.g. during landing on a planetary surface, a hostile particle radiation environment, and dusty or chemically aggressive atmospheres. The presentation discusses the requirements to be set up for planetary mission imaging systems, and gives an overview of the most important design mea- sures to be taken in order to be compliant with these requirements (e.g. miniatur- ization of electronics, light-weight materials, athermal and radiation tolerant design). The discussion comprises all subunits of imaging systems starting with the optics / the spectrograph and the detector unit, continuing with the data processing unit, and ending with peripheral equipment like e.g. drives, deployable booms, and illumina- tion devices for lander cameras. Examples are given of already

  8. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  9. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  10. HARSHNESS: CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERMITTENT STREAM HABITAT OVER SPACE AND TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Frequently disturbed environments, such as intermittent streams, are ecologically useful for studying how disturbance characteristics (e.g., frequency, magnitude) affect community structure and succession. A harshness index summarizing spatial and temporal characteristics of pra...

  11. Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending Aδ pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions.

  12. Referred thermal sensations: warmth versus cold.

    PubMed

    Green, B G

    1978-09-01

    The present study investigates further the phenomenon of thermal referral, in which thermal sensations are "referred" to the site of nearby tactile stimuli. First demonstrated with three stimulators (Green, B.G. Perception and Psychophysics, 1977, 22, 331-337), the present experiments show that referral also occurs between two contact stimuli. Measurements with two stimulators reveal that (1) on the arm and fingers, warmth refers more strongly that cold, and (2) referral of warmth is affected relatively little by increasing the distance between stimulators; (3) on the fingertips, referral is greater when the thermal sensation refers away from rather than toward the first digit; and (4) the pattern or referral across fingers differs for warmth and cold and appears unrelated to the pattern of peripheral innervation. The phenomenon of referral illustrates that information about locus gathered through the tactile sense is available to the thermal senses, which means that information about stimulus locus and quality can be carried on separate nerve fibers.

  13. Detection of optogenetic stimulation in somatosensory cortex by non-human primates--towards artificial tactile sensation.

    PubMed

    May, Travis; Ozden, Ilker; Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest.

  14. Use of harsh physical discipline and developmental outcomes in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bender, Heather L; Allen, Joseph P; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Antonishak, Jill; Moore, Cynthia M; Kelly, Heather O'Beirne; Davis, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    A history of exposure to harsh physical discipline has been linked to negative outcomes for children, ranging from conduct disorder to depression and low self-esteem. The present study extends this work into adolescence, and examines the relationship of lifetime histories of harsh discipline to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms and to their developing capacities for establishing autonomy and relatedness in family interactions. Adolescent and parent reports of harsh discipline, independently coded observations of conflictual interactions, and adolescent reports of symptoms were obtained for 141 adolescents at age 16. Both parents' use of harsh discipline was related to greater adolescent depression and externalizing behavior, even when these effects were examined over and above the effects of other parenting measures known to account for these symptoms. Adolescents exposed to harsh discipline from mothers were also less likely to appear warm and engaged during an interaction task with their mothers. It is suggested that a history of harsh discipline is associated not only with social and emotional functioning, but also with the developmental task of autonomy and relatedness.

  15. Use of harsh physical discipline and developmental outcomes in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    BENDER, HEATHER L.; ALLEN, JOSEPH P.; McELHANEY, KATHLEEN BOYKIN; ANTONISHAK, JILL; MOORE, CYNTHIA M.; KELLY, HEATHER O’BEIRNE; DAVIS, STEVEN M.

    2012-01-01

    A history of exposure to harsh physical discipline has been linked to negative outcomes for children, ranging from conduct disorder to depression and low self-esteem. The present study extends this work into adolescence, and examines the relationship of lifetime histories of harsh discipline to adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms and to their developing capacities for establishing autonomy and relatedness in family interactions. Adolescent and parent reports of harsh discipline, independently coded observations of conflictual interactions, and adolescent reports of symptoms were obtained for 141 adolescents at age 16. Both parents’ use of harsh discipline was related to greater adolescent depression and externalizing behavior, even when these effects were examined over and above the effects of other parenting measures known to account for these symptoms. Adolescents exposed to harsh discipline from mothers were also less likely to appear warm and engaged during an interaction task with their mothers. It is suggested that a history of harsh discipline is associated not only with social and emotional functioning, but also with the developmental task of autonomy and relatedness. PMID:17241492

  16. Harsh environment sensor development for advanced energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanosky, Robert R.; Maley, Susan M.

    2013-05-01

    Highly efficient, low emission power systems have extreme conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and corrosivity that require monitoring. Sensing in these harsh environments can provide key information that directly impacts process control and system reliability. To achieve the goals and demands of clean energy, the conditions under which fossil fuels are converted into heat and power are harsh compared to traditional combustion/steam cycles. Temperatures can extend as high as 1600 Celsius (°C) in certain systems and pressures can reach as high as 5000 pounds per square inch (psi)/340 atmospheres (atm). The lack of suitable measurement technology serves as a driver for the innovations in harsh environment sensor development. Two major considerations in the development of harsh environments sensors are the materials used for sensing and the design of the sensing device. This paper will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's, Office of Fossil Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory's Program in advanced sensing concepts that are aimed at addressing the technology needs and drivers through the development of new sensor materials and designs capable of withstanding harsh environment conditions. Recent developments with harsh environment sensors will be highlighted and future directions towards in advanced sensing will be introduced.

  17. Effect of imperceptible vibratory noise applied to wrist skin on fingertip touch evoked potentials – an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Na Jin; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Bonilha, Leonardo; Lauer, Abigail W; Schmit, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Random vibration applied to skin can change the sense of touch. Specifically, low amplitude white-noise vibration can improve fingertip touch perception. In fact, fingertip touch sensation can improve even when imperceptible random vibration is applied to other remote upper extremity areas such as wrist, dorsum of the hand, or forearm. As such, vibration can be used to manipulate sensory feedback and improve dexterity, particularly during neurological rehabilitation. Nonetheless, the neurological bases for remote vibration enhanced sensory feedback are yet poorly understood. This study examined how imperceptible random vibration applied to the wrist changes cortical activity for fingertip sensation. We measured somatosensory evoked potentials to assess peak-to-peak response to light touch of the index fingertip with applied wrist vibration versus without. We observed increased peak-to-peak somatosensory evoked potentials with wrist vibration, especially with increased amplitude of the later component for the somatosensory, motor, and premotor cortex with wrist vibration. These findings corroborate an enhanced cortical-level sensory response motivated by vibration. It is possible that the cortical modulation observed here is the result of the establishment of transient networks for improved perception. PMID:26603457

  18. Rasch-Built Measure of Pleasant Touch through Active Fingertip Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Klöcker, Anne; Arnould, Carlyne; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that somatic sensation has a modality for pleasant touch. Objective: To investigate pleasant touch at the fingertip level (i.e., glabrous skin site) through the elaboration of a linear unidimensional scale that measures (i) various materials according to the level of pleasantness they elicit through active fingertip explorations and (ii) subjects according to their pleasantness leniency levels. Subjects: We enrolled 198 healthy subjects without any neurological disease. Methods: Blindfolded subjects actively explored 48 materials with their index fingertips and reported the perceived pleasantness of each on a 4-level scale. The fingertip moisture levels on each subject were measured before the experimental session. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. Results: We elaborated unidimensional linear scale that included 37 materials according to their pleasantness of touch. The pleasantness level of 21 materials was perceived differently, depending on the fingertip moisture levels of the subjects. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we formulated a Pleasant Touch Scale. Fingertip moisture levels appeared to be a major factor for (un)pleasant feelings during active exploration. PMID:22737122

  19. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-12

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games. PMID:27516597

  20. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games.

  1. Preschoolers' emotion knowledge and the differential effects of harsh punishment.

    PubMed

    Berzenski, Sara R; Yates, Tuppett M

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children's behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children's emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. We assessed 250 preschool-aged children (50% female; Mage = 49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% multiracial/other) using various instruments through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment, conduct problems, self-concept, and emotion knowledge. Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self-concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis-driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self-concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children's responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs.

  2. Early Determinants of Maternal and Paternal Harsh Discipline: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; van IJzendoorn, M. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Research described risk factors for maternal use of harsh discipline, but knowledge about determinants of paternal harsh discipline is lacking. This study aimed to identify determinants of harsh discipline and whether this differed between mothers and fathers. Harsh disciplining practices were self-reported by Dutch parents of 3-year-old children.…

  3. Touch inhibits subcortical and cortical nociceptive responses

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Flavia; Beaumont, Anne-Lise; Hu, Li; Haggard, Patrick; Iannetti, Gian Domenico D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The neural mechanisms of the powerful analgesia induced by touching a painful body part are controversial. A long tradition of neurophysiologic studies in anaesthetized spinal animals indicate that touch can gate nociceptive input at spinal level. In contrast, recent studies in awake humans have suggested that supraspinal mechanisms can be sufficient to drive touch-induced analgesia. To investigate this issue, we evaluated the modulation exerted by touch on established electrophysiologic markers of nociceptive function at both subcortical and cortical levels in humans. Aδ and C skin nociceptors were selectively activated by high-power laser pulses. As markers of subcortical and cortical function, we recorded the laser blink reflex, which is generated by brainstem circuits before the arrival of nociceptive signals at the cortex, and laser-evoked potentials, which reflect neural activity of a wide array of cortical areas. If subcortical nociceptive responses are inhibited by concomitant touch, supraspinal mechanisms alone are unlikely to be sufficient to drive touch-induced analgesia. Touch induced a clear analgesic effect, suppressed the laser blink reflex, and inhibited both Aδ-fibre and C-fibre laser-evoked potentials. Thus, we conclude that touch-induced analgesia is likely to be mediated by a subcortical gating of the ascending nociceptive input, which in turn results in a modulation of cortical responses. Hence, supraspinal mechanisms alone are not sufficient to mediate touch-induced analgesia. PMID:26058037

  4. Design, Fabrication, and Administration of the Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe).

    PubMed

    Borstad, Alexandra; Altenburger, Alex; Hannigan, Aaron; LaPorte, Joshua; Mott, Rachael; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personalizing neurologic rehabilitation, based on individual impairments, has experienced a recent surge. In parallel, the number of outcome measures of upper extremity motor performance has grown. However, clinicians and researchers lack practical, quantitative measures of the hand's natural role as a receptor of the environment. The Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe), developed by Williams and colleagues in 2006, is a valid and reliable measure of haptic performance. Though not available commercially, the HASTe can be fabricated from inexpensive materials, and it has been used successfully to identify impairments in haptic touch in individuals with stroke. (Williams, 2006). This paper presents the methods of design and fabrication of the HASTe testing kit, as well as a visual screen to be used during administration, and instructions for the tests administration and scoring.

  5. Transparent and flexible haptic array actuator made with cellulose acetate for tactile sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, Md; Kim, Hyun-Chan; Kim, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports an array type film haptic actuator based on cellulose acetate. Suggested actuator can vibrate with faster response time and various frequencies to give a range of haptic feedbacks to users which can be used in touch screen devices. Fabrication process, performance evaluation and electrostatic behavior of haptic actuator are reported for tactile sensation. Cellulose acetate film is suitable for haptic actuator for its transparency, flexibility and high dielectric constant. An element of haptic actuator is made by using cellulose acetate film with patterned adhesive tape spacer, then haptic actuator elements arrayed to 3 x 3 to embed in haptic devices. Experiment to measure vibration acceleration is carried out on wide range of actuation frequency and voltage for single actuator to evaluate 3x3 array actuator.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  7. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  8. Sensation Seeking and Narrative Transportation: High Sensation Seeking Children's Interest in Reading outside of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…

  9. Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that 1) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those with better executive function, and 2) this mechanism would be further moderated by the degree of household chaos. Methods The socioeconomically diverse sample included 147 mothers of 3-to-7 year old children. Mothers completed questionnaires and a laboratory assessment of executive function. Results Consistent with hypotheses, harsh parenting was linked with child conduct problems only among mothers with poorer executive function. This effect was particularly strong in calm, predictable environments, but was not evident in chaotic environments. Conclusion Maternal executive function is critical to minimizing harsh parenting in the context of challenging child behavior, but this self-regulation process may not operate well in chaotic environments. PMID:22764829

  10. How Haptic Size Sensations Improve Distance Perception

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Peter W.; Kersten, Daniel; Schrater, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Determining distances to objects is one of the most ubiquitous perceptual tasks in everyday life. Nevertheless, it is challenging because the information from a single image confounds object size and distance. Though our brains frequently judge distances accurately, the underlying computations employed by the brain are not well understood. Our work illuminates these computions by formulating a family of probabilistic models that encompass a variety of distinct hypotheses about distance and size perception. We compare these models' predictions to a set of human distance judgments in an interception experiment and use Bayesian analysis tools to quantitatively select the best hypothesis on the basis of its explanatory power and robustness over experimental data. The central question is: whether, and how, human distance perception incorporates size cues to improve accuracy. Our conclusions are: 1) humans incorporate haptic object size sensations for distance perception, 2) the incorporation of haptic sensations is suboptimal given their reliability, 3) humans use environmentally accurate size and distance priors, 4) distance judgments are produced by perceptual “posterior sampling”. In addition, we compared our model's estimated sensory and motor noise parameters with previously reported measurements in the perceptual literature and found good correspondence between them. Taken together, these results represent a major step forward in establishing the computational underpinnings of human distance perception and the role of size information. PMID:21738457

  11. On the recall of vestibular sensations.

    PubMed

    zu Eulenburg, Peter; Müller-Forell, W; Dieterich, M

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies on the recall or imagination of a distinctive task in the motor network or of sensations in sensory systems (visual, acoustic, nociceptive, gustatory, and olfactory) demonstrated that the respective primary cortex is often involved in the mental imagery process. Our aim was to examine this phenomenon in the vestibular system using fMRI. Sixteen healthy subjects were asked to remember the feeling of a rotatory chair procedure in contrast to an identical situation at rest. Shortly afterwards they were asked to recall the vestibular experience in a 1.5-T scanner. The resulting activations were then compared with the responses of a galvanic vestibular control experiment and a rest condition. The vestibular recall showed significant bihemispheric activations in the inferior frontal gyri, the anterior operculum, the middle cingulate, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the premotor motor cortex, and the anterior insula. We found activations in regions known to play a role in spatial referencing, motor programs, and attention in the recall of vestibular sensations. But important known relay stations for the cortical processing of vestibular information showed neither relevant activations nor deactivations.

  12. Phantom Tactile Sensations Modulated by Body Position

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Jared; Rapp, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Summary Various lines of evidence reveal bilateral activation of somatosensory areas after unilateral stimulation [1-6] assumed to be mediated by cross-hemispheric connections [7-11]. Despite evidence of bilateral activity in response to unilateral stimulation, neurologically intact humans do not experience bilateral percepts when stimulated on one side of the body. This may be due to active suppression of ipsilateral neural activity [12, 13] by inhibitory mechanisms whose functioning is poorly understood. We describe an individual with left fronto-parietal damage who experiences bilateral sensations in response to unilateral tactile stimulation—a rarely reported condition known as synchiria (previously described in visual [14], auditory [15] and somatosensory modalities [16-19]). Presumably the phantom sensations result from normal bilateral cross-hemispheric activation, combined with a failure of inhibitory mechanisms to prevent bilateral perceptual experiences. The disruption of these mechanisms provides a valuable opportunity to examine their internal functioning. We find that the synchiria rate is affected by hand position relative to multiple reference frames. Specifically, synchiria decreases as the hands move from right (contralesional) to left (ipsilesional) space in trunk- and head-centered reference frames and disappears when the hands are crossed. These findings provide, for the first time, evidence that the mechanisms that inhibit bilateral percepts operate in multiple reference frames [20-27]. PMID:19062276

  13. Generalization of Fear to Respiratory Sensations.

    PubMed

    Schroijen, Mathias; Pappens, Meike; Schruers, Koen; Van den Bergh, Omer; Vervliet, Bram; Van Diest, Ilse

    2015-09-01

    Interoceptive fear conditioning (IFC), fear generalization and a lack of safety learning have all been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of panic disorder, but have never been examined in a single paradigm. The present study aims to investigate whether healthy participants (N=43) can learn both fear and safety to an interoceptive sensation, and whether such learning generalizes to other, similar sensations. Two intensities of inspiratory breathing impairment (induced by two pressure threshold loads of 6 and 25 cm H2O) served as interoceptive conditional stimuli (CSs) in a differential conditioning paradigm. An inspiratory occlusion was used as the unconditioned stimulus (US). Generalization was tested 24h after conditioning, using four generalization stimuli with intensities in-between CS+ and CS- (GSs: 8-10.5-14-18.5 cm H2O). Measures included US-expectancy, startle blink EMG responses, electrodermal activity and respiration. Perceptual discrimination of interoceptive CSs and GSs was explored with a discrimination task prior to acquisition and after generalization. Results indicate that differential fear learning was established for US-expectancy ratings. The group with a low intensity CS+ and a high intensity CS- showed the typical pattern of differential fear responding and a similarity-based generalization gradient. In contrast, the high intensity CS+ and low intensity CS- group showed impaired differential learning and complete generalization of fear. Our findings suggest that interoceptive fear learning and generalization are modulated by stimulus intensity and that the occurrence of discriminatory learning is closely related to fear generalization.

  14. Harsh Environment Silicon Carbide Sensor Technology for Geothermal Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pisano, Albert P.

    2013-04-26

    This project utilizes Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials platform to fabricate advanced sensors to be used as high-temperature downhole instrumentation for the DOE’s Geothermal Technologies Program on Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The scope of the proposed research is to 1) develop a SiC pressure sensor that can operate in harsh supercritical conditions, 2) develop a SiC temperature sensor that can operate in harsh supercritical conditions, 3) develop a bonding process for adhering SiC sensor die to well casing couplers, and 4) perform experimental exposure testing of sensor materials and the sensor devices.

  15. Facial Altered Sensation and Sensory Impairment After Orthognathic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Essick, Greg K.; Phillips, Ceib; Turvey, Timothy A.; Tucker, Myron

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether impairment of sensory function after trigeminal nerve injury differs in severity among patients who report qualitatively different altered sensations. Data were obtained from 184 patients. Before and at 1, 3 and 6 months after orthognathic surgery, patients were grouped as having no altered sensation, negative sensations only (hypoesthetic), mixed sensations (negative + active), or active sensations only (paresthetic or dysesthetic). Bias-free estimates of contact detection and two-point discrimination were obtained to assess, via ANOVA, whether patients in the four groups exhibited different levels of sensory impairment. Impairment in contact detection and two-point discrimination was found to differ significantly among the groups at 6 months but not at 1 month. At 6 months, patients who reported negative sensations only exhibited the greatest impairment, on average, in contact detection; in contrast, patients who reported mixed sensations exhibited the greatest impairment in two-point discrimination. The least residual impairment at 6 months was observed in patients who reported no altered sensation. It is recommended that clinical judgments regarding nerve injury-associated sensory dysfunction not be based on threshold testing results without consideration of patients’ subjective reports of altered sensation. PMID:17391920

  16. The Use of Touch in Therapy: Can We Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Melanie A.

    The empirical literature regarding the use of nonerotic touch in psychotherapy is reviewed. Theoretical and ethical concerns are discussed, including the taboo against touching clients, situations in which touch may be appropriate, and whether or not nonerotic touch leads to erotic touch. It is difficult to design controlled studies for ongoing…

  17. Hedgehog pathway blockade with the cancer drug LDE225 disrupts taste organs and taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Allen, Benjamin L; Bradley, Robert M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2015-02-01

    Taste sensation on the anterior tongue requires chorda tympani nerve function and connections with continuously renewing taste receptor cells. However, it is unclear which signaling pathways regulate the receptor cells to maintain chorda tympani sensation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling controls cell proliferation and differentiation in numerous tissues and is active in taste papillae and taste buds. In contrast, uncontrolled HH signaling drives tumorigenesis, including the common skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. Systemic HH pathway inhibitors (HPIs) lead to basal cell carcinoma regression, but these drugs cause severe taste disturbances. We tested the hypothesis that taste disruption by HPIs reflects a direct requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste organs and gustatory sensation. In mice treated with the HPI LDE225 up to 28 days, HH-responding cells were lost in fungiform papilla epithelium, and papillae acquired a conical apex. Taste buds were either absent or severely reduced in size in more than 90% of aberrant papillae. Taste bud remnants expressed the taste cell marker keratin 8, and papillae retained expression of nerve markers, neurofilament and P2X3. Chorda tympani nerve responses to taste stimuli were markedly reduced or absent in LDE225-treated mice. Responses to touch were retained, however, whereas cold responses were retained after 16 days of treatment but lost after 28 days. These data identify a critical, modality-specific requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste papillae, taste buds and neurophysiological taste function, supporting the proposition that taste disturbances in HPI-treated patients are an on-target response to HH pathway blockade in taste organs.

  18. Hedgehog pathway blockade with the cancer drug LDE225 disrupts taste organs and taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Allen, Benjamin L; Bradley, Robert M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2015-02-01

    Taste sensation on the anterior tongue requires chorda tympani nerve function and connections with continuously renewing taste receptor cells. However, it is unclear which signaling pathways regulate the receptor cells to maintain chorda tympani sensation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling controls cell proliferation and differentiation in numerous tissues and is active in taste papillae and taste buds. In contrast, uncontrolled HH signaling drives tumorigenesis, including the common skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. Systemic HH pathway inhibitors (HPIs) lead to basal cell carcinoma regression, but these drugs cause severe taste disturbances. We tested the hypothesis that taste disruption by HPIs reflects a direct requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste organs and gustatory sensation. In mice treated with the HPI LDE225 up to 28 days, HH-responding cells were lost in fungiform papilla epithelium, and papillae acquired a conical apex. Taste buds were either absent or severely reduced in size in more than 90% of aberrant papillae. Taste bud remnants expressed the taste cell marker keratin 8, and papillae retained expression of nerve markers, neurofilament and P2X3. Chorda tympani nerve responses to taste stimuli were markedly reduced or absent in LDE225-treated mice. Responses to touch were retained, however, whereas cold responses were retained after 16 days of treatment but lost after 28 days. These data identify a critical, modality-specific requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste papillae, taste buds and neurophysiological taste function, supporting the proposition that taste disturbances in HPI-treated patients are an on-target response to HH pathway blockade in taste organs. PMID:25392175

  19. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    PubMed Central

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

  20. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  1. The Place of Touch in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

  2. Specialty fiber optic applications for harsh and high radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risch, Brian G.

    2015-05-01

    Since the first commercial introduction in the 1980s, optical fiber technology has undergone an almost exponential growth. Currently over 2 billion fiber kilometers are deployed globally with 2014 global optical fiber production exceeding 300 million fiber kilometers. 1 Along with the staggering growth in optical fiber production and deployment, an increase in optical fiber technologies and applications has also followed. Although the main use of optical fibers by far has been for traditional data transmission and communications, numerous new applications are introduced each year. Initially the practical application of optical fibers was limited by cost and sensitivity of the optical fibers to stress, radiation, and other environmental factors. Tremendous advances have taken place in optical fiber design and materials allowing optical fibers to be deployed in increasingly harsh environments with exposure to increased mechanical and environmental stresses while maintaining high reliability. With the increased reliability, lower cost, and greatly expanded range of optical fiber types now available, new optical fiber deployments in harsh and high radiation environments is seeing a tremendous increase for data, communications, and sensing applications. An overview of key optical fiber applications in data, communications, and sensing for harsh environments in industrial, energy exploration, energy generation, energy transmission, and high radiation applications will be presented. Specific recent advances in new radiation resistant optical fiber types, other specialty optical fibers, optical fiber coatings, and optical fiber cable materials will be discussed to illustrate long term reliability for deployment of optical fibers in harsh and high radiation environments.

  3. How do terrestrial Antarctic organisms survive in their harsh environment?

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, David A; Marshall, Craig J

    2009-01-01

    Anhydrobiosis, or extreme desiccation tolerance, is one of the strategies that allows terrestrial Antarctic organisms to survive in a harsh environment. A new study in BMC Genomics analyses gene expression in an Antarctic nematode during desiccation, and sheds new light on this phenomenon. PMID:19439040

  4. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  5. Cooperation in Harsh Environments and the Emergence of Spatial Patterns.

    PubMed

    Smaldino, Paul E

    2013-11-01

    This paper concerns the confluence of two important areas of research in mathematical biology: spatial pattern formation and cooperative dilemmas. Mechanisms through which social organisms form spatial patterns are not fully understood. Prior work connecting cooperation and pattern formation has often included unrealistic assumptions that shed doubt on the applicability of those models toward understanding real biological patterns. I investigated a more biologically realistic model of cooperation among social actors. The environment is harsh, so that interactions with cooperators are strictly needed to survive. Harshness is implemented via a constant energy deduction. I show that this model can generate spatial patterns similar to those seen in many naturally-occuring systems. Moreover, for each payoff matrix there is an associated critical value of the energy deduction that separates two distinct dynamical processes. In low-harshness environments, the growth of cooperator clusters is impeded by defectors, but these clusters gradually expand to form dense dendritic patterns. In very harsh environments, cooperators expand rapidly but defectors can subsequently make inroads to form reticulated patterns. The resulting web-like patterns are reminiscent of transportation networks observed in slime mold colonies and other biological systems. PMID:24277977

  6. Cooperation in Harsh Environments and the Emergence of Spatial Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the confluence of two important areas of research in mathematical biology: spatial pattern formation and cooperative dilemmas. Mechanisms through which social organisms form spatial patterns are not fully understood. Prior work connecting cooperation and pattern formation has often included unrealistic assumptions that shed doubt on the applicability of those models toward understanding real biological patterns. I investigated a more biologically realistic model of cooperation among social actors. The environment is harsh, so that interactions with cooperators are strictly needed to survive. Harshness is implemented via a constant energy deduction. I show that this model can generate spatial patterns similar to those seen in many naturally-occuring systems. Moreover, for each payoff matrix there is an associated critical value of the energy deduction that separates two distinct dynamical processes. In low-harshness environments, the growth of cooperator clusters is impeded by defectors, but these clusters gradually expand to form dense dendritic patterns. In very harsh environments, cooperators expand rapidly but defectors can subsequently make inroads to form reticulated patterns. The resulting web-like patterns are reminiscent of transportation networks observed in slime mold colonies and other biological systems. PMID:24277977

  7. Harsh Corporal Punishment of Yemeni Children: Occurrence, Type and Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alyahri, Abdullah; Goodman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence, type and associations of harsh corporal punishment in Yemen. Methods: Caregiver and teacher reports were obtained on 1,196 Yemeni 7-10-year olds obtained by systematic random sampling of children in the 1st to 4th grades of urban and rural schools. Caregivers (86% mothers) reported on disciplinary practices,…

  8. Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

  9. Screening for Harsh Punishment in a Pediatric Primary Care Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigelman, Susan; Dubowitz, Howard; Lane, Wendy; Prescott, Leslie; Meyer, Walter; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Kim, Jeongeun

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine: (1) the prevalence of harsh punishment among parents in a pediatric clinic, and (2) the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and stability of a brief screening measure. Methods: A subset of families involved in a study of child maltreatment prevention were recruited for this study. Two items in a parent screening…

  10. The Effects of Sensation Seeking and Misattribution of Arousal on Attraction toward Similar or Dissimilar Strangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested the prediction that individual differences in sensation seeking moderate the relationship between attitudinal similarity and attraction. Results showed high sensation seekers were more attracted than low sensation seekers to dissimilar others, whereas low sensation seekers were more attracted than high sensation seekers to people with…

  11. Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

  12. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  13. Intravital microscopic interrogation of peripheral taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-02

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  14. Comparing sensibility for touch, cold, and warmth in different skin areas.

    PubMed

    de Rezende Strander, Nanna; Ståhle, Lars; Hansson, Per T

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to assess if the magnitude estimation of suprathreshold brushing, warmth (40 °C), and cold (25 °C) stimuli of the skin over the dorsum of the hand and the dorsum of the foot are comparable to the perceived intensity for the same stimuli applied to the skin over any of the following areas: forehead, m. trapezius, m. deltoideus, thoracic back, and lumbar back, respectively. Thirty-two subjects aged 18-64 years were included. Participants were examined by two physicians on two different occasions, 1-58 days apart. Participants rated the magnitude of the perceived sensation of each stimulus on an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) 0-10, where 0 was anchored to "no sensation at all for touch/cold/warmth" and 10 anchored to "the most intense imaginable non-painful sensation of touch/cold/warmth". The criterion for sensory equivalence for one modality was arbitrarily considered satisfactory if two regions had the same numerical rating ±1 point in at least 85% of the individuals. Based on the pre-study criteria for sensory equivalence applied in this study only one area was found to be equivalent to the foot skin for the percept of brushing, that is, the skin over the deltoid muscle and one area for the hand, that is, the skin over the forehead. We failed to find any area with equivalent sensitivity to the hand or the foot for the cold or warm stimuli. PMID:27377987

  15. Generalization of Fear to Respiratory Sensations.

    PubMed

    Schroijen, Mathias; Pappens, Meike; Schruers, Koen; Van den Bergh, Omer; Vervliet, Bram; Van Diest, Ilse

    2015-09-01

    Interoceptive fear conditioning (IFC), fear generalization and a lack of safety learning have all been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of panic disorder, but have never been examined in a single paradigm. The present study aims to investigate whether healthy participants (N=43) can learn both fear and safety to an interoceptive sensation, and whether such learning generalizes to other, similar sensations. Two intensities of inspiratory breathing impairment (induced by two pressure threshold loads of 6 and 25 cm H2O) served as interoceptive conditional stimuli (CSs) in a differential conditioning paradigm. An inspiratory occlusion was used as the unconditioned stimulus (US). Generalization was tested 24h after conditioning, using four generalization stimuli with intensities in-between CS+ and CS- (GSs: 8-10.5-14-18.5 cm H2O). Measures included US-expectancy, startle blink EMG responses, electrodermal activity and respiration. Perceptual discrimination of interoceptive CSs and GSs was explored with a discrimination task prior to acquisition and after generalization. Results indicate that differential fear learning was established for US-expectancy ratings. The group with a low intensity CS+ and a high intensity CS- showed the typical pattern of differential fear responding and a similarity-based generalization gradient. In contrast, the high intensity CS+ and low intensity CS- group showed impaired differential learning and complete generalization of fear. Our findings suggest that interoceptive fear learning and generalization are modulated by stimulus intensity and that the occurrence of discriminatory learning is closely related to fear generalization. PMID:26459842

  16. Preschoolers’ Emotion Knowledge and the Differential Effects of Harsh Punishment

    PubMed Central

    Berzenski, Sara R.; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children’s behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children’s emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. Two hundred fifty preschool age children (50% female; Mage=49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Multiracial/Other) were assessed through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment (Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scale), conduct problems (Teacher Report Form, California Child Q-Sort), self concept (Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers, California Child Q-Sort), and emotion knowledge (Kuschè Emotion Inventory). Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children’s responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

  17. Message sensation and cognition values: factors of competition or integration?

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Using the Activation Model of Information Exposure and Elaboration Likelihood Model as theoretical frameworks, this study explored the effects of message sensation value (MSV) and message cognition value (MCV) of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) on ad processing and evaluation among young adults, and the difference between high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers in their perceptions and responses toward ads with different levels of sensation and cognition value. A 2 (MSV: high vs. low) × 2 (MCV: high vs. low) × 2 (need for sensation: high vs. low) mixed experimental design was conducted. Two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined. Findings of this study show that MSV was not a distraction but a facilitator of message persuasiveness. These findings contribute to the activation model. In addition, need for sensation moderated the interaction effect of MSV and MCV on ad processing. Low sensation seekers were more likely to experience the interaction between MSV and MCV than high sensation seekers. Several observations related to the findings and implications for antismoking message designs are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  18. Social Context, Sensation Seeking, and Teen-age Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire examined alcohol use, the social context of drinking, and sensation seeking among rural seventh through 12th graders. The sensation-seeking trait proved of moderate importance in distinguishing among different alcohol abuse practices. Social context measures were effective in distinguishing among levels on each indicant…

  19. The Interaction of Sensation Seeking and Anxiety in Abseiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunyan, Peter; Boniface, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    Fifteen college students having no prior experience with abseiling completed a simple 80-foot abseil after indoor instruction. Students' sensation-seeking scores were weakly and negatively related to somatic anxiety immediately prior to the abseil. Enjoyment of the abseil had a weak positive relationship to sensation seeking and a weak negative…

  20. Touch- and Brush-Spinning of Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Tokarev, Alexander; Asheghali, Darya; Griffiths, Ian M; Trotsenko, Oleksandr; Gruzd, Alexey; Lin, Xin; Stone, Howard A; Minko, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Robust, simple, and scalable touch- and brush-spinning methods for the drawing of nanofibers, core-shell nanofibers, and their aligned 2D and 3D meshes using polymer solutions and melts are discussed.

  1. Therapeutic touch: an extension of professional skills.

    PubMed

    Cugelman, A

    1998-01-01

    Therapeutic touch, developed 25 years ago by Dolores Krieger, RN, PhD, and Dora Kunz, continues to gain ever wider acceptance in the health care field for one reason--it works. In our high-tech dialysis world of invasive, often painful procedures, therapeutic touch offers a welcome reprieve for patients and staff alike. For patients it has decreased restlessness, anxiety, fear and the pain from cannulations and central venous catheter insertions. Besides helping the recipients, therapeutic touch also affects the practitioners, with most practitioners reporting a greater sense of calm and well-being, in addition to the personal satisfaction of being able to offer a treatment that brings such relief to stressed-out patients. This article will introduce therapeutic touch and its use in the clinical setting. PMID:9807324

  2. [The language of touch in care].

    PubMed

    Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

    2013-03-01

    At the heart of the care relationship, the hands of the caregiver the body of the patient interact. The language of touch is therefore expressed in addition to the verbal and nonverbal elements of human communication. PMID:23641577

  3. Double swab technique for collecting touched evidence.

    PubMed

    Pang, B C M; Cheung, B K K

    2007-07-01

    Touched evidence is often submitted to forensic laboratories for DNA analysis. Classical stain recovery technique, involving one wet cotton swab, is commonly used for recovering the touched evidence. Double swab technique, using a wet cotton swab followed by a dry cotton swab, was compared with the classical technique for recovering the touched evidence. The wet cotton swabs and the dry cotton swabs were individually extracted. DNA extracts were quantified and amplified at 15 polymorphic loci. DNA recovered in some of the second dry swabs contained sufficient amount of DNA to yield a DNA profile. This study shows that the double swab technique improves the quality of the resulting DNA profiles. The double swab technique for recovering touched evidence at crime scenes is recommended.

  4. Silicon Carbide Sensors and Electronics for Harsh Environment Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Laura J.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor has been studied for electronic and sensing applications in extreme environment (high temperature, extreme vibration, harsh chemical media, and high radiation) that is beyond the capability of conventional semiconductors such as silicon. This is due to its near inert chemistry, superior thermomechanical and electronic properties that include high breakdown voltage and wide bandgap. An overview of SiC sensors and electronics work ongoing at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) will be presented. The main focus will be two technologies currently being investigated: 1) harsh environment SiC pressure transducers and 2) high temperature SiC electronics. Work highlighted will include the design, fabrication, and application of SiC sensors and electronics, with recent advancements in state-of-the-art discussed as well. These combined technologies are studied for the goal of developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion systems, as well as enhancing tools for exploration systems.

  5. A Fully Transparent Resistive Memory for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Po-Kang; Ho, Chih-Hsiang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Durán Retamal, José Ramón; Kang, Chen-Fang; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Huang, Teng-Han; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Wu, Chih-I; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    A fully transparent resistive memory (TRRAM) based on Hafnium oxide (HfO2) with excellent transparency, resistive switching capability, and environmental stability is demonstrated. The retention time measured at 85 °C is over 3 × 104 sec, and no significant degradation is observed in 130 cycling test. Compared with ZnO TRRAM, HfO2 TRRAM shows reliable performance under harsh conditions, such as high oxygen partial pressure, high moisture (relative humidity = 90% at 85 °C), corrosive agent exposure, and proton irradiation. Moreover, HfO2 TRRAM fabricated in cross-bar array structures manifests the feasibility of future high density memory applications. These findings not only pave the way for future TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of HfO2 TRRAM for harsh environments. PMID:26455819

  6. High Temperature Electronics for Intelligent Harsh Environment Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of intelligent instrumentation systems is of high interest in both public and private sectors. In order to obtain this ideal in extreme environments (i.e., high temperature, extreme vibration, harsh chemical media, and high radiation), both sensors and electronics must be developed concurrently in order that the entire system will survive for extended periods of time. The semiconductor silicon carbide (SiC) has been studied for electronic and sensing applications in extreme environment that is beyond the capability of conventional semiconductors such as silicon. The advantages of SiC over conventional materials include its near inert chemistry, superior thermomechanical properties in harsh environments, and electronic properties that include high breakdown voltage and wide bandgap. An overview of SiC sensors and electronics work ongoing at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) will be presented. The main focus will be two technologies currently being investigated: 1) harsh environment SiC pressure transducers and 2) high temperature SiC electronics. Work highlighted will include the design, fabrication, and application of SiC sensors and electronics, with recent advancements in state-of-the-art discussed as well. These combined technologies are studied for the goal of developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion systems, as well as enhancing tools for exploration systems.

  7. Oxytocin facilitates the sensation of social stress.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Monika; Scheele, Dirk; Weber, Kristina; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2014-09-01

    Essentially all social species experience social stress which can be a catalyst for detriments in mental and physical health. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to produce anxiolytic and antistress effects, thereby qualifying the OXT system as a promising drug target in the treatment of stress-related disorders. However, recently it has been shown that OXT can have anxiogenic effects as well. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan the brains of 60 healthy men while they were exposed to social stress after they received either intranasal OXT (24 IU) or placebo treatment. Although OXT administration did not alter salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate marker of stress axis activity, our participants initially reported an increment in perceived social stress. This behavioral effect was paralleled on the neural level by increased activity in the precuneus and cingulate cortex. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that OXT can induce a self-referential processing bias which facilitates the sensation of social stress in the absence of altered endocrine responses.

  8. Touch: An Exploration of Its Role in the Counseling Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Kathleen C.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the efficacy of touch in the counseling situation by examining the importance of tactile communication in human development, the impact of socialization and cultural factors on the meanings of touch, and clinical and research evidence relevant to the use of touch in therapeutic settings. Suggests guidelines for the use of touch in…

  9. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  10. Harsh Parenting and Child Externalizing Behavior: Skin Conductance Level Reactivity as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior. Participants were 251 boys and girls (8-9 years). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting.…

  11. ROSETTA lander Philae: Touch-down reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roll, Reinhard; Witte, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The landing of the ROSETTA-mission lander Philae on November 12th 2014 on Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was planned as a descent with passive landing and anchoring by harpoons at touch-down. Actually the lander was not fixed at touch-down to the ground due to failing harpoons. The lander internal damper was actuated at touch-down for 42.6 mm with a speed of 0.08 m/s while the lander touch-down speed was 1 m/s. The kinetic energy before touch-down was 50 J, 45 J were dissipated by the lander internal damper and by ground penetration at touch-down, and 5 J kinetic energy are left after touch-down (0.325 m/s speed). Most kinetic energy was dissipated by ground penetration (41 J) while only 4 J are dissipated by the lander internal damper. Based on these data, a value for a constant compressive soil-strength of between 1.55 kPa and 1.8 kPa is calculated. This paper focuses on the reconstruction of the touch-down at Agilkia over a period of around 20 s from first ground contact to lift-off again. After rebound Philae left a strange pattern on ground documented by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The analysis shows, that the touch-down was not just a simple damped reflection on the surface. Instead the lander had repeated contacts with the surface over a period of about 20 s±10 s. This paper discusses scenarios for the reconstruction of the landing sequence based on the data available and on computer simulations. Simulations are performed with a dedicated mechanical multi-body model of the lander, which was validated previously in numerous ground tests. The SIMPACK simulation software was used, including the option to set forces at the feet to the ground. The outgoing velocity vector is mostly influenced by the timing of the ground contact of the different feet. It turns out that ground friction during damping has strong impact on the lander outgoing velocity, on its rotation, and on its nutation. After the end of damping, the attitude of the lander can be

  12. Dizziness and Balance Problems in Kids: Spinning Sensations and Unsteadiness

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Dizziness and Balance Problems in Kids Spinning Sensations and Unsteadiness Most ... life, it could be a sign of a balance disorder. Most balance problems are temporary and easy ...

  13. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  14. Public Affairs and Sensationalism in Local TV News Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Jung S.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the content of local news presented on three television stations in Cincinnati, Ohio, in three different years. Concludes that the stations used sensationalism and human interest stories as reserves to maintain high ratings. (FL)

  15. Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1988-01-01

    Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

  16. "I Feel Contaminated in My Fake Hand": Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder like Disgust Sensations Arise from Dummy during Rubber Hand Illusion.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Krishnakumar, Divya; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2015-01-01

    Despite its theoretical and clinical interest, there are no experimental studies exploring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like disgust sensations through using somatosensory illusions. Such illusions provide important clues to the nature and limits of multisensory integration and how the brain constructs body image; and may potentially inform novel therapies. One such effect is the rubber hand illusion (RHI) in which tactile sensations are referred to a rubber hand; if the experimenter simultaneously strokes a subject's occluded hand together with a visible fake hand, the subject starts experiencing the touch sensations as arising from the dummy. In this study, we explore whether OCD-like disgust may result from contamination of a dummy hand during the RHI; suggesting a possible integration of somatosensory and limbic inputs in the construction of body image. We predicted that participants would experience sensations of disgust, when placing a disgust stimulus (fake feces, vomit or blood) on the dummy hand after establishing the RHI. We found that 9 out of 11 participants experienced greater disgust during the synchronous condition (real hidden hand and fake hand are stroked in synchrony) compared to the asynchronous control condition (real hidden hand and fake hand are stroked in asynchrony); and on average such disgust was significantly greater during the synchronous condition compared to the asynchronous control condition, Z = 2.7, p = .008. These results argue against a strictly hierarchical modular approach to brain function and suggest that a four-way multisensory interaction occurs between vision, touch, proprioception on the one hand and primal emotions like disgust on the other. These findings may inform novel clinical approaches for OCD; that is, contaminating a dummy during the RHI could possibly be used as part of an in-vivo exposure-intervention for OCD. PMID:26642323

  17. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one's thermal environment. PMID:27023538

  18. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-23

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one's thermal environment.

  19. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one’s thermal environment. PMID:27023538

  20. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it

  1. A New NASA Book: Touch the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, N. A.

    2005-05-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired rely partly on their sense of touch to help paint pictures of objects and places in their mind's eye; however, astronomy and space science are, by nature, generally inaccessible to the touch. The universe, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope, was made hands-on in 2002 with the publication of Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy. This year, the Sun becomes an accessible object in a new universally designed publication called Touch the Sun. Touch the Sun contains text pages with both print and Braille. It features colorful embossed images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft. There is also a close-up picture of a sunspot from the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. Textures of swirling gas currents, dark sunspots, curving magnetic fields and explosive eruptions emphasize the dynamic nature of the Sun. The prototype images were tested with students from the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind; the images were revised, based upon their evaluations. Drs. Joe Gurman and Steele Hill from the Goddard Space Flight Center served as scientific consultants. Learn more about this special resource and try out some of the tactile images yourself!

  2. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  3. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.

    PubMed

    Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  4. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

    PubMed

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano. PMID:25373983

  5. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

    PubMed

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano.

  6. Characterization of evoked tactile sensation in forearm amputees with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Guohong; Sui, Xiaohong; Li, Si; He, Longwen; Lan, Ning

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The goal of this study is to characterize the phenomenon of evoked tactile sensation (ETS) on the stump skin of forearm amputees using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Approach. We identified the projected finger map (PFM) of ETS on the stump skin in 11 forearm amputees, and compared perceptual attributes of the ETS in nine forearm amputees and eight able-bodied subjects using TENS. The profile of perceptual thresholds at the most sensitive points (MSPs) in each finger-projected area was obtained by modulating current amplitude, pulse width, and frequency of the biphasic, rectangular current stimulus. The long-term stability of the PFM and the perceptual threshold of the ETS were monitored in five forearm amputees for a period of 11 months. Main results. Five finger-specific projection areas can be independently identified on the stump skin of forearm amputees with a relatively long residual stump length. The shape of the PFM was progressively similar to that of the hand with more distal amputation. Similar sensory modalities of touch, pressure, buzz, vibration, and numb below pain sensation could be evoked both in the PFM of the stump skin of amputees and in the normal skin of able-bodied subjects. Sensory thresholds in the normal skin of able-bodied subjects were generally lower than those in the stump skin of forearm amputees, however, both were linearly modulated by current amplitude and pulse width. The variation of the MSPs in the PFM was confined to a small elliptical area with 95% confidence. The perceptual thresholds of thumb-projected areas were found to vary less than 0.99 × 10-2 mA cm-2. Significance. The stable PFM and sensory thresholds of ETS are desirable for a non-invasive neural interface that can feed back finger-specific tactile information from the prosthetic hand to forearm amputees.

  7. Enabling aspects of fiber optic acoustic sensing in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Indu F.

    2013-05-01

    The advantages of optical fiber sensing in harsh electromagnetic as well as physical stress environments make them uniquely suited for structural health monitoring and non-destructive testing. In addition to aerospace applications they are making a strong footprint in geophysical monitoring and exploration applications for higher temperature and pressure environments, due to the high temperature resilience of fused silica glass sensors. Deeper oil searches and geothermal exploration and harvesting are possible with these novel capabilities. Progress in components and technologies that are enabling these systems to be fieldworthy are reviewed and emerging techniques summarized that could leapfrog the system performance and reliability.

  8. Acoustic Sensors for Fission Gas Characterization in MTR Harsh Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Very, F.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Fourmentel, D.; Destouches, C.; Villard, J. F.; Combette, P.; Ferrandis, J. Y.

    Our group is now working for more than 15 years, in a close partnership with CEA, on the development of acoustic sensors devoted to the characterization of fission gas release for in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor. First of all, we will present the main principle of the method and the result of a first succeed experiment called REMORA 3 used to differentiate helium and fission gas released kinetics under transient operating condition [1]. Then we will present our new researches involving thick film transducers produced by screen-printing process in order to propose piezoelectric structures for harsh temperature and irradiation measurements in new MTR reactor.

  9. Merkel cells and neurons keep in touch

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seung-Hyun; Lumpkin, Ellen A.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2014-01-01

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex is a unique vertebrate touch receptor comprising two distinct cell types in the skin. Its presence in touch-sensitive skin areas was recognized more than a century ago, but the functions of each cell type in sensory transduction have been unclear. Three recent studies demonstrate that Merkel cells are mechanosensitive cells that function in touch transduction via Piezo2. One study concludes that Merkel cells rather than sensory neurons are principal sites of mechanotransduction, whereas the other two studies report that both Merkel cells and neurons encode mechanical inputs. Together, these studies settle a longstanding debate on whether Merkel cells are mechanosensory cells, and enable future investigations of how these skin cells communicate with neurons. PMID:25480024

  10. Flexible graphene woven fabrics for touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Xiao; Yang, Tingting; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Rujing; Zhu, Miao; Zhang, Hongze; Xie, Dan; Wei, Jinquan; Zhong, Minlin; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2013-04-01

    Graphene woven fabric (GWF) prepared from chemical vapor deposition was used as smart self-sensing element to assemble piezoresistor through directly transferring onto the flexible substrate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with the deposited Ti/Au electrodes. A rational strategy was proposed to fabricate flexible touch sensors easily and effectively with the full usage of the mechanical and electrical properties of GWF, whose resistance is highly sensitive to macro-deformation or micro-defect. Compared to commercial and traditional touch sensing, the GWF-on-PDMS piezoresistor is structurally flexible that is demanded under special conditions and meanwhile makes the piezoresistor to have excellent durability.

  11. Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorevan, S. P.; Rafeek, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS) is a new class of planetary and small body sample acquisition tool that can be used for the surface exploration of Europa, Titan and comets. TGSS in its basic configuration consists of a high speed sampling head attached to the end of a flexible shaft. The sampling head consists of counter rotating cutters that rotates at speeds of 3000 to 15000 RPM. The attractive feature of this if touch and go type sampler is that there are no requirements for a lander type spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. A 'touch' of the White platelet syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, James G; Key, Nigel S; King, Richard A; Vercellotti, Gregory M

    2005-09-01

    Investigations into structural defects in platelets from a large family with the White platelet syndrome (WPS) separated the members into three groups. The first group of 22 members was the subject of our first report (White JG, Key NS, King RA, Vercellotti GM. The white platelet syndrome: A new autosomal dominant platelet disorder. Platelets 2004;15:173-184). A third group of 13 members had no abnormalities of platelet ultrastructure. The second group of 17 members, the focus of the present study, had a 'touch' of the WPS. Platelet counts, mean platelet volumes (MPVs) and platelet responses to aggregating agents were normal in 'touch' patients in contrast to platelets of those with the full WPS in whom these parameters were abnormal. Up to 13% of the full WPS platelets contained large, fully developed Golgi complexes, up to seven in number, extruding innumerable vesicles from the trans-Golgi face and filling the cytoplasm of many platelets. Many Golgi complexes had centrioles associated with them. 'Touch' platelets had one or two Golgi complexes of intermediate size in 3-5% of their platelets. Golgi vesicles were uncommon and centrioles absent. Gray platelets and hypogranular cells were infrequent in patients with a 'touch' of the WPS, whereas up to 44% of the platelets from those with the WPS were gray or hypogranular. Elements of the dense tubular system were prominent in full WPS platelets, together with their formation into areas of cytoplasmic sequestration and autodigestion. These features were absent in 'touch' platelets. As commonly observed in full WPS platelets, mitochondria were larger and more numerous than alpha granules in some 'touch' cells. Both 'touch' and full WPS platelets frequently contained giant and rod-shaped granules. Dense bodies, however, were normal in size and number in 'touch' platelets, and half normal size in full WPS platelets. The separation of ultrastructural abnormalities in the two varieties of the WPS suggests that genetic

  13. Relating sensation seeking and the von Restorff Isolation Effect.

    PubMed

    Cimbalo, Richard S; Clark, Douglas; Matayev, Aleksandr I

    2003-06-01

    Sensation seeking was examined in a short-term memory task involving the serial recall of a 10-item list of consonants with (isolated) and without (non-isolated) a distinctively larger item in the fifth position. 126 students were given the Sensation Seeking Scale Form-V and 32 10-item lists to memorize in a 1 by 3 mixed design. Sensation seeking was a between-subject factor and Blocks (Trials 1-16 and 17-32), Isolation (isolated and nonisolated), and Duration (2 sec. and 10 sec.) were within-subject factors. Generally nonisolated lists and the larger letters (the von Restorff Isolation Effect) were better recalled, with the latter being stronger at the shorter duration. Only the high sensation-seeking group showed a Blocks effect for lists with an isolated item such that there was a greater number of items correct per list in Block 1 than in Block 2. This finding is consistent with the argument that higher scores on sensation seeking are associated with greater cortical arousal and better memory for newness and change. Students with high sensation-seeking scores showed superior memory for the isolated list when it contained an isolate if allowed more processing time. It is argued that high sensation-seeking scores were associated with more effective transfer of items from shorter to longer-term memory. A rapid nontime-dependent perceptual process was used to explain the isolation effect. The poorer overall list performance for the lists with the isolate was explained in terms of the intense nature of the isolate.

  14. Learning capabilities enhanced in harsh environments: a common garden approach

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to inhabit harsh environments may be linked to advanced learning traits. However, it is not clear if individuals express such traits as a consequence of experiencing challenging environments or if these traits are inherited. To assess the influence of differential selection pressures on variation in aspects of cognition, we used a common garden approach to examine the response to novelty and problem-solving abilities of two populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). These populations originated from the latitudinal extremes of the species's range, where we had previously demonstrated significant differences in memory and brain morphology in a multi-population study. We found that birds from the harsh northern population, where selection for cognitive abilities is expected to be high, significantly outperformed conspecifics from the mild southern population. Our results imply differences in cognitive abilities that may be inherited, as individuals from both populations were raised in and had experienced identical environmental conditions from 10 days of age. Although our data suggest an effect independent of experience, we cannot rule out maternal effects or experiences within the nest prior to day 10 with our design. Nevertheless, our results support the idea that environmental severity may be an important factor in shaping certain aspects of cognition. PMID:20519218

  15. Remote driven and read MEMS sensors for harsh environments.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Aaron J; Ahmad, Faisal R; Sexton, Dan W; Vernooy, David W

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications.

  16. Remote Driven and Read MEMS Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Knobloch, Aaron J.; Ahmad, Faisal R.; Sexton, Dan W.; Vernooy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications. PMID:24152935

  17. High Temperature Wireless Communication And Electronics For Harsh Environment Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Beheim, G. M.; Ponchak, G. E.; Chen, L.-Y

    2007-01-01

    In order for future aerospace propulsion systems to meet the increasing requirements for decreased maintenance, improved capability, and increased safety, the inclusion of intelligence into the propulsion system design and operation becomes necessary. These propulsion systems will have to incorporate technology that will monitor propulsion component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This implies the development of sensors, actuators, and electronics, with associated packaging, that will be able to operate under the harsh environments present in an engine. However, given the harsh environments inherent in propulsion systems, the development of engine-compatible electronics and sensors is not straightforward. The ability of a sensor system to operate in a given environment often depends as much on the technologies supporting the sensor element as the element itself. If the supporting technology cannot handle the application, then no matter how good the sensor is itself, the sensor system will fail. An example is high temperature environments where supporting technologies are often not capable of operation in engine conditions. Further, for every sensor going into an engine environment, i.e., for every new piece of hardware that improves the in-situ intelligence of the components, communication wires almost always must follow. The communication wires may be within or between parts, or from the engine to the controller. As more hardware is added, more wires, weight, complexity, and potential for unreliability is also introduced. Thus, wireless communication combined with in-situ processing of data would significantly improve the ability to include sensors into high temperature systems and thus lead toward more intelligent engine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presently leading the development of electronics, communication systems, and sensors capable of prolonged stable

  18. The sense of touch: embodied simulation in a visuotactile mirroring mechanism for observed animate or inanimate touch.

    PubMed

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Perrucci, Mauro G; Ferretti, Antonio; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have shown a shared neural circuitry in the somatosensory cortices for the experience of one's own body being touched and the sight of intentional touch. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study aimed to elucidate whether the activation of a visuotactile mirroring mechanism during touch observation applies to the sight of any touch, that is, whether it is independent of the intentionality of observed touching agent. During fMRI scanning, healthy participants viewed video clips depicting a touch that was intentional or accidental, and occurring between animate or inanimate objects. Analyses showed equal overlapping activation for all the touch observation conditions and the experience of one's own body being touched in the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), left inferior parietal lobule (IPL)/supramarginal gyrus, bilateral temporal-occipital junction, and left precentral gyrus. A significant difference between the sight of an intentional touch, compared to an accidental touch, was found in the left primary somatosensory cortex (SI/Brodmann's area [BA] 2). Interestingly, activation in SI/BA 2 significantly correlated with the degree of intentionality of the observed touch stimuli as rated by participants. Our findings show that activation of a visuotactile mirroring mechanism for touch observation might underpin an abstract notion of touch, whereas activation in SI might reflect a human tendency to "resonate" more with a present or assumed intentional touching agent.

  19. Deqi sensations without cutaneous sensory input: results of an RCT

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Deqi is defined in relation to acupuncture needling as a sensory perception of varying character. In a recently published sham laser validation study, we found that subjects in the verum and the sham laser group experienced deqi sensations. Therefore, we aim to further analyze whether the perceptions reported in the two study arms were distinguishable and whether expectancy effects exhibited considerable impact on our results. Methods A detailed re-analysis focusing on deqi sensations was performed from data collected in a previously published placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical cross-over trial for a sham laser evaluation. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (28 ± 10.7 years; 16 women, 18 men) received two laser acupuncture treatments at three acupuncture points LI4 (hégu), LU7 (liéque), and LR3 (táichong); once by verum laser and once using a sham device containing an inactive laser in randomized order. Outcome measures were frequency, intensity (evaluated by visual analogue scale; VAS), and quality of the subjects' sensations perceived during treatments (assessed with the "acupuncture sensation scale"). Results Both, verum and the sham laser acupuncture result in similar deqi sensations with regard to frequency (p-value = 0.67), intensity (p-value = 0.71) and quality (p-values between 0.15 - 0.98). In both groups the most frequently used adjectives to describe these perceptions were "spreading", "radiating", "tingling", "tugging", "pulsing", "warm", "dull", and "electric". Sensations reported were consistent with the perception of deqi as previously defined in literature. Subjects' conviction regarding the effectiveness of laser acupuncture or the history of having received acupuncture treatments before did not correlate with the frequency or intensity of sensations reported. Conclusions Since deqi sensations, described as sensory perceptions, were elicited without any cutaneous sensory input, we assume that they are a product of non

  20. Developing a sensation information message for femoral arteriography.

    PubMed

    Clark, C R; Gregor, F M

    1988-03-01

    Sensation information is proposed as a way of decreasing the patient's distress during a threatening health care event. A first step in developing a sensation information message is to determine the content of the message. This study, using a systematic theory-based methodology, was conducted to describe and validate the common physical sensations experienced by patients undergoing the diagnostic procedure of femoral arteriography. (A conceptual framework based on how an individual perceives or senses a situation was used.) A three-stage survey design was used including: (1) tool development following observation of the procedure and pilot-testing of the interview schedule, (2) interview of patients who had undergone femoral arteriography about the sensations experienced during the procedure, and (3) validation of the responses. Twenty-one steps in the femoral arteriography procedure of which patients were aware were identified. Nine 'feeling' sensations commonly experienced during the procedure and the sights and sounds associated with the procedure were determined. The sequencing and duration of procedure steps were observed and the environment in which the procedure was performed was described.

  1. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  2. Where is hidden the ghost in phantom sensations?

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, Michelangelo

    2015-01-01

    The term phantom sensations (PS) refers to sensations in a missing body part. They are almost universal in amputees and can be both painful and not painful. Although PS have been frequently described in limb amputees, they can also occur in other clinical conditions and several pathophysiological interpretations have been proposed, with a predominance of theories based on a central origin. Actually, different mechanisms are able to create a phantom sensation. After an amputation, PS are frequently generated by the genesis of ectopic action potentials in the interrupted nerve fibers but the PS generator can also be more proximal. Sometimes PS are not created by the stimulation of somatosensory fibers with a missing territory, but they can be the result of central sensitization or neuroplastic changes that allow for the convergence of impulses coming from different body parts (referred sensations), one of which is missing. In conclusion, PS can be generated by both neuropathic and non-neuropathic mechanisms developed in the amputated body part or in other parts of the nervous system. Since these mechanisms are not pathognomonic of amputation there are no hidden ghosts to look for in phantom sensations. The only interpretative rule is just to follow the pathophysiological principles. PMID:26244147

  3. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Llobera, Joan; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Chagué, Sylvain; Preissmann, Delphine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task. PMID:26870943

  4. Designing the TouchSource Authoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, David; Franklin, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the development process of the TouchSource authoring system, which has been designed for use in developing touchscreen information directories using interactive videodisc. Topics discussed include authoring languages; the compatibility of interactive videodisc systems; hardware considerations; menu creation and design; database functions;…

  5. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  6. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  7. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  8. Vibrotactile stimulation promotes embodiment of an alien hand in amputees with phantom sensations.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Marco; Clemente, Francesco; Cipriani, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Tactile feedback is essential to intuitive control and to promote the sense of self-attribution of a prosthetic limb. Recent findings showed that amputees can be tricked to experience this embodiment, when synchronous and modality-matched stimuli are delivered to biological afferent structures and to an alien rubber hand. Hence, it was suggested to exploit this effect by coupling touch sensors in a prosthesis to an array of haptic tactile stimulators in the prosthetic socket. However, this approach is not clinically viable due to physical limits of current haptic devices. To address this issue we have proposed modality-mismatched stimulation and demonstrated that this promotes self-attribution of an alien hand on normally limbed subjects. In this work we investigated whether similar effects could be induced in transradial amputees with referred phantom sensations in a series of experiments fashioned after the Rubber Hand Illusion using vibrotactile stimulators. Results from three independent measures of embodiment demonstrated that vibrotactile sensory substitution elicits body-ownership of a rubber hand in transradial amputees. These results open up promising possibilities in this field; indeed miniature, safe and inexpensive vibrators could be fitted into commercially available prostheses and sockets to induce the illusion every time the prosthesis manipulates an object. PMID:25051556

  9. Novel targeted sensory reinnervation technique to restore functional hand sensation after transhumeral amputation.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Jacqueline S; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael J; Dawson, Michael R; Marasco, Paul D; Kuiken, Todd A; Chan, K Ming

    2014-07-01

    We present a case study of a novel variation of the targeted sensory reinnervation technique that provides additional control over sensory restoration after transhumeral amputation. The use of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials on individual fascicles of the median and ulnar nerves allowed us to specifically target sensory fascicles to reroute to target cutaneous nerves at a distance away from anticipated motor sites in a transhumeral amputee. This resulted in restored hand maps of the median and ulnar nerve in discrete spatially separated areas. In addition, the subject was able to use native and reinnervated muscle sites to control a robotic arm while simultaneously sensing touch and force feedback from the robotic gripper in a physiologically correct manner. This proof of principle study is the first to demonstrate the ability to have simultaneous dual flow of information (motor and sensory) within the residual limb. In working towards clinical deployment of a sensory integrated prosthetic device, this surgical method addresses the important issue of restoring a usable access point to provide natural hand sensation after upper limb amputation.

  10. Experimental Research Examining How People Can Cope with Uncertainty Through Soft Haptic Sensations.

    PubMed

    van Horen, Femke; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2015-09-16

    Human beings are constantly surrounded by uncertainty and change. The question arises how people cope with such uncertainty. To date, most research has focused on the cognitive strategies people adopt to deal with uncertainty. However, especially when uncertainty is due to unpredictable societal events (e.g., economical crises, political revolutions, terrorism threats) of which one is unable to judge the impact on one's future live, cognitive strategies (like seeking additional information) is likely to fail to combat uncertainty. Instead, the current paper discusses a method demonstrating that people might deal with uncertainty experientially through soft haptic sensations. More specifically, because touching something soft creates a feeling of comfort and security, people prefer objects with softer as compared to harder properties when feeling uncertain. Seeking for softness is a highly efficient and effective tool to deal with uncertainty as our hands are available at all times. This protocol describes a set of methods demonstrating 1) how environmental (un)certainty can be situationally activated with an experiential priming procedure, 2) that the quality of the softness experience (what type of softness and how it is experienced) matters and 3) how uncertainty can be reduced using different methods.

  11. Vibrotactile stimulation promotes embodiment of an alien hand in amputees with phantom sensations.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Marco; Clemente, Francesco; Cipriani, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Tactile feedback is essential to intuitive control and to promote the sense of self-attribution of a prosthetic limb. Recent findings showed that amputees can be tricked to experience this embodiment, when synchronous and modality-matched stimuli are delivered to biological afferent structures and to an alien rubber hand. Hence, it was suggested to exploit this effect by coupling touch sensors in a prosthesis to an array of haptic tactile stimulators in the prosthetic socket. However, this approach is not clinically viable due to physical limits of current haptic devices. To address this issue we have proposed modality-mismatched stimulation and demonstrated that this promotes self-attribution of an alien hand on normally limbed subjects. In this work we investigated whether similar effects could be induced in transradial amputees with referred phantom sensations in a series of experiments fashioned after the Rubber Hand Illusion using vibrotactile stimulators. Results from three independent measures of embodiment demonstrated that vibrotactile sensory substitution elicits body-ownership of a rubber hand in transradial amputees. These results open up promising possibilities in this field; indeed miniature, safe and inexpensive vibrators could be fitted into commercially available prostheses and sockets to induce the illusion every time the prosthesis manipulates an object.

  12. Dopamine Regulates Approach-Avoidance in Human Sensation-Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Winston, Joel S.; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensation-seeking is a trait that constitutes an important vulnerability factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost. However, little is understood either about the mechanisms underlying motivation for intense sensory experiences or their neuropharmacological modulation in humans. Methods: Here, we first evaluate a novel paradigm to investigate sensation-seeking in humans. This test probes the extent to which participants choose either to avoid or self-administer an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric stimulation) orthogonal to performance on a simple economic decision-making task. Next we investigate in a different set of participants whether this behavior is sensitive to manipulation of dopamine D2 receptors using a within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Results: In both samples, individuals with higher self-reported sensation-seeking chose a greater proportion of mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli, even when this involved sacrifice of monetary gain. Computational modelling analysis determined that people who assigned an additional positive economic value to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli exhibited speeding of responses when choosing these stimuli. In contrast, those who assigned a negative value exhibited slowed responses. These findings are consistent with involvement of low-level, approach-avoidance processes. Furthermore, the D2 antagonist haloperidol selectively decreased the additional economic value assigned to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli in individuals who showed approach reactions to these stimuli under normal conditions (behavioral high-sensation seekers). Conclusions: These findings provide the first direct evidence of sensation-seeking behavior being driven by an approach-avoidance–like mechanism, modulated by dopamine, in humans. They provide a framework for investigation of psychopathologies for which extreme sensation-seeking constitutes a

  13. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunicina, N.; Zabasta, A.; Kondratjevs, K.; Asmanis, G.

    2015-02-01

    The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS). The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  14. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensormore » with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.« less

  15. Noise, vibration, harshness model of a rotating tyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäcker, Manfred; Gallrein, Axel; Roller, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The tyre plays a fundamental role in the generation of acoustically perceptible driving noise and vibrations inside the vehicle. An essential part of these vibrations is induced by the road excitation and transferred via the tyre into the vehicle. There are two basic ways to study noise, vibration, harshness (NVH) behaviour: Simulations in time and frequency domains. Modelling the tyre transfer behaviour in frequency domain requires special attention to the rotation of the tyre. This paper shows the approach taken by the authors to include the transfer behaviour in the frequency range up to 250 Hz from geometric road excitations to resulting spindle forces in frequency domain. This paper validates the derived NVH tyre model by comparison with appropriate transient simulations of the base transient model.

  16. Technical advancements in submersible pump power cable for harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Guzy, R.; Vandevier, J.

    1985-01-01

    In artificial lift systems, such as electrical submersible pumping, the power cable provides the link between the surface equipment and the pumping unit. New cable designs are constantly being introduced. This article discusses these designs and their materials. Information on a new approach to cable manufacturing and use of downhole materials in harsh environments is also provided. This paper includes work on cable designs which incorporate a new, unique, elastomeric composition that resists rupture of jacketing materials used on downhole cables, eliminating the need for tape and braid. Cable history is also reviewed, classifying the cables by use temperatures and relative cost. The criteria for selecting materials suitable for the entire range of downhole environments is included.

  17. A Magnetoresistive Tactile Sensor for Harsh Environment Applications

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhel, Ahmed; Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Cardoso, Susana; Leitao, Diana; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A magnetoresistive tactile sensor is reported, which is capable of working in high temperatures up to 140 °C. Hair-like bioinspired structures, known as cilia, made out of permanent magnetic nanocomposite material on top of spin-valve giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors are used for tactile sensing at high temperatures. The magnetic nanocomposite, consisting of iron nanowires incorporated into the polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), is very flexible, biocompatible, has high remanence, and is also resilient to antagonistic sensing ambient. When the cilia come in contact with a surface, they deflect in compliance with the surface topology. This yields a change of the GMR sensor signal, enabling the detection of extremely fine features. The spin-valve is covered with a passivation layer, which enables adequate performance in spite of harsh environmental conditions, as demonstrated in this paper for high temperature. PMID:27164113

  18. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Alnassar, Mohammed; Perez, Jose E.; Vazquez, Manuel; Chuvilin, Andrey; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires. PMID:27072595

  19. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Alnassar, Mohammed; Perez, Jose E.; Vazquez, Manuel; Chuvilin, Andrey; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  20. Engineering food crops to grow in harsh environments

    PubMed Central

    López-Arredondo, Damar; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Bello-Bello, Elohim; Alejo-Jacuinde, Gerardo; Herrera, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Achieving sustainable agriculture and producing enough food for the increasing global population will require effective strategies to cope with harsh environments such as water and nutrient stress, high temperatures and compacted soils with high impedance that drastically reduce crop yield. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular and epigenetic mechanisms that orchestrate plant responses to abiotic stress will serve as the platform to engineer improved crop plants with better designed root system architecture and optimized metabolism to enhance water and nutrients uptake and use efficiency and/or soil penetration. In this review we discuss such advances and how the generated knowledge could be used to integrate effective strategies to engineer crops by gene transfer or genome editing technologies. PMID:26380074

  1. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-01-01

    Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity. PMID:23708273

  2. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.

  3. Engineering food crops to grow in harsh environments.

    PubMed

    López-Arredondo, Damar; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Bello-Bello, Elohim; Alejo-Jacuinde, Gerardo; Herrera, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Achieving sustainable agriculture and producing enough food for the increasing global population will require effective strategies to cope with harsh environments such as water and nutrient stress, high temperatures and compacted soils with high impedance that drastically reduce crop yield. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular and epigenetic mechanisms that orchestrate plant responses to abiotic stress will serve as the platform to engineer improved crop plants with better designed root system architecture and optimized metabolism to enhance water and nutrients uptake and use efficiency and/or soil penetration. In this review we discuss such advances and how the generated knowledge could be used to integrate effective strategies to engineer crops by gene transfer or genome editing technologies.

  4. Rugged spinel windows and optics for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Busse, Lynda; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Aggarwal, Ishwar

    2013-05-01

    Spinel is a rugged ceramic transparent from ultraviolet to midwave infrared (0.18 - 5.5 μm) wavelengths. It has the best transmission from 4-5 μm among the competing materials ALON and sapphire with comparable mechanical properties. We have developed low absorption loss spinel as an exit window aperture for High Energy Laser systems. We demonstrated that spinel possesses excellent thermo-optical characteristics required for the High Energy Laser systems and at the same time it can provide the necessary ruggedness desired for the realistic and harsh battlefield environment. We have demonstrated through testing that spinel can withstand very adverse conditions of rain, sand storms and salt fog conditions without any change in its optical performance. We have also developed rugged anti-reflective coatings and anti-reflective surface structures to maintain high optical transmission in adverse environment.

  5. A Magnetoresistive Tactile Sensor for Harsh Environment Applications.

    PubMed

    Alfadhel, Ahmed; Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Cardoso, Susana; Leitao, Diana; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A magnetoresistive tactile sensor is reported, which is capable of working in high temperatures up to 140 °C. Hair-like bioinspired structures, known as cilia, made out of permanent magnetic nanocomposite material on top of spin-valve giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors are used for tactile sensing at high temperatures. The magnetic nanocomposite, consisting of iron nanowires incorporated into the polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), is very flexible, biocompatible, has high remanence, and is also resilient to antagonistic sensing ambient. When the cilia come in contact with a surface, they deflect in compliance with the surface topology. This yields a change of the GMR sensor signal, enabling the detection of extremely fine features. The spin-valve is covered with a passivation layer, which enables adequate performance in spite of harsh environmental conditions, as demonstrated in this paper for high temperature. PMID:27164113

  6. Diagnostics hardening for harsh environment in Laser Megajoule (invited).

    PubMed

    Bourgade, J L; Marmoret, R; Darbon, S; Rosch, R; Troussel, P; Villette, B; Glebov, V; Shmayda, W T; Gomme, J C; Le Tonqueze, Y; Aubard, F; Baggio, J; Bazzoli, S; Bonneau, F; Boutin, J Y; Caillaud, T; Chollet, C; Combis, P; Disdier, L; Gazave, J; Girard, S; Gontier, D; Jaanimagi, P; Jacquet, H P; Jadaud, J P; Landoas, O; Legendre, J; Leray, J L; Maroni, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Miquel, J L; Marshall, F J; Masclet-Gobin, I; Pien, G; Raimbourg, J; Reverdin, C; Richard, A; Rubin de Cervens, D; Sangster, C T; Seaux, J P; Soullie, G; Stoeckl, C; Thfoin, I; Videau, L; Zuber, C

    2008-10-01

    The diagnostic designs for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) will require components to operate in environments far more severe than those encountered in present facilities. This harsh environment will be induced by fluxes of neutrons, gamma rays, energetic ions, electromagnetic radiations, and, in some cases, debris and shrapnel, at levels several orders of magnitude higher than those experienced today on existing facilities. The lessons learned about the vulnerabilities of present diagnostic parts fielded mainly on OMEGA for many years, have been very useful guide for the design of future LMJ diagnostics. The present and future LMJ diagnostic designs including this vulnerability approach and their main mitigation techniques will be presented together with the main characteristics of the LMJ facility that provide for diagnostic protection.

  7. The brain’s response to pleasant touch: an EEG investigation of tactile caressing

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harsimrat; Bauer, Markus; Chowanski, Wojtek; Sui, Yi; Atkinson, Douglas; Baurley, Sharon; Fry, Martin; Evans, Joe; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Somatosensation as a proximal sense can have a strong impact on our attitude toward physical objects and other human beings. However, relatively little is known about how hedonic valence of touch is processed at the cortical level. Here we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of affective tactile sensation during caressing of the right forearm with pleasant and unpleasant textile fabrics. We show dissociation between more physically driven differential brain responses to the different fabrics in early somatosensory cortex – the well-known mu-suppression (10–20 Hz) – and a beta-band response (25–30 Hz) in presumably higher-order somatosensory areas in the right hemisphere that correlated well with the subjective valence of tactile caressing. Importantly, when using single trial classification techniques, beta-power significantly distinguished between pleasant and unpleasant stimulation on a single trial basis with high accuracy. Our results therefore suggest a dissociation of the sensory and affective aspects of touch in the somatosensory system and may provide features that may be used for single trial decoding of affective mental states from simple electroencephalographic measurements. PMID:25426047

  8. Quantitative sensory testing of temperature, pain, and touch in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Knegt, Nanda; Defrin, Ruth; Schuengel, Carlo; Lobbezoo, Frank; Evenhuis, Heleen; Scherder, Erik

    2015-12-01

    The spinothalamic pathway mediates sensations of temperature, pain, and touch. These functions seem impaired in children with Down syndrome (DS), but have not been extensively examined in adults. The objective of the present study was to compare the spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between adults with DS and adults from the general population and to examine in the DS group the relationship between the sensory functions and level of intellectual functioning. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed in 188 adults with DS (mean age 37.5 years) and 142 age-matched control participants (median age 40.5 years). Temperature, pain, and touch were evaluated with tests for cold-warm discrimination, sharp-dull discrimination (pinprick), and tactile threshold, respectively. Level of intellectual functioning was estimated with the Social Functioning Scale for Intellectual Disability (intellectual disability level) and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised (intelligence level). Overall, the difference in spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between the DS and control groups was not statistically significant. However, DS participants with a lower intelligence level had a statistically significant lower performance on the sharp-dull discrimination test than DS participants with higher intelligence level (adjusted p=.006) and control participants (adjusted p=.017). It was concluded that intellectual functioning level is an important factor to take into account for the assessment of spinothalamic-mediated sensory functioning in adults with DS: a lower level could coincide with impaired sensory functioning, but could also hamper QST assessment. PMID:26460852

  9. The rubber hand illusion depends on the tactile congruency of the observed and felt touch.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Mensah, Ajua; Jünemann, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    The rubber hand illusion (RHI) occurs when the participants' own unseen hand is stroked in synchrony with an observed rubber hand. It manifests itself in terms of a tendency to misreport the position of one's own hand as nearer to the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift) and in terms of feelings of ownership of the rubber hand. Many studies have examined whether the illusion depends on characteristics of the hand (e.g., orientation, skin color), but very few have examined the importance of the tool that delivers the tactile sensation. We demonstrate that the RHI depends on the congruency of the tool used to stroke the real/rubber hands. The RHI is diminished when using tools that are incongruent with respect to their visual appearance and predicted tactile consequences (e.g., touching the dummy with a pencil and the real hand with a paintbrush) relative to when they are congruent. Theoretical models of visuotactile integration used to explain the RHI need to be extended to incorporate the qualitative nature of the observed and felt touch and not just its synchrony and location. PMID:26191614

  10. The rubber hand illusion depends on the tactile congruency of the observed and felt touch.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Mensah, Ajua; Jünemann, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    The rubber hand illusion (RHI) occurs when the participants' own unseen hand is stroked in synchrony with an observed rubber hand. It manifests itself in terms of a tendency to misreport the position of one's own hand as nearer to the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift) and in terms of feelings of ownership of the rubber hand. Many studies have examined whether the illusion depends on characteristics of the hand (e.g., orientation, skin color), but very few have examined the importance of the tool that delivers the tactile sensation. We demonstrate that the RHI depends on the congruency of the tool used to stroke the real/rubber hands. The RHI is diminished when using tools that are incongruent with respect to their visual appearance and predicted tactile consequences (e.g., touching the dummy with a pencil and the real hand with a paintbrush) relative to when they are congruent. Theoretical models of visuotactile integration used to explain the RHI need to be extended to incorporate the qualitative nature of the observed and felt touch and not just its synchrony and location.

  11. Correction factors for assessing immersion suits under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Power, Jonathan; Tikuisis, Peter; Ré, António Simões; Barwood, Martin; Tipton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of correction factors that would allow suits to be tested in calm water yet ensure they will offer sufficient protection in harsher conditions. Two immersion studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water within the suit, were conducted in wind and waves to measure the change in suit insulation. In both studies, wind and waves resulted in a significantly lower immersed insulation value compared to calm water. The minimum required thermal insulation for maintaining heat balance can be calculated for a given mean skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and water temperature. Combining the physiological limits of sustainable cold water immersion and actual suit insulation, correction factors can be deduced for harsh conditions compared to calm. The minimum in-situ suit insulation to maintain thermal balance is 1.553-0.0624·TW + 0.00018·TW(2) for a dry calm condition. Multiplicative correction factors to the above equation are 1.37, 1.25, and 1.72 for wind + waves, 500 mL suit wetness, and both combined, respectively. Calm water certification tests of suit insulation should meet or exceed the minimum in-situ requirements to maintain thermal balance, and correction factors should be applied for a more realistic determination of minimum insulation for harsh conditions. PMID:26674408

  12. Correction factors for assessing immersion suits under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Power, Jonathan; Tikuisis, Peter; Ré, António Simões; Barwood, Martin; Tipton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of correction factors that would allow suits to be tested in calm water yet ensure they will offer sufficient protection in harsher conditions. Two immersion studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water within the suit, were conducted in wind and waves to measure the change in suit insulation. In both studies, wind and waves resulted in a significantly lower immersed insulation value compared to calm water. The minimum required thermal insulation for maintaining heat balance can be calculated for a given mean skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and water temperature. Combining the physiological limits of sustainable cold water immersion and actual suit insulation, correction factors can be deduced for harsh conditions compared to calm. The minimum in-situ suit insulation to maintain thermal balance is 1.553-0.0624·TW + 0.00018·TW(2) for a dry calm condition. Multiplicative correction factors to the above equation are 1.37, 1.25, and 1.72 for wind + waves, 500 mL suit wetness, and both combined, respectively. Calm water certification tests of suit insulation should meet or exceed the minimum in-situ requirements to maintain thermal balance, and correction factors should be applied for a more realistic determination of minimum insulation for harsh conditions.

  13. Operant sensation seeking in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Christopher M; Winder, Danny G

    2010-11-10

    , although surprisingly little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying this reinforcement. The operant sensation seeking (OSS) model is a robust model for obtaining sensory self-administration in the mouse, allowing the study of neural mechanisms important in sensory reinforcement. An additional advantage of OSS is the ability to screen mutant mice for differences in operant behavior that may be relevant to addiction. We have reported that dopamine D1 receptor knockout mice, previously shown to be deficient in psychostimulant self-administration, also fail to acquire OSS. This is a unique finding in that these mice are capable of learning an operant task when food is used as a reinforcer. While operant studies using food reinforcement can be useful in the study of general motivated behavior and the mechanisms underlying food reinforcement, as mentioned above, these studies are limited in their application to studying molecular mechanisms of drug addiction. Thus, there may be similar neural substrates mediating sensory and psychostimulant reinforcement that are distinct from food reinforcement, which would make OSS a particularly attractive model for the study of drug addiction processes. The degree of overlap between other molecular targets of OSS and drug reinforcers is unclear, but is a topic that we are currently pursuing. While some aspects of addiction such as resistance to extinction may be observed with OSS, we have found that escalation is not observed in this model. Interestingly, escalation of intake and some other aspects of addiction are observed with self-administration of sucrose. Thus, when non-drug operant procedures are desired to study addiction-related processes, food or sensory reinforcers can be chosen to best fit the particular question being asked. In conclusion, both food self-administration and OSS in the mouse have the advantage of not requiring an intravenous catheter, which allows a higher throughput means to study the effects of

  14. Therapeutic Touch and Healing Meditation: A Threesome with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Marlene

    1994-01-01

    Briefly reviews the use of therapeutic touch in early Western culture and Judaic tradition and by modern practitioners. Discusses modern scientific approaches to therapeutic touch, including its use by nurses. Offers suggestions for and examples of the use of meditation, relaxation exercises, and therapeutic touch with adolescents in classroom and…

  15. Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chare, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

  16. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings.

    PubMed

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.

  17. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues. PMID:26124737

  18. The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Mark A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)

  19. Patterns of Touching between Preschool Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkov, Claire; And Others

    Twenty 2- to 5-year-old children were observed during separate play with their mothers and fathers in an attempt to more clearly define patterns of touching. Specific purposes of the study were: (1) to identify the different functions of touch; (2) to determine the frequency of occurrence and duration of different types of touches; (3) to describe…

  20. The magnetic touch illusion: A perceptual correlate of visuo-tactile integration in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Guterstam, Arvid; Zeberg, Hugo; Özçiftci, Vedat Menderes; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-10-01

    To accurately localize our limbs and guide movements toward external objects, the brain must represent the body and its surrounding (peripersonal) visual space. Specific multisensory neurons encode peripersonal space in the monkey brain, and neurobehavioral studies have suggested the existence of a similar representation in humans. However, because peripersonal space lacks a distinct perceptual correlate, its involvement in spatial and bodily perception remains unclear. Here, we show that applying brushstrokes in mid-air at some distance above a rubber hand-without touching it-in synchrony with brushstrokes applied to a participant's hidden real hand results in the illusory sensation of a "magnetic force" between the brush and the rubber hand, which strongly correlates with the perception of the rubber hand as one's own. In eight experiments, we characterized this "magnetic touch illusion" by using quantitative subjective reports, motion tracking, and behavioral data consisting of pointing errors toward the rubber hand in an intermanual pointing task. We found that the illusion depends on visuo-tactile synchrony and exhibits similarities with the visuo-tactile receptive field properties of peripersonal space neurons, featuring a non-linear decay at 40cm that is independent of gaze direction and follows changes in the rubber hand position. Moreover, the "magnetic force" does not penetrate physical barriers, thus further linking this phenomenon to body-specific visuo-tactile integration processes. These findings provide strong support for the notion that multisensory integration within peripersonal space underlies bodily self-attribution. Furthermore, we propose that the magnetic touch illusion constitutes a perceptual correlate of visuo-tactile integration in peripersonal space. PMID:27348406

  1. The magnetic touch illusion: A perceptual correlate of visuo-tactile integration in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Guterstam, Arvid; Zeberg, Hugo; Özçiftci, Vedat Menderes; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-10-01

    To accurately localize our limbs and guide movements toward external objects, the brain must represent the body and its surrounding (peripersonal) visual space. Specific multisensory neurons encode peripersonal space in the monkey brain, and neurobehavioral studies have suggested the existence of a similar representation in humans. However, because peripersonal space lacks a distinct perceptual correlate, its involvement in spatial and bodily perception remains unclear. Here, we show that applying brushstrokes in mid-air at some distance above a rubber hand-without touching it-in synchrony with brushstrokes applied to a participant's hidden real hand results in the illusory sensation of a "magnetic force" between the brush and the rubber hand, which strongly correlates with the perception of the rubber hand as one's own. In eight experiments, we characterized this "magnetic touch illusion" by using quantitative subjective reports, motion tracking, and behavioral data consisting of pointing errors toward the rubber hand in an intermanual pointing task. We found that the illusion depends on visuo-tactile synchrony and exhibits similarities with the visuo-tactile receptive field properties of peripersonal space neurons, featuring a non-linear decay at 40cm that is independent of gaze direction and follows changes in the rubber hand position. Moreover, the "magnetic force" does not penetrate physical barriers, thus further linking this phenomenon to body-specific visuo-tactile integration processes. These findings provide strong support for the notion that multisensory integration within peripersonal space underlies bodily self-attribution. Furthermore, we propose that the magnetic touch illusion constitutes a perceptual correlate of visuo-tactile integration in peripersonal space.

  2. Perceptual conflict between vision and touch.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T

    1976-06-01

    Although most of the studies support the conclusion that a perceptual conflict may be resolved in the visual dominance, a few suggest its prematurity and methodological problems. In the present study, the conflict was made by the instruction and the trick in order to keep the S's naivety, and the degree of conflict was varied. wthe visual comparison (vision), the haptic comparison (touch), the visual-haptic comparison (drawing by a pencil), and the haptic-visual comparison (production by the plasticine) were used as the comparison procedures. The result was that the perceptual conflict was resolved in a compromise between vision and touch. However, as the degree of conflict became greater, the judgements in the conflict tended to depend upon the comparison procedures. And in such a conflict taht the visual size was smaller than the tactual, the vision dominance tended to occur, and vice versa. PMID:988361

  3. Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their related longitudinal risk factors (contextual and intrapersonal). Partner aggression was also tested as a time-varying predictor to examine its time-specific influence on maternal harsh parenting. Methods Longitudinal data from four assessments of a community sample of 488 at-risk mothers were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Maternal risk factors and harsh parenting behaviors were assessed at birth and at ages 1, 2, and 3 years. Results There was a significant increase in maternal harsh parenting from birth to age 3, particularly between ages 1 and 2. There was a significant direct effect of maternal alcohol use and abuse history on maternal harsh parenting at age 3, and maternal age was positively associated with change in maternal harsh parenting over time. In addition, partner aggression was significantly and positively associated with maternal harsh parenting at each time point. Conclusions The findings suggest possible developmental trends in the emergence of maternal harsh parenting during infancy and toddlerhood. Further investigation is needed to elucidate individual differences in the developmental patterns and to differentiate predictive factors that persist across time and factors that are unique to specific developmental stages. Practice implications The overall high prevalence rates of harsh parenting behavior and growth of such behavior in infancy and toddlerhood support the need for developmentally sensitive early intervention programs. PMID:21030081

  4. Touch receptor of venous flytrap, Dionaea muscipula.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, J R; McMichael, R; DiPalma, M

    1966-04-22

    Numerous small structures (stellate trichomnes) protrude from the surface of marginal hairs, outer leaf surface, and stem of Dionaea muscipula Ellis. None are present inside the trap. Mechanical stimulation causes small action potentials and eventual closure of the trap, independently of the sensitive trigger hairs. Subthreshold stimulation of these structures appears to sensitize the trigger hairs and facilitate closure of the trap. This suiggests that these structures act as touch sensors or receptors.

  5. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  6. An exploratory survey of deqi sensation from the views and experiences of chinese patients and acupuncturists.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hong-Wen; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Chi; Qi, Dan-Dan; Li, Jing; Xin, Si-Yuan; Hu, Ni-Juan; Li, Chun-Hua; Liu, Yu-Qi; Hao, Jie; Xie, Jie-Ping; Cui, Hai; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Deqi sensation is believed to be important in clinical efficacy according to TCM theory. The measuring method of Deqi sensation has significant implications for the result of research trials. This study makes an investigation on acupuncture-experienced patients and expert acupuncturists in China and aims to find out the patient's needling sensations and acupuncturist's sensations which can be acceptable as descriptors of Deqi sensation, so as to provide foundation for more systematic and sensitive quantitative evaluation method of Deqi sensation. Results of this survey indicated that the Deqi sensation noted by both patient and acupuncturist is equally important to the treatment efficacy. It is found that there are some differences between the patients' real-life experience and the acupuncturists' expectations on patients' Deqi sensation. The "dull pain," "aching," "sore," "numb," "distended," "heavy," "electric," "throbbing," "warmness," "coolness," "spreading," and "radiating" can be considered as the main manifestations of Deqi sensations. The acupuncturists believed that Deqi sensations were mainly "pulling," "tight," and "throbbing." We suggest developing a questionnaire measuring the Deqi sensations which includes both the sensations of the patient and acupuncturist, and this would be very important and necessary for a better understanding of the relationship between Deqi sensation and acupuncture effects in future studies. PMID:24348700

  7. An Exploratory Survey of Deqi Sensation from the Views and Experiences of Chinese Patients and Acupuncturists

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hong-Wen; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Chi; Qi, Dan-Dan; Li, Jing; Xin, Si-Yuan; Hu, Ni-Juan; Li, Chun-Hua; Liu, Yu-Qi; Hao, Jie; Xie, Jie-Ping; Cui, Hai; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Deqi sensation is believed to be important in clinical efficacy according to TCM theory. The measuring method of Deqi sensation has significant implications for the result of research trials. This study makes an investigation on acupuncture-experienced patients and expert acupuncturists in China and aims to find out the patient's needling sensations and acupuncturist's sensations which can be acceptable as descriptors of Deqi sensation, so as to provide foundation for more systematic and sensitive quantitative evaluation method of Deqi sensation. Results of this survey indicated that the Deqi sensation noted by both patient and acupuncturist is equally important to the treatment efficacy. It is found that there are some differences between the patients' real-life experience and the acupuncturists' expectations on patients' Deqi sensation. The “dull pain,” “aching,” “sore,” “numb,” “distended,” “heavy,” “electric,” “throbbing,” “warmness,” “coolness,” “spreading,” and “radiating” can be considered as the main manifestations of Deqi sensations. The acupuncturists believed that Deqi sensations were mainly “pulling,” “tight,” and “throbbing.” We suggest developing a questionnaire measuring the Deqi sensations which includes both the sensations of the patient and acupuncturist, and this would be very important and necessary for a better understanding of the relationship between Deqi sensation and acupuncture effects in future studies. PMID:24348700

  8. More than DeQi: Spatial Patterns of Acupuncture-Induced Bodily Sensations

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won-Mo; Shim, Woosun; Lee, Taehyung; Park, Hi-Joon; Ryu, Yeonhee; Beissner, Florian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture uses needles to stimulate certain parts of the body, inducing a specific sensation, termed DeQi, which regard as essential for acupuncture's therapeutic effect. Here, we used the newly developed tool, bodily sensation mapping, to investigate the spatial configuration of acupuncture-induced sensations throughout the body. Twenty-five participants randomly received acupuncture stimulation or tactile stimulation using a von Frey filament at four different acupoints (HT7, PC6, ST36, and SP10) on the left side of the body. Subjects evaluated the characteristics of DeQi sensations and marked the areas of induced sensations on a body outline. We compared the psychophysical responses of DeQi sensations and visualized the spatial patterns of these sensations using statistical parametric mapping. We found greater intensity of DeQi sensations following acupuncture stimulation compared with tactile stimulation, with relatively small differences among the four acupoints. The sensation maps exhibited similar spatial patterns for acupuncture and tactile stimulation in the areas close to the stimulated sites. However, acupuncture was associated with additional sensations in areas remote from the stimulated sites. This study demonstrates that acupuncture stimulation produces greater DeQi sensations than tactile stimulation and results in the spreading of sensations to areas remote from the stimulus sites. Investigating the spatial patterns of acupuncture-induced sensations may be crucial for understanding the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture. PMID:27807402

  9. Sensation Seeking and Internet Dependence of Taiwanese High School Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    This paper presents the second year follow-up research on Internet addiction among Taiwanese high school students from surveys of 753 students. A psychological profile of users was determined in order to differentiate motivation of Internet dependence and non-dependence. Data was analyzed to establish whether sensation seeking was a part of…

  10. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses to metabolic step-changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, T.; Toftum, J.; de Dear, R.; Fanger, P. O.

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated the effect on thermal perception and thermophysiological variables of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities and durations. Twenty-four subjects were alternately seated on a chair or exercised by walking on a treadmill at a temperature predicted to be neutral at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise or decline immediately (within 1 min) after a change of activity, which means that even moderate activity changes of short duration affect thermal perceptions of humans. After approximately 15 20 min under constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady-state response. The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10 5 min 25% and during the prior 20 10 min 10%.

  11. Relationships Between Dimensions of Anxiety and Sensation Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Barry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates (130 males, 112 females) completed the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and the S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness (S-R GTA). The intercorrelations among the five scales from the SSS and the four scales from the S-R GTA were computed and compared. Findings were consistent with rational and theoretical notions. (Author)

  12. Statistical analysis of unsolicited thermal sensation complaints in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Federspiel, C.C.

    1998-10-01

    Unsolicited complaints from 23,500 occupants in 690 commercial buildings were examined with regard to absolute and relative frequency of complaints, temperatures at which thermal sensation complaints (too hot or too cold) occurred, and response times and actions. The analysis shows that thermal sensation complaints are the single most common complaint of any type and that they are the overwhelming majority of environmental complaints. The analysis indicates that thermal sensation complaints are mostly the result of poor control performance and HVAC system faults rather than inter-individual differences in preferred temperatures. The analysis also shows that the neutral temperature in summer is greater than in winter, and the difference between summer and winter neutral temperatures is smaller than the difference between the midpoints of the summer and winter ASHRAE comfort zones. On average, women complain that it is cold at a higher temperature than men, and the temperature at which men complain that it is hot is more variable than for women. Analysis of response times and actions provides information that may be useful for designing a dispatching policy, and it also demonstrates that there is potential to reduce the labor cost of HVAC maintenance by 20% by reducing the frequency of thermal sensation complaints.

  13. Personality Influences Career Choice: Sensation Seeking in Professional Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuust, Peter; Gebauer, Line; Hansen, Niels Chr.; Jorgensen, Stine Ramsgaard; Moller, Arne; Linnet, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Despite the obvious importance of deciding which career to pursue, little is known about the influence of personality on career choice. Here we investigated the relation between sensation seeking, a supposedly innate personality trait, and career choice in classical and "rhythmic" students at the academies of music in Denmark. We compared data…

  14. Neurobiological underpinnings of sensation seeking trait in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gordon L F; Liu, Yu-Pin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; So, Kwok-Fai; Zeng, Hong; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-11-01

    Neurobiological investigation of heroin revealed that abusers of this highly addictive substance show dysregulation in brain circuits for reward processing and cognitive control. Psychologically, personality traits related to reward processing and cognitive control differed between heroin abusers and non-abusers. Yet, there is no direct evidence on the relationship between these neurobiological and psychological findings on heroin abusers, and whether such relationship is altered in these abusers. The present study filled this research gap by integrating findings obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (structural volume and resting-state functional connectivity) and self-reported personality trait measures (Zuckerman׳s Sensation Seeking Scale and Barratt Impulsivity Scale) on 33 abstinent heroin users and 30 matched healthy controls. The key finding is a negative relationship between high sensation seeking tendency and midbrain structural volume in the heroin users. Importantly, there was stronger coupling between the midbrain and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and weaker coupling between the midbrain and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in heroin users. Our findings offer significant insight into the neural underpinning of sensation seeking in heroin users. Importantly, the data shed light on a novel relationship between the mesolimbic-prefrontal pathway of the reward system and the high sensation seeking personality trait in heroin abusers.

  15. Neurobiological underpinnings of sensation seeking trait in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gordon L F; Liu, Yu-Pin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; So, Kwok-Fai; Zeng, Hong; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-11-01

    Neurobiological investigation of heroin revealed that abusers of this highly addictive substance show dysregulation in brain circuits for reward processing and cognitive control. Psychologically, personality traits related to reward processing and cognitive control differed between heroin abusers and non-abusers. Yet, there is no direct evidence on the relationship between these neurobiological and psychological findings on heroin abusers, and whether such relationship is altered in these abusers. The present study filled this research gap by integrating findings obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (structural volume and resting-state functional connectivity) and self-reported personality trait measures (Zuckerman׳s Sensation Seeking Scale and Barratt Impulsivity Scale) on 33 abstinent heroin users and 30 matched healthy controls. The key finding is a negative relationship between high sensation seeking tendency and midbrain structural volume in the heroin users. Importantly, there was stronger coupling between the midbrain and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and weaker coupling between the midbrain and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in heroin users. Our findings offer significant insight into the neural underpinning of sensation seeking in heroin users. Importantly, the data shed light on a novel relationship between the mesolimbic-prefrontal pathway of the reward system and the high sensation seeking personality trait in heroin abusers. PMID:26364127

  16. Active Interpersonal Touch Gives Rise to the Social Softness Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Gentsch, Antje; Panagiotopoulou, Elena; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-01-01

    Summary Social touch plays a powerful role in human life, with important physical and mental health benefits in development and adulthood. Touch is central in building the foundations of social interaction, attachment, and cognition [1–5], and early, social touch has unique, beneficial neurophysiological and epigenetic effects [6–9]. The recent discovery of a separate neurophysiological system for affectively laden touch in humans has further kindled scientific interest in the area [10, 11]. Remarkably, however, little is known about what motivates and sustains the human tendency to touch others in a pro-social manner. Given the importance of social touch, we hypothesized that active stroking elicits more sensory pleasure when touching others’ skin than when touching one’s own skin. In a set of six experiments (total N = 133) we found that healthy participants, mostly tested in pairs to account for any objective differences in skin softness, consistently judged another’s skin as feeling softer and smoother than their own skin. We further found that this softness illusion appeared selectively when the touch activated a neurophysiological system for affective touch in the receiver. We conclude that this sensory illusion underlies a novel, bodily mechanism of socio-affective bonding and enhances our motivation to touch others. PMID:26365257

  17. Music reduces sensation and distress of labor pain.

    PubMed

    Phumdoung, Sasitorn; Good, Marion

    2003-06-01

    Labor pain is often severe, and analgesic medication may not be indicated. In this randomized controlled trial we examined the effects of music on sensation and distress of pain in Thai primiparous women during the active phase of labor. The gate control theory of pain was the theoretical framework for this study. Randomization with a computerized minimization program was used to assign women to a music group (n = 55) or a control group (n = 55). Women in the intervention group listened to soft music without lyrics for 3 hours starting early in the active phase of labor. Dual visual analog scales were used to measure sensation and distress of pain before starting the study and at three hourly posttests. While controlling for pretest scores, one-way repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated that those in the music group had significantly less sensation and distress of pain than did the control group (F (1, 107) = 18.69, p <.001, effect size =.15, and F (1, 107) = 14.87, p <.001, effect size =.12), respectively. Sensation and distress significantly increased across the 3 hours in both groups (p <.001), except for distress in the music group during the first hour. Distress was significantly lower than sensation in both groups (p <.05). In this controlled study, music--a mild to moderate strength intervention--consistently provided significant relief of severe pain across 3 hours of labor and delayed the increase of affective pain for 1 hour. Nurses can provide soft music to laboring women for greater pain relief during the active phase when contractions are strong and women suffer.

  18. A role for nociceptive, myelinated nerve fibers in itch sensation.

    PubMed

    Ringkamp, Matthias; Schepers, Raf J; Shimada, Steven G; Johanek, Lisa M; Hartke, Timothy V; Borzan, Jasenka; Shim, Beom; LaMotte, Robert H; Meyer, Richard A

    2011-10-19

    Despite its clinical importance, the underlying neural mechanisms of itch sensation are poorly understood. In many diseases, pruritus is not effectively treated with antihistamines, indicating the involvement of nonhistaminergic mechanisms. To investigate the role of small myelinated afferents in nonhistaminergic itch, we tested, in psychophysical studies in humans, the effect of a differential nerve block on itch produced by intradermal insertion of spicules from the pods of a cowhage plant (Mucuna pruriens). Electrophysiological experiments in anesthetized monkey were used to investigate the responsiveness of cutaneous, nociceptive, myelinated afferents to different chemical stimuli (cowhage spicules, histamine, capsaicin). Our results provide several lines of evidence for an important role of myelinated fibers in cowhage-induced itch: (1) a selective conduction block in myelinated fibers substantially reduces itch in a subgroup of subjects with A-fiber-dominated itch, (2) the time course of itch sensation differs between subjects with A-fiber- versus C-fiber-dominated itch, (3) cowhage activates a subpopulation of myelinated and unmyelinated afferents in monkey, (4) the time course of the response to cowhage is different in myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, (5) the time of peak itch sensation for subjects with A-fiber-dominated itch matches the time for peak response in myelinated fibers, and (6) the time for peak itch sensation for subjects with C-fiber-dominated itch matches the time for the peak response in unmyelinated fibers. These findings demonstrate that activity in nociceptive, myelinated afferents contributes to cowhage-induced sensations, and that nonhistaminergic itch is mediated through activity in both unmyelinated and myelinated afferents. PMID:22016517

  19. Response of red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) to playback of harsh versus common roars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Maxime; Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Tecumseh Fitch, W.; Reby, David

    2014-10-01

    Red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) give two distinct types of roars during the breeding season, the "common roar" and the "harsh roar." Harsh roars are more frequent during contexts of intense competition, and characterized by a set of features that increase their perceptual salience, suggesting that they signal heightened arousal. While common roars have been shown to encode size information and mediate both male competition and female choice, to our knowledge, the specific function of harsh roars during male competition has not yet been studied. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the specific structure of male harsh roars signals high arousal to competitors. We contrast the behavioral responses of free ranging, harem-holding stags to the playback of harsh roars from an unfamiliar competitor with their response to the playback of common roars from the same animal. We show that males react less strongly to sequences of harsh roars than to sequences of common roars, possibly because they are reluctant to escalate conflicts with highly motivated and threatening unfamiliar males in the absence of visual information. While future work should investigate the response of stags to harsh roars from familiar opponents, our observations remain consistent with the hypothesis that harsh roars may signal motivation during male competition, and illustrate how intrasexual selection can contribute to the diversification of male vocal signals.

  20. Sex Differences in the Relationship between Harsh Discipline and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysenko, Laura J.; Barker, Edward D.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    Research on sex differences in antisocial behaviour may shed light on the causes of childhood antisocial behaviour. Using a longitudinal design, we tested whether there were sex differences in the amount of harsh discipline children received or in the effect of harsh discipline and whether this accounted for sex differences in later conduct…

  1. Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child (n…

  2. Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association between Harsh Parenting and Growth in Child Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh…

  3. Offshore produced water management: A review of current practice and challenges in harsh/Arctic environments.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jisi; Chen, Bing; Thanyamanta, Worakanok; Hawboldt, Kelly; Zhang, Baiyu; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-15

    Increasing offshore oil and gas exploration and development in harsh/Arctic environments require more effective offshore produced water management, as these environments are much more sensitive to changes in water quality than more temperate climates. However, the number and scope of studies of offshore produced water management in harsh/Arctic environments are limited. This paper reviews the current state of offshore produced water management, impacts, and policies, as well as the vulnerability, implications and operational challenges in harsh/Arctic environments. The findings show that the primary contaminant(s) of concern are contained in both the dissolved oil and the dispersed oil. The application of emerging technologies that can tackle this issue is significantly limited by the challenges of offshore operations in harsh/Arctic environments. Therefore, there is a need to develop more efficient and suitable management systems since more stringent policies are being implemented due to the increased vulnerability of harsh/Arctic environments.

  4. Tree diversity, tree height and environmental harshness in eastern and western North America.

    PubMed

    Marks, Christian O; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Tilman, David

    2016-07-01

    Does variation in environmental harshness explain local and regional species diversity gradients? We hypothesise that for a given life form like trees, greater harshness leads to a smaller range of traits that are viable and thereby also to lower species diversity. On the basis of a strong dependence of maximum tree height on site productivity and other measures of site quality, we propose maximum tree height as an inverse measure of environmental harshness for trees. Our results show that tree species richness is strongly positively correlated with maximum tree height across multiple spatial scales in forests of both eastern and western North America. Maximum tree height co-varied with species richness along gradients from benign to harsh environmental conditions, which supports the hypothesis that harshness may be a general mechanism limiting local diversity and explaining diversity gradients within a biogeographic region. PMID:27146846

  5. Offshore produced water management: A review of current practice and challenges in harsh/Arctic environments.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jisi; Chen, Bing; Thanyamanta, Worakanok; Hawboldt, Kelly; Zhang, Baiyu; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-15

    Increasing offshore oil and gas exploration and development in harsh/Arctic environments require more effective offshore produced water management, as these environments are much more sensitive to changes in water quality than more temperate climates. However, the number and scope of studies of offshore produced water management in harsh/Arctic environments are limited. This paper reviews the current state of offshore produced water management, impacts, and policies, as well as the vulnerability, implications and operational challenges in harsh/Arctic environments. The findings show that the primary contaminant(s) of concern are contained in both the dissolved oil and the dispersed oil. The application of emerging technologies that can tackle this issue is significantly limited by the challenges of offshore operations in harsh/Arctic environments. Therefore, there is a need to develop more efficient and suitable management systems since more stringent policies are being implemented due to the increased vulnerability of harsh/Arctic environments. PMID:26781453

  6. Harsh-Environment Packaging for Downhole Gas and Oil Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Shubhra Bansal; Junghyun Cho; Kevin Durocher; Chris Kapusta; Aaron Knobloch; David Shaddock; Harry Schoeller; Hua Xia

    2007-08-31

    This research into new packaging materials and methods for elevated temperatures and harsh environment electronics focused on gaining a basic understanding of current state-of-the-art in electronics packaging used in industry today, formulating the thermal-mechanical models of the material interactions and developing test structures to confirm these models. Discussions were initiated with the major General Electric (GE) businesses that currently sell into markets requiring high temperature electronics and packaging. They related the major modes of failure they encounter routinely and the hurdles needed to be overcome in order to improve the temperature specifications of these products. We consulted with our GE business partners about the reliability specifications and investigated specifications and guidelines that from IPC and the SAE body that is currently developing guidelines for electronics package reliability. Following this, a risk analysis was conducted for the program to identify the critical risks which need to be mitigated in order to demonstrate a flex-based packaging approach under these conditions. This process identified metal/polyimide adhesion, via reliability for flex substrates and high temperature interconnect as important technical areas for reliability improvement.

  7. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U.; Thekdi, Arvind; Rogers, Benjamin M.; Kafka, Orion L.; Wenning, Thomas J.

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  8. Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Michael E.; Pedersen, Eric J.; Schroder, Jaclyn M.; Tabak, Benjamin A.; Carver, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Across and within societies, people vary in their propensities towards exploitative and retaliatory defection in potentially cooperative interaction. We hypothesized that this variation reflects adaptive responses to variation in cues during childhood that life will be harsh, unstable and short—cues that probabilistically indicate that it is in one's fitness interests to exploit co-operators and to retaliate quickly against defectors. Here, we show that childhood exposure to family neglect, conflict and violence, and to neighbourhood crime, were positively associated for men (but not women) with exploitation of an interaction partner and retaliatory defection after that partner began to defect. The associations between childhood environment and both forms of defection for men appeared to be mediated by participants' endorsement of a ‘code of honour’. These results suggest that individual differences in mutual benefit cooperation are not merely due to genetic noise, random developmental variation or the operation of domain-general cultural learning mechanisms, but rather, might reflect the adaptive calibration of social strategies to local social–ecological conditions. PMID:23118435

  9. Temporal changes of a macrobenthic assemblage in harsh lagoon sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Como, Serena; Magni, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    An opportunistic macrobenthic assemblage was studied from 2001 to 2003 in a central area of the Cabras lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy), known to be affected by environmental disturbances (i.e. organic over-enrichment of sediments, and episodic events of hypoxia/anoxia and sulphide development). We identified recurrent seasonal changes in this macrobenthic assemblage, with a general impoverishment in summer and a recovery in winter/spring. The nereids Neanthes succinea and Hediste diversicolor were found to replace the spionid Polydora ciliata as the most dominant species in the summer for 3 consecutive years. Occasional, unsynchronized appearances of small-sized deposit feeders, such as Tubificidae, Capitella cf. capitata, chironomid larvae and Hydrobia spp., were observed in winter/spring. We suggest that these changes are driven by the interplay of environmental conditions (worse in summer) with numerous biotic factors. This includes different tolerance levels of taxa to low oxygen concentrations and sulphides, variability in larval supply and post-larval transport, as well as competition for space and food between and within different functional groups, and facilitation through animal bioturbation and sediment reoxidation. A conceptual model is proposed to demonstrate how environmental conditions and biotic interactions may control the benthic assemblage in such a harsh lagoon environment.

  10. Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

  11. The Relationship between Sensation-Seeking and Eysenck's Dimensions of Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysenck, Sybil; Zuckerman, Marvin

    1978-01-01

    The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Sensation-Seeking Scale were administered to 219 American undergraduates and 879 English twins. Sensation-seeking was positively correlated to EPQ-measured traits of extraversion and psychoticism. There was no relationship between sensation-seeking and the trait dimension of neuroticism.…

  12. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2012-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

  13. Touch Perception Altered by Chronic Pain and by Opioid Blockade.

    PubMed

    Case, Laura K; Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L; Richards, Emily A; Olausson, Håkan; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Touch plays a significant role in human social behavior and social communication, and its rewarding nature has been suggested to involve opioids. Opioid blockade in monkeys leads to increased solicitation and receipt of grooming, suggesting heightened enjoyment of touch. We sought to study the role of endogenous opioids in perception of affective touch in healthy adults and in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition shown to involve reduced opioid receptor availability. The pleasantness of touch has been linked to the activation of C-tactile fibers, which respond maximally to slow gentle touch and correlate with ratings of pleasantness. We administered naloxone to patients and healthy controls to directly observe the consequences of µ-opioid blockade on the perceived pleasantness and intensity of touch. We found that at baseline chronic pain patients showed a blunted distinction between slow and fast brushing for both intensity and pleasantness, suggesting reduced C-tactile touch processing. In addition, we found a differential effect of opioid blockade on touch perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. In healthy individuals, opioid blockade showed a trend toward increased ratings of touch pleasantness, while in chronic pain patients it significantly decreased ratings of touch intensity. Further, in healthy individuals, naloxone-induced increase in touch pleasantness was associated with naloxone-induced decreased preference for slow touch, suggesting a possible effect of opioid levels on processing of C-tactile fiber input. These findings suggest a role for endogenous opioids in touch processing, and provide further evidence for altered opioid functioning in chronic pain patients. PMID:27022625

  14. Vertical and bisection bias in active touch.

    PubMed

    Millar, S; al-Attar, Z

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the conditions that underlie the vertical and bisection illusion in touch, in order to understand the basis of their similarity to visual illusions, and the means of reducing the biases in length perception by active touch. Movement, speed, and spatial reference cues were tested. Movements in scanning L-shapes in ipsilateral and contralateral (across the body midline) table-top space produced significant underestimation of the vertical line with the right hand, but not with the left hand. Right-handed scanning of L-shapes showed no significant bias when the vertical line in the figure was aligned to the body midline, suggesting that spatial cues were involved. The vertical line was overestimated in inverted T-shapes, but underestimated in rotated T-shapes, implicating line bisection. Holding scanning latencies constant reduced the vertical error for inverted T-shapes, but could not explain the bisection bias. Sectioning biases were predicted by the location of junctions on sectioned lines, showing that junction points act as misleading anchor cues for movement extents. The illusion was significantly reduced when reference information was added by instructing subjects to relate two-handed scanning of the figure to an external frame and to body-centred cues. It is argued that disparities in spatial reference (anchor) cues for movement extents are involved in vertical and bisection biases in active touch. The hypothesis that length illusions depend on disparities in spatial reference information can also account for the similarity of the tactile to the visual horizontal-vertical illusion.

  15. Losing touch in the era of superbugs?

    PubMed

    Hass, Leif

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are increasingly multidrug resistant and at times more virulent. As such, they pose real threats to patients and clinicians. In this essay the author discusses his own methacillin-resistant staphylococcus infection and how it has affected his work in the hospital. In so doing, he reflects on the value of touch in the doctor-patient relationship. In particular, he discusses how gloves serve as a barrier to infection but also create a small distance between the doctors and their patients. The implications of contact precautions must be considered as we reflect on balancing patient-centered care with infection control.

  16. Transmission and Reproduction of Force Sensation by Bilateral Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) which thinks a great deal of patient’s quality of life (QOL) has attracted attention during about ten years. In this paper, it aims at development of the technology for transmitting force sensation required in medical treatment especially through surgical instruments, such as forceps. In bilateral control, it is a problem how master and slave robots realize the law of action and reaction to the environment. Mechanism of contact with environment and bilateral controller based on stiffness are shown. Master arm in contact with human and slave arm in contact with environment are given compliance, and stable contact with environment can be realized. The proposed method is applied to 3-link master-slave manipulators. As a result, transmission and reproduction of force sensation can be realized. The experimental results show viability of the proposed method.

  17. Relief of the occluded ear sensation to improve earmold comfort.

    PubMed

    French-Saint George, M; Barr-Hamilton, R M

    1978-01-01

    Earmold comfort is an important factor in the overall satisfaction a hearing-impaired person has with a hearing aid system. Recent research into the subjective effects of earmold venting indicates that, for the naive hearing-aid user, the solid mold produces a "closed" and "blocked" sensation that is relieved to a degree, depending on the vent diameter. To improve earmold comfort, all earmolds should be vented. However, there are certain types of hearing loss where conventional venting techniques would be undesirable, in particular, cases of severe to profound hearing loss where venting would not only adversely affect the desired frequency response characteristics of the hearing aid but would also lead to serious acoustic feedback problems. For this reason a simple system has been developed with sintered filters in the vent line, thus allowing all earmolds to be vented to relieve the occluded ear sensation although retaining the acoustic characteristics of the closed earmold.

  18. Art & Games: Sensational Activities for Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Susan J.; McNerney, Peg

    This booklet offers learning activities for children with disabilities grouped into art activities, activities that encourage interaction, and activities that encourage movement. The activities emphasize touch, smell, sight, and hearing to allow children to utilize their strongest senses. Each activity is presented with possible goals, materials,…

  19. Photosynthesis via Mineral Fluorescence in Harsh UV Radiation Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barge, L. M.; Nealson, K.

    2005-12-01

    Before the development of a protective ozone layer about two billion years ago, the surface ultraviolet flux on Earth would have restricted ancient life to environments that offered some protection from direct solar radiation, such as the deep ocean or under or within rocks. In environments where the visible solar radiation would have been reduced to levels too low for photosynthesis, visible fluorescence resulting from UV irradiation of minerals may have provided a useable energy source. We are investigating the possibility that photosynthesis can occur without direct sunlight, if certain minerals are present that can absorb UV radiation and fluoresce in the visible. There are several common minerals(e.g. fluorite, calcite) that emit strong visible radiation under both short- and long-wave UV light, as well as some that only emit visible radiation under specific UV wavelengths. We will test a variety of minerals that fluoresce at wavelengths utilized by microbial chlorophylls and accessory pigments, and by simulating endolithic communities living under a few centimeters or millimeters of rock, we will measure the intensity of fluorescence and UV radiation received at various depths. We plan to simulate a variety of environments where the surface UV radiation may have a significant impact on the survival of life. These include the early Earth and present-day Mars(where the atmosphere would offer little to no protection against biologically damaging UV radiation), as well as extrasolar planets(a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone around an M-type star, for example, would be subject to an intense UV flux due to high flare activity). If mineral fluorescence proves to be a viable survival mechanism for photosynthetic organisms in harsh radiation environments, there are many implications for the study of ancient life on Earth as well as the search for life elsewhere.

  20. Medication Effects on Periurethral Sensation and Urethral Sphincter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Greer, W. Jerod; Gleason, Jonathan L.; Kenton, Kimberly; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Goode, Patricia S; Richter, Holly E

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterize urethral neuromuscular function before and 2 weeks after medication therapy. Methods Premenopausal women without lower urinary tract symptoms were randomly allocated to one of six medications for 2 weeks (pseudoephedrine ER 120mg, imipramine 25mg, cyclobenzaprine 10mg, tamsulosin 0.4mg, solifenacin 5mg or placebo). At baseline and after medication, participants underwent testing: quantitative concentric needle EMG (CNE) of the urethral sphincter using automated Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) software; current perception threshold (CPT) testing to measure periurethral sensation; and standard urodynamic pressure flow studies (PFS). Nonparametric tests were used to compare pre-post differences. Results 56 women had baseline testing; 48 (85.7%) completed follow-up CNE, and 49 (87.5%) completed follow-up CPT and PFS testing. Demographics showed no significant differences among medication groups with respect to age (mean 34.3 ± 10.1), BMI (mean 31.8 ± 7.5), parity (median 1, range 0–7), or race (14% Caucasian, 80% African American). PFS parameters were not significantly different within medication groups. No significant pre-post changes in CNE values were noted; however, trends in amplitudes were in a direction consistent with the expected physiologic effect of the medications. With CPT testing, a trend toward increased urethral sensation at the 5 Hz stimulation level, was observed following treatment with pseudoephedrine (0.15 to 0.09 mA at 5Hz; P=0.03). Conclusion In women without LUTS, pseudoephedrine improved urethral sensation, but not urethral neuromuscular function on CNE or pressure flow studies. Imipramine, cyclobenzaprine, tamsulosin, solifenacin, and placebo did not change urethral sensation or neuromuscular function. PMID:25185603

  1. Sensation-seeking: Dopaminergic modulation and risk for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Agnes; Husain, Masud

    2015-07-15

    Sensation-seeking (SS) is a personality trait that refers to individual differences in motivation for intense and unusual sensory experiences. It describes a facet of human behaviour that has direct relevance for several psychopathologies associated with high social cost. Here, we first review ways of measuring SS behaviour in both humans and animals. We then present convergent evidence that implicates dopaminergic neurotransmission (particularly via D2-type receptors) in individual differences in SS trait. Both high tonic dopamine levels and hyper-reactive midbrain dopaminergic responses to signals of forthcoming reward are evident in higher sensations-seekers. We propose that differences in the efficacy of striatal dopaminergic transmission may result in differential expression of approach-avoidance reactions to same intensity stimuli. This constitutes a quantitative trait of intensity preference for sensory stimulation that may underlie core features of the SS personality. We review the evidence that high trait SS is a vulnerability factor for psychopathologies related to changes in brain dopamine function, in particular substance and gambling addictions. Conversely, we consider the possibility that increased tolerance of high intensity stimulation may represent a protective mechanism against the development of trauma-related psychopathologies (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) in high sensation-seeking individuals. Further understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying SS trait might not only to shed light on the aetiology of these disorders, but also aid in developing individualised therapies and prevention strategies for psychopathologies. PMID:25907745

  2. Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

  3. Modifying action sounds influences people's emotional responses and bodily sensations

    PubMed Central

    Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Klanovicz, Cristiano Porto; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate the effect of modifying the sound of high-heeled shoes on women's self-reported valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as any changes to a variety of measures of bodily sensation. We also assessed whether self-evaluated personality traits and the enjoyment associated with wearing heels were correlated with these effects. Forty-eight women walked down a “virtual runway” while listening to four interaction sounds (leather- and polypropylene-soled high-heeled shoes contacting ceramic flooring or carpet). Analysis of the questionnaires that the participants completed indicated that the type of sonic interaction impacted valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as the evaluated bodily sensations. There were also correlations between these scores and both self-evaluated personality traits and the reported enjoyment associated with wearing high heels. These results demonstrate the effect that the sound of a woman's physical interaction with the environment can have, especially when her contact with the ground while walking makes a louder sound. More generally, these results demonstrate that the manipulation of product extrinsic sounds can modify people's evaluation of their emotional outcomes (valence, arousal, and dominance), as well as their bodily sensations. PMID:25469221

  4. Modifying action sounds influences people's emotional responses and bodily sensations.

    PubMed

    Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Klanovicz, Cristiano Porto; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate the effect of modifying the sound of high-heeled shoes on women's self-reported valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as any changes to a variety of measures of bodily sensation. We also assessed whether self-evaluated personality traits and the enjoyment associated with wearing heels were correlated with these effects. Forty-eight women walked down a "virtual runway" while listening to four interaction sounds (leather- and polypropylene-soled high-heeled shoes contacting ceramic flooring or carpet). Analysis of the questionnaires that the participants completed indicated that the type of sonic interaction impacted valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as the evaluated bodily sensations. There were also correlations between these scores and both self-evaluated personality traits and the reported enjoyment associated with wearing high heels. These results demonstrate the effect that the sound of a woman's physical interaction with the environment can have, especially when her contact with the ground while walking makes a louder sound. More generally, these results demonstrate that the manipulation of product extrinsic sounds can modify people's evaluation of their emotional outcomes (valence, arousal, and dominance), as well as their bodily sensations.

  5. Total lower lip reconstruction using sensate composite radial forearm flap.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ragip; Ortak, Turgut; Koçer, Uğur; Celebioğlu, Selim; Sensöz, Omer; Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer

    2003-05-01

    In modern plastic and reconstructive surgery, shape and function must be considered together. These are the most important goals of any operation. There are a lot of techniques that have been reported for total lower lip reconstruction. It is believed that the radial forearm flap is the most suitable technique for lower lip and chin reconstruction after tumor excision so as to achieve better shape and functional results. The sensate radial forearm-palmaris longus free flap was used for total lower lip reconstruction in 17 patients with lower lip carcinoma with a mean age of 51 years. Two of the patients were female, and 15 were male. All the patients had squamous cell carcinoma. The patients were followed up for 1 to 3 years. Complications of these operations were partial superficial flap loss in 1 patient, partial graft loss in the donor areas of two flaps, and infection in only 1 patient. Wound dehiscence, fistula formation, suture abscesses, or sialocele was not seen in any patient. In this study, the aim was to demonstrate that the sensate radial forearm flap could produce acceptable esthetic results, good sphincteric function, and sensation in the early period after surgery. PMID:12826811

  6. To touch the science through the experiment!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowik, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    To touch the science through the experiment! Grzegorz P. Slowik, Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora, Poland Our School - Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora - where pupils' age is 13 -16, has for many years organized a lot of exciting events popularizing science among Zielona Gora children and young people, in particular experimental physics and astronomy. The best known in our town is the regular event on physics, - called the physical Festival of Zielona Gora, of which I am the main initiator and organizer. The Festival is directed to students of the last classes of Zielona Góra primary schools. During the Festivities their shows have also physicists and astronomers, from cooperating with us in popularization of science Zielona Gora University. At the festival the students from our Experimental School Group "Archimedes". Presented their own prepared themselves physical experience. With considerable help of students of Gymnasium No. 2 interested in astronomy, we organize the cyclical event, named "Cosmic Santa Claus," where I share with the students the knowledge gained through my active annual participation in the Space Workshop organized by the Science Centre in Warsaw. We all have fun and learn in a great way and with a smile, we touch real science that reveals its secrets!

  7. Review of Research Status and Development Trends of Wireless Passive LC Resonant Sensors for Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Tan, Qiulin; Jia, Pinggang; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Xiong, Jijun

    2015-01-01

    Measurement technology for various key parameters in harsh environments (e.g., high-temperature and biomedical applications) continues to be limited. Wireless passive LC resonant sensors offer long service life and can be suitable for harsh environments because they can transmit signals without battery power or wired connections. Consequently, these devices have become the focus of many current research studies. This paper addresses recent research, key technologies, and practical applications relative to passive LC sensors used to monitor temperature, pressure, humidity, and harmful gases in harsh environments. The advantages and disadvantages of various sensor types are discussed, and prospects and challenges for future development of these sensors are presented. PMID:26053753

  8. Review of Research Status and Development Trends of Wireless Passive LC Resonant Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Tan, Qiulin; Jia, Pinggang; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Xiong, Jijun

    2015-01-01

    Measurement technology for various key parameters in harsh environments (e.g., high-temperature and biomedical applications) continues to be limited. Wireless passive LC resonant sensors offer long service life and can be suitable for harsh environments because they can transmit signals without battery power or wired connections. Consequently, these devices have become the focus of many current research studies. This paper addresses recent research, key technologies, and practical applications relative to passive LC sensors used to monitor temperature, pressure, humidity, and harmful gases in harsh environments. The advantages and disadvantages of various sensor types are discussed, and prospects and challenges for future development of these sensors are presented. PMID:26053753

  9. Review of Research Status and Development Trends of Wireless Passive LC Resonant Sensors for Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Tan, Qiulin; Jia, Pinggang; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Xiong, Jijun

    2015-06-04

    Measurement technology for various key parameters in harsh environments (e.g., high-temperature and biomedical applications) continues to be limited. Wireless passive LC resonant sensors offer long service life and can be suitable for harsh environments because they can transmit signals without battery power or wired connections. Consequently, these devices have become the focus of many current research studies. This paper addresses recent research, key technologies, and practical applications relative to passive LC sensors used to monitor temperature, pressure, humidity, and harmful gases in harsh environments. The advantages and disadvantages of various sensor types are discussed, and prospects and challenges for future development of these sensors are presented.

  10. The state of research on the effects of therapeutic touch.

    PubMed

    Easter, A

    1997-06-01

    Therapeutic Touch is investigated using an integrative review of the literature. Using Ganong's (1987) methodology, the article explores the research question, What is the state of development of research regarding Therapeutic Touch? by analyzing primary research reports from 23 articles in 14 referred journals. The findings of the review indicate positive regard for the use of Therapeutic Touch. All research points to the need for further study in this area. Research methods used are satisfactory, but more rigorous methodologies would promote a more scientific contribution to the body of literature on Therapeutic Touch.

  11. Children's Learning from Touch Screens: A Dual Representation Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Kelly J; Uttal, David H

    2016-01-01

    Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium - that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children's learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children's ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children's developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children's ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children's cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium. PMID:27570516

  12. Genes regulating touch cell development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Du, H; Chalfie, M

    2001-01-01

    To identify genes regulating the development of the six touch receptor neurons, we screened the F(2) progeny of mutated animals expressing an integrated mec-2::gfp transgene that is expressed mainly in these touch cells. From 2638 mutated haploid genomes, we obtained 11 mutations representing 11 genes that affected the production, migration, or outgrowth of the touch cells. Eight of these mutations were in known genes, and 2 defined new genes (mig-21 and vab-15). The mig-21 mutation is the first known to affect the asymmetry of the migrations of Q neuroblasts, the cells that give rise to two of the six touch cells. vab-15 is a msh-like homeobox gene that appears to be needed for the proper production of touch cell precursors, since vab-15 animals lacked the four more posterior touch cells. The remaining touch cells (the ALM cells) were present but mispositioned. A similar touch cell phenotype is produced by mutations in lin-32. A more severe phenotype; i.e., animals often lacked ALM cells, was seen in lin-32 vab-15 double mutants, suggesting that these genes acted redundantly in ALM differentiation. In addition to the touch cell abnormalities, vab-15 animals variably exhibit embryonic or larval lethality, cell degenerations, malformation of the posterior body, uncoordinated movement, and defective egg laying. PMID:11333230

  13. Distributed Fiber Optic Gas Sensing for Harsh Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Juntao Wu

    2008-03-14

    This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully synthesized sensing materials using two techniques: sol-gel based fiber surface coating and magnetron sputtering based fiber micro-sensor integration. Palladium nanocrystalline embedded silica matrix material (nc-Pd/Silica), nanocrystalline palladium oxides (nc-PdO{sub x}) and palladium alloy (nc-PdAuN{sub 1}), and nanocrystalline tungsten (nc-WO{sub x}) sensing materials were identified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen; while the palladium doped and un-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide (nc-PdSnO{sub 2} and nc-SnO{sub 2}) materials were verified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to carbon monoxide. The fiber micro-sensor comprises an apodized long-period grating in a single-mode fiber, and the fiber grating cladding surface was functionalized by above sensing materials with a typical thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers. GE found that the morphologies of such sensing nanomaterials are either nanoparticle film or nanoporous film with a typical size distribution from 5-10 nanometers. nc-PdO{sub x} and alloy sensing materials were found to be highly sensitive to hydrogen gas within the temperature range from ambient to 150 C, while nc-Pd/Silica and nc-WO{sub x} sensing materials were found to be suitable to be operated from 150 C to 500 C for hydrogen gas detection. The palladium doped and un-doped nc-SnO{sub 2} materials also demonstrated sensitivity to carbon monoxide gas at approximately 500 C. The prototyped fiber gas sensing system developed in this R&D program is based on wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in which each fiber sensor is identified according to its transmission spectra features within the guiding mode and cladding modes. The

  14. Heat-activated Plasmonic Chemical Sensors for Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Michael; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    A passive plasmonics based chemical sensing system to be used in harsh operating environments was investigated and developed within this program. The initial proposed technology was based on combining technologies developed at the SUNY Polytechnic Institute Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) and at the University of Minnesota (UM). Specifically, a passive wireless technique developed at UM was to utilize a heat-activated plasmonic design to passively harvest the thermal energy from within a combustion emission stream and convert this into a narrowly focused light source. This plasmonic device was based on a bullseye design patterned into a gold film using focused ion beam methods (FIB). Critical to the design was the use of thermal stabilizing under and overlayers surrounding the gold film. These stabilizing layers were based on both atomic layer deposited films as well as metal laminate layers developed by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS). While the bullseye design was never able to be thermally stabilized for operating temperatures of 500oC or higher, an alternative energy harvesting design was developed by CNSE within this program. With this new development, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The method was further improved by patterning rods which harvested energy in the near infrared, which led to a factor of 10 decrease in data acquisition times as well as demonstrated selectivity with a reduced wavelength data set. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting

  15. Mirror-touch synaesthesia changes representations of self-identity

    PubMed Central

    Maister, Lara; Banissy, Michael J; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Mirror-Touch Synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own bodies when observing another person being touched. Whilst somatosensory processing in MTS has been extensively investigated, the extent to which the remapping of observed touch on the synaesthete’s body can also lead to changes in the mental representation of the self remains unknown. We adapted the experimental paradigm of the ‘Enfacement Illusion’ to quantify the changes in self-face recognition as a result of synaesthetic touch. MTS and control participants observed the face of an unfamiliar person being touched or not, without delivering touch on the participant’s face. Changes in self-representation were quantified with a self-face recognition task, using ‘morphed’ images containing varying proportions of the participant’s face and the face of the unfamiliar other. This task was administered before and after the exposure to the other face. While self-recognition performance for both groups was similar during pre-test, MTS individuals showed a significant change in self-recognition performance following the observation of touch delivered to the other face. Specifically, the images that participants had initially perceived as containing equal quantities of self and other became more likely to be recognised as the self after viewing the other being touched. These results suggest that observing touch on others not only elicits a conscious experience of touch in MTS, but also elicits a change in the mental representation of the self, blurring self-other boundaries. This is consistent with a multisensory account of the self, whereby integrated multisensory experiences maintain or update self-representations. PMID:23391559

  16. Parenting stress and harsh discipline in China: The moderating roles of marital satisfaction and parent gender.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-05-01

    This research examined the relationships between parents' parenting stress and their harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction and parent gender in Chinese societies. Using a sample of 639 Chinese father-mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' parenting stress were directly associated with their harsh discipline. Mothers' marital satisfaction attenuated the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. However, fathers' marital satisfaction did not moderate the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of considering how the dyadic marital relationship factors may interact with individuals' parenting stress to influence both maternal and paternal disciplinary behaviors. PMID:25676108

  17. Longitudinal Links between Fathers' and Mothers' Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents' Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. PMID:24001259

  18. Parenting stress and harsh discipline in China: The moderating roles of marital satisfaction and parent gender.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-05-01

    This research examined the relationships between parents' parenting stress and their harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction and parent gender in Chinese societies. Using a sample of 639 Chinese father-mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' parenting stress were directly associated with their harsh discipline. Mothers' marital satisfaction attenuated the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. However, fathers' marital satisfaction did not moderate the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of considering how the dyadic marital relationship factors may interact with individuals' parenting stress to influence both maternal and paternal disciplinary behaviors.

  19. Therapeutic touch as a nursing intervention.

    PubMed

    Meehan, T C

    1998-07-01

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is being proposed as a nursing intervention. Its proponents claim that it is integral to the art of nursing practice and can facilitate comfort and healing in a wide range of patients. However, the practice of TT is also controversial, primarily because it does not usually involve physical contact and is based on energy field theoretical frameworks. The development of TT and its conceptualization as an energy field interaction are reviewed, and points of controversy discussed. The method of practice is described. Review of controlled efficacy studies indicates limited and inconclusive scientific support for its proposed effects. The intrinsic relationship between TT and the placebo phenomenon is discussed. The potential of TT to enhance the placebo effect requires further exploration but should not be discounted in seeking to relieve discomfort and distress and facilitate healing. For some patients, TT may serve as a beneficial adjuvant nursing intervention.

  20. Object apprehension using vision and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajcsy, R.; Stansfield, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers define object apprehension as the determination of the properties of an object and the relationships among these properties. They contrast this with recognition, which goes a step further to attach a label to the object as a whole. Apprehension is fundamental to manipulation. This is true whether the manipulation is being carried out by an autonomous robot or is the result of teleoperation involving sensory feedback. Researchers present an apprehension paradigm using both vision and touch. In this model, they define a representation for object apprehension in terms of a set of primitives and features, along with their relationships. This representation is the mechanism by which the data from the two modalities are combined. It is also the mechanism which drives the apprehension process.

  1. Harsh Parenting, Parasympathetic Activity, and Development of Delinquency and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Erath, Stephen; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Stress response systems are thought to play an important role in the development of psychopathology. Additionally, family stress may have a significant influence on the development of stress response systems. One potential avenue of change is through alterations to thresholds for the activation of stress responses: Decreased threshold for responding may mark increased stress sensitivity. Our first aim was to evaluate the interaction between thresholds for parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) responding, operationalized as resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and harsh parenting in the prediction of development of delinquency and adolescent substance use (resting RSA as a biomarker of risk). The second aim was to evaluate if resting RSA changes over time as a function of harsh parenting and stress reactivity indexed by RSA withdrawal (altered threshold for stress responding). Our third aim was to evaluate the moderating role of sex in these relations. We used longitudinal data from 251 children ages 8 to 16. Mother-reports of child delinquency and RSA were acquired at all ages. Adolescents self-reported substance use at age 16. Family stress was assessed with child-reported harsh parenting. Controlling for marital conflict and change over time in harsh parenting, lower resting RSA predicted increases in delinquency and increased likelihood of drug use in contexts of harsh parenting, especially for boys. Harsh parenting was associated with declining resting RSA for children who exhibited greater RSA withdrawal to stress. Findings support resting PNS activity as a moderator of developmental risk that can be altered over time. PMID:25688440

  2. Decreasing harsh discipline in mothers at risk for maltreatment: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Negrão, Mariana; Soares, Isabel; Mesman, Judi

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of the attachment-based program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD; F. Juffer, M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, & M.H. van IJzendoorn, 2008) in decreasing harsh discipline of 43 mothers and their 1- to 4-year-old-children from severely deprived families. Based on previous studies, parenting stress was tested as a potential moderator of intervention effects on harsh discipline. Using a randomized control design, maternal harsh discipline was observed during home visits at the pretest and posttest, and mothers filled in questionnaires at both assessments. The VIPP-SD proved to be effective in decreasing maternal harsh discipline, but only for mothers who experienced higher levels of parenting stress at intake. These findings provide support for the program's ability to improve parenting in families who are most at risk for harsh parenting and for potentially maltreating child-parent interactions. The results are discussed in terms of the VIPP-SD elements most relevant to decreasing harsh discipline, and the challenges of parenting interventions in severely deprived populations.

  3. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  4. A Simple 2-Transistor Touch or Lick Detector Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Burton

    2009-01-01

    Contact or touch detectors in which a subject acts as a switch between two metal surfaces have proven more popular and arguably more useful for recording responses than capacitance switches, photocell detectors, and force detectors. Components for touch detectors circuits are inexpensive and, except for some special purpose designs, can be easily…

  5. An Empirical Study of User Experience on Touch Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Jyh Rong

    2016-01-01

    The touch mouse is a new type of computer mouse that provides users with a new way of touch-based environment to interact with computers. For more than a decade, user experience (UX) has grown into a core concept of human-computer interaction (HCI), describing a user's perceptions and responses that result from the use of a product in a particular…

  6. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans.

    PubMed

    Suvilehto, Juulia T; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I M; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-11-10

    Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r(2) = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds.

  7. Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Interactions: A Pedagogical Perspective of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in the…

  8. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans

    PubMed Central

    Suvilehto, Juulia T.; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r2 = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds. PMID:26504228

  9. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  10. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans.

    PubMed

    Suvilehto, Juulia T; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I M; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-11-10

    Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r(2) = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds. PMID:26504228

  11. Touch sensing analysis using multi-modal acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey S.; Pikula, Dragan; Baharav, Zachi

    2013-03-01

    Touch sensing is ubiquitous in many consumer electronic products. Users are expecting to be able to touch with their finger the surface of a display and interact with it. Yet, the actual mechanics and physics of the touch process are little known, as these are dependent on many independent variables. Ranging from the physics of the fingertip structure, composed of ridges, valleys, and pores, and beyond a few layers of skin and flesh the bone itself. Moreover, sweat glands and wetting are critical as well as we will see. As for the mechanics, the pressure at which one touches the screen, and the manner by which the surfaces responds to this pressure, have major impact on the touch sensing. In addition, different touch sensing methods, like capacitive or optical, will have different dependencies. For example, the color of the finger might impact the latter, whereas the former is insensitive to it. In this paper we describe a system that captures multiple modalities of the touch event, and by post-processing synchronizing all these. This enables us to look for correlation between various effects, and uncover their influence on the performance of the touch sensing algorithms. Moreover, investigating these relations allows us to improve various sensing algorithms, as well as find areas where they complement each other. We conclude by pointing to possible future extensions and applications of this system.

  12. Haptic Interfaces: Getting in Touch with Web-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussell, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Explains haptic computer interfaces for Web sites that relay touch-sensory feedback to the user. Discusses the importance of touch to cognition and learning; whether haptics can improve performance and learning; haptic interfaces for accessibility for blind and physically impaired users; comparisons of haptic devices; barriers to implementation;…

  13. You can't touch this: touch-free navigation through radiological images.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Lars C; Hatch, Gary; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

    2012-09-01

    Keyboards, mice, and touch screens are a potential source of infection or contamination in operating rooms, intensive care units, and autopsy suites. The authors present a low-cost prototype of a system, which allows for touch-free control of a medical image viewer. This touch-free navigation system consists of a computer system (IMac, OS X 10.6 Apple, USA) with a medical image viewer (OsiriX, OsiriX foundation, Switzerland) and a depth camera (Kinect, Microsoft, USA). They implemented software that translates the data delivered by the camera and a voice recognition software into keyboard and mouse commands, which are then passed to OsiriX. In this feasibility study, the authors introduced 10 medical professionals to the system and asked them to re-create 12 images from a CT data set. They evaluated response times and usability of the system compared with standard mouse/keyboard control. Users felt comfortable with the system after approximately 10 minutes. Response time was 120 ms. Users required 1.4 times more time to re-create an image with gesture control. Users with OsiriX experience were significantly faster using the mouse/keyboard and faster than users without prior experience. They rated the system 3.4 out of 5 for ease of use in comparison to the mouse/keyboard. The touch-free, gesture-controlled system performs favorably and removes a potential vector for infection, protecting both patients and staff. Because the camera can be quickly and easily integrated into existing systems, requires no calibration, and is low cost, the barriers to using this technology are low. PMID:22064490

  14. Effects of expiratory resistive loading on the sensation of dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Chonan, T; Altose, M D; Cherniack, N S

    1990-07-01

    To determine whether an increase in expiratory motor output accentuates the sensation of dyspnea (difficulty in breathing), the following experiments were undertaken. Ten normal subjects, in a series of 2-min trials, breathed freely (level I) or maintained a target tidal volume equal to (level II) or twice the control (level III) at a breathing frequency of 15/min (similar to the control frequency) with an inspiratory load, an expiratory load, and without loads under hyperoxic normocapnia. In tests at levels II and III, end-expiratory lung volume was maintained at functional residual capacity. A linear resistance of 25 cmH2O.1(-1).s was used for both inspiratory and expiratory loading; peak mouth pressure (Pm) was measured, and the intensity of dyspnea (psi) was assessed with a visual analog scale. The sensation of dyspnea increased significantly with the magnitude of expiratory Pm during expiratory loading (level II: Pm = 9.4 +/- 1.5 (SE) cmH2O, psi = 1.26 +/- 0.35; level III: Pm = 20.3 +/- 2.8 cmH2O, psi = 2.22 +/- 0.48) and with inspiratory Pm during inspiratory loading (level II: Pm = 9.7 +/- 1.2 cmH2O, psi = 1.35 +/- 0.38; level III: Pm = 23.9 +/- 3.0 cmH2O, psi = 2.69 +/- 0.60). However, at each level of breathing, neither the intensity of dyspnea nor the magnitude of peak Pm during loading was different between inspiratory and expiratory loading. The augmentation of dyspnea during expiratory loading was not explained simply by increases in inspiratory activity. The results indicate that heightened expiratory as well as inspiratory motor output causes comparable increases in the sensation of difficulty in breathing.

  15. Sensation seeking genes and physical activity in youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Wang, Jian; Bondy, Melissa L.; Dong, Qiong; Wu, Xifeng; Shete, Sanjay; Spitz, Margaret R.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies examining genetic influences on physical activity (PA) have evaluated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the development of lifestyle-related chronic diseases, under the hypothesis that they would be associated with PA. However, PA is a multi-determined behavior and associated with a multitude of health consequences. Thus, examining a broader range of candidate genes associated with a boarder range of PA correlates may provide new insights into the genetic underpinnings of PA. In this study we focus on one such correlate – sensation seeking behavior. Participants (N=1,130 Mexican origin youth) provided a saliva sample and data on PA and sensation seeking tendencies in 2008–09. Participants were genotyped for 630 functional and tagging variants in the dopamine, serotonin, and cannabinoid pathways. Overall 30% of participants (males – 37.6%; females – 22.0%) reported ≥60 minutes of PA on five out of seven days. After adjusting for gender, age and population stratification, and applying the Bayesian False Discovery Probability approach for assessing noteworthiness, four gene variants were significantly associated with PA. In a multivariable model, being male, having higher sensation seeking tendencies and at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in ACE (rs8066276 OR=1.44; p=0.012) and TPH2 (rs11615016 OR=1.73; p=0.021) were associated with increased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Participants with at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in SNAP25 (rs363035 OR=0.53; p=0.005) and CNR1 (rs6454672 OR=0.62; p=0.022) have decreased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Our findings extend current knowledge of the complex relationship between PA and possible genetic underpinnings. PMID:23190435

  16. [Touching the premature: the meaning for nurse's aides and technicians].

    PubMed

    Perencin, Carla Caniatto; Ribeiro, Circéa Amália

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the meaning of touching the premature, in the nursing care, for nursing aides and technicians. The Symbolic Interaction was used as theoretical reference and the Grounded Theory as methodological reference. Data were collected through observation and semi-structured interviews, carried out with three nursing aides and two technicians. Data analysis was carried out until leading to the identification of the conceptual category Enhancing the baby's welfare and care through touch, representing the meaning of touching the premature for the nursing aides and technicians, who consider touch as the basis of caring, recognising it as part of the daily care and performing the action of touching as a way to enhance the baby's welfare. PMID:22460480

  17. Perception of 3-D location based on vision, touch, and extended touch.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Nicholas A; Klatzky, Roberta L; Bennett, Christopher R; Loomis, Jack M

    2013-01-01

    Perception of the near environment gives rise to spatial images in working memory that continue to represent the spatial layout even after cessation of sensory input. As the observer moves, these spatial images are continuously updated. This research is concerned with (1) whether spatial images of targets are formed when they are sensed using extended touch (i.e., using a probe to extend the reach of the arm) and (2) the accuracy with which such targets are perceived. In Experiment 1, participants perceived the 3-D locations of individual targets from a fixed origin and were then tested with an updating task involving blindfolded walking followed by placement of the hand at the remembered target location. Twenty-four target locations, representing all combinations of two distances, two heights, and six azimuths, were perceived by vision or by blindfolded exploration with the bare hand, a 1-m probe, or a 2-m probe. Systematic errors in azimuth were observed for all targets, reflecting errors in representing the target locations and updating. Overall, updating after visual perception was best, but the quantitative differences between conditions were small. Experiment 2 demonstrated that auditory information signifying contact with the target was not a factor. Overall, the results indicate that 3-D spatial images can be formed of targets sensed by extended touch and that perception by extended touch, even out to 1.75 m, is surprisingly accurate.

  18. Effects of different types of light touch on postural sway.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Vijaya; Slijper, Harm; Latash, Mark L

    2002-11-01

    When a standing person applies a light finger touch to an external stable object, postural sway is reduced. We tested a hypothesis that two factors related to touch can induce this effect, the presence of a stable reference point and the modulation of contact forces leading to tissue deformation. Force platform signals were analyzed while subjects stood quietly with or without additional light touch to an external object (contact forces under 1 N). The point of touch on the body was manipulated. We also investigated the effects of active touch vs fixation of a finger at a point in external space. The results show that touch to the head or neck can be more effective in reducing body sway than a finger touch. A larger reduction in sway was observed when the finger was fixed in a clip (the net forces between the clip and the point of its fixation to the stand were under 1 N) as compared to a free light touch to a pad. The subjects showed a reduction in postural sway while holding a load suspended using a pulley system; in this situation, contact with the load via the pulley provided modulation of contact forces but not a fixed reference point. This finding emphasizes the importance of such factors as stability of the contact point and modulation of contact forces, as compared to active touch or to an implicit task of stabilizing the kinematic chain. The system of postural stabilization can reduce postural sway, making use of either of two sources of sensory information associated with touch, one related to providing a fixed reference point in space, and the other related to transient force changes at the point of contact related to the sway.

  19. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and facilitated…

  20. Is there touch in the game of Twister? The effects of innocuous touch and suggestive questions on children's eyewitness memory.

    PubMed

    Krackow, Elisa; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2003-12-01

    Preschool children (ages 48-70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct ("Did Amy kiss you?") or suggestive "tag" questions ("Amy kissed you, didn't she?") equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched were no more likely to falsely assent to "abuse-related" touch questions (e.g., "Amy touched your bottom, didn't she?") than were children who were not touched. However, children who were asked tag questions responded at chance levels, thereby making high errors of commission in response to abuse-touch questions relative to their no-tag counterparts who responded to "abuse questions" accurately 93% of the time. Children who were asked tag questions assented at a higher rate to general forensic questions ("Amy took your picture, didn't she?") than did children asked direct questions, and children assented at higher rates to "abuse-touch" questions than to general forensic questions. Results are discussed in terms of prior research on interviewing techniques and adult influence on children's testimony. PMID:14724958

  1. Is there touch in the game of Twister? The effects of innocuous touch and suggestive questions on children's eyewitness memory.

    PubMed

    Krackow, Elisa; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2003-12-01

    Preschool children (ages 48-70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct ("Did Amy kiss you?") or suggestive "tag" questions ("Amy kissed you, didn't she?") equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched were no more likely to falsely assent to "abuse-related" touch questions (e.g., "Amy touched your bottom, didn't she?") than were children who were not touched. However, children who were asked tag questions responded at chance levels, thereby making high errors of commission in response to abuse-touch questions relative to their no-tag counterparts who responded to "abuse questions" accurately 93% of the time. Children who were asked tag questions assented at a higher rate to general forensic questions ("Amy took your picture, didn't she?") than did children asked direct questions, and children assented at higher rates to "abuse-touch" questions than to general forensic questions. Results are discussed in terms of prior research on interviewing techniques and adult influence on children's testimony.

  2. From urothelial signalling to experiencing a sensation related to the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Birder, L.; Wyndaele, J.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying bladder sensation and the way we experience sensations during normal voiding and in pathology is complex and not well understood. During storage and emptying, mechanical changes occurring in number of cell types within the bladder wall (i.e. the uroepithelium and bladder afferents) can have a major influence on our sensory systems. In this review, we discuss bladder sensation with a focus on coding events in the periphery. PMID:23110490

  3. The interaction between felt touch and tactile consequences of observed actions: an action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm.

    PubMed

    Deschrijver, Eliane; Wiersema, Jan R; Brass, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    Action observation leads to a representation of both the motor aspect of an observed action (motor simulation) and its somatosensory consequences (action-based somatosensory simulation) in the observer's brain. In the current electroencephalography-study, we investigated the neuronal interplay of action-based somatosensory simulation and felt touch. We presented index or middle finger tapping movements of a human or a wooden hand, while simultaneously presenting 'tap-like' tactile sensations to either the corresponding or non-corresponding fingertip of the participant. We focused on an early stage of somatosensory processing [P50, N100 and N140 sensory evoked potentials (SEPs)] and on a later stage of higher-order processing (P3-complex). The results revealed an interaction effect of animacy and congruency in the early P50 SEP and an animacy effect in the N100/N140 SEPs. In the P3-complex, we found an interaction effect indicating that the influence of congruency was larger in the human than in the wooden hand. We argue that the P3-complex may reflect higher-order self-other distinction by signaling simulated action-based touch that does not match own tactile information. As such, the action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm might help understand higher-order social processes from a somatosensory point of view.

  4. The interaction between felt touch and tactile consequences of observed actions: an action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm.

    PubMed

    Deschrijver, Eliane; Wiersema, Jan R; Brass, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    Action observation leads to a representation of both the motor aspect of an observed action (motor simulation) and its somatosensory consequences (action-based somatosensory simulation) in the observer's brain. In the current electroencephalography-study, we investigated the neuronal interplay of action-based somatosensory simulation and felt touch. We presented index or middle finger tapping movements of a human or a wooden hand, while simultaneously presenting 'tap-like' tactile sensations to either the corresponding or non-corresponding fingertip of the participant. We focused on an early stage of somatosensory processing [P50, N100 and N140 sensory evoked potentials (SEPs)] and on a later stage of higher-order processing (P3-complex). The results revealed an interaction effect of animacy and congruency in the early P50 SEP and an animacy effect in the N100/N140 SEPs. In the P3-complex, we found an interaction effect indicating that the influence of congruency was larger in the human than in the wooden hand. We argue that the P3-complex may reflect higher-order self-other distinction by signaling simulated action-based touch that does not match own tactile information. As such, the action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm might help understand higher-order social processes from a somatosensory point of view. PMID:26152577

  5. Influence of sustained hypoxia on the sensation of dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Chonan, T; Okabe, S; Hida, W; Satoh, M; Kikuchi, Y; Takishima, T; Shirato, K

    1998-08-01

    We assessed the effect of sustained isocapnic hypoxia (PCO2 = 40 Torr, SaO2 = 80%) on the sensation of dyspnea in 16 normal healthy males. Subjects rated the sensation of dyspnea (c) on 15 cm visual analog scales during 20 min of sustained hypoxia. Following this hypoxic period, 8 subjects undertook mild exercise (10-50 W on a bicycle ergometer for 3 min) under the continuation of hypoxia. During sustained hypoxia, psi increased initially with ventilation from 0.6 +/- 0.2 (n = 16, mean +/- SE) to 2.9 +/- 0.6 at peak ventilation, but it decreased with ventilatory depression to 1.6 +/- 0.4. Dyspnea intensity during hypoxic exercise was significantly smaller than that at peak ventilation in the resting hypoxic period (2.3 +/- 0.7 vs. 3.9 +/- 1.0), although the ventilation was greater during exercise (24.0 +/- 3.0 vs. 19.7 +/- 1.4 l/min). These results indicate that sustained hypoxia has a biphasic, i.e., initial stimulatory and delayed depressant, effect on dyspnea and on ventilation. It is suggested that the dyspnea sensing mechanism is suppressed during mild exercise under sustained hypoxia.

  6. Negotiating pain: the joint construction of a child's bodily sensation

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Traditional theories of socialisation, in which the child was viewed as a passive subject of external influences, are increasingly being rejected in favour of a new sociology of childhood which frames the child as a social actor. This article demonstrates the way in which conversation analysis can reveal children's agency in the micro-detail of naturally occurring episodes in which children express bodily sensations and pain in everyday life. Based on 71 video-recordings of mealtimes with five families, each with two children under 10 years old, the analysis focuses on the components of children's expressions of bodily sensation (including pain), the character of parents’ responses and the nature of the subsequent talk. The findings provide further evidence that children are social actors, active in constructing, accepting and resisting the nature of their physical experience and pain. A conversation analysis of ordinary family talk facilitates a description of how a child's agency is built, maintained or resisted through the interactional practices participants employ to display knowledge. PMID:25760923

  7. [Addiction and personality traits: sensation seeking, anhedonia, impulsivity].

    PubMed

    Sarramon, C; Verdoux, H; Schmitt, L; Bourgeois, M

    1999-01-01

    This study presents the evaluation of three dimensional traits of personality (Sensation Seeking, Anhedonia, Impulsivity) among 65 patients admitted in a psychiatric ward, with or without addictive behaviors. Our objective is to establish that these personality traits are commun to all addictive behaviors and to test the hypothesis that high scores on the three scales are linked to a greater probability of presenting with addictive behaviors. The two most frequent types of addiction were alcoholism and drug abuse. The subjects presenting with one or several addictive behaviors had higher average scores on the three scales. Our results printed in the same direction for the subjects having shown an addictive behavior in their past history. The risk to present with an addictive behavior increased with the total scores of these self-report questionnaires. There was a significant relationship between 3 sub-dimensions on the Sensation Seeking Scale and addictive behavior. Each time sub-scores of boredom susceptibility, disinhibition and thrill and adventure rise by one, the risk to present with an addictive behavior is multiplied by 1.4 for the first two and by 1.3 for the third one. Subjects with high scores on the anhedonia and impulsivity scales respectively show a risk multiplied by 1.6 and 3.3 of developing an addictive behavior. These results of this transverse study confirm the link between addiction behavior and these three personality traits.

  8. A generalised sensation of coldness following introduction of rosuvastatin therapy.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Huot, Philippe

    2014-10-09

    Rosuvastatin is the most potent 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor commercially available to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Rosuvastatin has been associated with several adverse effects, including rhabdomyolysis and arthralgias. Here, we report an unusual adverse effect occurring on treatment with rosuvastatin, a 'continuous sensation of coldness'. A 60-year-old man began experiencing this peculiar feeling shortly after introduction of rosuvastatin treatment. The gentleman had to wear extra pair of socks and cover himself with blankets while reading, even during summer with surrounding temperature above 30°C. The abnormal sensation persisted for the 26 months during which he was treated with rosuvastatin, and disappeared within a week after discontinuing treatment. Physical examination, including thorough neurological examination, was entirely normal, as were haematological and biochemical parameters. While the pathophysiology of this phenomenon remains unknown, we hope that this case will encourage others to report similar symptomatology, perhaps enabling to gain more insight on the condition.

  9. Sensory and decision-related activity propagate in a cortical feedback loop during touch perception.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sung Eun; Yang, Hongdian; Minamisawa, Genki; O'Connor, Daniel H

    2016-09-01

    The brain transforms physical sensory stimuli into meaningful perceptions. In animals making choices about sensory stimuli, neuronal activity in successive cortical stages reflects a progression from sensation to decision. Feedforward and feedback pathways connecting cortical areas are critical for this transformation. However, the computational functions of these pathways are poorly understood because pathway-specific activity has rarely been monitored during a perceptual task. Using cellular-resolution, pathway-specific imaging, we measured neuronal activity across primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices of mice performing a tactile detection task. S1 encoded the stimulus better than S2, while S2 activity more strongly reflected perceptual choice. S1 neurons projecting to S2 fed forward activity that predicted choice. Activity encoding touch and choice propagated in an S1-S2 loop along feedforward and feedback axons. Our results suggest that sensory inputs converge into a perceptual outcome as feedforward computations are reinforced in a feedback loop. PMID:27437910

  10. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean-levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person change in delinquent behavior and whether genetically influenced differences in rate of personality change accounted for this association. Sensation seeking and delinquent behavior were assessed biennially between ages 10–11 and 16–17 in a nationally representative sample of 7,675 youths from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth: Children and Young Adults (CNLSY). Analyses using latent growth curve modeling found that within-person change in sensation seeking was significantly and positively correlated with within-person change in delinquency from childhood to adolescence. Furthermore, behavioral genetic analyses of a subset of 2,562 sibling pairs indicated that there were substantial genetic influences on both initial levels of sensation seeking and change in sensation seeking during early adolescence, with over 80% of individual differences in change due to genetic factors. Finally, these genetically driven increases in sensation seeking were most important for predicting increases in delinquency, whereas environmental paths between sensation seeking and delinquency were not significant. These results suggest that developmental changes in delinquent behaviors during adolescence are driven by a genetically governed process of personality change. PMID:22251301

  11. Authoritative parenting and sensation seeking as predictors of adolescent cigarette and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Michael T; Helme, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that prevent or buffer sensation seeking remain unexplored. This study fills this gap in extant research by examining the role of authoritative parenting as a protective factor that prevents or buffers cigarette and marijuana use by adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies. Data from 1461 adolescents attending 6th through 8th grades in central Colorado were gathered during a semester-long classroom-based intervention to prevent the onset or further use of cigarettes. Results indicate that authoritative parenting moderated the effect of sensation seeking on adolescent marijuana attitudes, intentions, and peer influence but not behaviors. Further, authoritative parenting was a stronger influence than sensation seeking on cigarette-related outcomes with just the opposite effect observed for marijuana-related outcomes.

  12. The effect of oxytocin on the anthropomorphism of touch.

    PubMed

    Peled-Avron, Leehe; Perry, Anat; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2016-04-01

    One of the leading hypotheses regarding the mechanism underlying the social effects of oxytocin (OT) is the "social salience hypothesis", which proposes that OT alters the attentional salience of social cues in a context-dependent manner. Recently, OT was implicated in the process of anthropomorphism; specifically, OT was found to increase the tendency to ascribe social meaning to inanimate stimuli. However, the precise component of social interaction that contributes to this effect remains unclear. Because OT plays a role in the response to touch, whether or not objects are touching in a social context may represent the prominent trigger. Given that OT plays a major role in both anthropomorphism and touch, it is reasonable to assume that OT enhances anthropomorphism specifically for non-human touch, further clarifying its role in altering the perceptual salience of social cues. Here, we examined whether intranasal delivery of OT influences anthropomorphism for touch in inanimate objects. To that end, we implicitly measured the emotional reactions of participants (N=51) to photos that depicted two humans or two inanimate objects either touching or not touching. We asked them to rate whether they will include each photo in an emotional album and found that OT treatment increased the likelihood of inclusion in an emotional album to photos that contain touch, particularly between inanimate objects. In a follow-up experiment we found that the more human the inanimate objects were perceived, the more included they were in the emotional album. Our findings demonstrate that OT can enhance the social meaning of touch between two inanimate objects and advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the ability of OT to anthropomorphize environmental cues. PMID:26827294

  13. Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

  14. Forgone but not forgotten: the effects of partial and full feedback in "harsh" and "kind" environments.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Tim; Newell, Ben R; Wright, Louise

    2015-12-01

    In a perfect world, the choice of any course of action would lead to a satisfactory outcome, and we would obtain feedback about both our chosen course and those we have chosen to forgo. In reality, however, we often face harsh environments in which we can only minimize losses, and we receive impoverished feedback. In these studies, we examined how decision makers dealt with these challenges in a simple task in which we manipulated three features of the decision: The outcomes from the available options were either mostly positive or mostly negative (kind or harsh environment); feedback was either full or partial (outcomes revealed for all options or only for the chosen option); and for the final 20 trials in a sequence, participants either chose on each trial or set an "advance-directive" policy. The propensity to choose the better option was explained by several factors: Full feedback was more beneficial in harsh than in kind environments; policy decisions encouraged better decisions and ameliorated the adverse impact of a harsh environment; and beliefs about the value of strategy diversification predicted switch rates and choice quality. The results suggest a subtle interplay between bottom-up and top-down processes: Although harsh environments encourage poor choices, and some decision makers choose less well than others, this need not imply that the decision maker has failed to identify the better option.

  15. Plant communities in harsh sites are less invaded: a summary of observations and proposed explanations.

    PubMed

    Zefferman, Emily; Stevens, Jens T; Charles, Grace K; Dunbar-Irwin, Mila; Emam, Taraneh; Fick, Stephen; Morales, Laura V; Wolf, Kristina M; Young, Derek J N; Young, Truman P

    2015-01-01

    Plant communities in abiotically stressful, or 'harsh', habitats have been reported to be less invaded by non-native species than those in more moderate habitats. Here, we synthesize descriptive and experimental evidence for low levels of invasion in habitats characterized by a variety of environmental stressors: low nitrogen; low phosphorus; saline, sodic or alkaline soils; serpentine soils; low soil moisture; shallow/rocky soils; temporary inundation; high shade; high elevation; and high latitude. We then discuss major categories of hypotheses to explain this pattern: the propagule limitation mechanism suggests invasion of harsh sites is limited by relatively low arrival rates of propagules compared with more moderate habitats, while invasion resistance mechanisms suggest that harsh habitats are inherently less invasible due to stressful abiotic conditions and/or increased effects of biotic resistance from resident organisms. Both propagule limitation and invasion resistance may simultaneously contribute to low invadedness of harsh sites, but the management implications of these mechanisms differ. If propagule limitation is more important, managers should focus on reducing the likelihood of propagule introductions. If invasion resistance mechanisms are in play, managers should focus on restoring or maintaining harsh conditions at a site to reduce invasibility. PMID:26002746

  16. Harsh discipline and behavior problems: the moderating effects of cortisol and alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Rudo-Hutt, Anna S; Glenn, Andrea L; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies link harsh discipline to adjustment problems in youth, yet not all individuals exposed to harsh discipline develop behavior problems. Contemporary theory suggests that this relationship could be moderated by individual differences in environmentally sensitive biological systems. This study investigated whether the interaction between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal moderated the link between harsh discipline and behavior problems. Three saliva samples were collected on a single day from 425 inner city youth (50% male, age 11-12 years, 80% African American) and were later assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase (ANS). Problem behavior was assessed by self- and parent-report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Youth also reported the level of harsh discipline that they experienced. Harsh discipline was positively associated with externalizing and internalizing problems only when there were asymmetrical profiles of HPA activity and ANS arousal. This pattern was evident for boys but not girls. Findings are discussed in relation to prevailing theories suggesting that biological susceptibility translates adversity into risk for behavior problems.

  17. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cole, David A.; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R.; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsky, Sarah A.; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. Method The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves one year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Results Every wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Conclusions Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25751612

  18. Realignment of temporal simultaneity between vision and touch.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Saiki, Jun; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2008-02-12

    Adaptation to temporal asynchrony between senses (audiovisual and audiotactile) affects the subsequent simultaneity or temporal order judgment. Here, we investigated the effects of adaptation to temporal asynchrony between vision and touch. Participants experienced deformation of virtual objects with a fixed temporal lag between vision and touch. In subsequent trials, the visual and haptic stimuli were deformed with variable temporal lags, and the participants judged whether the stimuli became deformed simultaneously. The point of subjective simultaneity was shifted toward the adapted lag. No intermanual transfer of the adaptation effect was, however, found. These results indicate that the perceptual simultaneity between vision and touch is adaptive, and is determined separately for each hand.

  19. Force and touch make video games 'serious' for dexterity rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Michele; Guandalini, Giovanni; Da Lio, Mauro; De Cecco, Mariolino

    2012-01-01

    Computerized interfaces are able to represent 3D immersive simulations. Most of them make use of joystick, mouse, gloves, or grasp pressure transducers. Those have the drawback of 'filtering' the user interaction and/or de-locate the touch with respect to the visual stimulus. To overcome this we developed dexterity rehabilitation games on a novel touch interface that measures also force. The system allows dexterity training through 'direct' manipulation of virtual objects in 3D. Two dimensions via the touch screen, the third by the force channel. Tactile feedback is provided with a vibration device mounted on the screen back.

  20. The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG) session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann's area (BA) 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation.

  1. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    PubMed

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression.

  2. High-tech, high-touch perinatal home care.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, N L; Blazek, D; Wikoff, B; Tuckwell, B L; Koloroutis, M

    1995-05-01

    Perinatal home care for women experiencing a high-risk pregnancy often requires the use of technologies for safe home management. Home care professionals need to integrate high technology with high touch to ensure the best results.

  3. Nerve Stimulation Restored Sense of Touch to Arm Amputees

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bensmaia explained in a university news release. The paper was published Oct. 26 in the journal Science ... brain responsible for hand movements and touch. That paper was published Oct. 13 in Science Translational Medicine . ...

  4. Model Based Object Recognition Using LORD LTS-300 Touch Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, J. W.; Paripati, P. K.; Wade, M.

    1988-03-01

    This paper reports the result of a model driven touch sensor recognition experiment. The touch sensor employed is a large field tactile array. Object features appropriate for touch sensor recognition are extracted from a geometric model of an object, the dual spherical image. Both geometric and dynamic features are used to identify objects and their position and orientation on the touch sensor. Experiments show that geometric features extracted from the model are effective but that dynamic features must be determined empirically. Correct object identification rates even for very similar objects exceed ninety percent, a success rate much higher than we would have expected from only two-dimensional contact patterns. Position and orientation of objects once identified are very reliable. We conclude that large field tactile sensors could prove very useful in the automatic palletizing problem when object models (from a CAD system, for example) can be utilized.

  5. Emotional Availability and Touch in Deaf and Hearing Dyads.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Grace; Koester, Lynne Sanford

    2015-01-01

    In recent years , increasing attention has been given to the development of deaf children, though few studies have included Deaf parents. The present study examined emotional availability (EA) and functions of touch used by Deaf or hearing parents with hearing or deaf infants during free play. Sixty dyads representing four hearing status groups were observed when the infants were 18 months old. Comparisons among all four groups revealed significant differences in regard to parental sensitivity and child responsiveness, with hearing mothers with deaf infants tending to score lowest in the various subcategories of EA. Significant differences were also found for attentional touch and total touch, with deaf mothers of deaf or hearing infants using both types of touch more than hearing mothers of deaf or hearing infants. The importance of support and interventions for hearing mothers with deaf infants is discussed. PMID:26320752

  6. Animation of Curiosity Rover's First 'Touch and Go'

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation shows NASA's Mars Curiosity rover touching a rock with aninstrument on its arm, then stowing the arm and driving on.Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech› Curiosity's mission site › Related s...

  7. Syncopation creates the sensation of groove in synthesized music examples.

    PubMed

    Sioros, George; Miron, Marius; Davies, Matthew; Gouyon, Fabien; Madison, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the musical properties which elicit an increased sensation of wanting to move when listening to music-groove-we investigate the effect of adding syncopation to simple piano melodies, under the hypothesis that syncopation is correlated to groove. Across two experiments we examine listeners' experience of groove to synthesized musical stimuli covering a range of syncopation levels and densities of musical events, according to formal rules implemented by a computer algorithm that shifts musical events from strong to weak metrical positions. Results indicate that moderate levels of syncopation lead to significantly higher groove ratings than melodies without any syncopation or with maximum possible syncopation. A comparison between the various transformations and the way they were rated shows that there is no simple relation between syncopation magnitude and groove. PMID:25278923

  8. Syncopation creates the sensation of groove in synthesized music examples

    PubMed Central

    Sioros, George; Miron, Marius; Davies, Matthew; Gouyon, Fabien; Madison, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the musical properties which elicit an increased sensation of wanting to move when listening to music—groove—we investigate the effect of adding syncopation to simple piano melodies, under the hypothesis that syncopation is correlated to groove. Across two experiments we examine listeners' experience of groove to synthesized musical stimuli covering a range of syncopation levels and densities of musical events, according to formal rules implemented by a computer algorithm that shifts musical events from strong to weak metrical positions. Results indicate that moderate levels of syncopation lead to significantly higher groove ratings than melodies without any syncopation or with maximum possible syncopation. A comparison between the various transformations and the way they were rated shows that there is no simple relation between syncopation magnitude and groove. PMID:25278923

  9. Individual differences in susceptibility to experimentally induced phantom sensations.

    PubMed

    Burrack, Anna; Brugger, Peter

    2005-09-01

    We investigated individual differences in susceptibility to two vibration-induced phantom illusions, i.e. illusory arm extension and nose prolongation ("Pinocchio illusion"). Vibration was applied to the biceps brachii tendon of 32 healthy participants. Susceptibility to the illusions was quantified by vividness ratings and by ratings of the amount of illusory position changes of the arm and illusory shape changes of the nose. Participants also completed the Perceptual Aberration (PA) and the Need for Cognition (NFC) inventories. PA reflects the frequency of spontaneously experienced body schema alterations and NFC a person's tendency to cognitively structure experiences. PA was positively correlated with participants' susceptibility to illusory arm extension and, exclusively for men, also to nose elongation. A high NFC was weakly associated with a high susceptibility for the Pinocchio illusion. By inference, these findings indicate a physiological basis of PA and a cognitive mediation of experimentally induced phantom sensations.

  10. Aging, alcoholism, anxiety, and sensation seeking: an exploratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D G; McAlhany, D A; McCurdy, R L; Shaw, D L; Roitzsch, J C

    1982-01-01

    Aging alcoholic (n = 36) and aging nonalcoholic (n = 35) male veterans were compared on biographic/demographic variables and psychological characteristics. Results indicated that aging alcoholics and nonalcoholics were married at approximately the same ages, married roughly the same number of times, and produced similar numbers of offspring, but aging alcoholics were better educated and had fewer persons economically dependent on them. They had higher scores than aging nonalcoholics on objective measures of state anxiety, trait anxiety, overall fears, tissue damage fears, social-interpersonal fears, miscellaneous fears, and failure/loss of self-esteem fears. Aging alcoholics also had higher scores on the sensation-seeking variable of boredom susceptibility and disinhibition, suggesting the existence of a relationship between need for sensory stimulation and maladaptive drinking among aging alcoholics. PMID:7080893

  11. Attenuated self-tickle sensation even under trajectory perturbation.

    PubMed

    Van Doorn, George; Paton, Bryan; Howell, Jacqui; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-11-01

    The efference copy account of the tickle effect (i.e., our inability to tickle ourselves) predicts no tickle effect (i.e., an ability to tickle ourselves) when the trajectory of a tactile stimulus is perturbed relative to the associated movement, and there is evidence in support of this. The active inference account, however, predicts the tickle effect should survive trajectory perturbation. We test these accounts of the tickle effect under the hypothesis that previous findings are due to attentional modulation, and that the tickle effect will be found in a paradigm with no conscious attention directed to the trajectory perturbation. We thus expected to find support for active inference. Our first experiment confirms this hypothesis, while our second seeks to explain previous findings in terms of the modulation of the tickle sensation when there is awareness of, and different degrees of attention to, the spatial tactile and kinesthetic trajectories.

  12. [Rethink on "experiment of progated sensation along meridians"].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-shi

    2011-11-01

    The theory, methods and ideas of "experiment of progated sensation along meridians (PSM)" were examined in the article through retrieval of ancient medical books, excavating the theory of meridians, the qi of meridians, ying (nutrient) qi, wei (defensive) qi and the related acupuncture techniques. The result shows that PSM is not the reaction of the meridian qi, but the reflection of wei (defensive) qi. Therefore, whether the experiment of PSM revealed with the phenomenon of meridian and all hypothesis based on it or not are still remained as a question. However, although PSM is considered to be related with the wei (defensive) qi, it can not be concluded that the experiment of PSM revealed the function of the wei (defensive) qi. PMID:22136040

  13. Expanding the mirror: vicarious activity for actions, emotions, and sensations.

    PubMed

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2009-12-01

    We often empathically share the states of others. The discovery of 'mirror neurons' suggested a neural mechanism for monkeys to share the actions of others. Here we expand this view by showing that mirror neurons for actions not only exist in the premotor cortex or in monkeys and that vicarious activity can also be measured for the emotions and sensations of others. Although we still need to empirically explore the function and development of these vicarious activations, we should stop thinking of vicarious brain activity as a peculiar property of the premotor cortex: instead it seems to be a very common phenomenon which leads social stimuli to recruit a wide range of seemingly private neural systems. PMID:19880311

  14. Effect of Harsh or Mild Extraction of Soil on Pesticide Leaching to Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Boesten, Jos J T I

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of leaching to groundwater is an important aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The first leaching tier usually consists of simulations with leaching scenarios based on pesticide-soil properties derived from laboratory studies. Because the extractability of pesticide residues in such studies decreases with time, the harshness of the extraction method influences these pesticide-soil properties. This study investigates the effect of using a mild or harsh extraction method on simulated leaching to groundwater with consideration of substances with a range of half-lives and organic matter sorption coefficient values for selected leaching scenarios. The model for linking the concentrations of the mild and the harsh systems was based on laboratory studies with two pesticides and a Dutch sandy soil and was tested against Canadian field studies with atrazine (6-chloro-2-ethyl-4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine). The degradation rate and the aged-sorption parameters of each "mild" soil-substance system were derived from a hypothetical laboratory incubation study using prescribed parameter values for the corresponding "harsh" soil-substance system. Simulations were performed for three European leaching scenarios (United Kingdom, France, Portugal). For the best-guess parameter set, the leaching concentrations of the harsh system were approximately equal to those of the mild system at leaching concentrations greater than 1 μg L and were at most approximately a factor of two higher than those of the mild systems at mild leaching concentrations between 0.01 and 0.1 μg L. However, an extreme parameter set led to harsh leaching concentrations that were at most approximately 10 times higher than the mild leaching concentrations at levels between 0.01 and 0.1 μg L. PMID:27380081

  15. Chemesthesis and taste: evidence of independent processing of sensation intensity.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; George, Pravin; Akirav, Carol

    2005-11-15

    The ability to perceive taste from temperature alone ("thermal taste") was recently shown to predict higher perceptual responsiveness to gustatory and olfactory stimuli. This relationship was hypothesized to be due in part to individual differences in CNS processes involved in flavor perception. Here we report three experiments that tested whether subjects who differ in responsiveness to thermal taste and/or chemical taste also differ in responsiveness to oral chemesthesis. In experiment 1, subjects identified as 'thermal tasters' (TTs) or 'thermal non-tasters' (TnTs) used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale to rate the intensity of sensations produced on the tongue tip by capsaicin, menthol, sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and QSO4. TTs rated all four taste stimuli higher than did TnTs, whereas sensations of burning/stinging/pricking and temperature from capsaicin and menthol did not differ significantly between groups. In experiment 2, testing with capsaicin on both the front and back of the tongue confirmed there was no difference in ratings of burning/stinging/pricking when subjects were grouped according to the ability to perceive thermal taste. In experiment 3, subjects were classified as high- or low-tasters according to their ratings of sucrose sweetness rather than thermal taste. No group difference was found for perception of capsaicin even when presented in mixture with sucrose or NaCl. The results are discussed in the context of previous evidence of an association between chemesthesis and sensitivity to the bitter tastant PROP, and in terms of the various peripheral and central neural processes that may underlie intensity perception in taste and chemesthesis. PMID:16199067

  16. A new device to quantify tactile sensation in neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Selim, M.M.; Brink, T.S.; Hodges, J.S.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, G.; Foster, S.X.Y.-L.; Nolano, M.; Provitera, V.; Simone, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To devise a rapid, sensitive method to quantify tactile threshold of finger pads for early detection and staging of peripheral neuropathy and for use in clinical trials. Methods: Subjects were 166 healthy controls and 103 patients with, or at risk for, peripheral neuropathy. Subjects were screened by questionnaire. The test device, the Bumps, is a checkerboard-like smooth surface with 12 squares; each square encloses 5 colored circles. The subject explores the circles of each square with the index finger pad to locate the one circle containing a small bump. Bumps in different squares have different heights. Detection threshold is defined as the smallest bump height detected. In some subjects, a 3-mm skin biopsy from the tested finger pad was taken to compare density of Meissner corpuscles (MCs) to bump detection thresholds. Results: The mean (±SEM) bump detection threshold for control subjects was 3.3 ± 0.10 μm. Threshold and test time were age related, older subjects having slightly higher thresholds and using more time. Mean detection threshold of patients with neuropathy (6.2 ± 0.35 μm) differed from controls (p < 0.001). A proposed threshold for identifying impaired sensation had a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 74%. Detection threshold was higher when MC density was decreased. Conclusions: These preliminary studies suggest that the Bumps test is a rapid, sensitive, inexpensive method to quantify tactile sensation of finger pads. It has potential for early diagnosis of tactile deficiency in subjects suspected of having neuropathy, for staging degree of tactile deficit, and for monitoring change over time. PMID:21555731

  17. Allina Health System's approach to high tech and high touch.

    PubMed

    Tam, T A

    1997-01-01

    All health care providers, regardless of their integration status, must meet customer expectations to maintain market share and viability. The balance between high tech and high touch customer interactions is not a fad or trend. For integrated health systems with the full continuum of medical care, additional challenges are presented by the organization's competing health care delivery and financing components. Allina Health System describes its integrated health system approach to satisfying customer high tech and high touch needs.

  18. A Multi-touch Tool for Co-creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludden, Geke D. S.; Broens, Tom

    Multi-touch technology provides an attractive way for knowledge workers to collaborate. Co-creation is an important collaboration process in which collecting resources, creating results and distributing these results is essential. We propose a wall-based multi-touch system (called CoCreate) in which these steps are made easy due to the notion of connected private spaces and a shared co-create space. We present our ongoing work, expert evaluation of interaction scenarios and future plans.

  19. Is Sensation Seeking a Stable Trait or Does It Change over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed, in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change…

  20. Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

  1. Intercorrelations of the Sensation - Seeking Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Keith W.

    1977-01-01

    Two separate studies using Form IV of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) are reported. The first study correlates SSS by factor and sex with the earlier Form II SSS, supporting the reliability of the General SSS scale and discriminant validity of the Form IV SSS factor scales in relationship to general sensation-seeking. In the second study,…

  2. Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberger, Kristina D.

    2004-01-01

    A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

  3. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  4. The Association between Sensation Seeking and Well-Being among College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Bersamin, Melina M.

    2013-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a known risk factor for unsafe and reckless behavior among college students, but its association with well-being is unknown. Given that exploration plays an important psychosocial role during the transition to adulthood, we examined the possibility that sensation seeking is also associated with psychological well-being. In a…

  5. Touch and temporal behavior of grand piano actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Galembo, Alexander

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the temporal behavior of grand piano actions from different manufacturers under different touch conditions and dynamic levels. An experimental setup consisting of accelerometers and a calibrated microphone was used to capture key and hammer movements, as well as the sound signal. Five selected keys were played by pianists with two types of touch (``pressed touch'' versus ``struck touch'') over the entire dynamic range. Discrete measurements were extracted from the accelerometer data for each of the over 2300 recorded tones (e.g., finger-key, hammer-string, and key bottom contact times, maximum hammer velocity). Travel times of the hammer (from finger-key to hammer-string) as a function of maximum hammer velocity varied clearly between the two types of touch, but only slightly between pianos. A travel time approximation used in earlier work [Goebl W., (2001). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 563-572] derived from a computer-controlled piano was verified. Constant temporal behavior over type of touch and low compression properties of the parts of the action (reflected in key bottom contact times) were hypothesized to be indicators for instrumental quality.

  6. The perception of affective touch in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Crucianelli, Laura; Cardi, Valentina; Treasure, Janet; Jenkinson, Paul M; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-05-30

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by restricted eating, fears of gaining weight, and body image distortions. The etiology remains unknown; however impairments in social cognition and reward circuits contribute to the onset and maintenance of the disorder. One possibility is that AN is associated with reduced perceived pleasantness during social interactions. We therefore examined the perception of interpersonal, 'affective touch' and its social modulation in AN. We measured the perceived pleasantness of light, dynamic stroking touches applied to the forearm of 25 AN patients and 30 healthy controls using C Tactile (CT) afferents-optimal (3cm/s) and non-optimal (18cm/s) velocities, while simultaneously displaying images of faces showing rejecting, neutral and accepting expressions. CT-optimal touch, but not CT non-optimal touch, elicited significantly lower pleasantness ratings in AN patients compared with healthy controls. Pleasantness ratings were modulated by facial expressions in both groups in a similar fashion; namely, presenting socially accepting faces increased the perception of touch pleasantness more than neutral and rejecting faces. Our findings suggest that individuals with AN have a disordered, CT-based affective touch system. This impairment may be linked to their weakened interoceptive perception and distorted body representation. PMID:27137964

  7. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Frank D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior. PMID:25908885

  8. [New artificial blood: sensation without any sensation (comments to the article in the journal New Scientist of 13 March, 2004)].

    PubMed

    Ivanitskiĭ, G R; Maevskiĭ, E I

    2004-01-01

    In the article of Sylvia P. Westphal "New artificial blood shows promise" the sensational, at first sight, contention is adduced that numerous researchers engaged in the development of artificial blood substituents have many years followed the false pathway and did not understand the mechanisms of action of gas-transporting blood substituents, and now this understanding is available. In the paper being commented, the author gives three criteria that gas-transporting blood substituents must meet. The statement that the developers of gas-transporting blood substituents were unaware of these criteria is, in our opinion, questionable. We have known and have taken them into account development of the Russian gas-transporting blood substituent perftoran.

  9. Brief Report: Autistic Children's Attentiveness and Responsivity Improve after Touch Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Lasko, David; Mundy, Peter; Henteleff, Tanja; Kabat, Susan; Talpins, Susan; Dowling, Monica

    1997-01-01

    A study of 22 preschool children with autism investigated touch therapy effects on problems commonly associated with autism including inattentiveness, touch aversion, and withdrawal. Orienting to irrelevant sounds and stereotypic behaviors decreased in both the touch therapy and the touch control group; however, orienting decreased more in the…

  10. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Incidence of Altered Sensation of Mandibular Implant Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Wu, Shih-Yun; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Altered sensation (including paresthesia, dysesthesia and hypoesthesia) after mandibular implant surgery may indicate transient or permanent injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental branch, and considerably lower patients' satisfaction about the therapy. Previous studies have shown a great degree of variability on the incidence of altered sensation. We here reported the incidence of altered sensation after mandibular implant surgery based on a meta-analysis of 26 articles published between 1990.1.1 and 2016.1.1. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed and the studies with a lower score were excluded in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis was performed using the logistic-normal random-effect model. The meta-analyses revealed that the short-term (10 days after implant placement) and long-term (1 year after implant placement) incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6%-25%) and 3% (95% CI, 1%-7%), respectively. (2) For the patients who initially reported altered sensation, 80% (95% CI, 52%-94%) of them would return to normal sensation within 6 months after surgery, and 91% (95% CI, 78%-96%) of them would return to normal sensation one year after surgery. We concluded that dentist-patient communication about the risk of altered sensation is critical to treatment planning, since the short-term incidence of altered sensation is substantial (13%). When a patient reports altered sensation, regular assessment for 6 months would help tracing the changes of symptoms. In terms of long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery), the incidence is much lower (3%) and most patients (91%) would return to normal sensation. PMID:27100832

  11. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Incidence of Altered Sensation of Mandibular Implant Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Wu, Shih-Yun; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Altered sensation (including paresthesia, dysesthesia and hypoesthesia) after mandibular implant surgery may indicate transient or permanent injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental branch, and considerably lower patients’ satisfaction about the therapy. Previous studies have shown a great degree of variability on the incidence of altered sensation. We here reported the incidence of altered sensation after mandibular implant surgery based on a meta-analysis of 26 articles published between 1990.1.1 and 2016.1.1. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed and the studies with a lower score were excluded in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis was performed using the logistic-normal random-effect model. The meta-analyses revealed that the short-term (10 days after implant placement) and long-term (1 year after implant placement) incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6%-25%) and 3% (95% CI, 1%-7%), respectively. (2) For the patients who initially reported altered sensation, 80% (95% CI, 52%-94%) of them would return to normal sensation within 6 months after surgery, and 91% (95% CI, 78%-96%) of them would return to normal sensation one year after surgery. We concluded that dentist-patient communication about the risk of altered sensation is critical to treatment planning, since the short-term incidence of altered sensation is substantial (13%). When a patient reports altered sensation, regular assessment for 6 months would help tracing the changes of symptoms. In terms of long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery), the incidence is much lower (3%) and most patients (91%) would return to normal sensation. PMID:27100832

  12. The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing physical fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that fatigue sensation impairs the ability and efficiency to perform activities and can be a cause of fatigue itself. As such, it is important to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation. The re-experiencing of mental fatigue sensation involves brain regions including Brodmann's area (BA) 40, BA 39, and the pulvinar nucleus. In the present study, we examined neural activity caused by re-experiencing a physical fatigue sensation that had been experienced. Fifteen healthy male volunteers participated in fatigue and control experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, participants performed a handgrip task for 10 min to induce a physical fatigue sensation and then re-experienced the physical fatigue sensation during magnetoencephalography (MEG) session. In the control experiment, they did not perform the handgrip task but re-experienced the sensation without physical fatigue in an MEG session. Neural activity related to re-experiencing physical fatigue sensations of the right hand (right condition), left hand (left condition), and related to listening to the auditory cues (sound condition) was assessed using spatial filtering analyses of the MEG data. Changes in oscillatory band power in some brain regions, including BA 40, were common between the right and left conditions. A part of the neural activity related to the re-experiencing physical fatigue sensation, such as the decrease in alpha (8-13 Hz) band power in the BA 40, was also observed in the sound condition. These findings may help to understand the neural mechanisms related to intentionally and unintentionally re-experiencing physical fatigue sensation. PMID:27093868

  13. Tapered whiskers are required for active tactile sensation

    PubMed Central

    Hires, Samuel Andrew; Pammer, Lorenz; Svoboda, Karel; Golomb, David

    2013-01-01

    Many mammals forage and burrow in dark constrained spaces. Touch through facial whiskers is important during these activities, but the close quarters makes whisker deployment challenging. The diverse shapes of facial whiskers reflect distinct ecological niches. Rodent whiskers are conical, often with a remarkably linear taper. Here we use theoretical and experimental methods to analyze interactions of mouse whiskers with objects. When pushed into objects, conical whiskers suddenly slip at a critical angle. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers do not slip for biologically plausible movements. Conical whiskers sweep across objects and textures in characteristic sequences of brief sticks and slips, which provide information about the tactile world. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers stick and remain stuck, even when sweeping across fine textures. Thus the conical whisker structure is adaptive for sensor mobility in constrained environments and in feature extraction during active haptic exploration of objects and surfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01350.001 PMID:24252879

  14. Predictors of Harsh Parenting Practices in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, David; Axberg, Ulf; Broberg, Malin

    2014-01-01

    International research indicates that children with disabilities are more exposed to negative parenting than their non-disabled peers. The mechanisms behind this increased risk are likely operating at the levels of the individual child, the family and the broader social context. The present study investigated harsh parenting practices using…

  15. Beyond Cumulative Risk: Distinguishing Harshness and Unpredictability as Determinants of Parenting and Early Life History Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on life history theory, Ellis and associates' (2009) recent across- and within-species analysis of ecological effects on reproductive development highlighted two fundamental dimensions of environmental variation and influence: harshness and unpredictability. To evaluate the unique contributions of these factors, the authors of present…

  16. An Examination of the Impact of Harsh Parenting Contexts on Children's Adaptation within an Evolutionary Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hentges, Rochelle F.

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests whether propositions set forth in an evolutionary model of temperament (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005) may enhance our understanding of children's differential susceptibility to unsupportive and harsh caregiving practices. Guided by this model, we examined whether children's behavioral strategies for coping…

  17. Vandals: Think Tank Says Catch Them But Don't Punish Them Too Harshly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Carolyn

    1978-01-01

    A report of the British government's Central Policy Review Staff finds no reliable evidence that harsh punishment deters the vandal. It recommends that local authorities make buildings more vandal-proof and adults be encouraged to help deter and catch young offenders. (Author/SJL)

  18. The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, Leia V; Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2011-03-01

    Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared with those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and (1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, (2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and (3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical.

  19. Do Early Difficult Temperament and Harsh Parenting Differentially Predict Reactive and Proactive Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward Dylan; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the links between difficult temperament (i.e., negative emotionality) and harsh parental discipline during toddlerhood, and reactive and proactive aggression in kindergarten. These links were assessed on a longitudinal population-based study of 1516 boys and girls followed longitudinally from the age of 17…

  20. Patterns of lake occupancy by fish indicate different adaptations to life in a harsh Arctic environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on these patterns, we propose an overall model of primary controls on the distribution of fish on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Harsh conditions, including lake freezing, limit occupancy in winter through extinction events while lake occupancy in spring and summer is driven by directional migration (large-bodied species) and undirected dispersal (small-bodied species).

  1. Interparental Hostility and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Spillover via Maternal Acceptance, Harshness, Inconsistency, and Intrusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2008-01-01

    To explore the link between interparental hostility and adolescent problem behaviors, the current study examines four important maternal parenting dimensions as potential mediators: acceptance, harshness, inconsistency, and psychological intrusiveness. With a primary sample of 1,893 sixth-grade students, the measures included adolescent and…

  2. Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

  3. Plant communities in harsh sites are less invaded: a summary of observations and proposed explanations

    PubMed Central

    Zefferman, Emily; Stevens, Jens T.; Charles, Grace K.; Dunbar-Irwin, Mila; Emam, Taraneh; Fick, Stephen; Morales, Laura V.; Wolf, Kristina M.; Young, Derek J. N.; Young, Truman P.

    2015-01-01

    Plant communities in abiotically stressful, or ‘harsh’, habitats have been reported to be less invaded by non-native species than those in more moderate habitats. Here, we synthesize descriptive and experimental evidence for low levels of invasion in habitats characterized by a variety of environmental stressors: low nitrogen; low phosphorus; saline, sodic or alkaline soils; serpentine soils; low soil moisture; shallow/rocky soils; temporary inundation; high shade; high elevation; and high latitude. We then discuss major categories of hypotheses to explain this pattern: the propagule limitation mechanism suggests invasion of harsh sites is limited by relatively low arrival rates of propagules compared with more moderate habitats, while invasion resistance mechanisms suggest that harsh habitats are inherently less invasible due to stressful abiotic conditions and/or increased effects of biotic resistance from resident organisms. Both propagule limitation and invasion resistance may simultaneously contribute to low invadedness of harsh sites, but the management implications of these mechanisms differ. If propagule limitation is more important, managers should focus on reducing the likelihood of propagule introductions. If invasion resistance mechanisms are in play, managers should focus on restoring or maintaining harsh conditions at a site to reduce invasibility. PMID:26002746

  4. Does adolescents' religiousness moderate links between harsh parenting and adolescent substance use?

    PubMed

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher J; Longo, Gregory S

    2014-12-01

    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents' psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (n = 220, 45% female) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that adolescents with low religiousness were likely to engage in substance use when subjected to harsh parenting, but there was no association between harsh parenting and substance use among adolescents with high religiousness. Furthermore, although harsh parenting was related to poor adolescent self-control regardless of religiousness levels, poor self-control was significantly related to substance use for adolescents with low religiousness, whereas the link between poor self-control and substance use did not exist for adolescents with high religiousness. The findings present the first evidence that adolescent religiousness may be a powerful buffering factor that can positively alter pathways to substance use in the presence of risk factors such as harsh parenting and poor self-control.

  5. Does Adolescents’ Religiousness Moderate Links between Harsh Parenting and Adolescent Substance Use?

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P.; Holmes, Christopher J.; Longo, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents’ psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (N = 220, 45% female) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that adolescents with low religiousness were likely to engage in substance use when subjected to harsh parenting, but there was no association between harsh parenting and substance use among adolescents with high religiousness. Furthermore, although harsh parenting was related to poor adolescent self-control regardless of religiousness levels, poor self-control was significantly related to substance use for adolescents with low religiousness, whereas the link between poor self-control and substance use did not exist for adolescents with high religiousness. The findings present the first evidence that adolescent religiousness may be a powerful buffering factor that can positively alter pathways to substance use in the presence of risk factors such as harsh parenting and poor self-control. PMID:24979658

  6. Harsh Corporal Punishment versus Quality of Parental Involvement as an Explanation of Adolescent Maladjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation utilizing data from panel study of 332 midwestern families to examine impact of harsh corporal punishment and quality of parental involvement on adolescent outcomes of aggressiveness, delinquency, and psychological well-being. Suggests that corporal punishment was not related to adolescent outcomes when effect of parental…

  7. Three-dimensional touch interface for medical education.

    PubMed

    Panchaphongsaphak, Bundit; Burgkart, Rainer; Riener, Robert

    2007-05-01

    We present the technical principle and evaluation of a multimodal virtual reality (VR) system for medical education, called a touch simulator. This touch simulator comes with an innovative three-dimensional (3-D) touch sensitive input device. The device comprises a six-axis force-torque sensor connected to a tangible object representing the shape of an anatomical structure. Information related to the point of contact is recorded by the sensor, processed, and audiovisually displayed. The touch simulator provides a high level of user-friendliness and fidelity compared to other purely graphically oriented simulation environments. In this paper, the touch simulator has been realized as an interactive neuroanatomical training simulator. The user can visualize and manipulate graphical information of the brain surface or different cross-sectional slices by a finger-touch on a brain-like shaped tangible object. We evaluated the system by theoretical derivations, experiments, and subjective questionnaires. In the theoretical analysis, we could show that the contact point estimation error mainly depends on the accuracy and the noise of the sensor, the amount and direction of the applied force, and the geometry of the tangible object. The theoretical results could be validated by experiments: applying a normal force of 10 N on a 120 mm x 120 mm x 120 mm cube causes a maximum error of 2.5 +/- 0.7 mm. This error becomes smaller when increasing the contact force. Based on the survey results, the touch simulator may be a useful tool for assisting medical schools in the visualization of brain image data and the study of neuroanatomy.

  8. MAOA, Early Experiences of Harsh Parenting, Irritable Opposition, and Bullying-Victimization: A Moderated Indirect-Effects Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Yvonne M.; Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Harsh parenting and child characteristics such as opposition and aggression have been found to relate to bullying, victimization, and bullying-victimization, yet not all children display equal vulnerability to harsh parenting. The monoamine oxidase A gene ("MAOA"; "low-activity" variant) may be a key vulnerability allele as it…

  9. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  10. Placebo-Induced Somatic Sensations: A Multi-Modal Study of Three Different Placebo Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Beissner, Florian; Brünner, Franziska; Fink, Maria; Meissner, Karin; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Napadow, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Somatic sensations induced by placebos are a frequent phenomenon whose etiology and clinical relevance remains unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the quantitative, qualitative, spatial, and temporal characteristics of placebo-induced somatic sensations in response to three different placebo interventions: (1) placebo irritant solution, (2) placebo laser stimulation, and (3) imagined laser stimulation. The quality and intensity of evoked sensations were assessed using the McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS), while subjects’ sensation drawings processed by a geographic information system (GIS) were used to measure their spatial characteristics. We found that all three interventions are capable of producing robust sensations most frequently described as “tingling” and “warm” that can reach consider-able spatial extent (≤ 205mm²) and intensity (≤ 80/100 VAS). Sensations from placebo stimulation were often referred to areas remote from the stimulation site and exhibit considerable similarity with referred pain. Interestingly, there was considerable similarity of qualitative features as well as spatial patterns across subjects and placebos. However, placebo laser stimulation elicited significantly stronger and more widespread sensations than placebo irritant solution. Finally, novelty seeking, a character trait assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and associated with basal dopaminergic activity, was less pronounced in subjects susceptible to report placebo-induced sensations. Our study has shown that placebo-induced sensations are frequent and can reach considerable intensity and extent. As multiple somatosensory subsystems are involved despite the lack of peripheral stimulus, we propose a central etiology for this phenomenon. PMID:25901350

  11. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child’s use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children’s employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes. PMID:26083848

  12. Therapeutic touch: influence on vital signs of newborns

    PubMed Central

    Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective>: To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. Results: The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that therapeutic touch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate. PMID:24488378

  13. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  14. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  15. Principles of applied neurogastroenterology: physiology/motility-sensation

    PubMed Central

    Kellow, J; Delvaux, M; Azpiroz, F; Camilleri, M; Quigley, E; Thompson, D

    1999-01-01

    Many of the symptoms characteristic of the functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are consistent with dysfunction of the motor and/or sensory apparatus of the digestive tract. Those aspects of sensorimotor dysfunction most relevant to the FGID include alterations in: gut contractile activity; myoelectrical activity; tone and compliance; and transit, as well as an enhanced sensitivity to distension, in each region of the gastrointestinal tract. Assessment of these phenomena involves a number of techniques, some well established and others requiring further validation. Using such techniques, researchers have reported a wide range of alterations in sensory and in motor function in the FGID. Importantly, however, relationships between such dysfunction and symptoms have been relatively weak, and so the clinical relevance of the former remains unclear. Moreover, the proportions of patients in the various symptom subgroups who display dysfunction, and the extent and severity of their symptoms, require better characterization. On a positive note, progress is occurring on several fronts, especially in relation to functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, and based on the data gathered to date, a number of areas where further advances are required can be highlighted.


Keywords: motility; sensation; gastrointestinal tract; functional gut disorders; functional dyspepsia; irritable bowel syndrome; visceral hyperalgesia; Rome II PMID:10457040

  16. The Desired Sensation Level Multistage Input/Output Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Scollie, Susan; Seewald, Richard; Cornelisse, Leonard; Moodie, Sheila; Bagatto, Marlene; Laurnagaray, Diana; Beaulac, Steve; Pumford, John

    2005-01-01

    The Desired Sensation Level (DSL) Method was revised to support hearing instrument fitting for infants, young children, and adults who use modern hearing instrument technologies, including multichannel compression, expansion, and multimemory capability. The aims of this revision are to maintain aspects of the previous versions of the DSL Method that have been supported by research, while extending the method to account for adult-child differences in preference and listening requirements. The goals of this version (5.0) include avoiding loudness discomfort, selecting a frequency response that meets audibility requirements, choosing compression characteristics that appropriately match technology to the user's needs, and accommodating the overall prescription to meet individual needs for use in various listening environments. This review summarizes the status of research on the use of the DSL Method with pediatric and adult populations and presents a series of revisions that have been made during the generation of DSL v5.0. This article concludes with case examples that illustrate key differences between the DSL v4.1 and DSL v5.0 prescriptions. PMID:16424945

  17. Jozef Zwislocki's contribution to the understanding of cutaneous sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolanowski, Stanley J.

    2003-04-01

    Whereas Professor Zwislocki is well known for his theoretical and experimental activities that discovered many principles about the auditory system as outlined in this special session, his influence on research efforts and contributions to the knowledge base of the cutaneous sensory system has not been as widely appreciated. Philosophically, he believes that all of the sensory systems have common, as well as different capabilities, and it is this philosophy which led him to explore many of the underlying factors behind somatosensation. This presentation will outline his scientific and philosophical input to the understanding of somatosensation from the level of receptor function to higher cognitive aspects. For example, he has influenced various views regarding tactile psychophysical thresholds and the relationships between sensation magnitude and the Differenz Limen. His theories on temporal summation and thoughts regarding independent tactile channels of communication originating in the periphery and passing on to the central nervous system will also be discussed. Physiologically he was a prominent player in determining transduction mechanisms of one of the prototypical mechanoreceptors found within the skin, the Pacinian corpuscle. Indeed, how somatosensation comes about has progressed greatly from his oftentimes unrealized influence.

  18. The Basis of Food Texture Sensation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali V; Aikin, Timothy J; Li, Zhengzheng; Montell, Craig

    2016-08-17

    Food texture has enormous effects on food preferences. However, the mechanosensory cells and key molecules responsible for sensing the physical properties of food are unknown. Here, we show that akin to mammals, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, prefers food with a specific hardness or viscosity. This food texture discrimination depends upon a previously unknown multidendritic (md-L) neuron, which extends elaborate dendritic arbors innervating the bases of taste hairs. The md-L neurons exhibit directional selectivity in response to mechanical stimuli. Moreover, these neurons orchestrate different feeding behaviors depending on the magnitude of the stimulus. We demonstrate that the single Drosophila transmembrane channel-like (TMC) protein is expressed in md-L neurons, where it is required for sensing two key textural features of food-hardness and viscosity. We propose that md-L neurons are long sought after mechanoreceptor cells through which food mechanics are perceived and encoded by a taste organ, and that this sensation depends on TMC. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27478019

  19. The Basis of Food Texture Sensation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali V; Aikin, Timothy J; Li, Zhengzheng; Montell, Craig

    2016-08-17

    Food texture has enormous effects on food preferences. However, the mechanosensory cells and key molecules responsible for sensing the physical properties of food are unknown. Here, we show that akin to mammals, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, prefers food with a specific hardness or viscosity. This food texture discrimination depends upon a previously unknown multidendritic (md-L) neuron, which extends elaborate dendritic arbors innervating the bases of taste hairs. The md-L neurons exhibit directional selectivity in response to mechanical stimuli. Moreover, these neurons orchestrate different feeding behaviors depending on the magnitude of the stimulus. We demonstrate that the single Drosophila transmembrane channel-like (TMC) protein is expressed in md-L neurons, where it is required for sensing two key textural features of food-hardness and viscosity. We propose that md-L neurons are long sought after mechanoreceptor cells through which food mechanics are perceived and encoded by a taste organ, and that this sensation depends on TMC. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  20. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance.

  1. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  2. Partial perceptual equivalence between vision and touch for texture information.

    PubMed

    Picard, Delphine

    2006-03-01

    The present study examined the extent to which vision and touch are perceptually equivalent for texture information in adults. Using Garbin's method, we selected two sets of textures having high versus low cross-modal dissimilarity values between vision and touch (Experiment 1). The two sets of textures were then used as material in a cross-modal matching task (Experiment 2). Results showed that asymmetries occurred in the performances when the stimuli had high cross-modal dissimilarity values, but not when the stimuli had low cross-modal dissimilarity values. These results extend Garbin's findings on shape information to the texture domain and support the idea that partial perceptual equivalence exists between vision and touch. PMID:16359632

  3. Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudette, Claude

    2008-04-01

    As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

  4. The effect of friendly touch on delay-of-gratification in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Julia A; Berkowitz, Talia; Shusterman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Physical touch has many documented benefits, but past research has paid little attention to the effects of touch on children's development. Here, we tested the effect of touch on children's compliance behaviour in a modified delay-of-gratification task. Forty children (M = 59 months) were randomly assigned to a touch or no touch group. Children in the intervention condition received a friendly touch on the back while being told that they should wait for permission to eat a candy. Results showed that children in the touch condition waited an average of two minutes longer to eat the candy than children in the no touch condition. This finding has implications for the potential of using touch to promote positive behaviours in children.

  5. An Algorithm of Calculating the Position in a Self-Capacitance Touch Screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huan; Peng, Haiyan; Qian, Xiaoli; Ren, Can; Wang, Wentao; Li, Jianjun

    Touch screens have been widely used in many kinds of electronic products. For many capacitive touch sensing devices, they always suffer from a variety of electronic signal noises. So when a finger touches the screen, it is difficult to calculate the exact touch position on the screen. We proposed an algorithm of calculating the position in a self-capacitance touch screen to alleviate noise interference. We determined the touch region by calculating the differences between current data and reference data in every channel. In the touch region we divided it into different ranges to calculate the touch point. The simulation results show that the algorithm that we proposed can alleviate noise interference effectively and obtain the exact positioning on touch screen accurately.

  6. Cocaine Exposure and Children's Self-Regulation: Indirect Association via Maternal Harshness

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Veira, Yvette; Cox, Elizabeth; Jarrett, Thomas M.; Johns, Josephine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and children’s self-regulation at 3 years of child age. In addition to direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on children’s self-regulation, we hypothesized there would be indirect associations between cocaine exposure and self-regulation via higher maternal harshness and poor autonomic regulation in infancy. Methods: The sample consisted of 216 mother–infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 non-exposed). Infant autonomic regulation was measured at 7 months of age during an anger/frustration task, maternal harshness was coded from observations of mother–toddler interactions at 2 years of age, and children’s self-regulation was measured at 3 years of age using several laboratory paradigms. Results: Contrary to hypotheses, there were no direct associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and children’s self-regulation. However, results from testing our conceptual model including the indirect effects via maternal harshness or infant parasympathetic regulation indicated that this model fit the data well, χ2 (23) = 34.36, p > 0.05, Comparative Fit Index = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.05. Cocaine using mothers displayed higher intensity of harshness toward their toddlers during lab interactions across a variety of tasks at 2 years of age (β = 0.23, p < 0.05), and higher intensity of harshness at 2 years was predictive of lower self-regulation at 3 years (β = −0.36, p < 0.01). Maternal cocaine use was also predictive of a non-adaptive increase in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) from baseline to the negative affect task, but RSA change in infancy was not predictive of self-regulation at 3 years. Conclusion: Results are supportive of animal models indicating higher aggression among cocaine treated dams, and indicate that higher maternal harshness among cocaine using mothers

  7. Body ownership and experiential ownership in the self-touching illusion

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Caleb; Chang, Si-Yan; Chen, Wen-Yeo; Huang, Hsu-Chia; Lee, Yen-Tung

    2015-01-01

    We investigate two issues about the subjective experience of one's body: first, is the experience of owning a full-body fundamentally different from the experience of owning a body-part?Second, when I experience a bodily sensation, does it guarantee that I cannot be wrong about whether it is me who feels it? To address these issues, we conducted a series of experiments that combined the rubber hand illusion (RHI) and the “body swap illusion.” The subject wore a head mounted display (HMD) connected with a stereo camera set on the experimenter's head. Sitting face to face, they used their right hand holding a paintbrush to brush each other's left hand. Through the HMD, the subject adopted the experimenter's first-person perspective (1PP) as if it was his/her own 1PP: the subject watched either the experimenter's hand from the adopted 1PP, and/or the subject's own hand from the adopted third-person perspective (3PP) in the opposite direction (180°), or the subject's full body from the adopted 3PP (180°, with or without face). The synchronous full-body conditions generate a “self-touching illusion”: many participants felt that “I was brushing my own hand!” We found that (1) the sense of body-part ownership and the sense of full-body ownership are not fundamentally different from each other; and (2) our data present a strong case against the mainstream philosophical view called the immunity principle (IEM). We argue that it is possible for misrepresentation to occur in the subject's sense of “experiential ownership” (the sense that I am the one who is having this bodily experience). We discuss these findings and conclude that not only the sense of body ownership but also the sense of experiential ownership call for further interdisciplinary studies. PMID:25774138

  8. High-tech, high-touch recruitment: an oxymoron?

    PubMed

    Hart, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    A combination of factors has diluted the recruitment experience and created a confluence of elements similar to a perfect storm. Recruitment has morphed from a high-touch experience to a high-tech process. Though we can't go back to those halcyon pre-Internet days, we do need to find a better approach than our current technology-based, fragmented recruitment process. The ideal recruitment scenario would be a marriage of high tech and high touch. We must drive the technology, not let the technology dictate our process.

  9. Causal mechanisms of mirror-touch synesthesia: Clues from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy offer a critical discussion of Mirror-Touch Synesthesia (MTS), with reference to Threshold and Self-Other theories. The authors argue that developmental MTS is linked to differences in the functioning of a mirror system for touch (and pain), which are driven by neurocognitive alterations that lie outside of the somatosensory system and concern bodily awareness and/or the control of self-other representations. This commentary briefly presents some neuropsychological evidence in line with Ward and Banissy's argument, questioning the potential similarities between MTS and some post-stroke disorders of body representation.

  10. How mirror-touch informs theories of synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Lunke, Katrin; Rothen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy provide an excellent overview of the state of mirror-touch research in order to advance this field. They present a comparison of two prominent theoretical approaches for understanding mirror-touch phenomena. According to the threshold theory, the phenomena arise as a result of a hyperactive mirror neuron system. According to the Self-Other Theory, they are due to disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. Here, we explore how these two theories can inform theories of synesthesia more generally. We conclude that both theories are not suited as general models of synesthesia.

  11. Causal mechanisms of mirror-touch synesthesia: Clues from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy offer a critical discussion of Mirror-Touch Synesthesia (MTS), with reference to Threshold and Self-Other theories. The authors argue that developmental MTS is linked to differences in the functioning of a mirror system for touch (and pain), which are driven by neurocognitive alterations that lie outside of the somatosensory system and concern bodily awareness and/or the control of self-other representations. This commentary briefly presents some neuropsychological evidence in line with Ward and Banissy's argument, questioning the potential similarities between MTS and some post-stroke disorders of body representation. PMID:26218326

  12. How mirror-touch informs theories of synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Lunke, Katrin; Rothen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy provide an excellent overview of the state of mirror-touch research in order to advance this field. They present a comparison of two prominent theoretical approaches for understanding mirror-touch phenomena. According to the threshold theory, the phenomena arise as a result of a hyperactive mirror neuron system. According to the Self-Other Theory, they are due to disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. Here, we explore how these two theories can inform theories of synesthesia more generally. We conclude that both theories are not suited as general models of synesthesia. PMID:26118388

  13. A Pilot Study of the Effect of Daikenchuto on Rectal Sensation in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael; Linker-Nord, Sara; Busciglio, Irene; Iturrino, Johanna; Szarka, Lawrence A; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Daikenchuto (TU 100), a botanical agent that modulates gastrointestinal nerves, is used in the treatment of motility and functional disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of TU-100 on rectal compliance and sensation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods In 20 patients per treatment arm, we conducted a single-center, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose pharmacodynamics study evaluating the effects of TU-100, 15 g (5 g t.i.d. [means 3 times a day]), for 14–16 consecutive days on rectal compliance and rectal sensation (thresholds and sensation ratings), all measured at baseline and on the last day of medication treatment. The primary endpoint was rectal sensation thresholds and sensation ratings in response to balloon distension at 32 mmHg. Secondary endpoints were rectal compliance, sensation thresholds, ratings and tone (fasting and postprandial), bowel pattern, abdominal pain (average and worst severity) and bloating scores, IBS quality of life and safety profile. Results Rectal sensation ratings post-treatment were significantly associated with baseline (pre-treatment) ratings and with level of anxiety or stress recorded at the time of the sensation testing. There were no effects of TU-100 treatment on rectal sensation ratings, sensation thresholds, rectal fasting or postprandial tone, rectal compliance, bowel function, abdominal pain or bloating scores, or IBS quality of life. Conclusions TU-100 did not significantly affect rectal compliance and sensation in patients with IBS in this study. PMID:26486374

  14. Sensation-Seeking and Impulsivity as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Molero Jurado, Maria del Mar; Carrión Martínez, José J.; Mercader Rubio, Isabel; Gázquez, José J.

    2016-01-01

    In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive) and types of expression (physical/relational). A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain) aged 13–18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition) and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism). This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct. PMID:27729883

  15. A Multicenter Trial of the Proficiency of Smart Quantitative Sensation Tests

    PubMed Central

    Dyck, Peter J.; Argyros, Barbara; Russell, James W.; Gahnstrom, Linde E.; Nalepa, Susan; Albers, James W.; Lodermeier, Karen A.; Zafft, Andrew J.; Dyck, P. James B.; Klein, Christopher J.; Litchy, William J.; Davies, Jenny L.; Carter, Rickey E.; Melton, L. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We assessed proficiency (accuracy and intra- and inter-test reproducibility) of smart quantitative sensation tests (smart QSTs) in subjects without and with diabetic polyneuropathy (DSPN). Methods Technologists from 3 medical centers using different but identical QSTs assessed independently 6 modalities of sensation of foot (or leg) twice in patients without (n = 6) and with (n = 6) DSPN using smart computer assisted QSTs. Results Low rates of test abnormalities were observed in health and high rates in DSPN. Very high intra-class correlations were obtained between continuous measures of QSTs and neuropathy signs, symptoms, or nerve conductions (NCs). No significant intra- or inter-test differences were observed. Discussion These results provide proof of concept that smart QSTs provide accurate assessment of sensation loss without intra- or inter-test differences useful for multicenter trials. Smart technology makes possible efficient testing of body surface area sensation loss in symmetric length-dependent sensorimotor polyneuropathies. PMID:23929701

  16. [Effect of blood redistribution on illusional sensations of spatial position in weightlessness].

    PubMed

    Solodovnik, F A; Chapaev, A V; Prusskiĭ, A A; Simakov, A A

    1983-01-01

    The study was performed onboard a specially equipped aircraft which allowed zero-g and high-g studies. Blood redistribution was produced using a tilt table (-30 degrees) and a LBNP device. Illusionary sensations were measured by a Birtok unit and subjective reports of the test subjects. In the head-down position the feeling of blood rush to the head disappeared as soon as the weightless state was reached. In most cases illusionary sensations were similar to those in the horizontal position. When exposed to LBNP tests, the subjects developed no illusionary sensations during horizontal flight and felt their upper body going upwards and legs going downwards in the weightless state. Thus, illusionary sensations of the spatial position depend at large on blood redistribution in the human body.

  17. [Sensation seeking, traumatic stress and coping: an empirical investigation in rescue forces].

    PubMed

    Tschiesner, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    This investigation deals with sensation seeking in rescue forces. We are interested in the scores regarding this variable and relationship between these and other relevant variables. Aim of this research is to find connections between sensation seeking and traumatic stress and what is the role of coping in this connections. All in all we are going to exam Sensation Seeking as a protective factor for traumatic stress.The subjects in this investigation are firefighters and emergency-medical-technicians. We use the German Sensation-Seeking-Scale version 5 (SSS-V) and the Arnett-Inventory-of-Sensation-Seeking (AISS-D) to assess sensation seeking. To explore the traumatic stress symptoms in subjects, we use the Posttraumatic-Stress-Diagnostic-Scale (PDS) and for the coping strategies the short version of Janke and Erdmanns Coping- Questionnaire (SVF-78).We found differences between the rescue forces and the control group in reference to subscales "thrill and adventure seeking" (TAS) and "experience seeking" (ES) as well as no connections between the sensation seeking scales and subscales and traumatic stress symptoms. We found only a significance by trend correlation concerning experience seeking and avoidance. Furthermore we found correlations between AISS-scales as well as the SSS-V-subscales and coping strategies. Partial correlation showed very low coefficients regarding Experience Seeking and Avoidance if we insert coping strategies as a control variable.When we look at the reliability of the questionnaires to assess sensation seeking, we find out that values are very low. Therefore we have to keep in mind that the assessment of Sensation Seeking is defective through an error in measurement and to interpret results carefully. Nonetheless we found that rescue forces search more actively thrills and adventures and the control group more sensual and spiritual stimuli in our sample. We can't prove that sensation seeking is a personality trait which is able to protect

  18. Sensation of smell does not determine nutritional status in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Aitken, M L; Martinez, S; McDonald, G J; Seifert, C C; Burke, W

    1997-07-01

    Poor nutritional status in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with increased mortality. Patients with CF often have a decreased sensation of smell secondary to recurrent sinus infections or sinus surgery; in other CF populations, a decreased sensation of smell has been associated with poor nutritional status. We hypothesized that a decreased sensation of smell would be associated with worse nutritional status in patients with CF. We studied 50 (26 F and 24 M) of 58 consecutive patients with CF (86%) aged 14-53 years (28 +/- 8; mean +/- SD) who attended the University of Washington Medical Center from June 1994 to March 1995 and who agreed to participate. Demographic information was obtained, and nutritional status was assessed by ideal body weight, arm muscle area, arm fat area, pancreatic sufficiency, insulin-requiring diabetes, vitamins A and E levels, albumin, iron, iron binding capacity, ferritin, cholesterol, and zinc levels. Objective sensation of small was examined (Sensonics, Philadelphia, PA), a sinus compacted tomogram (CT) was performed, and a questionnaire for prior sinus symptoms, sinus surgery, medications, and subjective sensation of smell was administered. Twenty-seven of 49 subjects (55%) had an objective decrease in sensation of smell, 23/50 (46%) had had prior sinus surgery. 46/50 (92%) were pancreatic insufficient, and 8/50 (16%) were insulin-requiring diabetics. Weight for height ranged from the 38th to 157th percentile (100 +/- 18; mean +/- SD). Arm muscle area ranged from the < 5th to the 75th percentile (25 +/- 23; mean +/- SD). Arm fat area ranged from the < 5th to the 95th percentile (45 +/- 39; mean +/- SD). Sinus CT scans were abnormal in all patients (100%). Patients with anosmia were more likely to have had sinus surgery, but their nutritional status was no different from that of patients with a normal sensation of smell. We conclude that decreased sensation of smell is common in patients with CF, especially those with

  19. Asimadoline, a κ-Opioid Agonist, and Visceral Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Asimadoline is a potent κ-opioid receptor agonist with a diaryl acetamide structure. It has high affinity for the κ receptor, with IC50 of 5.6 nM (guinea pig) and 1.2 nM (human recombinant), and high selectively with κ: μ: δ binding ratios of 1:501:498 in human recombinant receptors. It acts as a complete agonist in in vitro assay. Asimadoline reduced sensation in response to colonic distension at subnoxious pressures in healthy volunteers and in IBS patients without alteration of colonic compliance. Asimadoline reduced satiation and enhanced the postprandial gastric volume (in female volunteers). However, there were no significant effects on gastrointestinal transit, colonic compliance, fasting or postprandial colonic tone. In a clinical trial in 40 patients with functional dyspepsia (Rome II), asimadoline did not significantly alter satiation or symptoms over 8 weeks. However, asimadoline, 0.5 mg, significantly decreased satiation in patients with higher postprandial fullness scores, and daily postprandial fullness severity (over 8 weeks); the asimadoline 1.0 mg group was borderline significant. In a clinical trial in patients with IBS, average pain 2 hours post-on-demand treatment with asimadoline was not significantly reduced. Post-hoc analyses suggest asimadoline was effective in mixed IBS. In a 12-week study in 596 patients, chronic treatment with asimadoline, 0.5 mg and 1.0 mg, was associated with adequate relief of pain and discomfort, improvement in pain score and number of pain free days in patients with IBS-D. The 1.0 mg dose was also efficacious in IBS-alternating. There were also weeks with significant reduction in bowel frequency and urgency. Asimadoline has been well tolerated in human trials to date. PMID:18715494

  20. Extraretinal Induced Visual Sensations during IMRT of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm-Buchstab, Timo; Buchstab, Barbara Myrthe; Leitzen, Christina; Garbe, Stephan; Müdder, Thomas; Oberste-Beulmann, Susanne; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Simon, Birgit; Nelles, Michael; Block, Wolfgang; Schoroth, Felix; Schild, Hans Heinz; Schüller, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Background We observed visual sensations (VSs) in patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the brain without the beam passing through ocular structures. We analyzed this phenomenon especially with regards to reproducibility, and origin. Methods and Findings Analyzed were ten consecutive patients (aged 41-71 years) with glioblastoma multiforme who received pulsed IMRT (total dose 60Gy) with helical tomotherapy (TT). A megavolt—CT (MVCT) was performed daily before treatment. VSs were reported and recorded using a triggered event recorder. The frequency of VSs was calculated and VSs were correlated with beam direction and couch position. Subjective patient perception was plotted on an 8x8 visual field (VF) matrix. Distance to the orbital roof (OR) from the first beam causing a VS was calculated from the Dicom radiation therapy data and MVCT data. During 175 treatment sessions (average 17.5 per patient) 5959 VSs were recorded and analyzed. VSs occurred only during the treatment session not during the MVCTs. Plotting events over time revealed patient-specific patterns. The average cranio-caudad extension of VS-inducing area was 63.4mm (range 43.24-92.1mm). The maximum distance between the first VS and the OR was 56.1mm so that direct interaction with the retina is unlikely. Data on subjective visual perception showed that VSs occurred mainly in the upper right and left quadrants of the VF. Within the visual pathways the highest probability for origin of VSs was seen in the optic chiasm and the optic tract (22%). Conclusions There is clear evidence that interaction of photon irradiation with neuronal structures distant from the eye can lead to VSs. PMID:25875609

  1. Clinical administration of microneedles: skin puncture, pain and sensation.

    PubMed

    Haq, M I; Smith, E; John, D N; Kalavala, M; Edwards, C; Anstey, A; Morrissey, A; Birchall, J C

    2009-02-01

    Injections using hypodermic needles cause pain, discomfort, localised trauma and apprehension. Additionally, careful use and disposal of needles is required to avoid transmission of blood-borne pathogens. As an alternative, microneedles can facilitate drug delivery without significantly impacting on pain receptors or blood vessels that reside beneath the skin outer layers. In this study we aim to determine the pain and sensory response to the application of wet-etch silicon microneedles, when used in such a way as to reliably penetrate skin, and provide a preliminary indication of how skin responds to microneedle injury with time. Twelve subjects received single-blinded insertions of a 25-G hypodermic needle and two microneedle arrays (36 needles of 180 and 280 mum height). The optimal method for microneedle application was determined in a pilot study. Pain intensity was scored using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and sensory perception determined using an adapted McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form. Skin penetration was determined by external staining and measurement of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL). Mean VAS scores, verbal descriptions and questionnaire responses showed that the 180 and 280 mum microneedles caused significantly less pain and discomforting sensation in participants than the hypodermic needle. Methylene blue staining and TEWL analysis confirmed that microchannels were formed in the skin following microneedle application. Evidence of microchannel repair and resealing was apparent at 8-24 h post-application. In summary, this study shows that pyramidal wet-etch microneedles can penetrate human skin with minimal pain and sensory discomfort, creating transient pathways for potential drug, vaccine and DNA delivery.

  2. Effects of Harsh and Unpredictable Environments in Adolescence on Development of Life History Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Figueredo, Aurelio José; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data were used to test predictions from life history theory. We hypothesized that (1) in young adulthood an emerging life history strategy would exist as a common factor underlying many life history traits (e.g., health, relationship stability, economic success), (2) both environmental harshness and unpredictability would account for unique variance in expression of adolescent and young adult life history strategies, and (3) adolescent life history traits would predict young adult life history strategy. These predictions were supported. The current findings suggest that the environmental parameters of harshness and unpredictability have concurrent effects on life history development in adolescence, as well as longitudinal effects into young adulthood. In addition, life history traits appear to be stable across developmental time from adolescence into young adulthood. PMID:20634914

  3. Efficacy of scallop shell powders and slaked lime for inactivating avian influenza virus under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Tsujimura, Misato; Satoh, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Tamura, Miho; Kawamura, Akinobu; Ishida, Yuki; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy and stability of scallop shell powder (SSP) were investigated, in terms of its capacity to inactivate avian influenza virus (AIV), and compared with slaked lime (SL). An environmental simulation was conducted by emulating sunlight and wet-dry conditions. The powders were collected at consecutive 2-week intervals under sunlight and upon every resuspension. These materials were tested by mixing them with AIV and incubating the mixture for 3 min or 20 h, followed by AIV titration. At the same time, a pH buffering test was conducted by neutralization with Tris-HCl. The results revealed that SSP and SL have high alkalinity and excellent ability to inactivate AIV. In a simulated harsh environment, SSP and SL retained a satisfactory ability to inactivate AIV within 20 h throughout the experimental procedure. However, SSP was able to inactivate AIV during a short contact period (3 min), even under harsh conditions, and it was more resistant than SL to neutralization.

  4. Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females. PMID:22852438

  5. Micro- and nano-electronic technologies and their qualification methodology for space applications under harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Tudryn Weber, Carissa; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Kolawa, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the micro- and nano-electronic technologies for space applications under harsh environments, i.e. for operating temperatures beyond the range of -55°C to 125°C, and with exposure to radiation, pressure, shock, etc. The paper also addresses the technology reliability, the challenges and the qualification approaches for the harsh environment applications with a case study. The case study highlights the design-for-reliability approach and space qualification methodology developed to successfully design, fabricate, qualify, and infuse a motor drive electronics assembly with micro- and nano-electronics and packaging technology into a flight mission, which requires an operational temperature range over -128°C to +85°C.

  6. Resistive Memory for Harsh Electronics: Immunity to Surface Effect and High Corrosion Resistance via Surface Modification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Teng-Han; Yang, Po-Kang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Chen-Fang; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau

    2014-01-01

    The tolerance/resistance of the electronic devices to extremely harsh environments is of supreme interest. Surface effects and chemical corrosion adversely affect stability and operation uniformity of metal oxide resistive memories. To achieve the surrounding-independent behavior, the surface modification is introduced into the ZnO memristors via incorporating fluorine to replace the oxygen sites. F-Zn bonds is formed to prevent oxygen chemisorption and ZnO dissolution upon corrosive atmospheric exposure, which effectively improves switching characteristics against harmful surroundings. In addition, the fluorine doping stabilizes the cycling endurance and narrows the distribution of switching parameters. The outcomes provide valuable insights for future nonvolatile memory developments in harsh electronics. PMID:24638086

  7. Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females.

  8. Combining motor imagery with selective sensation toward a hybrid-modality BCI.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid modality brain-computer interface (BCI) is proposed in this paper, which combines motor imagery with selective sensation to enhance the discrimination between left and right mental tasks, e.g., the classification between left/ right stimulation sensation and right/ left motor imagery. In this paradigm, wearable vibrotactile rings are used to stimulate both the skin on both wrists. Subjects are required to perform the mental tasks according to the randomly presented cues (i.e., left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, left stimulation sensation or right stimulation sensation). Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant group effect (F (2,20) = 7.17, p = 0.0045), and the Benferroni-corrected multiple comparison test (with α = 0.05) showed that the hybrid modality group is 11.13% higher on average than the motor imagery group, and 10.45% higher than the selective sensation group. The hybrid modality experiment exhibits potentially wider spread usage within ten subjects crossed 70% accuracy, followed by four subjects in motor imagery and five subjects in selective sensation. Six subjects showed statistically significant improvement ( Benferroni-corrected) in hybrid modality in comparison with both motor imagery and selective sensation. Furthermore, among subjects having difficulties in both motor imagery and selective sensation, the hybrid modality improves their performance to 90% accuracy. The proposed hybrid modality BCI has demonstrated clear benefits for those poorly performing BCI users. Not only does the requirement of motor and sensory anticipation in this hybrid modality provide basic function of BCI for communication and control, it also has the potential for enhancing the rehabilitation during motor recovery.

  9. Application of vibration to wrist and hand skin affects fingertip tactile sensation

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Webster, John G; Seo, Na Jin

    2015-01-01

    A recent study showed that fingertip pads’ tactile sensation can improve by applying imperceptible white-noise vibration to the skin at the wrist or dorsum of the hand in stroke patients. This study further examined this behavior by investigating the effect of both imperceptible and perceptible white-noise vibration applied to different locations within the distal upper extremity on the fingertip pads’ tactile sensation in healthy adults. In 12 healthy adults, white-noise vibration was applied to one of four locations (dorsum hand by the second knuckle, thenar and hypothenar areas, and volar wrist) at one of four intensities (zero, 60%, 80%, and 120% of the sensory threshold for each vibration location), while the fingertip sensation, the smallest vibratory signal that could be perceived on the thumb and index fingertip pads, was assessed. Vibration intensities significantly affected the fingertip sensation (P < 0.01) in a similar manner for all four vibration locations. Specifically, vibration at 60% of the sensory threshold improved the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01), while vibration at 120% of the sensory threshold degraded the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01) and the 80% vibration did not significantly change the fingertip sensation (P > 0.01), all compared with the zero vibration condition. This effect with vibration intensity conforms to the stochastic resonance behavior. Nonspecificity to the vibration location suggests the white-noise vibration affects higher level neuronal processing for fingertip sensing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural pathways for distal upper extremity vibration to impact fingertip pad tactile sensation. PMID:26177959

  10. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (Tes), ˜36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; Tes, ˜37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit (P < 0.05) but not in Sup, and at the forearm was lower during HT than NT in the Sup and further in Sit (both, P < 0.05), with interactive effects of temperature (NT vs. HT) × posture (Sup vs. Sit) (chest, P = 0.08; forearm, P < 0.05). The threshold for warm sensation on the skin at both sites remained unchanged with changes in body posture or temperature. The whole-body warm sensation was higher during HT than NT in both postures and higher in the Sit than Sup during both NT and HT (all, P < 0.05). Thus, thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by postural change from supine to sitting to sense lesser cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  11. The prevalence and magnitude of impaired cutaneous sensation across the hand in the chronic period post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; Lin, Gaven G; McNulty, Penelope A

    2014-01-01

    Sensation is commonly impaired immediately post-stroke but little is known about the long-term changes in cutaneous sensation that have the capacity to adversely impact independence and motor-function. We investigated cutaneous sensory thresholds across the hand in the chronic post-stroke period. Cutaneous sensation was assessed in 42 community-dwelling stroke patients and compared to 36 healthy subjects. Sensation was tested with calibrated monofilaments at 6 sites on the hand that covered the median, ulnar and radial innervation territories and included both glabrous (hairless) and hairy skin. The motor-function of stroke patients was assessed with the Wolf Motor Function Test and the upper-limb motor Fugl-Meyer Assessment. Impaired cutaneous sensation was defined as monofilament thresholds >3 SD above the mean of healthy subjects and good sensation was ≤ 3 SD. Cutaneous sensation was impaired for 33% of patients and was 40-84% worse on the more-affected side compared to healthy subjects depending on the site (p<0.05). When the stroke patient data were pooled cutaneous sensation fell within the healthy range, although ∼ 1/3 of patients were classified with impaired sensation. Classification by motor-function revealed low levels of impaired sensation. The magnitude of sensory loss was only apparent when the sensory-function of stroke patients was classified as good or impaired. Sensation was most impaired on the dorsum of the hand where age-related changes in monofilament thresholds are minimal in healthy subjects. Although patients with both high and low motor-function had poor cutaneous sensation, overall patients with low motor-function had poorer cutaneous sensation than those with higher motor-function, and relationships were found between motor impairments and sensation at the fingertip and palm. These results emphasize the importance of identifying the presence and magnitude of cutaneous sensory impairments in the chronic period after stroke.

  12. A possible link between sensation-seeking status and positive subjective effects of oxycodone in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zacny, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is linked to use and abuse of drugs. Laboratory studies have established that high sensation seekers, as measured by different instruments, are more likely to report abuse liability-related subjective effects from drugs such as nicotine, alcohol, and d-amphetamine than low sensation seekers. One class of drugs that has not been studied to date in this fashion is opioids. Accordingly, a retrospective analysis encompassing five studies that examined oxycodone effects, including its abuse liability-related effects, was conducted in subjects categorized as high or low sensation seekers. In addition, because there appear to be sex differences in how males and females respond to opioids, this factor was taken into account in the analysis. Seventy one subjects who scored on the lower end (15 and 19 low sensation seeking males and females, respectively) or the higher end (23 and 14 high sensation seeking males and females) of the Disinhibition subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale-Form V were studied for their responses to 0, 10, and 20 mg of oral oxycodone. Ratings of “pleasant bodily sensations” were significantly higher after oxycodone administration than placebo only in male and female high sensation seekers. Ratings of “take again,” “drug liking,” “carefree,” and “elated (very happy)” also tended to differentiate high from low sensation seekers although Group × Dose interactions were only marginally significant with the latter three ratings. Male and female low sensation seekers and female high sensation seekers reported dysphoric effects (e.g., ratings of nauseated) particularly after administration of the 20-mg oxycodone dose. The results of this analysis provide suggestive evidence that high sensation seekers are more likely to experience greater positive subjective effects from oxycodone than low sensation seekers, but likelihood of experiencing negative effects is more complex (involving both

  13. Identifying early pathways of risk and resilience: The codevelopment of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and the role of harsh parenting.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Mitchell, Colter; Hyde, Luke W; Monk, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    Psychological disorders co-occur often in children, but little has been done to document the types of conjoint pathways internalizing and externalizing symptoms may take from the crucial early period of toddlerhood or how harsh parenting may overlap with early symptom codevelopment. To examine symptom codevelopment trajectories, we identified latent classes of individuals based on internalizing and externalizing symptoms across ages 3-9 and found three symptom codevelopment classes: normative symptoms (low), severe-decreasing symptoms (initially high but rapidly declining), and severe symptoms (high) trajectories. Next, joint models examined how parenting trajectories overlapped with internalizing and externalizing symptom trajectories. These trajectory classes demonstrated that, normatively, harsh parenting increased after toddlerhood, but the severe symptoms class was characterized by a higher level and a steeper increase in harsh parenting and the severe-decreasing class by high, stable harsh parenting. In addition, a transactional model examined the bidirectional relationships among internalizing and externalizing symptoms and harsh parenting because they may cascade over time in this early period. Harsh parenting uniquely contributed to externalizing symptoms, controlling for internalizing symptoms, but not vice versa. In addition, internalizing symptoms appeared to be a mechanism by which externalizing symptoms increase. Results highlight the importance of accounting for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms from an early age to understand risk for developing psychopathology and the role harsh parenting plays in influencing these trajectories.

  14. Applications of optical fiber assemblies in harsh environments: the journey past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; LaRocca, Frank; Thomes, William Joe; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Macmurphy, Shawn

    2008-08-01

    Over the past ten years, NASA has studied the effects of harsh environments on optical fiber assemblies for communication systems, lidar systems, and science missions. The culmination of this has resulted in recent technologies that are unique and tailored to meeting difficult requirements under challenging performance constraints. This presentation will focus on the past mission applications of optical fiber assemblies, including: qualification information, lessons learned, and new technological advances that will enable the road ahead.

  15. Applications of Optical Fiber Assemblies in Harsh Environments, the Journey Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; LaRocca, Frank; Thomas, William Joe; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Macmurphy, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past ten years, NASA has studied the effects of harsh environments on optical fiber assemblies for communication systems, lidar systems, and science missions. The culmination of this has resulted in recent technologies that are unique and tailored to meeting difficult requirements under challenging performance constraints. This presentation will focus on the past mission applications of optical fiber assemblies including; qualification information, lessons learned and new technological advances that will enable the road ahead.

  16. Cognitive Appraisals Affect Both Embodiment of Thermal Sensation and Its Mapping to Thermal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Trevor P.; Roesch, Etienne B.; Clements-Croome, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The physical environment leads to a thermal sensation that is perceived and appraised by occupants. The present study focuses on the relationship between sensation and evaluation. We asked 166 people to recall a thermal event from their recent past. They were then asked how they evaluated this experience in terms of 10 different emotions (frustrated, resigned, dislike, indifferent, angry, anxious, liking, joyful, regretful, proud). We tested whether four psychological factors (appraisal dimensions) could be used to predict the ensuing emotions, as well as comfort, acceptability, and sensation. The four dimensions were: the Conduciveness of the event, who/what caused the event (Causality), who had control (Agency), and whether the event was expected (Expectations). These dimensions, except for Expectations, were good predictors of the reported emotions. Expectations, however, predicted the reported thermal sensation, its acceptability, and ensuing comfort. The more expected an event was, the more uncomfortable a person felt, and the less likely they reported a neutral thermal sensation. Together, these results support an embodied view of how subjective appraisals affect thermal experience. Overall, we show that appraisal dimensions mediate occupants' evaluation of their thermal sensation, which suggests an additional method for understanding psychological adaption. PMID:27445877

  17. Cognitive Appraisals Affect Both Embodiment of Thermal Sensation and Its Mapping to Thermal Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Trevor P; Roesch, Etienne B; Clements-Croome, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The physical environment leads to a thermal sensation that is perceived and appraised by occupants. The present study focuses on the relationship between sensation and evaluation. We asked 166 people to recall a thermal event from their recent past. They were then asked how they evaluated this experience in terms of 10 different emotions (frustrated, resigned, dislike, indifferent, angry, anxious, liking, joyful, regretful, proud). We tested whether four psychological factors (appraisal dimensions) could be used to predict the ensuing emotions, as well as comfort, acceptability, and sensation. The four dimensions were: the Conduciveness of the event, who/what caused the event (Causality), who had control (Agency), and whether the event was expected (Expectations). These dimensions, except for Expectations, were good predictors of the reported emotions. Expectations, however, predicted the reported thermal sensation, its acceptability, and ensuing comfort. The more expected an event was, the more uncomfortable a person felt, and the less likely they reported a neutral thermal sensation. Together, these results support an embodied view of how subjective appraisals affect thermal experience. Overall, we show that appraisal dimensions mediate occupants' evaluation of their thermal sensation, which suggests an additional method for understanding psychological adaption. PMID:27445877

  18. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating) versus “hedonic”) by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations. PMID:27725885

  19. Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate—a comparison of linear and ordinal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

    2014-08-01

    A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism.

  20. Premeditation moderates the relation between sensation seeking and risky substance use among young adults.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Connor J; Louie, Kristine A; King, Kevin M

    2015-09-01

    Young adulthood is a peak period for externalizing behaviors such as substance abuse and antisocial conduct. Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that externalizing conduct within this time period may be associated with a "developmental asymmetry" characterized by an early peak in sensation seeking combined with a relatively immature impulse control system. Trait measures of impulsivity-sensation seeking and premeditation-are psychological manifestations of these respective systems, and multiple prior studies suggest that high sensation seeking and low premeditation independently confer risk for distinct forms of externalizing behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this developmental asymmetry hypothesis, examining whether trait premeditation moderates the effect of sensation seeking on substance use and problems, aggression, and rule-breaking behavior. Using a cross-sectional sample of college-enrolled adults (n = 491), we applied zero-inflated modeling strategies to examine the likelihood and level of risky externalizing behaviors. Results indicated that lower premeditation enhanced the effect of higher sensation seeking on higher levels of positive and negative alcohol consequences, more frequent drug use, and more problematic drug use, but was unrelated to individual differences in antisocial behaviors. Our findings indicate that the developmental asymmetry between sensation seeking and a lack of premeditation is a risk factor for individual differences in problematic substance use among young adults, and may be less applicable for antisocial behaviors among high functioning individuals. PMID:26415063

  1. Harsh Parenting and Fearfulness in Toddlerhood Interact to Predict Amplitudes of Preschool Error-Related Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children’s risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems. PMID:24721466

  2. Harsh parenting and fearfulness in toddlerhood interact to predict amplitudes of preschool error-related negativity.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A

    2014-07-01

    Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children's risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems.

  3. Fiber optic connectors for harsh environment of aviation and aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic connector technology is making significant advances for use in aviation and aerospace applications. This increasingly user friendly system has contributed to more novel extremely small multifiber connectors for fiber optic interconnection. With low insertion loss and excellent environmental endurance in harsh environments they meet the requirements of higher integration in optical backplanes. There are two main methods of transmitting an optical signal between two fibers: (1) Physical Contact (PC) and (2) Non-Physical Contact Connectors, Expanded Beam (EB). Expanded beam connectors have been shown to withstand extreme environments without the need for special servicing or cleaning equipment. Protecting the optical fibers behind the lenses ensures that no damage or degradation can occur to the fiber ends. Severe conditions, extreme surroundings, rough weather, rugged and unforgiving environment call for the use of high-performance fiber optic connectors. Appropriate connector selection is essential to assure adequate optical, environmental and mechanical performance. The choice of these items should be specific to the requirements of the system when considering environmental and mechanical limitations. Proper installation, maintenance and repair training is essential. This paper outlines the attributes, environments, requirements, technologies and solutions of fiber optic connectors for harsh environment for aviation and aerospace applications. Furthermore, it describes various state-of-the-art technologies, particularly for aviation industry. Discussion will also place emphasis on physical contact and expanded beam designs which are the fiber optic technologies being used in harsh environments of aviation and aerospace applications. Key

  4. A harsh environment wireless pressure sensing solution utilizing high temperature electronics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie

    2013-02-27

    Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines.

  5. A Harsh Environment Wireless Pressure Sensing Solution Utilizing High Temperature Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines. PMID:23447006

  6. A harsh environment wireless pressure sensing solution utilizing high temperature electronics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines. PMID:23447006

  7. Coaching, Caring and the Politics of Touch: A Visual Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.; Bailey, Jake; Santos, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper has three principal purposes. The first involves locating the "politics of touch" as related to coaching within Noddings' theory of pedagogical caring. Noddings' framework is presented not so much as a prescription of "good practice", but as a potential way to raise the profile and somewhat problematise the…

  8. Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

  9. Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors and trigger function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors, concealed fingers, and a structure that allows the hand to hold a tool on a flat surface. The hands can be mounted on most types of existing manipulators either directly or by means of modified mounting brackets.

  10. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Silvia B.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them. PMID:27486421

  11. Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

  12. Gender and Situational Differences in Children's Smiles, Touch, and Proxemics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Phyllis W.; Smith, Vicki L.

    1984-01-01

    Results of study of 256 adolescents and preadolescents randomly assigned to same-sex grade-level pairs in two social situations--a neutral situation and a "male-appropriate" athletic situation-- showed no differences between sexes in overall amount of touching or proxemics, though girls smiled significantly more often than males. (CMG)

  13. High Touch in a High-Tech World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

  14. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them. PMID:27486421

  15. Apollo 16 spacecraft touches down in the central Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 spacecraft touches down in the central Pacific Ocean at the end of its mission. Splashdown occured at 1:45:06 p.m., Thursday, April 27, 1972, at coordinates of 00:45.2 degrees south latitude and 156:11.4 degrees west longitude, a point approximately 215 miles southeast of Christmas Island. All its parachutes are fully deployed.

  16. Career and Technical Education with a Delicate Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Predmore, Sarah R.

    2005-01-01

    There are some professions in which tradition holds strong, in which one generation schools the next in the techniques of the trade. These services help us maintain some of our dearest possessions--such as an antique watch or a prized violin--with their specialized skill and delicate touch. But not all of these technicians enter the field through…

  17. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information.

  18. The use of healing touch in integrative oncology.

    PubMed

    Hart, Laura K; Freel, Mildred I; Haylock, Pam J; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2011-10-01

    The use of complementary therapies by patients with cancer has become increasingly prevalent; as a result, oncology nurses find themselves needing to understand those therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. This article describes the integrative use of the biofield therapy healing touch in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages IB1 to IVA) as reported in a 2010 research study. Findings indicated effects on the immune response and depression in healing touch recipients compared to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, healing touch recipients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity over the course of treatment, whereas the cytotoxicity of patients receiving relaxation therapy and standard care declined sharply during radiation. Healing touch recipients also showed decreases in depressed mood compared to relaxation therapy and standard care recipients. The findings suggest that appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care can enhance the impact of conventional care by putting patients in the best condition to use their innate healing resources.

  19. Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathy

    This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

  20. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  1. The use of healing touch in integrative oncology.

    PubMed

    Hart, Laura K; Freel, Mildred I; Haylock, Pam J; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2011-10-01

    The use of complementary therapies by patients with cancer has become increasingly prevalent; as a result, oncology nurses find themselves needing to understand those therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. This article describes the integrative use of the biofield therapy healing touch in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages IB1 to IVA) as reported in a 2010 research study. Findings indicated effects on the immune response and depression in healing touch recipients compared to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, healing touch recipients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity over the course of treatment, whereas the cytotoxicity of patients receiving relaxation therapy and standard care declined sharply during radiation. Healing touch recipients also showed decreases in depressed mood compared to relaxation therapy and standard care recipients. The findings suggest that appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care can enhance the impact of conventional care by putting patients in the best condition to use their innate healing resources. PMID:21951738

  2. [Reclaiming the body through touch-relaxation massage].

    PubMed

    Simon, Armelle

    2012-05-01

    More than just a simple technique, touch-relaxation massage in the protected haematology unit of Nantes general hospital has become a real personalised act of care, in what are often difficult conditions of hospitalisation. It forms part of the global support of patients suffering from leukaemia. PMID:22670464

  3. Keeping in Touch with Families All Year Long

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Carol; Yang, Alice

    2009-01-01

    For many parents, a phone call home from a teacher means trouble. The result? When a teacher gets in touch, parents' anxiety levels and defensive barriers may automatically go up, reducing their potential to participate as partners in their children's education. But it does not have to be that way. Teachers can regularly contact students' families…

  4. Meaning of touch to hospitalized Puerto Ricans with cancer.

    PubMed

    Morales, E

    1994-12-01

    This ethnographic study was undertaken to elicit the meaning of nurse's touch for hospitalized Puerto Rican patients with cancer. The key informants were eight cancer patients at a tertiary 12-bed oncology research unit in Puerto Rico. Data gathering methods included participant observation and several ethnographic interviews during a month period. Content analysis was used to identify pattern of behavior and meaning. Analysis of the field notes and interviews was done to search for domains. Theme analysis was used in the search for the relationship among domains. In the analysis of the patient interviews, two types of touch were identified: procedural and affective touch. The predominant theme about perception of nurse's touch was that of conveying confidence. Confidence was related to the patient's increase in positive expectation as much as the possibility of recovery from the cancer illness. The confidence theme was represented by two domains: the enhancement of the abilities of the patient for coping and through the acceptance of the patient as a person during their illness experience. PMID:7820824

  5. Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

  6. Master scaling of perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Birgitta; Harju, Eva-Liz

    2003-01-01

    A new approach is presented for scaling perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth based on magnitude estimation. In this method named master scaling thenar is utilized as common reference area for scaling and calibrating perceived intensity. The master scaling is particularly well suited for clinical applications in which the stimulation in pain-affected body areas creates a complex perception (e.g., paradoxical heat for cold stimulation) and/or aberrant psychophysical functions for perceived intensity. The results from three different experiments showed that: (a) All patients and healthy subjects were able to scale adequately the perceived intensity of touch, cold, and warmth at unaffected body areas. (b) Thenar stimulations were shown to be adequate common references in the joint scaling of perceived intensity of other body areas in pain patients as well as healthy persons. (c) Individual thenar psychophysical functions can be used for screening patients and healthy persons with regard to their ability to scale perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth. (d) Master scaled perceived intensity scales can be used for determining if various pain-unaffected body areas are normal or abnormal in patients and in healthy persons. (e) The interindividual variation in perceived intensity is considerably reduced after master scaling and approaches that of intraindividual variation as found in olfaction and hearing. Finally, empirically based thenar Master Functions of perceived intensity for touch, cold and warmth are proposed to be used in future sensory testing of patients, as well as of healthy persons.

  7. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.

  8. Active touch in orthopteroid insects: behaviours, multisensory substrates and evolution‡

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Christopher; Baba, Yoshichika

    2011-01-01

    Orthopteroid insects (cockroaches, crickets, locusts and related species) allow examination of active sensory processing in a comparative framework. Some orthopteroids possess long, mobile antennae endowed with many chemo- and mechanoreceptors. When the antennae are touched, an animal's response depends upon the identity of the stimulus. For example, contact with a predator may lead to escape, but contact with a conspecific may usually not. Active touch of an approaching object influences the likelihood that a discrimination of identity will be made. Using cockroaches, we have identified specific descending mechanosensory interneurons that trigger antennal-mediated escape. Crucial sensory input to these cells comes from chordotonal organs within the antennal base. However, information from other receptors on the base or the long antennal flagellum allows active touch to modulate escape probability based on stimulus identity. This is conveyed, at least to some extent, by textural information. Guidance of the antennae in active exploration depends on visual information. Some of the visual interneurons and the motor neurons necessary for visuomotor control have been identified. Comparisons across Orthoptera suggest an evolutionary model where subtle changes in the architecture of interneurons, and of sensorimotor control loops, may explain differing levels of vision–touch interaction in the active guidance of behaviour. PMID:21969682

  9. Touch and Discover. Grades PreK-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    Students work in pairs or small groups to identify and categorize various objects. One student is blindfolded and the other student chooses five objects for his/her partner to identify. The blindfolded student has to describe and try to identify the object based solely on touch. Both students then record their data, describing the objects first as…

  10. Haptic interaction of touch and proprioception: implications for neuroprosthetics.

    PubMed

    Rincon-Gonzalez, Liliana; Warren, Jay P; Meller, David M; Tillery, Stephen Helms

    2011-10-01

    Somatosensation is divided into multiple discrete modalities that we think of separably: e.g., tactile, proprioceptive, and temperature sensation. However, in processes such as haptics,those modalities all interact. If one intended to artificially generate a sensation that could be used for stereognosis, for example, it would be crucial to understand these interactions. We are presently examining the relationship between tactile and proprioceptive modalities in this context. In this overview of some of our recent work, we show that signals that would normally be attributed to two of these systems separately, tactile contact and self-movement, interact both perceptually and physiologically in ways that complicate the understanding of haptic processing. In the first study described here, we show that a tactile illusion on the fingertips, the cutaneous rabbit effect, can be abolished by changing the posture of the fingers. We then discuss activity in primary somatosensory cortical neurons illustrating the interrelationship of tactile and postural signals. In this study, we used a robot-enhanced virtual environment to show that many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex with cutaneous receptive fields encode elements both of tactile contact and self-motion. We then show the results of studies examining the structure of the process which extracts the spatial location of the hand from proprioceptive signals. The structure of the spatial errors in these maps indicates that the proprioceptive-spatial map is stable but individually constructed.These seemingly disparate studies lead us to suggest that tactile sensation is encoded in a 2-D map, but one which undergoes continual dynamic modification by an underlying proprioceptive map. Understanding how the disparate signals that comprise the somatosensory system are processed to produce sensation is an important step in realizing the kind of seamless integration aspired to in neuroprosthetics. PMID:21984518

  11. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust.

    PubMed

    Erk, Stefanie M; Toet, Alexander; Van Erp, Jan B F

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for

  12. Crossing the Hands Increases Illusory Self-Touch

    PubMed Central

    Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Salomon, Roy; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Manipulation of hand posture, such as crossing the hands, has been frequently used to study how the body and its immediately surrounding space are represented in the brain. Abundant data show that crossed arms posture impairs remapping of tactile stimuli from somatotopic to external space reference frame and deteriorates performance on several tactile processing tasks. Here we investigated how impaired tactile remapping affects the illusory self-touch, induced by the non-visual variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. In this paradigm blindfolded participants (Experiment 1) had their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline. The strength of illusory self-touch was measured with questionnaire ratings and proprioceptive drift. Our results showed that, during synchronous tactile stimulation, the strength of illusory self-touch increased when hands were crossed compared to the uncrossed posture. Follow-up experiments showed that the increase in illusion strength was not related to unfamiliar hand position (Experiment 2) and that it was equally strengthened regardless of where in the peripersonal space the hands were crossed (Experiment 3). However, while the boosting effect of crossing the hands was evident from subjective ratings, the proprioceptive drift was not modulated by crossed posture. Finally, in contrast to the illusion increase in the non-visual RHI, the crossed hand postures did not alter illusory ownership or proprioceptive drift in the classical, visuo-tactile version of RHI (Experiment 4). We argue that the increase in illusory self-touch is related to misalignment of somatotopic and external reference frames and consequently inadequate tactile-proprioceptive integration, leading to re-weighting of the tactile and proprioceptive signals.The present study not only shows that illusory self-touch can be induced by crossing the hands, but importantly, that this posture is associated with a stronger illusion. PMID:24699795

  13. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust

    PubMed Central

    Erk, Stefanie M.; Van Erp, Jan B.F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for

  14. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust.

    PubMed

    Erk, Stefanie M; Toet, Alexander; Van Erp, Jan B F

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for

  15. An optimal algorithm based on extended kalman filter and the data fusion for infrared touch overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, AiGuo; Cheng, ShuYi; Pan, Qiang Biao; Sun, Dong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Current infrared touch overlay has problems on the touch point recognition which bring some burrs on the touch trajectory. This paper uses the target tracking algorithm to improve the recognition and smoothness of infrared touch overlay. In order to deal with the nonlinear state estimate problem for touch point tracking, we use the extended Kalman filter in the target tracking algorithm. And we also use the data fusion algorithm to match the estimate value with the original target trajectory. The experimental results of the infrared touch overlay demonstrate that the proposed target tracking approach can improve the touch point recognition of the infrared touch overlay and achieve much smoother tracking trajectory than the existing tracking approach.

  16. Food as Touch/Touching the Food: The Body In-Place and Out-of-Place in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossholt, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the need to eat as a biological and social practice among children in a preschool in Norway. The children in this preschool are aged from one to two years of age, and some of them have just started there. Different events from mealtimes relate to Derrida's concept of touch and Grosz's notion of bodies in-place and…

  17. Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

    2013-01-01

    What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare Regulatory…

  18. Functional and structural brain differences associated with mirror-touch synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael J; Ward, Jamie

    2013-12-01

    Observing touch is known to activate regions of the somatosensory cortex but the interpretation of this finding is controversial (e.g. does it reflect the simulated action of touching or the simulated reception of touch?). For most people, observing touch is not linked to reported experiences of feeling touch but in some people it is (mirror-touch synaesthetes). We conducted an fMRI study in which participants (mirror-touch synaesthetes, controls) watched movies of stimuli (face, dummy, object) being touched or approached. In addition we examined whether mirror touch synaesthesia is associated with local changes of grey and white matter volume in the brain using VBM (voxel-based morphometry). Both synaesthetes and controls activated the somatosensory system (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, SI and SII) when viewing touch, and the same regions were activated (by a separate localiser) when feeling touch--i.e. there is a mirror system for touch. However, when comparing the two groups, we found evidence that SII seems to play a particular important role in mirror-touch synaesthesia: in synaesthetes, but not in controls, posterior SII was active for watching touch to a face (in addition to SI and posterior temporal lobe); activity in SII correlated with subjective intensity measures of mirror-touch synaesthesia (taken outside the scanner), and we observed an increase in grey matter volume within the SII of the synaesthetes' brains. In addition, the synaesthetes showed hypo-activity when watching touch to a dummy in posterior SII. We conclude that the secondary somatosensory cortex has a key role in this form of synaesthesia.

  19. A Longitudinal Examination of Mothers’ and Fathers’ Social Information Processing Biases and Harsh Discipline in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Woodlief, Darren; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether parents’ social information processing was related to their subsequent reports of their harsh discipline. Interviews were conducted with mothers (n = 1277) and fathers (n = 1030) of children in 1297 families in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, United States), initially when children were 7- to 9-years-old and again one year later. Structural equation models showed that parents’ positive evaluations of aggressive responses to hypothetical childrearing vignettes at Time 1 predicted parents’ self-reported harsh physical and nonphysical discipline at Time 2. This link was consistent across mothers and fathers and across the nine countries, providing support for the universality of the link between positive evaluations of harsh discipline and parents’ aggressive behavior toward children. The results suggest that international efforts to eliminate violence toward children could target parents’ beliefs about the acceptability and advisability of using harsh physical and nonphysical forms of discipline. PMID:24762321

  20. Longitudinal pathways from early maternal depression to children's dysregulated representations: a moderated mediation analysis of harsh parenting and gender.

    PubMed

    Martoccio, Tiffany L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Maupin, Angela N; Robinson, Joann L

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence linking maternal depression, harsh parenting, and children's internal representations of attachment, yet, longitudinal examinations of these relationships and differences in the developmental pathways between boys and girls are lacking. Moderated mediation growth curves were employed to examine harsh parenting as a mechanism underlying the link between maternal depression and children's dysregulated representations using a nationally-representative, economically-vulnerable sample of mothers and their children (n = 575; 49% boys, 51% girls). Dysregulation representations were measured using the MacArthur Story Stem Battery at five years of age (M = 5.14, SD = 0.29). Harsh parenting mediated the association between early maternal depression and dysregulated representations for girls. Though initial harsh parenting was a significant mediator for boys, a stronger direct effect of maternal depression to dysregulated representations emerged over time. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention efforts aimed at promoting early supportive parenting.